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  1. 5. MUTAGEN SENSITIVITY AND DNA REPAIR CAPACITY (DRC) AS RISK FACTORS FOR NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@An alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay has been standardised by which mutagen sensitivity and DNA repair capacity (DRC) can be measured in cryopreserved peripheral blood lymphocytes following induction and repair of DNA damage induced by bleomycin. In an ongoing case-control study, we have applied this assay to Caucasian

  2. 4. DNA REPAIR CAPACITY IN LUNG CANCER PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@The ability for DNA repair is an important host factor which influences the individual susceptibility to genotoxic carcinogen exposures. It has been shown in different case-control studies that DNA repair capacity (DRC) can be reduced in lung cancer patients.We have used an alkaline comet assay to measure the cellular DRC in peri-pheral blood lymphocytes of lung cancer patients and tumor-free control

  3. Estrogen Receptor Expression Is Associated with DNA Repair Capacity in Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Matta

    Full Text Available Estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+ tumors employ complex signaling that engages in crosstalk with multiple pathways through genomic and non-genomic regulation. A greater understanding of these pathways is important for developing improved biomarkers that can better determine treatment choices, risk of recurrence and cancer progression. Deficiencies in DNA repair capacity (DRC is a hallmark of breast cancer (BC; therefore, in this work we tested whether ER signaling influences DRC. We analyzed the association between ER positivity (% receptor activation and DRC in 270 BC patients, then further stratified our analysis by HER2 receptor status. Our results show that among HER2 negative, the likelihood of having low DRC values among ER- women is 1.92 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.57 times the likelihood of having low DRC values among ER+ women, even adjusting for different potential confounders (p<0.05; however, a contrary pattern was observed among HER2 positives women. In conclusion, there is an association between DRC levels and ER status, and this association is modified by HER2 receptor status. Adding a DNA repair capacity test to hormone receptor testing may provide new information on defective DNA repair phenotypes, which could better stratify BC patients who have ER+ tumors. ER+/HER2- tumors are heterogeneous, incompletely defined, and clinically challenging to treat; the addition of a DRC test could better characterize and classify these patients as well as help clinicians select optimal therapies, which could improve outcomes and reduce recurrences.

  4. High DRC Levels Are Associated with Let-7b Overexpression in Women with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnación, Jarline; Ortiz, Carmen; Vergne, Ralphdy; Vargas, Wanda; Coppola, Domenico; Matta, Jaime L

    2016-06-02

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a critical pathway involved in breast cancer (BC). We have previously published that a low DNA repair capacity (DRC) is associated with a higher risk of BC in Puerto Rican women. Let-7b belongs to a miRNA family with tumor suppressor activity that targets oncogenes. We isolated miRNAs from plasma of 153 Puerto Rican women with and without BC. DRC was measured in lymphocytes by means of a host cell reactivation assay. These women were divided into four groups according to their DRC level: High (>3.8%) and low (DRC and controls with high (n = 39) and low (n = 36) DRC. Epidemiologic data were collected at initial BC diagnosis and almost five years after diagnosis. A significant difference in Let-7b expression was found in BC patients with high DRC versus the remaining groups (p DRC during breast carcinogenesis. Our study is innovative because it provides the first evidence that Let-7b may play role in DRC regulation (through the NER repair pathway) in BC.

  5. Women with endometriosis have a higher DNA repair capacity and diminished breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Jaime L.; Flores, Idhaliz; Morales, Luisa M.; Monteiro, Janice; Alvarez-Garriga, Carolina; Bayona, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer (BC) and endometriosis are important reproductive health diseases for women. Although endometriosis is not a malignant condition, some of its characteristics mimic that of a malignancy. Endometriosis is associated with increased risk of certain cancers; however, whether it alters BC risk is unclear. This study evaluates the association of endometriosis and BC and explores whether DNA repair capacity (DRC) plays a role in such a relationship. Materials and Methods A case-control study of 991 women (385 with BC and 606 controls, all recruited over 5 years) was undertaken in Puerto Rico. Eighty participants with self-reported surgically diagnosed endometriosis were identified, 20 of whom also had a diagnosis of BC. Data from a structured questionnaire and DRC measurements were assessed to determine the association between BC, DRC, and endometriosis. Results Participants with BC cases were 50% less likely to have history of endometriosis (OR = 0.5 95%CI: 0.3, 0.9, p = 0.038) than women without BC controls. Findings that did not reach statistical significance included the following: women with history of endometriosis had a slightly higher DRC level than those without it; BC cases and history of endometriosis were less likely to have had endometriosis diagnosis before age 38 as compared to controls with endometriosis. Discussion Here we report an inverse association between endometriosis and BC, the former possibly conferring a protective effect on the latter. Although the mechanisms involved are unknown they may include protection provided by higher DRC and or hormonal treatments for endometriosis. A larger sample of endometriosis cases is necessary to confirm these results and answer the question of whether a higher DRC capacity may contribute to this potential protection, and to identify other factors at play. PMID:25473592

  6. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in lymphoma patients is associated with a decrease in the double strand break repair capacity of peripheral blood lymphocytes.

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    Lacoste, Sandrine; Bhatia, Smita; Chen, Yanjun; Bhatia, Ravi; O'Connor, Timothy R

    2017-01-01

    Patients who undergo autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHCT) for treatment of a relapsed or refractory lymphoma are at risk of developing therapy related- myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia (t-MDS/AML). Part of the risk likely resides in inherent interindividual differences in their DNA repair capacity (DRC), which is thought to influence the effect chemotherapeutic treatments have on the patient's stem cells prior to aHCT. Measuring DRC involves identifying small differences in repair proficiency among individuals. Initially, we investigated the cell model in healthy individuals (primary lymphocytes and/or lymphoblastoid cell lines) that would be appropriate to measure genetically determined DRC using host-cell reactivation assays. We present evidence that interindividual differences in DRC double-strand break repair (by non-homologous end-joining [NHEJ] or single-strand annealing [SSA]) are better preserved in non-induced primary lymphocytes. In contrast, lymphocytes induced to proliferate are required to assay base excision (BER) or nucleotide excision repair (NER). We established that both NHEJ and SSA DRCs in lymphocytes of healthy individuals were inversely correlated with the age of the donor, indicating that DSB repair in lymphocytes is likely not a constant feature but rather something that decreases with age (~0.37% NHEJ DRC/year). To investigate the predictive value of pre-aHCT DRC on outcome in patients, we then applied the optimized assays to the analysis of primary lymphocytes from lymphoma patients and found that individuals who later developed t-MDS/AML (cases) were indistinguishable in their DRC from controls who never developed t-MDS/AML. However, when DRC was investigated shortly after aHCT in the same individuals (21.6 months later on average), aHCT patients (both cases and controls) showed a significant decrease in DSB repair measurements. The average decrease of 6.9% in NHEJ DRC observed among aHCT patients was much higher

  7. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in lymphoma patients is associated with a decrease in the double strand break repair capacity of peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, Sandrine; Bhatia, Smita; Chen, Yanjun; Bhatia, Ravi; O’Connor, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    Patients who undergo autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHCT) for treatment of a relapsed or refractory lymphoma are at risk of developing therapy related- myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia (t-MDS/AML). Part of the risk likely resides in inherent interindividual differences in their DNA repair capacity (DRC), which is thought to influence the effect chemotherapeutic treatments have on the patient’s stem cells prior to aHCT. Measuring DRC involves identifying small differences in repair proficiency among individuals. Initially, we investigated the cell model in healthy individuals (primary lymphocytes and/or lymphoblastoid cell lines) that would be appropriate to measure genetically determined DRC using host-cell reactivation assays. We present evidence that interindividual differences in DRC double-strand break repair (by non-homologous end-joining [NHEJ] or single-strand annealing [SSA]) are better preserved in non-induced primary lymphocytes. In contrast, lymphocytes induced to proliferate are required to assay base excision (BER) or nucleotide excision repair (NER). We established that both NHEJ and SSA DRCs in lymphocytes of healthy individuals were inversely correlated with the age of the donor, indicating that DSB repair in lymphocytes is likely not a constant feature but rather something that decreases with age (~0.37% NHEJ DRC/year). To investigate the predictive value of pre-aHCT DRC on outcome in patients, we then applied the optimized assays to the analysis of primary lymphocytes from lymphoma patients and found that individuals who later developed t-MDS/AML (cases) were indistinguishable in their DRC from controls who never developed t-MDS/AML. However, when DRC was investigated shortly after aHCT in the same individuals (21.6 months later on average), aHCT patients (both cases and controls) showed a significant decrease in DSB repair measurements. The average decrease of 6.9% in NHEJ DRC observed among aHCT patients was much

  8. Breast Cancer and DNA Repair Capacity: Association With Use of Multivitamin and Calcium Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Yeidyly; Matta, Jaime; Morales, Luisa; Vargas, Wanda; Alvarez-Garriga, Carolina; Bayona, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Context Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women, with over 1 million new cases diagnosed every year worldwide. Over recent decades, considerable interest has emerged regarding whether vitamins and/or other supplements can lower the risk of BC. However, previous epidemiologic studies that investigated the association between intake of multivitamin and supplements of single vitamins and minerals and BC risk have reported conflicting results. Whether vitamins can actually reduce BC risk is still controversial. Objective This study examined whether multivitamin and calcium use was associated with BC incidence and DNA repair capacity (DRC). Design The research team designed an observational, case-control study. Setting All work was performed at the Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences under the direct supervision of principal investigator Dr Jaime Matta. Participants Participants were 836 women recruited primarily from the private practices of oncologists, gynecologists, and surgeons in Puerto Rico. Intervention(s) A total of 312 individuals in the breast cancer (BC) group and 524 individuals in the control group were compared for their multivitamin and calcium intake, DRC levels, and other covariates. Outcome Measure(s) Odds ratios (OR), adjusted using both crude analysis and multiple logistic regression, were used as measures of association between BC and DRC and other selected variables. Results The BC group had 30% reduced odds of taking multivitamins and calcium as compared to controls: (1) OR = 0.7 (95% CI, 0.4–1.0; P = .073) for multivitamins and (2) OR = 0.7 (95% CI, 0.4–1.2; P = .167) for calcium. Women with low DRC had 50% lower odds of taking calcium and 30% lower odds of currently taking vitamins OR = 0.5 (95% CI, 0.4–0.7; P = .001) for calcium and (2) OR = 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5–0.9.1; P = .047) for vitamins. Conclusions Although this study is a case-control study in which the risk of BC could not be assessed, results suggest that

  9. Online capacity planning of repairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, J.W. van

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we describe our research into a capacity planning problem that occurs in practice at a big group of car dealers, the Rüttchen group. A considerable part is about the construction of a model for this problem, showing and justifying the assumptions we make. Then it is shown that this mo

  10. Assessment of Human DNA Repair (NER) Capacity With DNA Repair Rate (DRR) by Comet Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI ZHENG; JI-LIANG HE; LI-FEN JIN; JIAN-LIN LOU; BAO-HONG WANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective Alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate DNA repair (nucleotide excision repair, NER) capacity of human fresh lymphocytes from 12 young healthy non-smokers (6 males and 6 females). Methods Lymphocytes were exposed to UV-C (254 nm) at the dose rate of 1.5 J/m2/sec. Novobiocin (NOV) and aphidicolin (APC), DNA repair inhibitors, were utilized to imitate the deficiency of DNA repair capacity at the incision and ligation steps of NER. Lymphocytes from each donor were divided into three grougs: UVC group, UVC plus NOV group, and UVC plus APC group. DNA single strand breaks were detected in UVC irradiated cells incubated for 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min after UVC irradiation. DNA repair rate (DRR) served as an indicator of DNA repair capacity. Results The results indicated that the maximum DNA damage (i.e. maximum tail length) in the UVC group mainly appeared at 90 min. The ranges of DRRs in the UVC group were 62.84%-98.71%. Average DRR value was 81.84%. The DRR difference between males and females was not significant (P<0.05). However, the average DRR value in the UVC plus NOV group and the UVC plus APC group was 52.98% and 39.57% respectively, which were significantly lower than that in the UVC group (P<0.01). Conclusion The comet assay is a rapid, simple and sensitive screening test to assess individual DNA repair (NER) capacity. It is suggested that the time to detect DNA single strand breaks in comet assay should include 0 (before UV irradiation), 90 and 240 min after exposure to 1.5 J·m-2 UVC at least. The DRR, as an indicator, can represent the individual DNA repair capacity in comet assay.

  11. Interface Capacity of Repaired Concrete Columns Strengthened with RC Jackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achillopoulou Dimitra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study describes the retrofit of repaired elements by reinforced concrete (RC jacketing conducted to quantify the influence of initial construction deficiencies and of different type of anchors to the ability of the interface to transfer loads. Sixteen specimens (section scale 1:2 were designed with variables the initial deficiencies and the confinement ratio. The results indicate that: a the maximum resistance load and dissipated energy of initially damaged specimens are decreased; b surpassing a specific amount of damage, columns even suitably repaired present lower strain capacity, c welded bars lead to buckling of longitudinal bars.

  12. Differential promoter methylation of kinesin family member 1a in plasma is associated with breast cancer and DNA repair capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUERRERO-PRESTON, RAFAEL; HADAR, TAL; OSTROW, KIMBERLY LASKIE; SOUDRY, ETHAN; ECHENIQUE, MIGUEL; ILI-GANGAS, CARMEN; PÉREZ, GABRIELA; PEREZ, JIMENA; BREBI-MIEVILLE, PRISCILLA; DESCHAMPS, JOSÉ; MORALES, LUISA; BAYONA, MANUEL; SIDRANSKY, DAVID; MATTA, JAIME

    2014-01-01

    Methylation alterations of CpG islands, CpG island shores and first exons are key events in the formation and progression of human cancer, and an increasing number of differentially methylated regions and genes have been identified in breast cancer. Recent studies of the breast cancer methylome using deep sequencing and microarray platforms are providing a novel insight on the different roles aberrant methylation plays in molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Accumulating evidence from a subset of studies suggests that promoter methylation of tumor-suppressor genes associated with breast cancer can be quantified in circulating DNA. However, there is a paucity of studies that examine the combined presence of genetic and epigenetic alterations associated with breast cancer using blood-based assays. Dysregulation of DNA repair capacity (DRC) is a genetic risk factor for breast cancer that has been measured in lymphocytes. We isolated plasma DNA from 340 participants in a breast cancer case control project to study promoter methylation levels of five genes previously shown to be associated with breast cancer in frozen tissue and in cell line DNA: MAL, KIF1A, FKBP4, VGF and OGDHL. Methylation of at least one gene was found in 49% of the cases compared to 20% of the controls. Three of the four genes had receiver characteristic operator curve values of ≥0.50: MAL (0.64), KIF1A (0.51) and OGDHL (0.53). KIF1A promoter methylation was associated with breast cancer and inversely associated with DRC. This is the first evidence of a significant association between genetic and epigenetic alterations in breast cancer using blood-based tests. The potential diagnostic utility of these biomarkers and their relevance for breast cancer risk prediction should be examined in larger cohorts. PMID:24927296

  13. DRC3 connects the N-DRC to dynein g to regulate flagellar waveform

    OpenAIRE

    Awata, Junya; Song, Kangkang; Lin, Jianfeng; King, Stephen M.; Sanderson, Michael J.; Nicastro, Daniela; Witman, George B.

    2015-01-01

    The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC), which is a major hub for the control of flagellar motility, contains at least 11 different subunits. A major challenge is to determine the location and function of each of these subunits within the N-DRC. We characterized a Chlamydomonas mutant defective in the N-DRC subunit DRC3. Of the known N-DRC subunits, the drc3 mutant is missing only DRC3. Like other N-DRC mutants, the drc3 mutant has a defect in flagellar motility. However, in contrast to o...

  14. DRC3 connects the N-DRC to dynein g to regulate flagellar waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Junya; Song, Kangkang; Lin, Jianfeng; King, Stephen M; Sanderson, Michael J; Nicastro, Daniela; Witman, George B

    2015-08-01

    The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC), which is a major hub for the control of flagellar motility, contains at least 11 different subunits. A major challenge is to determine the location and function of each of these subunits within the N-DRC. We characterized a Chlamydomonas mutant defective in the N-DRC subunit DRC3. Of the known N-DRC subunits, the drc3 mutant is missing only DRC3. Like other N-DRC mutants, the drc3 mutant has a defect in flagellar motility. However, in contrast to other mutations affecting the N-DRC, drc3 does not suppress flagellar paralysis caused by loss of radial spokes. Cryo-electron tomography revealed that the drc3 mutant lacks a portion of the N-DRC linker domain, including the L1 protrusion, part of the distal lobe, and the connection between these two structures, thus localizing DRC3 to this part of the N-DRC. This and additional considerations enable us to assign DRC3 to the L1 protrusion. Because the L1 protrusion is the only non-dynein structure in contact with the dynein g motor domain in wild-type axonemes and this is the only N-DRC-dynein connection missing in the drc3 mutant, we conclude that DRC3 interacts with dynein g to regulate flagellar waveform.

  15. DRC3 connects the N-DRC to dynein g to regulate flagellar waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awata, Junya; Song, Kangkang; Lin, Jianfeng; King, Stephen M.; Sanderson, Michael J.; Nicastro, Daniela; Witman, George B.

    2015-01-01

    The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC), which is a major hub for the control of flagellar motility, contains at least 11 different subunits. A major challenge is to determine the location and function of each of these subunits within the N-DRC. We characterized a Chlamydomonas mutant defective in the N-DRC subunit DRC3. Of the known N-DRC subunits, the drc3 mutant is missing only DRC3. Like other N-DRC mutants, the drc3 mutant has a defect in flagellar motility. However, in contrast to other mutations affecting the N-DRC, drc3 does not suppress flagellar paralysis caused by loss of radial spokes. Cryo–electron tomography revealed that the drc3 mutant lacks a portion of the N-DRC linker domain, including the L1 protrusion, part of the distal lobe, and the connection between these two structures, thus localizing DRC3 to this part of the N-DRC. This and additional considerations enable us to assign DRC3 to the L1 protrusion. Because the L1 protrusion is the only non-dynein structure in contact with the dynein g motor domain in wild-type axonemes and this is the only N-DRC–dynein connection missing in the drc3 mutant, we conclude that DRC3 interacts with dynein g to regulate flagellar waveform. PMID:26063732

  16. Review of EU Conflict Management in DRC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict......The report present the backdrop on EU's involvement in the DRC conflict, its history, the nature of the conflict...

  17. The association of DNA Repair with breast cancer risk in women. A comparative observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matta Jaime

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have found a link between a low DNA repair capacity (DRC level and increased cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the statistical association of DRC level and breast cancer (BC using a case–control epidemiological study in a Hispanic community. Methods We conducted a comparative observational study to assess the validity of DRC in detecting BC in 824 women throughout Puerto Rico. Over a 6-year period, we compared 285 women newly diagnosed with BC to 539 without BC. DRC levels were measured in lymphocytes by means of a host-cell reactivation assay. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and association using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Multiple logistic regression-adjusted odds ratios were estimated with 95% confidence level to measure the strength of the association of DRC and BC after adjusting for all confounders simultaneously. Results Compared to women without cancer, women with BC showed an average decrease of 60% in their DRC levels (p p Conclusions Our results support the usefulness of DRC level as a measure of BC risk. Additional studies in other populations are needed to further verify its usefulness.

  18. [Study on repair capacity of DNA damage associated with chronic benzene poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Cai-hong; Ji, Zhi-ying; Li, Gui-lan; Yin, Song-nian

    2006-07-01

    To explore the repair capacity of DNA damage associated with chronic benzene poisonings. 63 workers suffered from chronic benzene poisonings and 45 workers exposed to benzene, who were engaged in the same job title, were investigated. Comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) detection were used to evaluate gamma-radiation-induced DNA and chromosomal damage and repair capacity in peripheral blood lymphocyte. The comet tail length difference of the benzene poisoning group (4.64 +/- 1.57 microm) was significantly higher than that of the control group (3.77 +/- 1.30 microm) (P = 0.0029). There was no significant difference of the 3AB index between the poisoning group and the control group. The relative risk of benzene poisoning in the subject with comet tail length difference > 3.81 was significantly higher than that in the subject with comet tail length difference poisoning in the subject with 3AB index or = 0.20. DNA repair capacity on DNA-strand level might tightly associate with chronic benzene poisoning. The DNA repair capacity on DNA-strand level would be worse, and the benzene poisoning risk could be higher. There was no clear relation between the DNA repair capacity on chromosome level and the benzene poisoning risk.

  19. Congolese women activists in DRC and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Godin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Congolese women are energetically engaged in peacebuilding, both in DRC and abroad.Their voices – inspired by different experiences and presenting different perspectives – deserve greater recognition.

  20. Rapid assessment of repair of ultraviolet DNA damage with a modified host-cell reactivation assay using a luciferase reporter gene and correlation with polymorphisms of DNA repair genes in normal human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Yawei; Spitz, Margaret R.; Guo Zhaozheng; Hadeyati, Mohammad; Grossman, Lawrence; Kraemer, Kenneth H.; Wei Qingyi

    2002-11-30

    As DNA repair plays an important role in genetic susceptibility to cancer, assessment of the DNA repair phenotype is critical for molecular epidemiological studies of cancer. In this report, we compared use of the luciferase (luc) reporter gene in a host-cell reactivation (HCR) (LUC) assay of repair of ultraviolet (UV) damage to DNA to use of the chloramphenicol (cat) gene-based HCR (CAT) assay we used previously for case-control studies. We performed both the assays on cryopreserved lymphocytes from 102 healthy non-Hispanic white subjects. There was a close correlation between DNA repair capacity (DRC) as measured by the LUC and CAT assays. Although these two assays had similar variation, the LUC assay was faster and more sensitive. We also analyzed the relationship between DRC and the subjects' previously determined genotypes for four polymorphisms of two nucleotide-excision repair (NER) genes (in intron 9 of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) C and exons 6, 10 and 23 of XPD) and one polymorphism of a base-excision repair gene in exon 10 of X-ray complementing group 1 (XRCC1). The DRC was significantly lower in subjects homozygous for one or more polymorphisms of the two NER genes than in subjects with other genotypes (P=0.010). In contrast, the polymorphic XRCC1 allele had no significant effect on DRC. These results suggest that the post-UV LUC assay measures NER phenotype and that polymorphisms of XPC and XPD genes modulate DRC. For population studies of the DNA repair phenotype, many samples need to be evaluated, and so the LUC assay has several advantages over the CAT assay: the LUC assay was more sensitive, had less variation, was not radioactive, was easier to perform, and required fewer cryopreserved cells. These features make the LUC-based HCR assay suitable for molecular epidemiological studies.

  1. Difference in Membrane Repair Capacity Between Cancer Cell Lines and a Normal Cell Line.

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    Frandsen, Stine Krog; McNeil, Anna K; Novak, Ivana; McNeil, Paul L; Gehl, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Electroporation-based treatments and other therapies that permeabilize the plasma membrane have been shown to be more devastating to malignant cells than to normal cells. In this study, we asked if a difference in repair capacity could explain this observed difference in sensitivity. Membrane repair was investigated by disrupting the plasma membrane using laser followed by monitoring fluorescent dye entry over time in seven cancer cell lines, an immortalized cell line, and a normal primary cell line. The kinetics of repair in living cells can be directly recorded using this technique, providing a sensitive index of repair capacity. The normal primary cell line of all tested cell lines exhibited the slowest rate of dye entry after laser disruption and lowest level of dye uptake. Significantly, more rapid dye uptake and a higher total level of dye uptake occurred in six of the seven tested cancer cell lines (p normal cell line (98 % viable cells) was higher than in the three tested cancer cell lines (81-88 % viable cells). These data suggest more effective membrane repair in normal, primary cells and supplement previous explanations why electroporation-based therapies and other therapies permeabilizing the plasma membrane are more effective on malignant cells compared to normal cells in cancer treatment.

  2. Enhancement of DNA repair capacity of mammalian cells by carcinogen treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protic, M.; Roilides, E.; Levine, A.S.; Dixon, K.

    1988-07-01

    To determine whether DNA excision repair is enhanced in mammalian cells in response to DNA damage, as it is in bacteria as part of the SOS response, we used an expression vector-host cell reactivation assay to measure cellular DNA repair capacity. When UV-damaged chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) vector DNA was introduced into monkey cells (CV-1), the level of CAT activity was inversely related to the UV fluence due to inhibition of CAT gene expression by UV photoproducts. When CV-1 cells were treated with either UV radiation or mitomycin C, 24-48 h before transfection, CAT expression from the UV-irradiated plasmid was increased. This increase also occurred in a line of normal human cells, but not in repair-deficient human xeroderma pigmentosum cells. We confirmed that this increase in CAT expression was due to repair, and not to production of damage-free templates by recombination; the frequency of generation of supF+ recombinants after transfection with UV-irradiated pZ189 vectors carrying different point mutations in the supF gene did not significantly increase in carcinogen-treated CV-1 cells. From these results we conclude that carcinogen treatment enhances the excision-repair capacity of normal mammalian cells.

  3. The effect of aging on the DNA damage and repair capacity in 2BS cells undergoing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Ling; Wang, Pei-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with a reduction in the DNA repair capacity under oxidative stress. However, whether the DNA damage and repair capacity can be a biomarker of aging remains controversial. In this study, we demonstrated two cause-and-effect relationships, the one is between the DNA damage and repair capacity and the cellular age, another is between DNA damage and repair capacity and the level of oxidative stress in human embryonic lung fibroblasts (2BS) exposed to different doses of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). To clarify the mechanisms of the age-related reduction in DNA damage and repair capacity, we preliminarily evaluated the expressions of six kinds of pivotal enzymes involved in the two classical DNA repair pathways. The DNA repair capacity was observed in human fibroblasts cells using the comet assay; the age-related DNA repair enzymes were selected by RT-PCR and then verified by Western blot in vitro. Results showed that the DNA repair capacity was negatively and linearly correlated with (i) cumulative population doubling (PD) levels only in the group of low concentration of hydrogen peroxide treatment, (ii) with the level of oxidative stress only in the group of young PD cells. The mRNA expression of DNA polymerase δ1 decreased substantially in senescent cells and showed negative linear-correlation with PD levels; the protein expression level was well consistent with the mRNA level. Taken together, DNA damage and repair capacity can be a biomarker of aging. Reduced expression of DNA polymerase δ1 may be responsible for the decrease of DNA repair capacity in senescent cells.

  4. Difference in membrane repair capacity between cancer cell lines and a normal cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; McNeil, Anna K.; Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Electroporation-based treatments and other therapies that permeabilize the plasma membrane have been shown to be more devastating to malignant cells than to normal cells. In this study, we asked if a difference in repair capacity could explain this observed difference in sensitivity. Membrane...... repair was investigated by disrupting the plasma membrane using laser followed by monitoring fluorescent dye entry over time in seven cancer cell lines, an immortalized cell line, and a normal primary cell line. The kinetics of repair in living cells can be directly recorded using this technique...... cancer cell lines (p cell line (p membrane permeabilization by electroporation. Viability in the primary normal cell line (98 % viable cells) was higher...

  5. DNA Double Strand Break Response and Limited Repair Capacity in Mouse Elongated Spermatids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spermatids are extremely sensitive to genotoxic exposures since during spermiogenesis only error-prone non homologous end joining (NHEJ repair pathways are available. Hence, genomic damage may accumulate in sperm and be transmitted to the zygote. Indirect, delayed DNA fragmentation and lesions associated with apoptotic-like processes have been observed during spermatid elongation, 27 days after irradiation. The proliferating spermatogonia and early meiotic prophase cells have been suggested to retain a memory of a radiation insult leading later to this delayed fragmentation. Here, we used meiotic spread preparations to localize phosphorylate histone H2 variant (γ-H2AX foci marking DNA double strand breaks (DSBs in elongated spermatids. This technique enabled us to determine the background level of DSB foci in elongated spermatids of RAD54/RAD54B double knockout (dko mice, severe combined immunodeficiency SCID mice, and poly adenosine diphosphate (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1 inhibitor (DPQ-treated mice to compare them with the appropriate wild type controls. The repair kinetics data and the protein expression patterns observed indicate that the conventional NHEJ repair pathway is not available for elongated spermatids to repair the programmed and the IR-induced DSBs, reflecting the limited repair capacity of these cells. However, although elongated spermatids express the proteins of the alternative NHEJ, PARP1-inhibition had no effect on the repair kinetics after IR, suggesting that DNA damage may be passed onto sperm. Finally, our genetic mutant analysis suggests that an incomplete or defective meiotic recombinational repair of Spo11-induced DSBs may lead to a carry-over of the DSB damage or induce a delayed nuclear fragmentation during the sensitive programmed chromatin remodeling occurring in elongated spermatids.

  6. REDD+ Policy Approaches in the Congo Basin: A Comparative Analysis of Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalame Fobissie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Congo Basin forests are a prime location for implementing REDD+. National REDD+ policy processes are ongoing and many REDD+ pilot initiatives are being demonstrated. However, the level of national engagement, progress and distribution of REDD+ activities varies considerably in the different Congo Basin countries. This study therefore uses a set of criteria to assess national and international policy initiatives and approaches for advancing REDD+ implementation in Cameroon and the Democratic Republic Congo (DRC, two countries where more than two thirds of the Congo Basin forests are concentrated. Our findings show that (i both countries have shown the highest political presence at the international climate negotiations but DRC has invested more in the size of its delegation and side events; (ii REDD+ donors, initiatives, and funding are disproportionately skewed towards DRC making it technically more advanced; (iii the high political interest and institutional reforms in DRC favors private sector investments in REDD+ programs; and (iv the REDD+ policy process is internally-driven in Cameroon with a strong national ownership, while it is externally-driven in DRC with weak national ownership. To advance REDD+, the government of DRC should embark on capacity building programs that ensure the transfer of REDD+ technical know-how from international to national actors while Cameroon needs to speed-up governance reforms and be more flexible in order to attract influential international REDD+ actors. This paper further provides specific recommendations.

  7. Maintenance of xylem network transport capacity: a review of embolism repair in vascular plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig eBrodersen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of long distance water transport in xylem is essential to plant health and productivity. Both biotic and abiotic environmental conditions lead to embolism formation within the xylem resulting in lost transport capacity and ultimately death. Plants exhibit a variety of strategies to either prevent or restore hydraulic capacity through cavitation resistance with specialized anatomy, replacement of compromised conduits with new growth, and a metabolically active embolism repair mechanism. In recent years, mounting evidence suggests that metabolically active cells surrounding the xylem conduits in some, but not all, species are capable of restoring hydraulic conductivity. This review summarizes our current understanding of the osmotically driven embolism repair mechanism, the known genetic and anatomical components related to embolism repair, rehydration pathways through the xylem, and the role of capacitance. Anatomical differences between functional plant groups may be one of the limiting factors that allow some plants to refill while others do not, but further investigations are necessary to fully understand this dynamic process. Finally, xylem networks should no longer be considered an assemblage of dead, empty conduits, but instead a metabolically active tissue finely tuned to respond to ever changing environmental cues.

  8. Exercise capacity, physical activity, and obesity in adults with repaired aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Roselien; Budts, Werner; Delecluse, Christophe; Vanhees, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Patients with aortic coarctation (COA) have a reduced exercise capacity and seem to be more prone to adopt a sedentary lifestyle. During clinical practice, we often observe that patients seem to be overweight. However, data on physical activity and weight status in this population are currently not available. This study aimed to describe weight status, self-reported physical activity levels, and self-perceived health status in adults with repaired COA in comparison with healthy counterparts and to investigate the relationships among exercise capacity, physical activity, weight status, and perceived health status. We studied 103 COA patients who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and who completed the Flemish Physical Activity Computerized Questionnaire and the short-form 36 health survey questionnaire. Patients with COA show a significantly lower exercise tolerance than what would be expected in healthy persons (P physical activity (P physical activity are related to exercise capacity (total energy expenditure: r = 0.278, P = .0015). The more active COA patients report higher scores of perceived physical functioning, general health, and mental health. Overweight patients did not perform significantly different than patients with a healthy weight did. Adults with repaired COA have a reduced exercise tolerance, which is related to low physical activity levels. Up to one-third of the COA patients we studied are overweight. As a poor exercise capacity identifies patients at risk for hospitalization and death and obesity might adversely influence the development of cardiovascular disease, it is important to improve the exercise capacity in these patients. Guiding patients toward more physical activity in daily life might therefore be the number 1 preventive measure to be taken in this patient group.

  9. A modified fluorimetric host cell reactivation assay to determine the repair capacity of primary keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebhard Daniel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Host Cell Reactivation Assay (HCRA is widely used to identify circumstances and substances affecting the repair capacity of cells, however, it is restricted by the transfection procedure used and the sensitivity of the detection method. Primary skin cells are particularly difficult to transfect, and therefore sensitive methods are needed to detect any variations due to the cell-type or inter-individual differences or changes induced by diverse substances. A sensitive and repeatable method to detect the repair capacity of skin cells would be useful in two different aspects: On the one hand, to identify substances influencing the repair capacity in a positive manner (these substances could be promising ingredients for cosmetic products and on the other hand, to exclude the negative effects of substances on the repair capacity (this could serve as one step further towards replacing or at least reducing animal testing. Results In this paper, we present a rapid and sensitive assay to determine the repair capacity of primary keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts based on two wave-length Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP and DsRed reporter technology in order to test different substances and their potential to influence the DNA repair capacity. For the detection of plasmid restoration, we used FACS technology, which, in comparison to luminometer technology, is highly sensitive and allows single cell based analysis. The usefulness of this assay and studying the repair capacity is demonstrated by the evidence that DNA repair is repressed by Cyclosporin A in fibroblasts. Conclusions The methodology described in this paper determines the DNA repair capacity in different types of human skin cells. The described transfection protocol is suitable for the transfection of melanocytes, keratinocytes and fibroblasts, reaching efficacies suitable for the detection of the restored plasmids by FACS technology. Therefore the repair capacity

  10. Signalling pathways that inhibit the capacity of precursor cells for myelin repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Jennifer K; Cate, Holly S

    2013-01-07

    In demyelinating disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), targets of injury are myelin and oligodendrocytes, leading to severe neurological dysfunction. Regenerative therapies aimed at promoting oligodendrocyte maturation and remyelination are promising strategies for treatment in demyelinating disorders. Endogenous precursor cells or exogenous transplanted cells are potential sources for remyelinating oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). Several signalling pathways have been implicated in regulating the capacity of these cell populations for myelin repair. Here, we review neural precursor cells and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells as potential sources for remyelinating oligodendrocytes and evidence for the functional role of key signalling pathways in inhibiting regeneration from these precursor cell populations.

  11. Signalling Pathways that Inhibit the Capacity of Precursor Cells for Myelin Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Sabo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In demyelinating disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS, targets of injury are myelin and oligodendrocytes, leading to severe neurological dysfunction. Regenerative therapies aimed at promoting oligodendrocyte maturation and remyelination are promising strategies for treatment in demyelinating disorders. Endogenous precursor cells or exogenous transplanted cells are potential sources for remyelinating oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS. Several signalling pathways have been implicated in regulating the capacity of these cell populations for myelin repair. Here, we review neural precursor cells and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells as potential sources for remyelinating oligodendrocytes and evidence for the functional role of key signalling pathways in inhibiting regeneration from these precursor cell populations.

  12. DNA repair capacity and acute radiotherapy adverse effects in Italian breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterpone, Silvia; Cornetta, Tommaso [Department of Biology, University of ' Roma TRE' , V.le G. Marconi 446, Rome 00146 (Italy); Padua, Luca [' Don Carlo Gnocchi' Foundation, Rome (Italy); Mastellone, Valeria [Department of Biology, University of ' Roma TRE' , V.le G. Marconi 446, Rome 00146 (Italy); Giammarino, Daniela [' S. Camillo-Forlanini' Hospital, Radiation Oncology Unit, Rome (Italy); Testa, Antonella; Tirindelli, Donatella [Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences Section, ENEA, Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Cozzi, Renata, E-mail: cozzi@uniroma3.it [Department of Biology, University of ' Roma TRE' , V.le G. Marconi 446, Rome 00146 (Italy); Donato, Vittorio [' S. Camillo-Forlanini' Hospital, Radiation Oncology Unit, Rome (Italy)

    2010-02-03

    Therapeutic exposure to ionising radiation can induce normal tissue side effects which consistently differ among individuals suggesting a possible genetic control. One approach to elucidate the underlying mechanisms is to analyse the relation between genetic traits, biomarkers of in vitro DNA damage and side toxicity in vivo. 43 breast cancer (BC) patients receiving radiotherapy after a breast-conserving surgery were recruited together with 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Adverse tissue reactions were recorded as indicators of radiotherapy susceptibility. All blood samples from both patients (35) and controls (34) were irradiated in vitro and DNA primary damage and repair kinetic were measured through Comet assay. All study subjects were genotyped for XRCC1, OGG1 and XRCC3 gene polymorphisms. In our small groups we found a positive association between XRCC1 variant allele (399Gln) and the occurrence of breast cancer [p = 0.01; OR = 2.41, 95%CI (1.24-4.66)]. BC patients showed a higher degree of basal (p < 0.001) and X-ray induced DNA damage (p < 0.01) when compared to healthy controls. A reduced repair ability was found in BC patients showing high degrees of tissue side effects as classified by Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme. BC patients showed an impairment of their DNA repair capacity associated with the development of radiation sensitivity but not with polymorphisms in any of the considered genes.

  13. DNA repair and replication links to pluripotency and differentiation capacity of pig iPS cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lipu; Fan, Anran; Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Jianyu; Fan, Nana; Liu, Na; Ye, Xiaoying; Fu, Haifeng; Zhou, Zhongcheng; Wang, Yong; Wei, Hong; Liu, Zhonghua; Li, Ziyi; Lai, Liangxue; Wang, Xumin; Liu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Pigs are proposed to be suitable large animal models for test of the efficacy and safety of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for stem cell therapy, but authentic pig ES/iPS cell lines with germline competence are rarely produced. The pathways or signaling underlying the defective competent pig iPSCs remain poorly understood. By improving induction conditions using various small chemicals, we generated pig iPSCs that exhibited high pluripotency and differentiation capacity that can contribute to chimeras. However, their potency was reduced with increasing passages by teratoma formation test, and correlated with declined expression levels of Rex1, an important marker for naïve state. By RNA-sequencing analysis, genes related to WNT signaling were upregulated and MAPK signaling and TGFβ pathways downregulated in pig iPSCs compared to fibroblasts, but they were abnormally expressed during passages. Notably, pathways involving in DNA repair and replication were upregulated at early passage, but downregulated in iPSCs during prolonged passage in cluster with fibroblasts. Our data suggests that reduced DNA repair and replication capacity links to the instability of pig iPSCs. Targeting these pathways may facilitate generation of truly pluripotent pig iPSCs, with implication in translational studies. PMID:28253351

  14. Wound repair and anti-oxidative capacity is regulated by ITGB4 in airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi; Liu, Hui-jun; Xiang, Yang; Tan, Yu-rong; Zhu, Xiao-lin; Qin, Xiao-qun

    2010-08-01

    Integrin beta 4 (ITGB4) is a structural adhesion molecule which engages in maintaining the integrity of airway epithelial cells. Its specific cytomembrane structural feature strongly indicates that ITGB4 may engage in many signaling pathways and physiologic processes. However, in addition to adhesion, the specific biologic significance of ITGB4 in airway epithelial cells is almost unknown. In this article, we investigated the expression and functional properties of ITGB4 in airway epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14O-cells) and primary rat tracheal epithelial cells (RTE cells) were used to determine ITGB4 expression under ozone tress or mechanical damage, respectively. An ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged asthma model was used to investigate ITGB4 expression after antigen exposure in vivo. In addition, an ITGB4 overexpression vector and ITGB4 silence virus vector were constructed and transfected into RTE cells. Then, wound repair ability and anti-oxidation capacity was evaluated. Our results demonstrated that, on the edge of mechanically wounded cell areas, ITGB4 expression was increased after mechanical injury. After ozone stress, upregulation expression of ITGB4 was also detected. In the OVA-challenged asthma model, ITGB4 expression was decreased on airway epithelial cells accompanying with structural disruption and damage of anti-oxidation capacity. Besides, our study revealed that upregulation of ITGB4 promotes wound repair ability and anti-oxidative ability, while such abilities were blocked when ITGB4 was silenced. Taken together, these results showed that ITGB4 was a new interesting molecule involved in the regulation of wound repair and anti-oxidation processes for airway epithelial cells.

  15. Evaluation of radioinduced damage and repair capacity in blood lymphocytes of breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Nascimento

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic damage caused by ionizing radiation and repair capacity of blood lymphocytes from 3 breast cancer patients and 3 healthy donors were investigated using the comet assay. The comets were analyzed by two parameters: comet tail length and visual classification. Blood samples from the donors were irradiated in vitro with a 60Co source at a dose rate of 0.722 Gy/min, with a dose range of 0.2 to 4.0 Gy and analyzed immediately after the procedure and 3 and 24 h later. The basal level of damage and the radioinduced damage were higher in lymphocytes from breast cancer patients than in lymphocytes from healthy donors. The radioinduced damage showed that the two groups had a similar response when analyzed immediately after the irradiations. Therefore, while the healthy donors presented a considerable reduction of damage after 3 h, the patients had a higher residual damage even 24 h after exposure. The repair capacity of blood lymphocytes from the patients was slower than that of lymphocytes from healthy donors. The possible influence of age, disease stage and mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are discussed. Both parameters adopted proved to be sensitive and reproducible: the dose-response curves for DNA migration can be used not only for the analysis of cellular response but also for monitoring therapeutic interventions. Lymphocytes from the breast cancer patients presented an initial radiosensitivity similar to that of healthy subjects but a deficient repair mechanism made them more vulnerable to the genotoxic action of ionizing radiation. However, since lymphocytes from only 3 patients and 3 normal subjects were analyzed in the present paper, additional donors will be necessary for a more accurate evaluation.

  16. Beyond the silence: sexual violence in eastern DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Keralis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The sexual violence laws introduced in DRC in 2006 have had only limited impact. A much louder condemnation of rape and a far more proactive approach to prevention are urgently needed.

  17. Worker flexibility in dual resource constrained (DRC) shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, Hong

    2005-01-01

    Hong Yue deed onderzoek naar de arbeidsflexibliteit van werknemers in een zogenaamde Dual Resource Constraint (DRC) productie-omgeving. Dat zijn assemblagelijnen waarin elk product dat wordt gemaakt precies dezelfde productievolgorde aflegt. Tussen de verschillende verwerkingsstations is beperkt buf

  18. White matter involvement after TBI: Clues to axon and myelin repair capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Regina C; Mierzwa, Amanda J; Marion, Christina M; Sullivan, Genevieve M

    2016-01-01

    Impact-acceleration forces to the head cause traumatic brain injury (TBI) with damage in white matter tracts comprised of long axons traversing the brain. White matter injury after TBI involves both traumatic axonal injury (TAI) and myelin pathology that evolves throughout the post-injury time course. The axon response to initial mechanical forces and secondary insults follows the process of Wallerian degeneration, which initiates as a potentially reversible phase of intra-axonal damage and proceeds to an irreversible phase of axon fragmentation. Distal to sites of axon disconnection, myelin sheaths remain for prolonged periods, which may activate neuroinflammation and inhibit axon regeneration. In addition to TAI, TBI can cause demyelination of intact axons. These evolving features of axon and myelin pathology also represent opportunities for repair. In experimental TBI, demyelinated axons exhibit remyelination, which can serve to both protect axons and facilitate recovery of function. Myelin remodeling may also contribute to neuroplasticity. Efficient clearance of myelin debris is a potential target to attenuate the progression of chronic pathology. During the early phase of Wallerian degeneration, interventions that prevent the transition from reversible damage to axon disconnection warrant the highest priority, based on the poor regenerative capacity of axons in the CNS. Clinical evaluation of TBI will need to address the challenge of accurately detecting the extent and stage of axon damage. Distinguishing the complex white matter changes associated with axons and myelin is necessary for interpreting advanced neuroimaging approaches and for identifying a broader range of therapeutic opportunities to improve outcome after TBI.

  19. Radiosensitivity and capacity for radiation-induced sublethal damage repair of canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, S L; Milner, R J; Salute, M E; Hintenlang, D E; Farese, J P; Bacon, N J; Bova, F J; Rajon, D A; Lurie, D M

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the inherent radiosensitivity and repair capacity of canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) can aid in optimizing radiation protocols to treat this disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parameters surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF(2) ), α/β ratio and capacity for sublethal damage repair (SLDR) in response to radiation. Dose-response and split-dose studies were performed using the clonogenic assay. The mean SF(2) for three established TCC cell lines was high at 0.61. All the three cell lines exhibited a low to moderate α/β ratio, with the mean being 3.27. Two cell lines exhibited statistically increased survival at 4 and 24 h in the dose-response assay. Overall, our results indicate that the cell lines are moderately radioresistant, have a high repair capacity and behave similarly to a late-responding normal tissue. These findings indicate that the radiation protocols utilizing higher doses with less fractionation may be more effective for treating TCC.

  20. Enhanced cellular radiosensitivity induced by cofilin-1 over-expression is associated with reduced DNA repair capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Jyh-Der; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Lo, Chia-Chien; Chiang, Pei-Hsun; Chiu, Su-Jun; Tsai, Cheng-Han; Hwang, Jeng-Jong; Chen, Ran-Chou; Gorbunova, Vera; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A previous report has indicated that over-expression of cofilin-1 (CFL-1), a member of the actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin protein family, enhances cellular radiosensitivity. This study explores, the involvement of various DNA damage responses and repair systems in the enhanced cellular radiosensitivity as well as assessing the role of CFL-1 phosphorylation in radiosensitivity. Materials and Methods Human non-small lung cancer H1299 cells harboring a tet-on gene expression system were used to induce exogenous expression of wild-type CFL-1. Colony formation assays were used to determine cell survival after γ-ray exposure. DNA damage levels were determined by comet assay. DNA repair capacity was assessed by fluorescence-based DNA repair analysis and antibody detection of various repair proteins. The effects of CFL-1 phosphorylation on radiation responses were explored using two mutant CFL-1 proteins, S3D and S3A. Finally, endogenous CFL-1 phosphorylation levels were investigated using latrunculin A (LA), cytochalasin B (CB) and Y27632. Results When phosphorylatable CFL-1 was expressed, radiosensitivity was enhanced after exposure to γ-rays and this was accompanied by DNA damage. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) and p53-binding protein-1 (53BP1) foci, as well as Chk1/2 phosphorylation, were apparently suppressed, although ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase activation was apparently unaffected. In addition, two radiation induced double strand break (DSB) repair, systems, namely homologous recombination repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), were suppressed. Moreover, over-expression of CFL-1 S3D and CFL-1 S3A both enhanced radiosensitivity. However, enhanced radiosensitivity and reduced γ-H2AX expression were only detected in cells treated with LA which increased endogenous phospho-CFL-1, and not in cells treated with Y27632, which dephosphorylates CFL-1. Conclusion CFL-1 over-expression enhances radiosensitivity and this

  1. Chemoattractive capacity of different lengths of nerve fragments bridging regeneration chambers for the repair of sciatic nerve defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiren Zhang; Yubo Wang; Jincheng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary study by our research group showed that 6-mm-long regeneration chamber bridging is equivalent to autologous nerve transplantation for the repair of 12-mm nerve defects.In this study,we compared the efficacy of different lengths (6,8,10 mm) of nerve fragments bridging 6-mm regeneration chambers for the repair of 12-mm-long nerve defects.At 16 weeks after the regeneration chamber was implanted,the number,diameter and myelin sheath thickness of the regenerated nerve fibers,as well as the conduction velocity of the sciatic nerve and gastrocnemius muscle wet weight ratio,were similar to that observed with autologous nerve transplantation.Our results demonstrate that 6-,8-and 10-mm-long nerve fragments bridging 6-mm regeneration chambers effectively repair 12-mm-long nerve defects.Because the chemoattractive capacity is not affected by the length of the nerve fragment,we suggest adopting 6-mm-long nerve fragments for the repair of peripheral nerve defects.

  2. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); Marcos, Ricard, E-mail: ricard.marcos@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain); Hernández, Alba, E-mail: alba.hernandez@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Repair ability under long-term exposure to arsenic was tested using the comet assay. • Effects were measured under Ogg1 wild-type and deficient backgrounds. • Exposed cells repair less efficiency the DNA damage induced by SA, KBrO{sub 3}, MMA{sup III} or UVC radiation. • Oxidative damage and Ogg1 deficient background exacerbate repair deficiencies. • Overexpression of the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt acts as adaptive mechanism. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage—and Ogg1 deficiency

  3. 20 CFR 225.33 - Months for which DRC's are due.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Months for which DRC's are due. 225.33... PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Delayed Retirement Credits § 225.33 Months for which DRC's are due. (a) A DRC is due for each month after 1970 in which the employee is— (1) Full retirement age or...

  4. 20 CFR 225.36 - Effect of DRC's on survivor annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of DRC's on survivor annuities. 225.36... PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Delayed Retirement Credits § 225.36 Effect of DRC's on survivor... surviving divorced spouse annuity. All DRC's, including credits earned in the year of death, can be used...

  5. 20 CFR 225.34 - How the amount of the DRC is figured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How the amount of the DRC is figured. 225.34... PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Delayed Retirement Credits § 225.34 How the amount of the DRC is figured. (a) The amount of the DRC depends on— (1) The year the employee reaches full retirement age;...

  6. 20 CFR 225.31 - PIA's to which DRC's are added.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PIA's to which DRC's are added. 225.31... PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Delayed Retirement Credits § 225.31 PIA's to which DRC's are added. (a) DRC's can be added to the following PIA's when used in computing the following benefits: (1)...

  7. Inter-individual variation in nucleotide excision repair pathway is modulated by non-synonymous polymorphisms in ERCC4 and MBD4 genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allione, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.allione@hugef-torino.org [Human Genetics Foundation (HuGeF), Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin (Italy); Guarrera, Simonetta; Russo, Alessia [Human Genetics Foundation (HuGeF), Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin (Italy); Ricceri, Fulvio [Human Genetics Foundation (HuGeF), Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin (Italy); Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Via Santena 19, 10126 Turin (Italy); Purohit, Rituraj [Human Genetics Foundation (HuGeF), Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin (Italy); Bioinformatics Division, School of Bio Sciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India); Pagnani, Andrea; Rosa, Fabio; Polidoro, Silvia; Voglino, Floriana [Human Genetics Foundation (HuGeF), Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin (Italy); Matullo, Giuseppe [Human Genetics Foundation (HuGeF), Via Nizza 52, 10126 Turin (Italy); Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Via Santena 19, 10126 Turin (Italy)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We reported a large inter-individual variability of NER capacity. • ERCC4 rs1800124 and MBD4 rs10342 nsSNP variants were associated with DNA repair capacity. • DNA–protein interaction analyses showed alteration of binding for ERCC4 and MBD4 variants. • A new possible cross-talk between NER and BER pathways has been reported. - Abstract: Inter-individual differences in DNA repair capacity (DRC) may lead to genome instability and, consequently, modulate individual cancer risk. Among the different DNA repair pathways, nucleotide excision repair (NER) is one of the most versatile, as it can eliminate a wide range of helix-distorting DNA lesions caused by ultraviolet light irradiation and chemical mutagens. We performed a genotype–phenotype correlation study in 122 healthy subjects in order to assess if any associations exist between phenotypic profiles of NER and DNA repair gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Individuals were genotyped for 768 SNPs with a custom Illumina Golden Gate Assay, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the same subjects were tested for a NER comet assay to measure DRC after challenging cells by benzo(a)pyrene diolepoxide (BPDE). We observed a large inter-individual variability of NER capacity, with women showing a statistically significant lower DRC (mean ± SD: 6.68 ± 4.76; p = 0.004) than men (mean ± SD: 8.89 ± 5.20). Moreover, DRC was significantly lower in individuals carrying a variant allele for the ERCC4 rs1800124 non-synonymous SNP (nsSNP) (p = 0.006) and significantly higher in subjects with the variant allele of MBD4 rs2005618 SNP (p = 0.008), in linkage disequilibrium (r{sup 2} = 0.908) with rs10342 nsSNP. Traditional in silico docking approaches on protein–DNA and protein–protein interaction showed that Gly875 variant in ERCC4 (rs1800124) decreases the DNA–protein interaction and that Ser273 and Thr273 variants in MBD4 (rs10342) indicate complete loss of protein

  8. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2015-09-01

    Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1(+/+) and Ogg1(-/-) genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1(+/+) and Ogg1(-/-) cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1(-/-) cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1(-/-) cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage-and Ogg1 deficiency-exacerbates this phenomenon. The observed cell death resistance under a chronic scenario of genotoxic and oxidative stress may in turn contribute to the carcinogenic effects of i-As.

  9. Performance evaluation of cellular layouts : extension to DRC system contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suresh, NC; Gaalman, GJC

    2000-01-01

    This study involves a comparison of the performance of functional layouts (FL) and cellular manufacturing (CM) systems in a dual-resource-constrained( DRC) system context. Past studies of FL and CM have been based mostly on single-resource-constrained( SRC) systems. Recent studies have included labo

  10. Connecting Community Security and DDR: Experiences from Eastern DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.C.; Rouw, H.

    2010-01-01

    The report is based on 11 weeks of field research in Ituri and the Kivus between September and December 2009, and looks at the linkages between community security and DDR in the case of eastern DRC. To assess this relation , the report starts with an analysis of what security is considered to entail

  11. Evaluation of radioinduced damage and repair capacity in human breast cancer cells, MCDF-7 and T4-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgode, F.G.S.; Soares, C.R.J.; Bartolini, P.; Okazaki, K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN/CNEN-SP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: kokazaki@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Ionizing radiation is an established etiologic agent for breast cancer, but on the other hand it is a therapeutic modality used in cancer treatment. Accumulation of DNA damage and deficient DNA repair are considered as factors of susceptibility that predispose individuals to breast cancer development. In the present study, genetic damage induced by gamma radiation and repair capacity in the target cells, i.e. cells originating of breast cancer, were analyzed using micronucleus test and comet assay (single-cell alkaline gel electrophoresis). So, two breast tumor cell line, MCF-7 and T-47D were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co source (0.722 Gy/min) with various doses (0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 4.0 and 5.0 Gy). Cytogenetic data showed similar spontaneous damage of two cell lines, the radioinduced damage, however, was higher in T-47D, starting from 2 Gy, with a more accelerated proliferation rate than MCF- 7 at all doses analyzed. Both tumor cell lines were capable to repair a considerable part of radioinduced damage within 1 hour after exposure, indicating a relative radioresistance of theses cell lines to the genotoxic action of ionizing radiation. (author)

  12. Modulation of DNA-induced damage and repair capacity in humans after dietary intervention with lutein-enriched fermented milk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Herrero-Barbudo

    Full Text Available Dietary factors provide protection against several forms of DNA damage. Additionally, consumer demand for natural products favours the development of bioactive food ingredients with health benefits. Lutein is a promising biologically active component in the food industry. The EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies considers that protection from oxidative damage may be a beneficial physiological effect but that a cause and effect relationship has not been established. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the safety and potential functional effect of a lutein-enriched milk product using the Comet Assay in order to analyze the baseline, the induced DNA-damage and the repair capacity in the lymphocytes of 10 healthy donors before and after the intake of the mentioned product. Our data suggest that the regular consumption of lutein-enriched fermented milk results in a significant increase in serum lutein levels and this change is associated with an improvement in the resistance of DNA to damage and the capacity of DNA repair in lymphocytes. Our results also support the lack of a genotoxic effect at the doses supplied as well as the absence of interactions and side effects on other nutritional and biochemicals markers.

  13. Exploration of methods to identify polymorphisms associated with variation in DNA repair capacity phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Xi, T; Mohrenweiser, H W; Nelson, D O

    2006-07-03

    Elucidating the relationship between polymorphic sequences and risk of common disease is a challenge. For example, although it is clear that variation in DNA repair genes is associated with familial cancer, aging and neurological disease, progress toward identifying polymorphisms associated with elevated risk of sporadic disease has been slow. This is partly due to the complexity of the genetic variation, the existence of large numbers of mostly low frequency variants and the contribution of many genes to variation in susceptibility. There has been limited development of methods to find associations between genotypes having many polymorphisms and pathway function or health outcome. We have explored several statistical methods for identifying polymorphisms associated with variation in DNA repair phenotypes. The model system used was 80 cell lines that had been resequenced to identify variation; 191 single nucleotide substitution polymorphisms (SNPs) are included, of which 172 are in 31 base excision repair pathway genes, 19 in 5 anti-oxidation genes, and DNA repair phenotypes based on single strand breaks measured by the alkaline Comet assay. Univariate analyses were of limited value in identifying SNPs associated with phenotype variation. Of the multivariable model selection methods tested: the easiest that provided reduced error of prediction of phenotype was simple counting of the variant alleles predicted to encode proteins with reduced activity, which led to a genotype including 52 SNPs; the best and most parsimonious model was achieved using a two-step analysis without regard to potential functional relevance: first SNPs were ranked by importance determined by Random Forests Regression (RFR), followed by cross-validation in a second round of RFR modeling that included ever more SNPs in declining order of importance. With this approach 6 SNPs were found to minimize prediction error. The results should encourage research into utilization of multivariate

  14. Evaluation of kidney repair capacity using 99mTc-DMSA in ischemia/reperfusion injury models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Wonjung; Jang, Hee-Seong; Belay, Takele; Kim, Jinu; Ha, Yeong Su; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae; Park, Kwon Moo; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative (99m)Tc-DMSA renal uptake was studied in different renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) mice models for the assessment of renal repair capacity. Mice models of nephrectomy, uni- and bi-lateral I/R together with sham-operated mice were established. At 1h, 1d, 4d, 1, 2 and 3 wk after I/R, (99m)Tc-DMSA (27.7 ± 1.3 MBq) was injected via tail vein and after 3h post-injection, the mice were scanned for 30 min with pinhole equipped gamma camera. Higher uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA was measured in normal kidneys of uni-lateral I/R model and nephrectomized kidney I/R model at 3 wk post-surgery. Comparing the restoration capacities of the affected kidneys of nephrectomy, uni- and bi-lateral I/R models, higher repair capacity was observed in the nephrectomized model followed by bi-lateral then uni-lateral models. The normal kidney may retard the restoration of damaged kidney in uni-lateral I/R model. Moreover, 3 wk after Uni-I/R, the size of injured kidney was significantly smaller than non-ischemic contralateral and sham operated kidneys, while nephrectomy I/R kidneys were significantly enlarged compared to all others at 3 wk post-surgery. Very strong correlation between (99m)Tc-DMSA uptake and weight of dissected kidneys in I/R models was observed. Consistent with (99m)Tc-DMSA uptake results, all histological results indicate that kidney recovery after injury is correlated with the amount of intact tubules and kidney sizes. In summary, our study showed good potentials of (99m)Tc-DMSA scan as a promising non-invasive method for evaluation of kidney restoration after I/R injuries. Interestingly, mice with Bi-I/R injury showed faster repair capacity than those with uni-I/R.

  15. Limited integrative repair capacity of native cartilage autografts within cartilage defects in a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelse, Kolja; Riedel, Dominic; Pachowsky, Milena; Hennig, Friedrich F; Trattnig, Siegfried; Welsch, Götz H

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate integration and cellular outgrowth of native cartilage autografts transplanted into articular cartilage defects. Native cartilage autografts were applied into chondral defects in the femoral condyle of adult sheep. Within the defects, the calcified cartilage layer was either left intact or perforated to induce bone marrow stimulation. Empty defects served as controls. The joints were analyzed after 6 and 26 weeks by macroscopic and histological analysis using the ICRS II Score and Modified O'Driscoll Scores. Non-treated defects did not show any endogenous regenerative response and bone marrow stimulation induced fibrous repair tissue. Transplanted native cartilage grafts only insufficiently integrated with the defect borders. Cell death and loss of proteoglycans were present at the margins of the grafts at 6 weeks, which was only partially restored at 26 weeks. Significant cellular outgrowth from the grafts or defect borders could not be observed. Bonding of the grafts could be improved by additional bone marrow stimulation providing ingrowing cells that formed a fibrous interface predominantly composed of type I collagen. Transplanted native cartilage grafts remain as inert structures within cartilage defects and fail to induce integrative cartilage repair which rather demands additional cells provided by additional bone marrow stimulation. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Exploring the potential interference of estuarine sediment contaminants with the DNA repair capacity of human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Miguel Ferreira; Louro, Henriqueta; Costa, Pedro M; Caeiro, Sandra; Silva, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    Estuaries may be reservoirs of a wide variety of pollutants, including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances that may impact on the ecosystem and human health. A previous study showed that exposure of human hepatoma (HepG2) cells to extracts from sediment samples collected in two areas (urban/industrial and riverine/agricultural) of an impacted estuary (Sado, Portugal), produced differential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. Those effects were found to be consistent with levels and nature of sediment contamination. The present study aimed at evaluating whether the mixtures of contaminants contained in those extracts were able to modulate DNA repair capacity of HepG2 cells. The residual level of DNA damage was measured by the comet assay in cells exposed for 24 or 48 h to different extracts, after a short preexposure to a challenging concentration range of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), as a model alkylating agent. The results suggested that the mixture of contaminants present in the tested samples, besides a potential direct effect on the DNA molecule, may also interfere with DNA repair mechanisms in HepG2 cells, thus impairing their ability to deal with genotoxic stress and, possibly, facilitating accumulation of mutations. Humans are environmentally/occupationally exposed to mixtures rather than to single chemicals. Thus, the observation that estuarine contaminants induce direct and indirect DNA strand breakage in human cells, the latter through the impairment of DNA repair, raises additional concerns regarding potential hazards from exposure and the need to further explore these endpoints in the context of environmental risk assessment.

  17. Enhanced base excision repair capacity in carotid atherosclerosis may protect nuclear DNA but not mitochondrial DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarpengland, Tonje; B. Dahl, Tuva; Skjelland, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Lesional and systemic oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, potentially leading to accumulation of DNA base lesions within atherosclerotic plaques. Although base excision repair (BER) is a major pathway counteracting oxidative DNA damage, our knowledge on BER...... and accumulation of DNA base lesions in clinical atherosclerosis is scarce. Here, we evaluated the transcriptional profile of a wide spectrum of BER components as well as DNA damage accumulation in atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic arteries. BER gene expression levels were analyzed in 162 carotid plaques, 8...... genes in atherosclerosis may contribute to lesional nuclear DNA stability but appears insufficient to maintain mtDNA integrity, potentially influencing mitochondrial function in cells within the atherosclerotic lesion....

  18. Calcium-binding capacity of centrin2 is required for linear POC5 assembly but not for nucleotide excision repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago J Dantas

    Full Text Available Centrosomes, the principal microtubule-organising centres in animal cells, contain centrins, small, conserved calcium-binding proteins unique to eukaryotes. Centrin2 binds to xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein (XPC, stabilising it, and its presence slightly increases nucleotide excision repair (NER activity in vitro. In previous work, we deleted all three centrin isoforms present in chicken DT40 cells and observed delayed repair of UV-induced DNA lesions, but no centrosome abnormalities. Here, we explore how centrin2 controls NER. In the centrin null cells, we expressed centrin2 mutants that cannot bind calcium or that lack sites for phosphorylation by regulatory kinases. Expression of any of these mutants restored the UV sensitivity of centrin null cells to normal as effectively as expression of wild-type centrin. However, calcium-binding-deficient and T118A mutants showed greatly compromised localisation to centrosomes. XPC recruitment to laser-induced UV-like lesions was only slightly slower in centrin-deficient cells than in controls, and levels of XPC and its partner HRAD23B were unaffected by centrin deficiency. Interestingly, we found that overexpression of the centrin interactor POC5 leads to the assembly of linear, centrin-dependent structures that recruit other centrosomal proteins such as PCM-1 and NEDD1. Together, these observations suggest that assembly of centrins into complex structures requires calcium binding capacity, but that such assembly is not required for centrin activity in NER.

  19. DRC: a dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltheart, M; Rastle, K; Perry, C; Langdon, R; Ziegler, J

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the Dual Route Cascaded (DRC) model, a computational model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. The DRC is a computational realization of the dual-route theory of reading, and is the only computational model of reading that can perform the 2 tasks most commonly used to study reading: lexical decision and reading aloud. For both tasks, the authors show that a wide variety of variables that influence human latencies influence the DRC model's latencies in exactly the same way. The DRC model simulates a number of such effects that other computational models of reading do not, but there appear to be no effects that any other current computational model of reading can simulate but that the DRC model cannot. The authors conclude that the DRC model is the most successful of the existing computational models of reading.

  20. Effects of combined physical exercise training on DNA damage and repair capacity: role of oxidative stress changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jorge Pinto; Silva, Amélia M; Oliveira, Maria Manuel; Peixoto, Francisco; Gaivão, Isabel; Mota, Maria Paula

    2015-06-01

    Regular physical exercise has been shown to be one of the most important lifestyle influences on improving functional performance, decreasing morbidity and all causes of mortality among older people. However, it is known that acute physical exercise may induce an increase in oxidative stress and oxidative damage in several structures, including DNA. Considering this, the purpose of this study was to identify the effects of 16 weeks of combined physical exercise in DNA damage and repair capacity in lymphocytes. In addition, we aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress involved in those changes. Fifty-seven healthy men (40 to 74 years) were enrolled in this study. The sample was divided into two groups: the experimental group (EG), composed of 31 individuals, submitted to 16 weeks of combined physical exercise training; and the control group (CG), composed of 26 individuals, who did not undergo any specifically orientated physical activity. We observed an improvement of overall physical performance in the EG, after the physical exercise training. A significant decrease in DNA strand breaks and FPG-sensitive sites was found after the physical exercise training, with no significant changes in 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase enzyme activity. An increase was observed in antioxidant activity, and a decrease was found in lipid peroxidation levels after physical exercise training. These results suggest that physical exercise training induces protective effects against DNA damage in lymphocytes possibly related to the increase in antioxidant capacity.

  1. Exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealed pavement induces genotoxicity and impairment of DNA repair capacity in the RTL-W1 fish liver cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzler, Aude; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Schweigert, Nathalie; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Coal-tar-based (CTB) sealcoat, frequently applied to parking lots and driveways in North America, contains elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds. The RTL-W1 fish liver cell line was used to investigate two endpoints (genotoxicity and DNA-repair-capacity impairment) associated with exposure to runoff from asphalt pavement with CTB sealcoat or with an asphalt-based sealcoat hypothesized to contain about 7% CTB sealcoat (AS-blend). Genotoxic potential was assessed by the Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay for 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of runoff samples collected from 5 h to 36 d following sealcoat application. DNA-repair capacity was assessed by the base excision repair comet assay for 1:10 dilution of samples collected 26 h and 36 d following application. Both assays were run with and without co-exposure to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA). With co-exposure to UVA, genotoxic effects were significant for both dilutions of CTB runoff for three of four sample times, and for some samples of AS-blend runoff. Base excision repair was significantly impaired for CTB runoff both with and without UVA exposure, and for AS-blend runoff only in the absence of UVA. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure to the complex mixture of chemicals in coal tar on DNA repair capacity. The results indicate that co-exposure to runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement and UVA as much as a month after sealcoat application has the potential to cause genotoxicity and impair DNA repair capacity.

  2. Exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealed pavement induces genotoxicity and impairment of DNA repair capacity in the RTL-W1 fish liver cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzler, Aude, E-mail: aude.kienzler@entpe.fr [Université de Lyon, UMR LEHNA 5023, USC INRA, ENTPE, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx-en-Velin F-69518 (France); Mahler, Barbara J., E-mail: bjmahler@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Van Metre, Peter C., E-mail: pcvanmet@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Schweigert, Nathalie [Université de Lyon, UMR LEHNA 5023, USC INRA, ENTPE, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx-en-Velin F-69518 (France); Devaux, Alain, E-mail: alain.devaux@entpe.fr [Université de Lyon, UMR LEHNA 5023, USC INRA, ENTPE, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx-en-Velin F-69518 (France); Bony, Sylvie, E-mail: bony@entpe.fr [Université de Lyon, UMR LEHNA 5023, USC INRA, ENTPE, rue Maurice Audin, Vaulx-en-Velin F-69518 (France)

    2015-07-01

    Coal-tar-based (CTB) sealcoat, frequently applied to parking lots and driveways in North America, contains elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds. The RTL-W1 fish liver cell line was used to investigate two endpoints (genotoxicity and DNA-repair-capacity impairment) associated with exposure to runoff from asphalt pavement with CTB sealcoat or with an asphalt-based sealcoat hypothesized to contain about 7% CTB sealcoat (AS-blend). Genotoxic potential was assessed by the Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay for 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of runoff samples collected from 5 h to 36 d following sealcoat application. DNA-repair capacity was assessed by the base excision repair comet assay for 1:10 dilution of samples collected 26 h and 36 d following application. Both assays were run with and without co-exposure to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA). With co-exposure to UVA, genotoxic effects were significant for both dilutions of CTB runoff for three of four sample times, and for some samples of AS-blend runoff. Base excision repair was significantly impaired for CTB runoff both with and without UVA exposure, and for AS-blend runoff only in the absence of UVA. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure to the complex mixture of chemicals in coal tar on DNA repair capacity. The results indicate that co-exposure to runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement and UVA as much as a month after sealcoat application has the potential to cause genotoxicity and impair DNA repair capacity. - Highlights: • Co-exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealcoated pavement and UVA caused DNA damage. • Significant genotoxicity occurred with a 1:100 dilution of runoff. • Runoff collected up to 36 d following coal-tar-sealcoat application was genotoxic. • Exposure to runoff from sealed pavement impaired an important DNA repair pathway. • Repair capacity was impaired with a 1:10 dilution of runoff (1:100 not

  3. Accelerated thermal and radiative ageing of hydrogenated NBR for DRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mares, G. [EUROTEST S.A., Bucharest (Romania). Research, Equipment Testing, Industrial Engineering and Scientific Services; Notingher, P. [Univ. Politehnica, Bucharest (Romania). Faculty of Electrical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The accelerated thermal and gamma radiation ageing of HNBR carbon black-T80 has been studied by measuring the residual deformation under constant deflection -- DRC, in air, using a relevant equation for the relaxation phenomena. The residual deformation under constant deflection during the process of accelerated ageing is increasing but the structure of polymer answers in the proper manner to the mechanical stress. The degradation equations were obtained, using Alfrey model for the relaxation polymer subject to compression and an Arrhenius dependence for the chemical reaction rate. The inverted relaxation time for the thermal degradation is depending on the chemical reaction rate and the dose rate of gamma radiation.

  4. Comparative repair capacity of knee osteochondral defects using regenerated silk fiber scaffolds and fibrin glue with/without autologous chondrocytes during 36 weeks in rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Khanmohammadi, Manijeh; Mobini, Sahba; Taghizadeh-Jahed, Masoud; Khanjani, Sayeh; Arasteh, Shaghayegh; Golshahi, Hannaneh; Torkaman, Giti; Ravanbod, Roya; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Moshiri, Ali; Tahmasebi, Mohammad-Naghi; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi

    2016-06-01

    The reconstruction capability of osteochondral (OCD) defects using silk-based scaffolds has been demonstrated in a few studies. However, improvement in the mechanical properties of natural scaffolds is still challengeable. Here, we investigate the in vivo repair capacity of OCD defects using a novel Bombyx mori silk-based composite scaffold with great mechanical properties and porosity during 36 weeks. After evaluation of the in vivo biocompatibility and degradation rate of these scaffolds, we examined the effectiveness of these fabricated scaffolds accompanied with/without autologous chondrocytes in the repair of OCD lesions of rabbit knees after 12 and 36 weeks. Moreover, the efficiency of these scaffolds was compared with fibrin glue (FG) as a natural carrier of chondrocytes using parallel clinical, histopathological and mechanical examinations. The data on subcutaneous implantation in mice showed that the designed scaffolds have a suitable in vivo degradation rate and regenerative capacity. The repair ability of chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds was typically higher than the scaffolds alone. After 36 weeks of implantation, most parts of the defects reconstructed by chondrocytes-seeded silk scaffolds (SFC) were hyaline-like cartilage. However, spontaneous healing and filling with a scaffold alone did not eventuate in typical repair. We could not find significant differences between quantitative histopathological and mechanical data of SFC and FGC. The fabricated constructs consisting of regenerated silk fiber scaffolds and chondrocytes are safe and suitable for in vivo repair of OCD defects and promising for future clinical trial studies.

  5. Manganese speciation in paired serum and CSF samples using SEC-DRC-ICP-MS and CE-ICP-DRC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalke, B; Lucio, M; Berthele, A; Kanawati, B

    2013-03-01

    Occupational manganese (Mn) overexposure leads to accumulation in the brain and has been shown to cause progressive, permanent, neuro-degenerative damage with syndromes similar to idiopathic Parkinsonism. Mn is transported by an active mechanism across neural barriers (NB) finally into the brain; but to date, modes of Mn neurotoxic action are poorly understood. This paper investigates the relevant Mn-carrier species which are responsible for widely uncontrolled transport across NB. Mn speciation in paired serum/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples was performed by size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-DRC-MS) and capillary zone electrophoresis coupled to ICP-DRC-MS in a 2D approach for clear identification. For additional species verification, electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry was used after SEC-ICP-DRC-MS (second 2D approach). The Mn species from the different sample types were interrelated and correlation coefficients were calculated. In serum protein-bound Mn species like Mn-transferrin/albumin (Mn-Tf/HSA) were dominant, which had the main influence on total Mn in serum if Mn(total) was 1,550 ng/L) or correlated to Mn-Tf/HSA (samples with serum Mn(total) < 1,550 ng/L). We conclude that elevated Mn-Cit(serum) could be a valuable marker for increased total Mn in CSF (and brain), i.e., it could be a marker for elevated risk of Mn-dependent neurological disorders such as manganism in occupational health.

  6. 20 CFR 225.32 - DRC's and the Special Minimum PIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false DRC's and the Special Minimum PIA. 225.32 Section 225.32 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PRIMARY INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS Delayed Retirement Credits § 225.32 DRC's and the Special...

  7. The GH/IGF-1 axis in a critical period early in life determines cellular DNA repair capacity by altering transcriptional regulation of DNA repair-related genes: implications for the developmental origins of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlutsky, Andrej; Valcarcel-Ares, Marta Noa; Yancey, Krysta; Podlutskaya, Viktorija; Nagykaldi, Eszter; Gautam, Tripti; Miller, Richard A; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2017-02-23

    Experimental, clinical, and epidemiological findings support the concept of developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD), suggesting that early-life hormonal influences during a sensitive period around adolescence have a powerful impact on cancer morbidity later in life. The endocrine changes that occur during puberty are highly conserved across mammalian species and include dramatic increases in circulating GH and IGF-1 levels. Importantly, patients with developmental IGF-1 deficiency due to GH insensitivity (Laron syndrome) do not develop cancer during aging. Rodents with developmental GH/IGF-1 deficiency also exhibit significantly decreased cancer incidence at old age, marked resistance to chemically induced carcinogenesis, and cellular resistance to genotoxic stressors. Early-life treatment of GH/IGF-1-deficient mice and rats with GH reverses the cancer resistance phenotype; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that developmental GH/IGF-1 status impacts cellular DNA repair mechanisms. To achieve that goal, we assessed repair of γ-irradiation-induced DNA damage (single-cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay) and basal and post-irradiation expression of DNA repair-related genes (qPCR) in primary fibroblasts derived from control rats, Lewis dwarf rats (a model of developmental GH/IGF-1 deficiency), and GH-replete dwarf rats (GH administered beginning at 5 weeks of age, for 30 days). We found that developmental GH/IGF-1 deficiency resulted in persisting increases in cellular DNA repair capacity and upregulation of several DNA repair-related genes (e.g., Gadd45a, Bbc3). Peripubertal GH treatment reversed the radiation resistance phenotype. Fibroblasts of GH/IGF-1-deficient Snell dwarf mice also exhibited improved DNA repair capacity, showing that the persisting influence of peripubertal GH/IGF-1 status is not species-dependent. Collectively, GH/IGF-1 levels during a critical period

  8. Barriers to modern contraceptive use in rural areas in DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muanda, Mbadu Fidèle; Ndongo, Gahungu Parfait; Messina, Lauren J; Bertrand, Jane T

    2017-03-03

    Recent research in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has shown that over a quarter of women have an unmet need for family planning and that modern contraceptive use is three times higher among urban than rural women. This study focuses on the reasons behind the choices of married men and women to use contraception or not. What are the barriers that have led to low levels of modern contraceptive use among women and men in DRC rural areas? The research team conducted 24 focus groups among women (non-users of any method, users of traditional methods and users of modern methods) and husbands (of non-users or users of traditional methods) in six health zones of three geographically dispersed provinces. The key barriers that emerged were poor spousal communication, sociocultural norms (especially the husband's role as primary decision-maker and the desire for a large family), fear of side-effects and a lack of knowledge. Despite these barriers, many women in the study indicated that they were open to adopting a modern family planning method in the future. These findings imply that programming must address mutual comprehension and decision-making among rural men and women alike in order to trigger positive changes in behaviour and perceptions relating to contraceptive use.

  9. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin has the capacity to repair β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, A; Tokuyama, Y; Ishizuka, T; Suzuki, Y; Marumo, K; Oshikiri, K; Ide, K; Sunaga, M; Kanatsuka, A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor could repair pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Ten subjects with type 2 diabetes who had never received DPP-4 inhibitor treatment were enrolled in the study. Just before and 3 months after twice-daily administration of vildagliptin (50 mg tablets), insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were estimated using 2-compartment model analysis of C-peptide kinetics and insulin-modified minimal model parameters, respectively. The first-phase insulin secretion (CS1) was determined as the sum of the C-peptide secretion rate (CSR) from 0 to 5 min (normal range 6.8-18.5 ng/ml/min). The whole-body insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated using a minimal model software program (normal range 2.6-7.6×10(-4)/min/μU/ml). After vildagliptin treatment, reductions in mean (± SE) HbA1c were noted (43.28±1.53 vs. 40.98±1.77 mmol/mol; p=0.019). Vildagliptin treatment increased the area under the curve for the C peptide reactivity (CPR) (AUCCPR; 26.66±5.15 vs. 33.02±6.12 ng/ml · 20 min; p=0.003) and CS1 (0.80±0.20 vs. 1.35±0.38 ng/ml/min; p=0.037) in response to an intravenous glucose load. -Vildagliptin treatment significantly increased SI (0.46±0.27 vs. 1.21±0.48×10(-4)/min/μU/ml; p=0.037). The long-term administration of vildagliptin improved CS1 and Si suggesting that this drug has the capacity to repair impairments in pancreatic β-cell function and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

  10. 20 CFR 225.35 - When a PIA used in computing a retirement annuity can be increased for DRC's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... annuity can be increased for DRC's. 225.35 Section 225.35 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD... Credits § 225.35 When a PIA used in computing a retirement annuity can be increased for DRC's. Delayed... follows: DRC's earned for month in Are added to PIA Years before the year the employee annuity begins...

  11. In normal human fibroblasts variation in DSB repair capacity cannot be ascribed to radiation-induced changes in the localisation, expression or activity of major NHEJ proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Vronskaja, Svetlana; Overgaard, Jens

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to test whether for normal human fibroblasts the variation in double-strand break (DSB) repair capacity results from radiation-induced differences in localisation, expression or activity of major non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) proteins....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were performed with 11 normal human fibroblast strains AF01-11. NHEJ proteins were determined by Western blot and DNA-PK activity by pulldown-assay. RESULTS: The four NHEJ proteins tested (Ku70, Ku80, XRCC4 and DNA-PKcs) were found to be localised almost exclusively...... in the activity of the DNA-PK complex induced upon irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: For normal human fibroblasts, the level or activity of NHEJ proteins measured prior to or after irradiation cannot be used to predict the DSB repair capacity or cellular radiosensitivity. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  12. Is the Oxidative DNA Damage Level of Human Lymphocyte Correlated with the Antioxidant Capacity of Serum or the Base Excision Repair Activity of Lymphocyte?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chih Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A random screening of human blood samples from 24 individuals of nonsmoker was conducted to examine the correlation between the oxidative DNA damage level of lymphocytes and the antioxidant capacity of serum or the base excision repair (BER activity of lymphocytes. The oxidative DNA damage level was measured with comet assay containing Fpg/Endo III cleavage, and the BER activity was estimated with a modified comet assay including nuclear extract of lymphocytes for enzymatic cleavage. Antioxidant capacity was determined with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. We found that though the endogenous DNA oxidation levels varied among the individuals, each individual level appeared to be steady for at least 1 month. Our results indicate that the oxidative DNA damage level is insignificantly or weakly correlated with antioxidant capacity or BER activity, respectively. However, lymphocytes from carriers of Helicobacter pylori (HP or Hepatitis B virus (HBV tend to give higher levels of oxidative DNA damage (P<0.05. Though sera of this group of individuals show no particular tendency with reduced antioxidant capacity, the respective BER activities of lymphocytes are lower in average (P<0.05. Thus, reduction of repair activity may be associated with the genotoxic effect of HP or HBV infection.

  13. DNA repair capacity of cultured human lymphocytes exposed to mutagens measured by the comet assay and array expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausinger, Julia; Speit, Günter

    2015-11-01

    Repair of mutagen-induced DNA lesions during transportation, storage and cultivation of lymphocytes may have a significant impact on results obtained in human biomonitoring after occupational and environmental exposure of human populations to genotoxic chemicals. Using the comet assay in combination with the repair inhibitor aphidicolin and array gene expression analysis of 92 DNA repair genes, we investigated the repair of DNA lesions induced by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and benzo[a]pyrenediolepoxide (BPDE) in phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated cultured human lymphocytes in the time segment before replication. The comet assay indicated fast repair of MMS-induced damage during the first hours of cultivation. In contrast, removal of BPDE-induced lesions was slower and significant amounts of damage seem to persist until S-phase. Gene expression analysis revealed that PHA stimulation had a clear effect on gene regulation in lymphocytes already during the first 18h of cultivation. Under the conditions of this study, genotoxic concentrations of MMS did not induce significant changes in gene expression. In contrast, exposure to BPDE led to altered expression of several genes in a time- and concentration-related manner. Of the significantly up-regulated genes, only two genes (XPA and XPC) were directly related to nucleotide excision repair. Our results suggest that PHA stimulation of human lymphocytes influences the expression of DNA repair genes in human lymphocytes. The effect of induced DNA damage on gene expression is comparatively low and depends on the mutagens used. PHA-stimulated lymphocytes repair induced DNA damage before they start to replicate but the repair activity during the first 18h of cultivation is not affected by changes in the expression of DNA repair genes during this period of time.

  14. Nontarget bird exposure to DRC-1339 during fall in North Dakota and spring in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dummer, Paul M.; Linz, George M.; Sileo, Louis; Stahl, Randal S.; Johnston, John J.; Linz, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Blackbirds frequently use ripening sunflower (Heltantbus annuus) as a food source in the northern Great Plains. In 1999 and 2000, the avicide DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride) was used experimentally on fall-ripening sunflower fields in North Dakota so researchers could evaluate its effectiveness for reducing crop depredations by blackbirds. DRC-1339 was applied to rice and broadcast on the ground in a confined area within ripening sunflower fields. One objective of this study was to determine whether nontarget birds, birds other than blackbirds, were eating rice and were exposed to the DRC-1339. In 1999, 8 of 11 (73%) sparrows collected by shotgun in sunflower fields treated with DRe-1339 had rice in their gastrointestinal (GI) tracts. In 2000, 5 mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) and 3 sparrows were collected by shotgun in sunflower fields treated with DRC-1339. Three doves had rice in their GI tracts, 4 doves and all 3 sparrows had measurable DRC1339 concentrations in their GI tracts, and 3 mourning doves and 1 savannah sparrow (Passerculus sanduncbensis) exhibited histopathological signs of kidney damage. In April 2002, untreated rice was applied to corn stubble plots in South Dakota to determine which bird species ate rice. In 2002, 3 of 3 song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) collected by shotgun had rice in their GI tracts. Our results demonstrate that the use of DRC-1339 to control blackbirds in the northern Great Plains will likely expose nontarget birds to the DRC-1339 bait.

  15. The effects of altered fractionation schedules on the survival of human cell lines differing in their proliferative activity and repair capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konefal, J.B.; Taylor, Y.C. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Plateau phase cultures of human cell lines were used as model systems to study the relative influences of proliferation and repair on the effectiveness of altered fractionation schedules. A human normal diploid fibroblast cell line (AG1522) which has a high capacity to repair potentially lethal radiation damage (PLD) and very little proliferative activity when grown to confluence was compared to human tumor cell lines which maintain significant cell-cycle activity in plateau phase. The human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080, used in the present study exhibited a much greater rate of turnover than the normal fibroblasts as determined from tritiated thymidine incorporation (5 day labeling index of 66% vs 20%) and no PLD repair, as determined by delayed plating experiments, in plateau phase. Twenty Gy were delivered to both cell lines over 5 days in 3 regimens: one 4 Gy fraction/day, two 2 Gy fractions/day with a 2 hr interval between doses, and two 2 Gy fractions/day with a 6 hr interval between doses. Although the normal fibroblasts demonstrated the greatest sparing between acute single doses and one 4 Gy fraction/day, there was little additional benefit (increased survival) from the increased dose fractionation. In contrast, the twice daily fractionation schedules resulted in significant differential sparing of the fibrosarcoma cells compared to the normal fibroblasts. With the 6 hr interval between doses, the survival advantages of the cell line with the slow turnover rate and high PLD repair capacity were completely lost. Split-dose experiments indicated slightly less sublethal damage repair in the fibrosarcoma cell line, but for both cell lines recovery was complete in 2 hr. DNA distributions were measured by flow cytometry and long term labeling index measurements performed in parallel with the multifraction radiation survival studies.

  16. Individual capacity for DNA repair and maintenance of genomic integrity: a fertile ground for studies in the field of assisted reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Vazharova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many factors may affect the chances for successful pregnancy, especially at a later age. Fertility evaluations including genetic analysis are recommended to couples that have not achieved pregnancy within 6–12 months of unprotected intercourse. This review discusses some of the common polymorphisms in genes coding for proteins functioning in DNA damage identification and repair and maintenance of genomic integrity that may affect the chances of success in natural conception as well as in assisted reproduction (AR. Common polymorphisms in genes coding for proteins functioning in DNA damage identification and repair and maintenance of genomic integrity may affect the chances of success in assisted reproduction as well as in natural conception. The effects of carriership of different alleles of key genes of DNA repair may have differential effects in men and women and at different ages, suggesting complex interactions with the mechanisms controlling cell and tissue aging and programmed cell death. Future studies in the field are needed in order to elucidate the genotype–phenotype relationships and to translate the knowledge about individual repair capacity and maintenance of genomic integrity to potential clinical applications. Abbreviations: aCGH: microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization; AR: assisted reproduction; ATM: ataxia-telangiectasia mutated; ATP: adenosine triphosphate; BER: base excision repair; BFE: basic fertility evaluation; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide; FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone; GNRHR: gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor; HMG: high-mobility group; ICSI: intracytoplasmic sperm injection; IUI: intrauterine insemination; IVF: in vitro fertilization; LH: luteinizing hormone; LIF: leukaemia inhibitory factor; MTR: methionine synthase; MTRR: methionine synthase reductase; NGS: next-generation sequencing; NER: nucleotide excision repair; NHEJ: non-homologous end joining; PAH: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; PCOS

  17. Accurate quantification of total chromium and its speciation form Cr(VI) in water by ICP-DRC-IDMS and HPLC/ICP-DRC-IDMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markiewicz, Barbara; Komorowicz, Izabela; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2016-05-15

    Two analytical procedures have been developed for the determination of total chromium (TCr) and its highly toxic species, i.e. Cr(VI) in water samples using the following methods: inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-IDMS) and high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell isotope dilution mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-DRC-IDMS). Spectral interferences, predominantly occurring in chromium determination, were removed using a dynamic reaction cell (DRC). The presented procedures facilitate the quantification of trace amounts - below 1 µg L(-1) of TCr and individual Cr species - in various water matrices including drinking water and still bottled water with different mineral composition. Special attention has been paid to the adequate preparation of isotopically enriched (53)Cr(VI) standard solution in order to avoid artifacts in chromium speciation. Both procedures were fully validated as well as establishing the traceability and estimation of the uncertainty of measurement were carried out. Application of all of the above mentioned elements and of the isotope dilution technique, which provides the highest quality of metrological traceability, allowed to obtain reliable and high quality results of chromium determination in water samples. Additionally, the comparison of two methods: HPLC/ICP-DRC-MS and HPLC/ICP-DRC-IDMS for Cr(VI) determination, was submitted basing on the validation parameters. As a result, the lower values for these parameters were obtained using the second method.

  18. Characterisation of Human Keratinocytes by Measuring Cellular Repair Capacity of UVB-Induced DNA Damage and Monitoring of Cytogenetic Changes in Melanoma Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greinert, R.; Breibart, E.W.; Mitchell, D.; Smida, J.; Volkmer, B

    2000-07-01

    The molecular mechanisms for UV-induced photocarcinogenesis are far from being understood in detail, especially in the case of malignant melanoma of the skin. Nevertheless, it is known that deficiencies in cellular repair processes of UV-induced DNA damage (e.g. in the case of Xeroderma pigmentosum) represent important aetiological factors in the multistep development of skin cancer. The repair kinetics have therefore been studied of an established skin cell line (HaCaT), primary human keratinocytes, melanocytes and melanoma cell lines, using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Our data show a high degree of interindividual variability in cellular repair capacity for UV-induced DNA lesions, which might be due to individual differences in the degree of tolerable damage and/or the onsets of saturation of the enzymatic repair system. The cytogenetic analysis of melanoma cell lines, using spectral karyotyping (SKY) furthermore proves that malignant melanoma of the skin are characterised by high numbers of chromosomal aberrations. (author)

  19. Inguinal hernia surgery in developing countries: should laparoscopic repairs be performed ?

    OpenAIRE

    Nsadi, Berthier; Detry, Olivier; Arung, Willy

    2017-01-01

    In conclusion, from our own experience of laparoscopic surgery in DRC, we strongly believe that there is no reason to develop inguinal laparoscopic repair in developing countries. Laparoscopic repairs are more expensive and more difficult to perform and to learn. The next step of abdominal wall repairs in the developing world should focus on teaching the surgeons to use either commercial or low-cost mosquito meshes in open repairs and assessing the results of these procedures in such challeng...

  20. Nontarget Bird Exposure to DRC-1339 During Fall in North Dakota and Spring in South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Blackbirds frequently use ripening sunflower (Helianthus annuus) as a food source in the northern Great Plains. In 1999 and 2000, the avicide DRC-1339...

  1. Monitoring of Leuconostoc mesenteroides DRC starter in fermented vegetable by random integration of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hyun-Ju; Park, Joong Min; Seo, Min Jae; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Han, Nam Soo

    2008-09-01

    In 2004, Leuconostoc mesenteroides DRC was first used as a starter culture for achieving higher organoleptic effects in Korean kimchi manufacture. For a better understanding of starter growth in a mixed culture system, and for predicting starter predominance in kimchi, a monitoring system for the starter was established. The chloramphenicol resistance marker gene (cat) was randomly integrated into chromosomal DNA of L. mesenteroides DRC using a viral transposon and transposase. The DRC mutant, tDRC2, had a similar growth pattern to the host strain, with no major alteration in phenotypic characteristics. The mutant strain was inoculated into real kimchi, and monitoring of the starter population was successfully achieved. The overall predominance of Leuconostoc in kimchi inoculated with DRC followed the general growth pattern of this genus during kimchi fermentation. Our results also demonstrate the competitive ability of the DRC starter against Leuconostoc from natural flora, maintaining its predominance above 88% during the whole fermentation period. Based on this experiment, the random gene integration method using a transposon was shown to be of utility in transferring any commercial starter into a selectable and monitorable strain for simulation purposes.

  2. 肝细胞癌与DNA修复能力关系%Association between hepatocellular carcinoma and DNA repair capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小云; 黄金梅; 余红平; 仇小强; 韦劲松

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨DNA修复能力(DRC)与肝细胞癌(HCC)的关联性.方法 运用彗星试验,检测150例新发HCC患者(病例组)和150例非肿瘤患者(对照组)的DNA修复能力.结果 博莱霉素(BLM)暴露前,病例组彗星尾长和尾矩分别为(3.98 ±2.35)和(1,41±0.85),对照组尾长和尾矩分别为(3.60±2.04)和(1.24±0.66),2组尾长和尾矩差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);BLM暴露后经15 min修复,病例组尾长和尾矩分别为(6.60±3.11)和(2.59±1.56),对照组尾长和尾矩分别为(4.69±2.44)和(1.58±0.96),2组尾长和尾矩差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);用尾长作为检测指标计算DRC时,2组DRC中位数分别为78.65%和93.81%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);用尾矩作为检测指标计算DRC时,2组DRC中位数分别为77.78%和93.11%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 DNA修复能力低下可能是HCC发生的高危因素之一,可作为预警人群中HCC发病的生物标志物.

  3. Barriers to Modern Contraceptive Use in Kinshasa, DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muanda, Mbadu; Gahungu Ndongo, Parfait; Taub, Leah D; Bertrand, Jane T

    2016-01-01

    Recent research from Kinshasa, DRC, has shown that only one in five married women uses modern contraception; over one quarter have an unmet need for family planning; and almost 400 health facilities across Kinshasa report that they provide modern contraception. This study addresses the question: with reasonable physical access and relatively high unmet need, why is modern contraceptive prevalence so low? To this end, the research team conducted 6 focus groups of women (non-users of any method, users of traditional methods, and users of modern methods) and 4 of husbands (of users of traditional methods and in non-user unions) in health zones with relatively strong physical access to FP services. Five key barriers emerged from the focus group discussions: fear of side effects (especially sterility), costs of the method, sociocultural norms (especially the dominant position of the male in family decision-making), pressure from family members to avoid modern contraception, and lack of information/misinformation. These findings are very similar to those from 12 other studies of sociocultural barriers to family planning in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, they have strong programmatic implications for the training of FP workers to counsel future clients and for the content of behavior change communication interventions.

  4. Repair capacity of adult rat glial progenitor cells determined by an in vitro clonogenic assay after in vitro or in vivo fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Kleiboer, B.J.; Verhagen, I.; Kogel, A.J. van der (Nijmegen Univ. (Netherlands). Inst. of Radiotherapy)

    1993-05-01

    Demyelination is one condition identified as a late response of the central nervous system (CNS) to irradiation. In the present study the repair capacity of glial stem cells was investigated and compared with the repair capacity of the CNS in vivo using functional endpoints. For this purpose, glial stem cells, derived from the adult rat optic nerve, were subjected to fractionated irradiation in vivo and in vitro and their survival was quantified with an in vitro clonogenic assay. The data were analysed by three different methods all based on the LQ-model (single dose survival curve; '[beta][sub RR]', 'F[sub e]-plot'). The resulting value of the [beta]-parameter of adult glial stem cells is consistent with values obtained for functional endpoints after irradiation of the CNS in vivo. The [alpha]/[beta]-ratio (4.9-7.3 Gy) of adult glial stem cells, however, is higher than the [alpha]/[beta]-ratio ([approx] 2 Gy) obtained for CNS in vivo and is closer to that of an acute responding tissue. (Author).

  5. Discussion on improving the production capacity of coal mine repair factory%浅谈如何提高煤矿机修厂生产能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于忠涛

    2016-01-01

    在国有大中型煤矿中,为了节约外委维修资金和维修时间,保障机电设备的完好率和开工率,大都配备有一个专门修复设备和加工零部件的小型机加工厂,一般称之为机修厂。本文通过对影响煤矿机修厂生产的因素进行分析,提出了一些提高生产能力的办法。%In the large and medium-sized state-owned coal mines, in order to save outsourcing maintenance funds and maintenance time, ensure electromechanical equipment intact rate and utilization rate, are equipped with a special repair equipment and processing parts of the small processing plants, commonly known as jixiuan. Based on the factors affecting the production of coal mine machinery repair are analyzed, and puts forward some measures to improve the production capacity.

  6. The N-DRC forms a conserved biochemical complex that maintains outer doublet alignment and limits microtubule sliding in motile axonemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Raqual; Tritschler, Douglas; Vanderwaal, Kristyn; Perrone, Catherine A; Mueller, Joshua; Fox, Laura; Sale, Winfield S; Porter, M E

    2013-04-01

    The nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) is proposed to coordinate dynein arm activity and interconnect doublet microtubules. Here we identify a conserved region in DRC4 critical for assembly of the N-DRC into the axoneme. At least 10 subunits associate with DRC4 to form a discrete complex distinct from other axonemal substructures. Transformation of drc4 mutants with epitope-tagged DRC4 rescues the motility defects and restores assembly of missing DRC subunits and associated inner-arm dyneins. Four new DRC subunits contain calcium-signaling motifs and/or AAA domains and are nearly ubiquitous in species with motile cilia. However, drc mutants are motile and maintain the 9 + 2 organization of the axoneme. To evaluate the function of the N-DRC, we analyzed ATP-induced reactivation of isolated axonemes. Rather than the reactivated bending observed with wild-type axonemes, ATP addition to drc-mutant axonemes resulted in splaying of doublets in the distal region, followed by oscillatory bending between pairs of doublets. Thus the N-DRC provides some but not all of the resistance to microtubule sliding and helps to maintain optimal alignment of doublets for productive flagellar motility. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms that regulate motility and further highlight the importance of the proximal region of the axoneme in generating flagellar bending.

  7. On the who-rule in Dual Resource Constrained (DRC) manufacturing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, J.A.C.; Slomp, J.; Gaalman, G.J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The who-rule is a labour allocation rule used in labour and machine-limited dual resource constrained (DRC) systems. A who-rule selects one worker out of several workers to be transferred to a work centre. By means of a practical instance, the paper shows that the who-rule plays a role in the daily

  8. Performance comparison of virtual cellular manufacturing with functional and cellular layouts in DRC settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suresh, N.; Slomp, J.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of virtual cellular manufacturing (VCM) systems, comparing them with functional layouts (FL) and traditional, physical cellular layout (CL), in a dual-resource-constrained (DRC) system context. VCM systems employ logical cells, retaining the process layouts of

  9. Sexual violence in the protracted conflict of DRC programming for rape survivors in South Kivu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz K Peter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite international acknowledgement of the linkages between sexual violence and conflict, reliable data on its prevalence, the circumstances, characteristics of perpetrators, and physical or mental health impacts is rare. Among the conflicts that have been associated with widespread sexual violence has been the one in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. Methods From 2003 till to date Malteser International has run a medico-social support programme for rape survivors in South Kivu province, DRC. In the context of this programme, a host of data was collected. We present these data and discuss the findings within the frame of available literature. Results Malteser International registered 20,517 female rape survivors in the three year period 2005–2007. Women of all ages have been targeted by sexual violence and only few of those – and many of them only after several years – sought medical care and psychological help. Sexual violence in the DRC frequently led to social, especially familial, exclusion. Members of military and paramilitary groups were identified as the main perpetrators of sexual violence. Conclusion We have documented that in the DRC conflict sexual violence has been – and continues to be – highly prevalent in a wide area in the East of the country. Humanitarian programming in this field is challenging due to the multiple needs of rape survivors. The easily accessible, integrated medical and psycho-social care that the programme offered apparently responded to the needs of many rape survivors in this area.

  10. Agricultural Production and Trade Structure Profile in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.- P. E. Lubanda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The African region represents the weak point of the world economy. Many African countries have still not finished the process of transforming their economy. Agriculture represents only a minor portion of their economies’ performance – however it is still a key sector of the economy (especially considering the number of people working in agriculture or people representing the agricultural population. The agricultural sector in many sub-Saharan countries is extremely sensitive and its stability affects the stability of the whole region. A very good example representing sub-Saharan Africa is the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. It is a country with a lot of potential, but it is classified among the poorest countries in the world. Its economy is extremely weak (despite its significant share in total GDP formation value, and underdeveloped. The share of agriculture in total GDP formation is over 42.5%. The number of people living in rural areas represents over 45 million out of a total of 75 million. The number of people working in agriculture is over 60% of the total economically active population. The economy of the country is extremely poor and fragile, mainly because of political instability. The aim of this paper is firstly to specify the position of agriculture in the DRC economy, and also to specify the production and trade commodity structure in relation to other African countries. The paper’s ambition is to identify the most perspective commodities (groups of commodities, both for production and also for trade, and to recommend such a production and trade profile which would allow the DRC the possibility of improving its competitiveness - not only in relation to other African countries, but also in relation to the global market. The production and trade commodity structures are analysed through the application of the BCG method and competitiveness analysis. In relation to these objectives, the paper provides the following conclusions

  11. DNA Repair Gene Polymorphisms in Relation to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Su

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the DNA repair genes are suspected to be related to the survival of lung cancer patients due to their possible influence on DNA repair capacity (DRC. However, the study results are inconsistent. Methods: A follow-up study of 610 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients was conducted to investigate genetic polymorphisms associated with the DNA repair genes in relation to NSCLC survival; 6 SNPs were genotyped, including XRCC1 (rs25487 G>A, hOGG1 (rs1052133 C>G, MUTYH (rs3219489 G>C, XPA (rs1800975 G>A, ERCC2 (rs1799793 G>A and XRCC3 (rs861539 C>T. Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed. SNP-SNP interaction was also examined using the survival tree analysis. Results: Advanced disease stage and older age at diagnosis were associated with poor prognosis of NSCLC. Patients with the variant ‘G' allele of hOGG1 rs1052133 had poor overall survival compared with those with the homozygous wild ‘CC' genotype, especially in female patients, adenocarcinoma histology, early stage, light smokers and without family history of cancer. For never smoking female lung cancer patients, individuals carrying homozygous variant ‘AA' genotype of XPA had shorter survival time compared to those with wild ‘G' alleles. Furthermore, females carrying homozygous variant XPA and hOGG1 genotypes simultaneously had 2.78-fold increased risk for death. Among all 6 polymorphisms, the homozygous variant ‘AA' of XPA carriers had poor prognosis compared to the carriers of wild ‘G' alleles of XPA together with other base excision repair (BER polymorphisms. Conclusions: Besides disease stage and age, the study found DNA repair gene polymorphisms were associated with lung cancer survival.

  12. DRC-BK分类器的规则筛选算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔克彬; 李战怀; 张阳

    2004-01-01

    有效的规则筛选算法有助于提高分类器的性能和效率.目前,DRC-BK分类器中,仅考虑到规则的权重对分类分析的贡献,却忽略了规则本身的分布对分类的贡献.本文提出了带权重的规则筛选算法,该算法同时考虑了规则的权重和规则的分布.实验结果表明,DRC-BK分类器采用该算法后,规则集的大小可以明显地减少,而分类性能有所提高,且能有效地消除了噪声.

  13. Humanitarian presence and urban development: new opportunities and contrasts in Goma, DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büscher, Karen; Vlassenroot, Koen

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines the impact of the presence of international humanitarian organisations on local urban transformation processes in the city of Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Rather than evaluating the direct effects of humanitarian interventions and strategies, it focuses on the indirect but profound effects of the presence of this 'humanitarian sector'. It argues that the international humanitarian presence became a significant factor in the recent shaping and reshaping of the city's profile and has reinforced competition over the urban political and socioeconomic space. The paper evaluates the direct and indirect impact of the international humanitarian presence on the local urban economy and the larger political economy of war in eastern DRC. It analyses how this presence has reinforced processes of spatial reconfiguration, how it has influenced urban planning, and how it has affected dynamics of gentrification and marginalisation on the urban spatial level.

  14. DRC-ACM:Accurate Analytical Center Machine for Classification%DRC-ACM:一种精确的基于解析中心的分类器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾凡仔; 岳建海; 裘正定

    2004-01-01

    ACM是一种基于版本空间(version space)解析中心的分类器,它具有较好的泛化性能.但是由于冗余约束的存在,使得ACM分类器的解偏离主版本空间(prime version space)解析中心,从而降低了分类器的泛化性能,同时冗余约束还将降低分类器的分类速度和存储效率.针对上述问题,提出了一种冗余约束增量约简算法,同时将增量约简算法与ACM分类器的算法结合起来,形成了一种去冗余约束的精确的ACM分类器(DRC-ACM).通过对Heart,Thyroid,Banana数据集的实验,证明DRC-ACM分类器是有效的.

  15. HIV-positive man from DRC deemed a "person in need of protection".

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    In an in camera hearing on 9 July 2008, the Refugee Protection Division of the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, accepted that the manner in which the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) dealt with the HIV epidemic in its country posed a "risk to life" to an HIV-positive man from that country who was applying for asylum in Canada.

  16. Computational modelling of phonological dyslexia: how does the DRC model fare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Lyndsey; Biedermann, Britta; Coltheart, Max; Saunders, Steve; Tree, Jeremy J

    2008-03-01

    This paper investigates the patterns of reading impairment in phonological dyslexia using computational modelling with the dual-route cascaded model of reading (DRC, Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001). Systematic lesioning of nonlexical and phonological processes in DRC demonstrates that different lesions and severity of those lesions can reproduce features of phonological dyslexia including impaired reading of nonwords, relatively spared reading of words, an advantage for reading pseudohomophones. Using the same stimuli for model and for patients, lesions to DRC were also used to simulate the reading accuracy shown by three individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia. No single lesion could replicate the reading performance of all three individuals. In order to simulate reading accuracy for one individual a phonological impairment was necessary (addition of noise to the phoneme units), and for the remaining two individuals an impairment to nonlexical reading procedures (increasing the time interval between each new letter being processed) was necessary. We argue that no single locus of impairment (neither phonological nor nonlexical) can account for the reading impairments of all individuals with phonological dyslexia. Instead, different individuals have different impairments (and combinations of impairments) that together provide the spectrum of patterns found in phonological dyslexia.

  17. SAR For REDD+ in the Mai Ndombe District (DRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarpaintner, Jorg

    2016-08-01

    The overall goal of the project "SAR for REDD" is to provide cloud-penetrating satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) pre-processing and analysing capabilities and tools to support operational tropical forest monitoring in REDD countries and primarily in Africa. The project's end-user is the Observatoir Satellitale des Forêts d'Afrique Centrale (OSFAC).This paper presents an overall summary of the project and shows first results of the satellite products, that will be delivered to the user in addition to software tools to enhance the user's own technical capacity.The products shown here are SAR mosaics and derived forest-land cover maps based on C-band Sentinel-1A data for 2015, ALOS-PALSAR data for the period 2007-2010 and ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 for 2015. In addition, a forest cover change map from 2007 to 2010 based on ALOS PALSAR has been produced and is compared to results from the Global Forest Cover project [1].

  18. 低水平1,3-丁二烯职业接触人群遗传损伤及其对 DNA 修复能力影响研究%Study on genetic damage and DNA repair capacity among workers exposed to low level of 1,3-butadiene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠生; 刘楠; 关维俊; 孟会林; 崔涛; 李斌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between DNA repair capacity ( DRC) and genetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to low level of 1,3-butadiene (BD).Methods With a cross-sectional study, 60 workers from a petrochemical enterprise who were exposed to BD were selected as the exposure group , and 1∶1 matched by age and length of service , 60 non-occupational BD exposure workers in the same enterprise were chosen as the control group.BD level in workplace air was measured by direct injection-gas chromatography determination method .Cytokinesis-block micronucleus ( MN) detection and alkaline comet assay were used to evaluate chromosomal and DNA damage levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the two groups .DRC for bleomycin ( BLM)-induced DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured by sensitivity test of the mutagenic agent BLM .Results The short time expose concentration of BD in the air of workplace of the exposure group was 0.59-2.76(1.80 ±0.20) mg/m3 , and BD was not detected in the air of workplace of the control group.The rates of MN, nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB), nuclear buds (NB) and Olive tail moment ( OTM ) of peripheral blood lymphocyte in the exposure group were higher than those in the control group respectively [(1.81 ±0.96)‰ vs (1.02 ±0.68)‰, 1.00‰(0.00-3.00)‰ vs 0.00‰(0.00-1.00)‰, 3.00‰(1.00-5.00)‰ vs 1.00‰(0.00-3.00)‰, 5.25(3.96-5.73) μm vs 2.38(1.35-3.88) μm, P 0.05).Among the exposure group, there was statistical moderate positive correlation between the b /c rate ofperipheral blood lymphocyte and the rates of MN , NPB and NB respectively (rS were 0.730, 0.515 and 0.660, P 0.05).Conclusion Low levels of BD occupational exposure may lead to the genetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers ,which may have some relevance with the DRC.%目的:探讨职业性低水平接触1,3-丁二烯(BD)所致周围血淋巴细胞遗传损伤与DNA修复能力的相关性。方法

  19. [Literature review on human influenza epidemics occurred before the implementation plan for sentinel surveillance program in the DRC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwembe-Ngabana, Edith; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Kebela-Ilunga, Benoit; Londa, Emile Okitolo; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), several influenza epidemics are ignored because they are confused with other infectious diseases which have similar symptoms. Our study aims to assess influenza epidemics occurred in the DRC before 2008, year of the implementation of the influenza surveillance program in the DRC. We searched all the documents [articles, report,…] about influenza epidemic or acute respiratory infections [ARI] in the DRC before 2008 by using chosen key words. Epidemic description elements were identified and analyzed in each report. 4 documents have been found that had no article published. The sites of the epidemic outbreak were the rural health zones in Koshibanda and Kahemba, Bandundu [1995 and 2007], in Bosobolo, Equator [2002] and in Kinshasa [2002-2003]. Attack and lethality rates were 3.9% and 16% in Koshibanda respectively; 0.1% and 2% in Kinshasa; 47.5% and 1.5% in Bosobolo and 14.6% and 2.9% in Kahemba. Children less than 5 years of age were the most affected. Their attack rates ranged between 22.6 and 57.7% and lethality rates ranged between 3.2 and 3.7%. The two epidemics in Bosobolo and Kinshasa were associated with H3N2 influenza virus. This literature review highlights a high morbidity and mortality due to rare influenza epidemics in the DRC.

  20. Effect of environmental factors and cell physiological state on Pulsed Electric Fields resistance and repair capacity of various strains of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somolinos, M; García, D; Mañas, P; Condón, S; Pagán, R

    2008-06-10

    The aim was to determine the resistance variation of four strains of Escherichia coli to Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF), the role of the sigma factor RpoS in PEF resistance, as well as the influence of several environmental factors and the cell physiological state on the PEF resistance and repair capacity. The rpoS null mutant, E. coli BJ4L1, exhibited decreased PEF resistance as compared with its wild-type parent, BJ4. W3110 and O157:H7 were the most PEF-resistant strains: whereas 2 and more than 3 Log10 cycles of BJ4 and BJ4L1 cells, respectively, were inactivated after 50 pulses at 35 kV/cm, only 0.5 Log10 cycle of inactivation of W3110 and O157:H7 was attained. A different pattern was observed and the resistance variation among strains was largely reduced, when selective recovery media were used. At exponential growth phase, the resistance of the four strains was lower, and more than 4 Log10 cycles of inactivation of all strains tested were attained at 30 kV/cm. Previous heat and cold shock treatments scarcely influenced cell PEF resistance. PEF survival increased with the reduction in water activity of the treatment medium to 0.94: the occurrence of sublethally injured cells was negligible, and less than 1 Log10 cycle of inactivation was attained at 35 kV/cm. PEF-treated cells were sensitive to a subsequent storage at pH 4.0 or in the presence of sorbic acid, attaining a final inactivation of 4-5 Log10 cycles after 24 hour-incubation. In conclusion, the work confirms the role of rpoS in PEF resistance. E. coli strains exhibit large differences in PEF resistance. These differences were less important when cells were recovered under selective conditions. Both resistance variation among strains and occurrence of sublethal damage were noticeably influenced by the environmental factors tested.

  1. Onchocerciasis control in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): challenges in a post-war environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makenga Bof, J-C; Maketa, V; Bakajika, D K; Ntumba, F; Mpunga, D; Murdoch, M E; Hopkins, A; Noma, M M; Zouré, H; Tekle, A H; Katabarwa, M N; Lutumba, P

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate onchocerciasis control activities in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in the first 12 years of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI). Data from the National Programme for Onchocerciasis (NPO) provided by the National Onchocerciasis Task Force (NOTF) through the annual reports of the 21 CDTI projects for the years 2001-2012 were reviewed retrospectively. A hypothetical-inputs-process-outputs-outcomes table was constructed. Community-directed treatment with ivermectin expanded from 1968 communities in 2001 to 39 100 communities by 2012 while the number of community-directed distributors (CDD) and health workers (HW) multiplied. By 2012, there were ratios of 1 CDD per 262 persons and 1 HW per 2318 persons at risk. More than 80% of the funding came from the fiduciary funds of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. The cost of treatment per person treated fell from US$ 1.1 in 2001 to US$ 0.1 in 2012. The therapeutic coverage increased from 2.7% (2001) to 74.2% (2012); the geographical coverage, from 4.7% (2001) to 93.9% (2012). Geographical coverage fell in 2005 due to deaths in loiasis co-endemic areas, and the therapeutic coverage fell in 2008 due to insecurity. Challenges to CDTI in DRC have been serious adverse reactions to ivermectin in loiasis co-endemic areas and political conflict. Targets for personnel or therapeutic and geographical coverages were not met. Longer term funding and renewed efforts are required to achieve control and elimination of onchocerciasis in DRC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. IncucyteDRC: An R package for the dose response analysis of live cell imaging data

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Chapman; Dominic I. James; Amanda J. Watson; Hopkins, Gemma V.; Waddell, Ian D.; Ogilvie, Donald J.

    2016-01-01

    We present IncucyteDRC, an R package for the analysis of data from live cell imaging cell proliferation experiments carried out on the Essen Biosciences IncuCyte ZOOM instrument. The package provides a simple workflow for summarising data into a form that can be used to calculate dose response curves and EC50 values for small molecule inhibitors. Data from different cell lines, or cell lines grown under different conditions, can be normalised as to their doubling time. A simple graphical web ...

  3. Could blackbird mortality from avicide DRC-1339 contribute to avian botulism outbreaks in North Dakota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D.R.; Samuel, M.D.; Rocke, T.E.; Johnson, K.M.; Linz, G.

    2004-01-01

    Blackbird (family lcteridae) depredation on sunflower (Helianthus annuus) crops in the prairie states of the United States has motivated the proposed use of an avicide, DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline), to decrease their numbers. The resulting mortality of blackbirds at wetland roosts could increase the potential of avian botulism occurring in affected marshes. To assess this possibility, we seeded (artificially placed) blackbird carcasses in selected wetlands in Stutsman County, North Dakota, during August-September 2000 and July-September 2001 to evaluate their rate of decomposition and role in initiating avian botulism outbreaks. We monitored carcasses to determine their persistence, the frequency and amount of maggots produced, and the presence of type C botulinum toxin. In 10 of our 12 study wetlands, blackbird carcasses were not rapidly removed by scavengers, thus providing substrate for maggot growth and potential production of Clostridium botulinum toxin. Decomposition of carcasses occurred rapidly, and maggot production averaged 4a??5 g per carcass within 9 days. We were unable to detect C. botulinum type C toxin in any of the 377 blackbird carcasses or the 112 samples of maggots we collected in 2000 or 2001. None of the 25 blackbird carcasses we tested contained botulinum spores, the most probable explanation for the absence of botulinum toxin production. Our results indicate that the likelihood of DRC-1339-poisoned blackbirds causing botulism outbreaks would be minimal in North Dakota wetlands during late summer and early autumn.

  4. Navigating obstacles, opportunities and reforms: women’s lives and livelihoods in artisanal mining communities in eastern DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bashwira Nyenyezi, Marie Rose

    2017-01-01

    For more than two decades, the exploitation and trade of minerals has fuelled armed conflict and fostered a climate of insecurity that has led to the deaths of thousands of people in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (Katanga, Ituri, Maniema, North and South Kivu). This has been seen as

  5. Barriers to immunization coverage in DRC: An analysis of the GAVI-Alliance cash-based support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ferrinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Although many countries have improved their vaccination coverage in recent years, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC remains with unsatisfactory levels. Aims: The objective of this study is to document the relative importance of the factors that have influenced the immunization coverage in DRC and to understand the extent to which cash support to the DRC by the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI addresses these issues. Materials and Methods: Data were collected using a modified Delphi and by the analysis of grants and annual progress reports submitted to GAVI. Results and Conclusions: The GAVI health systems strengthening (HSS proposal is quite strategic. Therefore it should be complementary to other GAVI grants received by the DRC. This is not always so because the different GAVI windows [immunisation services strengthening (ISS, new and underused vaccines, HSS, and civil society support] do not overlap geographically and in the calendar. This is further aggravated by the narrow time horizon of all grants. Apparently, not enough thinking was done at the outset about how the GAVI HSS proposal was going to be implemented. Hence, the acknowledgement by the Delphi panelists that the major barrier to the effectuation of the GAVI HSS grants was in their implementation. The Delphi panel was silent about HR issues but the importance of these issues is captured in the 2006 GAVI HSS grant application. Significant delay in the implementation of the HSS proposal is associated with the lack of a reliable financial management system. GAVI HSS has been catalytic in uniting key stakeholders in the health sector around the HSS strategy, including the DRC government itself.

  6. Possession of bed nets in Haut-Katanga (DRC): prevalence-elastic behaviour or performance of health care system delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seban, Juliette; Thuilliez, Josselin; Herbreteau, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    This article provides an empirical multi-disciplinary strategy that enables to identify prevalence-elastic behaviours influencing the possession of mosquito nets and to assess the relative performance of health centers in promoting the possession of nets in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We use a household survey conducted in 2009 in Haut Katanga, DRC. We combine these data with estimates on malaria prevalence from the Malaria Atlas project. Results show that households behave rationally with respect to the disease, meaning that the cause for a low possession of nets should be found elsewhere. They also show that health centers are not the most effective in promoting possession of bed nets, in areas where they are most needed for malaria control.

  7. Dissociation dynamics of asymmetric alkynyl(aryl)iodonium radicals: an ab initio DRC approach to predict the surface functionalization selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanesi, Claudio; Bortolotti, Carlo Augusto; Vanossi, Davide; Marcaccio, Massimo

    2011-10-27

    The dissociation process of neutral open-shell [4-F-(C(6)H(4))-I-C≡C-(CH(2))(4)-Cl] and [4-NO(2)-(C(6)H(4))-I-C≡C-(CH(2))(4)-Cl] asymmetric iodonium radicals was studied theoretically. Vertical electron affinities and DRC (dynamic reaction coordinate) results were obtained and compared with experimental evidence. In particular, the fluorine and nitro substituent groups were selected because of (i) their opposite electron-withdrawing/electron-donating effects and (ii) experimental evidence that the grafting ability, in terms of alkynyl/aryl grafting ratio, increases with decreasing electron-withdrawing nature of the para-position substituent on the phenyl ring. DRC results show that the dissociation dynamics of the iodine-alkynyl carbon bond, for the nitro-substituted iodonium, occurs on a longer time scale than that of the fluorine-substituted iodonium. This finding is in agreement with the overall experimental results.

  8. A cooperative control strategy of resistance spot welding process by combining the constant current control with the DRC method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guizhong; Wang Changzheng; Kong Meng; Guo Caiguang

    2009-01-01

    The modeling control method based on the dynamic resistance characteristics of good nuggets, that is the DRC method, is an improvement on the dynamic resistance threshold method for the quality control of resistance spot welding. But there is still a control blind area in the initial four cycles. For this reason, the quality of every weld nugget could not be fully ensured. Thus a new fuzzy cooperative control method is put forward. It uses a multi-information time-control mechanism by combining the constant current control technology with the DRC method in a relay way. This whole-process control strategy has led to a good control effect and produced the dual-identicul results in the weld nugget quality and the welding time.

  9. DRC bus operation cycle optimization corresponding to passenger demand characters%考虑乘客需求特性的DRC公交运行周期优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    考虑乘客需求特征,构建了单车双周期运行模式下DRC运行周期的优化方法.首先刻画乘客需求特征,然后根据出行分布的不均匀性、乘客取消预订等构建乘客出行成本函数,并与运营商成本叠加形成总成本函数,以系统总成本最小为目标构建运行周期优化模型,并基于遗传算法设计求解算法.通过多组仿真试验表明,DRC最佳运行周期随接送乘客比例和取消预订乘客比例变化;取消预订乘客数越多,则周期越长;当乘客数一定时,运行周期越长,则总成本越大.%The optimization method of the running cycle is studied according to the charac-ters of passenger demand when the single-bus and double-cycle mode is adopted by DRC bus.Firstly,passenger demand characters are described by the six dimension array.Second-ly,the passenger utility function is rebuilt considering the uneven distribution of passengers and the cancel reservation and so on,and then the passenger and operator total cost function is built.The optimization model of the running cycle is set up where the passenger departure time window requirement,vehicle capacity,etc.are all considered as conditions while the minimum total cost is the target.The genetic algorithm is devised to obtain the best period. A set of experiment are carried out.From these experiments,the best DRC operating cycle changes with the proportion of passengers and cancellation of booking passengers,the more passengers cancel the reservations,the longer the cycle length.And under the same passen-ger number,the longer the total operating cycle length,the greater the total cost.

  10. DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) Using Human-Machine Teamwork to Perform Disaster Response with a Humanoid Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Virtual Robotics Challenge (VRC), Trials, and Finals), as well as an extended research phase. It gives an overview of their general workflow for...four phases of IHMC’s participation in the DARPA Robotics Challenge: Phase 1, Virtual Robotics Challenge; Phase 2, Trials; Phase 3, Finals; and Phase...VRC, and the DRC Trials. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Robotics, Mobility, Platform Dexterity, Supervised Autonomy, Wireless, Ground 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

  11. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): does geographic location matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Nzita Kikhela PD; Emina Jacques BO; Madungu Tumwaka P; Kandala Ngianga-Bakwin; Cappuccio Francesco P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. Methods We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-ad...

  12. Determination of chromium in whole blood by DRC-ICP-MS: spectral and non-spectral interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, C; Menudier, A; Moesch, C; Lachâtre, G; Mermet, J-M

    2005-09-01

    Quantification of chromium in whole blood has been performed by ICP-quadrupole MS. The spectrometer was equipped with a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) with ammonia as reaction gas. The rejection parameter q (RPq) of the DRC and the flow rate of ammonia (NH3) were optimized and set at 0.7 and 0.6 mL min(-1), respectively. Blood was diluted 1:51 (v/v) with an aqueous solution containing 0.1 mg L(-1) NH4OH, 0.1 g L(-1) EDTA, 5 mg L(-1) n-butanol, and 0.1 per thousand Triton X100. Non-spectral matrix effects observed when using the DRC were confirmed by use of vanadium. External calibration with blank and standard solutions prepared in purified water led to biased results for quality control samples. Standard addition calibration was therefore used and its validity verified. By comparing the slopes and calculating residues, it was proved that the plot obtained with standard additions and the plot obtained from blood samples of different concentrations were aligned down to 0.05 microg L(-1) after dilution.

  13. Determination of chromium in whole blood by DRC-ICP-MS: spectral and non-spectral interferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnefoy, C.; Menudier, A.; Moesch, C.; Lachatre, G. [Hopital Univ. Dupuytren, Department of Pharmacology Toxicology, Limoges (France); Mermet, J.M. [Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Laboratory of Analytical Sciences, Villeurbanne (France)

    2005-09-01

    Quantification of chromium in whole blood has been performed by ICP-quadrupole MS. The spectrometer was equipped with a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) with ammonia as reaction gas. The rejection parameter q (RPq) of the DRC and the flow rate of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) were optimized and set at 0.7 and 0.6 mL min{sup -1}, respectively. Blood was diluted 1:51 (v/v) with an aqueous solution containing 0.1 mg L{sup -1} NH{sub 4}OH, 0.1 g L{sup -1} EDTA, 5 mg L{sup -1} n-butanol, and 0.1 permille Triton X100. Non-spectral matrix effects observed when using the DRC were confirmed by use of vanadium. External calibration with blank and standard solutions prepared in purified water led to biased results for quality control samples. Standard addition calibration was therefore used and its validity verified. By comparing the slopes and calculating residues, it was proved that the plot obtained with standard additions and the plot obtained from blood samples of different concentrations were aligned down to 0.05 {mu}g L{sup -1} after dilution. (orig.)

  14. Whores, men, and other misfits: undoing ‘feminization’ in the armed forces in the DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaz, Maria Eriksson; Stern, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The global attention focused on sexual violence in the DRC has not only contributed to an image of the Congolese army as a vestige of pre-modern barbarism, populated by rapists, and bearing no resemblance to the world of modern armies; it has also shaped gender and defence reform initiatives. These initiatives have become synonymous with combating sexual violence, reflecting an assumption that the gendered dynamics of the army are already known. Crucial questions such as the ‘feminization’ of the armed forces are consequently neglected. Based on in-depth interviews with soldiers in the Congolese armed forces, this article analyses the discursive strategies male soldiers employ in relation to the feminization of the army. In the light of the need to reform the military and military masculinities, the article discusses how globalized discourses and practices render the Congolese military a highly globalized sphere. It also highlights the particular and local ways in which military identities are produced through gender, and concludes that a simple inclusion of women in the armed forces in order to render men less violent might not have the pacifying effect intended.

  15. Dimensions and correlates of negative attitudes toward female survivors of sexual violence in Eastern DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study described in this article is to examine the dimensions and correlates of attitudes toward survivors of sexual violence (SV) in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Four dimensions of attitudes were identified: victim responsibility, victim denigration, victim credibility, and deservingness. Gender roles attitudes represented the most significant correlate of attitudes toward survivors in this population. Other significant correlates of overall attitudes toward survivors included current employment, province of residence, knowledge about the SV law, awareness about where to go for information on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), and the perceived prevalence of SV in own community. There are differences and communalities in the variables associated with the various dimensions of attitudes. For example, sex of the respondent and discussion of SGBV with others were only significantly associated with the tendency to ascribe responsibility to the victim. The findings indicate that changing negative gender norms should be central to efforts aimed at promoting accepting attitudes toward survivors. Furthermore, addressing the various dimensions of attitudes toward survivors may require different strategies.

  16. Control of konzo in DRC using the wetting method on cassava flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banea, J P; Nahimana, G; Mandombi, C; Bradbury, J Howard; Denton, Ian C; Kuwa, N

    2012-05-01

    Fifty konzo cases were identified in four villages in Popokabaka Health Zone, DRC. One third of people had only one meal per day, mainly of cassava flour consumed as a thick porridge (fufu) and pounded, boiled cassava leaves. Retention of cyanogens in flour resulted from short soaking of cassava roots. A 1.5 years intervention was made in the largest village Kay Kalenge, where the wetting method was taught to all women of the village, who accepted it willingly. The total cyanide content of cassava flour was reduced to below 10 ppm. Fufu from treated flour tasted and stored better than fufu from untreated flour. The mean urinary thiocyanate content of 100 school children reduced from 332 to 130 μmole/L and the number of samples exceeding 350 μmole/L decreased from 26 to 0 during the intervention. No new konzo cases occurred, which included two dry seasons when konzo peaks. Konzo was first identified by Dr. Trolli in 1938 in Popokabaka Health Zone and it has now been prevented for the first time in the same area. The methodology is now in use in Boko Health Zone and we believe it is the most effective way to control konzo in tropical Africa.

  17. Tendon repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of tendon ... Tendon repair can be performed using: Local anesthesia (the immediate area of the surgery is pain-free) ... a cut on the skin over the injured tendon. The damaged or torn ends of the tendon ...

  18. The start-up phase of the national satellite forest monitoring systems for DRC and PNG: a joint venture between FAO and INPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, I. G.; FAO UN-REDD Team Forestry Department

    2011-12-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. "REDD+" goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. In the framework of getting countries ready for REDD+, the UN-REDD Programme, a partnership between UNEP, FAO and UNDP, assists developing countries to prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies. Designed collaboratively by a broad range of stakeholders, national UN-REDD Programmes are informed by the technical expertise of FAO, UNDP and UNEP. For the monitoring, reporting and verification, FAO supports the countries to develop satellite forest monitoring systems that allow for credible measurement, reporting and verification (MRV)of REDD+ activities. These are among the most critical elements for the successful implementation of any REDD+ mechanism, also following the COP 16 decisions in Cancun last year. The UN-REDD Programme through a joint effort of FAO and Brazil's National Space Agency, INPE, is supporting countries to develop cost-effective, robust and compatible national monitoring and MRV systems, providing tools, methodologies, training and knowledge sharing that help countries to strengthen their technical and institutional capacity for effective MRV systems. To develop strong nationally-owned forest monitoring systems, technical and institutional capacity building is key. The UN-REDD Programme, through FAO, has taken on intensive training together with INPE, and has provided technical help and assistance for in-country training and implementation for national satellite forest monitoring. The goal of the start-up phase for DRC and Papua New Guinea (PNG) in this capacity building effort is the

  19. [Infectious markers among blood donors in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batina, A; Kabemba, S; Malengela, R

    2007-01-01

    In sub-saharian Africa, two factors account for the difficulties encountered to reach optimal blood safety: high frequency in the general population of various infections of which some are transmissible by blood transfusion and a still insufficient proportion of voluntary donors which constitute the safest group. The Kisangani transfusion center in DRC does not escape from this rule since in addition to voluntary blood donors (29.2%), its blood supply is mainly assured by family (or replacement) donors (69.2%). Persistence of a few remunerated donors (1.6%) was also noted at the period of the study. In this study, we determined seroprevalence of HIV, HBV and of syphilis infections in these three categories of donors and defined their characteristics by a retrospective analysis carried out on 3.390 subjects between January 2003 to December 2004. It revealed that 4.7% of the donors were positive for HIV, 5.4% for HBV and 3.7% for syphilis. There were significant differences according to studied groups : voluntary blood donors (n=989; HIV+ = 2.2%; VHB+ =3%; syphilis+ = 1.1%), family donors (n = 2.345; HIV+ = 4.6%; HBV+ = 4.9%; syphilis+ = 3.6%) and remunerated donors (n=56; HIV=50%; HBV+ = 64.3%; syphilis+ = 53.6%). These results indicate that it is necessary to intensify promotion of voluntary donation by a policy of information and education and to abolish practice of remunerated donation. Within the limits of possible, family donation should be gradually discouraged.

  20. Bladder exstrophy repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladder birth defect repair; Everted bladder repair; Exposed bladder repair; Repair of bladder exstrophy ... Bladder exstrophy repair involves two surgeries. The first surgery is to repair the bladder and the second one is to attach ...

  1. Application of a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) ICP-MS in chromium and iron determinations in rock, soil and terrestrial water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yasumasa; Yamasaki, Shin-ichi; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Despite environmental and geochemical interests, Cr and Fe have been left beyond the reach of determinations by ICP-MS due to severe interferences originating from Ar. The applicability of a dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS has been examined for determinations in environmental and geochemical samples. The reaction with NH(3) in the DRC system provides an eligible technique to determine Cr, because of a greater improvement in the signal/noise (S/N) ratio due to an effective elimination of interferences arising from Ar (ArC, ArN and ArO), and makes it possible to analyze Cr even at sub-microg L(-1) levels. As compared to non-DRC mode analyses, the DRC technique using m/z 56 appeared to be preferable for Fe determination in most terrestrial waters because of effective suppression of (40)Ar(16)O(+). In addition, the effects of cluster ions, such as (39)K(14)N(1)H(3)(+) and (40)Ca(14)N(1)H(2)(+), on Fe determination were also negligibly small. Measurements using (54)Fe by the DRC mode are also advantageous for Ca-rich samples, such as limestone and dolomite.

  2. Family Planning Supply Environment in Kinshasa, DRC: Survey Findings and Their Value in Advancing Family Planning Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayembe, Patrick; Babazadeh, Saleh; Dikamba, Nelly; Akilimali, Pierre; Hernandez, Julie; Binanga, Arsene; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern contraceptive prevalence was 14.1% in 2007 in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Yet virtually nothing was known about the family planning supply environment. Methods: Three surveys of health facilities were conducted in 2012, 2013, and 2014 to determine the number, spatial distribution, and attributes of sites providing family planning services. The 2012 and 2013 surveys aimed to identify the universe of family planning facilities while obtaining a limited set of data on “readiness” to provide family planning services (defined as having at least 3 modern methods, at least 1 person training in family planning in the last 3 years, and an information system to track distribution of products to clients) and output (measured by couple-years of protection, or CYP). In contrast, the 2014 survey, conducted under the umbrella of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) project, was based on 2-stage cluster sampling. This article provides detailed analysis of the 2012 and 2013 surveys, including bivariate and multivariate analysis of correlates of readiness to provide services and of output. Results: We identified 184 health facilities that reported providing at least 1 contraceptive method in 2012 and 395 facilities in 2013. The percentage of sites defined as “ready” to provide services increased from 44.1% in 2012 to 63.3% in 2013. For the 3-month period between January and March 2013, facilities distributed between 0 and 879.2 CYP (mean, 39.7). Nearly half (49%) of the CYP was attributable to implants, followed by IUDs (24%), CycleBeads (11%), and injectables (8%). In 2013, facilities supported by PEPFAR (n = 121) were more likely than other facilities to be rated as ready to provide services (Pplanning implementing agencies (Pplanning in the DRC in many ways, including mobilizing partners to increase contraceptive access and increasing donor investment in family planning in the DRC

  3. Determination of seven arsenic compounds in urine by HPLC-ICP-DRC-MS: a CDC population biomonitoring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Carl P; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Fresquez, Mark R; Jones, Robert L

    2009-02-01

    A robust analytical method has been developed and validated by use of high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with Dynamic Reaction Cell (DRC) technology that separates seven arsenic (As) species in human urine: arsenobetaine (AB), arsenocholine, trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), arsenate (As(V)), arsenite (As(III)), monomethylarsonate, and dimethylarsinate. A polymeric anion-exchange (Hamilton PRP X-100) column was used for separation of the species that were detected at m/z 75 by ICP-DRC-MS (PerkinElmer SCIEX ELAN DRCII) using 10% hydrogen-90% argon as the DRC gas. The internal standard (As) is added postcolumn via an external injector with a sample loop. All analyte peaks were baseline-separated except AB and TMAO. Analytical method limits of detection for the various species ranged from 0.4 to 1.7 microg L(-1) as elemental As. As(III) conversion to As(V) was avoided by adjusting the urine sample to

  4. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC: does geographic location matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nzita Kikhela PD

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. Methods We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures. Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors. Results Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location. Conclusion Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in

  5. Malnutrition among children under the age of five in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): does geographic location matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Madungu, Tumwaka P; Emina, Jacques B O; Nzita, Kikhela P D; Cappuccio, Francesco P

    2011-04-25

    Although there are inequalities in child health and survival in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the influence of distal determinants such as geographic location on children's nutritional status is still unclear. We investigate the impact of geographic location on child nutritional status by mapping the residual net effect of malnutrition while accounting for important risk factors. We examine spatial variation in under-five malnutrition with flexible geo-additive semi-parametric mixed model while simultaneously controlling for spatial dependence and possibly nonlinear effects of covariates within a simultaneous, coherent regression framework based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. Individual data records were constructed for children. Each record represents a child and consists of nutritional status information and a list of covariates. For the 8,992 children born within the last five years before the survey, 3,663 children have information on anthropometric measures.Our novel empirical approach is able to flexibly determine to what extent the substantial spatial pattern of malnutrition is driven by detectable factors such as socioeconomic factors and can be attributable to unmeasured factors such as conflicts, political, environmental and cultural factors. Although childhood malnutrition was more pronounced in all provinces of the DRC, after accounting for the location's effects, geographic differences were significant: malnutrition was significantly higher in rural areas compared to urban centres and this difference persisted after multiple adjustments. The findings suggest that models of nutritional intervention must be carefully specified with regard to residential location. Childhood malnutrition is spatially structured and rates remain very high in the provinces that rely on the mining industry and comparable to the level seen in Eastern provinces under conflicts. Even in provinces such as Bas-Congo that produce foods, childhood malnutrition is

  6. 基于GPU的VLSI的DRC加速系统%DRC Accelerated System of VLSI Based on GPU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池凤彬; 潘日华; 陈扉; 赵冬晖

    2007-01-01

    在超大规模集成电路(VLSI)设计流程中,设计规则检查(DRC)是关键一环.多年来,设计人员为DRC设计了许多硬件加速的方法,但是都局限于成本等诸多原因而不能得到推广.因此提出了基于GPU平台的DRC方法,大幅提高了DRC效率.

  7. Fragile DNA Repair Mechanism Reduces Ageing in Multicellular Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Juul, Jeppe Søgaard; Trusina, Ala

    2012-01-01

    DNA damages, as well as mutations, increase with age. It is believed that these result from increased genotoxic stress and decreased capacity for DNA repair. The two causes are not independent, DNA damage can, for example, through mutations, compromise the capacity for DNA repair, which in turn...... to DNA damage can undergo full repair, go apoptotic, or accumulate mutations thus reducing DNA repair capacity. Our model predicts that at the tissue level repair rate does not continuously decline with age, but instead has a characteristic extended period of high and non-declining DNA repair capacity...... of compromised cells, thus freeing the space for healthy peers. This finding might be a first step toward understanding why a mutation in single DNA repair protein (e.g. Wrn or Blm) is not buffered by other repair proteins and therefore, leads to severe ageing disorders...

  8. Reduction of acid effects on trace element determination in food samples by CH4 mixed plasma-DRC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Hu, Shenghong; Zhang, Jiangyi; Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Yanxin

    2012-03-15

    A robust method for trace element determination in food samples by addition of methane to the plasma of a dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometer (CH(4) mixed plasma-DRC-MS) was developed. Addition of 3 mL min(-1) methane to Ar-plasma eliminates the signal suppressions of various elements (As, Se, Hg, etc.) due to the high concentration of nitric acid (10%, v/v). The CH(4)-Ar mixed plasma may compensate for the plasma cooling effects due to the highly concentrated nitric acid. The interfering polyatomic ions (40)Ar(12)C(+), (40)Ar(35)Cl(+) and (40)Ar(40)Ar(+) on (52)Cr(+), (75)As(+) and (80)Se(+) determination were removed effectively using the DRC with CH(4) as the reaction gas. The limits of quantification (LOQ, 10σ) were 0.35 ng g(-1), 0.07 ng g(-1), 0.35 ng g(-1), 0.07 ng g(-1), 0.15 ng g(-1), and 0.07 ng g(-1) for As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Se, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of these trace elements in four food standard reference materials (NIST1577b, GBW10018, NIST1570a and GBW10016), and the results were in good agreement with the certified values.

  9. HIV type 1 pol gene diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, N; Mulanga, C; Bazepeo, S Edidi; Mwamba, J Kasali; Tshimpaka, J; Kashi, M; Mama, N; Valéa, D; Delaporte, E; Lepira, F; Peeters, M

    2006-02-01

    To study recombination and the natural polymorphism in pol of HIV-1 strains in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) we sequenced the protease and RT genes for 70 HIV-1 strains previously characterized in the env V3-V5 region from a sentinel surveillance study in 2002. For 41 of the 70 (58.6%) strains, the same subtype/ CRF designations were observed in pol and env. Twenty-three (32.9%) of 70 pol sequences were complex recombinants involving two to five subtypes as well as fragments that could not be classified into any of the known subtypes. All subtypes were involved in recombination events. Unclassified (U) and env subtype H strains were very likely to be recombinant strains. Overall, many minor mutations were identified in the protease sequences. Although at the time of our study ARV use was not yet widespread in DRC, three strains were identified with one major mutation associated with drug resistance: L90M and M46L in protease and K103N in RT.

  10. Directed reflectivity, long life AMTEC condenser (DRC). Final report of Phase II SBIR program[Alkali Metal ThermoElectric Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Thomas K.

    2001-09-10

    The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) is a static energy conversion device that operates at high thermal to electric conversion efficiencies that are essentially independent of size, have reached 19% and are expected to reach 25% to 30% in 1997. AMTEC systems have been chosen by NASA and DOE for spacecraft applications and have considerable promise for a wide variety of terrestrial applications. Reduction of parasitic heat losses in AMTEC systems related to radiative heat transfer from the hot side to the condenser can make a substantial contribution to system efficiency. Through design, analysis and the fabrication and testing of cells and systems, the proposed program to develop a Directed Reflectivity Condenser (DRC) has investigated the feasibility of an improved AMTEC condenser component. Phase 1 work showed the potential for adding from 4% to 7% to overall system efficiency for identical operating conditions using the concept. A detailed thermal analysis of several DRC capped cell designs was carried out and some of the conditions under which a DRC, used as the condenser at an end cap of a cylindrical converter, can reduce thermal radiation related losses were determined. A model experimental converter was built and tested to compare DRC and planar condenser surfaces. The results of both analysis and experiment indicate that for moderate aspect ratios of a cylindrical, end condensed converter, the DRC can reduce overall thermal losses by up to 4%. The initial effort in Phase 2 extended the analysis to a novel 150 watt radial AMTEC cell design. This analysis indicated that for the effective aspect ratio of this new converter design, the system performance at the 100+ watt level was not significantly improved by use of a DRC type condenser surface. Further analyses however showed that for cylindrical, end-condensed converters, optimized for use with internal radiation shields, the use of DRC surfaces on the side walls of the converter could be

  11. Hypospadias repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem. If the repair is not done, problems may occur later on such as: Difficulty controlling and directing urine stream A curve in the penis during erection Decreased fertility Embarrassment about appearance of penis Surgery ...

  12. Heterogenite vs asbolane: a mineralogical study of cobalt oxides from the DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlet, Christian; Vanbrabant, Yves; Decree, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    The largest cobalt ore reserves are located in DRC, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Most of cobalt is observed as black cobaltic oxide minerals: heterogenite [HCoO2] and asbolane [(Ni,Co)2-xMn(O,OH)4.nH2O] which are hardly differentiable since they exhibit similar macroscopic habit and textures. These minerals are frequently observed in similar environment (oxidized horizon of ore deposits) and they are commonly poorly-crystallized limiting their study with XRD. Their chemical composition is also not very well-constrained since they exhibit significant chemical substitutions with cations as Cu, Co, Ni, Mn. Our observations on a set of heterogenite and asbolane samples from DRC combined with samples from other localities shows that each phase, even under an amorphous form, can be readily distinguished by Raman microspectrometry. This technique is therefore attractive during ore deposit characterization campaigns or during the follow-up extraction operations where it is important to distinguish the main constituting Co-phase(s). The main advantage of this technique is its speed since no sample preparation is required during the collection Raman spectra that usually last few tens of seconds. The method provides information at a μm-scale and several points are thus required to fully characterize ore batches composed of different mineralogical phases. Our petrographical observations show also that asbolane and heterogenite mineralogical phases can coexist at a μm-scale as two distinct phases into 'heterogenite' ore. The distinction between heterogenite and asbolane from our sample set can also be conducted on a chemical base showing that heterogenite represents the richer Co-phase with variable Cu concentrations. By contrast, only Mn traces are usually observed in heterogenite minerals from DRC except in few samples, but always in lower concentration than in asbolane. The latter shows variable Mn/(Mn+Co) ratio between 0.85 and 0.3 and the decrease of this value is

  13. Min(d)ing the land: The relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining and surface land arrangements in the southern Philippines, eastern DRC and Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.; Cuvelier, J.; Bockstael, S. van

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and surface land tenure arrangements, through a comparison of mining areas in the southern Philippines, the eastern DRC and Liberia. In all three cases, ASM takes place in peripheral regions outside central state c

  14. The Lived Experience of Human Rights and Labour Violations in Select Artisanal Mining Sites in North and South Kivu of the Eastern DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Radley (Ben); D Rothenberg

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report presents the findings of a documentary project on the lives of miners and others working in the artisanal mining industry in select sites in North Kivu and South Kivu in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This work is part of a larger projec

  15. The limits of corporate social responsibility and the possibilities for harnessing mining to reinstitute processes of state-led local development in the DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Radley (Ben)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractParallel with the increasing liberalisation of the Congolese economy since the turn of the century has been the increasing delegation of previously state-held functions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to corporate actors, and in particular transnational mining corporations

  16. Min(d)ing the land: The relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining and surface land arrangements in the southern Philippines, eastern DRC and Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.; Cuvelier, J.; Bockstael, S. van

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and surface land tenure arrangements, through a comparison of mining areas in the southern Philippines, the eastern DRC and Liberia. In all three cases, ASM takes place in peripheral regions outside central state c

  17. Characterization of an old complex circulating recombinant form, CRF27_cpx, originating from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and circulating in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Nicole; Frange, Pierre; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Mulanga, Claire; Lepira, François; Bazepeo, Samuel Edidi; Goujard, Cecile; Meyer, Laurence; Rouzioux, Christine; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2008-02-01

    Full-length genomes were characterized for two samples, 02CD-LBR024 from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and 04FR-CD-KZS from France, that formed a separate subcluster with a previously characterized env subtype E isolate from DRC with a recombinant structure different from CRF01-AE. Since the three viruses are clearly epidemiologically unlinked and share the same complex recombinant structure, they represent a circulating recombinant form, designated as CRF27-cpx. The recombination pattern involves six different HIV-1 subtypes (A, E, G, H, J, and K) and a small unclassified fragment. The genetic distances are relatively high, indicating that CRF27-cpx evolved over a long time. Their prevalence is low (0.75%) and remained stable over time in the DRC. The existence of the 04FR.CD.KZS virus, in a patient who recently seroconverted in France, confirmed that these strains now circulate outside the DRC. Continuous monitoring of HIV-1 strains thus remains important to allow early identification of the introduction of new variants.

  18. Reduced repair capacity of a DNA clustered damage site comprised of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine and 2-deoxyribonolactone results in an increased mutagenic potential of these lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunniffe, Siobhan [CRUK-MRC Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); O’Neill, Peter, E-mail: peter.oneill@oncology.ox.ac.uk [CRUK-MRC Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Greenberg, Marc M. [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Chemistry, 3400 N. Charles St. , Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lomax, Martine E. [CRUK-MRC Gray Institute for Radiation Oncology and Biology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • A dL lesion is not repaired as effectively as an AP site. • The repair of a cluster with dL and 8-oxodGuo lesions is compromised. • Delayed repair of the cluster leads to an increase in mutation frequency. - Abstract: A signature of ionizing radiation is the induction of DNA clustered damaged sites. Non-double strand break (DSB) clustered damage has been shown to compromise the base excision repair pathway, extending the lifetimes of the lesions within the cluster, compared to isolated lesions. This increases the likelihood the lesions persist to replication and thus increasing the mutagenic potential of the lesions within the cluster. Lesions formed by ionizing radiation include 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL). dL poses an additional challenge to the cell as it is not repaired by the short-patch base excision repair pathway. Here we show recalcitrant dL repair is reflected in mutations observed when DNA containing it and a proximal 8-oxodGuo is replicated in Escherichia coli. 8-oxodGuo in close proximity to dL on the opposing DNA strand results in an enhanced frequency of mutation of the lesions within the cluster and a 20 base sequence flanking the clustered damage site in an E. coli based plasmid assay. In vitro repair of a dL lesion is reduced when compared to the repair of an abasic (AP) site and a tetrahydrofuran (THF), and this is due mainly to a reduction in the activity of polymerase β, leading to retarded FEN1 and ligase 1 activities. This study has given insights in to the biological effects of clusters containing dL.

  19. Femoral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femorocele repair; Herniorrhaphy; Hernioplasty - femoral ... During surgery to repair the hernia, the bulging tissue is pushed back in. The weakened area is sewn closed or strengthened. This repair ...

  20. Undescended testicle repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchidopexy; Inguinal orchidopexy; Orchiopexy; Repair of undescended testicle; Cryptorchidism repair ... first year of life without treatment. Undescended testicle repair surgery is recommended for patients whose testicles do ...

  1. 33 CFR 158.240 - Ship repair yards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship repair yards. 158.240... Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.240 Ship repair yards. The reception facility that services oceangoing ships using a ship repair yard must have a capacity for receiving— (a) An amount of ballast from bunker...

  2. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of volvulus; Intestinal volvulus - repair; Bowel obstruction - repair ... Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia . This means you are asleep and DO NOT feel pain. ...

  3. Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular

    Science.gov (United States)

    EVAR; Endovascular aneurysm repair - aorta; AAA repair - endovascular; Repair - aortic aneurysm - endovascular ... Endovascular aortic repair is done because your aneurysm is very large, growing quickly, or is leaking or bleeding. You may have ...

  4. Analysis of whole human blood for Pb, Cd, Hg, Se, and Mn by ICP-DRC-MS for biomonitoring and acute exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deanna R; Jarrett, Jeffery M; Tevis, Denise S; Franklin, Melanie; Mullinix, Neva J; Wallon, Kristen L; Derrick Quarles, C; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    We improved our inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) whole blood method [1] for determination of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) by including manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se), and expanding the calibration range of all analytes. The method is validated on a PerkinElmer (PE) ELAN® DRC II ICP-MS (ICP-DRC-MS) and uses the Dynamic Reaction Cell (DRC) technology to attenuate interfering background ion signals via ion-molecule reactions. Methane gas (CH4) eliminates background signal from (40)Ar2(+) to permit determination of (80)Se(+), and oxygen gas (O2) eliminates several polyatomic interferences (e.g. (40)Ar(15)N(+), (54)Fe(1)H(+)) on (55)Mn(+). Hg sensitivity in DRC mode is a factor of two higher than vented mode when measured under the same DRC conditions as Mn due to collisional focusing of the ion beam. To compensate for the expanded method's longer analysis time (due to DRC mode pause delays), we implemented an SC4-FAST autosampler (ESI Scientific, Omaha, NE), which vacuum loads the sample onto a loop, to keep the sample-to-sample measurement time to less than 5min, allowing for preparation and analysis of 60 samples in an 8-h work shift. The longer analysis time also resulted in faster breakdown of the hydrocarbon oil in the interface roughing pump. The replacement of the standard roughing pump with a pump using a fluorinated lubricant, Fomblin®, extended the time between pump maintenance. We optimized the diluent and rinse solution components to reduce carryover from high concentration samples and prevent the formation of precipitates. We performed a robust calculation to determine the following limits of detection (LOD) in whole blood: 0.07µgdL(-1) for Pb, 0.10µgL(-1) for Cd, 0.28μgL(-1) for Hg, 0.99µgL(-1) for Mn, and 24.5µgL(-1) for Se.

  5. Motorcycle Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  6. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  7. In situ localization of N and C termini of subunits of the flagellar nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC) using SNAP tag and cryo-electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kangkang; Awata, Junya; Tritschler, Douglas; Bower, Raqual; Witman, George B; Porter, Mary E; Nicastro, Daniela

    2015-02-27

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) has reached nanoscale resolution for in situ three-dimensional imaging of macromolecular complexes and organelles. Yet its current resolution is not sufficient to precisely localize or identify most proteins in situ; for example, the location and arrangement of components of the nexin-dynein regulatory complex (N-DRC), a key regulator of ciliary/flagellar motility that is conserved from algae to humans, have remained elusive despite many cryo-ET studies of cilia and flagella. Here, we developed an in situ localization method that combines cryo-ET/subtomogram averaging with the clonable SNAP tag, a widely used cell biological probe to visualize fusion proteins by fluorescence microscopy. Using this hybrid approach, we precisely determined the locations of the N and C termini of DRC3 and the C terminus of DRC4 within the three-dimensional structure of the N-DRC in Chlamydomonas flagella. Our data demonstrate that fusion of SNAP with target proteins allowed for protein localization with high efficiency and fidelity using SNAP-linked gold nanoparticles, without disrupting the native assembly, structure, or function of the flagella. After cryo-ET and subtomogram averaging, we localized DRC3 to the L1 projection of the nexin linker, which interacts directly with a dynein motor, whereas DRC4 was observed to stretch along the N-DRC base plate to the nexin linker. Application of the technique developed here to the N-DRC revealed new insights into the organization and regulatory mechanism of this complex, and provides a valuable tool for the structural dissection of macromolecular complexes in situ.

  8. 基于Neo4j的面向体系架构(DOA)的数据注册中心(DRC)的实现%Realization of DRC Based on Data Oriented Architecture of Neo4j

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗放; 向清松; 杨文晖

    2016-01-01

    为解决大数据时代下数据急剧增长带来的信息孤岛、系统扩展难及数据管理过度复杂等现象,采用面向数据体系架构(BOA)的思想和相关技术,结合Neo4j,设计了基于图形数据库的具有分布式、高效率、扩展性强的数据注册中心(DRC)方案,并搭建了实验平台.采用分布式图形数据库的注册方案已得到初步验证,与传统的数据注册方案相比,能够提高系统的运行效率,增强系统的扩展性,同时,简化了数据管理.

  9. Modelling strategic interventions in a population with a total fertility rate of 8.3: a cross-sectional study of Idjwi Island, DRC

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson Dana R; Hadley Michael B; Greenough P; Castro Marcia C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Idjwi, an island of approximately 220,000 people, is located in eastern DRC and functions semi-autonomously under the governance of two kings (mwamis). At more than 8 live births per woman, Idjwi has one of the highest total fertility rates (TFRs) in the world. Rapid population growth has led to widespread environmental degradation and food insecurity. Meanwhile family planning services are largely unavailable. Methods At the invitation of local leaders, we conducted a rep...

  10. Modelling strategic interventions in a population with a total fertility rate of 8.3: a cross-sectional study of Idjwi Island, DRC

    OpenAIRE

    Dana R Thomson; Hadley, Michael B; Greenough, P Gregg; Castro, Marcia C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Idjwi, an island of approximately 220,000 people, is located in eastern DRC and functions semi-autonomously under the governance of two kings (mwamis). At more than 8 live births per woman, Idjwi has one of the highest total fertility rates (TFRs) in the world. Rapid population growth has led to widespread environmental degradation and food insecurity. Meanwhile family planning services are largely unavailable.\\ud \\ud Methods: At the invitation of local leaders, we conducted a rep...

  11. Evaluation of the radioinduced damage, repair capacity and cell death on human tumorigenic (T-47D and MCF-7) and nontumorigenic (MCF-10) cell lines of breast; Avaliacao do dano radioinduzido, capacidade de reparo e morte celular em celulas humanas tumorais (T-47D e MCF-7) e nao tumorais (MCF-10) de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdoge, Flavia Gomes Silva

    2008-07-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies that account women, representing about one in three of all female neoplasm. Approximately, 90% of cases are considered sporadic, attributed to somatic events and about 10% have a family history and this only 4 - 5 % is due to hereditary factors. In the clinic, ionizing radiation is a major tool utilized in the control of tumour growth, besides surgery and chemotherapy. There is, however, little information concerning cellular response to the action of ionizing radiation in the target cells, i.e., cell lines originating from breast cancer. The present study proposed to analyze the radiosensitivity of the human tumorigenic (T-47D and MCF-7) and non tumorigenic (MCF-10) cell lines, originating from breast and submitted to various doses (0.5 to 30 Gy) of {sup 60}Co rays (0.72 - 1.50 Gy/min). For this purpose, DNA radioinduced damage, repair capacity and cell death were utilized as parameters of radiosensitivity by micronucleus, single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) and cell viability techniques. The data obtained showed that tumorigenic cell lines were more radiosensitive than non tumorigenic breast cells in all assays here utilized. The T-47D cell line was presenting the highest amount of radioinduced damage, a more accelerated proliferation rate and a higher rate of cell death. The three cell lines presented a relatively efficient repair capacity, since one hour after the irradiation all of them showed a considerable reduction of radioinduced damage. The techniques employed showed to be secure, sensitive and reproducible, allowing to quantify and evaluate DNA damage, repair capacity and cell death in the three human breast cell lines. (author)

  12. Use of ion-molecule reactions and methanol addition to improve arsenic determination in high chlorine food samples by DRC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Hu, Shenghong; Li, Xiaofang; Zhao, Jian; Jin, Shesheng; Liu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Hongfei

    2011-05-15

    Direct determination of trace arsenic in high chlorine food samples by ICP-MS is complicated by the presence of ArCl(+) interferences, and the high first ionization energy of As (9.81 eV) also results in low analytical sensitivity in ICP-MS. In this work, two strategies based on ion-molecule reactions were successfully used to eliminate ArCl spectral interference in a dynamic reaction cell (DRC). The interference ion ((40)Ar(35)Cl(+)) was directly removed by the reaction with methane gas, and the background signal was reduced by up to 100-fold at m/z 75. Alternatively, by using molecule oxygen as the reaction gas, (75)As(+) was effectively converted to (75)As(16)O(+) that could be detected at m/z 91 where the background is low. The poor signal intensity of As or AsO was improved 3-4 times by addition of 4% methanol in the analyzed solutions. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for (75)As (CH(4)-DRC method) and (75)As(16)O (O(2)-DRC method) was 0.8 and 0.3 ng g(-1) and the analytical results of seaweed and yellow croaker standard reference materials were in good agreement with the certified values. As the routine arsenic monitoring method in our laboratory, it was applied to the accuracy determination of 119 high chlorine food samples from eight different markets of Beijing.

  13. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  14. Association of genetic polymorphism of the DNA base excision repair gene (APE-1 Asp/148 Glu) and HPV type (16/18) with the risk of cervix cancer in north Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekari, Mohammad; Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Tamandani, Dor Mohammad Kordi; Malekzadeh, Keyanoosh; Kaur, Pushpinder; Suri, Vanita

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common neoplastic diseases affecting women, with a combined world wide incidence of almost half a million new cases. Reduced DNA repair capacity (DRC) can render a high risk of developing many types of cancer; including cervical cancer. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may contribute the genetic instability and carcinogenesis. Smoking experience and use of oral contraceptives have been confirmed to be risk factors for cervical cancer. The purpose of the present study was, therefore to investigate APE-1 genotypes (Asp/Asp, Asp/Glu, Glu/Glu) with different histological subtypes in cases compared with controls. It has been observed that Asp/Glu with Glu/Glu genotypes that combined we observed statistically significant with protective effect for developing of cervix cancer (OR-0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.83, p-0.006). The combined Asp/Glu with Glu/Glu genotypes who were using oral contraceptives were shown to be statistically significant with reduced risk of cervical cancer (OR-0.22 95% CI- 0.11-0.47, p-0.0002). It has been suggested that significantly correlation between HPV 16 and users of oral contraceptives in certain APE-1 genotypes with reduced risk in developing cervix cancer. In conclusion we observed statistical significant association with reduced risk of cervix cancer in APE-1 with different genotypes, though, on the other hand, in association between HPV type 18 and those having SCC, highly increased risk of cervical cancer was observed.

  15. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore......, this paper presents methods to analyze station capacity. Four methods to analyze station capacity are developed. The first method is an adapted UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyze switch zones and platform tracks at stations that are not too complex. The second method examines the need...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  16. Research on complex networks' repairing characteristics due to cascading failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoqi, Fu; Ying, Wang; Xiaoyang, Wang

    2017-09-01

    In reality, most of the topological structures of complex networks are not ideal. Considering the restrictions from all aspects, we cannot timely adjust and improve network defects. Once complex networks collapse under cascading failure, an appropriate repair strategy must be implemented. This repair process is divided into 3 kinds of situations. Based on different types of opening times, we presented 2 repair modes, and researched 4 kinds of repair strategies. Results showed that network efficiency recovered faster when the repair strategies were arranged in descending order by parameters under the immediate opening condition. However, the risk of secondary failure and additional expansion capacity were large. On the contrary, when repair strategies were in ascending order, the demand for additional capacity caused by secondary failure was greatly saved, but the recovery of network efficiency was relatively slow. Compared to immediate opening, delayed opening alleviated the contradiction between network efficiency and additional expansion capacity, particularly to reduce the risk of secondary failure. Therefore, different repair methods have different repair characteristics. This paper investigates the impact of cascading effects on the network repair process, and by presenting a detailed description of the status of each repaired node, helps us understand the advantages and disadvantages of different repair strategies.

  17. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  18. Ventral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007661.htm Ventral hernia repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ventral hernia repair is surgery to repair a ventral hernia. ...

  19. Brain aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  20. Speciated isotope dilution analysis of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in water by ICP-DRC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H-L; Tanner, P A

    2008-10-19

    An isotope dilution method has been developed for the speciation analysis of chromium in natural waters which accounts for species interconversions without the requirement of a separation instrument connected to the mass spectrometer. The method involves (i) in-situ spiking of the sample with isotopically enriched chromium species; (ii) separation of chromium species by precipitation with iron hydroxide; (iii) careful measurement of isotope ratios using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) with a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) to remove isobaric polyatomic interferences. The method detection limits are 0.4 microg L(-1) for Cr(III) and 0.04 microg L(-1) for Cr(VI). The method is demonstrated for the speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in local nullah and synthetically spiked water samples. The percentage of conversion from Cr(III) to Cr(VI) increased from 5.9% to 9.3% with increase of the concentration of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) from 1 to 100 microg L(-1), while the reverse conversion from Cr(VI) to Cr(III) was observed within a range between 0.9% and 1.9%. The equilibrium constant for the conversion was found to be independent of the initial concentrations of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) and in the range of 1.0 (at pH 3) to 1.8 (at pH 10). The precision of the method is better than that of the DPC method for Cr(VI) analysis, with the added bonuses of freedom from interferences and simultaneous Cr(III) determination.

  1. Measurement of mercury species in human blood using triple spike isotope dilution with SPME-GC-ICP-DRC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Yuliya L; Verdon, Carl P; Fresquez, Mark R; Ward, Cynthia D; Wood, Elliott B; Pan, Yi; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Jones, Robert L

    2014-08-01

    The measurement of different mercury compounds in human blood can provide valuable information about the type of mercury exposure. To this end, our laboratory developed a biomonitoring method for the quantification of inorganic (iHg), methyl (MeHg), and ethyl (EtHg) mercury in whole blood using a triple-spike isotope dilution (TSID) quantification method employing capillary gas chromatography (GC) and inductively coupled dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS). We used a robotic CombiPAL(®) sample handling station featuring twin fiber-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) injector heads. The use of two SPME fibers significantly reduces sample analysis cycle times making this method very suitable for high sample throughput, which is a requirement for large public health biomonitoring studies. Our sample preparation procedure involved solubilization of blood samples with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) followed by the derivatization with sodium tetra(n-propyl)borate (NaBPr(4)) to promote volatility of mercury species. We thoroughly investigated mercury species stability in the blood matrix during the course of sample treatment and analysis. The method accuracy for quantifying iHg, MeHg, and EtHg was validated using NIST standard reference materials (SRM 955c level 3) and the Centre de Toxicologie du Québec (CTQ) proficiency testing (PT) samples. The limit of detection (LOD) for iHg, MeHg, and EtHg in human blood was determined to be 0.27, 0.12, and 0.16 μg/L, respectively.

  2. Stable and fluctuating social preferences and implications for cooperation among female bonobos at LuiKotale, Salonga National Park, DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovice, Liza R; Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Martinez-Iñigo, Laura; Surbeck, Martin; Vigilant, Linda; Hohmann, Gottfried

    2017-05-01

    Female bonobos (Pan paniscus) are characterized as highly affiliative and cooperative, but few studies have quantified the strength and stability of female intra-sexual relationships or explored how variation in social relationships influences cooperation. We measure female social preferences, identify causes of variation in preferences, and test whether variation in social preferences predicts food sharing or coalitionary support. Data were collected over 3 years from females in the Bompusa community at LuiKotale, DRC. We measured genetic relatedness and constructed social preference indices for party association, proximity, grooming, GG-rubbing and aggression. We identified preferred social partners based on permutation tests and measured stability using Mantel tests. We used factor analysis to identify inter-relationships between preference indices and used LMMs to test whether variation in social preferences was explained by relatedness, rank differences, having dependent young or co-residency time. We used GLMMs to test whether variation in social preferences predicted food sharing or coalitionary support. All females had preferred non-kin partners for proximity, grooming or GG-rubbing, but only grooming preferences were stable across years. Association indices were higher among lactating females, and aggression was lower among females with longer co-residency times. The factor analysis identified one factor, representing proximity and GG-rubbing preferences, labeled behavioral coordination. Dyads with higher levels of behavioral coordination were more likely to share food. Female bonobos exhibit stable, differentiated grooming relationships outside of kinship and philopatry. Females also exhibit flexible proximity and GG-rubbing preferences that may facilitate cooperation with a wider range of social partners. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... standard or governmental political objective exists. In most cases it was possible to select a set of indicators, including thresholds that are workable in a carrying capacity planning at the local administrative levels. Not all relevant sectors at the decentralized level were included. Indicators of SCC...

  4. Determination of (90)Sr in soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with dynamic reaction cell (ICP-DRC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, J; Boulyga, S F; Galler, P; Stingeder, G; Prohaska, T

    2008-11-01

    A rapid method is reported for the determination of (90)Sr in contaminated soil samples in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant by ICP-DRC-MS. Sample preparation and measurement procedures focus on overcoming the isobaric interference of (90)Zr, which is present in soils at concentrations higher by more than six orders of magnitude than (90)Sr. Zirconium was separated from strontium in two steps to reduce the interference by (90)Zr(+) ions by a factor of more than 10(7): (i) by ion exchange using a Sr-specific resin and (ii) by reaction with oxygen as reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of a quadrupole ICP-MS. The relative abundance sensitivity of the ICP-MS was studied systematically and the peak tailing originating from (88)Sr on mass 90 u was found to be about 3 x 10(-9). Detection limits of 4 fg g(-1) (0.02 Bq g(-1)) were achieved when measuring Sr solutions containing no Zr. In digested uncontaminated soil samples after matrix separation as well as in a solution of 5 microg g(-1) Sr and 50 ng g(-1) Zr a detection limit of 0.2 pg g(-1) soil (1 Bq g(-1) soil) was determined. (90)Sr concentrations in three soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant were 4.66+/-0.27, 13.48+/-0.68 and 12.9+/-1.5 pg g(-1) corresponding to specific activities of 23.7+/-1.3, 68.6+/-3.5 and 65.6+/-7.8 Bq g(-1), respectively. The ICP-DRC-MS results were compared to the activities measured earlier by radiometry. Although the ICP-DRC-MS is inferior to commonly used radiometric methods with respect to the achievable minimum detectable activity it represents a time- and cost-effective alternative technique for fast monitoring of high-level (90)Sr contamination in environmental or nuclear industrial samples down to activities of about 1 Bq g(-1).

  5. Determination of {sup 90}Sr in soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry equipped with dynamic reaction cell (ICP-DRC-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuerstein, J.; Boulyga, S.F.; Galler, P.; Stingeder, G. [Department of Chemistry, Division of Analytical Chemistry-VIRIS Laboratory, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Prohaska, T. [Department of Chemistry, Division of Analytical Chemistry-VIRIS Laboratory, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: thomas.prohaska@boku.ac.at

    2008-11-15

    A rapid method is reported for the determination of {sup 90}Sr in contaminated soil samples in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant by ICP-DRC-MS. Sample preparation and measurement procedures focus on overcoming the isobaric interference of {sup 90}Zr, which is present in soils at concentrations higher by more than six orders of magnitude than {sup 90}Sr. Zirconium was separated from strontium in two steps to reduce the interference by {sup 90}Zr{sup +} ions by a factor of more than 10{sup 7}: (i) by ion exchange using a Sr-specific resin and (ii) by reaction with oxygen as reaction gas in a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) of a quadrupole ICP-MS. The relative abundance sensitivity of the ICP-MS was studied systematically and the peak tailing originating from {sup 88}Sr on mass 90 u was found to be about 3 x 10{sup -9}. Detection limits of 4 fg g{sup -1} (0.02 Bq g{sup -1}) were achieved when measuring Sr solutions containing no Zr. In digested uncontaminated soil samples after matrix separation as well as in a solution of 5 {mu}g g{sup -1} Sr and 50 ng g{sup -1} Zr a detection limit of 0.2 pg g{sup -1} soil (1 Bq g{sup -1} soil) was determined. {sup 90}Sr concentrations in three soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant were 4.66 {+-} 0.27, 13.48 {+-} 0.68 and 12.9 {+-} 1.5 pg g{sup -1} corresponding to specific activities of 23.7 {+-} 1.3, 68.6 {+-} 3.5 and 65.6 {+-} 7.8 Bq g{sup -1}, respectively. The ICP-DRC-MS results were compared to the activities measured earlier by radiometry. Although the ICP-DRC-MS is inferior to commonly used radiometric methods with respect to the achievable minimum detectable activity it represents a time- and cost-effective alternative technique for fast monitoring of high-level {sup 90}Sr contamination in environmental or nuclear industrial samples down to activities of about 1 Bq g{sup -1}.

  6. 考虑设计规则的引脚分配算法%DRC-aware Pin Access Planning for Detailed Routing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雨田; 贾小涛; 蔡懿慈; 周强

    2016-01-01

    详细布线是集成电路物理设计的关键步骤之一,引脚分配是影响详细布线质量和减少设计规则违反的关键因素,为此提出一种基于最小费用最大流的考虑设计规则的引脚分配算法。首先构建详细布线图和相应的网格图;然后在网格图上搜索布线区域内总费用最小的最大流,为所有线网的引脚同时分配pin点;在引脚分配的基础上提出一种拆线重布算法,针对引脚分配中不合理的pin点位置进行拆线重布,为其分配新的pin点,同时对设计规则违反从代价函数定义、拆线重布顺序、布线方式3个方面进行优化。实验结果表明,应用文中的引脚分配算法后,详细布线结果中的设计规则违反数平均减少了24%。%Detailed routing is one of the key steps in integrated circuit physical design. Pin access planning is a key factor affecting the quality of detailed routing result and reducing design rule check (DRC) violations. A pin access planning algorithm based on minimum cost maximum flow (MCMF) and taking DRC violations into ac-count is proposed. Firstly, it constructed detailed routing graph and corresponding grid graph. Then, all the pin access positions were assigned by searching MCMF of the routing area on the grid graph. On the basis of the above pin access planning algorithm, a rip-up and rerouting algorithm is proposed. New pin access positions were reassigned for the unreasonable ones when ripping-up and rerouting. DRC violation was taken into account as well. Algorithm was optimized with three aspects: the definition of cost function, the order of ripping-up and re-routing and the routing method. Experimental results show that DRC violations are decreased by 24% in average after using the algorithm.

  7. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive...... and ACC may increase the political focus on resources and environmental issues and may help to move local authorities towards a more holistic spatial planning approach. A carrying capacity approach could be an inspiration for local spatial planning in developing countries. A spatial planning act...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  8. DNA repair. [UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals. (HLW)

  9. Caracterização clínica da cardiomiopatia hipertrófica hipertensiva em cães com doença renal crônica (DRC)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulino Junior, Daniel [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    A doença renal crônica (DRC) progride de forma implacável levando o paciente à falência renal e por consequência da ativação dos mecanismos compensatórios, uma ampla porcentagem dos pacientes torna-se hipertenso. Várias alterações estão citadas na literatura e dentre elas das mais importantes são as injúrias cardiovasculares. Em virtude desses fatores, este trabalho objetivou caracterizar a Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica Hipertensiva em cães com DRC, correlacionando o seu desenvolvimento com as ...

  10. Implementing DDR in Settings of Ongoing Conflict: The Organization and Fragmentation of Armed Groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Richards

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although it is common for armed groups to splinter (or “fragment” during contexts of multi-party civil war, current guidance on Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR does not address the challenges that arise when recalcitrant fighters, unwilling to report to DDR, break ranks and form new armed groups. This Practice Note addresses this issue, drawing lessons from the multi-party context of the DRC and from the experiences of former members of three armed groups: the Rally for Congolese Democracy-Goma (RCD-Goma, the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP, and the DRC national army (FARDC. While the findings indicate that the fragmentation of armed groups may encourage desertion and subsequent participation in DDR, they also show that active armed groups may monitor DDR programs and track those who demobilize. Remobilization may follow, either as active armed groups target ex-combatants for forced re-recruitment or as ex-combatants remobilize in armed groups of their own choice. Given these dynamics, practitioners in settings of partial peace may find it useful to consider non-traditional methods of DDR such as the use of mobile patrols and mobile disarmament units. The temporary relocation of ex-combatants to safe areas free from armed groups, or to protected transitional assistance camps, may also help to minimize remobilization during the reintegration phase.

  11. Evaluation of tissue metal and trace element content in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease using ICP-DRC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatiatulina, Eugenia R; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Agletdinov, Eduard F; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of the study was to assess the level of metals and trace elements in liver, serum, and hair of rats with diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometer (ICP-DRC-MS). 56 female 3-months-old Wistar rats divided into two equal groups were fed either standard (10% calories from fat) or high-fat high-carbohydrate diet (60% calories from fat in chow and 10% sucrose solution) for 6 weeks. Serum was examined for insulin resistance markers, lipid profile, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. Liver histology was assessed after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Metal and trace element concentrations were assessed by means of ICP-DRC-MS. Overfed animals were characterized by higher values of morphometric parameters. Liver examination revealed large and small droplet steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning and necrosis, being characteristic for NAFLD. Animals with NAFLD were characterized by insulin resistance, atherogenic changes of lipid profile and increased ALT activity. Significantly decreased hepatic Co, Cu, I, Li, Mn, Se, Zn levels were observed in rats with NAFLD. At the same time, only hepatic Mn and Se levels remained decreased after adjustment for total protein. Overfed animals were characterized by significantly lower I, Li, and Mn levels in blood serum, whereas concentration of Co, Se, V, and Sr exceeded the control values. In general, the results of the study demonstrate that NAFLD significantly affects metal and trace element status in experimental animals.

  12. Radiation- and drug-induced DNA repair in mammalian oocytes and embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, R A; Brandriff, B

    1979-01-01

    A review of studies showing ultraviolet- or drug-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in mammalian oocytes and embryos suggests that the female gamete has an excision repair capacity from the earliest stages of oocyte growth. The oocyte's demonstrable excision repair capacity decreases at the time of meiotic maturation for unknown reasons, but the fully mature oocyte maintans a repair capacity, in contrast to the mature sperm, and contributes this to the zygote. Early embryo cells maintain relatively constant levels of excision repair until late fetal stages, when they lose their capacity for excision repair. These apparent changes in excision repair capacity do not have a simple relationship to known differences in radiation sensitivity of germ cells and embryos.

  13. Capacitated two-echelon inventory models for repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avsar, Z.M.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Gershwin, S.B.; Dallery, Y.; Papadopoulos, C.; Smith, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we consider two-echelon maintenance systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location. Each repair facility may be considered to be a job shop and is modeled as a (limited capacity) open queuing network, while any

  14. Obstetric fistulae repair in a Nigerian Tertiary Health Institution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gynaecologists performed 61.7% of cases using the vaginal route while ... Bivariate analysis showed that younger age at presentation, gravidity, VVF type ... It is recommended that early presentation for repair and capacity building of specialist ...

  15. DNA repair activity in fish and interest in ecotoxicology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzler, Aude; Bony, Sylvie; Devaux, Alain

    2013-06-15

    The knowledge of DNA repair in a target species is of first importance as it is the primary line of defense against genotoxicants, and a better knowledge of DNA repair capacity in fish could help to interpret genotoxicity data and/or assist in the choice of target species, developmental stage and tissues to focus on, both for environmental biomonitoring studies and DNA repair testing. This review focuses in a first part on what is presently known on a mechanistic basis, about the various DNA repair systems in fish, in vivo and in established cell lines. Data on base excision repair (BER), direct reversal with O⁶-alkylguanine transferase and double strand breaks repair, although rather scarce, are being reviewed, as well as nucleotide excision repair (NER) and photoreactivation repair (PER), which are by far the most studied repair mechanisms in fish. Most of these repair mechanisms seem to be strongly species and tissue dependent; they also depend on the developmental stage of the organisms. BER is efficient in vivo, although no data has been found on in vitro models. NER activity is quite low or even inexistent depending on the studies; however this lack is partly compensated by a strong PER activity, especially in early developmental stage. In a second part, a survey of the ecotoxicological studies integrating DNA repair as a parameter responding to single or mixture of contaminant is realized. Three main approaches are being used: the measurement of DNA repair gene expression after exposure, although it has not yet been clearly established whether gene expression is indicative of repair capacity; the monitoring of DNA damage removal by following DNA repair kinetics; and the modulation of DNA repair activity following exposure in situ, in order to assess the impact of exposure history on DNA repair capacity. Since all DNA repair processes are possible targets for environmental pollutants, we can also wonder at which extent such a modulation of repair capacities

  16. DNA repair genes in the Megavirales pangenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc-Mathieu, Romain; Ogata, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The order 'Megavirales' represents a group of eukaryotic viruses with a large genome encoding a few hundred up to two thousand five hundred genes. Several members of Megavirales possess genes involved in major DNA repair pathways. Some of these genes were likely inherited from an ancient virus world and some others were derived from the genomes of their hosts. Here we examine molecular phylogenies of key DNA repair enzymes in light of recent hypotheses on the origin of Megavirales, and propose that the last common ancestors of the individual families of the order Megavirales already possessed DNA repair functions to achieve and maintain a moderately large genome and that this repair capacity gradually increased, in a family-dependent manner, during their recent evolution.

  17. Hand function after nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundborg, G; Rosén, B

    2007-02-01

    Treatment of injuries to major nerve trunks in the hand and upper extremity remains a major and challenging reconstructive problem. Such injuries may cause long-lasting disabilities in terms of lost fine sensory and motor functions. Nowadays there is no surgical repair technique that can ensure recovery of tactile discrimination in the hand of an adult patient following nerve repair while very young individuals usually regain a complete recovery of functional sensibility. Post-traumatic nerve regeneration is a complex biological process where the outcome depends on multiple biological and environmental factors such as survival of nerve cells, axonal regeneration rate, extent of axonal misdirection, type of injury, type of nerve, level of the lesion, age of the patient and compliance to training. A major problem is the cortical functional reorganization of hand representation which occurs as a result of axonal misdirection. Although protective sensibility usually occurs following nerve repair, tactile discriminative functions seldom recover--a direct result of cortical remapping. Sensory re-education programmes are routinely applied to facilitate understanding of the new sensory patterns provided by the hand. New trends in hand rehabilitation focus on modulation of central nervous processes rather than peripheral factors. Principles are being evolved to maintain the cortical hand representation by using the brain capacity for visuo-tactile and audio-tactile interaction for the initial phase following nerve injury and repair (phase 1). After the start of the re-innervation of the hand (phase 2), selective de-afferentation, such as cutaneous anaesthesia of the forearm of the injured hand, allows expansion of the nerve-injured cortical hand representation, thereby enhancing the effects of sensory relearning. Recent data support the view that training protocols specifically addressing the relearning process substantially increase the possibilities for improved

  18. Pectus excavatum repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002949.htm Pectus excavatum repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pectus excavatum repair is surgery to correct pectus excavatum . This ...

  19. When "Other" Initiate Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.

    2000-01-01

    Elaborates on the locus of other-initiated repair, and reports on a number of environments in which others initiate repair turns later than the one directly following the trouble-source turn. Describes several ways that other initiation of repair, which occurs in next-turn position, may be delayed within that position. (Author/VWL)

  20. A Decision Support System for Ship Maintenance Capacity Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, R.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the basic framework and algorithms of a decision support system are discussed, which enhance process and capacity planning at a large repair shop. The research is strongly motivated by experiences in a project carried out at a dockyard, which performs repair, overhaul and modification

  1. Abducted children and youth in Lord's Resistance Army in Northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC): mechanisms of indoctrination and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jocelyn Td; Branham, Lindsay; Decker, Michele R

    2016-01-01

    Globally, an estimated 300,000 children under the age of 18 participate in combat situations; those in armed groups in particular suffer prolonged exposure to psychological and physical abuse. The Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) is a rebel movement known for its widespread conscription of children; yet little is known about this process once the group moved beyond northern Uganda. In this paper, we describe the processes related to abduction and indoctrination of youth by the LRA in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo ( DRC). In-depth interviews were conducted with formerly abducted children, their family members, community leaders, and service providers (total n = 34) in four communities in LRA-affected areas of northeastern DRC. Inductive coding of transcripts was undertaken to identify salient themes. Informants articulated a range of practices by the LRA to exert high levels of control over new recruits, including strict social isolation from recent abductees; control of communication; promoting new identity formation; and compelling children to act out strictly defined gendered roles. Witchcraft and secrecy are used to intimidate recruits and to magnify perception of the group's power. These methods promote de-identification with one's civilian and family life; and eventually the assimilation of a new language and identity. Indoctrination of newly abducted children into the LRA occurs via a complex system of control. This study provides one of the first detailed explorations of social and psychological mechanisms through which this is achieved, and focuses particularly on the gendered differences in the indoctrination process. Results support past findings that the LRA is a strategic and well-organized organization in its approach to enlisting child soldiers. Understanding some of the ways in which the LRA controls its recruits and the psychological impact of indoctrination enables reintegration programs to more effectively address these issues

  2. Multi-element analysis of urine using dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS — A practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Brodzka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The method for the determination of As, Al, Cd, Ni, Pb (toxic elements and Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn (essential elements in human urine by the use of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (quadrupole ICP-MS DRCe Elan, Perkin Elmer with the dynamic reaction cell (DRC was developed. Materials and Methods: The method has been applied for multi-element analysis of the urine of 16 non-exposed healthy volunteers and 27 workers employed in a copper smelter. The analysis was conducted after initial 10-fold dilution of the urine samples with 0,1% nitric acid. Rhodium was used as an internal standard. The method validation parameters such as detection limit, sensitivity, precision were described for all elements. Accuracy of the method was checked by the regular use of certified reference materials ClinCheck®-Control Urine (Recipe as well as by participation of the laboratory in the German External Quality Assessment Scheme (G-EQUAS. Results: The detection limits (DL 3s of the applied method were 0.025, 0.007, 0.002, 0.004, 0.004, 0.086, 0.037, 0.009, 0.016, 0.008, 0.064 (μg/l for Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn in urine, respectively. For each element linearity with correlation coefficient of at least 0.999 was determined. Spectral interferences from some of the ions were removed using DRC-e with addition of alternative gas: methane for cobalt, copper, cadmium, chromium, iron, manganese, nickel and rhodium, and oxygen for arsenic. Conclusions: The developed method allows to determine simultaneously eleven elements in the urine with low detection limits, high sensitivity and good accuracy. Moreover, the method is appropriate for the assessment of both environmental and occupational exposure.

  3. Exploiting dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) for sequential determination of trace elements in blood using a dilute-and-shoot procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Bruno Lemos; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Nunes, Juliana Andrade; Souza, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Barbosa, Fernando

    2009-04-20

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with quadrupole (q-ICP-MS) and dynamic reaction cell (DRC-ICP-MS) were evaluated for sequential determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, Tl, V and Zn in blood. The method requires as little as 100 microL of blood. Prior to analysis, samples (100 microL) were diluted 1:50 in a solution containing 0.01% (v/v) Triton X-100 and 0.5% (v/v) nitric acid. The use of the DRC was only mandatory for Cr, Cu, V and Zn. For the other elements the equipment may be operated in a standard mode (q-ICP-MS). Ammonia was used as reaction gas. Selection of best flow rate of ammonium gas and optimization of the quadrupole dynamic band-pass tuning parameter (RPq) were carried out, using a ovine base blood for Cr and V and a synthetic matrix solution (SMS) for Zn and Cu diluted 1:50 and spiked to contain 1 microg L(-1) of each element. Method detection limits (3 s) for (75)As, (114)Cd, (59)Co, (51)Cr, (63)Cu (55)Mn, (208)Pb, (82)Se, (205)Tl, (51)V, and (64)Zn were 14.0, 3.0, 11.0, 7.0, 280, 9.0, 3.0, 264, 0.7, 6.0 and 800 ng L(-1), respectively. Method validation was accomplished by the analysis of blood Reference Materials produced by the L'Institut National de Santé Publique du Quebec (Canada).

  4. Determination of depleted uranium in fish: validation of a confirmatory method by dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ilio, S; Violante, N; Senofonte, O; Petrucci, F

    2007-08-06

    Depleted uranium (DU) is a by-product of the uranium enrichment process for nuclear fuel. According to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, a confirmatory method for the quantification of DU in freeze-dried fish was developed by isotope ratio dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IR-DRC-ICP-MS). A preliminary study was performed to determine the following parameters: instrumental detection limit (IDL), isotopic ratio measurement limit (IRML), percentage of DU (P(DU)) in presence of natural uranium (NU) and limit of quantification (LoQ(DU)). The analyses were carried out by means of IR-DRC-ICP-MS. Ammonia was the reaction gas used for the dynamic reaction cell. In addition, a sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (SF-ICP-MS) was employed to calculate the within-laboratory reproducibility. For the confirmatory method the following parameters were determined: (a) trueness; (b) precision; (c) critical concentrations alpha and beta (CC(alpha), CC(beta)); (d) specificity; (e) stability. Trueness was assessed by using the recovery tests. The recovery and within-laboratory reproducibility were determined by fortifying the blank digested solution of dogfish tissue: six aliquots were fortified at 1, 1.5 and 2 times the LOQ(DU) with 25.0, 37.5 and 50.0 ng L(-1) or 4.16, 6.24, 8.32 microg kg(-1) with a recovery of -8.2, +9.5 and +9.6%, respectively and a within-laboratory reproducibility (three analytical run) of 15.5, 8.0 and 11.0%, respectively. The results for the decision limit and the detection capability were: CC(alpha) = 11.69 ng L(-1) and CC(beta) = 19.8 ng L(-1). The digested solutions resulted to be stable during testing time (60 days) and the method can be considered highly specific as well.

  5. DRC bus operating cycle optimization with nonuniform passenger trip distribution%乘客分布不均条件下DRC公交运行周期优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    根据乘客出行实际,对乘客出行分布不均条件下单车模式DRC运行周期的优化方法进行了研究.根据乘客分布的不均匀性,建立了单个乘客的出行成本函数.以乘客出发时间窗要求和车容量等为约束,乘客出行成本最小为目标,构建了运行周期优化模型.并基于遗传算法,设计其求解算法.经实验分析,获得了不同出行分布下的DRC最佳运行周期和运行周期与总成本之间的相互影响关系.%According to passengers'reality,the operating cycle optimization problem of the DRC bus is studied.The individual passenger utility function is rebuilt because of trip distribution is uneven.The passenger departure time window requirement,vehicle capaci-ty,and so on are all considered as constraint conditions,the minimum total travel cost as the target to build the operating cycle optimization model,the genetic algorithm is de-vised to obtain the best period.An experiment is carried out.Through this experiment, the DRC operation cycle is obtained under different demand distribution,and the relation ship between the operation cycle and total cost is also obtained.

  6. A regional inventory of the landslide processes and the elements at risk on the Rift flanks west of Lake Kivu (DRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki Mateso, Jean-Claude; Monsieurs, Elise; Jacobs, Liesbet; Bagalwa Mateso, Luc; Fiama Bondo, Silvanos; Delvaux, Damien; Albino, Fabien; Kervyn, François; Dewitte, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    The Rift flanks west of Lake Kivu (DRC) are one of the Congolese regions most affected by fatal landslides. However, information on the distribution of these processes and their impact on society is still lacking. Here we present a first regional landslide inventory and the associated elements at risk. The inventory was conducted in an area of 5,700 km² in three administrative territories between the cities of Bukavu and Goma. The region is one of the most densely populated area of DRC with a density of up to 200 persons/km². The approach for the inventory relies on visual analysis of Google Earth imagery and a 5 m resolution DEM that we produced from TanDEM-X interferometry. Field validation was performed in target places accounting for 5% of the study area. More than 2,000 landslides were mapped and distinction was made between deep and shallow, and slide and flow processes. Average landslide area is 6 ha (max. = 430 ha). Geomorphological analysis of landslide distribution shows topographic, lithologic, climatic and seismic controls. For 600 randomly-selected landslides, elements at risk (house, road, cultivated land, river) were inventoried in the areas affected and potentially affected by the instabilities; 10% of the landslides are inhabited and 25% do not present any risk. Numerous landslides have caused direct and indirect damage in recent years. In some places, the impact of mining activities on slope stability can be important. Google Earth was the only way to locate the recent shallow failures triggered by known extreme rainfall events. This inventory is a first step towards the understanding of the landslide processes in the region. Further studies are needed to complete and validate the information, to better infer about the triggers, and to compute susceptibility and risk maps.

  7. Percutaneous mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinov, A Marc; Liddicoat, John R

    2006-01-01

    Surgical mitral valve repair is the procedure of choice to treat mitral regurgitation of all etiologies. Whereas annuloplasty is the cornerstone of mitral valve repair, a variety of other surgical techniques are utilized to correct dysfunction of the leaflets and subvalvular apparatus; in most cases, surgical repair entails application of multiple repair techniques in each patient. Preclinical studies and early human experience have demonstrated that some of these surgical repair techniques can be performed using percutaneous approaches. Specifically, there has been great progress in the development of novel technology to facilitate percutaneous annuloplasty and percutaneous edge-to-edge repair. The objectives of this report were to (1) discuss the surgical foundations for these percutaneous approaches; (2) review device design and experimental and clinical results of percutaneous valve repair; and (3) address future directions, including the key challenges of patient selection and clinical trial design.

  8. Capacity and Capacity Utilization in Fishing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkley, James E; Squires, Dale

    1999-01-01

    Excess capacity of fishing fleets is one of the most pressing problems facing the world's fisheries and the sustainable harvesting of resource stocks. Considerable confusion persists over the definition and measurement of capacity and capacity utilization in fishing. Fishing capacity and capacity utilization, rather than capital (or effort) utilization, provide the appropriate framework. This paper provides both technological-economic and economic definitions of capacity and excess capacity i...

  9. DNA repair in species with extreme lifespan differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Sheila L.; Croken, Matthew McKnight; Calder, R.B.; Aliper, Alexander; Milholland, Brandon; White, Ryan R.; Zhavoronkov, Alexander; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Zhang, Zhengdong D.; Vijg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Differences in DNA repair capacity have been hypothesized to underlie the great range of maximum lifespans among mammals. However, measurements of individual DNA repair activities in cells and animals have not substantiated such a relationship because utilization of repair pathways among animals—depending on habitats, anatomical characteristics, and life styles—varies greatly between mammalian species. Recent advances in high-throughput genomics, in combination with increased knowledge of the genetic pathways involved in genome maintenance, now enable a comprehensive comparison of DNA repair transcriptomes in animal species with extreme lifespan differences. Here we compare transcriptomes of liver, an organ with high oxidative metabolism and abundant spontaneous DNA damage, from humans, naked mole rats, and mice, with maximum lifespans of ∼120, 30, and 3 years, respectively, with a focus on genes involved in DNA repair. The results show that the longer-lived species, human and naked mole rat, share higher expression of DNA repair genes, including core genes in several DNA repair pathways. A more systematic approach of signaling pathway analysis indicates statistically significant upregulation of several DNA repair signaling pathways in human and naked mole rat compared with mouse. The results of this present work indicate, for the first time, that DNA repair is upregulated in a major metabolic organ in long-lived humans and naked mole rats compared with short-lived mice. These results strongly suggest that DNA repair can be considered a genuine longevity assurance system. PMID:26729707

  10. Optimality in DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Morgiane; Fryett, Matthew; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian; Grebogi, Celso; Moura, Alessandro

    2012-01-07

    DNA within cells is subject to damage from various sources. Organisms have evolved a number of mechanisms to repair DNA damage. The activity of repair enzymes carries its own risk, however, because the repair of two nearby lesions may lead to the breakup of DNA and result in cell death. We propose a mathematical theory of the damage and repair process in the important scenario where lesions are caused in bursts. We use this model to show that there is an optimum level of repair enzymes within cells which optimises the cell's response to damage. This optimal level is explained as the best trade-off between fast repair and a low probability of causing double-stranded breaks. We derive our results analytically and test them using stochastic simulations, and compare our predictions with current biological knowledge.

  11. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA no rastreio de comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC pré-dialítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilise de Andrade Paraizo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Introdução: Indivíduos com doença renal crônica (DRC têm grande risco de desenvolver comprometimento cognitivo (CC, inicialmente leve (CCL, passível de identificação, mas ainda subdiagnosticado e subtratado. O Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA vem sendo indicado para rastreio de CCL na DRC. Objetivo: Avaliar o CCL em indivíduos com DRC pré-dialítica. Métodos: O estudo foi realizado em 72 indivíduos, não idosos, com DRC nos estágios pré-dialíticos. A avaliação neuropsicológica incluiu: o teste de cognição global MoCA; o teste do relógio (TDR; o Digit Span ordem direta (DOD e inversa (DOI; o teste de fluência verbal (FV, fonêmica (FAS e semântica (animais; o punho-borda-mão (PBM; e de memória 10 figuras. Resultados: A média de idade dos participantes foi de 56,74 ± 7,63 anos, com predominância de homens (55,6%, com escolaridade ≥ 4 anos (84,3%, a maioria com DRC 1, 2 e 3a e 3b (67,6%, hipertensa (93,1% e diabética (52,1%. O CC (MoCA ≤ 24 foi observado em 73,6% dos usuários. Não encontramos associação das variáveis demográficas e clínicas com CC, mas tendência de associação com a idade (p = 0,07, com a escolaridade (p = 0,06 e com o DM (0,06. Os testes de função executiva, TDR, DOI e PBM, isoladamente, apresentaram boa sensibilidade e valor preditivo negativo comparados ao MoCA para a identificação de CC e, em conjunto, foram capazes de predizer o resultado do MoCA. Conclusão: O CCL é frequente em usuários não idosos com DRC pré-dialítica. O TDR, DOI e PBM associados são equivalentes ao MoCA na identificação do CC nessa população, sugerindo comprometimento de funções executivas.

  12. Repairs of composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Hee Seok

    Repair on damaged composite panels was conducted. To better understand adhesively bonded repair, the study investigates the effect of design parameters on the joint strength. The design parameters include bondline length, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Adhesives considered in this study were tested to measure their tensile material properties. Three types of adhesively bonded joints, single strap, double strap, and single lap joint were considered under changing bondline lengths, thickness of adherend and type of adhesive. Based on lessons learned from bonded joints, a one-sided patch repair method for composite structures was conducted. The composite patch was bonded to the damaged panel by either film adhesive FM-73M or paste adhesive EA-9394 and the residual strengths of the repaired specimens were compared under varying patch sizes. A new repair method using attachments has been suggested to enhance the residual strength. Results obtained through experiments were analyzed using finite element analysis to provide a better repair design and explain the experimental results. It was observed that the residual strength of the repaired specimen was affected by patch length. Method for rapid repairs of damaged composite structures was investigated. The damage was represented by a circular hole in a composite laminated plate. Pre-cured composite patches were bonded with a quick-curing commercial adhesive near (rather than over) the hole. Tensile tests were conducted on specimens repaired with various patch geometries. The test results showed that, among the methods investigated, the best repair method restored over 90% of the original strength of an undamaged panel. The interfacial stresses in the adhesive zone for different patches were calculated in order to understand the efficiencies of the designs of these patch repairs. It was found that the composite patch that yielded the best strength had the lowest interfacial peel stress between the patch and

  13. Workshop on DNA repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Lehmann (Alan); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); A.A. van Zeeland (Albert); C.M.P. Backendorf (Claude); B.A. Bridges; A. Collins; R.P.D. Fuchs; G.P. Margison; R. Montesano; E. Moustacchi; A.T. Natarajan; M. Radman; A. Sarasin; E. Seeberg; C.A. Smith; M. Stefanini (Miria); L.H. Thompson; G.P. van der Schans; C.A. Weber (Christine); M.Z. Zdzienika

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA workshop on DNA repair with emphasis on eukaryotic systems was held, under the auspices of the EC Concerted Action on DNA Repair and Cancer, at Noordwijkerhout (The Netherlands) 14-19 April 1991. The local organization of the meeting was done under the auspices of the Medical Genetic C

  14. Laparoscopic lumbar hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Atul K; Ternovits, Craig A; Speck, Karen E; Pritchard, F Elizabeth; Tichansky, David S

    2006-04-01

    Lumbar hernias are rare clinical entities that often pose a challenge for repair. Because of the surrounding anatomy, adequate surgical herniorraphy is often difficult. Minimally invasive surgery has become an option for these hernias. Herein, we describe two patients with lumbar hernias (one with a recurrent traumatic hernia and one with an incisional hernia). Both of these hernias were successfully repaired laparoscopically.

  15. Genetic characterization of eight full-length HIV type 1 genomes from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) reveal a new subsubtype, A5, in the A radiation that predominates in the recombinant structure of CRF26_A5U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Nicole; Bazepeo, Samuel Edidi; Mulanga, Claire; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2009-08-01

    In this study, we characterized HIV-1 strains from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), previously described as divergent subtype A (n = 1, 97CD.KMST91) or untypable (n = 7) in the V3-V5 env region. Four strains had the same structure over the entire genome, including alternating fragments of a new subsubtype, A5, within the subtype A radiation and fragments that remain unclassified. Therefore, the cluster of new viruses represents a new circulating recombinant, CRF26_A5U. Three additional strains were unique recombinants with the newly described CRF26_A5U and subtype C. Finally, the nearly full-length sequence of 97CD.KMST91 showed that this strain also consisted of alternating fragments of a divergent subtype A lineage and unclassified fragments, although different from previously reported A and U sequences. The high genetic distances among the different CRF26-A5U strains suggest their longstanding presence in the DRC.

  16. Optimization of LC-DRC-ICP-MS for the speciation of selenotrisulfides with simultaneous detection of sulfur and selenium as oxides combined with determination of elemental and isotope ratios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturup, S.; Bendahl, L.; Gammelgaard, B.

    2006-01-01

    A LC-DRC-ICP-MS method for the simultaneous detection of selenium and Sulfur in the selenotrisulfides selenocysteineglutathione (Cys-Se-SG) and selenodiglutathione (GS-Se-SG) is described. Both sulfur and selenium are reacted with oxygen in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC) and detected as oxides....... The selenotrisulfides were separated applying a 30 rnin gradient liquid chromatographic (LC) method with a formic acid/methanol eluent. The detection limits for sulfur (as (SO+)-S-32-O-16) and selenium (as (SeO+)-Se-80-O-16) in the chromatographic system were 4.0 and 0.2 mu g L-1 (100 and 5 ng in absolute mass units...

  17. Similar hyaline-like cartilage repair of osteochondral defects in rabbits using isotropic and anisotropic collagen scaffolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, E.L.W. de; Hannink, G.J.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Daamen, W.F.; Buma, P.

    2014-01-01

    Lesions in knee joint articular cartilage (AC) have limited repair capacity. Many clinically available treatments induce a fibrous-like cartilage repair instead of hyaline cartilage. To induce hyaline cartilage repair, we hypothesized that type I collagen scaffolds with fibers aligned perpendicular

  18. Ageing, exposure to pollution, and interactions between climate change and local seasons as oxidant conditions predicting incident hematologic malignancy at KINSHASA University clinics, Democratic Republic of CONGO (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkanga, Mireille Solange Nganga; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Ngwidiwo, Jacques Bikaula; Katawandja, Antoine Lufimbo; Kazadi, Paul Roger Beia; Nzonzila, Alain Nganga

    2017-08-23

    The global burden of hematologic malignancy (HM) is rapidly rising with aging, exposure to polluted environments, and global and local climate variability all being well-established conditions of oxidative stress. However, there is currently no information on the extent and predictors of HM at Kinshasa University Clinics (KUC), DR Congo (DRC). This study evaluated the impact of bio-clinical factors, exposure to polluted environments, and interactions between global climate changes (EL Nino and La Nina) and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) on the incidence of HM. This hospital-based prospective cohort study was conducted at Kinshasa University Clinics in DR Congo. A total of 105 black African adult patients with anaemia between 2009 and 2016 were included. HM was confirmed by morphological typing according to the French-American-British (FAB) Classification System. Gender, age, exposure to traffic pollution and garages/stations, global climate variability (El Nino and La Nina), and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) were potential independent variables to predict incident HM using Cox regression analysis and Kaplan Meier curves. Out of the total 105 patients, 63 experienced incident HM, with an incidence rate of 60%. After adjusting for gender, HIV/AIDS, and other bio-clinical factors, the most significant independent predictors of HM were age ≥ 55 years (HR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.3; P = 0.003), exposure to pollution and garages or stations (HR = 4.9; 95% CI 2-12.1; P types included acute myeloid leukaemia (28.6% n = 18), multiple myeloma (22.2% n = 14), myelodysplastic syndromes (15.9% n = 10), chronic myeloid leukaemia (15.9% n = 10), chronic lymphoid leukaemia (9.5% n = 6), and acute lymphoid leukaemia (7.9% n = 5). After adjusting for confounders using Cox regression analysis, age ≥ 55 years, exposure to pollution, combined local dry season + La Nina and combined local dry season + El Nino were the most significant predictors of

  19. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  20. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  1. Modeling Strategic Interventions in a Population With a Total Fertility Rate of 8.3: A Cross-Sectional Study of Idjwi Island, DRC - With Appendix Detailing Patterns of Poverty and Disease Among the Bany'Idjwi People

    OpenAIRE

    Hadley, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Idjwi Island, DRC, has a total fertility rate of 8.3, one of the highest in the world. Rapid population growth has led to widespread environmental degradation and food insecurity. Meanwhile family planning services are largely unavailable. We conducted a representative survey of 2,078 households measuring standard reproductive health indicators. We also interviewed local women, community leaders, and clinicians about access to reproductive services. In the survey, over half of all women repor...

  2. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.

    1994-12-01

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). We have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3{minus}26.3 cGy d{sup {minus}1}). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup (1), the failure to augment basic m-pair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments particularly marked within erythroid compartments. that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3 appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity.

  3. Modulation of DNA base excision repair during neuronal differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sykora, Peter; Yang, Jenq-Lin; Ferrarelli, Leslie K

    2013-01-01

    Neurons are terminally differentiated cells with a high rate of metabolism and multiple biological properties distinct from their undifferentiated precursors. Previous studies showed that nucleotide excision DNA repair is downregulated in postmitotic muscle cells and neurons. Here, we characterize...... DNA damage susceptibility and base excision DNA repair (BER) capacity in undifferentiated and differentiated human neural cells. The results show that undifferentiated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells are less sensitive to oxidative damage than their differentiated counterparts, in part because...

  4. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  5. SIRT1 promotes DNA repair activity in response to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae-Min; Lee, Kee-Ho [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Human SIRT1 controls various physiological responses including cell fate, stress, and aging, through deacetylation of its specific substrate protein. In processing DNA damage signaling, SIRT1 attenuates a cellular apoptotic response by deacetylation of p53 tumor suppressor. Ectopically over-expressed SIRT1 resulted in the increase of repair of DNA strand breakages produced by radiation. On the other hand, repression of endogenous SIRT1 expression by SIRT1 siRNA led to the decrease of this repair activity, indicating that SIRT1 can regulate DNA repair capacity of cells with DNA strand breaks.

  6. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  7. Bed net ownership, use and perceptions among women seeking antenatal care in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC: Opportunities for improved maternal and child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabala Martine

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe malaria knowledge, attitudes toward malaria and bed net use, levels of ownership and use of bed nets, and factors associated with ownership and use among pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC visit in Kinshasa, DRC. Methods Women attending their first ANC visit at one maternity in Kinshasa were recruited to take part in a study where they were given free insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs and then followed up at delivery and 6 months post delivery to assess ITN use. This study describes the baseline levels of bed net ownership and use, attitudes towards net use and factors associated with net use Results Among 351 women interviewed at baseline, 115 (33% already owned a bed net and 86 (25% reported to have slept under the net the previous night. Cost was reported as the reason for not owning a net by 48% of the 236 women who did not own one. In multivariable analyses, women who had secondary school or higher education were 3.4 times more likely to own a net (95% CI 1.6–7.3 and 2.8 times more likely to have used a net (95% CI 1.3–6.0 compared to women with less education Conclusion Distribution of ITNs in antenatal clinics in this setting is needed and feasible. The potential for ITN use by this target population is high.

  8. Salvage hypospadias repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Review of our experience and to develop an algorithm for salvage procedures in the management of hypospadias cripples and treatment of urethral strictures following hypospadias repair. Methods: This is a retrospective review of hypospadias surgeries over a 41-month period. Out of a total 168 surgeries, 20 were salvage/re-operative repairs. In three children a Duplay repair was feasible, while in four others a variety of single-stage repairs could be done. The repair was staged in seven children - buccal mucosal grafts (BMGs in five, buccal mucosal tube in one, and skin graft in one. Five children with dense strictures were managed by dorsal BMG inlay grafting in one, vascularized tunical onlay grafting on the ventrum in one, and a free tunical patch in one. Three children were treated by internal urethrotomy and stenting for four weeks with a poor outcome. Results: The age of children ranged from 1.5-15 years (mean 4.5. Follow-up ranged from 3 months to 3.5 years. Excellent results were obtained in 10 children (50% with a well-surfaced erect penis and a slit-like meatus. Glans closure could not be achieved and meatus was coronal in three. Two children developed fistulae following a Duplay repair and following a staged BMG. Three repairs failed completely - a composite repair broke down, a BMG tube stenosed with a proximal leak, and a stricture recurred with loss of a ventral free tunical graft. Conclusions: In salvage procedures performed on hypospadias cripples, a staged repair with buccal mucosa as an inlay in the first stage followed by tubularization 4-6 months later provides good results. A simple algorithm to plan corrective surgery in failed hypospadias cases and obtain satisfactory results is devised.

  9. Age and gender effects on DNA strand break repair in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Christian; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; Bürkle, Alexander;

    2013-01-01

    single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Of these lesions, DSBs are the least frequent but the most dangerous for cells. We have measured the level of endogenous SSBs, SSB repair capacity, γ-H2AX response, and DSB repair capacity...... in a study population consisting of 216 individuals from a population-based sample of twins aged 40-77 years. Age in this range did not seem to have any effect on the SSB parameters. However, γ-H2AX response and DSB repair capacity decreased with increasing age, although the associations did not reach...

  10. Enhanced cartilage repair in 'healer' mice-New leads in the search for better clinical options for cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jamie

    2017-02-01

    Adult articular cartilage has a poor capacity to undergo intrinsic repair. Current strategies for the repair of large cartilage defects are generally unsatisfactory because the restored cartilage does not have the same resistance to biomechanical loading as authentic articular cartilage and degrades over time. Recently, an exciting new research direction, focused on intrinsic cartilage regeneration rather than fibrous repair by external means, has emerged. This review explores the new findings in this rapidly moving field as they relate to the clinical goal of restoration of structurally robust, stable and non-fibrous articular cartilage following injury.

  11. Progress of peripheral nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥嵘

    2002-01-01

    Study on repair of peripheral nerve injury has been proceeding over a long period of time. With the use of microsurgery technique since 1960s,the quality of nerve repair has been greatly improved. In the past 40 years, with the continuous increase of surgical repair methods, more progress has been made on the basic research of peripheral nerve repair.

  12. Achilles tendon repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles tendon rupture-surgery; Percutaneous Achilles tendon rupture repair ... To fix your torn Achilles tendon, the surgeon will: Make a cut down the back of your heel Make several small cuts rather than one large cut ...

  13. Diaphragmatic hernia repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100014.htm Diaphragmatic hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview The chest cavity includes the heart and lungs. The abdominal cavity includes the liver, the stomach, ...

  14. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  15. Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100103.htm Tracheoesophageal fistula repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Esophagus Disorders Fistulas Tracheal Disorders A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  16. Inguinal hernia repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100027.htm Inguinal hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview A hernia occurs when part of an organ protrudes through ...

  17. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  18. Pectus excavatum repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100035.htm Pectus excavatum repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Go to slide 4 out of 4 Overview Pectus excavatum is a deformity of the front of the ...

  19. Hiatal hernia repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100028.htm Hiatal hernia repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on ... Overview The esophagus runs through the diaphragm to the stomach. It functions to carry food from the mouth ...

  20. Repairing ceramic insulating tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B. R.; Laymance, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fused-silica tiles containing large voids or gauges are repaired without adhesives by plug insertion method. Tiles are useful in conduits for high-temperature gases, in furnaces, and in other applications involving heat insulation.

  1. Rotator cuff repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100229.htm Rotator cuff repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that ...

  2. Cleft lip repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100010.htm Cleft lip repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... abnormal opening in the middle of the upper lip. A cleft palate is an opening in the roof of ...

  3. Grey Repairable System Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renkuan Guo; Charles Ernie Love

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we systematically discuss the basic concepts of grey theory, particularly the grey differential equation and its mathematical foundation, which is essentially unknown in the reliability engineering community. Accordingly,we propose a small-sample based approach to estimate repair improvement effects by partitioning system stopping times into intrinsic functioning times and repair improvement times. An industrial data set is used for illustrative purposes in a stepwise manner.

  4. Excision repair of UV radiation-induced DNA damage in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, P.S.; Hevelone, J.; Dwarakanath, V.; Mitchell, D.L. (Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Radioimmunoassays were used to monitor the removal of antibody-binding sites associated with the two major UV radiation-induced DNA photoproducts (cyclobutane dimers and (6-4) photoproducts). Unlike with cultured human cells, where (6-4) photoproducts are removed more rapidly than cyclobutane dimers, the kinetics of repair were similar for both lesions. Repair capacity in wild type diminished throughout development. The radioimmunoassays were also employed to confirm the absence of photoreactivation in C. elegans. In addition, three radiation-sensitive mutants (rad-1, rad-2, rad-7) displayed normal repair capacities. An excision defect was much more pronounced in larvae than embryos in the fourth mutant tested (rad-3). This correlates with the hypersensitivity pattern of this mutant and suggests that DNA repair may be developmentally regulated in C. elegans. The mechanism of DNA repair in C. elegans as well as the relationship between the repair of specific photoproducts and UV radiation sensitivity during development are discussed.

  5. Interaction of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and aflatoxin B1 in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is an important environmental carcinogen and can induce DNA damage and involve in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The deficiency of DNA repair capacity related to the polymorphisms of DNA repair genes might play a central role in the process of HCC tumorigenesis. However, the interaction of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and AFB1 in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether six polymorphisms (i...

  6. Damage, DNA Repair, Aging, and Neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Scott; Fang, Evandro Fei; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Croteau, Deborah L.; Bohr, Vilhelm A.

    2017-01-01

    Aging in mammals is accompanied by a progressive atrophy of tissues and organs, and stochastic damage accumulation to the macromolecules DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids. The sequence of the human genome represents our genetic blueprint, and accumulating evidence suggests that loss of genomic maintenance may causally contribute to aging. Distinct evidence for a role of imperfect DNA repair in aging is that several premature aging syndromes have underlying genetic DNA repair defects. Accumulation of DNA damage may be particularly prevalent in the central nervous system owing to the low DNA repair capacity in postmitotic brain tissue. It is generally believed that the cumulative effects of the deleterious changes that occur in aging, mostly after the reproductive phase, contribute to species-specific rates of aging. In addition to nuclear DNA damage contributions to aging, there is also abundant evidence for a causative link between mitochondrial DNA damage and the major phenotypes associated with aging. Understanding the mechanistic basis for the association of DNA damage and DNA repair with aging and age-related diseases, such as neurodegeneration, would give insight into contravening age-related diseases and promoting a healthy life span. PMID:26385091

  7. Learning lessons from field surveys in humanitarian contexts: a case study of field surveys conducted in North Kivu, DRC 2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grellety Emmanuel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Survey estimates of mortality and malnutrition are commonly used to guide humanitarian decision-making. Currently, different methods of conducting field surveys are the subject of debate among epidemiologists. Beyond the technical arguments, decision makers may find it difficult to conceptualize what the estimates actually mean. For instance, what makes this particular situation an emergency? And how should the operational response be adapted accordingly. This brings into question not only the quality of the survey methodology, but also the difficulties epidemiologists face in interpreting results and selecting the most important information to guide operations. As a case study, we reviewed mortality and nutritional surveys conducted in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC published from January 2006 to January 2009. We performed a PubMed/Medline search for published articles and scanned publicly available humanitarian databases and clearinghouses for grey literature. To evaluate the surveys, we developed minimum reporting criteria based on available guidelines and selected peer-review articles. We identified 38 reports through our search strategy; three surveys met our inclusion criteria. The surveys varied in methodological quality. Reporting against minimum criteria was generally good, but presentation of ethical procedures, raw data and survey limitations were missed in all surveys. All surveys also failed to consider contextual factors important for data interpretation. From this review, we conclude that mechanisms to ensure sound survey design and conduct must be implemented by operational organisations to improve data quality and reporting. Training in data interpretation would also be useful. Novel survey methods should be trialled and prospective data gathering (surveillance employed wherever feasible.

  8. Learning lessons from field surveys in humanitarian contexts: a case study of field surveys conducted in North Kivu, DRC 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grais, Rebecca F; Luquero, Francisco J; Grellety, Emmanuel; Pham, Heloise; Coghlan, Benjamin; Salignon, Pierre

    2009-09-10

    Survey estimates of mortality and malnutrition are commonly used to guide humanitarian decision-making. Currently, different methods of conducting field surveys are the subject of debate among epidemiologists. Beyond the technical arguments, decision makers may find it difficult to conceptualize what the estimates actually mean. For instance, what makes this particular situation an emergency? And how should the operational response be adapted accordingly. This brings into question not only the quality of the survey methodology, but also the difficulties epidemiologists face in interpreting results and selecting the most important information to guide operations. As a case study, we reviewed mortality and nutritional surveys conducted in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) published from January 2006 to January 2009. We performed a PubMed/Medline search for published articles and scanned publicly available humanitarian databases and clearinghouses for grey literature. To evaluate the surveys, we developed minimum reporting criteria based on available guidelines and selected peer-review articles. We identified 38 reports through our search strategy; three surveys met our inclusion criteria. The surveys varied in methodological quality. Reporting against minimum criteria was generally good, but presentation of ethical procedures, raw data and survey limitations were missed in all surveys. All surveys also failed to consider contextual factors important for data interpretation. From this review, we conclude that mechanisms to ensure sound survey design and conduct must be implemented by operational organisations to improve data quality and reporting. Training in data interpretation would also be useful. Novel survey methods should be trialled and prospective data gathering (surveillance) employed wherever feasible.

  9. Modelling strategic interventions in a population with a total fertility rate of 8.3: a cross-sectional study of Idjwi Island, DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Dana R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idjwi, an island of approximately 220,000 people, is located in eastern DRC and functions semi-autonomously under the governance of two kings (mwamis. At more than 8 live births per woman, Idjwi has one of the highest total fertility rates (TFRs in the world. Rapid population growth has led to widespread environmental degradation and food insecurity. Meanwhile family planning services are largely unavailable. Methods At the invitation of local leaders, we conducted a representative survey of 2,078 households in accordance with MEASURE DHS protocols, and performed ethnographic interviews and focus groups with key informants and vulnerable subpopulations. Modelling proximate determinates of fertility, we evaluated how the introduction of contraceptives and/or extended periods of breastfeeding could reduce the TFR. Results Over half of all women reported an unmet need for spacing or limiting births, and nearly 70% named a specific modern method of contraception they would prefer to use; pills (25.4% and injectables (26.5% were most desired. We predicted that an increased length of breastfeeding (from 10 to 21 months or an increase in contraceptive prevalence (from 1% to 30%, or a combination of both could reduce TFR on Idjwi to 6, the average desired number of children. Increasing contraceptive prevalence to 15% could reduce unmet need for contraception by 8%. Conclusions To meet women’s need and desire for fertility control, we recommend adding family planning services at health centers with NGO support, pursuing a community health worker program, promoting extended breastfeeding, and implementing programs to end sexual- and gender-based violence toward women.

  10. Detecting and Correcting Speech Repairs

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A; Heeman, Peter; Allen, James

    1994-01-01

    Interactive spoken dialog provides many new challenges for spoken language systems. One of the most critical is the prevalence of speech repairs. This paper presents an algorithm that detects and corrects speech repairs based on finding the repair pattern. The repair pattern is built by finding word matches and word replacements, and identifying fragments and editing terms. Rather than using a set of prebuilt templates, we build the pattern on the fly. In a fair test, our method, when combined with a statistical model to filter possible repairs, was successful at detecting and correcting 80\\% of the repairs, without using prosodic information or a parser.

  11. DNA base excision repair nanosystem engineering: model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhansanj, B A

    2005-01-01

    DNA base damage results from a combination of endogenous sources, (normal metabolism, increased metabolism due to obesity, stress from diseases such as arthritis and diabetes, and ischemia) and the environment (ingested toxins, ionizing radiation, etc.). If unrepaired DNA base damage can lead to diminished cell function, and potentially diseases and eventually mutations that lead to cancer. Sophisticated DNA repair mechanisms have evolved in all living cells to preserve the integrity of inherited genetic information and transcriptional control. Understanding a system like DNA repair is greatly enhanced by using engineering methods, in particular modeling interactions and using predictive simulation to analyze the impact of perturbations. We describe the use of such a "nanosystem engineering" approach to analyze the DNA base excision repair pathway in human cells, and use simulation to predict the impact of varying enzyme concentration on DNA repair capacity.

  12. Bone marrow-derived cells in renal repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Martine

    2007-01-01

    The kidney can recover after acute renal injury due to its highly effective endogenous regenerative capacity. However, under certain conditions the balance between injury and repair can get disturbed. This can ultimately lead to chronic renal failure, which is an increasing problem in the clinical s

  13. Study on multielemental speciation analysis of Cr(VI), As(III) and As(V) in water by advanced hyphenated technique HPLC/ICP-DRC-MS. Fast and reliable procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowska, Monika; Komorowicz, Izabela; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2015-11-01

    Analytical procedures for multielemental speciation analysis of arsenite - As(III), arsenate - As(V) and hexavalent chromium - Cr(VI) in water using high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-DRC-MS) hyphenated technique have been developed. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC) for spectral interferences elimination has been involved in the experiment. Application of oxygen and ammonia as reaction gases in the DRC under various conditions has been verified. Optimization of the following chromatographic conditions: mobile phase composition, concentration of particular components, mobile phase pH and flow rate, injection volume and column temperature, has been conducted. Species separation has been carried out on anion-exchange chromatographic column using isocratic elution with: 22 mM (NH4)2HPO4, 25 mM NH4NO3 (for procedure A) and 22 mM (NH4)2HPO4, 65 mM NH4NO3 (for procedure B) as mobile phases. Detection limits (LD) for procedure A were 0.16 µg L(-1), 0.090 µg L(-1), 0.073 µg L(-1), and for procedure B were 0.14 µg L(-1), 0.062 µg L(-1), 0.15 µg L(-1) for As(III), As(V) and Cr(VI), respectively. Linearity was tested at two concentration ranges of: (0.5-10.0) µg L(-1) for procedure A and (5-50) µg L(-1) for procedure B, and showed correlation coefficients for each of the analytes to be above 0.999. Repeatability values obtained for spiked real water samples were in the range of (4.2-7.6)% and (2.0-2.4)% for procedure A and B respectively. Accuracy was calculated based on the analysis of spiked real water samples at three concentration levels. Obtained recoveries were from 94% to 102%.

  14. Groin hernia repair in young males: mesh or sutured repair?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, T; Bay-Nielsen, M; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale data for the optimal inguinal hernia repair in younger men with an indirect hernia is not available. We analysed nationwide data for risk of reoperation in younger men after a primary repair using a Lichtenstein operation or a conventional non-mesh hernia repair....

  15. Cleft lip and palate repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002979.htm Cleft lip and palate repair To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cleft lip and cleft palate repair is surgery to fix birth defects ...

  16. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007392.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is surgery to fix a widened part ...

  17. Capacity Statement for Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... describes how the capacity consumption for railways can be worked out and analytical measurements of how the capacity is utilized. Furthermore, the article describes how it is possible to state and visualize railway capacity. Having unused railway capacity is not always equal to be able to operate more...

  18. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    OpenAIRE

    Qifei Wang; Jianhua Yan; Junlin Yang; Bingyun Li

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture rep...

  19. Laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia is mini-invasive and has confirmed effects. Femoral hernia could be repaired through the laparoscopic procedures for inguinal hernia. These procedures have clear anatomic view in the operation and preoperatively undiagnosed femoral hernia could be confirmed and treated. Lower recurrence ratio was reported in laparoscopic procedures compared with open procedures for repair of femoral hernia. The technical details of laparoscopic repair of femoral hernia, ...

  20. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peter, William H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  1. 刚果民主共和国腾克丰古鲁梅铜钴矿山%The DRC Tenke Fugurume Copper and Cobalt Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长根

    2012-01-01

    刚果民主共和国腾克丰古鲁梅( Tenke Fungurume)铜钴矿山是世界上现有的最大的铜钴矿山,它具有世界上最丰富的铜钴资源.现有的矿石储量可能超过1.19亿t,其中含2.64%铜和0.35%钴.矿山采用常规的露天开采方法.平均每天开采4.65万t物料,其中7000t高品位矿石、7500t低品位矿石和32000t废石.选矿厂日处理矿石7000t,年产11.1万t铜和8545t钴(氢氧化钻).选矿流程包括磨矿、硫酸浸出和对流倾析、中和、溶剂萃取/电积和钴的回收.矿山和选矿厂基本投资为17.50亿美元,矿石的采矿和选矿总成本为85.10美元/t矿石.%The DRC Tenke Fugurume Copper-Cobalt Miner is the word's most present copper and cobalt mine. It is believed to hold one of the richest and extensive high grade copper and resources. The ore reserves approximate 119 million tons at average ore grades of 2.64% copper and 0. 35% cobalt. The ores are mined with typical open pit miming method. The average daily mining rate will be 46,500 tpd over the mine life. Ore deliveries to the high-grade stockpiles will be 7,000 t/d, low-grade ore production will average 7 ,500 tpd and waste production will aver age 32,000 tpd. 7000 t/d ores are delivered to the process plant. 111000 t/a are produced of copper cathode. 8545 t/a contained in a hydroxide are produced as the commercial production target. The ore processing flowsheet consists of semi autogenous grinding, sulphuric acid leaching, counter current decantation, neutralization, solvent ex-traction/electrowinning and cobalt recovery. The capital cost of mining and processing plant is 1750 million US $ . The operation cost of mining and processing is 81. 50 US/t ore.

  2. Semi-Automated Diagnosis, Repair, and Rework of Spacecraft Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Oeftering, Richard C.; Easton, John W.; Anderson, Eric E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program for Exploration of the Moon and Mars places human crews in extreme isolation in resource scarce environments. Near Earth, the discontinuation of Space Shuttle flights after 2010 will alter the up- and down-mass capacity for the International Space Station (ISS). NASA is considering new options for logistics support strategies for future missions. Aerospace systems are often composed of replaceable modular blocks that minimize the need for complex service operations in the field. Such a strategy however, implies a robust and responsive logistics infrastructure with relatively low transportation costs. The modular Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) used for ISS requires relatively large blocks of replacement hardware even though the actual failed component may really be three orders of magnitude smaller. The ability to perform in-situ repair of electronics circuits at the component level can dramatically reduce the scale of spares and related logistics cost. This ability also reduces mission risk, increases crew independence and improves the overall supportability of the program. The Component-Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task under the NASA Supportability program was established to demonstrate the practicality of repair by first investigating widely used soldering materials and processes (M&P) performed by modest manual means. The work will result in program guidelines for performing manual repairs along with design guidance for circuit reparability. The next phase of CLEAR recognizes that manual repair has its limitations and some highly integrated devices are extremely difficult to handle and demand semi-automated equipment. Further, electronics repairs require a broad range of diagnostic capability to isolate the faulty components. Finally repairs must pass functional tests to determine that the repairs are successful and the circuit can be returned to service. To prevent equipment demands from exceeding spacecraft volume

  3. Complex mosaic composition of near full-length genomes of two NED (NIH-ENVA-DOD) subtype panel HIV type 1 strains, BCF-Dioum and BCF-Kita, originating from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Diana D; Foley, Brian T; Tolzmann, Catlin A; Ouma, Annastasia; Bremer, James W

    2009-10-01

    Sequence characterization of the near full-length genomes of HIV-1 isolates BCF-Dioum and BCF-Kita, originating from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), was continued. These NED panel isolates, contributed by F. Brun-Vezinet (ENVA-France), were first identified as subtypes G and H, respectively. Our earlier analyses of portions of their pol genes showed that both were likely to be intersubtype recombinants of different composition. This study analyzed the remainder of each genome, confirming them to be complex recombinants. The BCF-Dioum genome resembles CRF06_cpx strains found in West Africa, composed of subtypes A/G/J/K. The BCF-Kita genome is a unique complex recombinant A-F-G-H-K-U strain. These data support previous observations of the complexity of strains originating from the DRC. BCF-Dioum may be a suitable strain for standards and reagents since it matches a defined circulating recombinant form. Studies and reagents made from BCF-Kita should take into account its complex genome.

  4. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture repair. Next, the review discusses the applications of nanomaterials for bone fracture repair, with a focus on the recent breakthroughs such as nanomaterials leading to precise immobilization of growth factors at the molecular level, promoting vascularization without the use of growth factors, and re-loading therapeutic agents after implantation. The review concludes with perspectives on challenges and future directions for developing nanomaterials for improved bone fracture repair.

  5. Implementing optical fibres for the structural health monitoring of composite patch repaired structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Kotsidis, Elias A.; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.

    2017-01-01

    are reflected to the recorded strain measurements, finite element models have been generated. Results indicate that composite patch repairing drastically increased the load bearing capacity of the plates and that optical fibres constitute an appealing health monitoring system for such applications, being able......Structural health monitoring is increasingly being implemented to improve the level of safety of structures and to reduce inspection and repair costs by allowing for correct planning of these actions, if needed. Composite patch repairing presents an appealing alternative to traditional repair...... methods as it enables the reduction of closedown time and the mitigation of complications associated with traditional repair methods. As reinforcement with the use of composite patches is predominantly performed at defected structures, the urge to monitor the performance of the repair becomes even greater...

  6. Production, Purification, and Characterization of 15N-Labeled DNA Repair Proteins as Internal Standards for Mass Spectrometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruga, Pawel; Nelson, Bryant C.; Lowenthal, Mark S.; Jemth, Ann-Sofie; Loseva, Olga; Coskun, Erdem; Helleday, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Oxidatively induced DNA damage is caused in living organisms by a variety of damaging agents, resulting in the formation of a multiplicity of lesions, which are mutagenic and cytotoxic. Unless repaired by DNA repair mechanisms before DNA replication, DNA lesions can lead to genomic instability, which is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Oxidatively induced DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair pathway with the involvement of a plethora of proteins. Cancer tissues develop greater DNA repair capacity than normal tissues by overexpressing DNA repair proteins. Increased DNA repair in tumors that removes DNA lesions generated by therapeutic agents before they became toxic is a major mechanism in the development of therapy resistance. Evidence suggests that DNA repair capacity may be a predictive biomarker of patient response. Thus, knowledge of DNA–protein expressions in disease-free and cancerous tissues may help predict and guide development of treatments and yield the best therapeutic response. Our laboratory has developed methodologies that use mass spectrometry with isotope dilution for the measurement of expression of DNA repair proteins in human tissues and cultured cells. For this purpose, full-length 15N-labeled analogs of a number of human DNA repair proteins have been produced and purified to be used as internal standards for positive identification and accurate quantification. This chapter describes in detail the protocols of this work. The use of 15N-labeled proteins as internal standards for the measurement of several DNA repair proteins in vivo is also presented. PMID:26791985

  7. Discontinuous symplectic capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehmisch, K.; Ziltener, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the spherical capacity is discontinuous on a smooth family of ellipsoidal shells. Moreover, we prove that the shell capacity is discontinuous on a family of open sets with smooth connected boundaries.

  8. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  9. Lin28 enhances tissue repair by reprogramming cellular metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyh-Chang, Ng; Zhu, Hao; Yvanka de Soysa, T; Shinoda, Gen; Seligson, Marc T; Tsanov, Kaloyan M; Nguyen, Liem; Asara, John M; Cantley, Lewis C; Daley, George Q

    2013-11-07

    Regeneration capacity declines with age, but why juvenile organisms show enhanced tissue repair remains unexplained. Lin28a, a highly conserved RNA-binding protein expressed during embryogenesis, plays roles in development, pluripotency, and metabolism. To determine whether Lin28a might influence tissue repair in adults, we engineered the reactivation of Lin28a expression in several models of tissue injury. Lin28a reactivation improved hair regrowth by promoting anagen in hair follicles and accelerated regrowth of cartilage, bone, and mesenchyme after ear and digit injuries. Lin28a inhibits let-7 microRNA biogenesis; however, let-7 repression was necessary but insufficient to enhance repair. Lin28a bound to and enhanced the translation of mRNAs for several metabolic enzymes, thereby increasing glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). Lin28a-mediated enhancement of tissue repair was negated by OxPhos inhibition, whereas a pharmacologically induced increase in OxPhos enhanced repair. Thus, Lin28a enhances tissue repair in some adult tissues by reprogramming cellular bioenergetics. PAPERCLIP: Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells: building and repairing blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majesky, Mark W; Dong, Xiu Rong; Regan, Jenna N; Hoglund, Virginia J

    2011-02-04

    Molecular pathways that control the specification, migration, and number of available smooth muscle progenitor cells play key roles in determining blood vessel size and structure, capacity for tissue repair, and progression of age-related disorders. Defects in these pathways produce malformations of developing blood vessels, depletion of smooth muscle progenitor cell pools for vessel wall maintenance and repair, and aberrant activation of alternative differentiation pathways in vascular disease. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that uniquely specify and maintain vascular smooth muscle cell precursors is essential if we are to use advances in stem and progenitor cell biology and somatic cell reprogramming for applications directed to the vessel wall.

  11. Determination of the adaptive response induced In vivo by gamma radiation and its relation with the sensibility to the damage induction in the DNA and with the repairing capacity; Determinacion de la respuesta adaptativa inducida In vivo por radiacion gamma y su relacion con la sensibilidad a la induccion de dano en el ADN y con la capacidad de reparacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiola C, M.T

    2002-07-01

    The kinetics of damage induction and repair at different doses as well as the adaptive response induced by gamma ray exposure were determined in murine leukocytes in vivo. The damage-repair kinetics were established after the exposure to 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 Gy in a {sup 137}Cs source. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from the tails of mice, the percentage of damaged cells and the DNA migration in each one were analyzed by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) technique or comet assay. Results indicated that there was an induction of approximately 75% comets with the doses of 1.0 and 2.0 Gy, which was considerably reduced to 22% and 42% respectively during the first 15 minutes. This evidences the presence of a rapid repair process and suggests that leucocytes are genetically well prepared to repair this kind of damage. After 15 minutes, a second increase in the percentage of damaged cells that was proportional to dose occurred, which seems to represent the breaks produced during the repair of other kind of lesions. After that a second reduction was observed, reaching values near to the basal ones, except with the dose of 2.0 Gy. The kinetics obtained with the dose of 0.5 Gy was similar to that established with 1.0 Gy, but in this case the initial damage was 50 % lower. Besides, the adaptive response was observed after the exposure of the mice to an adaptive dose of 0.01 Gy and to a challenge dose of 1.0 Gy 60 minutes later. The pretreatment reduced the percentage of damaged cells caused by the challenge dose to one third approximately, and also diminished this parameter produced during the late repair process. This indicates that the early adaptive response is caused, instead of by an increment in repair, by the induction of a process that protects DNA from damage induction by radiation, i.e synthesis of substances that increase the scavenging of free radicals. (Author)

  12. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  13. Repair of DNA lesions induced by ultraviolet irradiation and aromatic amines in normal and repair-deficient human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevnsner, Tinna; Frandsen, Henrik; Autrup, Herman

    1995-01-01

    A host cell reactivation (HCR) assay was employed to study the capacity of a normal and three repair-deficient human lymphoblastoid cell lines to repair DNA damage induced by UV irradiation and the aromatic amines 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene....... In the XP-D cell line, which had practically no DNA repair capacity, AAF adducts had a more potent inhibitory effect on gene expression than UV and PhIP adducts. When corrected for this inhibitory effect, the wild-type, XP-C and CS-B cell lines repaired low levels of AAF and UV adducts with similar...

  14. Mononuclear Cells and Vascular Repair in HHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calinda eDingenouts

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT or Rendu-Osler-Weber disease is a rare genetic vascular disorder known for its endothelial dysplasia causing arteriovenous malformations and severe bleedings. HHT-1 and HHT-2 are the most prevalent variants and are caused by heterozygous mutations in endoglin and ALK1, respectively. An undervalued aspect of the disease is that HHT patients experience persistent inflammation. Although endothelial and mural cells have been the main research focus trying to unravel the mechanism behind the disease, wound healing is a process with a delicate balance between inflammatory and vascular cells. Inflammatory cells are part of the mononuclear cells (MNCs fraction, and can, next to eliciting an immune response, also have angiogenic potential. This biphasic effect of MNC can hold a promising mechanism to further elucidate treatment strategies for HHT patients. Before MNC are able to contribute to repair, they need to home to and retain in ischemic and damaged tissue. Directed migration (homing of mononuclear cells following tissue damage is regulated by the stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF1. MNCs that express the C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4 migrate towards the tightly regulated gradient of SDF1. This directed migration of monocytes and lymphocytes can be inhibited by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4. Interestingly, MNC of HHT patients express elevated levels of DPP4 and show impaired homing towards damaged tissue. Impaired homing capacity of the MNCs might therefore contribute to the impaired angiogenesis and tissue repair observed in HHT patients. This review summarizes recent studies regarding the role of MNCs in the etiology of HHT and vascular repair, and evaluates the efficacy of DPP4 inhibition in tissue integrity and repair.

  15. Enhanced cartilage repair in ‘healer’ mice—New leads in the search for better clinical options for cartilage repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Adult articular cartilage has a poor capacity to undergo intrinsic repair. Current strategies for the repair of large cartilage defects are generally unsatisfactory because the restored cartilage does not have the same resistance to biomechanical loading as authentic articular cartilage and degrades over time. Recently, an exciting new research direction, focused on intrinsic cartilage regeneration rather than fibrous repair by external means, has emerged. This review explores the new findings in this rapidly moving field as they relate to the clinical goal of restoration of structurally robust, stable and non-fibrous articular cartilage following injury. PMID:27130635

  16. Laparoscopic Repair of Morgagni Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilker murat arer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is a congenital herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity through a retrosternal diaphragmatic defect and make up about 1 % - 5 % of all types of congenital diaphragmatic hernias. Surgical repair of Morgagni hernias is usually indicated when patients are symptomatic and have a high risk of strangulation or incarceration of the contained viscera. 71-year-old male patient admitted to emergency department with a 2-day history of abdominal pain, vomiting and obstipation. Laparoscopic repair for Morgagni hernia was performed. Laparoscopic repair for Morgagni hernia with mesh repair is secure, satisfactory and easily performed. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 71-74

  17. Combinatorial Reliability and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Press, Oxford, 1987. [2] G. Gordon and L. Traldi, Generalized activities and the Tutte polynomial , Discrete Math. 85 (1990), 167-176. [3] A. B. Huseby, A...particular, Satyanarayana and Tindell introduced a notion of (K,j)-domination in their study of a K-terminal version of the chromatic polynomial [6], and it...G)) graphs. He also intends to look into the properties of the polynomial that gives the expected number of needed repairs of a K-terminal network

  18. Mammalian mismatch repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Javier; Jiricny, Josef

    2012-01-01

    A considerable surge of interest in the mismatch repair (MMR) system has been brought about by the discovery of a link between Lynch syndrome, an inherited predisposition to cancer of the colon and other organs, and malfunction of this key DNA metabolic pathway. This review focuses on recent...... advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of canonical MMR, which improves replication fidelity by removing misincorporated nucleotides from the nascent DNA strand. We also discuss the involvement of MMR proteins in two other processes: trinucleotide repeat expansion and antibody maturation...

  19. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...... special focus when conducting UIC 406 capacity analyses.This paper describes how the UIC 406 capacity method can be expounded for stations. Commonly for the analyses of the stations it is recommended to include the entire station including the switch zone(s) and all station tracks. By including the switch...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  20. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... capacity consumptions. This paper describes the UIC 406 method and how it is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle...... capacity to run more trains is examined. The paper presents a method to examine the expected capacity utilization of future timetables. The method is based on the plan of operation instead of the exact (known) timetable. At the end of the paper it is described how it is possible to make capacity statements...

  1. DNA replication, repair, and repair tests. [Rat; human leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, B.

    1980-09-01

    The rate of inhibition and recovery of DNA synthesis can be used in a rapid assay system to detect genotoxic potentials of chemicals. Also, the observation that an agent stimulates DNA repair in a test system indicates its ability to cause damage in DNA. Different experimental approaches to the study of repair synthesis are discussed.

  2. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  3. Biologics for tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H

    2015-04-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management.

  4. Kvitebjoern gas pipeline repair - baptism of remote pipeline repair system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjertveit, Erling

    2010-07-01

    On the 1st of November 2007, severe anchor damage was discovered on the 30 inch Kvitebjoern gas export pipeline. The damage constituted a localised dent and a 17deg buckle, but no leakage. Statoil has invested in building an effective repair contingency structure for the large pipeline network on the Norwegian Continental shelf, with particular focus on the large gas export pipelines. The repair method for the Kvitebjoern pipeline was remotely operated using two Morgrip couplings and a spool. The installation used the purpose built Pipeline Repair System stored at Killingoey and couplings produced and tested back in 2005. This presentation will cover the initial damage investigations, the temporary operational phase, the repair preparations, the actual repair and lessons learned. (Author)

  5. Simultaneous determination of Se, trace elements and major elements in Se-rich rice by dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) after microwave digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yi Hua; Zhang, Jin Yan; Zhang, Da Wen; Luo, Lin Guang; Tu, Tian Hua

    2014-09-15

    A quick and accurate method was devised to determine Se, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn in Se-rich rice samples by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Spectral interferences on Se were eliminated using methane as a reaction gas in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC). Rhodium was used as an internal standard to compensate for sample matrix effects. A rice-certified reference material (CRM) (GBW 10010) was used to verify the accuracy of the method. The method detection limits were 0.001-0.03 mg/kg, analyte recoveries were 85-108% and precisions (RSDs) ranged from 2.1% to 5.8%. Correlation analysis showed that the Se concentrations in the Se-rich rice samples correlated well with the Cu concentrations (r=0.53, p<0.05).

  6. Handbook of adhesive bonded structural repair

    CERN Document Server

    Wegman, Raymond F

    1992-01-01

    Provides repair methods for adhesive bonded and composite structures; identifies suitable materials and equipment for repairs; describes damage evaluation criteria and techniques, and methods of inspection before and after repair.

  7. New procedure for multielemental speciation analysis of five toxic species: As(III), As(V), Cr(VI), Sb(III) and Sb(V) in drinking water samples by advanced hyphenated technique HPLC/ICP-DRC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowska, Monika; Komorowicz, Izabela; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2016-05-12

    Analytical procedure dedicated for multielemental determination of toxic species: As(III), As(V), Cr(VI), Sb(III) and Sb(V) in drinking water samples using high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-DRC-MS) technique was developed. Optimization of the detection and separation conditions was conducted. Dynamic reaction cell (DRC) with oxygen as a reaction gas was involved in the experiments. Obtained analytical signals for species separation were symmetrical, as studied by anion-exchange chromatography. Applied mobile phase consisted of 3 mM of EDTANa2 and 36 mM of ammonium nitrate. Full separation of species in the form of the following forms: H3AsO3, H2AsO4(-), SbO2(-), Sb(OH)6(-), CrO4(2-) was achieved in 15 min with use of gradient elution program. Detailed validation of analytical procedure proved the reliability of analytical measurements. The procedure was characterized by high precision in the range from 1.7% to 2.4%. Detection limits (LD) were 0.067 μg L(-1), 0.068 μg L(-1), 0.098 μg L(-1), 0.083 μg L(-1) and 0.038 μg L(-1) for As(III), As(V), Cr(VI), Sb(III) and Sb(V), respectively. Obtained recoveries confirmed the lack of interferences' influence on analytical signals as their values were in the range of 91%-110%. The applicability of the proposed procedure was tested on drinking water samples characterized by mineralization up to 650 mg L(-1).

  8. Simultaneous quantification of 17 trace elements in blood by dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) equipped with a high-efficiency sample introduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ilio, S; Violante, N; Di Gregorio, M; Senofonte, O; Petrucci, F

    2006-10-10

    A quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Q-ICP-MS) equipped with a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) and coupled with a desolvating nebulization system (APEX-IR) was employed to determine 17 elements (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, V, and Zr) in blood samples. Ammonia (for Al, Cr, Mn, and V) and O2 (for As and Se) were used as reacting gases. Selection of the best flow rate of the gases and optimization of the quadrupole dynamic bandpass tuning parameter (RPq) were carried out, using digested blood diluted 1+9 with deionized water and spiked with 1 microg L(-1) of Al, Cr, Mn, V and 5 microgL(-1) of As and Se. Detection limits were determined in digested blood using the 3sigma criterion. The desolvating system allowed a sufficient sensitivity to be achieved to determine elements at levels of ng L(-1) without detriment of signal stability. The accuracy of the method was tested with the whole blood certified reference material (CRM), certified for Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V, and with indicative values for Ba, Li, Sn, Sr, and Zr. The addition calibration approach was chosen for analysis. In order to confirm the DRC data, samples were also analyzed by means of sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS), operating in medium (m/Deltam=4000) and high (m/Deltam=10,000) resolution mode and achieving a good agreement between the two techniques.

  9. Clamp wins pipe repair prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes the permanent pipeline repair system, developed by Tekmar, which is powered by seawater hydraulics and is easily installed and tested by any workclass remotely operated vehicle (rov). Details are given of the two main components of the system, namely, the diverless high pressure split repair clamp and the rov-operated tool to install it.

  10. The journey of DNA repair

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    21 years ago, the DNA Repair Enzyme was declared “Molecule of the Year”. Today, we are celebrating another “year of repair”, with the 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry being awarded to Aziz Sancar, Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich for their collective work on the different DNA repair pathways.

  11. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, Patrick van

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  12. Genetic and environmental influence on DNA strand break repair: a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Christian; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; Bürkle, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    factors are likely to influence DNA repair capacity. In order to gain more insight into the genetic and environmental contribution to the molecular basis of DNA repair, we have performed a human twin study, where we focused on the consequences of some of the most abundant types of DNA damage (single......Accumulation of DNA damage deriving from exogenous and endogenous sources has significant consequences for cellular survival, and is implicated in aging, cancer, and neurological diseases. Different DNA repair pathways have evolved in order to maintain genomic stability. Genetic and environmental......-strand breaks), and some of the most hazardous lesions (DNA double-strand breaks). DNA damage signaling response (Gamma-H2AX signaling), relative amount of endogenous damage, and DNA-strand break repair capacities were studied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 198 twins (94 monozygotic and 104...

  13. DNA-damage foci to detect and characterize DNA repair alterations in children treated for pediatric malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schuler

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In children diagnosed with cancer, we evaluated the DNA damage foci approach to identify patients with double-strand break (DSB repair deficiencies, who may overreact to DNA-damaging radio- and chemotherapy. In one patient with Fanconi anemia (FA suffering relapsing squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity we also characterized the repair defect in biopsies of skin, mucosa and tumor. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In children with histologically confirmed tumors or leukemias and healthy control-children DSB repair was investigated by counting γH2AX-, 53BP1- and pATM-foci in blood lymphocytes at defined time points after ex-vivo irradiation. This DSB repair capacity was correlated with treatment-related normal-tissue responses. For the FA patient the defective repair was also characterized in tissue biopsies by analyzing DNA damage response proteins by light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Between tumor-children and healthy control-children we observed significant differences in mean DSB repair capacity, suggesting that childhood cancer is based on genetic alterations affecting DNA repair. Only 1 out of 4 patients with grade-4 normal-tissue toxicities revealed an impaired DSB repair capacity. The defective DNA repair in FA patient was verified in irradiated blood lymphocytes as well as in non-irradiated mucosa and skin biopsies leading to an excessive accumulation of heterochromatin-associated DSBs in rapidly cycling cells. CONCLUSIONS: Analyzing human tissues we show that DSB repair alterations predispose to cancer formation at younger ages and affect the susceptibility to normal-tissue toxicities. DNA damage foci analysis of blood and tissue samples allows one to detect and characterize DSB repair deficiencies and enables identification of patients at risk for high-grade toxicities. However, not all treatment-associated normal-tissue toxicities can be explained by DSB repair deficiencies.

  14. Rethinking transcription coupled DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarthapu, Venu; Nudler, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an evolutionarily conserved, multistep process that can detect a wide variety of DNA lesions. Transcription coupled repair (TCR) is a subpathway of NER that repairs the transcribed DNA strand faster than the rest of the genome. RNA polymerase (RNAP) stalled at DNA lesions mediates the recruitment of NER enzymes to the damage site. In this review we focus on a newly identified bacterial TCR pathway in which the NER enzyme UvrD, in conjunction with NusA, plays a major role in initiating the repair process. We discuss the tradeoff between the new and conventional models of TCR, how and when each pathway operates to repair DNA damage, and the necessity of pervasive transcription in maintaining genome integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Repair With Soft Tissue Scaffolds

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Tears of the rotator cuff are one of the most common tendon disorders. Treatment often includes surgical repair, but the rate of failure to gain or maintain healing has been reported to be as high as 94%. This has been substantially attributed to the inadequate capacity of tendon to heal once damaged, particularly to bone at the enthesis. A number of strategies have been developed to improve tendon-bone healing, tendon-tendon healing, and tendon regeneration. Scaffolds have receive...

  16. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  17. Visual attention capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Starrfelt, Randi

    2009-01-01

    to patient testing, and review existing TVA-based patient studies organized by lesion anatomy. Lesions in three anatomical regions affect visual capacity: The parietal lobes, frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and extrastriate cortex. Visual capacity thus depends on large, bilaterally distributed anatomical...

  18. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Growth in rail traffic has not been matched by increases in railway infrastructure. Given this capacity challenge and the current restrictions on public spending, the allocation and the utilization of existing railway capacity are more important than ever. Great Britain has had the greatest growth...... in rail passenger kilometers of European countries since 1996. However, costs are higher and efficiency is lower than European best practice. This paper provides an innovative methodology for assessing the efficiency of passenger operators in capacity utilization. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) is used...... to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...

  19. Comparative DNA Damage and Repair in Echinoderm Coelomocytes Exposed to Genotoxicants

    OpenAIRE

    El-Bibany, Ameena H.; Bodnar, Andrea G.; Reinardy, Helena C.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to withstand and repair DNA damage differs among species and plays a role in determining an organism's resistance to genotoxicity, life history, and susceptibility to disease. Environmental stressors that affect organisms at the genetic level are of particular concern in ecotoxicology due to the potential for chronic effects and trans-generational impacts on populations. Echinoderms are valuable organisms to study the relationship between DNA repair and resistance to genotoxic st...

  20. Reward optimization of a repairable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, I.T. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad, s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: inmatorres@unex.es; Perez-Ocon, R. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avenida de Severo Ochoa, s/n. 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es

    2006-03-15

    This paper analyzes a system subject to repairable and non-repairable failures. Non-repairable failures lead to replacement of the system. Repairable failures, first lead to repair but they lead to replacement after a fixed number of repairs. Operating and repair times follow phase type distributions (PH-distributions) and the pattern of the operating times is modelled by a geometric process. In this context, the problem is to find the optimal number of repairs, which maximizes the long-run average reward per unit time. To this end, the optimal number is determined and it is obtained by efficient numerical procedures.

  1. REPAIR AND STRENGTHENING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS USING FIBRE REINFORCED POLIMER (FRP MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat ÇETİNKAYA

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of Fibre Reinforced Polimer (FRP materials for the repair and strengthening of Reinforced Concrete structures has become widespread recently. FRP materials are being prefered because they have very high tensile strength, resistance to corrosion and they do not affect the use of the building during the repair and strengthening process. Four reinfoced concrete beams repaired and strengthened with FRP materials have been used in this study which were performed at Pamukkale University-Faculty of Engineering- Civil Engineering Department- Structural Engineering Laboratuary. The behaviour of the beams before and after repair and strengthening was compared by obtaining the load- displacement curves under static loading. In this study, it was observed that the repair and strengthening of reinforced concrete beams by using FRP materials had increased the load carrying capacity significantly.

  2. Wound repair in Pocillopora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Villalobos, Jenny Carolina; Work, Thierry M.; Calderon-Aguileraa, Luis Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Corals routinely lose tissue due to causes ranging from predation to disease. Tissue healing and regeneration are fundamental to the normal functioning of corals, yet we know little about this process. We described the microscopic morphology of wound repair in Pocillopora damicornis. Tissue was removed by airbrushing fragments from three healthy colonies, and these were monitored daily at the gross and microscopic level for 40 days. Grossly, corals healed by Day 30, but repigmentation was not evident at the end of the study (40 d). On histology, from Day 8 onwards, tissues at the lesion site were microscopically indistinguishable from adjacent normal tissues with evidence of zooxanthellae in gastrodermis. Inflammation was not evident. P. damicornis manifested a unique mode of regeneration involving projections of cell-covered mesoglea from the surface body wall that anastomosed to form gastrovascular canals.

  3. Groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske

    2005-01-01

    The choice of anesthesia for groin hernia repair is between general, regional (epidural or spinal), and local anesthesia. Existing data from large consecutive patient series and randomized studies have shown local anesthesia to be the method of choice because it can be performed by the surgeon......, does not necessarily require an attending anesthesiologist, translates into the shortest recovery (bypassing the postanesthesia care unit), has the lowest cost, and has the lowest postoperative morbidity regarding risk of urinary retention. Spinal anesthesia has no documented benefits for this small...... scientific data to support the choice of anesthesia, large epidemiologic and nationwide information from databases show an undesirable high (about 10-20%) use of spinal anesthesia and low (about 10%) use of local infiltration anesthesia. Surgeons and anesthesiologists should therefore adjust their anesthesia...

  4. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  5. How to repair an episiotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Mary; Cummins, Bernie

    2016-02-17

    Rationale and key points Skilful repair of an episiotomy is an important aspect of maternal health care. It is essential that midwives and doctors have the knowledge and skills to undertake this procedure in a safe and effective manner. ▶ An episiotomy should be repaired promptly to reduce blood loss and prevent infection. ▶ Repair of an episiotomy is undertaken in three stages: repair of the vaginal mucosa, repair of the muscle layer and repair of the skin layer. ▶ Adequate pain relief should be provided before suturing. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. Why a rectal examination is recommended before and following repair of an episiotomy. 2. What you would do to improve your suturing skills. 3. The factors that may prevent or delay an episiotomy from healing. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio .

  6. DNA repair in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Fábio Teixeira; Carvalho, Fabíola Marques de; Bezerra e Silva, Uaska; Scortecci, Kátia Castanho; Blaha, Carlos Alfredo Galindo; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2004-03-31

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative beta-proteobacterium that inhabits a variety of ecosystems in tropical and subtropical regions, including the water and banks of the Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon. This bacterium has been the subject of extensive study over the last three decades, due to its biotechnological properties, including the characteristic violacein pigment, which has antimicrobial and anti-tumoral activities. C. violaceum promotes the solubilization of gold in a mercury-free process, and has been used in the synthesis of homopolyesters suitable for the production of biodegradable polymers. The complete genome sequence of this organism has been completed by the Brazilian National Genome Project Consortium. The aim of our group was to study the DNA repair genes in this organism, due to their importance in the maintenance of genomic integrity. We identified DNA repair genes involved in different pathways in C. violaceum through a similarity search against known sequences deposited in databases. The phylogenetic analyses were done using programs of the PHILYP package. This analysis revealed various metabolic pathways, including photoreactivation, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, recombinational repair, and the SOS system. The similarity between the C. violaceum sequences and those of Neisserie miningitidis and Ralstonia solanacearum was greater than that between the C. violaceum and Escherichia coli sequences. The peculiarities found in the C. violaceum genome were the absence of LexA, some horizontal transfer events and a large number of repair genes involved with alkyl and oxidative DNA damage.

  7. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  8. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from......Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...

  9. Autonomic Self-Repairing Glassy Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coillot, D.; Mear, F.O.; Montagne, L. [Univ Lille Nord France, CNRS, Unite Catalyse and Chim Solide, UMR 8181, F-59652 Villeneuve Dascq (France); Podor, R. [CEA Marcoule, CNRS UM2 ENSCM, Inst Chim Separat Marcoule, UMR 5257, 30 (France)

    2010-07-01

    A new process that enables glassy materials to self-repair from mechanical damage is presented in this paper. Contrary to intrinsic self-healing, which involves overheating to enable crack healing by glass softening, this process is based on an extrinsic effect produced by vanadium boride (VB) particles dispersed within the glass matrix. Self-repair is obtained through the oxidation of VB particles, and thus without the need to increase the operating temperature. The VB healing agent is selected for its capacity to oxidize at a lower temperature than the softening point of the glass. Thermogravimetric analyses indeed show that VB oxidation is rapid and occurs below the glass transition temperature. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates that VB is oxidized into V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which enable the local formation of glass. The autonomic self-healing effect is demonstrated by an in situ experiment visualized using an environmental scanning electron microscope. It is shown that a crack could be healed by the VB oxidation products. (authors)

  10. Cartilage repair: Generations of autologous chondrocyte transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlovits, Stefan [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: stefan.marlovits@meduniwien.ac.at; Zeller, Philip [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Singer, Philipp [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Resinger, Christoph [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Vecsei, Vilmos [Department of Traumatology, Center for Joint and Cartilage, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-01-15

    Articular cartilage in adults has a limited capacity for self-repair after a substantial injury. Surgical therapeutic efforts to treat cartilage defects have focused on delivering new cells capable of chondrogenesis into the lesions. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is an advanced cell-based orthobiologic technology used for the treatment of chondral defects of the knee that has been in clinical use since 1987 and has been performed on 12,000 patients internationally. With ACT, good to excellent clinical results are seen in isolated post-traumatic lesions of the knee joint in the younger patient, with the formation of hyaline or hyaline-like repair tissue. In the classic ACT technique, chondrocytes are isolated from small slices of cartilage harvested arthroscopically from a minor weight-bearing area of the injured knee. The extracellular matrix is removed by enzymatic digestion, and the cells are then expanded in monolayer culture. Once a sufficient number of cells has been obtained, the chondrocytes are implanted into the cartilage defect, using a periosteal patch over the defect as a method of cell containment. The major complications are periosteal hypertrophy, delamination of the transplant, arthrofibrosis and transplant failure. Further improvements in tissue engineering have contributed to the next generation of ACT techniques, where cells are combined with resorbable biomaterials, as in matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT). These biomaterials secure the cells in the defect area and enhance their proliferation and differentiation.

  11. Advanced Strategies for Articular Cartilage Defect Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal J. O'Brien

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage is a unique tissue owing to its ability to withstand repetitive compressive stress throughout an individual’s lifetime. However, its major limitation is the inability to heal even the most minor injuries. There still remains an inherent lack of strategies that stimulate hyaline-like articular cartilage growth with appropriate functional properties. Recent scientific advances in tissue engineering have made significant steps towards development of constructs for articular cartilage repair. In particular, research has shown the potential of biomaterial physico-chemical properties significantly influencing the proliferation, differentiation and matrix deposition by progenitor cells. Accordingly, this highlights the potential of using such properties to direct the lineage towards which such cells follow. Moreover, the use of soluble growth factors to enhance the bioactivity and regenerative capacity of biomaterials has recently been adopted by researchers in the field of tissue engineering. In addition, gene therapy is a growing area that has found noteworthy use in tissue engineering partly due to the potential to overcome some drawbacks associated with current growth factor delivery systems. In this context, such advanced strategies in biomaterial science, cell-based and growth factor-based therapies that have been employed in the restoration and repair of damaged articular cartilage will be the focus of this review article.

  12. 'Hide-then-hit' to explain the importance of genotypic polymorphism of DNA repair genes in determining susceptibility to cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Ei Wu; Chen-Yang Shen

    2011-01-01

    Interindividual variations in DNA repair capacity/efficiency linked to the presence of polymorphisms in DNA repair-related genes have been suggested to account for different risk of developing cancers. In this review article, on the basis of breast cancer formation as a model, we propose a 'hide-then-hit' hypothesis indicating the importance of escaping checkpoint surveillance for sub-optimal DNA repair variants to cause cancer. Therefore, only cells with subtle defects in repair capacity arising from low-penetrance variants of DNA repair genes would have the opportunity to grow and accumulate the genetic changes needed for cancer formation, without triggering cell-cycle checkpoint surveillance. Furthermore, distinct from high-penetrance alleles, these polymorphic alleles of DNA repair genes would predispose carriers to a higher risk of developing cancer but would not necessarily cause cancer. To examine this,we simultaneously genotyped multiple SNPs of cell-cycle checkpoint genes and the DNA repair genes. Support for the hypothesis came from observations that breast cancer risk associated with variant genotypes of DNA repair genes became more significant in be confirmed by biological evidence in which a cause-effect relationship has to be established. However, based on this, possible gene-gene interaction is considered to play an important role in modifying the cancer risk associated with genotypic polymorphism of DNA repair gene in different study populations.

  13. 40 CFR 798.5500 - Differential growth inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: âBacterial DNA damage or repair tests.â 798.5500 Section... inhibition of repair proficient and repair deficient bacteria: “Bacterial DNA damage or repair tests.” (a... killing or growth inhibition of repair deficient bacteria in a set of repair proficient and deficient...

  14. Bone repair and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2016-10-01

    Bones are an important component of vertebrates; they grow explosively in early life and maintain their strength throughout life. Bones also possess amazing capabilities to repair-the bone is like new without a scar after complete repair. In recent years, a substantial progress has been made in our understanding on mammalian bone stem cells. Mouse genetic models are powerful tools to understand the cell lineage, giving us better insights into stem cells that regulate bone growth, maintenance and repair. Recent findings about these stem cells raise new questions that require further investigations.

  15. Repairing and Upgrading Your PC

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Repairing and Upgrading Your PC delivers start-to-finish instructions, simple enough for even the most inexperienced PC owner, for troubleshooting, repairing, and upgrading your computer. Written by hardware experts Robert Bruce Thompson and Barbara Fritchman Thompson, this book covers it all: how to troubleshoot a troublesome PC, how to identify which components make sense for an upgrade, and how to tear it all down and put it back together. This book shows how to repair and upgrade all of your PC's essential components.

  16. Laparoscopic repair of incisional hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, H; Lee, F; Patil, N G

    2001-09-01

    A 75-year-old man developed an incisional hernia over the upper abdomen following a wedge resection of a gastric stromal tumour in 1996. This is the first published report of a successful repair of an incisional hernia via a laparoscopic intraperitoneal on-lay technique using GORE-TEX DualMesh material in Hong Kong. Compared with conventional open repair of incisional hernia, long incisions and wound tension are avoided using the laparoscopic approach. This translates into a reduced risk of wound-related complications and facilitates recovery. In selected cases, minimally invasive surgery is a safe technique for the repair of incisional hernias.

  17. [Inguinal and femoral hernia repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, B; Anthuber, M

    2011-05-01

    With an incidence of 200,000 new cases per year in Germany, inguinal hernia has a significant socioeconomic impact. The 2009 guidelines from the European Hernia Society established treatment recommendations. Hernia repair is based on reinforcing the posterior wall of the inguinal canal by suture or mesh repair by an anterior or posterior approach. Lightweight mesh reduces recurrence rates and is the treatment of choice even in primary hernias. Laparoscopic hernia repair is associated with specific risks but is superior in postoperative pain and earlier return to work.

  18. DNA Repair in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Is Distinct from That in Non-Pluripotent Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li Z.; Park, Sang-Won; Bates, Steven E.; Zeng, Xianmin; Iverson, Linda E.; O'Connor, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    The potential for human disease treatment using human pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), also carries the risk of added genomic instability. Genomic instability is most often linked to DNA repair deficiencies, which indicates that screening/characterization of possible repair deficiencies in pluripotent human stem cells should be a necessary step prior to their clinical and research use. In this study, a comparison of DNA repair pathways in pluripotent cells, as compared to those in non-pluripotent cells, demonstrated that DNA repair capacities of pluripotent cell lines were more heterogeneous than those of differentiated lines examined and were generally greater. Although pluripotent cells had high DNA repair capacities for nucleotide excision repair, we show that ultraviolet radiation at low fluxes induced an apoptotic response in these cells, while differentiated cells lacked response to this stimulus, and note that pluripotent cells had a similar apoptotic response to alkylating agent damage. This sensitivity of pluripotent cells to damage is notable since viable pluripotent cells exhibit less ultraviolet light-induced DNA damage than do differentiated cells that receive the same flux. In addition, the importance of screening pluripotent cells for DNA repair defects was highlighted by an iPSC line that demonstrated a normal spectral karyotype, but showed both microsatellite instability and reduced DNA repair capacities in three out of four DNA repair pathways examined. Together, these results demonstrate a need to evaluate DNA repair capacities in pluripotent cell lines, in order to characterize their genomic stability, prior to their pre-clinical and clinical use. PMID:22412831

  19. CO diffusion capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, U.

    1979-01-01

    We measured in 287 persons the pulmonary CO diffusion capacity with the steady-state and the single breath methods, applying apnoeic periods of 4 and 10 seconds duration. The aspects methodical significance, polyclinical applicability and pathognostic relevance with respect to other approved pulmonary functional tests are discussed. Differing pulmonary diffusion capacity values found in normal persons or in patients suffering from silicosis, pulmonary fibrosis, Boeck's disease or rheumatoid arthritis, were investigated and critically evaluated.

  20. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  1. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  2. Large myelomeningocele repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Nejat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound closure is accomplished in most cases of myelomeningocele (MMC by undermining of the skin edges surrounding the defect. However, large defects cannot be closed reliably by this simple technique. Due to the technical challenge associated with large MMC, surgeons have devised different methods for repairing large defects. In this paper, we report our experience of managing large defects, which we believe bears a direct relationship to decrease the incidence of wound complications. Materials and Methods: Forty children with large MMCs underwent surgical repair and represent our experience. We recommend using all hairy skin around the defect as a way to decrease the tension on the edges of the wound and the possible subsequent necrosis. It is our experience that vertical incision on one or two flanks parallel to the midline can decrease the tension of the wound. Moreover, ventriculo-peritoneal shunting for children who developed hydrocephalus was performed simultaneously, which constitutes another recommendation for preventing fluid collection and build up of pressure on the wound. Results: Patients in this study were in the age range of 2 days to 8 years. The most common location of MMC was in the thoracolumbar area. All but four patients had severe weakness in lower extremities. We used as much hairy skin around the MMC sac as possible in all cases. Vertical incisions on one or both flanks and simultaneous shunt procedure were performed in 36 patients. We treated children with large MMC defects with acceptable tension-free closure. Nonetheless, three patients developed superficial skin infection and partial wound dehiscence, and they were managed conservatively. Conclusions: We recommend using all hairy skin around the MMC defect for closure of large defects. In cases that were expected to be at a higher risk to develop dehiscence release incisions on one or two flanks towards the fascia were found to be useful. Simultaneous

  3. Ku80-deleted cells are defective at base excision repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Han [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid 28029 (Spain); Marple, Teresa [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Hasty, Paul, E-mail: hastye@uthscsa.edu [The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, The Institute of Biotechnology, The Department of Molecular Medicine, 15355 Lambda Drive, San Antonio, TX 78245-3207 (United States); Tumor Suppression Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid 28029 (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ku80-deleted cells are hypersensitive to ROS and alkylating agents. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Ku70 or Lig4, have reduced BER capacity. • OGG1 rescues hypersensitivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and paraquat in Ku80-mutant cells. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4, are defective at repairing AP sites. • Cells deleted for Ku80, but not Lig4 or Brca2 exon 27, exhibit increased PAR. - Abstract: Ku80 forms a heterodimer with Ku70, called Ku, that repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via the nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. As a consequence of deleting NHEJ, Ku80-mutant cells are hypersensitive to agents that cause DNA DSBs like ionizing radiation. Here we show that Ku80 deletion also decreased resistance to ROS and alkylating agents that typically cause base lesions and single-strand breaks (SSBs). This is unusual since base excision repair (BER), not NHEJ, typically repairs these types of lesions. However, we show that deletion of another NHEJ protein, DNA ligase IV (Lig4), did not cause hypersensitivity to these agents. In addition, the ROS and alkylating agents did not induce γ-H2AX foci that are diagnostic of DSBs. Furthermore, deletion of Ku80, but not Lig4 or Ku70, reduced BER capacity. Ku80 deletion also impaired BER at the initial lesion recognition/strand scission step; thus, involvement of a DSB is unlikely. Therefore, our data suggests that Ku80 deletion impairs BER via a mechanism that does not repair DSBs.

  4. A Two-Unit Cold Standby Repairable System with One Replaceable Repair Facility and Delay Repair:Some Reliability Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ying-yuan; TANG Ying-hui

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers a two-unit same cold standby repairable system with a replaceable repair facility and delay repair .The failure time of unit is assumed to follow exponential distribution , and the repair time and delay time of failed unit are assumed to follow arbitrary distributions , whereas the failure and replacement time distributions of the repair facility are exponential and arbitrary . By using the Markov renewal process theory, some primary reliability quantities of the system are obtained.

  5. Production, Purification, and Characterization of ¹⁵N-Labeled DNA Repair Proteins as Internal Standards for Mass Spectrometric Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Prasad T; Jaruga, Pawel; Nelson, Bryant C; Lowenthal, Mark S; Jemth, Ann-Sofie; Loseva, Olga; Coskun, Erdem; Helleday, Thomas; Dizdaroglu, Miral

    2016-01-01

    Oxidatively induced DNA damage is caused in living organisms by a variety of damaging agents, resulting in the formation of a multiplicity of lesions, which are mutagenic and cytotoxic. Unless repaired by DNA repair mechanisms before DNA replication, DNA lesions can lead to genomic instability, which is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Oxidatively induced DNA damage is mainly repaired by base excision repair pathway with the involvement of a plethora of proteins. Cancer tissues develop greater DNA repair capacity than normal tissues by overexpressing DNA repair proteins. Increased DNA repair in tumors that removes DNA lesions generated by therapeutic agents before they became toxic is a major mechanism in the development of therapy resistance. Evidence suggests that DNA repair capacity may be a predictive biomarker of patient response. Thus, knowledge of DNA-protein expressions in disease-free and cancerous tissues may help predict and guide development of treatments and yield the best therapeutic response. Our laboratory has developed methodologies that use mass spectrometry with isotope dilution for the measurement of expression of DNA repair proteins in human tissues and cultured cells. For this purpose, full-length (15)N-labeled analogs of a number of human DNA repair proteins have been produced and purified to be used as internal standards for positive identification and accurate quantification. This chapter describes in detail the protocols of this work. The use of (15)N-labeled proteins as internal standards for the measurement of several DNA repair proteins in vivo is also presented.

  6. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1024 Section 63.1024... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1024 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical, but not later than 15...

  7. 40 CFR 65.105 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 65.105 Section 65.105... FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.105 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical but not later than 15 calendar days after it...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... successful repair of the leak. (3) Maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1005 Section 63.1005... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1005 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner...

  9. DNA repair deficiency in neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Stevnsner, Tinna V.

    2011-01-01

    : homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining. Ataxia telangiectasia and related disorders with defects in these pathways illustrate that such defects can lead to early childhood neurodegeneration. Aging is a risk factor for neurodegeneration and accumulation of oxidative mitochondrial DNA damage......Deficiency in repair of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage has been linked to several neurodegenerative disorders. Many recent experimental results indicate that the post-mitotic neurons are particularly prone to accumulation of unrepaired DNA lesions potentially leading to progressive...... neurodegeneration. Nucleotide excision repair is the cellular pathway responsible for removing helix-distorting DNA damage and deficiency in such repair is found in a number of diseases with neurodegenerative phenotypes, including Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome. The main pathway for repairing oxidative...

  10. Early days of DNA repair: discovery of nucleotide excision repair and homology-dependent recombinational repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, W Dean

    2013-12-13

    The discovery of nucleotide excision repair in 1964 showed that DNA could be repaired by a mechanism that removed the damaged section of a strand and replaced it accurately by using the remaining intact strand as the template. This result showed that DNA could be actively metabolized in a process that had no precedent. In 1968, experiments describing postreplication repair, a process dependent on homologous recombination, were reported. The authors of these papers were either at Yale University or had prior Yale connections. Here we recount some of the events leading to these discoveries and consider the impact on further research at Yale and elsewhere.

  11. Construction, repair and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinger, R. [Terasen Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wong, P. [KC Integrity Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Yeomans, M.; Glover, A. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The presentations by Working Group 4 focused on construction, repair and maintenance of pipelines with particular reference to high-strength steels and their applications for natural gas transmission pipelines. Discussions focused on how technology can be used to provide cost-effective design and construction solutions for long distance pipelines in a manner that does not compromise safety and reliability. The role that carbon plays in increasing the toughness of steel was also discussed. A few fundamental changes in steel production technology and a reduction in carbon content can result in a simultaneous increase in strength and toughness of steels. The cost impact of this technology was summarized. It was concluded that high strength steels offer effective solutions to deliver cost-effective pipelines to transport natural gas from northern basins. This session also presented pipeline routes that transport diluted bitumens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Project and the Muskeg River Mine to upgrader facilities in Alberta. Construction issues included design conservatism, water course crossings, winter construction, winter ditching, and public consultation. Examples of high strength steel pipe applications were also included with reference to experience gained by TransCanada and Corridor Pipeline. tabs., figs.

  12. OPERATION STUDY OF DIFFERENT STRUCTURAL OPTIONS OF FLEXIBLE FLOWS FOR CAR REPAIR USING SIMULATION MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to improve the methods of car repair organization using the search of rational structures of flexible flows. Methodology. For operation analyses of the car repair flows the simulation modeling was used. The initial data for random value generation of cars repair duration are the statistical data. They were collected at the existing car repair enterprises. Findings. Obtained results show that at the same amount of modules the flexible repair flow is more efficient. Flexible flow increases the working capacity, improves the removal of cars from one module and reduces car detention time in repair. Originality. There were identified the mechanisms, which allow establishing links between the different structural variants of flexible flow and their operational performance. Concrete data that give a fresh look to the organization of car repair production were obtained. Practical value. These results can be used in designing the new perspective enterprises for car repair and also under reconstruction or expansion of existing enterprises in order to transfer them to the flexible flow. It is recommended to incorporate the obtained results and try to put them into production during designing and construction of new car enterprises.

  13. Approach to In Situ Component Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) for Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Oeftering, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance resupply is a significant issue for long duration space missions. Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) approaches maintenance primarily around replaceable modules called Orbital Replacement Units (ORU). While swapping out ORUs has served the ISS well keeping crew time for maintenance to a minimum, this approach assumes a substantial logistics capacity to provide replacement ORUs and return ORUs to Earth for repair. The ORUs used for ISS require relatively large blocks of replacement hardware even though the actual failed component may be several orders of magnitude smaller. The Component Level Electronics Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task was created to explore electronics repair down to the component level for future space missions. From 2006 to 2009, CLEAR was an activity under the Supportability project of the Exploration Technology Development Program. This paper describes the activities of CLEAR including making a case for component-level electronics repair, examination of current terrestrial repair hardware, and potential repair needs. Based on those needs, the CLEAR team proposes an architecture for an in-situ repair capability aboard a spacecraft or habitat. Additionally, this paper discusses recent progress toward developing in-space repair capabilities--including two spaceflight experiments-- and presents technology concepts which could help enable or benefit the same.

  14. Laparoscopic repair of postoperative perineal hernia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Perineal hernias are infrequent complications following abdominoperineal operations. Various approaches have been described for repair of perineal hernias including open transabdominal, transperineal or combined abdominoperineal repairs. The use of laparoscopic transabdominal repair of perineal hernias is not well-described. We present a case report demonstrating the benefits of laparoscopic repair of perineal hernia following previous laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (APR) using a nonabsorbable mesh to repair the defect. We have demonstrated that the use of laparoscopy with repair of the pelvic floor defect using a non absorbable synthetic mesh offers an excellent alternative with many potential advantages over open transabdominal and transperineal repairs.

  15. Umbilical and epigastric hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschaweck, Ulrike

    2003-10-01

    The repair of umbilical and epigastric hernias still represents a challenge to surgeons. Although a common and relatively simple procedure, there is no exact protocol today on how the repair should be done. The Mayo technique and its alterations could not stand the test of time: a recurrence rate of 20% and higher is not acceptable for any surgical procedure. Although there is no consensus opinion, one thing is clear: the importance of an anatomic repair without tension and without an artificial enlargement of the defect. In 1987 Lichtenstein reported on 6321 cases of herniorraphy with a tension free repair, and in 1994 Stuart reemphasized that special importance in his editorial in the Lancet. A newer study from Brancato and coworkers in Italy also states the advantage of a tension-free prosthetic repair in 16 patients with epigastric hernia. We have gone even further and recommend a tailored-to-the-patient repair using a customized polypropylene mesh and a one-layer running suture. The advantages should be obvious: no artificial creation of an even bigger than original defect, a completely tension-free repair, and little to no recurrence of the hernia. Our results clearly prove that assumption. Moreover, the procedure is extremely safe and complications are very rare and minor. We conclude that using a mesh plug in a customized tension-free repair of umbilical and epigastric hernia shows many advantages over the commonly used methods. And we finally conclude with the words of Albert Einstein: "The only source of knowledge is experience."

  16. Repair Types, Procedures - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    New Jersey, USA. Repair Types, Procedures – Part I RTO-EN-AVT-156 9 - 19 [5] Drieker R, Botello C, MacBeth S, and Grody J, “Aircraft Battle... MacBeth S, and Grody J, “Aircraft Battle Damage Assessment and Repair (ABDAR), Vol. III: Field Test Report,” AFRL-HE-WP-TR-2002-0039, July 2000. [8

  17. Hand function after nerve repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Lundborg, Göran; Rosén, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of injuries to major nerve trunks in the hand and upper extremity remains a major and challenging reconstructive problem. Such injuries may cause long-lasting disabilities in terms of lost fine sensory and motor functions. Nowadays there is no surgical repair technique that can ensure recovery of tactile discrimination in the hand of an adult patient following nerve repair while very young individuals usually regain a complete recovery of functional sensibility. Post-traumatic nerve...

  18. Cobbler's technique for Iridodialysis repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surinder Singh Pandav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel “Cobbler's technique” for iridodialysis repair in the right eye of a patient aged 18 years, with a traumatic iridodialysis secondary to open globe injury with an iron rod. Our technique is simple with easy surgical maneuvers, that is, effective for repairing iridodialysis. The “Cobbler's technique” allows a maximally functional and cosmetic result for iridodialysis.

  19. Rehabilitation after Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Ourania; Migkou, Stefania; Karampalis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a very common condition that is often incapacitating. Whether non-surgical or surgical, successful management of rotator cuff disease is dependent on appropriate rehabilitation. If conservative management is insufficient, surgical repair is often indicated. Postsurgical outcomes for patients having had rotator cuff repair can be quite good. A successful outcome is much dependent on surgical technique as it is on rehabilitation. Numerous rehabilitation protocols for the management of rotator cuff disease are based primarily on clinical experience and expert opinion. This article describes the different rehabilitation protocols that aim to protect the repair in the immediate postoperative period, minimize postoperative stiffness and muscle atrophy. A review of currently available literature on rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair was performed to illustrate the available evidence behind various postoperative treatment modalities. There were no statistically significant differences between a conservative and an accelerated rehabilitation protocol . Early passive range of motion (ROM) following arthroscopic cuff repair is thought to decrease postoperative stiffness and improve functionality. However, early aggressive rehabilitation may compromise repair integrity. The currently available literature did not identify any significant differences in functional outcomes and relative risks of re-tears between delayed and early motion in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs. A gentle rehabilitation protocol with limits in range of motion and exercise times after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair would be better for tendon healing without taking any substantial risks. A close communication between the surgeon, the patient and the physical therapy team is important and should continue throughout the whole recovery process.

  20. Repairing Learned Knowledge Using Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    It necessar and Identify by’ 6109h nii be) learning precedent-based learning knowledge repair explanation-based learning near - miss groups 20. ABSTRACT...can a program use explanations to repair a recollection, preventing further misapplication? Near - Miss Groups Isolate Suspicious Relations If a metal...pail differs from a porcelain cup only in the position of handle attachment, then we would say that the pail is a near miss . Unfortunately, there are

  1. Aircraft Metal Skin Repair and Honeycomb Structure Repair; Sheet Metal Work 3: 9857.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course helps students determine types of repairs, compute repair sizes, and complete the repair through surface protection. Course content includes goals, specific objectives, protection of metals, repairs to metal skin, and honeycomb structure repair. A bibliography and post-test are appended. A prerequisite for this course is mastery of the…

  2. Base excision repair in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnez-Lima Lucymara F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

  3. Scarf Repair of Composite Laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zonghong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of composite materials, such as carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites, aero-structures has led to an increased need of advanced assembly joining and repair technologies. Adhesive bonded repairs as an alternative to recover full or part of initial strength were investigated. Tests were conducted with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of techniques used for repairing damage fiber reinforced laminated composites. Failure loads and failure modes were generated and compared with the following parameters: scarf angles, roughness of grind tool and number of external plies. Results showed that scarf angle was the critical parameter and the largest tensile strength was observed with the smallest scarf angle. Besides, the use of external plies at the outer surface could not increase the repairs efficiency for large scarf angle. Preparing the repair surfaces by sanding them with a sander ranging from 60 to 100 grit number had significant effect on the failure load. These results allowed the proposal of design principles for repairing CFRP structures.

  4. Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Repair With Soft Tissue Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangarajah, Tanujan; Pendegrass, Catherine J.; Shahbazi, Shirin; Lambert, Simon; Alexander, Susan; Blunn, Gordon W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Tears of the rotator cuff are one of the most common tendon disorders. Treatment often includes surgical repair, but the rate of failure to gain or maintain healing has been reported to be as high as 94%. This has been substantially attributed to the inadequate capacity of tendon to heal once damaged, particularly to bone at the enthesis. A number of strategies have been developed to improve tendon-bone healing, tendon-tendon healing, and tendon regeneration. Scaffolds have received considerable attention for replacement, reconstruction, or reinforcement of tendon defects but may not possess situation-specific or durable mechanical and biological characteristics. Purpose To provide an overview of the biology of tendon-bone healing and the current scaffolds used to augment rotator cuff repairs. Study Design Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods A preliminary literature search of MEDLINE and Embase databases was performed using the terms rotator cuff scaffolds, rotator cuff augmentation, allografts for rotator cuff repair, xenografts for rotator cuff repair, and synthetic grafts for rotator cuff repair. Results The search identified 438 unique articles. Of these, 214 articles were irrelevant to the topic and were therefore excluded. This left a total of 224 studies that were suitable for analysis. Conclusion A number of novel biomaterials have been developed into biologically and mechanically favorable scaffolds. Few clinical trials have examined their effect on tendon-bone healing in well-designed, long-term follow-up studies with appropriate control groups. While there is still considerable work to be done before scaffolds are introduced into routine clinical practice, there does appear to be a clear indication for their use as an interpositional graft for large and massive retracted rotator cuff tears and when repairing a poor-quality degenerative tendon. PMID:26665095

  5. Aging and DNA repair capability. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tice, R R

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature on DNA repair processes in relation to aging is presented under the following headings: DNA repair processes; age-related occurrence of unrepaired DNA lesions; DNA repair capability as a function of age; tissue-specific DNA repair capability; acceleration of the aging process by exposure to DNA damaging agents; human genetic syndromes; and longevity and DNA repair processes. (HLW)

  6. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  7. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  8. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  9. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  10. 利用高效液相色谱-动态反应池模式-等离子体质谱法测定水稻中的砷形态%SPECIATION OF ARSENIC IN RICE USING HPLC-DRC-ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲梅; 韦朝阳

    2010-01-01

    利用HPLC-DRC-ICP-MS测定了水稻中4种砷的形态As(Ⅲ)、DMA(Ⅴ)、MMA(Ⅴ)、As(Ⅴ),比较了两种提取剂的优劣.结果表明,三氟乙酸提取剂在提取率及加标回收率两方面均优于甲醇-水.HPLC-DRC-ICP-MS具快速、可自动分析的特点,提取液中上述4种不同形态的砷可在7min内采用等度洗脱法得以有效地分离,其检测限低于0.1 mg·kg-1.

  11. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits,...

  12. Aberrant repair and fibrosis development in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Christopher J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The repair process of damaged tissue involves the coordinated activities of several cell types in response to local and systemic signals. Following acute tissue injury, infiltrating inflammatory cells and resident stem cells orchestrate their activities to restore tissue homeostasis. However, during chronic tissue damage, such as in muscular dystrophies, the inflammatory-cell infiltration and fibroblast activation persists, while the reparative capacity of stem cells (satellite cells is attenuated. Abnormal dystrophic muscle repair and its end stage, fibrosis, represent the final common pathway of virtually all chronic neurodegenerative muscular diseases. As our understanding of the pathogenesis of muscle fibrosis has progressed, it has become evident that the muscle provides a useful model for the regulation of tissue repair by the local microenvironment, showing interplay among muscle-specific stem cells, inflammatory cells, fibroblasts and extracellular matrix components of the mammalian wound-healing response. This article reviews the emerging findings of the mechanisms that underlie normal versus aberrant muscle-tissue repair.

  13. p53 downregulates the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Sara; Toufektchan, Eléonore; Lejour, Vincent; Bardot, Boris; Toledo, Franck

    2016-04-01

    Germline mutations affecting telomere maintenance or DNA repair may, respectively, cause dyskeratosis congenita or Fanconi anaemia, two clinically related bone marrow failure syndromes. Mice expressing p53(Δ31), a mutant p53 lacking the C terminus, model dyskeratosis congenita. Accordingly, the increased p53 activity in p53(Δ31/Δ31) fibroblasts correlated with a decreased expression of 4 genes implicated in telomere syndromes. Here we show that these cells exhibit decreased mRNA levels for additional genes contributing to telomere metabolism, but also, surprisingly, for 12 genes mutated in Fanconi anaemia. Furthermore, p53(Δ31/Δ31) fibroblasts exhibit a reduced capacity to repair DNA interstrand crosslinks, a typical feature of Fanconi anaemia cells. Importantly, the p53-dependent downregulation of Fanc genes is largely conserved in human cells. Defective DNA repair is known to activate p53, but our results indicate that, conversely, an increased p53 activity may attenuate the Fanconi anaemia DNA repair pathway, defining a positive regulatory feedback loop.

  14. Survey of Active Structural Control and Repair Using Piezoelectric Patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abuzaid

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The piezoelectric actuator has gained popularity over the last few years. Attention has been directed towards the study of their electromechanical response in active repair and the control of damaged structures. This has been made possible through the development of various numerical and analytical techniques for such studies. The shift of focus towards the piezoelectric based approaches has been due to their advantages, which include strategic cost benefits in maintenance, as well as an increase in the life cycle of the repaired structures. Furthermore, adhesively bonded joints are widely used in the manufacturing and repairing of structures in many industries, especially automotive and aerospace engineering. This is due to the requirement for lightweight materials as well as the potential adhesive used to join materials with different characteristics. The piezoelectric actuator has also shown the capacity in controlling and lowering the shear stress concentration and joint edge peel in adhesively bonded joint systems. The structure’s control of stress and repair can generally be viewed as a reinforcement that influences the structure’s damage tolerance. Therefore, the interest of this review is on the applications of the piezoelectric actuators in both structural damage and the bonded adhesive joint system. The specific goal is to recognize the contemporary scientific challenges, including future opportunities.

  15. Repairing the breech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry C. Boyte

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main obstacle to genuine and productive partnerships between institutions of higher education and the professionals they prepare, on the one side, and communities, on the other, is a “knowledge war,” full of invisible hierarchies and exclusions, producing a hypercompetitive achievement culture. This knowledge war dramatically limits communities’ and citizens’ ability to act on the problems they face today. It also sharply erodes the power of higher education, professionals, and civic leaders to help shape the culture in democratic ways.We have to get beyond arrogant experts and aggrieved communities if we want to develop communities’ capacities to solve problems and also to generate a larger vision of a good society. Community is the living context for evaluating expert knowledge. But without engagement with other ways of knowing appeal to community knowledge can easily produce a Know-Nothing reaction to the larger world.If we are to build communities’ civic agency – capacities to work across differences to meet our common challenges – we need to democratize the politics of knowledge and end the knowledge war. This requires learning from effective community organizing the idea of “schools for public life,” where ordinary people develop skills, habits, and confidence of citizenship. It also means creating what might be called middle spaces, not owned by academics or professionals, but open to academic and scientific knowledge, where different ways of knowing and acting intermingle in creative ways. Middle spaces put science and academic knowledge in the mix, “on tap, not on top.” They also recognize the power and the limits of communal knowledge.Keywordscivic agency, cultural organizing, knowledge war

  16. Testamentary capacity and delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptzin, Benjamin; Peisah, Carmelle; Shulman, Kenneth; Finkel, Sanford

    2010-09-01

    With the aging of the population there will be a substantial transfer of wealth in the next 25 years. The presence of delirium can complicate the evaluation of an older person's testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence but has not been well examined in the existing literature. A subcommittee of the IPA Task Force on Testamentary Capacity and Undue Influence undertook to review how to assess prospectively and retrospectively testamentary capacity and susceptibility to undue influence in patients with delirium. The subcommittee identified questions that should be asked in cases where someone changes their will or estate plan towards the end of their life in the presence of delirium. These questions include: was there consistency in the patient's wishes over time? Were these wishes expressed during a "lucid interval" when the person was less confused? Were the patient's wishes clearly expressed in response to open-ended questions? Is there clear documentation of the patient's mental status at the time of the discussion? This review with some case examples provides guidance on how to consider the question of testamentary capacity or susceptibility to undue influence in someone undergoing an episode of delirium.

  17. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  18. Estimating the effect of human base excision repair protein variants on the repair of oxidative DNA base damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhansanj, Bahrad A; Wilson, David M

    2006-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies have revealed a complex association between human genetic variance and cancer risk. Quantitative biological modeling based on experimental data can play a critical role in interpreting the effect of genetic variation on biochemical pathways relevant to cancer development and progression. Defects in human DNA base excision repair (BER) proteins can reduce cellular tolerance to oxidative DNA base damage caused by endogenous and exogenous sources, such as exposure to toxins and ionizing radiation. If not repaired, DNA base damage leads to cell dysfunction and mutagenesis, consequently leading to cancer, disease, and aging. Population screens have identified numerous single-nucleotide polymorphism variants in many BER proteins and some have been purified and found to exhibit mild kinetic defects. Epidemiologic studies have led to conflicting conclusions on the association between single-nucleotide polymorphism variants in BER proteins and cancer risk. Using experimental data for cellular concentration and the kinetics of normal and variant BER proteins, we apply a previously developed and tested human BER pathway model to (i) estimate the effect of mild variants on BER of abasic sites and 8-oxoguanine, a prominent oxidative DNA base modification, (ii) identify ranges of variation associated with substantial BER capacity loss, and (iii) reveal nonintuitive consequences of multiple simultaneous variants. Our findings support previous work suggesting that mild BER variants have a minimal effect on pathway capacity whereas more severe defects and simultaneous variation in several BER proteins can lead to inefficient repair and potentially deleterious consequences of cellular damage.

  19. Dorsal variant blister aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couldwell, William T; Chamoun, Roukoz

    2012-01-01

    Dorsal variant proximal carotid blister aneurysms are treacherous lesions to manage. It is important to recognize this variant on preoperative angiographic imaging, in anticipation of surgical strategies for their treatment. Strategies include trapping the involved segment and revascularization if necessary. Other options include repair of the aneurysm rupture site directly. Given that these are not true berry aneurysms, repair of the rupture site involves wrapping or clip-grafting techniques. The case presented here was a young woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dorsal variant blister aneurysm. The technique used is demonstrated in the video and is a modified clip-wrap technique using woven polyester graft material. The patient was given aspirin preoperatively as preparation for the clip-wrap technique. It is the authors' current protocol to attempt a direct repair with clip-wrapping and leaving artery sacrifice with or without bypass as a salvage therapy if direct repair is not possible. Assessment of vessel patency after repair is performed by intraoperative Doppler and indocyanine green angiography. Intraoperative somatosensory and motor evoked potential monitoring is performed in all cases. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/crUreWGQdGo.

  20. Stem cells for brain repair and recovery after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, María; Rodríguez-Frutos, Berta; Ramos-Cejudo, Jaime; Otero-Ortega, Laura; Fuentes, Blanca; Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2013-11-01

    Stroke is a major worldwide cause of death and disability. Currently, intravenous thrombolysis and reperfusion therapies, but not the so-called neuroprotectant drugs, have been shown to be effective for acute ischemic stroke. Thus, new strategies to promote brain plasticity are necessary. Stem cell administration is an attractive future therapeutic approach. Brain protection and repair mechanisms are activated after stroke. This article is focused on the capacity of stem cell-based therapy to enhance this postinfarct brain plasticity and recovery. Future therapeutic considerations and prospects for stroke are discussed. Although cell therapy is promising in stroke treatment, mechanisms of action need to be characterized in detail. Further, the different mechanisms of axonal plasticity and remodeling involucrated in brain repair, not only in the gray but also in white matter, must be investigated through noninvasive techniques, and a multidisciplinary approach is fundamental in this.

  1. Bone-Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Organ Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are prototypical adult stem cells with the capacity for self-renewal and differentiation with a broad tissue distribution. MSCs not only differentiate into types of cells of mesodermal lineage but also into endodermal and ectodermal lineages such as bone, fat, cartilage and cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, lung epithelial cells, hepatocytes, neurons, and pancreatic islets. MSCs have been identified as an adherent, fibroblast-like population and can be isolated from different adult tissues, including bone marrow (BM, umbilical cord, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. MSCs secrete factors, including IL-6, M-CSF, IL-10, HGF, and PGE2, that promote tissue repair, stimulate proliferation and differentiation of endogenous tissue progenitors, and decrease inflammatory and immune reactions. In this paper, we focus on the role of BM-derived MSCs in organ repair.

  2. Determination of glyphosate and AMPA in surface and waste water using high-performance ion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (HPIC-ICP-DRC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Maximilian; Hann, Stephan; Mentler, Axel; Fuerhacker, Maria; Stingeder, Gerhard; Koellensperger, Gunda

    2008-05-01

    A novel method employing high-performance cation chromatography in combination with inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS) for the simultaneous determination of the herbicide glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) and its main metabolite aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) is presented. P was measured as (31)P(16)O(+) using oxygen as reaction gas. For monitoring the stringent target value of 0.1 μg L(-1) for glyphosate, applicable for drinking and surface water within the EU, a two-step enrichment procedure employing Chelex 100 and AG1-X8 resins was applied prior to HPIC-ICP-MS analysis. The presented approach was validated for surface water, revealing concentrations of 0.67 μg L(-1) glyphosate and 2.8 μg L(-1) AMPA in selected Austrian river water samples. Moreover, investigations at three waste water-treatment plants showed that elimination of the compounds at the present concentration levels was not straightforward. On the contrary, all investigated plant effluents showed significant amounts of both compounds. Concentration levels ranged from 0.5-2 μg L(-1) and 4-14 μg L(-1) for glyphosate and AMPA, respectively.

  3. 适合直接驱动型风力发电系统的DRC混合箝位变流器研究%DRC-clamped inverter for direct-drive wind power system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建林; 胡书举; 付勋波; 许洪华

    2009-01-01

    针对直接驱动型风力发电系统中需要的全功率变流器,提出了一种基于箝位二极管、电阻、电容DRC(Diode Resistor Capacitor)混合箝位的三电平变流器,并采用载波相移正弦脉宽调制CPS-SPWM(Carrierplaase shifted SPWM)技术产生控制脉冲.仿真结果表明,该变流器输出波形正确,等效开关频率提高了1倍,最低次载波谐波移至载波频率2倍的位置,并具有自动平衡电容电压,电容充放电电流呈周期性变化且无电流尖峰冲击等优点.

  4. 刚果(金)氧化铜矿硫酸浸出的研究%Study on Sulfuric Acid Leaching of Oxidized Copper Ore f rom Congo (DRC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 胡重; 刘岩

    2014-01-01

    研究了刚果(金)Shamitunba氧化铜矿的浸出过程。详细考察了矿石粒度、初始酸浓度、浸出温度、浸出时间、还原剂加入量及其它因素对铜和钴浸出率的影响。考察了浸出矿浆沉降、过滤和洗涤的效果。试验结果表明,在最佳试验条件下,铜、钴的浸出率分别为95.32%,41.99%。浸出液含铜4.47 g/L ,浸出液含钴0.032 g/L。%Leaching process of oxidized copper ore from Shamitunba in Congo(DRC)was studied .Influences of ore size 、initial acid concentration、leaching temperature、leaching time、dosage of reductant and others on the leaching rate of copper and cobalt were investigated in detail .Effect of settling 、filtration and washing of leaching pulp were examined . Experimental resalts indicated that the leaching rate of copper and cobalt is 95 .32% and 41 .99% respectively under the optimum conditions . The copper content in leaching solution is 4 .47 g/L ,and cobalt is 0 .032 g/L .

  5. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw ChiaHwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  6. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  7. Polymorphisms of the DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XRCC3 in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Márcia Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In several DNA repair genes, polymorphisms may result in reduced repair capacity, which has been implicated as a risk factor for various types of cancer. The frequency of the polymorphic alleles varies among populations, suggesting an ethnic distribution of genotypes. We genotyped 300 healthy Southeastern Brazilian individuals (262 of European ancestry and 38 of African ancestry for polymorphisms of codons 194 and 399 of the XRCC1 base excision repair pathway gene and of codon 241 of the XRCC3 homologous recombination repair pathway gene. The allele frequencies were 0.07 for the Arg194Trp and 0.33 for the Arg399Gln codons of the XRCC1 gene and 0.35 for the Thr241Met codon of the XRCC3 gene. The genotypic frequencies were within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These frequencies showed ethnic variability when compared with those obtained for different populations from several countries.

  8. SCAI promotes DNA double-strand break repair in distinct chromosomal contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rebecca Kring; Mund, Andreas; Poulsen, Sara Lund;

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic DNA lesions, whose accurate repair by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) is crucial for genome integrity and is strongly influenced by the local chromatin environment. Here, we identify SCAI (suppressor of cancer...... cell invasion) as a 53BP1-interacting chromatin-associated protein that promotes the functionality of several DSB repair pathways in mammalian cells. SCAI undergoes prominent enrichment at DSB sites through dual mechanisms involving 53BP1-dependent recruitment to DSB-surrounding chromatin and 53BP1......-independent accumulation at resected DSBs. Cells lacking SCAI display reduced DSB repair capacity, hypersensitivity to DSB-inflicting agents and genome instability. We demonstrate that SCAI is a mediator of 53BP1-dependent repair of heterochromatin-associated DSBs, facilitating ATM kinase signalling at DSBs...

  9. Influence of XRCC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpone, Silvia; Cozzi, Renata

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that ionizing radiation (IR) can damage DNA through a direct action, producing single- and double-strand breaks on DNA double helix, as well as an indirect effect by generating oxygen reactive species in the cells. Mammals have evolved several and distinct DNA repair pathways in order to maintain genomic stability and avoid tumour cell transformation. This review reports important data showing a huge interindividual variability on sensitivity to IR and in susceptibility to developing cancer; this variability is principally represented by genetic polymorphisms, that is, DNA repair gene polymorphisms. In particular we have focussed on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of XRCC1, a gene that encodes for a scaffold protein involved basically in Base Excision Repair (BER). In this paper we have reported and presented recent studies that show an influence of XRCC1 variants on DNA repair capacity and susceptibility to breast cancer. PMID:20798883

  10. Influence of XRCC1 Genetic Polymorphisms on Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sterpone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that ionizing radiation (IR can damage DNA through a direct action, producing single- and double-strand breaks on DNA double helix, as well as an indirect effect by generating oxygen reactive species in the cells. Mammals have evolved several and distinct DNA repair pathways in order to maintain genomic stability and avoid tumour cell transformation. This review reports important data showing a huge interindividual variability on sensitivity to IR and in susceptibility to developing cancer; this variability is principally represented by genetic polymorphisms, that is, DNA repair gene polymorphisms. In particular we have focussed on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of XRCC1, a gene that encodes for a scaffold protein involved basically in Base Excision Repair (BER. In this paper we have reported and presented recent studies that show an influence of XRCC1 variants on DNA repair capacity and susceptibility to breast cancer.

  11. Mechanisms and consequences of injury and repair in older organ transplants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.R. Slegtenhorst (Bendix); F.J.M.F. Dor (Frank); A. Elkhal (Abdala); H. Rodriguez (Hector); X. Yang (Xiaoyong); K. Edtinger (Karoline); R. Quante (Rainer); A.S. Chong (Anita); S.G. Tullius (Stefan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDonor organ scarcity remains a significant clinical challenge in transplantation. Older organs, increasingly utilized to meet the growing demand for donor organs, have been linked to inferior transplant outcomes. Susceptibility to organ injury, reduced repair capacity, and increased immu

  12. Biomaterials with antibacterial and osteoinductive properties to repair infected bone defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.; Liu, Y.; Guo, J.; Wu, H.; Wang, J.; Wu, G.

    2016-01-01

    The repair of infected bone defects is still challenging in the fields of orthopedics, oral implantology and maxillofacial surgery. In these cases, the self-healing capacity of bone tissue can be significantly compromised by the large size of bone defects and the potential/active bacterial activity.

  13. Intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Broek, Mathias; Van Riet, Roger

    2017-09-01

    The intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint is reported to be 23 ± 4 ml on cadaveric elbows. During years, this value was the standard. The aim of this observational study was to reanalyze the volume of the elbow joint on live patients. Measurement of the intra-articular capacity and pressure of the elbow joint was performed on 30 patients (mean age: 43.8 years) undergoing elbow arthroscopy. Intra-articular capacity was recorded when the elbow moved to the maximum lose packed position and/or when there was a sudden drop in pressure, indicating a capsular rupture (maximum capacity). Indications for arthroscopy were loose bodies, osteoarthritis, synovitis, radial head resection, and lateral collateral ligament repair. Mean intra-articular capacity and pressure were 35.8 ml and 557.5 mm Hg, respectively. Mean maximal capacity was 40.5 ml. We conclude that the intra-articular capacity of the elbow joint is substantially greater than reported in previous studies. Clin. Anat. 30:795-798, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. How to Relate Complex DNA Repair Genotypes to Pathway Function and, Ultimately, Health Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, IM

    2002-01-09

    Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the incidence of cancer. However, predicting which individuals are at most risk from radiation exposure is a distant goal. Predictive ability is needed to guide policies that regulate radiation exposure and ensure that medical treatments have maximum benefit and minimum risk. Differences between people in susceptibility to radiation are largely based on their genotype, the genes inherited from their parents. Among the important genes are those that produce proteins that repair DNA damaged by radiation. Base Excision Repair (BER) proteins repair single strand breaks and oxidized bases in DNA. Double Strand Break Repair proteins repair broken chromosomes. Using technologies and information from the Human Genome Project, we have previously determined that the DNA sequence of DNA repair genes varies within the human population. An average of 3-4 different variants were found that affect the protein for each of 37 genes studied. The average frequency of these variants is 5%. Given the many genes in each DNA repair pathway and their many variants, technical ability to determine an individual's repair genotype greatly exceeds ability to interpret the information. A long-term goal is to relate DNA repair genotypes to health risk from radiation. This study focused on the BER pathway. The BER genes are known, variants of the genes have been identified at LLNL, and LLNL had recently developed an assay for BER function using white blood cells. The goal of this initial effort was to begin developing data that could be used to test the hypothesis that many different genotypes have similar DNA repair capacity phenotypes (function). Relationships between genotype and phenotype could then be used to group genotypes with similar function and ultimately test the association of groups of genotypes with health risk from radiation. Genotypes with reduced repair function are expected to increase risk of radiation-induced health effects. The

  15. Modified Young-Dees-Leadbetter bladder neck reconstruction after exstrophy repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Todd; Novak, Thomas; King, Jeremy; Gearhart, John P

    2009-10-01

    We describe the application and results of modified Young-Dees-Leadbetter bladder neck reconstruction after successful complete primary repair in the newborn period. The records of 34 patients referred for a continence procedure after successful exstrophy closure were extracted from an institutionally approved database. Patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were assessed. A total of 31 male and 3 female patients were identified, of whom 27 and 1, respectively, underwent osteotomy at initial closure. No patients attained urinary continence and so they were referred for a continence procedure. Nine patients did not have adequate bladder capacity for bladder neck repair (mean bladder capacity 63 ml, range 20 to 80). In those with suitable capacity mean capacity was 119 ml (range 85 to 180) and they underwent bladder neck reconstruction at a mean age of 4.9 years. Of the 25 patients who underwent bladder neck repair 14 (56%) were dry during the day and night, 5 (20%) were dry during the day but wet at night and 6 (24%) were totally incontinent. Pelvic osteotomies were performed at initial closure in 14 totally continent patients (100%) and in 4 (80%) with daytime continence but in no totally incontinent patients. All continent patients underwent hypospadias repair before age 1 year and none required ureteral reimplantation before bladder neck repair. A number of patients require bladder neck reconstruction to achieve continence after successful initial closure with complete primary repair. The modified Young-Dees-Leadbetter technique provides reasonable results with daytime and nighttime dryness attained by more than half of the patients.

  16. Building Partner Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In a similar manner, globalization has also created new realities, such as in the case of food production where choice now affects demand as much as...quantity did in the past. “Two major factors drive food requirements [and market prices]: a growing global population and prosperity that expands...argued earlier, to expend effort in other nations without consideration of building capacity and resiliency risks strategic failure and wastage of

  17. Markets and Institutional Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2010-01-01

    Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further, the e......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....

  18. Articular cartilage repair and the evolving role of regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter K Bos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Pieter K Bos1, Marloes L van Melle1, Gerjo JVM van Osch1,21Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the NetherlandsAbstract: Among the growing applications of regenerative medicine, clinical articular cartilage repair has now been used for 2 decades and forms a successful example of translational medicine. Cartilage is characterized by a limited intrinsic repair capacity following injury. Articular cartilage defects cause symptoms, are not spontaneously repaired, and are generally believed to result in early osteoarthritis. Marrow stimulation techniques, osteochondral transplantation, and cell-based therapies, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI and use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, are used for tissue regeneration, symptom relief, and prevention of further joint degeneration. The exact incidence of cartilage defects and the natural outcome of joints with these lesions are unclear. Currently available cartilage repair techniques are designed for defect treatment in otherwise healthy joints and limbs, mostly in young adults. The natural history studies presented in this review estimated that the prevalence of cartilage lesions in this patient group ranges from 5% to 11%. The background and results from currently available randomized clinical trials of the three mostly used cartilage repair techniques are outlined in this review. Osteochondral transplantation, marrow stimulation, and ACI show improvement of symptoms with an advantage for cell-based techniques, but only a suggestion that risk for joint degeneration can be reduced. MSCs, characterized by their good proliferative capacity and the potential to differentiate into different mesenchymal lineages, form an attractive alternative cell source for cartilage regeneration. Moreover, MSCs provide a regenerative microenvironment by the secretion of bioactive factors. This trophic activity

  19. Nucleotide excision repair in the test tube.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe eukaryotic nucleotide excision-repair pathway has been reconstituted in vitro, an achievement that should hasten the full enzymological characterization of this highly complex DNA-repair pathway.

  20. Biological Augmentation of Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kovacevic, David; Rodeo, Scott A

    2008-01-01

    A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and/or cell differentiation at the repair site...

  1. Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000004.htm Cleft lip and palate repair - discharge To use the sharing ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 8. Read More Cleft lip and palate Cleft lip and palate repair Review Date 5/9/ ...

  2. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000240.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge To use the sharing features ... References Orandi BJ, Black JH. Open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  3. Competence building capacity shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather

  4. Transvesicoscopic Repair of Vesicovaginal Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Nerli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vesicovaginal fistula has been a social and surgical problem for centuries. Many surgical techniques have been developed to correct this abnormality, including transabdominal, transvaginal, and endoscopic approaches. The best approach is probably the one with which the surgeon feels most experienced and comfortable. Laparoscopy has become increasingly popular in urology, reducing the invasiveness of treatment and shortening the period of convalescence. We report our results of transvesicoscopic approach for VVF repair. Materials and Methods. Patients with VVF were offered repair using the transvesicoscopic route. With the patient under general anaesthesia and in modified lithotomy position cystoscopy was performed with gas insufflation. Under cystoscopic guidance the bladder was fixed to anterior abdominal wall and ports inserted into the bladder. The fistula was repaired under endoscopic vision. Results. Four women, who had VVF following abdominal hysterectomy, underwent this procedure. The operating time ranged from 175 to 235 minutes. There was minimal bleeding. Post operative complications included ileus in one and fever in another. No recurrence of VVF was noted in any patient. Conclusions. Transvesicoscopic repair of VVF is feasible, safe, and results in lower morbidity and quicker recovery time.

  5. Small Crater Expedient Repair Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Force Base, New Mexico , October 1975. 3. Rollings, Raymond S., Laboratory Evaluation of Expedient Pavement Repair Materials, CEEDO-TR-7-44, Civil and...blank) APPENDIX A EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE SP6WCIFICATIONS Performance specit’ications are included i.n tl is appe udi \\ tor the following equipment: 1

  6. Outcome of quadriceps tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Gururaj S; Faraj, Adnan

    2006-04-01

    Complete rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a well-described injury. There is a scarcity of literature relating to the outcome of patients with this injury after surgery. We undertook a retrospective analysis of patients who had surgical repair of their quadriceps tendon at our institution over a 13-year period, totalling 21 patients. Males were more commonly affected, with a male/female ratio of 4:1. The peak incidence was in the sixth decade of life. Assessment consisted of the completion of a functional knee questionnaire and a clinical examination. Symptomatic outcome following surgical repair was good with a mean symptom score generated of 19.16 out of a maximum of 25 using the Rougraff et al scoring system. Most of the patients returned to their pre-injury level of activity. Five degrees deficit and extension lag was present in three patients; these patients had the quadriceps repaired using transosseous sutures. Patients who had direct repair of the tendon using the Bunnell technique had lower Rougraff scores than the rest.

  7. How the Brain Repairs Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Christian A.; Neumann, Katrin; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Posenenske, Claudia; von Gudenberg, Alexander W.; Euler, Harald; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2009-01-01

    Stuttering is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with left inferior frontal structural anomalies. While children often recover, stuttering may also spontaneously disappear much later after years of dysfluency. These rare cases of unassisted recovery in adulthood provide a model of optimal brain repair outside the classical windows of…

  8. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  9. Pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok k. Hemal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 33 year old female presented with right loin pain and obstruction on intravenous urography with the classical "fish-hook" appearance. She was counseled on the various methods of repair and elected to have a robot assisted repair. The following steps are performed during a pure robotic retrocaval ureter repair. The patient is placed in a modified flank position, pneumoperitoneum created and ports inserted. The colon is mobilized to expose the retroperitoneal structures: inferior vena cava, right gonadal vein, right ureter, and duodenum. The renal pelvis and ureter are mobilized and the renal pelvis transected. The ureter is transposed anterior to the inferior vena cava and a pyelopyelostomy is performed over a JJ stent. RESULTS: This patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. The catheter and drain tube were removed on day 1. Her JJ stent was removed at 6 weeks postoperatively. The postoperative intravenous urography at 3 months confirmed normal drainage of contrast medium. CONCLUSION: Pure robotic retrocaval ureter is a feasible procedure; however, there does not appear to be any great advantage over pure laparoscopy, apart from the ergonomic ease for the surgeon as well the simpler intracorporeal suturing.

  10. [Complications of inguinal hernia repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, A; D'Urso, A; Gallinaro, L S; Lo Storto, G; Bosco, M R; Vietri, F; Beltrami, V

    2002-03-01

    It's shown by literature and confirmed by Author's experience that, on account of the excellent results, prosthetic repair of inguinal hernia is more effective than "conventional" (Bassini, Mc Vay, Shouldice). Between January 1993 and December 2000 were observed 875 patients with inguinal hernia (814 monolateral, 61 bilateral); all patients underwent a Lichtenstein repair both in the primary version and in its variations (internal ring plastic, trasversalis plicate, plug repair). The patients were discharged from hospital within 24 hours after surgery in 90% of cases. No important intraoperative complications were observed; the patients restarting work varied from 3 to 15 days after the discharging in relation to patient anxiety, onset of complications and to the type of work. The complications observed were: urine retention (1.6%), superficial haematoma (1.3%), superficial infection (1%), wound suppuration (0.5%), serous effusion (0.7%), postsurgery pain (2.1%), scrotal edema (1.7%), persistent inguinal neuralgia (0.6), local hypoesthesia (4.3%), ischemical orchitis (0.1%), recurrence (0.2%). In conclusion Authors assert that "tension free" repair allows optimal results both for the surgery point (easiness of the technique, repeatability, less invasivity, scanty incident of recurrences, low frequency of postoperative complications) and in economic terms, allowing an early mobilization of the patients. A further improvement would be obtained with more care in surgical and patient management, with more excellent results.

  11. Fix-It Careers: Jobs in Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2010-01-01

    From auto mechanic to HVAC technicians, many occupations require repair skills. For jobseekers with the right skills, there are many advantages to a repair career. Repair work provides millions of jobs throughout the United States. Wages are often higher than average. And in many occupations, the employment outlook is bright. Plus, most repair…

  12. 30 CFR 57.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 57.6801 Section 57.6801 Mineral... and Underground § 57.6801 Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a repair garage or shop....

  13. Nationwide prevalence of groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Jakob; Pedersen, Michael; Bisgaard, Thue;

    2013-01-01

    Groin hernia repair is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the western world but large-scaled epidemiologic data are sparse. Large-scale data on the occurrence of groin hernia repair may provide further understanding to the pathophysiology of groin hernia development. This study was undert...... was undertaken to investigate the age and gender dependent prevalence of groin hernia repair....

  14. REPAIR MECHANISM IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents practical research on repair mechanismand its four repair trajectories in FL classroom interaction. Thisshows that it is effective and efficient in assisting FL learners todevelop their communicative competence and understand theprocess of language acquisition. Repair strategies that are ofgreat value to FL teachers in FL classroom teaching are also ex-pounded.

  15. Aging and photo-aging DNA repair phenotype of skin cells-Evidence toward an effect of chronic sun-exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prunier, Chloe; Masson-Genteuil, Gwenaeelle [Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, CEA, DSM, INAC, SCIB, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ugolin, Nicolas [Laboratoire de Cancerologie Experimentale, CEA, DSV, IRCM, SREIT, BP6, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex F-92265 (France); Sarrazy, Fanny [Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, CEA, DSM, INAC, SCIB, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sauvaigo, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.sauvaigo@cea.fr [Laboratoire Lesions des Acides Nucleiques, CEA, DSM, INAC, SCIB, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2012-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the deleterious effect of aging on the capacity of cells to repair their DNA. However, current existing assays aimed at measuring DNA repair address only a specific repair step dedicated to the correction of a specific DNA lesion type. Consequently they provide no information regarding the repair pathways that handle other types of lesions. In addition to aging, consequences of photo-exposure on these repair processes remain elusive. In this study we evaluated the consequence of aging and of chronic and/or acute photo-exposure on DNA repair in human skin fibroblasts using a multiplexed approach, which provided detailed information on several repair pathways at the same time. The resulting data were analyzed with adapted statistics/bioinformatics tools. We showed that, irrespective of the repair pathway considered, excision/synthesis was less efficient in non-exposed cells from elderly compared to cells from young adults and that photo-exposure disrupted this very clear pattern. Moreover, it was evidenced that chronic sun-exposure induced changes in DNA repair properties. Finally, the identification of a specific signature at the level of the NER pathway in cells repeatedly exposed to sun revealed a cumulative effect of UVB exposure and chronic sun irradiation. The uses of bioinformatics tools in this study was essential to fully take advantage of the large sum of data obtained with our multiplexed DNA repair assay and unravel the effects of environmental exposure on DNA repair pathways.

  16. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF SPECIALIZED FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  17. Quantum reading capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirandola, Stefano; Lupo, Cosmo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2011-11-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory (Pirandola 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 090504). In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e. a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of ‘parallel’ channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of a large block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantifying the maximum number of readable bits per cell. This notion of capacity is nontrivial when we suitably constrain the physical resources of the decoder. For optical memories (encoding bosonic channels), such a constraint is energetic and corresponds to fixing the mean total number of photons per cell. In this case, we are able to prove a separation between the quantum reading capacity and the maximum information rate achievable by classical transmitters, i.e. arbitrary classical mixtures of coherent states. In fact, we can easily construct nonclassical transmitters that are able to outperform any classical transmitter, thus showing that the advantages of quantum reading persist in the optimal multi-cell scenario.

  18. Rapid Repair of Earthquake Damaged RC Interior Beam-wide Column Joints and Beam-wall Joints Using FRP Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bing; LIM Chee Leong

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the seismic performance of FRP-strengthened RC interior non-seismically detailed beam-wide columns and beam-wall joints after limited seismic damage. Four eccentric and concentric beam-wide column joints and two beam-wall joints, initially damaged in a previous study, were repaired and tested under constant axial loads (0. \\fc'Ag and 0. 35 fc'Ag ) and lateral cyclic loading. The rapid repair technique developed, aimed to restore the original strength and to provide minimum drift capacity. The repair schemes were characterized by the use of; (a) epoxy injections and polymer modified cementitious mortar to seal the cracks and replace spalled concrete; and (b) glass (GFRP) and carbon (CFRP) sheets to enhance the joint performance. The FRP sheets were effectively prevented against possible debonding through the use of fiber anchors. Comparison between responses of specimens before and after repair clearly indicated reasonable restoration in strength, drift capacity, stiffness and cumulative energy dissipation capacity. All specimens failed with delamination of FRP sheets at beam-column joint interfaces. The rapid repair technique developed in this study is recommended for mass upgrading or repair of earthquake damaged beam-column joints.

  19. Experimental assessment of concrete damage due to exposure to high temperature and efficacy of the repair system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guruprasad Y.K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study experimentally evaluates the performance of control (standard cylinder specimen, damaged (mechanical loading after thermal exposure and repaired / retrofitted normal plain concrete cylinders using different repair schemes such as on use of FRP wraps, Geo-polymers, etc., to restore the capacity of damaged structural concrete elements. The control-companion specimen in the series provides the reference frame against which both, specimen damage levels were quantified and the benefits of a specimen repaired subsequent to damage were assessed.

  20. Enhancing human capacities

    CERN Document Server

    Savulescu, Julian; Kahane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Enhancing Human Capacities is the first to review the very latest scientific developments in human enhancement. It is unique in its examination of the ethical and policy implications of these technologies from a broad range of perspectives. Presents a rich range of perspectives on enhancement from world leading ethicists and scientists from Europe and North America The most comprehensive volume yet on the science and ethics of human enhancement Unique in providing a detailed overview of current and expected scientific advances in this area Discusses both general conceptual and ethical issues

  1. Deficiency of employability capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelse I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Young unemployed people have comprised one of the significantly largest groups of the unemployed people in Latvia in recent years. One of the reasons why young people have difficulty integrating into the labour market is the “expectation gap” that exists in the relations between employers and the new generation of workers. Employers focus on capacity-building for employability such individual factors as strength, patience, self-discipline, self-reliance, self-motivation, etc., which having a nature of habit and are developed in a long-term work socialization process, which begins even before the formal education and will continue throughout the life cycle. However, when the socialization is lost, these habits are depreciated faster than they can be restored. Currently a new generation is entering the labour market, which is missing the succession of work socialization. Factors, such as rising unemployment and poverty in the background over the past twenty years in Latvia have created a very unfavourable employability background of “personal circumstances” and “external factors”, which seriously have impaired formation of the skills and attitudes in a real work environment. The study reveals another paradox – the paradox of poverty. Common sense would want to argue that poverty can be overcome by the job. However, the real state of affairs shows that unfavourable coincidence of the individual, personal circumstances and external factors leads to deficit of employability capacity and possibility of marked social and employment deprivation.

  2. Heat Capacity in Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ninad V.; Sharp, Kim A.

    2005-05-01

    Heat capacity (Cp) is one of several major thermodynamic quantities commonly measured in proteins. With more than half a dozen definitions, it is the hardest of these quantities to understand in physical terms, but the richest in insight. There are many ramifications of observed Cp changes: The sign distinguishes apolar from polar solvation. It imparts a temperature (T) dependence to entropy and enthalpy that may change their signs and which of them dominate. Protein unfolding usually has a positive ΔCp, producing a maximum in stability and sometimes cold denaturation. There are two heat capacity contributions, from hydration and protein-protein interactions; which dominates in folding and binding is an open question. Theoretical work to date has dealt mostly with the hydration term and can account, at least semiquantitatively, for the major Cp-related features: the positive and negative Cp of hydration for apolar and polar groups, respectively; the convergence of apolar group hydration entropy at T ≈ 112°C; the decrease in apolar hydration Cp with increasing T; and the T-maximum in protein stability and cold denaturation.

  3. Capacity Analysis of Two-Stage Production lines with Many Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractWe consider two-stage production lines with an intermediate buffer. A buffer is needed when fluctuations occur. For single-product production lines fluctuations in capacity availability may be caused by random processing times, failures and random repair times. For multi-product producti

  4. Current Biomechanical Concepts for Rotator Cuff Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For the past few decades, the repair of rotator cuff tears has evolved significantly with advances in arthroscopy techniques, suture anchors and instrumentation. From the biomechanical perspective, the focus in arthroscopic repair has been on increasing fixation strength and restoration of the footprint contact characteristics to provide early rehabilitation and improve healing. To accomplish these objectives, various repair strategies and construct configurations have been developed for rotator cuff repair with the understanding that many factors contribute to the structural integrity of the repaired construct. These include repaired rotator cuff tendon-footprint motion, increased tendon-footprint contact area and pressure, and tissue quality of tendon and bone. In addition, the healing response may be compromised by intrinsic factors such as decreased vascularity, hypoxia, and fibrocartilaginous changes or aforementioned extrinsic compression factors. Furthermore, it is well documented that torn rotator cuff muscles have a tendency to atrophy and become subject to fatty infiltration which may affect the longevity of the repair. Despite all the aforementioned factors, initial fixation strength is an essential consideration in optimizing rotator cuff repair. Therefore, numerous biomechanical studies have focused on elucidating the strongest devices, knots, and repair configurations to improve contact characteristics for rotator cuff repair. In this review, the biomechanical concepts behind current rotator cuff repair techniques will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:23730471

  5. Ultrasound determination of rotator cuff tear repairability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Andrew K; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Hackett, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff repair aims to reattach the torn tendon to the greater tuberosity footprint with suture anchors. The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability and to assess which sonographic and pre-operative features are strongest in predicting repairability. Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of measurements made prospectively in a cohort of 373 patients who had ultrasounds of their shoulder and underwent rotator cuff repair. Measurements of rotator cuff tear size and muscle atrophy were made pre-operatively by ultrasound to enable prediction of rotator cuff repairability. Tears were classified following ultrasound as repairable or irreparable, and were correlated with intra-operative repairability. Results Ultrasound assessment of rotator cuff tear repairability has a sensitivity of 86% (p rotator cuff repairability were tear size (p rotator cuff tear. Conclusions Ultrasound assessment is accurate in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability. Tear size or anteroposterior tear length and age were the best predictors of repairability. PMID:27582996

  6. A novel cloud point extraction approach using cationic surfactant for the separation and pre-concentration of chromium species in natural water prior to ICP-DRC-MS determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeravali, Noorbasha N; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen

    2009-11-15

    A novel cloud point phase separation of cationic surfactant, Aliquat-336 and capabilities of its reactive solubilizing sites for selective extraction of chromium species at ultra trace levels was examined in natural water. The phase separation behavior of Aliquat-336 is studied with various additives. The nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was found to induce the cloud point phase separation of Aliquat-336. The separation of anionic Cr(VI) was enabled by the formation of ion associate with quaternary ammonium head group of Aliquat-336 at pH 2, and the recovery of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) were 101.4+/-1.4% and 2.2+/-0.4%, respectively at 0.5-1 ng mL(-1), Total Cr was pre-concentrated as Cr-APDC species using the hydrophobic tail group at pH 6.5. The Cr(III) concentration was obtained by subtracting Cr(VI) from total Cr. The recovery of total Cr was 99.5+/-1.2%. Parameters affecting extraction were assessed. The procedure was applied to NIST 1643c and NIST 1643d waters, and the sum of individual species obtained was compared with the certified chromium values. The method was also applied to various natural waters with limits of detection and pre-concentration factor of 0.010 and 0.025 ng mL(-1); 10 and 10, respectively, for Cr(VI) and Cr(III)-APDC using ICP-MS operated in DRC mode.

  7. Workshop on moisture buffer capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...

  8. Big Change in PF Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Paraformaldehyde (PF) production in China has grown to a considerable scale today. The total capacity was around 90 thousand t/a in 2006. Since 2007, the production capacity of PF has increased drastically.

  9. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.

    2015-05-01

    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  10. Generating cartilage repair from pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Aixin; Hardingham, Timothy E; Kimber, Susan J

    2014-08-01

    The treatment of degeneration and injury of articular cartilage has been very challenging for scientists and surgeons. As an avascular and hypocellular tissue, cartilage has a very limited capacity for self-repair. Chondrocytes are the only cell type in cartilage, in which they are surrounded by the extracellular matrix that they secrete and assemble. Autologous chondrocyte implantation for cartilage defects has achieved good results, but the limited resources and complexity of the procedure have hindered wider application. Stem cells form an alternative to chondrocytes as a source of chondrogenic cells due to their ability to proliferate extensively while retaining the potential for differentiation. Adult stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells have been differentiated into chondrocytes, but the limitations in their proliferative ability and the heterogeneous cell population hinder their adoption as a prime alternative source for generating chondrocytes. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are attractive as candidates for cell replacement therapy because of their unlimited self-renewal and ability for differentiation into mesodermal derivatives as well as other lineages. In this review, we focus on current protocols for chondrogenic differentiation of ESCs, in particular the chemically defined culture system developed in our lab that could potentially be adapted for clinical application.

  11. Stem cells for cardiac repair: an introduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bastiaan C du Pr(e); Pieter A Doevendans; Linda W van Laake

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Most cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy, are associated with loss of functional cardiomyocytes. Unfortunately, the heart has a limited regenerative capacity and is not able to replace these cardiomyocytes once lost. In recent years, stem cells have been put forward as a potential source for cardiac regeneration. Pre-clinical studies that use stem cell-derived cardiac cells show promising results. The mechanisms, though, are not well understood, results have been variable, sometimes transient in the long term, and often without a mechanistic explanation. There are still several major hurdles to be taken. Stem cell-derived cardiac cells should resemble original cardiac cell types and be able to integrate in the damaged heart. Integration requires administration of stem cell-derived cardiac cells at the right time using the right mode of delivery. Once delivered, transplanted cells need vascularization, electrophysiological coupling with the injured heart, and prevention of immunological rejection. Finally, stem cell therapy needs to be safe, reproducible, and affordable. In this review, we will give an introduction to the principles of stem cell based cardiac repair.

  12. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tissue repair and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Rivka C; Pastar, Irena; Ojeh, Nkemcho; Chen, Vivien; Liu, Sophia; Garzon, Karen I; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2016-09-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes the global process by which stationary epithelial cells undergo phenotypic changes, including the loss of cell-cell adhesion and apical-basal polarity, and acquire mesenchymal characteristics that confer migratory capacity. EMT and its converse, MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition), are integral stages of many physiologic processes and, as such, are tightly coordinated by a host of molecular regulators. Converging lines of evidence have identified EMT as a component of cutaneous wound healing, during which otherwise stationary keratinocytes (the resident skin epithelial cells) migrate across the wound bed to restore the epidermal barrier. Moreover, EMT plays a role in the development of scarring and fibrosis, as the matrix-producing myofibroblasts arise from cells of the epithelial lineage in response to injury but are pathologically sustained instead of undergoing MET or apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the role of EMT in physiologic repair and pathologic fibrosis of tissues and organs. We conclude that further investigation into the contribution of EMT to the faulty repair of fibrotic wounds might identify components of EMT signaling as common therapeutic targets for impaired healing in many tissues. Graphical Abstract Model for injury-triggered EMT activation in physiologic wound repair (left) and fibrotic wound healing (right).

  13. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are t

  14. 3-Unit System Comprising Two Types of Units with First Come First Served Repair Pattern Except When Both Types of Units are Waiting for Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Goyal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study we investigated the probabilistic analysis of a three unit system working in a sugar Mill, wherein one unit is big and the other two units are small and identical, is examined. Upon failure of the big unit, both small units are made operative and failed unit is undertaken for repair immediately. Priority for operation is given to the big unit. Priority for repair is given to big unit if both types (i.e., big and small of units are in queue to get the repair done. System is able to work with full capacity only if big unit or both small units are in good condition. If only one small unit is operable, the system works at reduced capacity. The system under consideration goes to rest during the non-seasonal period. Approach: System was analyzed by making use of semi-Markov processes and regenerative point technique and various measures of the system effectiveness are obtained including the profit incurred to the system. Results: Graphs had been plotted to depict the behavior of the profit with respect to failure rate for different values of repair rate and with respect to revenue per unit up time for which system is working at full capacity for different values of cost for PM/CM. Conclusion: The profit increases with the decrease in the values of the failure rate and with the increase in the values of revenue per unit up time. It has lower (higher values on increasing the values of cost (repair rate. Cut-off points obtained for failure rate help decide about having the system with failure rate lesser than that the value at cut-off point. Also, the price of the product should be fixed in such a way so as to get the revenue greater than the value at cut-off point.

  15. Methods of repairing a substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedell, James A. (Inventor); Easler, Timothy E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A precursor of a ceramic adhesive suitable for use in a vacuum, thermal, and microgravity environment. The precursor of the ceramic adhesive includes a silicon-based, preceramic polymer and at least one ceramic powder selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, boron carbide, boron oxide, boron nitride, hafnium boride, hafnium carbide, hafnium oxide, lithium aluminate, molybdenum silicide, niobium carbide, niobium nitride, silicon boride, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, silicon nitride, tin oxide, tantalum boride, tantalum carbide, tantalum oxide, tantalum nitride, titanium boride, titanium carbide, titanium oxide, titanium nitride, yttrium oxide, zirconium boride, zirconium carbide, zirconium oxide, and zirconium silicate. Methods of forming the ceramic adhesive and of repairing a substrate in a vacuum and microgravity environment are also disclosed, as is a substrate repaired with the ceramic adhesive.

  16. Random Access Transport Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Jeffrey G; Kountouris, Marios; Haenggi, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We develop a new metric for quantifying end-to-end throughput in multihop wireless networks, which we term random access transport capacity, since the interference model presumes uncoordinated transmissions. The metric quantifies the average maximum rate of successful end-to-end transmissions, multiplied by the communication distance, and normalized by the network area. We show that a simple upper bound on this quantity is computable in closed-form in terms of key network parameters when the number of retransmissions is not restricted and the hops are assumed to be equally spaced on a line between the source and destination. We also derive the optimum number of hops and optimal per hop success probability and show that our result follows the well-known square root scaling law while providing exact expressions for the preconstants as well. Numerical results demonstrate that the upper bound is accurate for the purpose of determining the optimal hop count and success (or outage) probability.

  17. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    IL, Kochevar IE, Redmond RW. Large extremity peripheral nerve repair. Military Health System Research Symposium (MHSRS) Fort Lauderdale, FL. August...some notable discoveries that may impact military health care in the near future. There is a clear need in military medicine to improve outcomes in...membranes or “caul” intact was considered extremely lucky. Children were gifted with life-long happiness , the ability to see spirits, and protection

  18. Shelf Stable Epoxy Repair Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    manufacturing operations are more efficient , discarding less expired film. Commercial and military aircraft repair operations at Boeing experience very similar...successfully encapsulated at concentrations greater than 50 wt% within four N N = CC Infoscitex Corporation Shelf Stable Epoxy Resin Adhesive WP-1763 8...affects the composition of the encapsulant , which in turn affects the ability of the encapsulant to wet the core phase, the barrier properties of the

  19. Repair and regeneration in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L M; Rosenberg, P A

    2011-10-01

    The ideal objective of treatment of established diseases, including irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis, is to achieve wound healing. Wound healing can result in repair or regeneration. The ultimate goal of wound healing is to restore the original architecture and biological function of the injured tissue or organ. Although humans are equipped with powerful innate and adaptive immune defence mechanisms, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors can affect wound healing. Complete regeneration following injury in humans can occur only in the pre-natal foetus within 24 weeks of gestation. Post-natal wounds including irreversible pulpitis or apical periodontitis always heal by repair or by a combination of repair and regeneration. Somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, macrophages, cementoblasts and osteoblasts, in the pulp and periapical tissues have limited potential for regeneration following injury and lack of telomerase. Wound healing of irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis requires recruitment and differentiation of progenitor/stem cells into tissue-committed somatic cells. Stem cell differentiation is regulated by intrinsic factors and extrinsic micro-environmental cues. Functionality of stem cells appears to show an age-related decline because of the change in intrinsic properties and diminished signals within the extrinsic local and systemic environment that modulate the function of stem cells or their progeny. Infection induces an immuno-inflammatory response and tissue destruction, which hinders the potential of tissue regeneration. Therefore, prevention, early detection and treatment of inflammation/infection of pulpal and periapical disease can enhance regeneration and minimize the repair of pulpal and periapical tissues after endodontic therapy. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  20. Pain after groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, T; Bech, K; Nielsen, R

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to provide a detailed description of postoperative pain after elective day-case open inguinal hernia repair under local anaesthesia. METHODS: This was a prospective consecutive case series study. After 500 hernia operations in 466 unselected patients aged 18...... between types of surgery or hernia. CONCLUSION: Pain remained a problem despite the pre-emptive use of opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and local anaesthesia, irrespective of surgical technique....

  1. Biologics for tendon repair

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately,...

  2. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    71. Burman S, Tejwani S, Vemuganti GK. Ophthalmic applications of preserved human amniotic membrane: a review of current indications. Cell Tissue Bank...segmental nerve deficit repair using isograft show the best performing wrap/ fixation method to be sutureless photochemical tissue bonding with the...crosslinked amnion wrap. Autograft is often unavailable in wounded warriors, due to extensive tissue damage and amputation and, importantly, we also

  3. DNA Damage Response and DNA Repair in Skeletal Myocytes From a Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayzullina, Saniya; Martin, Lee J

    2016-09-01

    We studied DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair capacities of skeletal muscle cells from a mouse model of infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) caused by loss-of-function mutation of survival of motor neuron (Smn). Primary myocyte cultures derived from skeletal muscle satellite cells of neonatal control and mutant SMN mice had similar myotube length, myonuclei, satellite cell marker Pax7 and differentiated myotube marker myosin, and acetylcholine receptor clustering. DNA damage was induced in differentiated skeletal myotubes by γ-irradiation, etoposide, and methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Unexposed control and SMA myotubes had stable genome integrity. After γ-irradiation and etoposide, myotubes repaired most DNA damage equally. Control and mutant myotubes exposed to MMS exhibited equivalent DNA damage without repair. Control and SMA myotube nuclei contained DDR proteins phospho-p53 and phospho-H2AX foci that, with DNA damage, dispersed and then re-formed similarly after recovery. We conclude that mouse primary satellite cell-derived myotubes effectively respond to and repair DNA strand-breaks, while DNA alkylation repair is underrepresented. Morphological differentiation, genome stability, genome sensor, and DNA strand-break repair potential are preserved in mouse SMA myocytes; thus, reduced SMN does not interfere with myocyte differentiation, genome integrity, and DNA repair, and faulty DNA repair is unlikely pathogenic in SMA.

  4. Revisional laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharakis, Emmanouil; Shalhoub, Joseph; Selvapatt, Nowlan; Darzi, Ara; Ziprin, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We herein report a laparoscopically performed re-do operation on a patient who had previously undergone a laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair. We describe the case of a 71-year-old patient who presented within 3 months of her primary laparoscopic parastomal hernia repair with recurrence. On relaparoscopy, dense adhesions to the mesh were found, and the mesh had migrated into the hernia sac. This had allowed loops of small bowel to herniate into the sac. The initial part of the procedure involved the lysis of adhesions. A piece of Gore-Tex DualMesh with a central keyhole and a radial slit was cut so that it could provide at least 3 cm to 5 cm of overlap of the fascial defect. The tails of the mesh were wrapped around the bowel, and the mesh was secured to the margins of the hernia with circumferential metal tacking and 4 transfascial sutures. The patient remains in satisfactory condition and no recurrence or any surgery-related problem has been observed during 8 months of follow-up. Revisional laparoscopic repair of parastomal hernias seems feasible and has been shown to be safe and effective in this case. The success of this approach depends on longer follow-up reports and standardization of the technical elements.

  5. Augmented Reality Repair Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Bhatia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The daily life of a common man revolves around various forms of appliances/gadgets he uses throughout the day such as a mobile phone, laptop, printer, microwave oven, washing machine, etc. Although these appliances/gadgets are taken by most of the people for granted, the problem occurs when any of these things do not work as they are expected to. Getting them to the repair shops for every small glitch is expensive as well as time consuming. Although most of the companies which produce these appliances/gadgets do supply them with basic manuals, which deal with how to solve these minor issues, but reading them and at the same time repairing the corresponding appliance/gadget can be a frustrating task at times. These problems can be reduced to a large extent if some kind of live guidance is available. In this paper we propose a method to do so with the help of an augmented reality based system that will guide the user to carry out small scale repair jobs on these gadgets. All that is required is a decent webcam and a computing device, with a processor of 1 GHz or more and a display screen.

  6. Polymorphisms in human DNA repair genes and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rim Khlifi; Ahmed Rebai; Amel Hamza-Chaffai

    2012-12-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in some DNA repair proteins are associated with a number of malignant transformations like head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) and X-ray repair cross-complementing proteins 1 (XRCC1) and 3 (XRCC3) genes are involved in DNA repair and were found to be associated with HNSCC in numerous studies. To establish our overall understanding of possible relationships between DNA repair gene polymorphisms and development of HNSCC, we surveyed the literature on epidemiological studies that assessed potential associations with HNSCC risk in terms of gene–environment interactions, genotype-induced functional defects in enzyme activity and/or protein expression, and the influence of ethnic origin on these associations.We conclude that large, well-designed studies of common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes are needed. Such studies may benefit from analysis of multiple genes or polymorphisms and from the consideration of relevant exposures that may influence the likelihood of HNSCC when DNA repair capacity is reduced.

  7. Fast repair of dAMP hydroxyl radical adduct by verbascoside via electron transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石益民; 王文锋; 姚思德; 林维真; 韩镇辉; 师彦平; 贾忠建; 郑荣梁

    1999-01-01

    DNA damaged by oxygen radicals has been implicated as a causative event in a number of degenerative diseases, including cancer and aging. So it is very impotant to look for ways in which either oxygen radicals are scavenged prior to DNA damage or damaged DNA is repaired to supplement the cells’ inadequate repair capacity. The repair activity and its mechanism of verbaseoside, isolated from Pedicularis species, towards dAMP-OH·was studied with pulse radiolytic technique. On pulse irradiation of nitrous oxide saturated 2 mmol/L dAMP aqueous solution containing verbascoside, the transient absorption spectrum of the hydroxyl adduct of dAMP decayed with the formation of that of the phenoxyl radical of verbascoside well under 100 microseconds after electron pulse irradiation. The result indicated that dAMP hydroxyl adducts can be repaired by verbascoside. The rate constants of the repair reaction was deduced to be 5.9×108 dm3·mol-1·s-1. A deeper understanding of this new repair mechanism will undo

  8. Evaluating the effects of genetic variants of DNA repair genes using cytogenetic mutagen sensitivity approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z; El-Zein, Randa A

    2011-08-01

    Mutagen sensitivity, measured in short-term cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes by cytogenetic endpoints, is an indirect measure for DNA repair capacity and has been used for many years as a biomarker for intrinsic susceptibility for cancer. In this article, we briefly give an overview of the different cytogenetic mutagen sensitivity approaches that have been used successfully to evaluate the biological effects of polymorphisms in DNA repair genes based on a current review of the literature and based on the need for biomarkers that would allow the characterization of the biological and functional significance of such polymorphisms. We also address some of the future challenges facing this emerging area of research.

  9. Exercise Performance in Children and Young Adults After Complete and Incomplete Repair of Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Omer; Katz, Uriel; Reuveny, Ronen; Williams, Craig A; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    Few previous studies have addressed exercise capacity in patients with corrected congenital heart disease (CHD) and significant anatomical residua. The aim of this study was to determine the aerobic fitness and peak cardiac function of patients with corrected CHD with complete or incomplete repairs, as determined by resting echocardiography. Children, adolescents and young adults (heart defect had decreased aerobic fitness, with evidence of impaired peak cardiac function and lower pulmonary perfusion. Patients that had undergone a complete repair had decreased aerobic fitness attributed only to deconditioning. These newly identified differences explain why in previous studies, the lowest fitness was seen in patients with the most hemodynamically significant heart malformations.

  10. Comparing Biomechanical Properties, Repair Times, and Value of Common Core Flexor Tendon Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Aakash; Schimoler, Patrick; Miller, Mark C; Kharlamov, Alexander; Merrell, Gregory A; Palmer, Bradley A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare biomechanical strength, repair times, and repair values for zone II core flexor tendon repairs. A total of 75 fresh-frozen human cadaveric flexor tendons were harvested from the index through small finger and randomized into one of 5 repair groups: 4-stranded cross-stitch cruciate (4-0 polyester and 4-0 braided suture), 4-stranded double Pennington (2-0 knotless barbed suture), 4-stranded Pennington (4-0 double-stranded braided suture), and 6-stranded modified Lim-Tsai (4-0 looped braided suture). Repairs were measured in situ and their repair times were measured. Tendons were linearly loaded to failure and multiple biomechanical values were measured. The repair value was calculated based on operating room costs, repair times, and suture costs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc statistical analysis were used to compare repair data. The braided cruciate was the strongest repair ( P > .05) but the slowest ( P > .05), and the 4-stranded Pennington using double-stranded suture was the fastest ( P > .05) to perform. The total repair value was the highest for braided cruciate ( P > .05) compared with all other repairs. Barbed suture did not outperform any repairs in any categories. The braided cruciate was the strongest of the tested flexor tendon repairs. The 2-mm gapping and maximum load to failure for this repair approached similar historical strength of other 6- and 8-stranded repairs. In this study, suture cost was negligible in the overall repair cost and should be not a determining factor in choosing a repair.

  11. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European...... railways are facing a capacity challenge which is caused by passenger and freight demand exceeding the track capacity supply. In the absence of a comprehensive railway capacity manual, methodologies are needed to assess how well railways use their track capacity. This paper presents a novel...... and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways...

  12. Bond strength of repaired amalgam restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Rosalia; Mondragon, Eduardo; Shen, Chiayi

    2015-01-01

    This in vitro study investigated the interfacial flexural strength (FS) of amalgam repairs and the optimal combination of repair materials and mechanical retention required for a consistent and durable repair bond. Amalgam bricks were created, each with 1 end roughened to expose a fresh surface before repair. Four groups followed separate repair protocols: group 1, bonding agent with amalgam; group 2, bonding agent with composite resin; group 3, mechanical retention (slot) with amalgam; and group 4, slot with bonding agent and amalgam. Repaired specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 1, 10, 30, 120, or 360 days before being loaded to failure in a 3-point bending test. Statistical analysis showed significant changes in median FS over time in groups 2 and 4. The effect of the repair method on the FS values after each storage period was significant for most groups except the 30-day storage groups. Amalgam-amalgam repair with adequate condensation yielded the most consistent and durable bond. An amalgam bonding agent could be beneficial when firm condensation on the repair surface cannot be achieved or when tooth structure is involved. Composite resin can be a viable option for amalgam repair in an esthetically demanding region, but proper mechanical modification of the amalgam surface and selection of the proper bonding system are essential.

  13. Treatment and Controversies in Paraesophageal Hernia Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marco eFisichella

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically all paraesophageal hernias were repaired surgically, today intervention is reserved for symptomatic paraesophageal hernias. In this review, we describe the indications for repair and explore the controversies in paraesophageal hernia repair, which include a comparison of open to laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair, the necessity of complete sac excision, the routine performance of fundoplication, and the use of mesh for hernia repair.Methods: We searched Pubmed for papers published between 1980 and 2015 using the following keywords: hiatal hernias, paraesophageal hernias, regurgitation, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, aspiration, GERD, endoscopy, manometry, pH monitoring, proton pump inhibitors, anemia, iron deficiency anemia, Nissen fundoplication, sac excision, mesh, mesh repair. Results: Indications for paraesophageal hernia repair have changed, and currently symptomatic paraesophageal hernias are recommended for repair. In addition, it is important not to overlook iron-deficiency anemia and pulmonary complaints, which tend to improve with repair. Current practice favors a laparoscopic approach, complete sac excision, primary crural repair with or without use of mesh, and a routine fundoplication.

  14. Repair of prestressed concrete cylinder with localized delamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shen, E-mail: swang@bechtel.com; Munshi, Javeed A., E-mail: jamunshi@bechtel.com

    2015-12-15

    For prestressed concrete cylindrical structures such as nuclear containments, tanks and silos, the curvature effect of the tendons introduces radial tensile stresses in the concrete shell which are generally neglected in the design of such structures. For example, many prestressed concrete nuclear containments in US, especially those which were not designed following radial reinforcement requirement of ACI-359, are reinforced only in the circumferential (hoop) and meridional (vertical) directions but not in the radial direction. This leaves these structures vulnerable to potential laminar cracking and delamination, especially during post-tensioning and/or detensioning process. Should delamination occur, the structure needs to be repaired by either replacing cracked concrete or by “pinning” the delaminated concrete layers together by post-installed anchors. The latter option of post-installed anchors is less invasive from construction stand point and generally suitable for repairing small or localized delamination only. A comprehensive study is undertaken to explore various aspects and design consideration of post-installed anchors for prestressed concrete cylinders. The radial tension demand is first established by combining a mechanical based model with a detailed finite element analysis. With such design demand for post-installed anchors established, the next step aims at developing the tightness requirement of existing delamination cracks for effective use of post-installed anchors. A comprehensive literature search and evaluation is carried out for shear transfer capacity across cracks of various widths. The findings are used to develop specific recommendations for acceptable crack widths to ensure adequate in-plane shear transfer capacity for various design load conditions. A design process for post-installed anchors is proposed for repairing a delaminated prestressed concrete cylindrical structure at the end of the paper, supplemented by an illustrative

  15. Elevated proteasome capacity extends replicative lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undine Kruegel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is characterized by the accumulation of damaged cellular macromolecules caused by declining repair and elimination pathways. An integral component employed by cells to counter toxic protein aggregates is the conserved ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS. Previous studies have described an age-dependent decline of proteasomal function and increased longevity correlates with sustained proteasome capacity in centenarians and in naked mole rats, a long-lived rodent. Proof for a direct impact of enhanced proteasome function on longevity, however, is still lacking. To determine the importance of proteasome function in yeast aging, we established a method to modulate UPS capacity by manipulating levels of the UPS-related transcription factor Rpn4. While cells lacking RPN4 exhibit a decreased non-adaptable proteasome pool, loss of UBR2, an ubiquitin ligase that regulates Rpn4 turnover, results in elevated Rpn4 levels, which upregulates UPS components. Increased UPS capacity significantly enhances replicative lifespan (RLS and resistance to proteotoxic stress, while reduced UPS capacity has opposing consequences. Despite tight transcriptional co-regulation of the UPS and oxidative detoxification systems, the impact of proteasome capacity on lifespan is independent of the latter, since elimination of Yap1, a key regulator of the oxidative stress response, does not affect lifespan extension of cells with higher proteasome capacity. Moreover, since elevated proteasome capacity results in improved clearance of toxic huntingtin fragments in a yeast model for neurodegenerative diseases, we speculate that the observed lifespan extension originates from prolonged elimination of damaged proteins in old mother cells. Epistasis analyses indicate that proteasome-mediated modulation of lifespan is at least partially distinct from dietary restriction, Tor1, and Sir2. These findings demonstrate that UPS capacity determines yeast RLS by a mechanism that is distinct

  16. Capacity building for HIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gulis PhD

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To integrate health impact assessment (HIA into existing decision-making processes requires not only methods and procedures but also well-trained experts, aware policy makers and appropriate institutions. Capacity building is the assistance which is provided to entities, which have a need to develop a certain skill or competence, or for general upgrading of performance ability. If a new technique is planned to be introduced there is a need for capacity building with no respect to levels (local, regional, national, international or sectors (health, environment, finance, social care, education, etc.. As such, HIA is a new technique for most of the new Member States and accession countries of the European Union.

    Methods: To equip individuals with the understanding and skills needed to launch a HIA or be aware of the availability of this methodology and to access information, knowledge and training, we focused on the organization of workshops in participating countries. The workshops served also as pilot events to test a “curriculum” for HIA; a set of basic topics and presentations had been developed to be tested during workshops. In spite of classical in-class workshops we aimed to organize e-learning events as a way to over come the “busyness” problem of decision makers.

    Results: Throughout March – October 2006 we organized and ran 7 workshops in Denmark, Turkey, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria, Slovak Republic and Hungary. Participants came from the public health sector (141, non-public health decision makers (113 and public health students (100. A concise curriculum was developed and tested during these workshops. Participants developed a basic understanding of HIA, skills to develop and use their own screening tools as well as scoping.Within the workshop in Denmark we tested an online, real-time Internet based training method; participants highly welcomed this

  17. Chromosomal Aberrations and DNA Repair Gene Variants in a Radon-exposed Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuru, A.; Lindholm, C.; Koivistoinen, A.; Salomaa, S.

    2004-07-01

    Polymorphisms of XRCC1 (X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1), XRCC3 (X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3), and hOGG1 (the human homologue of the yeast OGG1 gene) DNA repair genes have been associated with altered DNA repair capacity and risk of various cancers. In the present study our goal was to clarify the influence of various DNA repair gene variants on the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in subjects exposed to residential radon. The study group of 84 non-smoking, healthy individuals exposed to domestic radon were analysed using the fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) technique. No association between radon concentration and CA frequencies was observed. However, a significant increase with age was shown as well as a large variability in translocation frequencies between individuals within the same age group. In order to investigate the role of individual susceptibility to this variation genotypes of DNA repair genes XRCC1 (codons 194, 280 and 399), XRCC3 (codon 241) and hOGG1 (codon 326) were determined from leukocyte DNA using methods based on polymerase chain reaction. Multiple regression analysis was applied to evaluate the effect of the polymorphisms and the other confounding factors (age, exposure to randon etc) to the frequency of CA. The preliminary statistical analyses showed that the different gene appeared not to be related to a pronounced increase in chromosome aberration frequencies observed by FISH painting. However, the analysis indicated that the homozygous variant of XRCC3 codon 241 was associated (P<0.05) with two-ways translocations in conjunction with age. Larger studies, both with regard to the cohort and the number of gene variants are needed to elucidate the influence of other DNA repair variants to the yield of chromosomal aberrations. The results indicate that the chromosomal translocations accumulated by age (spontaneous background) may be partly explained by defects in homologous recombination repair. (Author

  18. Genetic polymorphisms in the nucleotide excision repair pathway and lung cancer risk: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikako Kiyohara, Kouichi Yoshimasu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Various DNA alterations can be caused by exposure to environmental and endogenous carcinogens. Most of these alterations, if not repaired, can result in genetic instability, mutagenesis and cell death. DNA repair mechanisms are important for maintaining DNA integrity and preventing carcinogenesis. Recent lung cancer studies have focused on identifying the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in candidate genes, among which DNA repair genes are increasingly being studied. Genetic variations in DNA repair genes are thought to modulate DNA repair capacity and are suggested to be related to lung cancer risk. We identified a sufficient number of epidemiologic studies on lung cancer to conduct a meta-analysis for genetic polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair pathway genes, focusing on xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA, excision repair cross complementing group 1 (ERCC1, ERCC2/XPD, ERCC4/XPF and ERCC5/XPG. We found an increased risk of lung cancer among subjects carrying the ERCC2 751Gln/Gln genotype (odds ratio (OR = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.14 - 1.49. We found a protective effect of the XPA 23G/G genotype (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.59 - 0.95. Considering the data available, it can be conjectured that if there is any risk association between a single SNP and lung cancer, the risk fluctuation will probably be minimal. Advances in the identification of new polymorphisms and in high-throughput genotyping techniques will facilitate the analysis of multiple genes in multiple DNA repair pathways. Therefore, it is likely that the defining feature of future epidemiologic studies will be the simultaneous analysis of large samples.

  19. Characterization of ventral incisional hernia and repair using shear wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anuj; Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Shajudeen, Peer Shafeeq; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Cabrera, Fernando J; Weiner, Bradley K; Dunkin, Brian J; Tasciotti, Ennio; Righetti, Raffaella

    2017-04-01

    To assess the integrity of hernia repair, imaging modalities such as computed tomography or ultrasound (US) are commonly used. Neither modality has currently the capacity to simultaneously image the mesh and quantify a prosthetic and surrounding tissue stiffness. In this pilot study, we hypothesize that US shear wave elastography (SWE) can be used to identify a polyester mesh and a biologic graft and to assess their stiffness noninvasively in a rat model of bridging hernia repair. Lewis rats underwent hernia creation and repair with Parietex or Strattice at 30 d. After 3 mo, the animals were euthanized, and the Young's Modulus was measured using SWE. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the hernia pre- and post-repair were performed using in-house image processing algorithms. SWE was capable of accurate and real-time assessment and diagnosis of the hernia defects in vivo. Young's Modulus of Parietex meshes and Strattice grafts as estimated from the shear wave elastograms were found to be statistically different from each other (P < 0.05). Accurate three-dimensional reconstructions of the hernia defects pre- and post-repair were generated. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of using US SWE to detect ventral hernias and evaluate mesh repair in vivo. Our results indicate that the presence of a hernia and repair can be reliably visualized by SWE and three dimensionally reconstructed. Thus, this technique may provide both structural and functional information regarding the hernia and the repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantum Reading Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Pirandola, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L

    2011-01-01

    The readout of a classical memory can be modelled as a problem of quantum channel discrimination, where a decoder retrieves information by distinguishing the different quantum channels encoded in each cell of the memory [S. Pirandola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 090504 (2011)]. In the case of optical memories, such as CDs and DVDs, this discrimination involves lossy bosonic channels and can be remarkably boosted by the use of nonclassical light (quantum reading). Here we generalize these concepts by extending the model of memory from single-cell to multi-cell encoding. In general, information is stored in a block of cells by using a channel-codeword, i.e., a sequence of channels chosen according to a classical code. Correspondingly, the readout of data is realized by a process of "parallel" channel discrimination, where the entire block of cells is probed simultaneously and decoded via an optimal collective measurement. In the limit of an infinite block we define the quantum reading capacity of the memory, quantify...

  1. Wireless Connectivity and Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Halldorsson, Magnus M

    2011-01-01

    Given $n$ wireless transceivers located in a plane, a fundamental problem in wireless communications is to construct a strongly connected digraph on them such that the constituent links can be scheduled in fewest possible time slots, assuming the SINR model of interference. In this paper, we provide an algorithm that connects an arbitrary point set in $O(\\log n)$ slots, improving on the previous best bound of $O(\\log^2 n)$ due to Moscibroda. This is complemented with a super-constant lower bound on our approach to connectivity. An important feature is that the algorithms allow for bi-directional (half-duplex) communication. One implication of this result is an improved bound of $\\Omega(1/\\log n)$ on the worst-case capacity of wireless networks, matching the best bound known for the extensively studied average-case. We explore the utility of oblivious power assignments, and show that essentially all such assignments result in a worst case bound of $\\Omega(n)$ slots for connectivity. This rules out a recent cla...

  2. Integrated flexible capacity and inventory management under flexible capacity uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Paç, Mehmet Fazıl

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In a manufacturing environment with volatile demand, inventory management can be coupled with dynamic capacity adjustments for handling the fluctuations more effectively. In this study we consider the integrated management of inventory and flexible capacity management under seasonal stochastic demand and uncertain labor supply. The capacity planning problem is investigated from the workforce planning perspective. We consider a manufactu...

  3. Surgical management of the failed SLAP repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Stephen C

    2010-09-01

    Repair of superior labral tears anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions has become an increasingly common procedure, despite the low incidence rates reported in the literature. As the incidence of these procedures increases, the surgeons will be increasingly confronted with patients with painful shoulders after SLAP repair. Persistent pain after SLAP repair is multifactorial; careful preoperative workup is necessary to elucidate the cause of pain. Simple failure of the prior SLAP repair will rarely be the cause of persistent pain. Use of tacks is especially worrisome, and suture anchor repair is preferable. Articular cartilage injuries because of either bioabsorbable or metal hardware will often create significant residual disability. Recent literature suggests that older patients may be better served by primary biceps tenodesis rather than SLAP repair.

  4. DNA-Protein Crosslink Proteolysis Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Bruno; Popovic, Marta; Ramadan, Kristijan

    2017-06-01

    Proteins that are covalently bound to DNA constitute a specific type of DNA lesion known as DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs). DPCs represent physical obstacles to the progression of DNA replication. If not repaired, DPCs cause stalling of DNA replication forks that consequently leads to DNA double-strand breaks, the most cytotoxic DNA lesion. Although DPCs are common DNA lesions, the mechanism of DPC repair was unclear until now. Recent work unveiled that DPC repair is orchestrated by proteolysis performed by two distinct metalloproteases, SPARTAN in metazoans and Wss1 in yeast. This review summarizes recent discoveries on two proteases in DNA replication-coupled DPC repair and establishes DPC proteolysis repair as a separate DNA repair pathway for genome stability and protection from accelerated aging and cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Repairing sealing surfaces on aluminum castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    Approach using stylus nickel plating instead of copper and cadmium plating has simplified repair procedure. Damaged sealing surfaces are stylus nickelplated in one step. Superficial scratches and porous areas are removed more easily from repaired surface by simply lapping sealing areas to required finish. Although method is aimed for aerospace components, it may be easily incorporated into conventional aluminumcasting technology. One-step repair can be considered for cast-aluminum automobile and aircraft engines to reduce time and costs.

  6. Research on Hot Gunning Repairing in Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Feng; LONG Shigang; MENG Qingmin; SUN Jialin; HONG Yanruo

    2003-01-01

    The lining of blast furnace may be damaged partly,so that gunning repair is needed. The bonding strength of boundary surface between the repairing layer and remained lining of blast furnace has been studied by thermal simulation.The factors influencing the bonding strength are the ingredient gunning repair temperature,remained lining condition and water content of gunning refractory.The bonding strength decreases with the increases of remained lining temperature.

  7. Role of ubiquitination in meiotic recombination repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Programmed and unprogrammed double-strand breaks (DSBs) often arise from such physiological requirements as meiotic recombination, and exogenous insults, such as ionizing radiation (IR). Due to deleterious impacts on genome stability, DSBs must be appropriately processed and repaired in a regulatory manner. Recent investigations have indicated that ubiquitination is a critical factor in DNA damage response and meiotic recombination repair. This review summarizes the effects of proteins and complexes associated with ubiquitination with regard to homologous recombination (HR)-dependent DSB repair.

  8. Laparoscopic repair for vesicouterine fistulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Maioli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose of this video is to present the laparoscopic repair of a VUF in a 42-year-old woman, with gross hematuria, in the immediate postoperative phase following a cesarean delivery. The obstetric team implemented conservative management, including Foley catheter insertion, for 2 weeks. She subsequently developed intermittent hematuria and cystitis. The urology team was consulted 15 days after cesarean delivery. Cystoscopy indicated an ulcerated lesion in the bladder dome of approximately 1.0cm in size. Hysterosalpingography and a pelvic computed tomography scan indicated a fistula. Materials and Methods: Laparoscopic repair was performed 30 days after the cesarean delivery. The patient was placed in the lithotomy position while also in an extreme Trendelenburg position. Pneumoperitoneum was established using a Veress needle in the midline infra-umbilical region, and a primary 11-mm port was inserted. Another 11-mm port was inserted exactly between the left superior iliac spine and the umbilicus. Two other 5-mm ports were established under laparoscopic guidance in the iliac fossa on both sides. The omental adhesions in the pelvis were carefully released and the peritoneum between the bladder and uterus was incised via cautery. Limited cystotomy was performed, and the specific sites of the fistula and the ureteral meatus were identified; thereafter, the posterior bladder wall was adequately mobilized away from the uterus. The uterine rent was then closed using single 3/0Vicryl sutures and two-layer watertight closure of the urinary bladder was achieved by using 3/0Vicryl sutures. An omental flap was mobilized and inserted between the uterus and the urinary bladder, and was fixed using two 3/0Vicryl sutures, followed by tube drain insertion. Results: The operative time was 140 min, whereas the blood loss was 100ml. The patient was discharged 3 days after surgery, and the catheter was removed 12 days after surgery

  9. Available transmission capacity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škokljev Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective power system operation requires the analysis of vast amounts of information. Power market activities expose power transmission networks to high-level power transactions that threaten normal, secure operation of the power system. When there are service requests for a specific sink/source pair in a transmission system, the transmission system operator (TSO must allocate the available transfer capacity (ATC. It is common that ATC has a single numerical value. Additionally, the ATC must be calculated for the base case configuration of the system, while generation dispatch and topology remain unchanged during the calculation. Posting ATC on the internet should benefit prospective users by aiding them in formulating their requests. However, a single numerical value of ATC offers little for prospect for analysis, planning, what-if combinations, etc. A symbolic approach to the power flow problem (DC power flow and ATC offers a numerical computation at the very end, whilst the calculation beforehand is performed by using symbols for the general topology of the electrical network. Qualitative analysis of the ATC using only qualitative values, such as increase, decrease or no change, offers some new insights into ATC evaluation, multiple transactions evaluation, value of counter-flows and their impact etc. Symbolic analysis in this paper is performed after the execution of the linear, symbolic DC power flow. As control variables, the mathematical model comprises linear security constraints, ATC, PTDFs and transactions. The aim is to perform an ATC sensitivity study on a five nodes/seven lines transmission network, used for zonal market activities tests. A relatively complicated environment with twenty possible bilateral transactions is observed.

  10. Extensor tendon repair an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Bin Fayed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of extensor injuries is more than that of flexor tendon injuries. This is to a great extent because of the extensors being superficially placed and covered by skin and subcutaneous tissue over the distal part of the upper extremity. Thus they are more vulnerable to blunt and sharp trauma, the proximal and distal forearm present with laceration and cut with sharp weapon. Extensor tendon injuries are often taken lightly by many, repairs being taken-up at the ER. Repair is done in or if the retrieval of tendon ends is difficult or the wound is complicated with associated injuries such as fractures or in cases of tendon retraction. Delayed primary repair can be undertaken from 7-10 days. Assessment of the injured finger has to be very meticulous. Extension of finger is brought about by the interossei and lumbricals which are the short muscles of the hand. They extend the proximal interphalangeal joints and distal interphalangeal joints and flex metacarpophalangeal joint, these intrinsic muscles are innervated by the ulnar and median nerves. The long extensors are innervated by the radial nerve, they primarily extend the metacarpophalangeal joints and also interphalangeal joints. In cases of injury the intrinsic system may compensate for an extensor deficit. Closed injuries of zone I may be managed by splinting of the distal interphalangeal joints and open injuries in the zone I and II can be treated with tenodermodesis. Proximal interphalangeal joints and distal interphalangeal joints are immobilized in zone 3 and 4. Metacarpophalangeal joint is immobilized in full extension and the wrist in 10o extension.

  11. Integrated Electrical Wire Insulation Repair System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Jolley, Scott; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steven

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system tool will allow a technician to easily and quickly repair damaged high-performance electrical wire insulation in the field. Low-melt polyimides have been developed that can be processed into thin films that work well in the repair of damaged polyimide or fluoropolymer insulated electrical wiring. Such thin films can be used in wire insulation repairs by affixing a film of this low-melt polyimide to the damaged wire, and heating the film to effect melting, flow, and cure of the film. The resulting repair is robust, lightweight, and small in volume. The heating of this repair film is accomplished with the use of a common electrical soldering tool that has been modified with a special head or tip that can accommodate the size of wire being repaired. This repair method can furthermore be simplified for the repair technician by providing replaceable or disposable soldering tool heads that have repair film already "loaded" and ready for use. The soldering tool heating device can also be equipped with a battery power supply that will allow its use in areas where plug-in current is not available

  12. Concrete structures protection, repair and rehabilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Woodson, R Dodge

    2009-01-01

    The success of a repair or rehabilitation project depends on the specific plans designed for it. Concrete Structures: Protection, Repair and Rehabilitation provides guidance on evaluating the condition of the concrete in a structure, relating the condition of the concrete to the underlying cause or causes of that condition, selecting an appropriate repair material and method for any deficiency found, and using the selected materials and methods to repair or rehabilitate the structure. Guidance is also provided for engineers focused on maintaining concrete and preparing concrete investigation r

  13. 33 CFR 127.405 - Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Maintenance § 127.405 Repairs. The operator shall ensure that—...

  14. Changes in DNA repair during aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei; Mao, Zhiyong; Hine, Christpher

    2007-01-01

    DNA is a precious molecule. It encodes vital information about cellular content and function. There are only two copies of each chromosome in the cell, and once the sequence is lost no replacement is possible. The irreplaceable nature of the DNA sets it apart from other cellular molecules, and makes it a critical target for age-related deterioration. To prevent DNA damage cells have evolved elaborate DNA repair machinery. Paradoxically, DNA repair can itself be subject to age-related changes and deterioration. In this review we will discuss the changes in efficiency of mismatch repair (MMR), base excision repair (BER), nucleotide excision repair (NER) and double-strand break (DSB) repair systems during aging, and potential changes in DSB repair pathway usage that occur with age. Mutations in DNA repair genes and premature aging phenotypes they cause have been reviewed extensively elsewhere, therefore the focus of this review is on the comparison of DNA repair mechanisms in young versus old. PMID:17913742

  15. ONSTEP versus laparoscopy for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The optimal repair of inguinal hernias remains controversial. It is recommended that an inguinal hernia be repaired using a mesh, either with a laparoscopic or an open approach. In Denmark, the laparoscopic approach is used in an increasing number of cases. The laparoscopic repair has...... clinical trial described in this protocol is to evaluate chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair using the ONSTEP method versus the laparoscopic approach. METHODS: This study is designed as a non-inferiority, two-arm, multicentre, randomised clinical trial, with a 1:1 allocation to ONSTEP or laparoscopic...

  16. Vesicocervical fistula following vesicovaginal fistula repair report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamudur Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vesicocervical fistula following vesicovaginal fistula repair is a very rare condition. It is a complication following repeated lower uterine cesarean section. We report a case of an young married woman who was admitted in the depart­ment of urology, Banghabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Hospital with vesico-cervical fistula following vesico­vaginal fistula repair. Reposition of cervix into vaginal vault and repair of urinary bladder was done. There was no such report of vesicocervical fistula following vesicovaginal fistula repair from Bangladesh.

  17. ONSTEP versus laparoscopy for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The optimal repair of inguinal hernias remains controversial. It is recommended that an inguinal hernia be repaired using a mesh, either with a laparoscopic or an open approach. In Denmark, the laparoscopic approach is used in an increasing number of cases. The laparoscopic repair has...... clinical trial described in this protocol is to evaluate chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair using the ONSTEP method versus the laparoscopic approach. METHODS: This study is designed as a non-inferiority, two-arm, multicentre, randomised clinical trial, with a 1:1 allocation to ONSTEP or laparoscopic...

  18. Complex networks repair strategies: Dynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chaoqi; Wang, Ying; Gao, Yangjun; Wang, Xiaoyang

    2017-09-01

    Network repair strategies are tactical methods that restore the efficiency of damaged networks; however, unreasonable repair strategies not only waste resources, they are also ineffective for network recovery. Most extant research on network repair focuses on static networks, but results and findings on static networks cannot be applied to evolutionary dynamic networks because, in dynamic models, complex network repair has completely different characteristics. For instance, repaired nodes face more severe challenges, and require strategic repair methods in order to have a significant effect. In this study, we propose the Shell Repair Strategy (SRS) to minimize the risk of secondary node failures due to the cascading effect. Our proposed method includes the identification of a set of vital nodes that have a significant impact on network repair and defense. Our identification of these vital nodes reduces the number of switching nodes that face the risk of secondary failures during the dynamic repair process. This is positively correlated with the size of the average degree and enhances network invulnerability.

  19. Root justifications for ontology repair

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Moodley_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 32328 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Moodley_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Root Justi cations... the ontology, based on the no- tion of root justi cations [8, 9]. In Section 5, we discuss the implementation of a Prot eg e3 plugin which demonstrates our approach to ontology repair. In this section we also discuss some experimental results comparing...

  20. Arthroscopic Transosseous Bony Bankart Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Matthew D.; Burns, Joseph P.; Snyder, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of glenoid bony integrity is critical to minimizing the risk of recurrence and re-creating normal kinematics in the setting of anterior glenohumeral instability. We present an arthroscopic suture anchor–based technique for treating large bony Bankart fractures in which the fragment is secured to the intact glenoid using mattress sutures placed through the bony fragment and augmented with soft-tissue repair proximal and distal to the bony lesion. This straightforward technique has led to excellent fragment reduction and good outcomes in our experience. PMID:25973373

  1. Peak capacity in unidimensional chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neue, Uwe Dieter

    2008-03-14

    The currently existing knowledge about peak capacity in unidimensional separations is reviewed. The majority of the paper is dedicated to reversed-phase gradient chromatography, covering specific techniques as well as the subject of peak compression. Other sections deal with peak capacity in isocratic chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography and ion-exchange chromatography. An important topic is the limitation of the separation power and the meaning of the concept of peak capacity for real applications.

  2. 40 CFR 60.482-9 - Standards: Delay of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Delay of repair. 60.482-9... Standards: Delay of repair. (a) Delay of repair of equipment for which leaks have been detected will be allowed if repair within 15 days is technically infeasible without a process unit shutdown. Repair of...

  3. 21 CFR 870.1350 - Catheter balloon repair kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter balloon repair kit. 870.1350 Section 870... repair kit. (a) Identification. A catheter balloon repair kit is a device used to repair or replace the... effect the repair or replacement. (b) Classification. Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA...

  4. 14 CFR 145.207 - Repair station manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repair station manual. 145.207 Section 145...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES REPAIR STATIONS Operating Rules § 145.207 Repair station manual. (a) A certificated repair station must prepare and follow a repair station manual acceptable to...

  5. Inefficient DNA Repair Is an Aging-Related Modifier of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepe, Sara; Milanese, Chiara; Gabriels, Sylvia; Derks, Kasper W J; Payan-Gomez, Cesar; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Rijksen, Yvonne M A; Nigg, Alex L; Moreno, Sandra; Cerri, Silvia; Blandini, Fabio; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Mastroberardino, Pier G

    2016-05-31

    The underlying relation between Parkinson's disease (PD) etiopathology and its major risk factor, aging, is largely unknown. In light of the causative link between genome stability and aging, we investigate a possible nexus between DNA damage accumulation, aging, and PD by assessing aging-related DNA repair pathways in laboratory animal models and humans. We demonstrate that dermal fibroblasts from PD patients display flawed nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity and that Ercc1 mutant mice with mildly compromised NER exhibit typical PD-like pathological alterations, including decreased striatal dopaminergic innervation, increased phospho-synuclein levels, and defects in mitochondrial respiration. Ercc1 mouse mutants are also more sensitive to the prototypical PD toxin MPTP, and their transcriptomic landscape shares important similarities with that of PD patients. Our results demonstrate that specific defects in DNA repair impact the dopaminergic system and are associated with human PD pathology and might therefore constitute an age-related risk factor for PD.

  6. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes neurovascular repair after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-shan Ran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in angiogenesis and endothelial cell formation, but it remains unclear whether it is involved in vascular repair by endothelial progenitor cells after traumatic brain injury. Therefore, in the present study, we controlled the Notch signaling pathway using overexpression and knockdown constructs. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway by Notch1 or Jagged1 overexpression enhanced the migration, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of endothelial progenitor cells. Suppression of the Notch signaling pathway with Notch1 or Jagged1 siRNAs reduced the migratory capacity, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of endothelial progenitor cells. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway in vivo in a rat model of mild traumatic brain injury promoted neurovascular repair. These findings suggest that the activation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes blood vessel formation and tissue repair after brain trauma.

  7. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes neurovascular repair after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-shan Ran; Yun-hu Yu; Xiao-hong Fu; Yuan-chao Wen

    2015-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays a key role in angiogenesis and endothelial cell formation, but it remains unclear whether it is involved in vascular repair by endothelial progenitor cells after traumatic brain injury. Therefore, in the present study, we controlled the Notch signaling path-way using overexpression and knockdown constructs. Activation of the Notch signaling pathway by Notch1 or Jagged1 overexpression enhanced the migration, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of endothelial progenitor cells. Suppression of the Notch signaling pathway with Notch1 or Jagged1 siRNAs reduced the migratory capacity, invasiveness and angiogenic ability of endo-thelial progenitor cells. Activation of the Notch signaling pathwayin vivo in a rat model of mild traumatic brain injury promoted neurovascular repair. These ifndings suggest that the activation of the Notch signaling pathway promotes blood vessel formation and tissue repair after brain trauma.

  8. Base excision repair activities differ in human lung cancer cells and corresponding normal controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahalil, Bensu; Bohr, Vilhelm A; De Souza-Pinto, Nadja C

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA is thought to play a role in carcinogenesis by causing mutations, and indeed accumulation of oxidized DNA bases has been observed in samples obtained from tumors but not from surrounding tissue within the same patient. Base excision repair (BER) is the main pathway...... for the repair of oxidized modifications both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. In order to ascertain whether diminished BER capacity might account for increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in cancer cells, the activities of BER enzymes in three different lung cancer cell lines and their non......-cancerous counterparts were measured using oligonucleotide substrates with single DNA lesions to assess specific BER enzymes. The activities of four BER enzymes, OGG1, NTH1, UDG and APE1, were compared in mitochondrial and nuclear extracts. For each specific lesion, the repair activities were similar among the three...

  9. 刚果(金)某硫化铜钴精矿沸腾焙烧试验研究%Experimental Study on Fluidized Bed Roasting of Copper-cobalt Sulfide Concentrate from Congo DRC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鑫; 周韫; 王含渊

    2015-01-01

    针对刚果(金)某铜钴矿选矿所得硫化铜钴精矿进行了沸腾焙烧试验研究。研究表明,在焙烧温度620℃、空气线速度0�43 m/s、风矿比3.33 m3/kg的条件下,硫化铜钴精矿焙烧效果较好。焙砂和焙烧烟尘酸浸试验结果进一步验证了最佳焙烧条件,焙砂铜、钴、铁浸出率分别为96.43%,87.06%和10.89%,焙烧烟尘铜、钴、铁浸出率分别为96.32%,84.02%和17.12%。试验研究结果为该类型铜钴矿选冶联合工艺选择及后期工业化应用提供了实验数据与技术支持。%An experimental study was carried out on the fluidized bed roasting of copper⁃cobalt sulfide concentrate obtained after processing of copper⁃cobalt ores from Congo DRC. It is suggested that a better effect be obtained for the roasting of copper⁃cobalt concentrate at a temperature of 620℃, with linear velocity of air at 0.43 m/s, air/ore ratio of 3.33 m3/kg. The further acid leaching test of calcine and roasting dust testified the optimum roasting condition. The leaching rates of Cu, Co, Fe reached 96. 43%, 87. 06%, 10. 89%, respectively, from the calcine, and 96. 32%, 84�02%, 17.12%, respectively, from the roasting dust. The experiment result can provide some sort of experimental reference and technical support for the selection of a combined process of concentrating and metallurgy, as well as the following industrialization of fluidized bed roasting technique for such copper⁃cobalt sulfide concentrate in future.

  10. On Cellular MIMO Channel Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Koichi; Adachi, Fumiyuki; Nakagawa, Masao

    To increase the transmission rate without bandwidth expansion, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has recently been attracting much attention. The MIMO channel capacity in a cellular system is affected by the interference from neighboring co-channel cells. In this paper, we introduce the cellular channel capacity and evaluate its outage capacity, taking into account the frequency-reuse factor, path loss exponent, standard deviation of shadowing loss, and transmission power of a base station (BS). Furthermore, we compare the cellular MIMO downlink channel capacity with those of other multi-antenna transmission techniques such as single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and space-time block coded multiple-input single-output (STBC-MISO). We show that the optimum frequency-reuse factor F that maximizes 10%-outage capacity is 3 and both 50%- and 90%-outage capacities is 1 irrespective of the type of multi-antenna transmission technique, where q%-outage capacity is defined as the channel capacity that gives an outage probability of q%. We also show that the cellular MIMO channel capacity is always higher than those of SIMO and STBC-MISO.

  11. Capacity Building in Land Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Ahene, Rexford

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant need for capacity building in the interdisciplinary area of land management especially in developing countries and countries in transition, to deal with the complex issues of building efficient land information systems and sustainable institutional infrastructures. Capacity...... development in this area. Furthermore, capacity building should ensure that the focus is on building sound institutions and governance rather than just high-level IT-infrastructures.    This overall approach to capacity building in land management is used for implementing a new land policy reform in Malawi...

  12. Capacity Measurement with the UIC 406 Capacity Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Schittenhelm, Bernd; Kaas, Anders H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the fast and effective UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. It is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different capacity consumptions. Therefore, this article describes how the methodology is expounded...

  13. CrowdAidRepair: A Crowd-Aided Interactive Data Repairing Method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2016-03-25

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. Traditional methods relying on predefined quality rules to detect the conflict between data may fail to choose the right way to fix the detected conflict. Recent efforts turn to use the power of crowd in data repairing, but the crowd power has its own drawbacks such as high human intervention cost and inevitable low efficiency. In this paper, we propose a crowd-aided interactive data repairing method which takes the advantages of both rule-based method and crowd-based method. Particularly, we investigate the interaction between crowd-based repairing and rule-based repairing, and show that by doing crowd-based repairing to a small portion of values, we can greatly improve the repairing quality of the rule-based repairing method. Although we prove that the optimal interaction scheme using the least number of values for crowd-based repairing to maximize the imputation recall is not feasible to be achieved, still, our proposed solution identifies an efficient scheme through investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Our empirical study on three data collections demonstrates the high repairing quality of CrowdAidRepair, as well as the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over baselines.

  14. Initiating Repair and Beyond: The Use of Two Repeat-Formatted Repair Initiations in Mandarin Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruey-Jiuan Regina

    2006-01-01

    As part of a growing effort to understand the organization of repair across languages, this study examines 2 repeat-formatted other-initiated repair practices in Mandarin conversation. Using the methodology of conversation analysis as a central framework, this study shows that the 2 Mandarin repair initiations under examination, like…

  15. X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1 in base excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanssen-Bauer, Audun; Solvang-Garten, Karin; Akbari, Mansour;

    2012-01-01

    X-ray Repair Cross Complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) acts as a scaffolding protein in the converging base excision repair (BER) and single strand break repair (SSBR) pathways. XRCC1 also interacts with itself and rapidly accumulates at sites of DNA damage. XRCC1 can thus mediate the assembly of large...

  16. Comparative DNA damage and repair in echinoderm coelomocytes exposed to genotoxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bibany, Ameena H; Bodnar, Andrea G; Reinardy, Helena C

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to withstand and repair DNA damage differs among species and plays a role in determining an organism's resistance to genotoxicity, life history, and susceptibility to disease. Environmental stressors that affect organisms at the genetic level are of particular concern in ecotoxicology due to the potential for chronic effects and trans-generational impacts on populations. Echinoderms are valuable organisms to study the relationship between DNA repair and resistance to genotoxic stress due to their history and use as ecotoxicological models, little evidence of senescence, and few reported cases of neoplasia. Coelomocytes (immune cells) have been proposed to serve as sensitive bioindicators of environmental stress and are often used to assess genotoxicity; however, little is known about how coelomocytes from different echinoderm species respond to genotoxic stress. In this study, DNA damage was assessed (by Fast Micromethod) in coelomocytes of four echinoderm species (sea urchins Lytechinus variegatus, Echinometra lucunter lucunter, and Tripneustes ventricosus, and a sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus) after acute exposure to H2O2 (0-100 mM) and UV-C (0-9999 J/m2), and DNA repair was analyzed over a 24-hour period of recovery. Results show that coelomocytes from all four echinoderm species have the capacity to repair both UV-C and H2O2-induced DNA damage; however, there were differences in repair capacity between species. At 24 hours following exposure to the highest concentration of H2O2 (100 mM) and highest dose of UV-C (9999 J/m2) cell viability remained high (>94.6 ± 1.2%) but DNA repair ranged from 18.2 ± 9.2% to 70.8 ± 16.0% for H2O2 and 8.4 ± 3.2% to 79.8 ± 9.0% for UV-C exposure. Species-specific differences in genotoxic susceptibility and capacity for DNA repair are important to consider when evaluating ecogenotoxicological model organisms and assessing overall impacts of genotoxicants in the environment.

  17. Comparative DNA damage and repair in echinoderm coelomocytes exposed to genotoxicants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameena H El-Bibany

    Full Text Available The capacity to withstand and repair DNA damage differs among species and plays a role in determining an organism's resistance to genotoxicity, life history, and susceptibility to disease. Environmental stressors that affect organisms at the genetic level are of particular concern in ecotoxicology due to the potential for chronic effects and trans-generational impacts on populations. Echinoderms are valuable organisms to study the relationship between DNA repair and resistance to genotoxic stress due to their history and use as ecotoxicological models, little evidence of senescence, and few reported cases of neoplasia. Coelomocytes (immune cells have been proposed to serve as sensitive bioindicators of environmental stress and are often used to assess genotoxicity; however, little is known about how coelomocytes from different echinoderm species respond to genotoxic stress. In this study, DNA damage was assessed (by Fast Micromethod in coelomocytes of four echinoderm species (sea urchins Lytechinus variegatus, Echinometra lucunter lucunter, and Tripneustes ventricosus, and a sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus after acute exposure to H2O2 (0-100 mM and UV-C (0-9999 J/m2, and DNA repair was analyzed over a 24-hour period of recovery. Results show that coelomocytes from all four echinoderm species have the capacity to repair both UV-C and H2O2-induced DNA damage; however, there were differences in repair capacity between species. At 24 hours following exposure to the highest concentration of H2O2 (100 mM and highest dose of UV-C (9999 J/m2 cell viability remained high (>94.6 ± 1.2% but DNA repair ranged from 18.2 ± 9.2% to 70.8 ± 16.0% for H2O2 and 8.4 ± 3.2% to 79.8 ± 9.0% for UV-C exposure. Species-specific differences in genotoxic susceptibility and capacity for DNA repair are important to consider when evaluating ecogenotoxicological model organisms and assessing overall impacts of genotoxicants in the environment.

  18. Repair of overheating linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkley, Walter; Baldwin, William; Bennett, Gloria; Bitteker, Leo; Borden, Michael; Casados, Jeff; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Gorman, Fred; Johnson, Kenneth; Kurennoy, Sergey; Martinez, Alberto; O’Hara, James; Perez, Edward; Roller, Brandon; Rybarcyk, Lawrence; Stark, Peter; Stockton, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is a proton accelerator that produces high energy particle beams for experiments. These beams include neutrons and protons for diverse uses including radiography, isotope production, small feature study, lattice vibrations and material science. The Drift Tube Linear Accelerator (DTL) is the first portion of a half mile long linear section of accelerator that raises the beam energy from 750 keV to 100 MeV. In its 31st year of operation (2003), the DTL experienced serious issues. The first problem was the inability to maintain resonant frequency at full power. The second problem was increased occurrences of over-temperature failure of cooling hoses. These shortcomings led to an investigation during the 2003 yearly preventative maintenance shutdown that showed evidence of excessive heating: discolored interior tank walls and coper oxide deposition in the cooling circuits. Since overheating was suspected to be caused by compromised heat transfer, improving that was the focus of the repair effort. Investigations revealed copper oxide flow inhibition and iron oxide scale build up. Acid cleaning was implemented with careful attention to protection of the base metal, selection of components to clean and minimization of exposure times. The effort has been very successful in bringing the accelerator through a complete eight month run cycle allowing an incredible array of scientific experiments to be completed this year (2003-2004). This paper will describe the systems, investigation analysis, repair, return to production and conclusion.

  19. Regenerative endodontics: regeneration or repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Stéphane R J; Tomson, Phillip L; Berdal, Ariane

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in biotechnology and translational research have made it possible to provide treatment modalities that protect the vital pulp, allow manipulation of reactionary and reparative dentinogenesis, and, more recently, permit revascularization of an infected root canal space. These approaches are referred to as regenerative procedures. The method currently used to determine the origin of the tissue secreted during the repair/regeneration process is largely based on the identification of cellular markers (usually proteins) left by cells that were responsible for this tissue production. The presence of these proteins in conjunction with other indicators of cellular behavior (especially biomineralization) and analysis of the structure of the newly generated tissue allow conclusions to be made of how it was formed. Thus far, it has not been possible to truly establish the biological mechanism controlling tertiary dentinogenesis. This article considers current therapeutic techniques to treat the dentin-pulp complex and contextualize them in terms of reparative and regenerative processes. Although it may be considered a semantic argument rather than a biological one, the definitions of regeneration and repair are explored to clarify our position in this era of regenerative endodontics. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nationwide prevalence of groin hernia repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Burcharth

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Groin hernia repair is a commonly performed surgical procedure in the western world but large-scaled epidemiologic data are sparse. Large-scale data on the occurrence of groin hernia repair may provide further understanding to the pathophysiology of groin hernia development. This study was undertaken to investigate the age and gender dependent prevalence of groin hernia repair. METHODS: In a nationwide register-based study, using data from the Civil Registration System covering all Danish citizens, we established a population-based cohort of all people living in Denmark on December 31(st, 2010. Within this population all groin hernia repairs during the past 5 years were identified using data from the ICD 10(th edition in the Danish National Hospital Register. RESULTS: The study population covered n = 5,639,885 persons. During the five years study period 46,717 groin hernia repairs were performed (88.6% males, 11.4% females. Inguinal hernias comprised 97% of groin hernia repairs (90.2% males, 9.8% females and femoral hernias 3% of groin hernia repairs (29.8% males, 70.2% females. Patients between 0-5 years and 75-80 years constituted the two dominant groups for inguinal hernia repair. In contrast, the age-specific prevalence of femoral hernia repair increased steadily throughout life peaking at age 80-90 years in both men and women. CONCLUSION: The age distribution of inguinal hernia repair is bimodal peaking at early childhood and old age, whereas the prevalence of femoral hernia repair increased steadily throughout life. This information can be used to formulate new hypotheses regarding disease etiology with regard to age and gender specifications.

  1. Early passage bone marrow stromal cells express genes involved in nervous system development supporting their relevance for neural repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandoe, R.D.S.; Bossers, K.; Ritfeld, G.J.; Blits, B.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Verhaagen, J.; Oudega, M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The assessment of the capacity of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) to repair the nervous system using gene expression profiling. The evaluation of effects of long-term culturing on the gene expression profile of BMSC. METHODS: Fourty four k whole genome rat microarrays were used to study

  2. Similar hyaline-like cartilage repair of osteochondral defects in rabbits using isotropic and anisotropic collagen scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mulder, Eric L W; Hannink, Gerjon; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Daamen, Willeke F; Buma, Pieter

    2014-02-01

    Lesions in knee joint articular cartilage (AC) have limited repair capacity. Many clinically available treatments induce a fibrous-like cartilage repair instead of hyaline cartilage. To induce hyaline cartilage repair, we hypothesized that type I collagen scaffolds with fibers aligned perpendicular to the AC surface would result in qualitatively better tissue repair due to a guided cellular influx from the subchondral bone. By specific freezing protocols, type I collagen scaffolds with isotropic and anisotropic fiber architectures were produced. Rabbits were operated on bilaterally and two full thickness defects were created in each knee joint. The defects were filled with (1) an isotropic scaffold, (2) an anisotropic scaffold with pores parallel to the cartilage surface, and (3) an anisotropic scaffold with pores perpendicular to the cartilage surface. Empty defects served as controls. After 4 (n=13) and 12 (n=13) weeks, regeneration was scored qualitatively and quantitatively using histological analysis and a modified O'Driscoll score. After 4 weeks, all defects were completely filled with partially differentiated hyaline cartilage tissue. No differences in O'Driscoll scores were measured between empty defects and scaffold types. After 12 weeks, all treatments led to hyaline cartilage repair visualized by increased glycosaminoglycan staining. Total scores were significantly increased for parallel anisotropic and empty defects over time (phyaline-like cartilage repair. Fiber architecture had no effect on cartilage repair.

  3. 17{alpha}-Ethinylestradiol hinders nucleotide excision repair in zebrafish liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notch, Emily G. [Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Molecular Biology, University of Maine 5735 Hitchner Hall, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Mayer, Gregory D., E-mail: greg.mayer@ttu.edu [The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)

    2009-12-13

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the primary mechanism that removes bulky DNA adducts such as those caused by ubiquitous environmental mutagens including benzo(a)pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Recent data suggest that exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of estrogen decreases hepatic mRNA abundance of several key NER genes in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, the impact of decreased hepatic NER expression on NER function was not investigated in the previous study. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of the potent estrogen receptor agonist 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol (EE{sub 2}) on rate and magnitude of bulky DNA adduct repair. Here we show that exposure of zebrafish liver (ZFL) cells to physiologically relevant concentrations of EE{sub 2} resulted in reduced ability of ZFL cells to repair damaged DNA in comparison to control cells. Co-exposure to EE{sub 2} and a complete estrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780) also resulted in reduced NER capacity, whereas ICI 182,780 alone did not affect the ability of ZFL cells to repair UV damage. These results indicate that estrogen exposure can decrease cellular NER capacity and that this effect can occur in the presence of an estrogen receptor antagonist, suggesting that EE{sub 2} can affect NER processes through mechanisms other than nuclear estrogen receptor activation.

  4. Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a develo

  5. Improving African health research capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the migrat...

  6. Fiscal Capacity Equalisation in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.

    2010-01-01

    Fiscal equalisation aims at enabling decentralised governments to supply similar services at similar tax rates. In order to equalise fiscal disparities, differences in both fiscal capacities and in fiscal needs have to be measured. This paper focuses on the measurement of fiscal capacity in a develo

  7. Checking Capacity for MIMO Configurations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    Wireless system capacity can be added by increasing the number of antennas in a MIMO setup or by carefully optimizing the performance of a smaller number of antennas.......Wireless system capacity can be added by increasing the number of antennas in a MIMO setup or by carefully optimizing the performance of a smaller number of antennas....

  8. Information capacity of quantum observable

    CERN Document Server

    Holevo, A S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical capacities of quantum-classical channels corresponding to measurement of observables. Special attention is paid to the case of continuous observables. We give the formulas for unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ and consider some explicitly solvable cases which give new examples of entanglement-breaking channels with $C_{ea}>C.$

  9. Improvement of adhesion performance of mortar-repair interface with inducing crack path into repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Satoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The most important performance for repair materials is adhesion to the substrate. The authors experimentally find out that high modulus fine aggregates in repair material enhance strength of it as well as the strength of the interface repaired with it, compared to the ordinary repair without fine aggregates. This paper elaborates the mechanisms for that with fractographic observation and FEM analysis based on the results of experiment. Also the authors discuss the ways for enhancing the strength and ductility of the repaired mortar

  10. 28 Comparative Study of Open Mesh Repair and Desarda's No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-12-02

    Dec 2, 2006 ... East And Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 11 Number 2. ... new technique and the open mesh repair done in a district level general hospital set ... laparoscopic repairs or the patients given ..... Hernia repair (Open Vs.

  11. International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation. (TEM)

  12. The dynamics of instability in eastern DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Jacquemot

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in eastern Congo has been the most deadly one since the second World War, and its social consequences have been disastrous. Solutions to the conflict – which has its roots in politics, in demographics and in economics – must look to the long term.

  13. Enhancing governance for sanitation marketing in DRC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    This report is one of the results of the ‘Sanitation Marketing in Equateur Province’ project in RDC, in which Wageningen UR and Oxfam Great Britain (Oxfam GB) work together.

    • It Describes the characteristics of different governance arrangements that address sanitation problems in Gemena i

  14. Study on capacity fading of 18650 type LiCoO2-based lithium ion batteries during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liu-Qun; Li, Shu-Jun; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Lin, Hai-Jun; Miao, Yan-Yue; Chen, Shou-Wei; Liu, Hai-Bin

    2015-05-01

    The capacity fading of LiCoO2-based lithium ion batteries during storage was studied. The discharging capacity fading is attributed to the decreasing in the charging capacity at the constant current stage. After 300 cycles, the ratio of the charging capacity of batteries at the constant current stage to the total charging capacity decreases from 87.2 to 71.2%. The bounce-back voltage is closely related to the internal resistance when the battery is discharged to the cut-off voltage of 3.0 V. Batteries were disassembled in the fully discharged state, and then a assembled again in order to deeply understand the causes of the capacity fading of the cathode and anode. The results shows that the SEI film thickness increasing, breaking or repairing process at the anode could be responsible for the high bounce-back voltage, the increase of the internal resistance and the capacity fading during storage.

  15. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  16. Axonal outgrowth is associated with increased ERK 1/2 activation but decreased caspase 3 linked cell death in Schwann cells after immediate nerve repair in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanje Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2 is activated by nerve damage and its activation precedes survival and proliferation of Schwann cells. In contrast, activation of caspase 3, a cysteine protease, is considered as a marker for apoptosis in Schwann cells. In the present study, axonal outgrowth, activation of ERK1/2 by phosphorylation (p-ERK 1/2 and immunoreactivity of cleaved caspase 3 were examined after immediate, delayed, or no repair of transected rat sciatic nerves. Results Axonal outgrowth, detected by neurofilament staining, was longer after immediate repair than after either the delayed or no repair conditions. Immediate repair also showed a higher expression of p-ERK 1/2 and a lower number of cleaved caspase 3 stained Schwann cells than after delayed nerve repair. If the transected nerve was not repaired a lower level of p-ERK 1/2 was found than in either the immediate or delayed repair conditions. Axonal outgrowth correlated to p-ERK 1/2, but not clearly with cleaved caspase 3. Contact with regenerating axons affected Schwann cells with respect to p-ERK 1/2 and cleaved caspase 3 after immediate nerve repair only. Conclusion The decreased regenerative capacity that has historically been observed after delayed nerve repair may be related to impaired activation of Schwann cells and increased Schwann cell death. Outgrowing axons influence ERK 1/2 activation and apoptosis of Schwann cells.

  17. 30 CFR 56.6801 - Vehicle repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle repair. 56.6801 Section 56.6801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Vehicle repair. Vehicles containing explosive material and oxidizers shall not be taken into a...

  18. DNA repair mechanisms in C. elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/336462557

    2009-01-01

    DNA is the carrier of genetic information. DNA is constantly damaged by, for example, UV light and X-rays. Cells can utilize a large number of proteins that can repair the damages, thereby avoiding changes in the DNA sequence. Damages that are not repaired result in an increase in the number of muta

  19. Damage diagnosis and compatible repair mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, R.P.J. van

    1999-01-01

    Mortars for repair and maintenance of historic masonry have to meet specific requirements. Several authors have made contributions, however many cases of failure show that there still is quite a lack of knowledge on the compatibility of repair mortars for historic masonry. The diagnosis of the cause

  20. Laparoscopic Ventral and Incisional Hernia Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ventral and incisional hernia repair is one of the most frequently performed operations in daily surgical practice. Laparoscopic ventral and incisional hernia repair (LVIHR) is gaining increasing adoption in surgical practice. It has theoretical advantages but improvements in technique can still be

  1. Thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm branched repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, E. L. G.; Tielliu, I. F. J.; Ferreira, M.; Zipfel, B.; Adam, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Open thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is a demanding procedure with high impact on the patient and the operating team. Results from expert centres show mortality rates between 3-21%, with extensive morbidity including renal failure and paraplegia. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneu

  2. Some aspects of RNA repair and editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk M. V.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available All cellular RNA molecules are damaged at the scale of DNA molecules, or even more. In the present review the RNA damaging agents, some mechanisms of RNA repair and editing, their difference from DNA repair mechanisms have been discussed.

  3. Mitral valve repair in acquired dextrocardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmistekawy, Elsayed; Chan, Vincent; Hynes, Mark; Mesana, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Surgical correction of valvular heart disease in patients with dextrocardia is extremely rare. We report a surgical case of mitral valve repair in a patient with acquired dextrocardia. Successful mitral valve repair was performed through a right lateral thoracotomy. We describe our surgical strategy and summarize the literature.

  4. Plan Repair using a Plan Library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Plan library's have proven their added value to the efficiency of planning. In this paper, we present results on the use of a plan library to plan repair. We show that using a relatively simple library, we can already obtain significant improvements in efficiency compared to plan repair without a li

  5. Dysphagia in children with repaired oesophageal atresia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, C.H.; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Scharbatke, H.E.; Groot, S.A. de; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem in children with repaired oesophageal atresia (OA). Abnormalities in the oropharyngeal and oesophageal phase have hardly been studied. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of dysphagia in children with repaired OA and to identify and differentiate oral

  6. Targeted gene repair – in the arena

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The development of targeted gene repair is under way and, despite some setbacks, shows promise as an alternative form of gene therapy. This approach uses synthetic DNA molecules to activate and direct the cell’s inherent DNA repair systems to correct inborn errors. The progress of this technique and its therapeutic potential are discussed in relation to the treatment of genetic diseases.

  7. Perirectal mucocele after imperforate anus repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panicek, D.M.; Leeson, S.H.; Farrar, F.M.; Hitch, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A large perirectal mucocele developed in a child over an 11-year period following repair of an imperforate anus. Renal failure and large bowel obstruction secondary to compression by the mass were the presenting symptoms. Computed tomographic evaluation of the pelvis was critical for preoperative assessment of this previously unreported complication of imperforate anus repair.

  8. Other-initiated repair in Siwu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingemanse Mark

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the interactional patterns and linguistic structures associated with other-initiated repair in Siwu, a Kwa language spoken in eastern Ghana. Other-initiated repair is the set of techniques used by people to deal with problems in speaking, hearing and understanding. Formats for repair initiation in Siwu exploit language-specific resources like question words and noun class morphology. At the same time, the basic structure of the system bears a strong similarity to other-initiated repair in other languages. Practices described for Siwu thus are potentially of broader relevance to the study of other-initiated repair. This article documents how different prosodic realisations of repair initiators may index social actions and features of the speech event; how two distinct roles of repetition in repair initiators are kept apart by features of turn design; and what kinds of items can be treated as ‘dispensable’ in resayings. By charting how other-initiated repair uses local linguistic resources and yet is shaped by interactional needs that transcend particular languages, this study contributes to the growing field of pragmatic typology: the study of systems of language use and the principles that shape them.

  9. The Organization of Second Language Classroom Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Euen Hyuk (Sarah)

    1999-01-01

    Explores classroom pedagogy through a focus on classroom interaction. Takes ideas from conversation analysis as a foundation and starts to unravel some of the structures used for classroom pedagogy. Uses the notion of repair, but takes it one step further by understanding repair to be a pedagogical tool used in the English-as-a-Second-Language…

  10. Modelling in Optimal Inspection and Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rackwitz, R.; Faber, M.H.;

    1991-01-01

    A model for reliability based optimal inspection and repair strategies is described. The total expected costs in the lifetime is minimized with the number of inspections, the inspection times and efforts, the repair crack size limit and a design parameter as optimization variables. The equivalenc...

  11. Material Handling Equipment Evaluation for Crater Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    material handling equipment with a reduced logistical footprint for use by crater repair teams in airfield damage repair (ADR) scenarios. A market ...compared to currently utilized material handling equipment. This report presents the results of the market survey and equipment evaluations. Results...1 1.2 Objective and scope

  12. Pain characteristics after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolver, Mette A; Strandfelt, Pernille; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown different pain characteristics in different types of laparoscopic operations, but pain pattern has not been studied in detail after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. To optimise preoperative patient information and postoperative analgesic treatment the present study...... investigated postoperative pain in terms of time course, pain intensity and individual pain components during the first 4 days after transabdominal preperitoneal hernia repair (TAPP)....

  13. DNA repair phenotype and dietary antioxidant supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guarnieri, Serena; Loft, Steffen; Riso, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    -release vitamin C tablets had increased DNA repair activity (27 (95 % CI 12, 41) % higher incision activity). These subjects also benefited from the supplementation by reduced levels of oxidised guanines in MNBC. In conclusion, nutritional status, DNA repair activity and DNA damage are linked, and beneficial...

  14. Repairs the added value of being wrong

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Grammatical structures connect systems of thought and articulation, the conditions of which hardly seem to fit each other. Repairs are productive mechanisms that solve translation problems between modules or levels by adapting derivations or representations to requirements that have to be met unconditionally. Compensating for derivational and interpretive defects, repairs

  15. Bankart repair versus Bankart repair plus remplissage: an in vitro biomechanical comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimberg, Jean; Diop, Amadou; Bou Ghosn, Rony; Ghosn, Rosny Bou; Lanari, Dimitri; Canonne, Adrien; Maurel, Nathalie

    2016-02-01

    To biomechanically compare Bankart lesion repair alone and Bankart lesion repair associated with infraspinatus capsulotenodesis described as «remplissage», in the treatment of combined Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. Seven pairs (right and left) of cadaveric shoulders have been tested, first without any lesion and then after performing a combined Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. For each pair, the specimens were then randomly assigned for Bankart lesion repair alone on one side or for Bankart lesion repair associated with remplissage on the other side. During tests, the shoulder was placed at 90° of abduction and at maximal external rotation, which value was recorded. A 50 N postero-anterior load was then applied to the proximal humerus, and the stiffness was calculated from the obtained load-displacement curve. Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions significantly (p Bankart lesion repair alone did not restore stiffness to the level of intact, while adding the remplissage to the Bankart lesion repair did. External rotation was significantly increased after creation of the Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesion; Bankart repair restored the external rotation to the level of intact, while Bankart lesion repair associated with remplissage significantly decreased external rotation compared with intact and to Bankart lesion repair alone. In cadaveric shoulders with combined Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions, Bankart lesion repair associated with remplissage restored intact joint stiffness contrary to Bankart lesion repair alone. This increase in stiffness was associated with a decrease in external rotation.

  16. ONSTEP versus laparoscopy for inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    a learning curve of about 50-100 cases and decreases chronic pain, but slightly increases the risk of serious complications compared with open mesh repairs. Therefore, a simpler kind of operation is needed. The ONSTEP technique is a possible solution to this problem. The objective of the present randomised......INTRODUCTION: The optimal repair of inguinal hernias remains controversial. It is recommended that an inguinal hernia be repaired using a mesh, either with a laparoscopic or an open approach. In Denmark, the laparoscopic approach is used in an increasing number of cases. The laparoscopic repair has...... clinical trial described in this protocol is to evaluate chronic pain after inguinal hernia repair using the ONSTEP method versus the laparoscopic approach. METHODS: This study is designed as a non-inferiority, two-arm, multicentre, randomised clinical trial, with a 1:1 allocation to ONSTEP or laparoscopic...

  17. Convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolver, Mette Astrup; Rosenberg, Jacob; Bisgaard, Thue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duration of convalescence after inguinal hernia repair is of major socio-economic interest and an often reported outcome measure. The primary aim was to perform a critical analysis of duration of convalescence from work and activity and secondary to identify risk factors for unexpected...... prolonged convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. METHODS: A qualitative systematic review was conducted. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane database were searched for trials reporting convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in the period from January 1990 to January 2016...... factors for prolonged convalescence extending more than a few days after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. CONCLUSIONS: Patients should be recommended a duration of 1-2 days of convalescence after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Short and non-restrictive recommendations may reduce duration...

  18. Imperfect repair and lifesaving in heterogeneous populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Maxim [Department of Mathematical Statistics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, 9300 Bloemfontein (South Africa) and Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock (Germany)]. E-mail: FinkelM.SCl@mail.uovs.ac.za

    2007-12-15

    In this theoretical paper we generalize the notion of minimal repair to the heterogeneous case, when the lifetime distribution function can be modeled by continuous or a discrete mixture of distributions. The statistical (black box) minimal repair and the minimal repair based on information just before the failure of an object are considered. The corresponding failure (intensity) rate processes are defined and analyzed. Demographic lifesaving model is also considered: each life is saved (cured) with some probability (or equivalently a proportion of individuals who would have died are now resuscitated and given another chance). Those who are saved experience the statistical minimal repair. Both of these models are based on the Poisson or non-homogeneous Poisson processes of underlying events, which allow for considering heterogeneity. We also consider the new model of imperfect repair in the homogeneous case and present generalizations to the heterogeneous setting.

  19. Repair Development for a Composite Cryotank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Danley, Susan E.; Caraccio, Anne J.; Cheshire, Brian C.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Taylor, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Composite Cryotank Technologies and Demonstration Project is working to advance the technologies for composite cryogenic propellant tanks at diameters suitable for future heavy lift vehicles and other in-space applications. The main goals of the project are to reduce weight and cost. One aspect of this project has focused on damage evaluation and repair development. Test panels have been impacted, repaired, and tested. Several repair methods were used to compare their effectiveness at restoring the integrity of the composite. Panels were evaluated by nondestructive evaluations at several points during the process to assess the damage and repair. The testing performed and the results and conclusions from the nondestructive evaluations and the destructive testing will be discussed. These results will lead to further development of inspection techniques and repair methods.

  20. Contact Dermatitis In Automobile Repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile repair workers are at risk of developing skin morbidity including occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to mineral oils, petroleum products and its derivatives and lubricating oil. This cross- sectional study was carried out at Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation workshops in Nagpur city to investigate prevalence of skin morbidity including contact dermatitis in automobile repair workers. The study included 288 (49.9% automobile repair workers 180 (31.3% workshop office staff and 109 (18.8% divisional office employees. Dermatitis was the commonest skin morbidity in all the study subjects and it was significantly more prevalent in automobile repair workers. Folliculitis was detected in 13.2% of auto â€" repair workers and was not seen in the other two groups. Increasing trend of skin morbidity was correlated with the length of service of employees. Proper protective measures along with suitable washing facilities should be provided