WorldWideScience

Sample records for renting ownership state

  1. Rents in a welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......, but in a number of cases as described in this chapter, the rents are revealed. The implicit welfare coalition, defined as voters receiving their income from the public budget, is the majority, placing the median voter within the welfare coalition. Rents are created and protected by the welfare coalition. Non...

  2. State ownership and corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Pargendler, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    State ownership of publicly-traded corporations remains pervasive around the world, and has been increasing in recent years. Existing literature focuses on the implications of government ownership for corporate governance and performance at the firm level. This Article, by contrast, explores the different but equally important question of whether the presence of the state as a shareholder can impose negative externalities on the corporate law regime available to the private sec...

  3. Identity and psychological ownership in chronic illness and disease state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnilowicz, W

    2011-03-01

    Psychological ownership is rarely considered in health discourse related to chronic illness or disease state. Construction of identity is an important consideration within this framework. This autoethnographic study explores psychological ownership and identity related to prostate cancer and chronic illness. Conclusions about the nature of psychological ownership and identity were gathered from the relevant literature and personal experience. Themes include the patient-healthcare professional relationship and that psychological ownership is personal and grounded in an individual's sense of identity, control and perceived capacity to control illness or disease. Personal reflection through autoethnography guides discussion of psychological ownership and identity.

  4. Marketized State Ownership and Foreign Expansion of Emerging Market Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming Hua; Cui, Lin; Lu, Jiangyong

    2017-01-01

    direct investment. We argue that firms with marketized state ownership may derive institutional competitive advantages from their dual responsiveness to shifting global market conditions and home government expectations which has a positive impact on their foreign investment decisions. However......The emergence of marketized shareholders through corporate ownership reform and their impact on the foreign entry of emerging market firms is a critical but understudied issue. Our study investigates the effect of marketized state ownership on emerging market firms' propensity to engage in foreign......, such advantages are likely to vary in magnitude for firms with marketized state ownership at central and local levels of government due to different patterns of corporate restructuring. We predict that such ownership effects are contingent on firms' affiliation to meso-level institutional structures such as state...

  5. Rent-to-Own: A Consumer Purchasing Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Pat; Brown, Judy

    1988-01-01

    Examines rent-to-own, an alternative purchasing method that allows the consumer to rent an item and gain ownership after a specified number of payments. Addresses industry trends, the rent-to-own consumer, pricing structure, and legalities. (JOW)

  6. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C.K. Lam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type. Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts (reduce free cash flow or may be used to extract cash from firms (tunneling effect – which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy (China, we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public (individual ownership. Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  7. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin C.K.Lam; Heibatollah Sami; Haiyan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type.Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts(reduce free cash flow) or may be used to extract cash from firms(tunneling effect)- which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy(China), we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public(individual) ownership.Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  8. Are physicians profit or rent seekers? Some evidence from state economic growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Mary; Santerre, Rexford E

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has debated whether physicians act as profit- or rent-seekers. We argue that these two models of physician behavior can be tested by observing empirically the relationship between physician density and economic growth rates. A direct (inverse) relationship provides evidence for the profit-seeking (rent-seeking) theory of physician behavior. We empirically examine the impact of physician density on the economic growth of all US states over the period from 1973 to 2009. The empirical analysis generally finds a statistically significant and direct relationship between physician density and the growth of gross state product. The results are robust with respect to state- and time-fixed effects, individual state time trends, and 2SLS (two-stage least squares) estimation. Thus, in support of the profit-seeking theory of physician behavior, the findings reveal that physicians generally have a positive impact on the growth of the US economy.

  9. Kebijakan Ekonomi Politik Stated-Centered dan Rent-Seeking Behavior dalam Kebijakan Pangan Impor Beras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Riawanti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This present a critical assessment of the political economy that underlie food policy and rice import in Indonesia. State-centric behavior and rent-seeking practices are important determinants of food policy formulation in Indonesia. The study analyzes the importation of rice by the Indonesian government. Study result show that rice policy is based on three main point which are: relationship between farmer's term of trade (NTP, ruse production and distribution; and political power in policy formulation.

  10. The Theory of Housing Rent-to-price Ratio and Implication:Based on Ownership Cost Model%基于所有权成本模型的住房租售比理论及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万海军

    2013-01-01

    根据我国许多城市住房租售比超过国际警戒线的事实,对传统租售比模型进行了评述,指出了其应用前提和不足之处。然后从住房所有权成本(业主成本)的角度研究房价与租金的关系,并构建了相应的数学模型。应用此模型,对我国住房租售比超过1:300的原因进行了综合分析,同时指出了未来的发展趋势和降低住房租售比可以采取的措施。%This paper analyses the relation between housing price and rent, based on the fact that housing price-to-rent ratio is higher than the international standard in many cities of China. Firstly, this paper reviews two classical models, and points out their application conditions and limitations. Then, the author studies housing rent-to-price ratio from annual cost of ownership (owner cost), and build up corresponding model. Using this model, the paper analyzes the causes that housing rent-to-price ratio exceeds 1:300, at the same time, puts forward the trend of housing rent-to-price ratio in China and effective measures to depress rent-to-price ratio.

  11. A study on the effects of state ownership on auditing cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Asgari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between state ownership and auditing expenses of 141 Iranian firms from Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2008-2012. Using stepwise regression technique, the study has detected a negative and meaningful relationship between state ownership and auditing costs. In addition, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between auditing firm size and auditing expenses. Finally, state ownership has negative impact on relationship between auditing firm size and auditing expenses such that with an increase on state ownership, the effects of auditing firm and auditing expenses will be reduced.

  12. The impact of home ownership on life satisfaction in urban China: A propensity score matching analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Honghao; Folmer, Henk; van der Vlist, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    China has implemented a series of socioeconomic reforms since 1978. One of the reforms allows urban residents to purchase their own houses rather than renting houses from state institutions which has resulted in a rapid increase in home ownership. This paper estimates the impact of home ownership on

  13. Industry-specificities and Size of Corporations: Determinants of Ownership Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses ownership concentration in six European countries and empirically studies the rent-seeking theory. This theory states that ownership concentration not only depends on the level of investor protection but also on company-specific and industry-specific parameters. This study analys

  14. State ownership and firm performance: Empirical evidence from Chinese listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available While the relationship between state ownership and firm performance has been widely researched, the empirical evidence has provided mixed results. This study applies panel data regression techniques to 10,639 firm-year observations of non-financial Chinese listed firms during 2003–2010 to examine the relationship between state ownership and firm performance. The results show that state ownership has a U-shaped relationship with firm performance. The Split Share Structure Reform in 2005–2006 played a positive role in enhancing the relationship between state ownership and firm profitability ratios. Although state ownership decreased significantly after 2006, it remains high in strategically important industry sectors such as the oil, natural gas and mining sector and the publishing, broadcasting and media sector. The findings reveal that a higher level of state ownership is superior to a dispersed ownership structure due to the benefits of government support and political connections. The Split Share Structure Reform made previously non-tradable shares legally tradable, improving corporate governance and reducing the negative effect of non-tradable state shares.

  15. 农地租值消散和农地所有权主体完善与农地发展权构建--农地征收中农民土地权益保护思考%Dissipation of Land Rent,Perfection of Rural Land Ownership and Establishment of Development Rights:Reflections on Protection of Peasants’ Land Rights and Interests in Expropriating Rural Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜明义

    2014-01-01

    Rent dissipation resulting from imperfect property rights and price control has damaged the property owners ’ rights and interests in expropriating rural land ,and unclear definition of rural land property rights and the price control has led to the dissipation of rural land rent ,damaging the peasants’ land rights and interests .Therefore ,in expropriating rural land ,the rural land ownership should be perfected and the rural land development rights constructed ;meanwhile ,it is necessary to curb price control ,balance the distribution of land increment income between state ,collectivity and individuals ,decrease the rent dissipation ,protect peasants ’ land rights and interests , and promote development of urbanization scientifically and harmoniously .%产权不完善与价格管制下形成租值消散,损害产权主体权益。我国农地征收中存在农地产权不完善与价格管制导致农地租值消散,损害农民土地权益的问题。为此,在农地征收中,应完善农地所有权主体,构建农地发展权,遏制价格管制,兼顾好国家、集体、个人的土地增值收益分配,减少租值消散,保护好农民土地权益。

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, state plane central zone surve, Published in unknown, Eagle County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'state plane central zone surve'. The extent of these data is generally Eagle County, CO....

  17. The Impacts of State Ownership on Information Asymmetry: Evidence from an Emerging Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmoo Jay Choi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of corporate ownership on information asymmetry as measured by bid-ask spread in the emerging markets of China. Government ownership has significant and positive impacts on bid-ask spread during the period 1995–2000, but disappears afterward during 2001–2003. The finding that state ownership raised bid-ask spread in the early period is consistent with recent studies on emerging markets including China, which indicate that firms with higher state ownership tend to have a greater deviation between cash flow rights and control rights (eg, Wei et al., 2005. This implies that lower state ownership is associated with lower information asymmetry in the market, an economic consequence of significant economic reform and privatization regarding the market microstructure. However, with more active control transfers and emergence of private controlling shareholders, regulatory changes in ownership structure and corporate governance mechanisms, and thus an improved legal and institutional environment, the link between the government ownership and information asymmetry turns to be insignificant in the later period. These results have important implications for transparency and information disclosure policies as well as privatization in emerging markets.

  18. The Impacts of State Ownership on Information Asymmetry:Evidence from an Emerging Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jongmoo Jay Choi; Heibatollah Sami; Haiyan Zhou

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of corporate ownership on information asymmetry as measured by bid-ask spread in the emerging markets of China. Government ownership has significant and positive impacts on bid-ask spread during the period 1995-2000, but disappears afterward during 2001-2003. The finding that state ownership raised bid-ask spread in the early period is consistent with recent studies on emerging markets including China, which indicate that firms with higher state ownership tend to have a greater deviation between cash flow rights and control rights(eg, Wei et al., 2005). This implies that lower state ownership is associated with lower information asymmetry in the market, an economic consequence of significant economic reform and privatization regarding the market microstructure. However, with more active control transfers andemergence of private controlling shareholders, regulatory changes in ownership structure and corporate governance mechanisms, and thus an improved legal and institutional environment, the link between the government ownership and information asymmetry turns to be insignificant in the later period. These results have important implications for transparency and information disclosure policies as well as privatization in emerging markets.

  19. A new proxy measure for state-level gun ownership in studies of firearm injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Since many states are considering gun control laws, researchers need reliable data on rates of gun ownership at the state level. Survey measures of gun ownership in all 50 states, however, are only available for 3 years, and no state-level data have been collected since 2004. Consequently, the National Research Council has declared the development of a valid proxy that can be constructed from accessible, annual, state-level data to be a priority. While such a proxy does exist (the proportion of suicides in a state committed using a gun (FS/S), its correlation with state estimates of gun ownership in recent years is only 0.80. Using state-level data for the years 2001, 2002 and 2004, we developed an improved proxy for state-level gun ownership that uses FS/S (firearm suicides divided by all suicides) and also the per capita number of hunting licenses. We validated this measure using data from surveys of gun ownership conducted in 48 states during 1996 and 1999, and in 21 states during 1995-1998. Adding per capita hunting licenses to the proxy increased its correlation with survey-measured gun ownership from 0.80 to 0.95. The correlations of the new proxy with gun ownership in the two validation studies were 0.95 and 0.97. We conclude that the combination of FS/S and per capita hunting licenses improves substantially upon FS/S alone. This new proxy is easily computed from data that are available annually by state and may be useful for investigating the effect of gun prevalence on firearm-related morbidity and mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Firearm Homicide Rates in the United States, 1981–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between levels of household firearm ownership, as measured directly and by a proxy—the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm—and age-adjusted firearm homicide rates at the state level. Methods. We conducted a negative binomial regression analysis of panel data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems database on gun ownership and firearm homicide rates across all 50 states during 1981 to 2010. We determined fixed effects for year, accounted for clustering within states with generalized estimating equations, and controlled for potential state-level confounders. Results. Gun ownership was a significant predictor of firearm homicide rates (incidence rate ratio = 1.009; 95% confidence interval = 1.004, 1.014). This model indicated that for each percentage point increase in gun ownership, the firearm homicide rate increased by 0.9%. Conclusions. We observed a robust correlation between higher levels of gun ownership and higher firearm homicide rates. Although we could not determine causation, we found that states with higher rates of gun ownership had disproportionately large numbers of deaths from firearm-related homicides. PMID:24028252

  1. The relationship between gun ownership and firearm homicide rates in the United States, 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2013-11-01

    We examined the relationship between levels of household firearm ownership, as measured directly and by a proxy-the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm-and age-adjusted firearm homicide rates at the state level. We conducted a negative binomial regression analysis of panel data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting Systems database on gun ownership and firearm homicide rates across all 50 states during 1981 to 2010. We determined fixed effects for year, accounted for clustering within states with generalized estimating equations, and controlled for potential state-level confounders. Gun ownership was a significant predictor of firearm homicide rates (incidence rate ratio = 1.009; 95% confidence interval = 1.004, 1.014). This model indicated that for each percentage point increase in gun ownership, the firearm homicide rate increased by 0.9%. We observed a robust correlation between higher levels of gun ownership and higher firearm homicide rates. Although we could not determine causation, we found that states with higher rates of gun ownership had disproportionately large numbers of deaths from firearm-related homicides.

  2. State Ownership of the praeda bellica during the Roman Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Piquer-Marí

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From a Public Law perspective, and with particular regards to the subject of public property, this paper examines the praeda bellica as an asset belonging to the Roman people during the times of the Republic. Through an analysis of the ownership of the praeda bellica, the research intends to provide an in depth understanding of legal and proprietary relationships shaping the Public branch of the Law.

  3. 24 CFR 850.153 - Rent control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rent control. 850.153 Section 850... PROGRAM) HOUSING DEVELOPMENT GRANTS Project Management § 850.153 Rent control. A project constructed or substantially rehabilitated with a housing development grant is not subject to State or local rent...

  4. HOME Rent Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing for...

  5. The relationship between gun ownership and stranger and nonstranger firearm homicide rates in the United States, 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Negussie, Yamrot; Vanture, Sarah; Pleskunas, Jane; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-10-01

    We examined the relationship between gun ownership and stranger versus nonstranger homicide rates. Using data from the Supplemental Homicide Reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reports for all 50 states for 1981 to 2010, we modeled stranger and nonstranger homicide rates as a function of state-level gun ownership, measured by a proxy, controlling for potential confounders. We used a negative binomial regression model with fixed effects for year, accounting for clustering of observations among states by using generalized estimating equations. We found no robust, statistically significant correlation between gun ownership and stranger firearm homicide rates. However, we found a positive and significant association between gun ownership and nonstranger firearm homicide rates. The incidence rate ratio for nonstranger firearm homicide rate associated with gun ownership was 1.014 (95% confidence interval=1.009, 1.019). Our findings challenge the argument that gun ownership deters violent crime, in particular, homicides.

  6. 24 CFR 982.507 - Rent to owner: Reasonable rent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... whether the rent to owner is a reasonable rent in comparison to rent for other comparable unassisted units... rent to owner is not more than rent charged by the owner for comparable unassisted units in...

  7. Demystifying the role of a state ownership in corporate governance and firm performance: Evidence from the manufacturing sector in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amran Rasli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the role of state ownership in corporate governance and firm performance. We employed ordinary least squares and two-stage least squares regressions to analyze the effects of state ownership on firm performance. We go beyond existing research on state ownership by carefully disentangle investment objectives of state-controlled financial institutions. Such state ownership can be classified as profit-oriented and non-profit-oriented, in which the former consider return on investment to be the primary investment objective, whereas the latter prioritizes socio-economic development. We found that profit-oriented state ownership is an effective corporate governance mechanism and provides political patronage to the firm in the form of firm’s specific resources and credit financing. Although nonprofit-oriented state ownership firms also receive similar political patronage, they tend to be associated with inefficiencies such as the free-rider problems, bureaucracies and political intervention in firm management. We conclude that state ownership consists of heterogeneous entities with respect to corporate governance and firm performance.

  8. The Potential Economic Rent In The United States From Co 2 Abatement Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt HARPER

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, climate change has come to the fore as an environmental issue with nearly universal agreement that the current trend is unsustainable and must be addressed. Of particular concern is the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, the primary contributor to climate change through the combustion of fossil fuels. In the United States alone, CO2 emissions account for approximately 85% of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, most of which come from fossil fuels (EPA, 2008. Reducing the risk of the damage caused by climate change requires the world to substantially reduce CO2 production. In the past five to ten years several proposals to address climate change have been suggested; most prominently cap-and-trade and carbon taxes. These market-based approaches differ from the traditional command-and-control policies, such as Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency (CAFÉ standards which mandate minimum fleet mileage standards for vehicles sold in the United States, by providing firms a cost-effective and flexible form of environmental regulation. Other benefits also exist, such as technological innovation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and potential revenue sources for governments; the more a firm emits CO2, the more they pay, either in taxes or through purchased emission permits.

  9. Ownership, financing, and management strategies of the ten largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Charlene; Hauser, Clarilee; Olney, Brian; Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the ownership, financing, and management strategies of the 10 largest for-profit nursing home chains in the United States, including the four largest chains purchased by private equity corporations. Descriptive data were collected from Internet searches, company reports, and other sources for the decade 1998-2008. Since 1998, the largest chains have made many changes in their ownership and structure, and some have converted from publicly traded companies to private ownership. This study shows the increasing complexity of corporate nursing home ownership and the lack of public information about ownership and financial status. The chains have used strategies to maximize shareholder and investor value that include increasing Medicare revenues, occupancy rates, and company diversification, establishing multiple layers of corporate ownership, developing real estate investment trusts, and creating limited liability companies. These strategies enhance shareholder and investor profits, reduce corporate taxes, and reduce liability risk. There is a need for greater transparency in ownership and financial reporting and for more government oversight of the largest for-profit chains, including those owned by private equity companies.

  10. Community wind power ownership schemes in Europe and their relevance to the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark

    2001-05-15

    With varying success, the United States and Europe have followed a more or less parallel path of policies to support wind development over the past twenty years. Feed-in laws and tax incentives first popularized in California in the early 1980s and greatly expanded upon in Europe during the 1990s are gradually giving way to market-based support mechanisms such as renewable portfolio standards, which are being implemented in one form or another in ten US states and at least three European nations. At the same time, electricity markets are being liberalized in both the US and Europe, and many electricity consumers are being given the choice to support the development of renewable energy through higher tariffs, both in traditionally regulated and newly competitive markets. One notable area in which wind development in Europe and United States has not evolved in common, however, is with respect to the level of community ownership of wind turbines or clusters. While community ownership of wind projects is unheard of in the United States, in Europe, local wind cooperatives or other participatory business schemes have been responsible for a large share of total wind development. In Denmark, for example, approximately 80% of all wind turbines are either individually or cooperatively owned, and a similar pattern holds in Germany, the world leader in installed wind capacity. Sweden also has a strong wind cooperative base, and the UK has recently made forays into community wind ownership. Why is it that wind development has evolved this way in Europe, but not in the United States? What incremental effect have community-owned wind schemes had on European wind development? Have community-owned wind schemes driven development in Europe, or are they merely a vehicle through which the fundamental driving institutions have been channeled? Is there value to having community wind ownership in the US? Is there reason to believe that such schemes would succeed in the US? If so, which

  11. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  12. Rent control and other aspects of tenancy law in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Per; Juul-Sandberg, Jakob

    In the Nordic EU member states legislation on landlord’s and tenant’s rights is defined from a socio-economic aspect. The three countries share a common legal »core« which originates from common contract law principles. Tenancy law regulation is different in major areas – especially rent regulation...... the rent regulation regimes in Sweden and Denmark as opposed to the »free market« in Finland. The aim is to draw conclusions on the functionality of the different and whether some things can be learned from the differences in between them. The elements of tenant »ownership rights« in the three countries...... are also compared and leads up to the question of whether they should be assessed as so important in relation to contractual principles that one can state that a tenant has a »right of ownership« to a home in the three countries. Analysing rent regulation regimes understanding the importance of path...

  13. 50th Percentile Rent Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Rent estimates at the 50th percentile (or median) are calculated for all Fair Market Rent areas. Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are primarily used to determine payment...

  14. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    , especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control.......This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors...

  15. Insecticide - treated bednet ownership and utilization in Rivers State, Nigeria before a state-wide net distribution campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin-West, C I; Alex-Hart, B A

    2011-09-01

    Malaria presents a huge health and economic burden to families living in malaria endemic areas. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is one of the global strategies in decreasing the malaria burden on vulnerable populations. The use of ITNs reduces clinical malaria by over 50% and all cause mortality in children by 15-30% when the overall population coverage is >70%. This study was aimed at establishing the level of household insecticide -treated bednet ownership and utilization in Rivers State, Nigeria before a statewide scale -up distribution campaign. A descriptive, cross - sectional study was carried out in the Rivers State in November 2008 among household heads or their proxies to serve as a pre -intervention baseline for the scale -up distribution of insecticide treated bednets in the state. The households were selected by a multi -staged sampling technique: first stage being the selection of Local Government Areas (LGAs) from Senatorial districts, second stage the selection of communities from LGAs and final stage the selection of households. Data were collected using a questionnaire adapted from the WHO/FMoH and analyzed using the Epi -Info version 6.04d statistical software package. Hypothesis tests were conducted to compare summary statistics at 95% significance level. A total of 811 household heads or their proxies were interviewed. Their age ranged between 20 and 70 yr, with a mean of 47.96 ± 4.39 yr. The study showed that although 552 (68.1%) of the households owned bednets, only 245 (30.2%, 95% CI=27.1-33.5) of them owned long -lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Similarly, only 37.2% of those who owned ITNs slept under them the night preceding the survey. Household ITN ownership and utilization were low in the state. Incorporating behavour change communication package as part of the ITN distribution intervention is advocated to increase ITNs utilization in the state.

  16. Auctions with rent seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marco; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    2000-01-01

    We present a model which combines elements of an auction and a rent-seeking contest. Players compete for a prize. Apart from exerting lobbying efforts, they also have to submit a bid which is payable only if they win the prize. First, we analyze the model if the returns-to-scale parameters of both b

  17. HPC: Rent or Buy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    "Rent or buy?" is a question people ask about everything from housing to textbooks. It is also a question universities must consider when it comes to high-performance computing (HPC). With the advent of Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Microsoft Windows HPC Server, Rackspace's OpenStack, and other cloud-based services, researchers now have…

  18. HPC: Rent or Buy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    "Rent or buy?" is a question people ask about everything from housing to textbooks. It is also a question universities must consider when it comes to high-performance computing (HPC). With the advent of Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Microsoft Windows HPC Server, Rackspace's OpenStack, and other cloud-based services, researchers now have…

  19. Essays on Employee Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faigen, Benjamin

    This thesis examines ownership of the firm by its employees, of varying stakes. It begins by identifying the existence of employee ownership in a Chinese context, presented in the form of a general analytical discussion which is informed by a review of the available evidence on the subject......, and barriers to, employee ownership in China at three levels of analysis: the societal, organisational and individual. Its intended contribution to the employee ownership literature is to organise the scattered evidence in order to provide a systematic and comprehensive coverage of the development...... of this phenomenon. Employee ownership is found to have played a role in Chinese economic transition as a transitory phase before non-state enterprises were afforded official recognition in a context of publicly-owned enterprise privatisation. Senior managers became the key beneficiaries in firm sales and most...

  20. Employee ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Mygind, Niels

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview over some theory and empirical evidence on employee ownership and other forms of employee financial participation and answers the following questions: What is employee ownership and what is the relation to other forms of financial participation? Why is employee ownership widespread in some developed market economies like US and in Italy, France and Spain, while it has a quite rare occurrence in the Scandinavian countries? What are the conditions favouring and what...

  1. Charity care in nonprofit urban hospitals: analysis of the role of size and ownership type in Washington State for 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Joseph S; Ogle, Natalie M; McPherson, Sterling; Murphy, Sean; Smith, Gary J; Davidson, Gregg Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Nonprofit hospitals are expected to serve their communities as charitable organizations in exchange for the tax exemption benefits they receive. With the passage into law of the Affordable Care Act, additional guidelines were generated in 2010 to ensure nonprofit hospitals are compliant. Nonetheless, the debate continues on whether nonprofit hospitals provide adequate charity care to their patient population. In this study, charity care provided by 29 Washington State nonprofit urban hospitals was examined for 2011 using financial data from the Washington State Department of Health. Charity care levels were compared to both income tax savings and gross revenues to generate two financial ratios that were analyzed according to hospital bed size and nonprofit ownership type. For the first ratio, 97% of the hospitals (28 of 29) were providing charity care in greater amounts than the tax savings they accrued. The average ratio value using total charity care and total income tax savings of all the hospitals in the study was 6.10, and the median value was 3.46. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test results by bed size and nonprofit ownership type indicate that ownership type has a significant effect on charity care to gross revenue ratios (p = .020). Our analysis indicates that church-owned hospitals had higher ratios of charity care to gross revenues than did the other two ownership types--government and voluntary--in this sample. Policy implications are offered and further studies are recommended to analyze appropriate levels of charity care in nonprofit hospitals given new requirements for maintaining a hospital's tax-exempt status.

  2. Examining the relationship between the prevalence of guns and homicide rates in the USA using a new and improved state-level gun ownership proxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Ross, Craig S; King, Charles

    2014-12-01

    Determining the relationship between gun ownership levels and firearm homicide rates is critical to inform public health policy. Previous research has shown that state-level gun ownership, as measured by a widely used proxy, is positively associated with firearm homicide rates. A newly developed proxy measure that incorporates the hunting license rate in addition to the proportion of firearm suicides correlates more highly with state-level gun ownership. To corroborate previous research, we used this new proxy to estimate the association of state-level gun ownership with total, firearm, and non-firearm homicides. Using state-specific data for the years 1981-2010, we modelled these rates as a function of gun ownership level, controlling for potential confounding factors. We used a negative binomial regression model and accounted for clustering of observations among states. We found that state-level gun ownership as measured by the new proxy, is significantly associated with firearm and total homicides but not with non-firearm homicides. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the ownership structures of unlisted privatized firms in Slovenia. On the basis of official ownership records for all nonfinancial firms over a six-year period (1999-2004), we explore the factors responsible for the concentration of ownership and for the dissolution of the mult......This paper studies the ownership structures of unlisted privatized firms in Slovenia. On the basis of official ownership records for all nonfinancial firms over a six-year period (1999-2004), we explore the factors responsible for the concentration of ownership and for the dissolution...... of the multiple blockholder structures that these firms were assigned at privatization. We observe significant path dependence: patterns of ownership and control are in part determined by the persistence of the initial privatization owners (state funds, privatization investment funds, employees, and managers...

  4. Design of forest rent accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgent task for the effective functioning of the national economy is the need to reflect income from the use of forest resources in accounting, which will allow management personnel to prove the effectiveness of environmental protection measures, to assess the amount of expenses taken during restoration and protection of forest resources. The study aims at identifying characteristics of forest rent to determine the amount and its reflection in the accounting for its management. The author understands a forest rent as the income received from the owner of forest resources. The above procedure for determining the amount of forest rent can be used to display it in the accounting. A forest rent is a type of business income, so for its reflection in the accounting it is proposed to open the analytical accounts to account 79 named «Financial results». To determine the amount of forest rent and its reflection in the accounting the author suggests the calculation form of a forest rent. In order to manage the size of a forest rent and expenses incurred to obtain it the author proposes to use the information from the developed report about the forest rent formation. The displaying forest rents in accounting will provide accurate and deep information to the management about the revenue and assets of a company. The rational use of forest resources and accounting reflection of a forest rent will strengthen control over the influence of human activity on natural resources and keep the conception of sustainable development.

  5. Rent Control and Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jacob R.; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...... control benefits, unemployed individuals are more likely to accept job offers in the local labour market. Based on a rich Danish data set, we find that the probability of finding a local job increases with the rent control intensity of the housing unit, whereas the probability of finding ajob outside...

  6. Does hospital ownership influence hospital referral region health rankings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadi, Hanadi; Apatu, Emma; Spaulding, Aaron

    2017-07-21

    Extensive evidence demonstrates that a hospital's organizational ownership structure impacts its overall performance, but little is known concerning the influence of hospital structure on the health of its community. This paper explores the association between US hospital referral region (HRR) health rankings and hospital ownership and performance. Data from the 2016 Commonwealth Fund Scorecard on Local Health System Performance, the American Hospital Association dataset, and the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing dataset are utilized to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of 36 quality measures across 306 HRRs. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the association among hospital ownership, system performance measures-access and affordability, prevention and treatment, avoidable hospital use and cost, and healthy lives-and performance as measured by value-based purchasing total performance scores. We found that indicators of access and affordability, as well as prevention and treatment, were significantly associated across all 3 hospitals' organizational structures. Hospital referral regions with a greater number of not-for-profit hospitals demonstrated greater indications of access and affordability, as well as better prevention and treatment rankings than for-profit and government hospitals. Hospital referral regions with a greater number of government, nonfederal hospitals had worse scores for healthy lives. Furthermore, the greater the total performance scores score, the better the HRR score on prevention and treatment rankings. The greater the per capita income, the better the score across all 4 dimensions. As such, this inquiry supports the assertion that performance of a local health system is dependent on its community's resources of health care delivery entities and their structure. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Community perceptions of state forest ownership and management: a case study of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anjan Kumer Dev; Alam, Khorshed; Gow, Jeff

    2013-03-15

    The Sundarbans Mangrove Forest (SMF) is the world's largest mangrove forest and it provides livelihoods to 3.5 million forest-dependent people in coastal Bangladesh. The first study aim was to analyse the efficacy of the state property regime in managing the forest through a close examination of the relationship between property rights and mangrove conservation practices. The second study aim was to explore forest-dependent communities' (FDCs) perceptions about their participation in management and conservation practices. The Schlager and Ostrom theoretical framework was adopted to examine the role of potential ownership variations in a common property resource regime. A survey of 412 FDC households was undertaken. Current management by the Bangladesh Forest Department (BFD) does not result in implementation of mandated mangrove conservation practices. It was found that allocation of property rights to FDCs would be expected to increase conservation practices. 92% of respondents expressed the view that the evidenced rapid degradation over the past 30 years was due primarily to corruption in the BFD. About half of FDCs (46%) surveyed are willing to participate in mangrove conservation through involvement in management as proprietors. Consistent with Schlager and Ostrom's theory, the results indicate the necessity for de facto and de jure ownership and management change from a state to common property regime to ensure FDCs' participation in conservation practices.

  8. The Capitalism, Rent and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor S. Martyanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available By inertia, which derives from Adam Smith, modern capitalism is described as a free-market competition. This historical model has worked while the market expands and the availability of resources increases. It provided the opportunity to maintain the political order of the welfare state as a form of non-economic egalitarian distribution of resources, which mitigates inequality and class antagonisms generated by market. However, once capitalism has engulfed the whole world, it is more prone to crises: competition intensifies, markets of demand and market outlets do not expand, technological progress creates a growing structural unemployment, economic growth due to the completion of the global village-city transition stagnates, the resources of all the peripheries are almost exhausted. As a result, nationalism and protectionism arise, the polarization between the global center and the periphery increases, and there comes the image of undemocratic and non-egalitarian labor less society on the horizon of the future, with the precariat and the unemployed growing in numbers and demanding large amounts of rent to maintain their livelihoods. Due to this, the market model of capitalism is gradually transforming into a rental one, where the pursuit of profit, the main motivational factor intrinsic to the market, is removed by the pursuit of rent and the redistribution of markets by non-economic ways. In this context, the state becomes the key economic actor, which distributes resources by extra-market means within the hierarchy of rental groups that form the framework of a new structure of the political community.

  9. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  10. 24 CFR 886.110 - Contract rents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... approved rent level established pursuant to 24 CFR 207.19(e)(2)(i). (c) In any case, HUD shall determine... the rents paid for comparable units in the private unassisted market, nor shall the Contract Rents exceed the rents charged by the Owner to unassisted Families for comparable units. HUD shall maintain...

  11. Public urged to apply for land ownership. [Directive No. 03 of 3 May 1989 from Cambodia Council of Ministers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    This Cambodian Directive implements a decision on the tenure and use of land adopted by the Second National Conference of party cadres in April 1989. The decision provides the following: "All land in the State of Cambodia is state property. The State shall take measures to effectively improve land ownership and its usage by allotting land to people for dwelling and utilization. On the granting of rights to ownership of land, the State shall reallocate land occupied since liberation day on 7 January 1979 in conformity with the cadastral regulations. Land will be divided into four categories, namely land for building houses, farm land for production and exploitation, land for forest reserves and agriculture, and land kept for state use. The State prohibits the appropriation of all categories of unoccupied land for which taxes have been paid for future sale or rent." The Directive adds that no one may claim ownership of land before 1979; land newly reclaimed or about to be cleared must first be examined by the Agriculture Minister; and each family has a right to own 3 categories of land. The State will issue temporary land ownership certificates upon application by the public through the district People's Committee. Applications should be submitted by 30 June 1990.

  12. Bank Ownership and Credit over the Business Cycle : Is Lending by State Banks Less Procyclical?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertay, A.C.; Demirgüc-Kunt, A.; Huizinga, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper finds that lending by state banks is less procyclical than lending by private banks, especially in countries with good governance. Lending by state banks in high income countries is even countercyclical. On the liability side, state banks expand potentially unstable non-deposit

  13. Bank ownership and credit over the business cycle : Is lending by state banks less procyclical?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertay, A.C.; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Huizinga, Harry

    2015-01-01

    This paper finds that lending by state banks is less procyclical than lending by private banks, especially in countries with good governance. Lending by state banks in high income countries is even countercyclical. On the liability side, state banks expand their total liabilities and, in particular,

  14. Ownership of Copyright in Works Created in Employment Relationships: Comparative Study of the Laws of Colombia, Germany and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Herrera Diaz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Great quantities of copyrighted works around the world are produced in the context of labor law Relationships. The ownership of these works has been regulated in different ways by the national laws of each country, and the only attempt of legal harmonization has been found in the European Community regarding computer programs created in the course of employment. The sovereignty and territoriality principles by with each country can enact its own laws in its territory to rule on the ownership question has been applied by countries. As an example, Germany and United States have regulated the subject in their respective national copyright laws. Nonetheless, there are similarities and differences in the ways that these two countries regulate the ownership of economic rights. In other countries, such as Colombia, lawmaker have established a legal rule regarding the ownership of moral rights in copyrighted works, but does not define a clear rule on the important issue of the economic rights in such works. This ambiguity has caused legal uncertainty, raising the question as to whether these types of rights belong to employees, private contractors, freelancers or employers. Taking into account the current issues that can arise in works created in employment relationships, this paper will make a comparative study of the laws of Colombia, Germany and the United States of America.

  15. Ownership of copyright in works created in employment relationships: comparative study of the laws of Colombia, Germany and the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Herrera Diaz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Great quantities of copyrighted works around the world are produced in the context of labor law Relationships. The ownership of these works has been regulated in different ways by the national laws of each country, and the only attempt of legal harmonization has been found in the European Community regarding computer programs created in the course of employment. The sovereignty and territoriality principles by with each country can enact its own laws in its territory to rule on the ownership question has been applied by countries. As an example, Germany and United States have regulated the subject in their respective national copyright laws. Nonetheless, there are similarities and differences in the ways that these two countries regulate the ownership of economic rights. In other countries, such as Colombia, lawmaker have established a legal rule regarding the ownership of moral rights in copyrighted works, but does not define a clear rule on the important issue of the economic rights in such works. This ambiguity has caused legal uncertainty, raising the question as to whether these types of rights belong to employees, private contractors, freelancers or employers. Taking into account the current issues that can arise in works created in employment relationships, this paper will make a comparative study of the laws of Colombia, Germany and the United States of America.

  16. Legal status and source of offenders' firearms in states with the least stringent criteria for gun ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittes, Katherine A; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W

    2013-02-01

    Gun possession by high-risk individuals presents a serious threat to public safety. U.S. federal law establishes minimum criteria for legal purchase and possession of firearms; many states have laws disqualifying additional categories for illegal possession. We used data from a national survey of state prison inmates to calculate: 1) the proportion of offenders, incarcerated for crimes committed with firearms in 13 states with the least restrictive firearm purchase and possession laws, who would have been prohibited if their states had stricter gun laws; and 2) the source of gun acquisition for offenders who were and were not legally permitted to purchase and possess firearms. Nearly three of ten gun offenders (73 of 253 or 28.9%) were legal gun possessors but would have been prohibited from purchasing or possessing firearms when committing their most recent offense if their states had stricter prohibitions. Offenders who were already prohibited under current law acquired their gun from a licensed dealer, where a background check is required, five times less often than offenders who were not prohibited (3.9% vs. 19.9%; χ(2)=13.31; p≤0.001). Nearly all (96.1%) offenders who were legally prohibited, acquired their gun from a supplier not required to conduct a background check. Stricter gun ownership laws would have made firearm possession illegal for many state prison inmates who used a gun to commit a crime. Requiring all gun sales to be subject to a background check would make it more difficult for these offenders to obtain guns.

  17. The Development of Employee Ownership in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels; Faigen, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    data, the purpose of this paper is to identify drivers of, and barriers to, the development of employee ownership in China. Design/methodology/approach: The scattered evidence from the literature and official statistical sources are collected and structured in a systematic analysis where the drivers...... and barriers for employee ownership in the transition process from plan to market are identified at three levels: society, the company and the individual. Findings: Employee ownership developed as a transitory stage between state and private ownership; employees acquired ownership stakes as part...... of the privatisation of small- and medium-sized state-owned enterprises as well as collectively owned enterprises. However, in most cases the dynamics of ownership resulted in dominant ownership by managers. This trend became more noticeable at later stages of the privatisation process. Research limitations...

  18. 76 FR 68203 - Mechanisms of Compliance with United States Citizenship Requirements for the Ownership of Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this proposed rule, call or email Mr. Douglas Cameron, United States Coast Guard, National Vessel Documentation Center; telephone 304-271-2506, email Douglas.G.Cameron... difficult, for instance by restricting sale of their stock to U.S. citizens, or using a transfer agent to...

  19. 77 FR 70452 - Mechanisms of Compliance With United States Citizenship Requirements for the Ownership of Vessels...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Cameron, United States Coast Guard, National Vessel Documentation Center; telephone 304-271-2506, email Douglas.G.Cameron@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing the docket, call Renee V. Wright, Program... transfer agent to administer a dual stock certificate system. Of course, any U.S. corporation that is...

  20. Rent seeking and the economics of corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Aidt, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the influence of Gordon Tullock (1967) and the rent-seeking literature more generally on the study of corruption. The theoretical corruption literature with its emphasis on principal-agent relationships within government and rent creation by corruption politicians has largely, but not entirely, overlooked that contestable rents encourage unproductive use of real resources in seeking these rents. As a consequence, the literature underestimates the value of corruption control ...

  1. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  2. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... date. The applicable Federal rate for a rental agreement means— (i) The Federal short-term rate if the... interest (the stated rate of interest) on deferred or prepaid fixed rent at a single fixed rate (as defined in § 1.1273-1(c)(1)(iii)); (B) The stated rate of interest on fixed rent is no lower than 110 percent...

  3. Small-scale non-industrial private forest ownership in the United States: rationale and implications for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoqi Zhang; Daowei Zhang; John Schelhas

    2005-01-01

    The transaction cost approach is used to explain why small non-industrial private forest (NIPF) ownerships are increasing in the U.S. We argue that the number of small NIPF owners have increased because: 1) a significant amount of forestland is no longer used economically if primarily for timber production, but rather for non-timber forest products and environmental...

  4. Self-Ownership, World-Ownership, and Initial Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Rogers

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available G.A. Cohen was perhaps libertarianism’s most formidable critic. In Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality he levels several strong criticisms against Robert Nozick’s theory put forth in Anarchy, State, and Utopia. In this paper, I counter several of Cohen’s criticisms. The debate operates at three stages: (1 self-ownership, (2 world-ownership, and (3 initial acquisition. At the first stage, Cohen does not attempt to refute self-ownership, but weaken its force in providing moral grounds for capitalism. Here I argue that Cohen’s attempt to overturn Nozick’s slavery argument is unsuccessful because partial-slavery, while normatively different from full-slavery, is still normatively wrong. At the second stage, Cohen argues for a joint-ownership view of the world’s resources. In particular, he claims that self-ownership is rendered merely formal in a jointly-owned world and in a capitalist world. To rebut this challenge I show that even if Cohen is right about this, libertarian self-ownership is only formal in Cohen’s peculiar case where only two people exist and one owns everything. In contrast, self-ownership in a jointly-owned world is formal in all cases. Lastly, at the third stage, Cohen argues against Nozick’s interpretation of the Lockean proviso, claiming that it is impossible to satisfy. Granting Cohen’s argument here, I go on to defend Jan Narveson’s no-proviso view of acquisition from Cohen’s thus far unanswered criticism. I show that significantly, in his critique, Cohen equivocates between positive and negative rights. Taken jointly, my responses at these three stages ground the anti-egalitarian conclusion that, in Cohen’s words, ‘[e]xtensive inequality of condition is unavoidable, or avoidable only on pain of violating people’s rights to themselves and to things.’ The sequence, then, is from self-ownership, to world-ownership, via initial acquisition.

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of California - Office of the State Chief Information Officer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. This data set...

  6. Barriers to the Adoption of Sustainable Agriculture on Rented Land: An Examination of Contesting Social Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    While over half of the cropland in the United States is rented, interest in land tenancy within sociological circles has been sporadic at best. In light of the prevalence of rented land in agriculture--particularly in the Midwest--it is vital that further research be conducted to investigate the effect that the rental relationship has upon the…

  7. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Ownership 24 - Created for the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan project, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as...

  9. Immigration and housing rents in American cities

    OpenAIRE

    Saiz, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Is there a local economic impact of immigration? Immigration pushes up rents and housing values in destination cities. The positive association of rent growth and immigrant inflows is pervasive in time series for all metropolitan areas. The author uses instrumental variables based on a "shift-share" of national levels of immigration into metropolitan areas. Conditioning on other variables, an immigration inflow equal to 1 percent of the city population is associated with increases in rents an...

  10. 24 CFR 884.109 - Rent adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assisted and comparable unassisted units, as determined by HUD: Provided, however, That this limitation shall not be construed to prohibit differences in rents between assisted and comparable unassisted...

  11. Racial Inequalities in Home Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Mary R.; Jackman, Robert W.

    1980-01-01

    Throughout the United States, the probability of home ownership is considerably lower for Blacks than for Whites who are comparable in terms of socioeconomic characteristics, family composition, and location. Outside the South, Black owner-occupied homes are worth considerably less than the homes of comparable Whites. (Author/GC)

  12. Inclusive Ownership of Participatory Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druin, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This discussion explores the journal's special issue from the construct of ownership and how it relates to participatory design. I examine the articles of researchers from Europe and the United States which offer data-centered perspectives and data-driven suggestions. These works suggest how to best involve different stakeholders and I examine how…

  13. The motivation factors of non-ownership consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Flåt, Merete; Fehr, Sigrunn Marie Hultin von der

    2012-01-01

    There has been a rising trend that consumers choose to engage in consumption based on renting, swapping, sharing, bartering and gifting with the use of new technology and product-service systems, in the USA. We wanted to explore whether the same factors motivating such consumption is true for Norwegian consumers, and whether there is a potential for such services in the Norwegian market. The purpose of this master thesis is to investigate which factors motivate non-ownership co...

  14. 78 FR 42524 - Leasing versus Renting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Leasing versus Renting... assist in determining if there is a distinction between leasing and renting that is useful for the... address real property or its leasing. DATES: Interested parties should submit written comments to...

  15. Accounting management software intellectual rent companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Економічні науки. – 2015. – № 4 (74. – P. 43–49: Table 4. – Refs.: 22. As a result of the study it has been established that intellectual rent as additional income arises resulting from the usage of intellectual property objects. At present the issue of the accounting reflection of transactions that form intellectual rent remains to be not thoroughly disclosed and requires more depth study for improving the performance of the innovative enterprises as well as for increasing the informativeness of the accounting system. In connection with the above defined organizational and methodical aspects of accounting operations with intellectual rent in assessing the rents of its type, the definition of accounts for the accounting reflection of the order determining the amount of intellectual rent on accounting data. Proposed document that would facilitate the work of accountants for the calculation of the amount of intellectual rent and provide information about the effectiveness of the company. Application of the proposed method of accounting reflect the formation and distribution of intellectual rent allows management personnel to provide the necessary innovative activity of the enterprise information management rent, since it is a type of income of the enterprise.

  16. Social Class and Income Inequality in the United States: Ownership, Authority, and Personal Income Distribution from 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T

    2016-03-01

    This study outlines a theory of social class based on workplace ownership and authority relations, and it investigates the link between social class and growth in personal income inequality since the 1980s. Inequality trends are governed by changes in between-class income differences, changes in the relative size of different classes, and changes in within-class income dispersion. Data from the General Social Survey are used to investigate each of these changes in turn and to evaluate their impact on growth in inequality at the population level. Results indicate that between-class income differences grew by about 60% since the 1980s and that the relative size of different classes remained fairly stable. A formal decomposition analysis indicates that changes in the relative size of different social classes had a small dampening effect and that growth in between-class income differences had a large inflationary effect on trends in personal income inequality.

  17. Rents in property rights creation and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žarković Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The institution of property rights is increasingly being recognized as an essential building block of an economically prosperous society. The question that remains unanswered however, is how do we develop effective property rights institutions? The literature dealing with the development of property rights tends to be, in general, overly optimistic since there is a tendency to view the design of property rights institutions as optimizing decisions to economize on transaction costs and to facilitate new economic activities. On the other hand, since property rights define the distribution of wealth and political power in a society changes in property rights structures are likely to be influenced by more than pure efficiency considerations. Therefore, in order to achieve a balanced analysis of the evolution of property rights institutions our article introduces the state in the whole process. Following the propositions of the interest group theory of government we show an important relationship between rent seeking and state involvement in property rights creation. The state with a coercive power to establish and enforce property rights can also use that power, through the process of economic regulation, to redistribute property rights to politically influential interest groups. Herein lies the state failure in property rights creation.

  18. Constraints on the State Ownership of Natural Resources from the Perspective of Supply of Public Goods%公共物品供给视角下自然资源国家所有权的限制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天雁; 葛少芸

    2015-01-01

    自然资源国家所有权在制度上被认为具有类似于私人所有权的排他性和支配性,但是从自然资源对于人类所具有的生存保障属性来看,这种公共自然资源的国家所有权权利配置模式在解决了自然资源利用中的公地悲剧的同时,却也给民众非排他性地利用公共自然资源造成了制度上的障碍。自然资源的公共性不应当被所有权的排他性所吞没,自然资源国家所有权的内涵中应当有公共性成分,或者说应当负有社会义务。自然资源国家所有权的限制理论作为从民法体系内部解决自然资源国家所有权排他性和公共性之间矛盾的制度资源,不但可以避免自然资源国家所有权的缺陷,而且可以解决公共物品的供给短缺问题。%Institutionally, similar to private ownership, the state ownership of natural resources is thought to be exclusive and dominant. However, considering natural resources are the guarantee of human subsistence, the distribution model based on the state ownership of natural resources solves the problems of “tragedy of the commons” in the use of natural resources, but creates an obstacle for the public to use public natural resources non-exclusively. The public nature of natural resources should not be overwhelmed by exclusive state ownership. The state ownership of natural resources should be of publicity, or include social obligations. The constraint theory of the state ownership of natural resources, an institutional resource of resolving the conflict between the exclusive nature and the public nature of the state ownership of natural resources in civil law system, is not only a remedy for the state ownership of natural resources, but also a solution to the short supply of public goods.

  19. Mine rent and the new economic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadan, K. (Federalni Ministerstvo Paliv a Energetiky, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-09-01

    Reviews historical concept of ground rents with reference to works of Adam Smith and David Ricardo and to 19th century capitalism and Marxism-Leninism. Asks whether mine rents can exist under a socialist system and examines theoretical basis for mine rents, which includes socio-economic aspects, geological conditions, proximity to markets and environmental considerations. Compares mine rents with agricultural land rents and analyzes value of end product (coal) and effect of pricing method on it. Explains pricing system in Czechoslovakia, which involves 3 groupings: coking coal, coke and energy coal (including briquets), the price of each of which is set according to average costs and geological conditions. Surplus revenue (or positive mine rent) only arises therefore at mines where the production costs are lower than fixed trade prices. Discusses in general terms application of new economic system (perestroika) to concept of mine rent and assessment of mine profitability and concludes that method of pricing solid fuels will play a decisive role. 4 refs.

  20. Stochastic Control Model on Rent Seeking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A continuous-time stochastic model is constructed to analyze how to control rent seeking behaviors. Using the stochastic optimization methods based on the modern risky theory, a unique positive solution to the dynamic model is derived. The effects of preference-related parameters on the optimal control level of rent seeking are discussed, and some policy measures are given. The results show that there exists a unique solution to the stochastic dynamic model under some macroeconomic assumptions, and that raising public expenditure may have reverse effects on rent seeking in an underdeveloped or developed economic environment.

  1. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  2. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  3. 7 CFR 3560.202 - Establishing rents and utility allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing rents and utility allowances. 3560.202... Establishing rents and utility allowances. (a) General. Rents and utility allowances for rental units in Agency... Agency. (b) Agency approval. All rents and utility allowances set by borrowers are subject to...

  4. Essays on Employee Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faigen, Benjamin

    -method empirical research into the characteristics of individuals who have recently purchased shares in their employing firms in an Icelandic context, as well as their specific motives for doing so (or reasons for not doing so). Determinants of employee ownership, as well as direct insights into the considerations...... and age are found to influence ownership status. Furthermore, some support is found for financial motives outweighing non-financial motives behind share purchases in minority employee-owned firms relative to majority employee-owned firms. Internal barriers to ownership, together with a lack of funds...

  5. Gun ownership and social gun culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a gun, ranging from 5.2% in Delaware to 61.7% in Alaska. Gun ownership was 2.25-times greater among those reporting social gun culture (PR=2.25, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.52) than those who did not. In conclusion, we found strong association between social gun culture and gun ownership. Gun cultures may need to be considered for public health strategies that aim to change gun ownership in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Rente und subnationale Gewalt. Der Beitrag der politischen Ökonomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Elsenhans

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Rents are a basic element of the political economy of underdeveloped economies. They hinder and often block the mechanism of social integration through gainful employment and veto the power of labour, which characterizes capitalist societies and the constitution of citizenship. The impact of rent on political structures is, however, ambiguous. Anomie is only one possible result. Hence the link between raw material exports and non-state violence is also ambiguous. Many societies, which are characterized by rents, have developed quite powerful mechanisms of keeping internal peace, possibly with limited participation. The conditions of differential impacts of rent on social structures and political behaviour call for an analysis of internal interest mediation.

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, State owned and managed lands, Published in unknown, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Office of Shared Solutions.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of unknown....

  8. 45 CFR 95.617 - Software and ownership rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION-GRANT PROGRAMS (PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MEDICAL ASSISTANCE AND STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Software and ownership rights. 95.617 Section 95... (FFP) Specific Conditions for Ffp § 95.617 Software and ownership rights. (a) General. The State or...

  9. 国有企业改革中权力寻租行为分析及其防治%Analysis and Prevention of the Power Rent-seeking Action in the Reform of State-owned Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭秀兰

    2014-01-01

    当前,国有企业权力寻租在行为主体、覆盖范围和寻租手段上,显露出一些新特点。究其原因,主要是因为“一把手”权大位重,为权力寻租留下空间;管理体制不完善,给权力寻租留下可乘之机;惩罚力度疲软,降低了寻租行为的风险成本。防治国有企业改革中权力寻租行为应从几方面着手,即注重宣传教育,增强“免疫力”,自戴“紧箍咒”,使领导干部不想腐;注重制度建设,架起“高压线”,筑牢“防火墙”,使领导干部不能腐;注重监督查处,设置“警报器”,亮起“红灯区”,使领导干部不敢腐。%At present,power rent-seeking in state-owned enterprises shows some new characteristics,especially on the subject, coverage and means. The reason is that "head" is powerful,leaving space;Management system is imperfect,leaving chink;Weak penalties reduce the risking cost. Prevention and treatment include the following four aspects. That is,to pay attention to education in order to enhance "immunity" and wear magic formula to make the leaders unwilling to corruption;to pay attention to the system construction in order to set up the high tension line and build a "firewall" to make the leaders unable to corruption;to pay attention to supervision and investigation in order to set up the"alarm"and light up"the red light district"to make the leaders dare not corrupt.

  10. 24 CFR 983.303 - Reasonable rent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... other comparable unassisted units. (2) In determining the reasonable rent, the PHA must consider factors... units in the private unassisted market, which may include comparable unassisted units in the premises or... determined, including major differences between the contract units and comparable unassisted units. (3)...

  11. 24 CFR 886.312 - Rent adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... levels of such expenses in comparable assisted and unassisted housing in the area to ensure that... assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract rents may be adjusted upward or downward as may be...) Comparability between assisted and unassisted units. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this...

  12. Rent seeking with efforts and bids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Schoonbeek, L.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce bids in a rent-seeking contest. Players compete for a prize. Apart from exerting lobbying efforts, they also submit a bid which is payable only if they win the prize. We show that our model has a unique Nash equilibrium in pure strategies, in which each active player submits the same bi

  13. Accounting management software intellectual rent companies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T.S. Osadcha

    2015-01-01

    Економічні науки. – 2015. – № 4 (74). – P. 43–49: Table 4. – Refs.: 22. As a result of the study it has been established that intellectual rent as additional income arises resulting from the usage of intellectual property objects...

  14. The latrine ownership ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obeng, Peter Appiah; Keraita, Bernard; Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson;

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the latrine ownership ladder as a conceptual policy framework to enhance sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws from literature and a case study in a Ghanaian peri-urban community to highlight...... the challenges that undermine sanitation uptake in low-income peri-urban areas and the prospects of various levels of facility sharing as conceived in the latrine ownership ladder approach. Findings – The authors argue that the infrastructural and other socio-economic challenges of low-income peri-urban areas...... to the promotion of household latrines. The paper identifies provision of special concessions for peri-urban areas in policy formulation, education and technical support to households, regulation and enforcement of sanitation by-laws among complimentary policy interventions to make the latrine ownership ladder...

  15. 新一轮国有企业改革中发展混合所有制经济研究%A Study of Developing Mixed Ownership Economy in the New Round of State-owned Enterprise Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁法院; 丁胡; 冯磊

    2014-01-01

    To actively develop mixed ownership economy, as the major task of unceasingly strengthening China’s socialist market economic system foundation, contributes to further strengthen the state-owned economic vitality, control and influence, to achieve good interaction between public economy and non-public economy, and to enhance national competitiveness. Based on the analysis of the problems existing in current state-owned enterprises, this essay explained the significance of developing mixed ownership in the new round of state-owned enterprise reform, and made suggestions on how to develop mixed ownership economy.%积极发展混合所有制经济,是不断壮大我国社会主义市场经济体制根基的重要任务,有助于进一步增强国有经济活力、控制力和影响力,实现公有制经济和非公有制经济良性互动,提高国家竞争力。本文在分析当前国有企业存在问题的基础上,阐释了在新一轮国企改革中发展混合所有制的重要意义,并就如何发展混合所有制经济提出对策建议。

  16. Psychological Ownership and Ownership Markers in Collaborative Working Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian Ying

    2010-01-01

    Ownership is a fundamental human concern. It has been explored by various disciplines and within a variety of contexts. However, previous ownership researches focus primarily on physical objects such as toys, houses and stamps, while almost no research has been conducted about the psychological ownership toward digital entities. This dissertation…

  17. Economic Growth,Stability Constraint and Mixed Ownership Reform of State-owned Enterprises%经济增长、稳定约束与国有企业混合所有制改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马光威; 钟坚

    2016-01-01

    The paper constructs an equilibrium model of capital market and labor market based on the empirical facts of China’s economic development.The reasonable proportion of the mixed ownership reform of China’s state-owned enterprises is explored and studied based on the equilibrium model.The study shows that there are lower and upper limits for the reasonable proportion of mixed ownership reform of China’s state-owned enterprises,and the lower limit and the upper limit of the proportion are determined by economic growth and social stability constraint,respectively.The maximization of social income is the driving force for the mixed ownership reform of the state-owned enterprises,and the proportion of the mixed ownership reform may infinite approach the upper limit.%本文通过对中国经济发展现实情况进行分析,建立关于资本市场与劳动市场的均衡理论模型,在此基础上对中国国有企业混合所有制改革的合理比例进行理论探索与研究。研究认为,国有企业混合所有制改革的合理比例存在下限和上限,下限由经济增长压力决定,上限由社会稳定约束决定,社会收入最大化是国有企业混合所有制改革的推动力,改革比例最终可能收敛于上限。

  18. 27 CFR 6.35 - Renting display space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.35 Section 6.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Renting display space. The renting of display space by an industry member at a retail...

  19. 27 CFR 6.56 - Renting display space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.56 Section 6.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Distribution Service § 6.56 Renting display space. A promotion whereby an industry member rents display...

  20. Comparing markets rents from a user cost and reaction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The current policy in the Netherlands is that rents in the social housing sector are regulated and do not reflect market conditions. Housing associations are studying the possibility to partly adjust rents to the market rent, or at least they want to have insight in the size of the implicit subsidy

  1. 基于灰靶理论的国企职工持股动机分析%Study on the Motivations of Employee Sharing Ownership in Reformed State-Owned Enterprises Based on Grey Target Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍盛祥

    2012-01-01

    以武汉5家改制国有企业为样本,采用灰靶模型对国有企业改制中职工持股的目的进行了研究,结果表明:影响职工持股的主要因素按作用大小依次为,企业的赢利能力、股权集中度、职工的年龄、职工技能.这也证实了当前职工持股以长期股权投资为主要目的,而不是以就业和短期福利为主要诉求.%Focused on the purposes of employee sharing ownership in reformed state-owned enterprises,this paper applies grey target model and analyses 5 reformed state-owned enterprises in Wuhan.The result reveals that the main factors,which affect the employees holding shares,are in descending order as follow: the profitability of business,ownership concentration,the age of employees and staff skills.It is also confirmed that long-term equity investments is the main purpose of employee sharing ownership,employment and short-term welfare are not the main appeals.

  2. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related...

  3. Total Cost of Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), som giver et bud på, hvordan virksomheder kan opnå en bedre indsigt i, hvilke leverandører der forårsager hvilke omkostninger og dermed danne et forbedret beslutningsgrundlag for besparelser i leverandørleddet. I artiklen argumenteres først og fremmest for, hvorfor TCO er...

  4. Ownership as a Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Charles W.; Anderson, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest that ownership may be one of the critical entry points into thinking about social constructions, a kind of laboratory for understanding status. They discuss the features of ownership that make it an interesting case to study developmentally. In particular, ownership is a consequential social fact that is alterable by an…

  5. From Social to Private Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Masten, Arjana Brezigar; Zajc, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the ownership structures of unlisted privatized firms in Slovenia. On the basis of official ownership records for all nonfinancial firms over a six-year period (1999-2004), we explore the factors responsible for the concentration of ownership and for the dissolution of the mult...

  6. Ownership as a Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Charles W.; Anderson, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest that ownership may be one of the critical entry points into thinking about social constructions, a kind of laboratory for understanding status. They discuss the features of ownership that make it an interesting case to study developmentally. In particular, ownership is a consequential social fact that is alterable by an…

  7. Rapid Increase in Ownership and Use of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets and Decrease in Prevalence of Malaria in Three Regional States of Ethiopia (2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estifanos Biru Shargie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Following recent large scale-up of malaria control interventions in Ethiopia, this study aimed to compare ownership and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN, and the change in malaria prevalence using two population-based household surveys in three regions of the country. Each survey used multistage cluster random sampling with 25 households per cluster. Household net ownership tripled from 19.6% in 2006 to 68.4% in 2007, with mean LLIN per household increasing from 0.3 to 1.2. Net use overall more than doubled from 15.3% to 34.5%, but in households owning LLIN, use declined from 71.7% to 48.3%. Parasitemia declined from 4.1% to 0.4%. Large scale-up of net ownership over a short period of time was possible. However, a large increase in net ownership was not necessarily mirrored directly by increased net use. Better targeting of nets to malaria-risk areas and sustained behavioural change communication are needed to increase and maintain net use.

  8. The Identity of Ownership on Firm Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper; Madsen, Tage Koed; Pedersen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops an integrative ownership-internationalization model that explores the influences of various owner types (i.e. investor-owned firms, family-owned firms, employee-owned firms, cooperative–owned firms, and state-owned firms) on firm internationalization. Based on a comparative...

  9. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  10. 75 FR 6685 - Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Contract Rent Annual Adjustment Factors, Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Expenditure Survey (CEX) and American Community Survey (ACS) data on the ratio of utilities to rents.\\2\\ \\1....HUDUSER.org Survey Data Used to Produce Contract Rent AAFs In this publication, the rent and fuel and... AAFs. The utility- to-rent ratio used to produce Contract Rent AAFs comes from 2007 ACS median rent and...

  11. Analiza panoge rent a car v Sloveniji

    OpenAIRE

    Lukić, Davorin

    2016-01-01

    Panoga rent-a-car v segmentu kratkoročnih najemov sodi v turistično panogo in je kot taka odvisna od dogajanj v tej panogi. Drug segment predstavljajo poslovni najemi, ki ima v Sloveniji še potencial za rast, saj podjetja še ne poznajo vseh prednosti, ki jih prinese upravljanje voznega parka zunanjega izvajalca. Spremembe, katerim smo trenutno priča v svetu, so posledica digitalizacije, spremenjenih vrednot po gospodarski krizi ter prihoda generacije Y na trg delovne sile in na drugi strani k...

  12. Product market integration, rents and wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    Globalization in the form of product market integration affects labour markets and produces winners and losers. While there are aggregate gains, it is in general ambiguous how inequality is affected. We explore this issue in a Ricardian model and show that it depends on the balance between...... "protection" and "specialization" rents. In particular, wage inequality among similar workers (residual wage inequality) may be U-shaped, at first decreasing and then increasing in the process of product market integration. Consequently, there may be gains in both the efficiency and the equity dimension until...

  13. Rent taxation and its intertemporal effects in a small open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Poutvaara, Panu

    2009-01-01

    Previous literature concludes that replacing wage taxation by taxes on a fixed factor or its rents benefits future generations. However, the effects of such steady-state gains on the transition generations have been left open. In this paper, we show that taxation of rents may also increase utilit...... of the current generation provided tax revenues are earmarked to reduce wage taxes. In particular, a shift in the tax mix may yield an intergenerational Pareto-improvement when the initially prevailing tax mix is sufficiently skewed toward wage taxation....

  14. Is employee ownership so senseless ?

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Nicolas; Bernard, Grand; Lapied, André; Rousseau, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Since Enron and the ruin of thousands of its employees, employee ownership is harshly criticized. Investing savings in employer's stock would be equivalent to bet on only one asset. Moreover, employee ownership's debated efficiency would not justify employers to grant company stock to their employees. Still, employee ownership is put in place by thousands of companies and withhold by millions of employees throughout the world. This paper considers a moral hazard setting where a risk neutral e...

  15. Rent-Seeking or Wealth-Creating: What to Choose?

    OpenAIRE

    Gillund, Nils Ove

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a quite extensive literature review on literature concerning entrepreneurship, allocation of talent and rent-seeking. There is also a presentation of two models, one model concerning the allocation of talent and rent seeking. The second, demonstrates how rent-seeking affects investments in an economy. In the empirical part of the thesis there is a re-estimation of the results found in Murphy, Shleifer and Vishny, The Allocation of Talent: Implications for Growth (1991...

  16. Foreign M&A, State-contingent Ownership and Pricing Mode of State-owned Enterprises%外资并购、状态依存所有权与国有企业定价模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚海鑫; 陆智强

    2009-01-01

    Analyzes the actual owners of China's state-owned enterprises in accordance to their different operating situation from the viewpoint of state-contingent ownership. Then, the foundations on which the prices of state-owned enterprises can be determined are classified and discussed correspondingly, and the assets of those enterprises under different residual claims are distinguished from each other according to their asset attributes. Definite pricing mode is thus stipulated for foreign investors who desire the M&A of China's state-owned enterprises. The reasonable price for foreign M&A should be decided the way the value estimate shall be selected according to the type of residual claim on the target state-owned enterprise, its asset attributes and both parties' abilities in negotiation.%从状态依存所有权的视角对国有企业不同经营状况下的所有者进行了分析,进而分类阐释了相应状态下国有企业的定价基础,并利用资产属性对不同剩余索取权下的国有企业资产进行了划分,给出了外资并购国有企业的具体定价模式,即国有企业并购定价模式取决于相应状态的剩余索取者和资产属性.在外资并购国有企业时,应根据目标国有企业的剩余索取权类型、资产属性以及双方谈判能力来选择不同的估值方法,确定合理的并购价格.

  17. Employee Ownership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: High Performance Ownership Systems and the Mediating Role of Psychological Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutsma, F.; Eert, C. van; Ligthart, P.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the effect of employee share ownership, mediated through psychological ownership, on organizational citizenship behavior. The analysis included the possible complementary role of High Performance Ownership systems. This paper investigated these relationships by analyzing empl

  18. Employee Ownership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: High Performance Ownership Systems and the Mediating Role of Psychological Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poutsma, F.; Eert, C. van; Ligthart, P.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the effect of employee share ownership, mediated through psychological ownership, on organizational citizenship behavior. The analysis included the possible complementary role of High Performance Ownership systems. This paper investigated these relationships by analyzing

  19. Water rent: essence, sources of formation and accounting reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is the urgent necessity of the transition to a higher level of economic relations in the system of environmental management in the present conditions of economy of the country. As a result, the issues like formation of information support for water rent management, determining the ways of its calculation, distribution as well as usage of water rents require urgent solutions. The study focuses on the essence of water rent and forming organizational and methodological provisions of its accounting reflection to ensure sustainable ecological and economic development of the enterprise. As a result of research the classification of water rent, that affects reflection of such rent in accounting has been formed. It is established that the amount of water rent for accounting reflection can be defined as the difference between actual and normal profit of enterprise-water users. A number of analytical accounts of first and second order as well as the typical correspondence of accounts for accounting reflection of water rent have been suggested. The information from the Report on the formation of water rent that contains data on the sources of payback of expenses incurred for the maintenance of water bodies and the impact of ecological condition of water body on the size of water rent has been suggested to be used in order to manage the size of water rent and expenses incurred to obtain it. Thus, determining the amount of water rent will allow management personnel to adjust the activity of the company in accordance with the strategic objectives of the company’s development regarding the profitability and compliance with the concept of sustainable development.

  20. Ownership structure and earnings management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Jai, Hind

    2012-01-01

    – as important monitoring device. Interestingly, our results show that ownership concentration – percentage shareholding of the largest shareholder – has no significant impact on earnings management. The result is in contrast to prior literature that suggests ownership concentration to either cause alignment...

  1. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  2. Tullock's rent-seeking contest with a minimum expenditure requirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonbeek, L.; Kooreman, P.

    1997-01-01

    We consider a rent-seeking contest of the kind introduced by Tullock (1980) in which two players compete for a monopoly rent. We extend the contest by requiring that if a player puts forward an effort, his expenditures must be larger than or equal to some minimum level. We show that, depending on

  3. Election cycles in natural resource rents : Empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We examine whether governments' natural resource rents are affected by upcoming elections and if so, whether the incumbent uses these additional rents for re-election purposes. Estimates of a dynamic panel model for about 60 countries for 1975-2011 suggest that elections increase natural resource re

  4. Election cycles in natural resource rents: Empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; Haan, de Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We examine whether governments' natural resource rents are affected by upcoming elections and if so, whether the incumbent uses these additional rents for re-election purposes. Estimates of a dynamic panel model for about 60 countries for 1975-2011 suggest that elections increase natural resource

  5. 24 CFR 582.305 - Housing quality standards; rent reasonableness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing quality standards; rent... Housing quality standards; rent reasonableness. (a) Housing quality standards. Housing assisted under this part must meet the applicable housing quality standards (HQS) under § 982.401 of this title—except...

  6. Contesting Resources - Rent Seeking, Conflict and the Natural Resource

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wick, A.K.; Bulte, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    A growing empirical literature links natural resource abundance and "pointiness" to impeded economic growth and civil strife. We develop rent seeking and conflict models that capture the most salient features of contests for resource rents, and show how both resource abundance and geographical

  7. 77 FR 69651 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... with reasonable time for public comment and shall become effective upon the date of publication in... 2005-2009 5- year ACS based ZIP code median gross rent data with 2006-2010 5-year ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) median gross rent data. The use of the more current ACS data is consistent with the update...

  8. 22 CFR 151.11 - Notification of ownership, maintenance or use of vessel and/or aircraft; evidence of insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND PERSONNEL § 151.11 Notification of ownership, maintenance or use of vessel and/or aircraft... State in writing of the ownership, maintenance or other regular use of a vessel or aircraft in the... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of ownership, maintenance or use...

  9. Neural Networks Modelling of Municipal Real Estate Market Rent Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muczyński Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on the application of neural networks modelling of municipal real estate market rent rates. The test procedure was based on selected networks trained on the local real estate market data and transformation of the detected dependencies – through established models – to estimate the potential market rent rates of municipal premises. On this basis, the assessment of the adequacy of the actual market rent rates of municipal properties was made. Empirical research was conducted on the local real estate market of the city of Olsztyn in Poland. In order to describe the phenomenon of market rent rates formation an unidirectional three-layer network and a network of radial base was selected. Analyses showed a relatively low degree of convergence of the actual municipal rent rents with potential market rent rates. This degree was strongly varied depending on the type of business ran on the property and its’ social and economic impact. The applied research methodology and the obtained results can be used in order to rationalize municipal property management, including the activation of rental policy.

  10. Ownership structure and inventory policy

    OpenAIRE

    Tribó, Josep A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes use of a database of Spanish manufacturing firms to explore the effect of a firm's ownership structure on its inventory policy. We have argued that the presence of institutional investors reduces a firm's liquidity needs and prevents overinvestment policies. This, in turn, leads to lower equilibrium inventory levels. Also, we expect, on average, less inventory investment when bank-equity financing is compared with bank-debt financing. Finally, other components of ownership st...

  11. 农地流转改革的所有权基础:集体抑或国家?%Ownership Basis of Farmland Transfer Reform:Collective or State?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志强

    2014-01-01

    The reform for rural land transfering can not avoid the collective ownership system as premises issues.The“doing real”understanding of collective land ownership rights ignores the premise of land’s rights value,history and logic,and land development.China eventually will achieve the private attribute of land by the way of “state owned land”plus“doing the real right of use”plus“doing virtual ownership”.In the basis of land under state monopoly,much focus should be given to the setting of development right and running logical to land contract system,so as to reinforce the land right structure in transfering of land reform.%农地流转改革始终无法回避中国集体所有制作为地权结构基础的发展走向论证问题。做实集体土地所有权的观点忽略了土地的权利属性前提、历史与逻辑前提和地权发展的价值前提,中国终将会以“土地国家所有+做实使用权+做虚所有权”的方式来回复土地的私权属性。在土地国家独占基础下,需要对发展权的权利设置和土地承包制的运行逻辑进行着重论证,由此来夯实土地流转改革的应然性地权构造基础。

  12. HK Shop Rents to Soar as Tourism Booms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of Abercrombie & Fitch Co and Gap Inc in Hong Kong may help push shop rents in the Central business district up almost 50 percent over the next three years, according to Jones Lang LaSalle Inc.

  13. Corporate Ownership, Leadership and Job Charateristics in Russian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Weisberg

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the application of the Western theory of organization's ownership in Russia, suggesting that ownership types – such as state-owned and private – influence leadership style and employees' jobs characteristics. A sample of 724 Russian employees in 15 service and manufacturing companies was surveyed. The results indicate that, contrary to Western theories, the leadership in Russian state-owned enterprises tends to be perceived as being more effective than the leadership in private enterprises. Similarly, jobs in state-owned enterprises are more enriched than in private companies. Explanations and implications are provided.

  14. Inclusion or Exclusion? Local Ownership and Security Sector Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Donais

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dynamics of security sector reform (SSR, a term used to refer to efforts made to reform the security structures of states emerging from conflict or authoritarianism. While "local ownership" is increasingly viewed as a necessary element of any sustainable SSR strategy, there remains a significant gap between international policy and practice in this area. In practice, the SSR agenda continues to be driven largely by international actors, with minimal input, let alone ownership, on the part of either governments or civil society within reforming states. Indeed, the notion of local ownership has come to serve as much as a disciplining mechanism as a tool to overcome exclusion in the making and execution of security policy, and the effectiveness and sustainability of SSR programming have suffered as a result. In light of this, the paper will explore both the potential for, and the limits of, rehabilitating the notion of local ownership to enable more participatory forms of SSR, and argues that any practical local ownership strategy requires a dual policy of negotiating with state actors and engaging with non-state actors.

  15. Immigration and Housing Rents in Canada: A Panel Data Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of new immigration on housing rent, using Canadian province-level panel data from 1983 to 2010. In its estimations, it utilises econometric methods such as panel unit roots, panel co-integration regressions and panel vector error correction models. Both fully-modified ordinary least squares and dynamic ordinary least squares models suggest that immigration flow has a significant positive impact on housing rent in the long run. The panel vector error correction m...

  16. Fair Market Rents (Fair Market Rents For The Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset and map service provides information on Fair Market Rents (FMRs). FMRs are primarily used to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice...

  17. Theory of State-owned Enterprises Management Innovation Under the Mixed Ownership Reform%论混合所有制改革下国企管理的创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    进入21世纪,我国国有企业存在债务负担、社会责任负担、人员安置负担过重以及亏损严重等问题。在混合所有制改革的前提下,国企应在优化内部资源、引导民营资本参与国企改革、引入境外投资战略、通过资本市场实现投资主体多元化等方面进行改革创新。%Entering the 21st century, China's state-owned enterprises are facing challenges once again. The economic situation requires state-owned enterprises of our country to make a change, whether from the angle of debt burden, social responsibility, personnel placement or loss situation. Under the premise of the mixed ownership reform, state-owned enterprises should reform and innovate in many areas, such as optimizing internal resources, introducing private capital in reforms of state-owned enterprises, introducing overseas investment strategies, achieving diversification of investment through capital market innovation, etc.

  18. 76 FR 14421 - Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Contract Rent Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Survey (ACS) data on the ratio of utilities to rents.\\2\\ \\1\\ CPI indexes CUUSA103SEHA and CUSR0000SAH2... AAFs In this publication, the rent and fuel and utilities inflation factors for large metropolitan... produce Contract Rent AAFs comes from 2008 ACS median rent and utility costs. Geographic Areas Contract...

  19. 24 CFR 401.410 - Standards for determining comparable market rents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rents for project-based assistance at comparable market rents unless the PAE finds that exception rents... rents charged for properties that the PAE determines to be comparable properties (as defined in section... control and other characteristics determined by the PAE. The PAE may make appropriate adjustments...

  20. Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    Industrial foundations are self-governing non profit institutions that own business companies. This ownership structure is found in a fair number of Northern European companies, some of them successful world class competitors. Standard agency theory would predict foundation-owned companies...... to be relatively inefficient since they lack monitoring by residual claimants and access to equity finance from the stock market. Nevertheless, empirical research (Thomsen 1996) has found that Danish foundation-owned companies do no worse in terms of profitability and growth than companies with dispersed ownership...... or family ownership. The paper considers and tests alternative explanations of this paradox. Explanations based on tax incentives, alternative control mechanisms and product-market advantages are rejected, but some support is found for performance advantages related to family control and long term business...

  1. Rents in the European power sector due to carbon trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Cruciani, Michel [Centre de Geopolitique de l' Energie et des Matieres Premieres (CGEMP) Universite Paris - Dauphine (France)

    2010-08-15

    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) has imposed a price on the allowances for CO{sub 2} emissions of electricity companies. Integrating this allowance price into the price of electricity earns a rent for companies who have received these allowances for free. During Phase I, 2005-2007, rents corresponding to the aggregate value of allocated allowances amounted to roughly EUR 13 billion per year. However, due to the specific price-setting mechanism in electricity markets true rents were considerably higher. This is due to the fact that companies also that have not received any allowances gain additional infra-marginal rents to the extent that their variable costs are below the new market price after inclusion of the allowance price. Producers with low carbon emissions and low marginal costs thus also benefit substantially from carbon pricing. This paper develops a methodology to determine the specific interaction of the imposition of such a CO{sub 2} constraint and the price-setting mechanism in the electricity sector under the assumption of marginal cost pricing in a liberalized European electricity market. The article thus provides an empirical estimate of the true total rents of power producers during Phase I of the EU-ETS (2005-2007). The EU ETS generated in Phase I additional rents in excess of EUR 19 billion per year for electricity producers. These transfers are distributed very unevenly between different electricity producers. In a second step, the paper assesses the impact of switching from free allocation to an auctioning of allowances in 2013. We show that such a switch to auctioning will continue to create additional infra-marginal rents for certain producers and will leave the electricity sector as a whole better off than before the introduction of the EU ETS. (author)

  2. The Identity of Ownership on Firm Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandskov, Jesper; Madsen, Tage Koed; Pedersen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    The paper develops an integrative ownership-internationalization model that explores the influences of various owner types (i.e. investor-owned firms, family-owned firms, employee-owned firms, cooperative–owned firms, and state-owned firms) on firm internationalization. Based on a comparative...... analysis of the various owner types, we discuss how each owner group’s main objectives, risk behavior and provision of resources influence their internationalization strategies and decisions (i.e. scale, scope and speed decisions)....

  3. Institutional Environment, Blockholder Characteristics and Ownership Concentration in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingqiang Du; Zongfeng Xiu

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of China’s A-share listed companies for the period 2001-2004,this paper investigates the influence of institutional environment variables,including the process of marketization,level of local government intervention,and local legal environment,on blockholder characteristics and ownership concentration,and the relation between the endogeneity of ownership structure and institutional environment.Our results indicate that the effects of these variables on ownership concentration are(1)positive for listed companies controlled by state asset management bureaus affiliated with local governments,(2)negative for listed companies controlled by state-owned enterprises affiliated with local governments and(3)unclear for listed private companies.These variables also positively affect the degree of privatization of listed companies in China.

  4. A historical perspective on the economics of the ownership of mineral rights ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cawood, F.T.; Minnitt, R.C.A. [Technikon SA, Florida (South Africa). Dept. of Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Inauguration of the new political dispensation in South Africa, initiated a dynamic period in the historical development of its minerals policy. The process of substituting the current South African mineral policy framework with an acceptable `post apartheid` system, started soon after the 1994 election of the African National Congress (ANC) government. The Green Paper on a Minerals and Mining Policy for South Africa released for public discussion in February 1998, calls for radical transformation in mineral rights ownership. A shift towards exclusive state ownership of mineral rights, away from the present dual system of private and state ownership, is the most significant proposal. The current holders of mineral rights, or their nominees, who lawfully enjoyed security of tenure under past and present mineral laws are opposed to this transformation because mineral rights were often acquired at considerable cost. The situation is compounded by poor public record-keeping and passive mineral rights administration over a very long period. This paper represents a summary of the historical developments leading to the current legislative environment and forms the basis for any discussion on which future sculpturing of South Africa`s policy regarding mineral rights can take place. One cannot plan for the future without considering the past. 21 refs.

  5. A dynamic random effects multinomial logit model of household car ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bue Bjørner, Thomas; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Using a large household panel we estimate demand for car ownership by means of a dynamic multinomial model with correlated random effects. Results suggest that the persistence in car ownership observed in the data should be attributed to both true state dependence and to unobserved heterogeneity ...

  6. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas as surface ownership parcels dissolved on the same ownership classification. This map service was prepared to describe...

  7. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels (Generalized)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting areas as surface ownership parcels dissolved on the same ownership classification. This map service was prepared to describe...

  8. US Forest Service Surface Ownership Parcels, detailed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ownership parcels of the surface estate. Each surface ownership parcel is tied to a particular legal transaction. The same...

  9. The Total Cost of Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, C. William

    2000-01-01

    Examines what Total Cost of Ownership is regarding the purchase of technological resources for schools and the major expenses that are likely to occur after technological hardware and software have been installed. A list of best practices that can reduce costs approximately 15 percent and a checklist for technology budgeting are provided. (GR)

  10. The Art of Cloaking Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalders, Gerard; Wiebes, Cees

    1996-01-01

    After years of intensive research in archives throughout Europe and the U.S., the authors of The Art of Cloaking Ownership discovered that firms located in 'neutral' Sweden supported the Nazis' financial and industrial leadership. The case of Enskilda, a bank owned by the still powerful Wallenberg f

  11. Corporate Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    to be relatively inefficient since they lack monitoring by residual claimants and access to equity finance from the stock market. Nevertheless, empirical research (Thomsen 1996) has found that Danish foundation-owned companies do no worse in terms of profitability and growth than companies with dispersed ownership...

  12. 47 CFR 73.3555 - Multiple ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section, the local radio multiple ownership rule). (3) To determine how many media... (released July 8, 1991), in order to determine whether common ownership, operation, or control of the... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple ownership. 73.3555 Section 73.3555...

  13. Teale Government Ownership

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  14. Ownership of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-02-01

    As teachers of chemistry, we deal with information, knowledge, and, if we are fortunate, even wisdom. An important part of what we do involves giving students access to information and devising better ways to help them assimilate it. Beyond that, we can help them gain knowledge and understanding. Ultimately we hope that the knowledge they gain will help them to make wise choices about their own and society's collective futures. We often view ourselves as altruistic providers of information, but of course our students do pay tuition fees and thereby at least part of our salaries. In that sense we can think of ourselves as involved in an information industry. We provide what has come to be called intellectual property in return for a salary from a school, college, or university that in turn has collected fees from those who value that intellectual property. Those of us who write books or create multimedia materials are even more closely allied with the information industry. Computers and the Internet have produced a quantum jump in the ease of dissemination, reception, and reproduction of large quantities of information. That has stimulated reexamination of conventional thinking about intellectual property, making copyrights, patents, and trademarks a red-hot area for lawyers. Insofar as we teachers are disseminators of intellectual property, we are going to be affected by the changes that will certainly happen in the laws, customs, and ethics that apply to ownership of information and of the means by which it is exchanged among members of our society. In other words, we need to pay attention to the current ferment regarding intellectual property, doing our best to ensure that the decisions made do not prevent us from teaching in the best ways we know. Available options, all of which have vocal proponents, range from complete freedom of copying and disseminating information through a level of control in which essentially every bit or byte delivered carries with it a

  15. LIFE STYLE OF RENTED LAND OWNERS IN UBUD SUBDISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Gde Putra Pemayun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This present study was intended to analyze the Life Style of the Rented Land Owners at Ubud Subdistrict. The problems of the study are formulated as follows: (1 what is the characteristic of the rented land owners at Ubud Subdistrict like? (2 How has the process of life style of the rented land owners at Ubud Subdistrict  taken place? And (3 what is the implication of the life style of the rented land owners on their lives? Qualitative method was employed in the study. The data were processed using observation, interview and documentary techniques. The workability of the law regulating the demand for land at Ubud Subdistrict motivated the land owners to rent out their land to investors. Apart from that, the internal dimension, which is made up of the economical capital, was the most important element as it could activate small, medium and big enterprises. Another aspect was image which was reflected through perception, cognition, motivation, and attitude of individuals as consumers. As an illustration, they built luxurious houses and showed off luxurious cars to show the image that they were new wealthy people. On the other hand, there was external dimension, namely, the highly rapid development of tourism, which could positively and negatively contribute to the life style of the people living at Ubud Subdistrict. Such an implication could not be avoided. The other aspect was consumerism; the consumers were around the symbol and sign. Mass media were the miracles of the object liturgy; pleasure was defined as the realization of freedom, and the human body was the main object of consumers. The last aspect was the government’s policy which determined that Ubud Subdistrict was a tourist destination. As a result, the local people had the opportunity to rent out their land which was used to expand the industry of tourism and to activate the other economic enterprises.

  16. MARKET RENT DISSIPATION IN REGULATED OPEN ACCESS FISHERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Homans, Frances R.; Wilen, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Using a new model of markets in regulated open access resources, we illustrate the evolution of a fishery as demand for the product grows. We show that increased demand for fish in its fresh form shortens the fishing season and leads to the development of a market for processed fish. The model allows us to calculate the rent gains from rationalizing the fishery, and we show that much of the rent gains come on the market side as the season lengthens and more fish can be delivered to the higher...

  17. Economic Analysis on Rent of Equipment Lease of Coal Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童磊; 王立杰

    2002-01-01

    Rent is the key factor in equipment lease. The business that equipment lease company of coal mining often engaged in can be divided into three kinds, that is sublease, operating lease and inter lease, in term of the difference of the role of lease, character of business, object of the trade and condition of t he market. The problem in rent calculating of the three kind s of lease that equipment lease company of coal mining often involved was an alyzed. Hope to b e helpful to the decision-making of the equipment lease company of coal mining.

  18. Predicting returns and rent growth in the housing market using the rent-to-price ratio: Evidence from the OECD countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We investigate the predictive power of the rent-to-price ratio for future real estate returns and rent growth in 18 OECD countries over the period 1970 to 2011. First, we document that in most countries returns are signi…cantly predictable by the rent-price ratio. An increase (decrease...... dependent on whether returns and rents are measured in nominal or real terms. Finally, there is some evidence of sub-sample instability in the predictive patterns, especially wrt. rent growth predictability. The predictability tests are conducted within a restricted VAR framework based on the dynamic Gordon...

  19. THE OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AS A CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MECHANISM IN SERBIAN HOTELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pero Petrovic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the development in Serbien tourism sector during the last decade. The article is focused on the ownership structure and company performance in the light of corporate governance theory and the actuel privatisation process. Previous research has proven that Serbien state is a poor and pasive owner,whereas private owners and amployees are more active and more interested in their company’s economic performance. This article shows that the transition to private ownership in the Serbian hotels sector has not been finished. Consequently, state-owned and investment funds remain important owners of Serbien hotels. The financial performance of hotel companies is below average in the economy and can be correlated with the current ownership structure. Since the current ownership structure has a negative impact on the hotel sector competitiveness, an ownership change is needed to boost the sector’s competitivensess and the competitivensess of Serbia as tourist destination.

  20. Dimensions of Corporate Ownership in For-Profit Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The recent growth of for-profit higher education has been marked by the rising importance of institutional ownership by publicly traded corporations. This paper looks at 13 publicly traded corporations that own degree-granting for-profit institutions of higher education in the United States, examining corporate growth strategies and their…

  1. Dimensions of Corporate Ownership in For-Profit Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The recent growth of for-profit higher education has been marked by the rising importance of institutional ownership by publicly traded corporations. This paper looks at 13 publicly traded corporations that own degree-granting for-profit institutions of higher education in the United States, examining corporate growth strategies and their…

  2. A longitudinal ecological study of household firearm ownership and firearm-related deaths in the United States from 1999 through 2014: A specific focus on gender, race, and geographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Geier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Firearms have a longstanding tradition in the United States (US and are viewed by many with iconic stature with regards to safety and personal freedom. Unfortunately, from a public health point of view, firearm-related deaths (FRDs in the US have reached a crisis point with an estimated >31,000 deaths and 74,000 nonfatal injuries resulting from firearms each year. This longitudinal ecological study analyzed variations in FRDs following firearm assaults (FAs and law enforcement incidents involving a firearm (LEIF in comparison to variations in household firearm ownership (HFO among different geographic and demographic groups in the US from 1999 to 2014. The Underlying Cause of Death database was examined on the CDC Wonder online interface. Records coded with ICD-10 codes: FA (X93 – assault by handgun discharge, X94 – assault by rifle, shotgun, and larger firearm discharge, or X95 – assault by other and unspecified firearm discharge and LEIF (Y35.0 were examined, and the prevalence of HFO was determined using the well-established proxy of the percentage of suicides committed with a firearm. Gender, ethnicity, Census Division, and urbanization significantly impacted the death rates from FA and LEIF. Significant direct correlations between variations in HFO and death rates from FAs and LEIF were observed. Understanding the significant impacts of gender, race, Census Division, and urbanization status may help shape future public health policy to promote increased firearm safety.

  3. The failure of introducing market institution in a rent sector into an economy in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C.; Finon, D

    2003-07-01

    Privatisation is at the heart of the structural reforms for economies in transition. In theory, the main aim of privatisation is to change the structures of corporate governance in order to improve the efficiency of the enterprises and to assure their long-term future in a competitive environment. The adoption of formal market institutions would be sufficient to secure the new property rights, in particular because the new holders of the rights to control assets would have a great incentive to encourage the definition of new judicial rules that would guarantee their rights of ownership. In Russia that did not happen. The paper discusses the narrowed vision of institutional change, without consideration of the previous environment of formal and informal institutions, and the need to put together the institutional infrastructure that is needed for the market institutions to function. It offers explanations of the 'unexpected' results of the reforms in a capital-intensive natural resource industry, namely the hydrocarbons industry characterized by the opportunity of rent extraction by the exportation. It demonstrates right holders' interest for the weakness of the 'rule of law'. It demonstrates that the incompatibility of these institutions with the initial informal and formal institutions has led to adaptations that are strongly path-dependent, under the need to preserve a minimum of inter-industrial coherence. (authors)

  4. Choice of Ownership Structure and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C; Kalmi, Panu; Mygind, Niels

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we use rich panel data for a representative sample of Estonian enterprises to analysediverse issues related to the determinants of ownership structures and ownership changes afterprivatisation. A key focus is to determine whether ownership changes are related to economicefficiency....... While employee owned firms are found to be much more prone than other firms toswitch ownership categories, often `employee owned' firms remain `insider-owned' as ownershippasses from current employees to managers and former employees. Logit analyses of thedeterminants of ownership structures...... and ownership changes provides mixed support for severalhypotheses. As predicted: (i) wealth and resource constraints play a crucial role in thedetermination of ownership, with foreigners buying firms with the highest equity levels andinsiders buying firms with the lowest equity valuations; (ii) risk aversion...

  5. Trends in Employee Ownership in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Employee-owned companies are those where the broad group of employees owns the majority of shares. They have been widespread in the early transition process in Eastern Europe. This raises the question of why this type of ownership was so frequently used in some of the countries involved, and why...... there was a subsequent rapid transfer to manager ownership or outside ownership. This article gives a theoretical overview of the factors driving and hampering employee ownership, and develops hypotheses about how the transition process provided specific conditions for the development of these firms. The predictions...... employee ownership. The article concludes that privatization was the main determinant for the initial spread of employee ownership. However, other factors undermined the sustainability of employee-owned firms. No institutions created a framework for employee ownership. The long and deep production crisis...

  6. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho…

  7. Cost management of IT beyond cost of ownership models : a state of the art overview of the Dutch financial services industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, E; van Maanen, H.

    2002-01-01

    Controlling costs is an essential part of a value driven information technology (IT) management. This paper gives a state of the art overview of IT cost management practice. Both theoretical and an empirical approach are taken. The theoretical approach is based on both general accounting literature

  8. Cost management of IT beyond cost of ownership models : a state of the art overview of the Dutch financial services industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, E; van Maanen, H.

    2002-01-01

    Controlling costs is an essential part of a value driven information technology (IT) management. This paper gives a state of the art overview of IT cost management practice. Both theoretical and an empirical approach are taken. The theoretical approach is based on both general accounting literature

  9. Balti kalleim lao- ning tootmispindade rent on Riias / Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiviorg, Kristo

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 21. sept. lk. 12. Tootmis- ja laopindade rent Baltimaades ja Soomes. Vt. samas: Tallinnas lao- ning tootmispinnad poolaastaga kallinenud kuni 37%; Helsingis on kõige rohkem tõusnud C-kvaliteediklassi pinnad; Tartu piirkonnas enamik saadaolevaid pindu keskmises või halvas seisukorras

  10. The Struggle for Rents in a Schumpterian Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market. Trade unions strive for the extraction of as high a rent as possible from the growth generating imperfectly competitive primary sector. This union behaviour results in a non-competitive wage differential between the

  11. The meaning of competition between social and market rented housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennartz, C.; Haffner, M.E.A.; Oxley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    When policy makers claim that rented housing has to become more competitive, there is no consensus on what competition in this context actually means. The same holds true for scientific housing research: Theories that have utilized the economic concept of competition tend to rely on implicit definit

  12. 18 CFR 367.1720 - Account 172, Rents receivable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1720 Account 172, Rents... receivable. 367.1720 Section 367.1720 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005,...

  13. Ownership structure and earnings management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Jai, Hind

    2012-01-01

    Does poor legal protection of minority shareholders provide enough incentives for majority shareholders to expropriate minority shareholders and hide their unscrupulous behavior through accounting manipulations? This paper attempts to study the effect of ownership structure (ownership of the larg...... effect and result in lower earnings management or cause entrenchment effect and result in higher earnings management....... of the largest shareholder and identity of the largest shareholder) on earnings management in Morocco. Using annual estimates of discretionary accruals, we document that the presence of institutions as the largest shareholder has a negative impact on earnings management. Our results show that firms with foreign...... or local institutions as the largest shareholders engage in significantly lower earnings management than other firms. Our results are consistent with prior literature that considers institutions – which have greater resources, more sophistication than individual investors, and more relevant expertise...

  14. Debt Shifting and Ownership Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Schindler; Guttorm Schjelderup

    2011-01-01

    Previous theoretical studies on the debt shifting behavior of multinationals have assumed affiliates of multinationals to be wholly owned. We develop a model that allows a multinational firm to determine both the leverage and ownership structure in affiliates endogenously. A main finding is that affiliates with minority owners have less debt than wholly owned affiliates and therefore a less tax efficient financing structure. This is due to an externality that arises endogenously in our model,...

  15. Fair Market Rents For The Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are primarily used to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice Voucher program, to determine initial renewal rents for some...

  16. 75 FR 76036 - Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise Disbursement Divisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise... of Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc., including the Accounts Payable, Rent, and Merchandise... the same division, are engaged in activities related to the supply of accounts payable,...

  17. Managerial ownership and corporate performance in Slovenian post-privatisation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Simoneti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian post-privatisation period has been characterised by a decline in the ownership by non-managerial owners (employees and state-controlled funds. On the other hand, domestic and foreign non-financial firms, Privatisation Investment Funds and managers have been increasing their holdings. The latter, namely the growing managerial ownership, is likely to feature in future ownership dynamics in Slovenia. In fact, in 2002 the desired (optimal ownership stakes estimated by Slovenian managers were 10.8 percentage points higher than their actual stakes. The aim of our paper is to describe the main trends in the ownership of Slovenian corporations in the post-privatisation period and to provide an answer to the basic economic question: what is the influence of the ongoing consolidation of managerial ownership on the performance of Slovenian firms. The empirical analysis testing this relationship is based on a panel of 182 Slovenian firms in the 1995-99 period and does not provide relevant evidence of any positive effects of the increasing managerial control on Slovenian firms’ performance. If any, a positive incentive effect is only observed in those firms whose managers’ holdings exceed 10-percent, only with regards to firms’ financial performance (but not total factor productivity and only in firms that are not listed on the capital market. Further, the negative effect of the current gap between the desired and actual managerial ownership seems to exceed any positive incentive effect arising out of managerial ownership

  18. Revenue Management approach to car rental business : Revenue Management guide for Helkama Rent Ltd

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Aimo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this product-oriented thesis is to study revenue management as a business practise and and create a Revenue Management guide for the assigning company Helkama Rent Ltd car rental. The guide is supposed to give ideas and a structure for Revenue Management in Helkama Rent Ltd. Helkama Rent Ltd has been struggling with the profitability issues recently. Revenue Management guide will help Helkama Rent to obtain Revenue Management philosophy, and give ideas and tools for more effici...

  19. 24 CFR 888.113 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing housing: Methodology. 888.113 Section 888.113 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... existing housing: Methodology. (a) Basis for setting fair market rents. Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are...

  20. 41 CFR 102-85.140 - How are changes in Rent reflected in OAs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR... specified in OAs will serve as notice to agencies of future Rent changes for budgeting purposes. For a discussion of budgeting for Rent, see § 102-85.160. (b) Changes to Rent other than those identified in...

  1. 77 FR 46447 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... statistically valid one-year ACS data is available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are... housing of a modest (non-luxury) nature with suitable amenities. In addition, all rents subsidized under... that HUD would not want to utilize in setting FMRs (e.g., luxury efficiency apartments that rent...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, LandOwnership, Published in 2004, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'LandOwnership'. Data by this publisher...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Parcels and Ownership, Published in 2009, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2009. It is described as 'Parcels and Ownership'. This data...

  4. 国有企业混合所有制改革背景下的商业银行业务机会%Chance of the Commercial Bank in the Background of Mixed Ownership Reform of the State-owned Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩复龄; 冯雪

    2014-01-01

    Commercial bank, playing an important role as an major element in the financial system, faces a rare chance and challenge in the reform of mixed ownership of state-owned enterprise. Under the condition of mergers and acquisitions in the state-owned enterprises, commercial banks should choose M & a loan, matchmaking consultant, fund management, asset securitization as a business point, and in the banking supervision, protection of ownership, risk prevention, response to mixed ownership and promotion of business, business innovation aspects of reform.%商业银行作为金融体系的重要组成部分,在国有企业混合所有制改革中扮演着重要角色。在国有企业进行兼并重组的情况下,商业银行应选择并购贷款、撮合顾问、基金资管、资产证券化等作为业务切入点,并在银行业务监管层面、所有权保护、风险防控、应对混合所有制推进业务、业务创新方面进行改革。

  5. Foundation Ownership, Reputation, and Labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Thomsen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    of profitability and growth, despite lacking governance mechanisms such as profit incentives or takeover threats. Given their non-profit ownership, they might be expected to behave more responsibly towards stakeholders, such as employees or customers (Hansmann, 1980), but so far there has been little empirical...... ratings. Secondary evidence on labour market behaviour is consistent with these findings. Using matched employer–employee data we show that foundation-owned companies are more stable employers, pay their employees better, and keep them for longer. Altogether, the evidence indicates that foundation...

  6. The value of foreign ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Romalis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    We use firm level data on cross-border mergers and acquisitions and share prices to explore the extent to which foreign ownership increases the profitability of firms in emerging markets. We find that cross-border ac¬quisitions add value to target firms. However, there is only weak evidence that such acquisitions add more value than purely domestic acquisitions. Further, most of this latter effect occurs when the target firm’s country is in a crisis.

  7. The Control of Land Rent in the Fortified Farming Town

    OpenAIRE

    John Hartwick

    2006-01-01

    We consider costly administration at the center of a farming community surrounding a fortified village. Land rent taxation is high cost mode of financing central administration in a tax incidence sense. Participatory administration by the governed is a lower cost alternative. We speculate why the low cost option has been out-competed by its higher cost alternative throughout history. We also take up constraints on predation on farmers by a landlord at the center.

  8. Rent seeking oligopolistic behaviour in European gasoline markets

    OpenAIRE

    Michael L. Polemis; Panagiotis N Fotis

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the asymmetric adjustment speed of gasoline price in twelve European Union (EU) countries transmitted directly in a single stage formulation. The empirical results shed new light on the taxation effect and its role to the price asymmetry nexus, pointing that in many EU countries a crude oil price increase is passed through more forcefully than a price decrease revealing a rent-seeking oligopolistic behaviour by the marketers.

  9. Optimal Licensing Contracts with Adverse Selection and Informational Rents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela MARINESCU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we analyse a model for determining the optimal licensing contract in both situations of symmetric and asymmetric information between the license’s owner and the potential buyer. Next we present another way of solving the corresponding adverse selection model, using the informational rents as variables. This approach is different from that of Macho-Stadler and Perez-Castrillo.

  10. Migration as an antidote to rent-seeking?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariani, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We develop a new mechanism through which skilled migration may influence economicperformance in the sending country. If agents can choose between acting asrent-seekers and engaging in productive activities, and only productive skills are exportable,a positive probability of migration (to a more secure economy) reduces therelative expected returns from rent-seeking, thus decreasing the proportion of skilledworkers who opt for ”parasitic” activities. Such an improvement ...

  11. Alternative windpower ownership structures: Financing terms and project costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Kahn, E.

    1996-05-01

    Most utility-scale renewable energy projects in the United States are developed and financed by private renewable energy companies. Electric output is then sold to investor-owned and public utilities under long-term contracts. Limited partnerships, sale/leaseback arrangements, and project-financing have historically been the dominant forms of finance in the windpower industry, with project-finance taking the lead more recently. Although private ownership using project-finance is still the most popular form of windpower development, alternative approaches to ownership and financing are becoming more prevalent. U.S. public and investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) have begun to participate directly in windpower projects by owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing windpower from independent non-utility generators (NUGs) through power purchase agreements (PPAs). In these utility-ownership arrangements, the wind turbine equipment vendor/developer typically designs and constructs a project under a turnkey contract for the eventual project owner (the utility). The utility will also frequently sign an operations and maintenance (O&M) contract with the project developer/equipment vendor. There appear to be a number of reasons for utility involvement in recent and planned U.S. wind projects. One important claim is that utility ownership and self-finance provides substantial cost savings compared to contracting with private NUGs to supply wind-generated power. In this report, we examine that assertion.

  12. Chicago's water market: Dynamics of demand, prices and scarcity rents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, V.C.; Bhagwat, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Chicago and its suburbs are experiencing an increasing demand for water from a growing population and economy and may experience water scarcity in the near future. The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly depleted its groundwater resources to a point where interstate conflicts with Wisconsin could accompany an increased reliance on those sources. Further, the withdrawals from Lake Michigan is limited by the Supreme Court decree. The growing demand and indications of possible scarcity suggest a need to reexamine the pricing policies and the dynamics of demand. The study analyses the demand for water and develops estimates of scarcity rents for water in Chicago. The price and income elasticities computed at the means are -0.002 and 0.0002 respectively. The estimated scarcity rents ranges from $0.98 to $1.17 per thousand gallons. The results indicate that the current prices do not fully account for the scarcity rents and suggest a current rate with in the range $1.53 to $1.72 per thousand gallons.

  13. Increasing natural resource rents from Farmland: A curse or a blessing for the rural poor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2015-01-01

    agricultural land on rent seeking and rent distribution. Results suggest that the potential for small scale farmers to organize and obtain political power determines the extent of rent seeking and rent distribution, and that while more democratic institutions may increase the share of rents going...... as a diffuse resource with low economic value, this categorization may no longer be appropriate, because demand for land is currently on the rise, and may continue to increase in the future. This study presents and discusses recent theoretical and empirical approaches to analyzing the effects of high-value...

  14. The Study on the Best Proportion of State-owned Shares under the Background of the Mixed Ownership---Based on the Application of Game Theory in State-owned Equity and Voice%混合所有制背景下国有股最佳比例研究--基于博弈论在国有股权与话语权中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆岷峰; 李振国; 王婷婷

    2014-01-01

    Since the third plenary session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, the concept of the mixed ownership economy has been received extensive attention of the society from all walks of life. What proportion of state-owned shares, however, can not only realize the control of state-owned shares to make the public sector of the economy account for the major status, but also expand the scale of state-owned shares to make them fully guide non-public economy and to achieve the development of various ownership together. Based on the background of the mixed ownership reform, the paper creatively use the view of Game Theory to explain how the mixed ownership to expand the scale of control of state-owned assets and to improve the economic efficiency of state-owned companies and protect the rights and interests of small shareholders. The paper draws the conclusion that State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council should abandon the thought of absolute holdings and turn to relative holdings, and should use the game among large shareholders and pyramid shareholding structure to diversify the ownership property of investment subjects.%十八届三中全会以来,混合所有制经济概念受到社会各界的广泛关注。然而国有股份到底要占多大比例,才能既实现国有股份的控制权,使公有制经济占主体地位,又能扩大国有股份的规模,使国有股份能够充分地引导非公有制经济实现多种所有制共同发展。本文以混合所有制改革为背景,创造性地利用博弈论的观点来解释混合所有制如何扩大国有资产的控制规模、如何提高国有公司的经济效率和保护小股东利益。本文结论是:国资委应该放弃绝对控股的思维,转向相对控股;应该利用大股东间的博弈和金字塔式股权结构,使投资主体的所有制属性多元化。

  15. 政府与国有银行股权改革:问题、经验与建议%The Ownership Reform of the Government and State-owned Bank:Problems,Experience and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永亮; 黄晓

    2012-01-01

    In the process of the reform in state-owned banks,the government is the sponsor and provider for the system changes;this reflected the gradual logic that governmental dominant,top-down,from the outside to the inside.The resulting between government and banks "inertial control" and "inertial attached" beautifully "relationship" of law produced the "crowding-out effect",made the legal marginality and gypsum,namely "the law failure".Therefore,perfecting the state-owned bank ownership structure,the key is to abide by the concept of the rule of law,clearly define the government on the banks of the boundary,the abolition of government by the banking system to achieve widespread government policy target practice,allowing banks according to the business goals to make lending decisions.%在国有银行股权改革进程中,政府是制度变迁的启动者、提供者,国有银行股权改革体现了政府主导、自上而下、由表及里、渐进式的逻辑特点。由此形成的政府与银行间"惯性控制"与"惯性依附"的非同寻常"关系"对法律产生了"挤出效应",致使法律边缘化、纸面化,即"法律失灵"。因此,完善国有银行股权结构,关键是要信守法治理念,清晰地界定政府之于银行的边界,取消政府利用银行体系实现政府广泛政策目标的做法,允许银行根据商业目标做出贷款决策。

  16. 47 CFR 73.855 - Ownership limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ownership limits. 73.855 Section 73.855 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.855 Ownership limits. (a) No authorization for an...

  17. An Institution-Based View of Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Essen (Marc)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe past two decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research on corporate governance around the world and on the role of the ownership concentration more specifically. In line with a longer tradition of ownership studies in U.S. context, most corporate governance researchers

  18. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland-Munch, Jakob; Svarer, Michael; Rosholm, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labor market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  19. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labour market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  20. The total cost of EHR ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastaugh, Steven R

    2013-02-01

    Consider total cost of ownership, not just initial cost of acquisition and annual maintenance, when reviewing electronic health record (EHR) system bids. Support costs--a key part of total cost of ownership--include FTEs dedicated to the system. The long-term costs of an EHR system can vary dramatically (up to 200 percent) depending on which system is selected.

  1. An Institution-Based View of Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Essen (Marc)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe past two decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research on corporate governance around the world and on the role of the ownership concentration more specifically. In line with a longer tradition of ownership studies in U.S. context, most corporate governance researchers hav

  2. Ownership and Control in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Abe; Kabir, Rezaul; Marra, Teye; Röell, Ailsa

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses ownership and control structures of Dutch listed companies. Legislation effective since 1992 mandates all shareholders with holdings of 5 percent or more in Dutch companies to disclose their holdings. Our analysis shows that the average ownership stakes of the largest and the thr

  3. Discussion on Market Rational Value of Housing in China Based on the Market Rent System of Public Rent Houses%基于公租房市场化租金体系的住房市场合理价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕筱萍; 程大涛

    2013-01-01

    在分析我国住房市场多元价值体系并存的基础上,提出以按年征收土地出让金方式统一公共租赁房的用地性质;赋予公共租赁房以完全产权,使体现所有权资金成本的虚拟租金向体现住房物业价值的承租租金回归;使公共租赁房的市场化租金水平,在居民家庭住房消费支出成本制约下成为我国住房价值体系的标杆.%Based on the analysis of the phenomenon of coexistence of multi-value system of China's housing market and institutional factors, this paper proposes unified nature of land for public rental housing by levying land premium annually, and public rental housing with full property rights, embodying ownership the capital cost of the virtual rent to reflect the value of the housing property leased rent regression, making the market rent levels subject to household income level with the cost of housing consumption expenditure constraints become the benchmark of the value of China' s housing system.

  4. Use of ureteroscopy before and after expansion of lithotripter ownership in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hung-Jui; Wolf, J Stuart; Hollenbeck, Brent K; Ye, Zaojun; Hollingsworth, John M

    2011-12-01

    To determine whether ureteroscopy (URS) rates decreased following the expansion of lithotripter ownership in Michigan. Historically, Michigan has had limited urologist investment in lithotripters owing to strict Certificate of Need legislation. However, 2 of the nation's largest lithotripsy providers formed Michigan subsidiaries in 2005 and 2006, thereby altering the ownership landscape. Urologists who acquired partnership shares were incentivized to perform shock wave lithotripsy preferentially over URS. Because of ownership expansion, the rates of URS might have decreased. From the Michigan files of the State Ambulatory Surgery Database, we abstracted the discharges for URS performed at hospital-based outpatient departments. We measured the differences between the patients who underwent URS in the year before (2004) and the year after (2007) ownership expansion. We then calculated the annual rates of URS in Michigan and evaluated for changes over time. A total of 5857 and 6294 URSs were performed in 2004 and 2007, respectively. Significant differences in age (P < .001), race (P < .001), primary payer (P < .001), and comorbidity status (P < .001) were observed between the patients who underwent URS before and after ownership expansion. However, the rates of URS in Michigan remained relatively flat despite the increased urologist ownership of lithotripters (P = .129 for the temporal trend). The introduction of physician ownership of lithotripter units in Michigan was not associated with decreased rates of URS but might have influenced treatment selection among certain patient groups. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Political rents in the European Union’s agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czyżewski Bazyli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Występowanie rent gruntowych we współczesnym rolnictwie UE potwierdza wieloletni rosnący trend cen ziemi rolniczej. Nasuwa się jednak pytanie, czy są to przede wszystkim renty różniczkowe związane z różną wydajnością gruntów rolnych, czy renty absolutne w klasycznym rozumieniu, czy też renty polityczne w ujęciu teorii wyboru publicznego? Cele artykułu mają przede wszystkim wymiar teoriopoznawczy. Podjęto w nim próbę weryfi kacji koncepcji renty gruntowej, którą sformułowano na podstawie badań przeprowadzonych w Polsce. Tym razem jednak zakres badań obejmuje pełen przekrój struktur agrarnych UE. Według wspomnianej koncepcji źródłem współczesnej renty gruntowej jest wyższa oczekiwana produktywność kapitału w rolnictwie niż w jego otoczeniu rynkowym. Często tłumaczy się to zjawisko wypłacaniem rent politycznych w ramach WPR. Czy tak jest w istocie ? Przeprowadzone badania odpowiadają m.in. na pytanie w jakich krajach i strukturach agrarnych ewentualna różnica wspomnianej produktywności kapitału jest największa i na ile wynika to z rent politycznych, a na ile z innych czynników?

  6. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  7. Rent-seeking and timber rights allocation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes types, processes and importance of rent-seeking in the allocation of timber rights in Ghana. It is based on an analysis of 30 interviews with large-, medium- and small-scale timber firms, as well as government officials and timber industry organizations in Ghana. The paper...... involving exchange of timber rights for political support and/or material, personal benefits. Second, timber rights are allocated to persons or firms outside the timber sector allegedly as payment for political support. The paper concludes that the Voluntary Partnership Agreement between Ghana and the EU...

  8. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  9. Agricultural rent-seeking in developing countries: an empirical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...... or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis....

  10. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences....... The raw wage differential between foreign and domestically owned firms is about 23 percent. The empirical analysis is carried out on both firm- and individual-level data. A key finding is that industry, region, and notably human capital explain only a small part of the foreign-domestic ownership wage...

  11. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we examine the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labour market in 2006. We distinguish between different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences....... The raw wage differential between foreign and domestically owned firms is about 24 percent. The empirical analysis is carried out on both firm- and individual-level data. A key finding is that industry, region, and notably human capital explain only a small part of the foreign-domestic ownership wage...

  12. Mental activity and the sense of ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsmith, Adrian John Tetteh

    2015-01-01

    I introduce and defend the notion of a cognitive account of the sense of ownership. A cognitive account of the sense of ownership holds that one experiences something as one's own only if one thinks of something as one's own. By contrast, a phenomenal account of the sense of ownership holds...... that one can experience something as one's own without thinking about anything as one's own. I argue that we have no reason to favour phenomenal accounts over cognitive accounts, that cognitive accounts are plausible given that much of our mental activity has unnoticed effects on our mental life...

  13. 2007: A Canadian Corporate Ownership Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsan, Calin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a decline in the levels of corporate ownership concentration between 1996 and 2007. When compared to previous studies, the incidence of ownership stakes of 20% or larger has decreased form 60% to 41% of the total population of publicly listed Canadian firms. Regional disparities among provinces remain important. Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia have the most widely-held firms, while Quebec and Atlantic Canada show the most concentrated corporate ownership patterns. The interpretation of these results requires a complex understanding of historical, demographic, cultural, political and institutional factors.

  14. Multiphase Production. Representation of Thermodynamic Properties of Methanol by Different Equations of State Production polyphasique. Représentation des propriétés thermodynamiques du méthanol à partir de différentes équations d'état

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peneloux A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available For oil and gas offshore production, any extension of the Multiphase Production Concept to more complex effluents under more difficult transport conditions, requests a better understanding and control of :(a the thermodynamic behaviour of water-hydrocarbon mixtures,(b the efficiency of various additives (or mixtures of additives, necessary for a safe, reliable and economical operation of the production and transport facilities. One of the main additives used for hydrate control being methanol, this paper deals specifically with its thermodynamic properties and includes:(a first, an exhaustive bibliography of experimental-data with the method used for the selection of a coherent and reliable data base,(b then, a comparison of the results obtained, after adjustement on the data base :- with various cubic and not-cubic equations of state : Peng-Robinson, Cubic-Chain-Of-Rotators (CCOR, Chain-Of-Rotators (COR,- as well as with equations of state including methanol association phenomena (Anderko model, Wenzel and Krop model,(c and finally, an empirical Bipolynomial equation of state which represents the methanol thermodynamic properties with a good accuracy. Pour la production d'hydrocarbures en mer, le concept de transport polyphasique sur longues distances des fluides de réservoir non traités sur le champ est appelé à se développer. Les raisons du succès de ce concept sont évidentes : - sécurité des personnes : strict minimum de personnel travaillant en mer, minimum de trajets par hélicoptères, minimum de trafic maritime ; - protection de l'environnement : aucun rejet d'hydrocarbures ni à l'atmosphère, ni à la mer; - coûts réduits pour le développement comme pour l'exploitation : minimum d'équipement en mer (têtes de puits, vannes multivoies, débitmètres triphasiques,. . . , d'où des coûts réduits de 30 à 50 % pour des champs marginaux qui pourraient rester commercialement inexploitables avec des schémas de d

  15. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Rohrbaugh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pet ownership has historically been one of the biggest risk factors for evacuation failure prior to natural disasters. The forced abandonment of pets during Hurricane Katrina in 2005 made national headlines and led to the passage of the Pet Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act (PETS, 2006 which mandated local authorities to plan for companion animal evacuation. Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States in 2011, providing an excellent opportunity to examine the impact of the PETS legislation on frequency and ease of evacuation among pet owners and non-pet owners. Ninety pet owners and 27 non-pet owners who lived in mandatory evacuation zones completed questionnaires assessing their experiences during the hurricane and symptoms of depression, PTSD, dissociative experiences, and acute stress. Pet ownership was not found to be a statistical risk factor for evacuation failure. However, many pet owners who failed to evacuate continue to cite pet related reasons.

  16. Restructuring, ownership and efficiency in the electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanefelter, Jennifer Kaiser

    The first chapter considers improvements in productive efficiency that can result from a movement from a regulated framework to one that allows for market-based incentives for industry participants. Specifically, I look at the case of restructuring in the electricity generation industry. Using data from the electricity industry, this analysis considers the total effect of restructuring on one input to the production process, labor, as reflected in employment levels, payroll per employee and aggregate establishment payroll. Using concurrent payroll and employment data from non-utility ("merchant") and utility generators in both restructured and nonrestructured states, I estimate the effect of market liberalization, comprising both new entry and state-level legislation, on employment and payroll in this industry. I find that merchant owners of divested generation assets employ significantly fewer people, but that the payroll per employee is not significantly different from what workers at utility-owned plants are paid. As a result, the new merchant owners of these plants have significantly lower aggregate payroll expenses. Decomposing the effect into a merchant effect and a divestiture effect, I find that merchant ownership is the primary driver of these results. As documented in Chapter 1, merchant power plants have lower overall payroll costs than plants owned by utilities. Employment at merchant power plants is characterized by reduced staffing levels but higher average payroll per employee. A hypothesis set forth in that paper is that merchant generators employ fewer workers at the lower end of the wage distribution, resulting in a higher average payroll per employee. The second chapter of this paper examines whether employment at nonutility power plants, that is, those that are either divested or native merchant power plants, is skewed towards more skilled labor. This chapter also considers the extent to which the difference in employment levels is the result of

  17. Rent, Lease or Buy: Randomized Algorithms for Multislope Ski Rental

    CERN Document Server

    Lotker, Zvi; Rawitz, Dror

    2008-01-01

    In the Multislope Ski Rental problem, the user needs a certain resource for some unknown period of time. To use the resource, the user must subscribe to one of several options, each of which consists of a one-time setup cost (``buying price''), and cost proportional to the duration of the usage (``rental rate''). The larger the price, the smaller the rent. The actual usage time is determined by an adversary, and the goal of an algorithm is to minimize the cost by choosing the best option at any point in time. Multislope Ski Rental is a natural generalization of the classical Ski Rental problem (where the only options are pure rent and pure buy), which is one of the fundamental problems of online computation. The Multislope Ski Rental problem is an abstraction of many problems where online decisions cannot be modeled by just two options, e.g., power management in systems which can be shut down in parts. In this paper we study randomized algorithms for Multislope Ski Rental. Our results include the best possibl...

  18. The land rent category in mainstream economics and its contemporary applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czyżewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic globalisation process makes the economic factors rotate faster. As a result the value added is intercepted by market mechanism and transferred to the economically stronger entities. That process concerns especially agriculture. There exists a crucial question whether an agricultural land factor is still capable to generate economic rents which would be the determinants of comparative advantages? On the one hand, D. Ricardo’s land rents are vanishing, H. George’s rents are provoking financial crisis, monetarists assumptions are becoming unsufficient, on the other, the land factor gains new environmental applications and there is still a hope that land rents have its origins in a real value. This paper aims at presenting the evolution of the land rents theory starting from classical economics. The author makes an attempt to answer the question if the land rent theories are still relevant and how land rent category can be implemented in agricul-tural policy of the UE? One formulates a hypothesis that the neoclassical theory of rent usually presented in economic textbooks is insufficient to describe reality reducing the sources of land rent to a low land supply flexibility and treating that as constant variable in economic models.

  19. Language ownership in multilingual settings: Exploring attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    among students entering the University of KwaZulu-Natal through the Access ..... practices and attitudes towards language ownership and empowerment. ... In the first round of interviews, I drew on life history and in-depth techniques in order to.

  20. Can invisible watermarks resolve rightful ownerships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Scott A.; Memon, Nasir D.; Yeo, Boon-Lock; Yeung, Minerva M.

    1997-01-01

    Digital watermarks have been proposed in recent literature as the means for copyright protection of multimedia data. In this paper we address the capability of invisible watermarking schemes to resolve copyright ownerships. We will show that rightful ownerships cannot be resolved by current watermarking schemes alone. In addition, in the absence of standardization of watermarking procedures, anyone can claim ownership of any watermarked image. Specifically, we provide counterfeit watermarking schemes that can be performed on a watermarked image to allow multiple claims of rightful ownerships. We also proposed non-invertible watermarking schemes in this paper and discuss in general the usefulness of digital watermarks in identifying the rightful copyright owners. The results, coupled with the recent attacks on some image watermarks, further imply that we have to carefully re-think our approaches to invisible watermarking of images, and re- evaluate the promises, applications and limitations of such digital means of copyright protection.

  1. Mental activity and the sense of ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsmith, Adrian John Tetteh

    2015-01-01

    I introduce and defend the notion of a cognitive account of the sense of ownership. A cognitive account of the sense of ownership holds that one experiences something as one's own only if one thinks of something as one's own. By contrast, a phenomenal account of the sense of ownership holds...... that one can experience something as one's own without thinking about anything as one's own. I argue that we have no reason to favour phenomenal accounts over cognitive accounts, that cognitive accounts are plausible given that much of our mental activity has unnoticed effects on our mental life......, and that certain illusory experiences of body ownership sometimes described as thought-independent may be best explained as imaginative perceptual experiences....

  2. Collective Psychological Ownership and Intergroup Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja

    2017-09-01

    Whereas much social psychological research has studied the in-group and out-group implications of social categorization and collective identity ("we"), little research has examined the nature and relevance of collective psychological ownership ("ours") for intergroup relations. We make a case for considering collective psychological ownership as an important source of intergroup tensions. We do so by integrating theory and research from various social sciences, and we draw out implications for future social psychological research on intergroup relations. We discuss collective psychological ownership in relation to the psychology of possessions, marking behavior, intergroup threats, outgroup exclusion, and in-group responsibility. We suggest that the social psychological processes discussed apply to a range of ownership objects (territory, buildings, cultural artifacts) and various intergroup settings, including international, national, and local contexts, and in organizations and communities. We conclude by providing directions for future research in different intergroup contexts.

  3. Ownership Concentration, Top Management and Board Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barbosa Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The degree of ownership concentration may influence executive and board compensation (Bebchuk & Fried, 2003. This article analyzes this relationship. Detailed information about top management and board compensation became available starting in 2010 through new Securities Commission filings. Linear regression models applied to a sample of 315 Brazilian companies traded on the national exchange indicate a negative and statistically significant economic correlation between executive compensation and the degree of ownership concentration. Ceteris paribus, companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration pay higher compensation to top executives. Family controlled companies pay more to their chief executive, but not to the managerial team as a whole, and the compensation of directors increases with a greater proportion of control group members or their relatives on the board. There was support for the Managerial Power Hypothesis in companies with a lower degree of ownership concentration and for the extraction of private benefits in companies where it is greater.

  4. VEHICLE OWNERSHIP AND TRIP GENERATION MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattarathep SILLAPARCHARN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address some important issues of a rapid growth in vehicle ownership, how different types of vehicles interact and how these growths affect a number of trip generations, especially in a country undergoing fast economic development, such as Thailand. The forecasts of such growth are important for strategic transport decision-making, travel demand forecasts and other policy issues at both regional and national levels. For these reasons, a series of vehicle ownership models, which include: (1 car, (2 motorcycle, (3 truck and heavy goods vehicle and (4 bus and coach models, are proposed together with a trip generation model. These models are built upon the limited aggregate data, both time series and cross sectional and disaggregated spatially by province, using non-log-linear weighted least squares regression for motor vehicle ownership models and exponential modelling for a trip generation model. The inputs required are basically forecasted gross provincial products per capita and population level. All proposed models have good statistical properties, i.e. all statistically significant coefficients and high adjusted R squared value and very good fits which are within 12% of observed values during the base years. The car ownership model also gives reasonable car ownership elasticities with respect to income and a sensible saturation level when compared with other studies. The forecast for a case of increasing income shows that the car and truck ownership level will increase together with the trip generation level. However, as people own more cars, the motorcycle and bus ownership levels will decrease as there might be a switch to car ownership.

  5. Employee Ownership, Employee Attitudes, and Firm Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Kruse; Joseph Blasi

    1995-01-01

    Employee ownership in U.S. companies has grown substantially in the past 20 years. This paper reviews and provides some meta-analyses on the accumulated evidence concerning the prevalence, causes, and effects of employee ownership, covering 25 studies of employee attitudes and behaviors, and 27 studies of productivity and profitability (with both cross-sectional and pre/post comparisons). Attitudinal and behavioral studies tend to find higher employee commitment among employee-owners but mixe...

  6. Study on the Ownership of Plant Genetic Resources on Farmers’ Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuyou; WANG; Hongyan; SONG; Yuanyuan; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    In order to protect Chinese farmers’ sharing benefits and make legal preparation for accession to the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, this paper analyzed differences between state sovereignty and ownership of genetic resources and between natural resources and plant genetic resources on farmers’ land. Then, it studied the regulations of the United States, European Union and Indian on the ownership of plant genetic resources on farmers’ land. On the basis of the analysis and study, the authors stated that the sovereignty of plant genetic resources can not replace the ownership system. The plant genetic resources on farmers’ (community) land should be in the possession of farmers or communities, which should be confirmed by the State.

  7. Differentiation characteristics and influencing factors of ecological land rent among provinces in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Kaisheng; ZHAO Yali; ZHANG Honghui; CHEN Ligen; LU Fangfang; GU Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Ecological land rent is the excess profit produced by resource scarcity,and is also an important indicator for measuring the social and economic effects of resource scarcity.This paper,by calculating the respective ecological land rents of all the provinces in China for the years 2002 and 2007,and with the assistance of the software programs ArcGIS and GeoDA,analyzes the spatial differentiation characteristics of ecological land rent; then,the influencing factors of ecological land rent differentiation among the provinces are examined using the methods of traditional regression and spatial correlation analysis.The following results were obtained:First,ecological land rent per unit of output in China shows stable distribution characteristics of being low in the southwestern and northeastern provinces,and high in Hebei and Henan provinces.There is also an increasing tendency in the central and western provinces,and a decreasing one in the eastern provinces.In general,the spatial distribution of ecological land rent per unit of output in China is quite scattered.Second,the total ecological land rent shows significant spatial aggregation characteristics,in particular the provinces in China possessing high total amounts of ecological land rent tend to be adjacent to one another,as do those with low total amounts,and the spatial difference characteristics of the eastern,central and western provinces are distinguished.The Bohai Rim,Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta are shown to be highly clustering regions of total ecological land rent,while the western provinces have very low ecological land rent in terms of total amount.Third,population distribution,economic level and industrial structure were all important influencing factors influencing ecological land rent differentiation among provinces in China.Furthermore,population density,urbanization level,economic density,per capita consumption level and GDP per capita were all shown to be positively related to total

  8. Rent Regulation in Jamaica: Socialist Past, Global reality, Inaction and the Working Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mills

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence has established the association between rent control and crises such as oil and World wars; yet the Jamaican governments have not reintroduced rent control and updated the Rent Restriction Act despite global recession, oil and food crises and increased poverty. The objectives of this work are: 1 To conduct a documentary analysis of prior research on the extent of the problem, and these will provide an understanding and a content for the current work; 2 To identify the issues/concerns of the Rent Restriction Act; 3 To assess the issues/concerns of the Rent Restriction Act, and 4 Drawing on the knowledge of Rent Restriction Act, recommend policies or measures that can be instituted to address changes in the framework in Jamaica. The current work used mixed method approach, phenomenology and survey research. Landlords indicated that they had more right than for tenants; their complaints were the non-payment of rent; were more knowledge of Rent Restriction Act than the tenants and the majority of them did not answer the question on “Have you ever had a case where the Act was referred to?” Two times more males were knowledge about the Rent Restriction Act than that of female; more males indicated that they had rights than that of females, less females’ problem was harassment than that of males; more males gave the Rent Restriction Act a good rating compared to females and 3.5 times more males believed that the Rent Restriction Act was relevant in contemporary Jamaica. The findings provide understanding of the issues, and can be used to aid policy formulation.

  9. Rural hospital ownership: medical service provision, market mix, and spillover effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Jill R; Nichols, Austin

    2011-10-01

    To test whether nonprofit, for-profit, or government hospital ownership affects medical service provision in rural hospital markets, either directly or through the spillover effects of ownership mix. Data are from the American Hospital Association, U.S. Census, CMS Healthcare Cost Report Information System and Prospective Payment System Minimum Data File, and primary data collection for geographic coordinates. The sample includes all nonfederal, general medical, and surgical hospitals located outside of metropolitan statistical areas and within the continental United States from 1988 to 2005. We estimate multivariate regression models to examine the effects of (1) hospital ownership and (2) hospital ownership mix within rural hospital markets on profitable versus unprofitable medical service offerings. Rural nonprofit hospitals are more likely than for-profit hospitals to offer unprofitable services, many of which are underprovided services. Nonprofits respond less than for-profits to changes in service profitability. Nonprofits with more for-profit competitors offer more profitable services and fewer unprofitable services than those with fewer for-profit competitors. Rural hospital ownership affects medical service provision at the hospital and market levels. Nonprofit hospital regulation should reflect both the direct and spillover effects of ownership. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. International Product Market Integration, Rents and Wage Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    International product market integration enhances both export possibilities through easier access to foreign markets, but also the import threat arising from foreign firms penetrating into the domestic market. These mechanisms affect wage formation and employment creation through many channels...... including product market rents and the possibility that jobs may be relocated across national labour markets. Possibilities and threats, however, will not in general be uniformly distributed across firms and therefore groups in the labour market. These issues are explored in a Ricardian trade model...... with imperfect competition, heterogeneity in the labour market, and decentralized wage-bargaining. The Paper analyses how product market integration affects wage formation, and identifies characteristics of winners and losers in the integration process....

  11. Intergenerational equity and the investing of rents from exhaustible resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwick, J.M.

    1977-12-01

    The present generation's ethical dilemma over shortchanging future generations by overconsuming exhaustible resources could be relieved by a program of converting the capital from these resources into machines and living off the current flow of machines and labor. If the stock of machines is assumed not to depreciate, then the stock of productive capital and resources is not depleted. Cobb-Douglas technology is used to determine what will happen to consumption if only the rents from exhaustible resources are invested in reproducible capital goods. An important feature of Cobb-Douglas technology is that input in the form of minerals from an exhaustible resource is needed to get a positive output of the single produced commodity. Results of the model indicate that a savings investment rule will not provide for the maintenance of per capita consumption constant over time. Further studies have explored the effects of depreciations and intergenerational equity. 7 references.

  12. University Software Ownership and Litigation: A First Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Arti K; Allison, John R; Sampat, Bhaven N

    2009-01-01

    Software patents and university-owned patents represent two of the most controversial intellectual property developments of the last twenty-five years. Despite this reality, and concerns that universities act as "patent trolls" when they assert software patents in litigation against successful commercializers, no scholar has systematically examined the ownership and litigation of university software patents. In this Article, we present the first such examination. Our empirical research reveals that software patents represent a significant and growing proportion of university patent holdings. Additionally, the most important determinant of the number of software patents a university owns is not its research and development ("R&D") expenditures (whether computer science-related or otherwise) but, rather, its tendency to seek patents in other areas. In other words, universities appear to take a "one size fits all" approach to patenting their inventions. This one size fits all approach is problematic given the empirical evidence that software is likely to follow a different commercialization path than other types of invention. Thus, it is perhaps not surprising that we see a number of lawsuits in which university software patents have been used not for purposes of fostering commercialization, but instead, to extract rents in apparent holdup litigation. The Article concludes by examining whether this trend is likely to continue in the future, particularly given a 2006 Supreme Court decision that appears to diminish the holdup threat by recognizing the possibility of liability rules in patent suits, as well as recent case law that may call into question certain types of software patents.

  13. Tullock's rent-seeking contest with a minimum expenditure requirement (vol 93, pg 477, 1997)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonbeek, L; Kooreman, P

    We consider a rent-seeking contest of the kind introduced by Tullock (1980) in which two players compete for a monopoly rent. We extend the contest by requiring that if a player puts forward an effort, his expenditures must be larger than or equal to some minimum level. We show that, depending on

  14. Reducing Rents from Energy Technology Adoption Programs by Exploiting Observable Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, R.F.T.; Vollebergh, H.R.J.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study how regulators may improve upon the efficiency of their energy technology adoption programs by exploiting readily observable information to limit rent extraction by firms. Using panel data on 862 investment decisions in the Netherlands, we find that rent extraction is closely

  15. Fighting for rents: agricultural windfall gains and social change in land-abundant developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2013-01-01

    and political power and hence the distribution of rents. Specifically, when it comes to agricultural land, the characteristics of land imply that the organizational capacity of farmers is a crucial determinant of the distribution of agricultural rents. The historical case examples indicate that the extent...... of organizational capacity may be determined by land inequality, the heterogeneity of farmers and the political environment....

  16. The Effects of Rent Restructuring on Social Housing in English Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of central government's rent restructuring policy on social housing in rural areas in England. It examines the effect that restructuring will have on the rents set by social landlords in a set of case study areas then considers some of the likely impacts on affordability and on new investment in rural social…

  17. 24 CFR 984.304 - Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAM Program Operation § 984.304 Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income. 984.304 Section 984.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations...

  18. 76 FR 52057 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... where statistically valid one-year ACS data is available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and... privately owned, decent, and safe rental housing of a modest (non-luxury) nature with suitable amenities. In....g., luxury efficiency apartments that rent for more than typical one-bedroom units). HUD...

  19. Negotiating ownership: Understanding the cultivation of student ownership in an urban science video project

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Tara Breckenridge

    The intention of this study is to define student ownership in an informal science learning setting in a low performing middle school in New York City, to investigate what characterizes such ownership, and to determine how to cultivate it. In addition, I am interested in investigating the effects of the students' sense of ownership on their sense of self, in relation to the study and the practice of science and the role of race in power in framing the context in which ownership is cultivated. This is a qualitative study; specifically I apply a critical ethnography framework for both data collection an analysis. This study is based in an informal science video project lasting three years in which two groups of sixth and seventh grade students, made three movies about their perceptions of science, who they felt knew science, and how science related to their lives. In chapter IV, I explain that students' expression of ownership is visible via five main themes. (1) Students viewed themselves in relation to science in ways that are positive, empowering, and full of self-awareness. (2) Students actively and purposefully chose to expend their capital. (3) Students expressed pride around the multiple contexts. (4) Students used the video project to effect positive changes in their lives. (5) Students expressed positive and realistic vision for the role that science played in their lives. In chapter V, I explain that student agency and student ownership share a dialectic relationship in which student agency must be valued to cultivate student ownership and the cultivation of student ownership expands student agency. Lastly, in chapter VII, I explore the role race and power play in framing the context in which ownership is cultivated. Specifically, I argue that in order to cultivate ownership in high-poverty urban science learning environments, the teacher in this environment must be critically reflective of her/his practice and pay particular attention to issues of race and

  20. Is There Rent Sharing in Italy? Evidence from Employer-Employee Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Matano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a unique employer-employee panel database, we investigate the extent of rent sharing in Italy from 1996 to 2003. We derive the following findings. First, after controlling for the national bargaining level, there is robust evidence of rent sharing at firm level. Second, by means of fixed effects estimates we show that the sorting of high-ability workers into high-profit firms appears to play a substantial role, since it captures a significant amount of cross sectional estimates of rent sharing. Third, in accordance to the related literature the endogeneity of profits causes a severe underestimation of rent sharing. Our final IV estimate of the elasticity of wages with respect to profits per employee amounts to 6%, with a "Lester" range of 24%. Moreover, we point out that the impact of rent sharing is not homogeneous across several dimensions (gender, occupation, sector and macroarea.

  1. Fighting for rents: agricultural windfall gains and social change in land-abundant developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a global increase in demand for agricultural commodities and land has contributed to increasing agricultural prices. This trend can be expected to continue in the future, and may result in significantly higher land rents. This paper investigates the potential distributional effects...... of increasing land rents in land-abundant developing countries from a theoretical viewpoint, and provides historical case examples to support the theoretical propositions. It is proposed that the specific characteristics of a rent-generating natural resource have implications for the concentration of economic...... and political power and hence the distribution of rents. Specifically, when it comes to agricultural land, the characteristics of land imply that the organizational capacity of farmers is a crucial determinant of the distribution of agricultural rents. The historical case examples indicate that the extent...

  2. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  3. Timing and Institutions: Determinants of the Ownership Structure in the Oil and Gas Industry in Canada and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Thomas

    In response to 1973 oil shock, both the Canadian and Norwegian states expanded public corporate ownership in the oil and gas industry. This thesis questions why the public share of total corporate ownership in the oil industry was greater in Norway than in Canada, and why Petro-Canada was privatized completely while Statoil was not. Two hypotheses are tested from a historical institutionalist perspective. First, the timing of oil development determined whether the private sector would establish itself as the dominant player in the oil and gas industry (in Canada) or not (in Norway) before the 1973 oil shock triggered government interest in public corporate ownership. Second, overlapping jurisdiction over oil resources (in Canada) undermined the effectiveness of mechanisms of reproduction of public corporate ownership. In Norway, the later discovery of oil thus gave the state a stronger bargaining position relative to the oil industry, and in a unitary state the uncontroversial redistributional activities of Statoil attracted more vested interests.

  4. Inducing illusory ownership of a virtual body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel Slater

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss three experiments that investigate how virtual limbs and bodies can come to feel like real limbs and bodies. The first experiment shows that an illusion of ownership of a virtual arm appearing to project out of a person’s shoulder can be produced by tactile stimulation on a person’s hidden real hand and synchronous stimulation on the seen virtual hand. The second shows that the illusion can be produced by synchronous movement of the person’s hidden real hand and a virtual hand. The third shows that a weaker form of the illusion can be produced when a brain-computer interface is employed to move the virtual hand by means of motor imagery without any tactile stimulation. We discuss related studies that indicate that the ownership illusion may be generated for an entire body. This has important implications for the scientific understanding of body ownership and several practical applications.

  5. Financial capability, asset ownership, and later-age immigration: evidence from a sample of low-income older Asian immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yunju; Lee, Eun Jeong; Huang, Jin; Kim, Junpyo

    2015-01-01

    We examined financial capability and asset ownership among low-income older Asian immigrants with special attention given to later-age immigrants who came to the United States when they were 55 years old or older. Survey data collected from supported employment program participants (N = 150) were used. The analyses demonstrated a low level of financial knowledge and asset ownership in the sample. The findings also indicated that later-age immigrants' financial-management skills, knowledge of social programs, and asset ownership were significantly lower than those of young-age immigrants. These findings call for active interventions to enhance economic security among low-income older Asian immigrants.

  6. Handing over ownership of schools to learners

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info DloDlo1_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 16003 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name DloDlo1_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 1 HANDING OVER OWNERSHIP... grounds, etc. They report on these management issues to a central database which can be accessed by school inspectors in the Department of Basic Education (DBE) for decision- making. This gives them a sense of ownership, grooms responsible citizens...

  7. What Does Stock Ownership Breadth Measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J; Jin, Li; Yan, Hongjun

    2013-07-01

    Using holdings data on a representative sample of all Shanghai Stock Exchange investors, we show that increases in ownership breadth (the fraction of market participants who own a stock) predict low returns: highest change quintile stocks underperform lowest quintile stocks by 23% per year. Small retail investors drive this result. Retail ownership breadth increases appear to be correlated with overpricing. Among institutional investors, however, the opposite holds: Stocks in the top decile of wealth-weighted institutional breadth change outperform the bottom decile by 8% per year, consistent with prior work that interprets breadth as a measure of short-sales constraints.

  8. Changing Law and Ownership Patterns in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    German corporate governance and corporate law are currently undergoing a major change. The old “Deutschland AG”, a nationwide network of firms, banks, and directors, is eroding, ownership is diffusing and the shareholder body is becoming more international than ever. This paper presents new data......: German banks divested their equity stakes mainly as a consequence of increased international competition. The paper extends the model of market-led change by two important observations: first, market pressure is not the only driver of legal change, but the law itself in this case contributed...... of ownership structure as an important intermediate condition in the logical order between market competition and legal change....

  9. Bodily ownership and self-location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serino, Andrea; Alsmith, Adrian John Tetteh; Costantini, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on bodily self-consciousness has assumed that it consists of three distinct components: the experience of owning a body (body ownership); the experience of being a body with a given location within the environment (self-location); and the experience of taking a first-person, body-centered......, perspective on that environment (perspective). Here we review recent neuroimaging studies suggesting that at least two of these components—body ownership and self-location—are implemented in rather distinct neural substrates, located, respectively, in the premotor cortex and in the temporo-parietal junction...

  10. What Does Stock Ownership Breadth Measure?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, James J.; Jin, Li; Yan, Hongjun

    2013-01-01

    Using holdings data on a representative sample of all Shanghai Stock Exchange investors, we show that increases in ownership breadth (the fraction of market participants who own a stock) predict low returns: highest change quintile stocks underperform lowest quintile stocks by 23% per year. Small retail investors drive this result. Retail ownership breadth increases appear to be correlated with overpricing. Among institutional investors, however, the opposite holds: Stocks in the top decile of wealth-weighted institutional breadth change outperform the bottom decile by 8% per year, consistent with prior work that interprets breadth as a measure of short-sales constraints. PMID:24764801

  11. 关于当前国有企业混合所有制改革的探索--基于宏观、中观、微观层面的分析%Mixed Ownership Reform of State Owned Enterprises and Construction of Socialist Mixed Economic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄华

    2016-01-01

    社会主义混合经济体制与西方混合经济体制是有着本质区别的。从理论和实践的角度来看,进一步完善社会主义混合经济体制是我国现阶段国有企业混合所有制改革沿着正确方向前进的关键,适应市场经济的国有资产管理体制又是构建社会主义混合经济体制的重要制度基础,建立完善规范的现代公司治理机制则是现阶段中国国有企业发展混合所有制经济、吸引调和不同类型资本在同一企业融合发展的核心。社会主义混合经济体制不仅要在宏观层面坚持公有制为主体多种所有制经济共同发展,而且还要完善规范发展企业法人中不同所有制性质资本共营的微观混合经济。适应市场经济的国有资产管理体制需要完善法治基础、构建新型政企关系和良好的配套条件,以促进国有资本与其他资本的混合和国有资本保值增值。建立现代公司治理机制需要在混合所有制企业中建立规范的公司运营制度和组织架构,以及促进公司治理机制的良好外部环境。%There are essential differences between socialist mixed economic system and western mixed economic system. From the theoretical and practical point of view,to further improve the socialist mixed economic system is the key to the reform of our state-owned enterprises in the right direction.The state-owned assets management system which is adapt to the market economy is an important system foundation for the construction of the socialist mixed economic system.To establish and perfect the standard Modern Corporation governance mechanism is the core both of China's state-owned enterprises ’ development of the mixed ownership economy at the present stage, and the attraction of the different types of capital in the same enterprise.The socialist mixed economic system not only to adhere to public ownership as the main body of an economy with common development of

  12. 42 CFR 405.2444 - Change of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... corporation into the center corporation does not constitute change of ownership.) (3) Leasing. The lease of... applicable health and safety standards. (2) Compliance with the ownership and financial interest...

  13. Bank ownership and financial stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Vorage, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates a politician's choice for state or private control of banks, anticipating how this choice influences actions by citizens seeking exclusive access to finance. We show that when political accountability is low, politicians prefer control over lending and funneling via state ban

  14. The Effects of Tax Competition when Politicians Create Rents to Buy Political Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggert, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    . Allowing tax base mobility may be welfare-enhancing up to a point, because the ensuing tax competition will reduce rents. However, if tax competition is carried too far, it will reduce welfare by causing an underprovision of public goods. Starting from an equilibrium where tax competition has eliminated...... all rents, a coordinated rise in capital taxation will always be welfare-improving. For plausible parameter values it will even be welfare-enhancing to carry tax coordination beyond the point where rents to public sector workers start to emerge...

  15. Exploring Ownership in a Developmental Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Keil, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Ownership and economic behaviors are highly salient elements of the human social landscape. Indeed, the human world is literally constructed of property. Individuals perceive and manipulate a complex web of people and property that is largely invisible and abstract. In this chapter, the authors focus on drawing together information from a variety…

  16. Exploring Ownership in a Developmental Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, Nicholaus S.; Keil, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    Ownership and economic behaviors are highly salient elements of the human social landscape. Indeed, the human world is literally constructed of property. Individuals perceive and manipulate a complex web of people and property that is largely invisible and abstract. In this chapter, the authors focus on drawing together information from a variety…

  17. Beyond home ownership: housing, welfare and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Elsinga, M.

    2012-01-01

    In context of ongoing transformations in housing markets and socioeconomic conditions, this book focuses on past, current and future roles of home ownership in social policies and welfare practices. It considers owner-occupied housing in terms of diverse meanings and manifestations, but in particula

  18. Foreign bank ownership and household credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Brown, M.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical work on banking emphasizes the role of banks in overcoming information asymmetries and agency problems between borrowers and lenders. This paper investigates the importance of bank ownership in determining the sorts of customers that a bank serves, and consequently, the sor

  19. EMERGING SEPARATION OF OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    The share company is one of the forms of business organizations recognized ... Legal Directorate, even if he had a letter of support which showed research .... protection of corporate assets from misuse by managers, minority rights to .... Dispersed ownership model of corporate governance is characterized by “strong.

  20. 13 CFR 120.475 - Change of ownership or control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ownership or control includes: (1) Any transfer of 10 percent or more of any class of the SBLC's stock, and... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Change of ownership or control... Lenders Small Business Lending Companies (sblc) § 120.475 Change of ownership or control. (a) Any change...

  1. Analysis of Technology Ownership and Selective Use among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanduros, Terry; Jenkins, Stephen J.; Downs, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Extent of technology ownership and use has been documented for teens and even pre-teens. However, little is known as to whether such ownership and use patterns change over time. This study examined these issues by surveying a sample of undergraduates as to their ownership and selective use of technology. Compared to teens, undergraduates had…

  2. 77 FR 73461 - Commission Seeks Comment on Broadcast Ownership Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... concerning ownership of commercial television, radio, Class A television, and low-power television stations... the Media Bureau's recently released report on the ownership of commercial broadcast stations, which provides detailed information by race, ethnicity, and gender concerning ownership of commercial...

  3. Effect of Hospital Ownership on Outcomes of Heart Failure Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintoye, Emmanuel; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Egbe, Alexander; Orhurhu, Vwaire; Ibrahim, Walid; Kumar, Kartik; Alliu, Samson; Nas, Hala; Levine, Diane; Weinberger, Jarrett

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of hospital ownership on heart failure (HF) hospitalization outcomes in the United States using data from the National Inpatient Sample of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Hospital ownership was classified into three, namely, nonfederal government, not-for-profit, and for-profit hospitals. Participants were adults hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of HF (2013 to 2014). End points included inpatient mortality, length-of-stay, cost and charge of hospitalization, and disposition at discharge. Of the estimated 1.9 million HF hospitalizations in the United States between 2013 and 2014, 73% were in not-for-profit hospitals, 15% were in for-profit hospitals, and 12% were in nonfederal government hospitals. Overall, mortality rate was 3%, mean length of stay was 5.3 days, median cost of hospitalization was USD 7,248, and median charge was USD 25,229, and among those who survived to hospital discharge, 51% had routine home discharge. There was no significant difference in inpatient mortality between hospital ownership among male patients, but there was a significant difference for female patients. Compared with government hospitals, mortality in female patients was lower in not-for-profit (odds ratio: 0.85 [95% confidence interval: 0.77 to 0.94]) and for-profit hospitals (odds ratio: 0.77 [0.68 to 0.87]). In addition, mean length of stay was highest in not-for-profit hospitals (5.4 days) and lowest in for-profit hospitals (5 days). Although cost of hospitalization was highest in not-for-profit hospitals (USD 7462) and lowest in for-profit hospitals (USD 6,290), total charge billed was highest in for-profit hospitals (USD 35,576) and lowest in government hospitals (USD 19,652). The average charge-to-cost ratio was 3:1 for government hospitals, 3.5:1 for not-for-profit hospitals, and 5.9:1 for for-profit hospitals. In conclusion, there exist significant disparities in HF hospitalization outcomes between hospital

  4. Retail Concentration and Shopping Center Rents - A Comparison of Two Cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    François Des Rosiers; Marius Thériault; Catherine Lavoie

    2009-01-01

    This study aims primarily at testing whether, and to what extent, retail concentration within regional and super-regional shopping centers affect rent levels, as well as the differential impact it may...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1502-92 - Ownership change of a loss group or a loss subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... parent, the common parent (which is treated as a loss corporation) may file the single statement... the common parent, the single statement must identify each loss subgroup parent and state which loss... change of a subsidiary. (b) Determination of an ownership change—(1) Parent change method—(i) Loss...

  6. Soil erosion and mitigation measures on rented and owned fields in Uruguay: the impact of transgenic soya and foreign investors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caon, Lucrezia; Kessler, Aad; Keesstra, Saskia; Cruze, Rick

    2014-05-01

    Governments, companies and individuals with financial capital to invest, are worldwide buying or renting land in developing or third world countries. Uruguay is a developing country whose economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since 2000 many foreigners started to invest in the Uruguayan agricultural sector and to practice intensive large-scale agriculture. The significant presence of foreigners in the country is proven by the fact that almost 360 000 ha out of the 500 000 ha forming the study area were managed by foreigners in 2012. Nowadays farmers have abandoned the traditional crop rotation plan that included pasture to produce grain for export, and transgenic soya (soya RR) became the main crop planted by both foreigners and locals. Besides the high soil erosion rates related to having soya as main crop, planting soya implies the use of glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide leading to important environmental impacts. It is commonly said that foreigners investing in poor countries are exploiting the local natural resources aiming to get the highest possible profit from them. Is this a valid assumption in Uruguay? The purpose of this study was to compare the land management style of foreign and local farmers and to relate it to the soil erosion occurring in the study area. The land tenure (rented or owned fields) and the type of farmer interviewed ("individual farmer" equivalent to L.L.C. or "anonymous society" equivalent to P.L.C.) were taken into consideration during the analysis. Based on what stated by the farmers interviewed, the soil erosion simulations considered the seven most popular crop rotation plans on rented and owned fields, three ideals crop rotation plans, the application of no mitigation measures, and the construction of terraces and conservation buffers. Depending on the crop rotation plan, soils characterized by slope gradients higher than 2 resulted in soil erosion rates higher than the 7 ton/ha/year allowed by law. The highest

  7. Ownership concentration, choice of auditors, and firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; El Kacemi, Youssef

    2011-01-01

    How does ownership concentration effect firm performance in emerging markets? On one hand, concentrated ownership leads to higher agency problems, and on the other hand, it minimizes agency problems by removing the free-rider problem. Using a large dataset of ownership concentration from the MENA...... region during the period between 2004 and 2008, we document that ownership concentration, as itself, may not have a significant impact on firm performance. It is, rather, the way concentrated firms govern themselves that determine their performance. We argue that concentrated ownership firms, being aware...... of the agency problems embedded in their ownership structure, appoint one of big-four auditors as their external auditor to signal the market that they are disclosing reliable information. Our results also show a significantly positive relationship between ownership concentration and the choice of auditor. We...

  8. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana

    In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects...... for promoting combined heat and power and energy from renewable sources. These Directives are to be implemented at the national level by the Member States. Section 3 conceptually presents the spectrum of national support schemes, ranging from investment support to market‐based operational support. The choice...

  9. How Do Differences in Land Ownership Types in China Affect Land Development? A Case from Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daquan Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available China has a unique land use system in which there are two types of land ownership, namely, state-owned urban land and farmer collective-owned rural land. Despite strict restrictions on the use rights of farmer collective-owned land, rural land is, in fact, developed along two pathways: it is formally acquired by the state and transferred into state ownership, or it is informally developed while remaining in collective ownership. Taking Beijing, the capital, as an example, and using data from land use surveys in the Changping district of the city, this paper examines the spatial patterns and characteristics of land development along these two pathways, and sets up a multinomial logit model to test whether land development with and without ownership change was affected by the same factors. The findings suggest that: (1 development on collective-owned land is more spatially scattered, and its links to public infrastructure are weaker; (2 transportation infrastructure, farmer income, spatial location, and previous land usage are the major factors that affect land development; nevertheless, the influences of the factors are different for the two pathways.

  10. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    In this paper we look the relationship between wages, labour productivity and ownership using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market during years 2005 and 2006. We distinguish different origins of ownership and study wage and productivity differences....... We found that the raw difference in average firm wages between foreign and domestically owned firms is around 25 per cent, respectively. Accounting for differences in the compositions in firms' workforces, as measured by firm means of human capital variables, for regions and industries firm size...... the difference drops to 16 percent. The unconditional differences relative to domestic firms differ widely by continents of origin: it is 24 per cent for the EU15 countries, 22 per cent for other European countries and 28 per cent for the U.S. owned companies. There is no significant pay difference between...

  11. Foreign Ownership and Long-term Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Dorte; Thomsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival probabil......Does foreign ownership enhance or decrease a firm's chances of survival? Over the 100 year period 1895-2001 this paper compares the survival of foreign subsidiaries in Denmark to a control sample matched by industry and firm size. We find that foreign-owned companies have higher survival...... probability. On average exit risk for domestic companies is 2.3 times higher than for foreign companies. First movers like Siemens, Philips, Kodak, Ford, GM or Goodyear have been active in the country for almost a century. Relative foreign survival increases with company age. However, the foreign survival...

  12. Gun ownership and firearm-related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Messerli, Franz H

    2013-10-01

    A variety of claims about possible associations between gun ownership rates, mental illness burden, and the risk of firearm-related deaths have been put forward. However, systematic data on this issue among various countries remain scant. Our objective was to assess whether the popular notion "guns make a nation safer" has any merits. Data on gun ownership were obtained from the Small Arms Survey, and for firearm-related deaths from a European detailed mortality database (World Health Organization), the National Center for Health Statistics, and others. Crime rate was used as an indicator of safety of the nation and was obtained from the United Nations Surveys of Crime Trends. Age-standardized disability-adjusted life-year rates due to major depressive disorder per 100,000 inhabitants with data obtained from the World Health Organization database were used as a putative indicator for mental illness burden in a given country. Among the 27 developed countries, there was a significant positive correlation between guns per capita per country and the rate of firearm-related deaths (r = 0.80; P guns per capita per country and crime rate (r = .33), or between mental illness and crime rate (r = 0.32; P = .11). In a linear regression model with firearm-related deaths as the dependent variable with gun ownership and mental illness as independent covariates, gun ownership was a significant predictor (P guns per capita per country was a strong and independent predictor of firearm-related death in a given country, whereas the predictive power of the mental illness burden was of borderline significance in a multivariable model. Regardless of exact cause and effect, however, the current study debunks the widely quoted hypothesis that guns make a nation safer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Family-Concentrated Ownership in Chinese PLCs: Does Ownership Concentration Always Enhance Corporate Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hui Luo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the relationship between family ownership structure and corporate value across a sample of 1314 firm-year observations of China’s family publicly listed companies (PLCs, from 2004 to 2008. We find a significant inverse-U-shaped relationship between the controlling family’s ultimate cash-flow rights and corporate value; as measured by Tobin’s Q. That is, as family-ownership concentration increases, corporate value first increases and then decreases. This finding refreshes our understanding of the relationship between family-ownership concentration and corporate value in emerging economies such as found in China. We corroborate prior findings that when controlling families hold excess control over cash-flow rights, corporate value is significantly lowered, while multiple large shareholders structure is significantly associated with higher corporate value. In addition; board independence is found to significantly improve corporate value in the context of family-concentrated ownership. We also test for potential endogeneity between family ownership and corporate value and find our results to be robust.

  14. Openness of Economy, Foreign Investment Inflows and the Phenomenon of Rent Seeking Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Toqueer Akhter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rent seeking behavior has been amongst noticeable obstacles in path of economic growth and development for developing communities. Due to this the study aims at testing the hypothesis that the Rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy is being influenced by the openness of economy as well as inflows of foreign investment significantly. Model estimations imply that reforms may have an insignificant impact upon impact upon curtailing the rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy in a time series setting therefore this research will use two statistical econometric models to show the effect of corruption on the foreign direct inflow received in Pakistan. In order to pretest the impact of all the mentioned variables on rent seeking behavior generalized least square was used because its results were unbiased, consistent and the problem of Serial correlation was solved by using it. In order to quantify rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy different aspects of misuse of public offices appearing in form of petty and grand corruption were used using the variables informal sector, tax evasion, judicial outlay, G.D.P and F.D.I as percentage of G.D.P. All of the variables had proper signs aligned with the theory and all of the variables appeared to be significant except judicial outlay proving that the judiciary has been incompetent and ineffective. The robust regression showed all the same signs except in it every variable was appearing to be significant. Rent seeking corruption has been highly affecting Pakistan in adverse ways and this paper will show how many factors like judiciary is not playing effective role in limiting corruption and also how the economy is being affected by rent seeking behavior.

  15. Permanentnost primitivne akumulacije, ali o privatni lastnini, komodifikaciji in povratku rente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Prodnik

    2011-06-01

    moderne in zagovarja nujnost absolutne demokracije pri upravljanju, vzpostavljanju in dojemanju skupnega. /// English title: The Permanence of Primitive Accumulation, or: On the Private Property, Commodification and Return of the Rent /// Abstract: In his analysis of current social antagonisms, the author starts from a critique of political economy and focuses on two historically and politically/theoretically important concepts, without which it would not be possible to understand the development of the capitalist system and the way it currently functions: primitive accumulation and modern private property. Newer interpretations of the process of primitive accumulation (Perelman, DeAngelis, Harvey start from the premise that primitive accumulation is not just a historical period belonging to the past, but a necessarily present part of capital in its expansion and search for news ways out of recurring crises. This permanence of primitive accumulation, which Harvey refers to as accumulation-by-disposses sion, in which a key factor is the difference between the generation and existence of capital, helps us to understand the ever present processes of capital expansion and their often violent incorporation of various fields. Although these processes are an always-already-present characteristic of capitalism, by manifesting themselves, they have marked the past decades, when capital has attempted to resolve its own profitability crisis through financialisation and privatisation. At the same time, because the existence of the modern form of private property has appeared as an important condition for capitalist accumulation and as that element which facilitates the effective functioning, development and expansion of capitalist relations of production, at the beginning of the article, this socially constructed phenomenon of modern society, which, through a process of reductionism, makes it almost impossible to consider different forms of ownership such as common forms of property

  16. THE ROLE OF GROUND RENT IN ESTABLISHING THE AGRICULTURAL LAND PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona DOBRE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to demonstrate the role that ground rent has in establishing the agricultural land price. In order to be able to prove the connection between the ground rent and the agricultural land price, there are submitted to debate indicators that are part of ground rent such as the positioning of the land, the distance between the land and the access roads and water source, the intrinsic qualities of the land soil, the type of land and the manner of exploitation. The debate is intended to show how and in what manner the indicators part of ground rent may influence the price of an agricultural land. The final purpose of this study is to prove that a justified land price may contribute to encourage the agricultural land transactions and therefore to develop the land market. To fulfil the purpose of this paper it is necessary to understand what land ground means, why it is important the land price and how can the agricultural land price influence the agricultural land market and the development of the agriculture overall. The main methods utilized are collecting, analyze and interpreting data and information from the specialized literature. The conclusions formulated at the end of the study allow seeing the influence of ground rent on agricultural land price, the influence of the agricultural land price on agricultural land market and the influence of agricultural land market on the development of the agriculture.

  17. Linguistic analysis of project ownership for undergraduate research experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, D I; Frederick, J; Fotinakes, B; Strobel, S A

    2012-01-01

    We used computational linguistic and content analyses to explore the concept of project ownership for undergraduate research. We used linguistic analysis of student interview data to develop a quantitative methodology for assessing project ownership and applied this method to measure degrees of project ownership expressed by students in relation to different types of educational research experiences. The results of the study suggest that the design of a research experience significantly influences the degree of project ownership expressed by students when they describe those experiences. The analysis identified both positive and negative aspects of project ownership and provided a working definition for how a student experiences his or her research opportunity. These elements suggest several features that could be incorporated into an undergraduate research experience to foster a student's sense of project ownership.

  18. Total Cost of Technology Ownership: Doing It Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Describes several factors related to investing in educational technology: Total cost of ownership, availability of qualified information technology staff, support and planning, and outside resources. (PKP)

  19. Ownership and Risk Management: Shareholder versus Stakeholder Satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between ownership structure and performance has received considerable attention in the literature. This paper focuses on the relationship between ownership structure and risk management. Specifically, the paper addresses the relationship between (1) the identity and influence...... of the largest shareholder and (2) whether risk management decisions are made in order to satisfy shareholders in particular or stakeholders in general. Covering a sample of Danish, non-financial companies a statistically significant, negative relationship is found between personal ownership and the likelihood...... to personal ownership is believed to rest on non-financial relations between the companies and the persons in question....

  20. The social disutility of software ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David M

    2011-09-01

    Software ownership allows the owner to restrict the distribution of software and to prevent others from reading the software's source code and building upon it. However, free software is released to users under software licenses that give them the right to read the source code, modify it, reuse it, and distribute the software to others. Proponents of free software such as Richard M. Stallman and Eben Moglen argue that the social disutility of software ownership is a sufficient justification for prohibiting it. This social disutility includes the social instability of disregarding laws and agreements covering software use and distribution, inequality of software access, and the inability to help others by sharing software with them. Here I consider these and other social disutility claims against withholding specific software rights from users, in particular, the rights to read the source code, duplicate, distribute, modify, imitate, and reuse portions of the software within new programs. I find that generally while withholding these rights from software users does cause some degree of social disutility, only the rights to duplicate, modify and imitate cannot legitimately be denied to users on this basis. The social disutility of withholding the rights to distribute the software, read its source code and reuse portions of it in new programs is insufficient to prohibit software owners from denying them to users. A compromise between the software owner and user can minimise the social disutility of withholding these particular rights from users. However, the social disutility caused by software patents is sufficient for rejecting such patents as they restrict the methods of reducing social disutility possible with other forms of software ownership.

  1. Changes of levels of rent and risk in the activity of rural farms in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kurdyś-Kujawska

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lease of agricultural land is a form of the land use. It enables to create or increase a farm, without having to pay capital-expenditure related to the purchase of land. In exchange for the land lease, the tenant agrees to pay a rent, which is a constant burden on its budget and can affect the economic situation of the farm. Changes in the value of rent result in, to a large extent, deficit of land in some areas of Poland, increase of prices and demand for agricultural land. The aim of the study was to analyse the determinants and dynamics of changes in the rates of agricultural rents. The source material for the study were data on the agricultural land market in Poland in 2000-2011 published by the IERiGŻ and GUS.

  2. Lease of agricultural land in public ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the legal norms which regulate leasing of agricultural land in public ownership. The basic hypothesis is that the main goal of land leasing should be to achieve an efficient allocation and maximization of public rental income. It was concluded that we should eliminate all restrictions that serve as barriers to market allocation. These include provisions that restrict some groups from participating in the land lease auctions, then the preemptive right of lease, as well as the ban on subleasing. It also criticizes the application of the principles of affectation, or restriction of freedom of local governments in the use of funds received from land leasing.

  3. Reconsidering Esport: Economics and Executive Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karhulahti Veli-Matti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article starts with a literary review of the conceptual frames through which esport has been labeled academically. It shows how the concept of “electronic” has been taken as the core term for labelingesport, often accompanied by a strong emphasis on “professionalism.” The literary review is followed by the submission of an alternative conceptual frame based on the economic notion of executive ownership, which provides a theoretical grounding for esport as a cultural phenomenon. In accordance with the above, the article concludes with a reframed look at the history of esport and suggests commercial analog gaming (especially Magic: The Gathering as its point of origin.

  4. 7 CFR 3560.406 - MFH ownership transfers or sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sanitary housing to be provided in market areas where conventional rents are not sufficient to cover... substances or petroleum products is found on the property, the finding must be disclosed to the Agency...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Juab County Parcels "Database containing parcel boundary, parcel identifier, parcel address, owner type, and county recorder contact information" - HB113., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Millard County Parcels "Database containing parcel boundary, parcel identifier, parcel address, owner type, and county recorder contact information" - HB113., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Box Elder Co Parcels "Database containing parcel boundary, parcel identifier, parcel address, owner type, and county recorder contact information" - HB113., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Cache County Parcels "Database containing parcel boundary, parcel identifier, parcel address, owner type, and county recorder contact information" - HB113., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007....

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Sanpete County Parcels "Database containing parcel boundary, parcel identifier, parcel address, owner type, and county recorder contact information" - HB113., Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It...

  10. WHY MY PARTICIPATION MATTERS: Rent-seeking with endogenous prize determination

    OpenAIRE

    Klarizze Anne Puzon; Marc Willinger

    2014-01-01

    We analyze an institutionalized rent-seeking game in which groups can endogenously choose the prize at stake, e.g. a common-pool resource. In the first stage, groups determine how much of the resource to protect and equally share. In the second stage, the unprotected fraction is competed for in a rent-seeking game. We consider two institutions varying in the extent by which subjects participate: majority voting (i.e. "unrestrained participation" where all group members participate in the prot...

  11. Capital switching and the role of ground rent: 2 Switching between circuits and switching between submarkets

    OpenAIRE

    R J King

    1989-01-01

    In the first paper of this series of three, Harvey's 'circuits of capital' argument was discussed, and was linked first to ground rent theory, and second to forms of social change and crisis in advanced, Western-style economies. In the present paper these various theoretical insights are used to reflect upon the urban housing market in Melbourne from the 1930s to the 1980s. It is concluded (1) that average rent (average annual cost relative to wages), and thereby housing-related accumulation,...

  12. The effects of tax competition when politicians create rents to buy political support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggert, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2008-01-01

    We set up a probabilistic voting model to explore the hypothesis that tax competition improves public sector efficiency and social welfare. In the absence of tax base mobility, distortions in the political process induce vote-maximising politicians to create rents to public sector employees....... Allowing tax base mobility may be welfare-enhancing up to a point, because the ensuing tax competition will reduce rents. However, if tax competition is carried too far, it will reduce welfare by causing an underprovision of public goods. Starting from an equilibrium where tax competition has eliminated...

  13. The Effect of a Sports Stadium on Housing Rents: An Application of Geographically Weighted Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Agudelo Torres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have determined that real estate prices vary in continuous ways as a function of spatial characteristics.  In this study we examine whether geographically weighted regression (GWR provides different estimates of price effects around a sports stadium than more traditional regression techniques.  We find that an application of GWR with hedonic prices finds that the stadium has a negative external effect on housing rents that extends outward 560 meters, in contrast to the positive external effect on housing rents found using a conventional estimation technique.

  14. Finding Good Areas for Renting Apartments Using Apartments Information and Users' Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, R.; Lu, M.; Arikawa, M.; Asami, Y.; Iwasaki, J.

    2014-04-01

    Current apartment renting web sites provide services to search apartments by attribute filters while they lack the services to help find areas that are convenient for living and meet customers' personal preference. In many cases, people not only need attributes of the apartments meeting their requirements, but also need the attributes of the area be satisfied. We propose an IT service that can find appropriate areas for customers to rent apartments while they want to move to new places. The areas are picked according to users' life styles mined from their former moving trajectories and to the attributes of the areas calculated from preferences of present rooms of users.

  15. THE BUBONIC PLAGUE OF 1349, THE WAGE-TO-RENT RATIO, AND THE ENGLISH PEASANT FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie O. Crofton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The bubonic plague that swept England in 1349 provides an example of how changes in economic conditions can change norms of social behavior. The death of almost 50 percent of the population altered the returns to labor and land. As the demand for land and the supply of labor declined, rents fell and wages rose. This increased wage-to-rent ratio shifted the structure of the economy from household production to market production. In turn, these changes affected migration, family and community ties, women s labor force participation, family size, inheritance customs, the status of landowning widows, and care for the elderly.

  16. Body ownership and experiential ownership in the self-touching illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb eLiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate two issues about the subjective experience of one’s body: first, is the experience of owning a full-body fundamentally different from the experience of owning a body-part? Second, when I experience a bodily sensation, does it guarantee that I cannot be wrong about whether it is me who feels it? To address these issues, we conducted a series of experiments that combined the rubber hand illusion (RHI and the body swap illusion. The subject wore a head mounted display (HMD connected with a stereo camera set on the experimenter’s head. Sitting face to face, they used their right hand holding a paintbrush to brush each other’s left hand. Through the HMD, the subject adopted the experimenter’s first-person perspective (1PP as if it was his/her own 1PP: the subject watched either the experimenter’s hand from the adopted 1PP, and/or the subject’s own hand from the adopted third-person perspective (3PP in the opposite direction (180°, or the subject’s full body from the adopted 3PP (180°, with or without face. The synchronous full-body conditions generate a self-touching illusion: many participants felt that I was brushing my own hand! We found that (1 the sense of body-part ownership and the sense of full-body ownership are not fundamentally different from each other; and (2 our data present a strong case against the mainstream philosophical view called the immunity principle (IEM. We argue that it is possible for misrepresentation to occur in the subject’s sense of experiential ownership (the sense that I am the one who is having this bodily experience. We discuss these findings and conclude that not only the sense of body ownership but also the sense of experiential ownership call for further interdisciplinary studies.

  17. Joint Ownership of family land in Uganda: Examining the responses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is also a challenge since it makes individual ownership more preferable. ... understood to be that land on which the family lives and extracts a livelihood. ... place in the social structure, provide context to our appreciation of the dynamics of joint ..... How come that the younger people are more supportive of the joint ownership.

  18. "Is This Okay?" Developing Student Ownership in Artmaking through Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sok Hui

    2015-01-01

    When used effectively, feedback promotes student ownership in artmaking by encouraging students to inject originality, persist, and improve. Feedback from teacher, self, and peers can also provide students with motivation. In this article, the author explores her students' understanding of the idea of ownership, observes how feedback…

  19. Ownership of Stocks and Mutual Funds : A Panel Data Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2001-01-01

    In many industrial countries, ownership rates of risky assets have risen substantially over the past decade.This trend has potentially wide-ranging implications for the intertemporal and cross-sectional allocation of risk, and for the macro economy, establishing the need for understanding ownership

  20. Ownership of heritage resources in South Africa: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndukuyakhe Ndlovu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ownership is highly political. Ownership provides power to the one legally seen as an owner or those tasked with the responsibility to protect and preserve heritage resources. This is no different when it comes to heritage resources, whose ownership is always contentious. The main reason for such contention is because ownership impacts on those who value objects in different ways. For example, the nature of access to heritage resources approved for people who may still attach spiritual values. As a direct result, the relevance of such heritage resources to such people may be brought into question, as the need to have them available to all citizens gain momentum. Heritage resources in South Africa have been subject to legislation since 1911, when the Bushmen Relics Act was passed. Since then, much other legislation and amendments have been passed over the years. They all aim to protect different kinds of heritage resources. Central to protection efforts is a decision to have the ownership of heritage resources put under the national estate. Ownership of heritage under South African heritage legislation will be discussed in this article. Drawing on case studies from southern Africa, the main aim of the article is to identify the challenges and opportunities attached to such a form of ownership. Opinions relating to the best approach to ownership of heritage resources are offered.

  1. 26 CFR 1.468B-9 - Disputed ownership funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not a transferor-claimant uses the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting and transfers... transferor-claimant using the cash receipts and disbursements method, however, the disputed ownership fund... of a transfer of disputed property to the disputed ownership fund. However, the accrual or receipt...

  2. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  3. Effects of Ownership Rights on Conflicts between Toddler Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hildy S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined property conflicts in thirty-two 20-and 30-month-old peer dyads during eighteen 40-min play sessions. Ownership influenced conflicts. Both 20- and 30-month-old owners claimed ownership ("mine") and instigated and won property conflicts more often than non-owners. At 30 months, owners also resisted peers' instigations more often…

  4. 38 CFR 36.4403 - Joint ownership of housing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the total cost of the unit as is proportionate to the undivided interest of the veteran in the entire... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Joint ownership of... Housing § 36.4403 Joint ownership of housing unit. The construction or remodeling of a housing unit, or...

  5. Pedometer Ownership, Motivation, and Walking: Do People Walk the Talk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Tanya R.; Fraser, Shawn N.; Spence, John C.; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine whether pedometer ownership and source of pedometer (i.e., self-purchased, a gift, a promotion) was related to physical activity self-efficacy and outcome expectations in relation to physical activity. Further, the authors examined whether there was a relationship between pedometer ownership and…

  6. "You Fail": Plagiarism, the Ownership of Writing, and Transnational Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Arabella

    2009-01-01

    Responding to cultural concerns about the ownership of writing and the nature of plagiarism, this article examines discourses about plagiarism by ESL students and argues for a plurality of approaches to understanding the ownership of language and textual appropriation. First, it uses speech act theory to explain the dynamics of plagiarism; second,…

  7. 36 CFR 72.36 - Land ownership, control and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land ownership, control and conversion. 72.36 Section 72.36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., Rehabilitation and Innovation § 72.36 Land ownership, control and conversion. Section 1010 of the Act provides...

  8. Energy Efficiency, Ownership Structure, and Sustainable Development: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low energy efficiency and severe environmental pollution are two growing issues haunting China’s fast economic development. Under China’s current development model, economic growth still heavily depends on massive energy input, which makes energy efficiency one crucial topic in order to secure future sustainable development of China. This paper focuses on the unique energy ownership structure of China, and designs and adopts MATLAB programming for optimization solutions of multi-variable constrained nonlinear functions to obtain results that can better reflect China’s energy efficiency and solutions to sustainable development of China. Using this model, this paper conducts an empirical analysis on the impact of difference energy investment behaviors between China’s state-owned entities and non-state-owned business on China’s Total Factor Energy Efficiency (TFEE and sustainable development from 2003 to 2014. We find that Beijing and Shanghai represent the highest energy efficiency level in China. However, except for the more developed regions in Eastern China, for other provinces in Northeast China, Central China and Western China, the TFEE of energy investment by state-owned and non-state-owned economies are both quite low compared with the optimal level. Based on the above findings from the empirical study and detailed analysis by region, this paper discusses the possible reasons for China’s low TFEE and provides implications and policy recommendations.

  9. To Tackle the Housing Crisis, we Need to Talk About Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Sirr, Lorcan

    2016-01-01

    The rights and obligations that go with property ownership are important issues in any country trying to control its housing stock, resolve a housing crisis or create a functioning system. The concept of ownership is not clear cut: there is common ownership, as seen on the pampas and prairies, and in the outback; shared ownership, in India and China; temporal ownership, in medieval France and now Catalonia; and subservient ownership, where the Earth belongs only to its creator.

  10. 75 FR 11553 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... use of FMRs or voucher payment standards should be directed to the respective local HUD program staff... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate... Market Rents published on August 4, 2009 (74 FR 38716), HUD conducted Random Digit Dialing (RDD)...

  11. Ownership and Determinants Capital Structure of Public Listed Companies in Indonesia: a Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Tri Hardiyanto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Capital structure is a mix of debts and equities used by a company to finance its investment. Debt offers benefit of tax shield from interest expenses that can be deducted in calculating company income tax. Unfortunately, company can not use debts in unlimited amount because it will lead to risk of bankcrupt. Therefore, company needs to establish a target (unobserved capital structure which will optimize the value of the firm. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinant of capital structure and ownership in public listed companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange using Time-Series Cross-Section Regression (TSCSREG and supported with a balanced panel data. Data used are financial statements of 228 public listed companies from group of eight industry sectors. Research finding confirms that tax shield and fixed financial burden are significantly influence the capital structure and state ownership also significantly influence the capital structure of the state owned enterprises.

  12. Ownership and Determinants Capital Structure of Public Listed Companies in Indonesia: a Panel Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Tri Hardiyanto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Capital structure is a mix of debts and equities used by a company to finance its investment. Debt offers benefit of tax shield from interest expenses that can be deducted in calculating company income tax. Unfortunately, company can not use debts in unlimited amount because it will lead to risk of bankcrupt. Therefore, company needs to establish a target (unobserved capital structure which will optimize the value of the firm. The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinant of capital structure and ownership in public listed companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange using Time-Series CrossSection Regression (TSCSREG and supported with a balanced panel data. Data used are financial statements of 228 public listed companies from group of eight industry sectors. Research finding confirms that tax shield and fixed financial burden are significantly influence the capital structure and state ownership also significantly influence the capital structure of the state owned enterprises.

  13. A general approach to the action of expired ownership in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenner Alonso Tobar Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has been a country immersed in a constant and persistent struggle to overcome a state of endemic violence generated by numerous actors, including drug trafficking and illicit enrichment. In order to address these problems, the Colombian constituent assembly consecrated the figure of expired ownership as a legal tool to combat illicit enrichment, as well as violence and poverty that this phenomenon entails. 26 years later, the action of expired ownership is one of the main instruments of the state to tackle illicit enrichment, but its social and legal development has been neither peaceful nor totally effective. This article discusses the general characteristics of this figure, exposing its criticisms and benefits, and its prospects for an effective implementation in Colombia

  14. Ownership Concentration and Market Value of European Banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busta, Ildura; Sinani, Evis; Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between ownership concentration and market value of European banks, and the role of the institutional environment in shaping this relationship. Using GMM dynamic estimator on a sample of European banks over a 13-year period (1993–2005) we find on average...... concentration is positive in Scandinavia. We propose that, besides the legal protection of small investors, the differences in the impact of ownership concentration across the countries could be due to the identity of the predominant owners, i.e. financial institutions in Germany and trusts and foundations...... a negative effect of ownership concentration on bank value, measured by Tobin's Q. However, this effect varies across different institutional settings; while higher ownership concentration results in a lower bank value particularly in the countries belonging to German legal family, the impact of ownership...

  15. A Privacy Model for RFID Tag Ownership Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchun Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ownership of RFID tag is often transferred from one owner to another in its life cycle. To address the privacy problem caused by tag ownership transfer, we propose a tag privacy model which captures the adversary’s abilities to get secret information inside readers, to corrupt tags, to authenticate tags, and to observe tag ownership transfer processes. This model gives formal definitions for tag forward privacy and backward privacy and can be used to measure the privacy property of tag ownership transfer scheme. We also present a tag ownership transfer scheme, which is privacy-preserving under the proposed model and satisfies the other common security requirements, in addition to achieving better performance.

  16. Using the private rented sector as a form of social housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oxley, M.; Brown, T.; Haffner, M.; Hoekstra, J.; Lishman, R.

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers the role of the private rented sector in supplying housing that can be defined as social housing. It will do this by considering policy initiatives in Germany, France, the USA and England that use privately owned housing to meet social needs. The operation of these initiatives

  17. 75 FR 46958 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... metropolitan areas. However, the first publication of five-year ACS data does not begin until the fourth... current survey data. For FY 2011, FY 2010 FMRs are updated using 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) data, and more recent Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes. HUD continues to use ACS data in...

  18. 78 FR 47339 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program, Moderate Rehabilitation Single...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... valid one-year ACS data is available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are used... Budget (OMB) metropolitan area definitions as updated through December 1, 2009 and include HUD... definition update has not been incorporated in the FMR process due to the timing of the release and the...

  19. The welfare costs of rent-seeking: a methodologically individualist and subjectivist revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Makovi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gordon Tullock is acknowledged for being the first to recognize the true costs of rent-seeking as including not only the Harberger triangle but also the Tullock rectangle. This rectangle does not constitute merely a lossless transfer of wealth, but it causes a misallocation of resources as rent-seekers invest resources in lobbying. However, a close reading of Tullock’s writings shows that his arguments are formulated in a holistic fashion, speaking of what is efficient or inefficient for society. Rent-seeking is inefficient because it reduces societal welfare. But according to a methodologically individualist and subjectivist economics, such a claim is invalid. We must distinguish between positive economic fact and normative moral philosophy. We call for a reconstruction of utility and welfare economics based on methodological individualism and subjectivism with implications for the theories of monopoly and competition: practices which Neoclassical perfect-competition theory considers to be evidence of rent-seeking should instead be deemed as indications of genuine competition Political economy should be concerned with ascertaining which institutions will best enable individuals to pursue their individually subjective ends – or else economists should be explicit about their normative preferences and political philosophies.

  20. Rents From the Essential Health Benefits Mandate of Health Insurance Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-01-01

    The essential health benefits mandate constitutes one of the most controversial health care reforms introduced under the U.S. Affordable Care Act of 2010. It bears important theoretical and practical implications for health care risk and insurance management. These essential health benefits are examined in this study from a rent-seeking perspective, particularly in terms of three interrelated questions: Is there an economic rationale for standardized, minimum health care coverage? How is the scope of essential health services and treatments determined? What are the attendant and incidental costs and benefits of such determination/s? Rents offer ample incentives to business interests to expend considerable resources for health care marketing, particularly when policy processes are open to contestation. Welfare losses inevitably arise from these incentives. We rely on five case studies to illustrate why and how rents are created, assigned, extracted, and dissipated in equilibrium. We also demonstrate why rents depend on persuasive marketing and the bargained decisions of regulators and rentiers, as conditioned by the Tullock paradox. Insights on the intertwining issues of consumer choice, health care marketing, and insurance reform are offered by way of conclusion.

  1. 12 CFR 1282.19 - Affordability-Rent level definitions-tenant income is not known.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.19 Affordability—Rent level... very low-, low-, or moderate-income families where the income of the family in the dwelling unit is not known to the Enterprise, the affordability of the unit is determined based on unit size as follows:...

  2. 24 CFR 982.613 - Group home: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Meaning of pro-rata portion. For a group home, the term “pro-rata portion” means the ratio derived by... owner for an assisted person may not exceed the pro-rata portion of the reasonable rent for the group...-rata portion of the payment standard amount on the PHA payment standard schedule for the group...

  3. 24 CFR 982.617 - Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Meaning of pro-rata portion. For shared housing, the term “pro-rata portion” means the ratio... for the family may not exceed the pro-rata portion of the reasonable rent for the shared housing... standard amount on the PHA payment standard schedule for the family unit size; or (2) The pro-rata...

  4. Renting a Place to Live. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 9. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, focuses on renting a place to live. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic, thinking, interpersonal, information utilization, and other skills addressed in the…

  5. Rent Control and Virtual Prices: A Case Study for Interwar Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); E. Buyst (Erik)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAfter World War I rent control became a cornerstone of housing policy in many European countries, resulting in quantity constraints on the demand for housing. The theory on complete demand systems provides a framework for analyzing the effects of these policies on consumption. As a test

  6. 林地地租量化研究%A Study on the Calculation of Woodland Rent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹秀清; 张志云

    2001-01-01

    以马克思地租理论为指导,阐明市场经济条件下我国林地地租的内涵及特征:求出零级土地的立地指数等级和各立地等级的年级差地租,从总地租中分离出绝对地租和级差地租。%Guided by Marxist land rent theory, under the condition of market economy, the connotation and characteristics of woodland rent in our country are expounded. By calculating site index of zero-leveled woodland, annually differential woodland rent has been separated from absolute woodland rent among total rent.

  7. Vehicle Ownership Analysis Based on GDP per Capita in China: 1963–2050

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Wu; Hongmei Zhao; Xunmin Ou

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Gompertz function of per capita GDP and vehicle stock to forecast the vehicle ownership of China through to 2050 against a background of increasing energy use and CO 2 emissions associated with the potential demands of on-road vehicles. We forecast the level of vehicle stock in China based on the extant patterns of vehicle development in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, Europe, the United States and Japan. The results show that t...

  8. Research on Economics and Management%Mixed Ownership,Control Right Gaming and Government Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤吉军; 刘仲仪

    2016-01-01

    Faced with the “double failure”of both the market and state-owned enterprises,it is crucial to take the institutional advantage to develop mixed ownership,so as to improve the efficiency and advance the reform of state-owned enterprises.However,mixed ownership does not count for all.It is the path-dependence for institution and “free-riding”impulse that make both state-owned and private-owned enterprises share the same risk of failure in the game of control. Combined with the causes and effects of single ownership failure,this paper discusses the connotation,advantage and problems' of mixed ownership,and tries to find the reason and influence of mixed ownership failure based on analysing the control power game model,to propose the government regulation path and institutional suggestions for the development of mixed ownership.%在市场失灵和国有企业失灵“双重”失灵的背景下,发展混合所有制就是要利用混合所有制的制度优势提高国有企业效率,深化国有企业改革。然而,混合所有制并不是完全的,制度的路径依赖和“搭便车”的冲动使国有、私有两种所有制在控制权博弈中,同样存在失灵的风险。本文通过论述混合所有制的内涵、优势和问题,结合单一所有制失灵的原因及影响,在控制权博弈模型分析的基础上,探索混合所有制失灵的原因及影响,进而提出积极发展混合所有制的政府管制举措。

  9. Trust Ownership of the Tata Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    The Indian Tata Group is one of the largest and most admired business groups in the world. It has 28 listed subsidiaries and more than 80 operating businesses. It has shown strong financial performance and social responsibility for decades. Interestingly, it has a unique ownership structure......: the main holding company Tata Sons Limited is majority-owned by charitable trusts. We examine the governance of this remarkable entity. The Trusts own 66% of Tata Sons, the main holding company of the Group, while members of the founding Tata family are very small minority shareholders. The governance...... structure is characterized by managerial distance between trusts and Group companies. The Trusts are almost exclusively concerned with philanthropy, and according to the Articles of Association of Tata Sons Limited, their governance role is limited to nominating two members to the Selection Committee which...

  10. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for businesses and policy makers and this has inspired a search for governance arrangement to promote long term decision making. In this paper we study a particularly long-term ownership structure, which is fairly common in Northern Europe, particularly...... in Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long-term...... in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper supports...

  11. The consumption values' influence on smartphone's ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovcikova, Katarina; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to analyze impact of factors on adoption of smartphones using the Theory of Consumption Values framework. The Theory of Consumption Values provides a framework to categorize customer's motives for buying; it divides them into five groups: functional values, social values......, epistemic values, hedonic values and conditional values. This theory was used to investigate the adoption of smartphones among target groups of consumers. Factor analysis was used to generate one factor for each value. The factors were used as independent variables in binary logistic regression, alongside...... age and gender to predict dependent variable The results showed that functional and social values significantly influenced ownership of smartphones. Although in many technology studies, men are found to be higher adopters, impact of gender was not significant in the presented research....

  12. 混合所有制中的员工持股探索%The Exploration of Employee Stock Ownership in Mixed-ownership Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雨青; 傅帅雄

    2015-01-01

    国有企业改革的目标是在股份多元化的基础上建立独立的法人治理结构,通过混合所有制的发展进一步优化资源整合,提高资源配置效率,增强企业的活力与实力。其中,员工持股作为混合所有制的一种体现形式,也是国有企业股权激励制度改革的方向。首先,在理论层面上,物质财富是由资本投入者和劳动力投入者共同创造的,创造出来的物质财富应该由二者共同分享。其次,通过股权激励,让企业管理和技术骨干以主人翁精神和使命感,主动将自我的职业发展、收入增加与企业效益和长远发展联系起来。另外,混合所有制中,管理人员和技术骨干持股,有利于股权结构优化,避免国有资本一股独大,可以在国有资本、民营资本及员工持股之间形成相互的利益制衡。%The goal of reform in state-owned enterprise is to establish the independent corporate governance of enterprise base on the stock diversification,further optimize resources distribution by the development of mixed-ownership economy, improve the efficiency of resources allocation,and enhance the vitality and strength of enterprises. The employee stock ownership is also a form of mixed ownership and the direction of reform in state-owned enterprises. In theory,material wealth is created by capital input and labor input,so the material wealth created should be shared by capital input and labor input. Second,the incentive of stock option can give the managers and technical backbones the feeling of being the master of the enterprises and the sense of mission and encourage them to initially connect their own occupation development and income increase with the effectiveness and long-term development of enterprises. In addition,with the mixed ownership,employee stock ownership can optimize the structure of ownership,avoid the state-owned capital to be the single big holder,and form a balanced

  13. Relationships between major ownerships, forest aboveground biomass distributions, and landscape dynamics in the New England region of USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Daolan; Heath, Linda S; Ducey, Mark J; Butler, Brett

    2010-02-01

    This study utilizes remote sensing derived forest aboveground biomass (AGB) estimates and ownership information obtained from the Protected Areas Database (PAD), combining landscape analyses and GIS techniques to demonstrate how different ownerships (public, regulated private, and other private) relate to the spatial distribution of AGB in New England states of the USA. "Regulated private" lands were dominated by lands in Maine covered by a Land Use Regulatory Commission. The AGB means between all pairs of the identified ownership categories were significantly different (P 200 Mg/ha were located outside the area designated in the PAD and concentrated in western MA, southern VT, southwestern NH, and northwestern CT. While relatively unfragmented and high-AGB forests (>200 Mg/ha) accounted for about 8% of total forested land, they were unevenly proportioned among the three major ownership groups across the region: 19.6% of the public land, 0.8% of the regulated private land, and 11.0% of the other private land. Mean disturbance rates (in absolute value) between 1992 and 2001 were 16, 66, and 19 percent, respectively, on public, regulated private, and other private land. This indicates that management practices from different ownerships have a strong impact on dynamic changes of landscape structures and AGB distributions. Our results may provide insight information for policy makers on issues regarding forest carbon management, conservation biology, and biodiversity studies at regional level.

  14. Foreign ownership and its effects on employment and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännlund, Runar; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Stage, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study how foreign ownership of Swedish companies affects employment and wages. To study these effects, we specify a model based on the assumption that the Swedish labour market can be described as one where trade unions and employers bargain over employment and wages. Our...... hypothesis is that bargaining power is affected by institutional settings and the ownership of the firm. To test our hypothesis, we used a panel data set of 242 large Swedish manufacturing firms over the period 1980–2005. The results indicate no significant impact of foreign ownership on employment or wages...

  15. Proof of cipher text ownership based on convergence encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weiwei; Liu, Zhusong

    2017-08-01

    Cloud storage systems save disk space and bandwidth through deduplication technology, but with the use of this technology has been targeted security attacks: the attacker can get the original file just use hash value to deceive the server to obtain the file ownership. In order to solve the above security problems and the different security requirements of cloud storage system files, an efficient information theory security proof of ownership scheme is proposed. This scheme protects the data through the convergence encryption method, and uses the improved block-level proof of ownership scheme, and can carry out block-level client deduplication to achieve efficient and secure cloud storage deduplication scheme.

  16. Land market in Albania: Unresolved property ownership rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oltiana Muharremi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Independence of Albania in 1912, property ownership has gone through major reforms. During communism many agricultural lands were seized by the Agrarian Reform Law. In 1990, with the fall of communism there was a huge demographic movement of people from villages to urban areas, where they settled in lands that were used by the Cooperatives. This created a lot of problems with previous land owners whose land was seized and given to the Cooperativa. Today there is a problem with the rights to property ownership, and legal certificates of ownership.

  17. 41 CFR 102-85.155 - What does a customer agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... classification, appraised Rent, or the allocation of space), the agency may appeal its Rent bill to GSA. (b) GSA... review of the measurement, classification, service levels provided, or charges assessed that pertain to... contract rent passed through from the underlying lease cannot be appealed; (3) In GSA-owned space, when...

  18. Stakeholders' expectations and perceived effects of the pharmacy ownership liberalization reform in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reforms in the health-care sector, including the pharmacy sector, can have different rationales. The Swedish pharmacies were prior to 2009 organized in a state-owned monopoly. In 2009, a liberalization of the ownership took place, in which a majority of the pharmacies were sold...... in the Swedish pharmacy sector, and also to compare the expectations with the perceived outcomes. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives from key stakeholder organizations; i.e., political, patient, and professional organizations. The analysis was performed in steps, and themes...... were developed in an inductive manner. RESULTS: One expectation among the political organization participants was that the ownership liberalization would create opportunities for ideas. The competition introduced in the market was supposed to lead to a more diversified pharmacy sector. After...

  19. WELFARE IMPLICATIONS OF TIMBERLAND OWNERSHIP CHANGES IN THE U.S. TIMBER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, many forest product firms in the U.S. either divested their timberlands to timber investment management organizations (TIMOs and conservation organizations or converted their corporate structures from C corporations to real estate investment trusts (REITs. All landowners sold smaller timberland tracts for nonforestry uses. Reduced timber supplies from conservation organizations and timberland loss to other nonforestry uses have consequences on producer and consumer surpluses in the U.S. timber markets. Equilibrium displacement model has been employed to evaluate the welfare changes in U.S. timber markets attributed to timberland ownership changes. Net reduction of timber supply contributed to the reduction of social surplus by $43 million in 2006. Compared to the $33 billion plus U.S. timber markets, this welfare reduction was small. Overall, this article explains the shifts of economic surpluses among producers and net surplus reduction for the society attributed to timberland ownership changes in the United States.

  20. Defensive activation during the rubber hand illusion: Ownership versus proprioceptive drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Martin; Bublatzky, Florian; Trojan, Jörg; Alpers, Georg W

    2015-07-01

    A strong link between body perception and emotional experience has been proposed. To examine the interaction between body perception and anticipatory anxiety, two well-established paradigms were combined: The rubber hand illusion (RHI) and the threat-of-shock paradigm. An artificial hand and the participants' own hand (hidden from sight) were touched synchronously or asynchronously, while either threat-of-shock or safety was cued. Potentiated startle reflexes and enhanced skin conductance responses were observed during threat as compared to safety conditions, but threat conditions did not interact with illusory body perceptions. Thus, defense system activation was not modulated by altered body representations. Physiological responses increased with the sense of ownership for the artificial limb, but not with proprioceptive drift towards its location. The results indicate that ownership ratings and proprioceptive drift capture different aspects of the RHI. The study presents a new approach to investigate the relationship between body representations and emotional states.

  1. Potential International Approaches to Ownership/Control of Human Genetic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    In its governance activities for genetic resources, the international community has adopted various approaches to their ownership, including: free access; common heritage of mankind; intellectual property rights; and state sovereign rights. They have also created systems which combine elements of these approaches. While governance of plant and animal genetic resources is well-established internationally, there has not yet been a clear approach selected for human genetic resources. Based on assessment of the goals which international governance of human genetic resources ought to serve, and the implications for how they will be accessed and utilised, it is argued that common heritage of mankind will be the most appropriate approach to adopt to their ownership/control. It does this with the aim of stimulating discussion in this area and providing a starting point for deeper consideration of how a common heritage of mankind, or similar, regime for human genetic resources would function and be implemented.

  2. Wage determination and returns to education in different ownerships of China: Evidence from quantile regressions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Chunbing

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,quantile regressions is used to estimate wage equations of different ownerships.Quantile regressions give us distributions rather than a single estimate of the returns both to education and experience in each ownership sector.For state-owned enterprises (SOE),the returns to education tended to be larger at the bottom of the conditional distribution of wages in 1991 and 1993,and there was no such trend in 1997.For the private sector,however,the retrains to education tended to be larger at the top positions in 1993 and 1997.It is also found that the growth rates of the wages at the bottom of the conditional distribution of wages arc higher than those at the top in SOEs.No such patterns for the private sector is found.It is suggested the wage mechanism in the private sector is more market-oriented.

  3. Analysis on Capitalization of Rural Land Ownership in China by Law and Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjuan; LI

    2014-01-01

    To find solutions for legal system for capitalization of rural land ownership in China,this paper studied and analyzed existing problems in rural land system and legal environment using legal theory and transaction cost theory. Results indicated that(i) the restriction of institutional condition upon property right and transaction is more essential,and key points include the relationship of entities of right formed jointly by the state,collective and farmers,accurate positioning of property right structure,and security for land appreciation income right and allocation mechanism;(ii) the land property right structure should select a legal structure with minimum transaction cost. It is concluded that entitling the ownership to a single entity is an economical method to eliminate current conflict of rural land right.

  4. Brazilian Multinationals’ Ownership Mode: The Influence of Institutional Factors and Firm Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique de Azevedo Ávila

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates whether host countries institutional factors and firm characteristics can help the understanding of Brazilian multinationals’ choices of ownership mode for their foreign direct investments (FDI. Brazil is a privileged locus for research on emerging market multinationals (EMNEs, given its growing stock of outward FDI. The paper contributes to a better understanding of the international strategic choices of EMNEs. First, the phenomenon under study is examined using the theoretical lenses of institutionalism. Second, the study looks at the relationship between state support and choice of ownership mode, a new issue in the area of international business. Third, differences between the decisions taken by manufacturing and service EMNEs are also examined. Fourth, the study focuses on an emerging country, Brazil. The quality of the regulatory environment of the host country, and differences in beliefs, cultural identity and management practices between the host country and the country of origin are factors of the institutional environment significantly related to the choice of ownership mode by Brazilian EMNEs. As to firm characteristics, our results show that state support favors the choice of joint ventures, and that service EMNEs also significantly prefer joint ventures, when compared to manufacturing firms. The findings also support the view that EMNEs are less sensitive to institutional weaknesses in host countries.

  5. Corporate boards and ownership structure: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munisi, Gibson; Hermes, Niels; Randoy, Trond

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between board structure and ownership structure for firms listed on the stock exchanges of twelve Sub-Saharan African countries, using data for the period 2006–2009. We find that ownership concentration, foreign ownership and managerial ownership are negatively a

  6. The Impact of Leased and Rented Assets on Industry Productivity Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Weimin; Moussaly, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Leasing is an important means of gaining access to assets, of obtaining finance, and of reducing a lessee?s exposure to the risks inherent to asset ownership. A lease can be either a financial lease (capital lease) or an operating lease (capital rental). A financial lease is one where the legal owner of an asset (lessor) passes the economic ownership to the user of the asset (lessee), who then accepts the operating risks and receives the economic benefits from using the asset in a productive ...

  7. Étude dans les états finals dileptoniques de différentes propriétés des paires top-antitop avec les détecteurs D0 et ATLAS; Study in the final states dileptoniques different properties of top-antitop pairs with D0 and ATLAS detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deterre, Cecile [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)

    2012-06-26

    Studies of different properties of the top-antitop pairs in dileptonique final state are presented in this thesis. Two analyzes were conducted in different experiments: one to D0 at the Tevatron, the other in ATLAS at LHC. Both colliders are different, the measures undertaken are complementary to the top of the properties of the study. The first analysis, conducted in the D0 experiment was to make simultaneous measurements of the cross section for production of pairs of top-antitop and branching ratio t -> Wb This was carried out in the channel with a dileptonique batch of data corresponding to a brightness of 5.4 fb⁻¹. It was then combined with the measurement made in the semileptonique channel to obtain an accuracy of 8% over the cross section, comparable to the accuracy of theoretical calculations. The second analysis presented, conducted in the ATLAS experiment was to measure the top quark charge asymmetry in dileptonique channel with the data set recorded by ATLAS in 2011, or 4.7 fb⁻¹. The results were then combined with the results of semileptonique channel obtained with 1 fb⁻¹. We measure: AC (ttbar) = 0.029 ± 0.018 (stat.) ± 0.014 (syst.), Which is compatible with the standard model prediction of 0.004 ±- 0.001.

  8. Rent pricing decision support mathematical model for finance leases under effective risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, leasing has become an increasingly important and popular method for equipment acquisition. But, because of the rent pricing difficulties and some risks that affect the lessor and lessee's decision making, there are many people that still tend to buy equipment instead of lease it. In this paper we explore how risk can affect the leasing issue support mathematical model. For this purpose, we consider three types of risk; Credit risk, Transaction risk and Risk based pricing. In particular, our focus was on how to make decision about rent pricing in a leasing problem with different customers, various quality levels and different pricing methods. Finally, the mathematical model has been solved by Genetic Algorithm that is a search heuristic to optimize the problem. This algorithm was coded in MATLAB® R2012a to provide the best set of results.

  9. OPERATIONAL CIRCULAR No. 4 (REV. 1) – USE OF VEHICLES BELONGING TO OR RENTED BY CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Operational Circular No. 4 (Rev. 1) entitled “Use of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN”, approved by the Director-general following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 15 February 2012, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://hr-docs.web.cern.ch/hr-docs/opcirc/opcirc.asp It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 4 entitled “Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN” of April 2003. This new version enables, in particular, to include CERN contractors and their personnel, to harmonize the structure of the circular with other circulars and to simplify the procedures by permitting electronics forms. Department Head Office HR Department

  10. It's the rents, stupid. The political economy of the resource curse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, Ivar; Wiig, Arne [Chr. Michelsen Institute, P.O. Box 6033 Postterminalen, N-5892 Bergen (Norway)

    2009-12-15

    A number of studies suggest that natural resources can have a negative impact on the developing prospects of countries. Empirical results suggest that political economy models of patronage and rent-seeking are central to understanding why such a resource curse arises. In other words, the resource curse is created by certain resource rents leading to dysfunctional behaviour. This article introduces the term impartiality enhancing institutions to structure policy debates by distinguishing conditions under which negative effects of resources can be mitigated. Moreover, it is argued that viewing institutions as an equilibrium outcome has implications for the analysis of institutional change. Policy initiatives that do not promote the impartiality of institutions, nor attend to the underlying interests and incentives keeping a bad institutional equilibrium in place, will not help lift the resource curse. (author)

  11. Le référent zoulou omniprésent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Giraut

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Illustration 1 – Ephémère mémorial à la gloire de Shaka sur la plage de DurbanAuteur :  Said Boujrouf, Durban, octobre 2007.En tant qu'épopée d'un royaume précolonial conquérant et éphémère vainqueur de l'armée coloniale britannique, l'histoire zouloue avec son mythique chef Shaka a été érigée en mythe par les colonisés d’Afrique australe et par les colons britanniques et afrikaners. L'histoire guerrière a été mise scène de différents points de vue et à travers différents médias (cinéma, télé...

  12. The NBA’s Maximum Player Salary and the Distribution of Player Rents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Hastings

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The NBA’s 1999 Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA included provisions capping individual player pay in addition to team payrolls. This study examines the effect the NBA’s maximum player salary on player rents by comparing player pay from the 1997–1998 and 2003–2004 seasons while controlling for player productivity and other factors related to player pay. The results indicate a large increase in the pay received by teams’ second highest and, to a lesser extent, third highest paid players. We interpret this result as evidence that the adoption of the maximum player salary shifted rents from stars to complementary players. We also show that the 1999 CBA’s rookie contract provisions reduced salaries of early career players.

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Smith County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Smith County, TN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Kenosha County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Kenosha County, WI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Loving County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Lucas County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Loving County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Lowndes County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Loving County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Loving County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Love County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Love County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Klickitat County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Klickitat County, WA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Hoke County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Hoke County, NC. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Ritchie County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Ritchie County, WV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Sampson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Sampson County, NC. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Kent County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Kent County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Kent County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Kent County, MI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Armstrong County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Armstrong County, PA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Coles County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Coles County, IL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cole County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cole County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Macon County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Macon County, IL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Tangipahoa Parish Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Tangipahoa Parish County, LA. This metadata was auto-generated through the...

  10. Trends in Daily Newspaper and Broadcast Ownership, 1922-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Christopher H.

    1975-01-01

    Seeks to answer the question of how much media control has been concentrated in the top 100 markets over the past half century, examining the trends in broadcasting and cross-media (newspaper-broadcasting) ownership within those markets. (RB)

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Wayne County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Wayne County, PA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Wayne County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Wayne County, OH. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Pitkin County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Pitkin County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Jasper County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Jasper County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Harper County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Harper County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Newton County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Newton County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Benson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Benson County, ND. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Conejos County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Conejos County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Phelps County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Phelps County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Phelps County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Phelps County, NE. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Colbert County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Colbert County, AL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Walker County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Walker County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Butler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Butler County, AL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2007, Churchill County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2007. The extent of these data is generally Churchill County, NV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Dolores County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Dolores County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  6. >Problems and Countermeasures of Collective Land Ownership Disputes in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; QIAO; Kening; WU; Hongjuan; WANG; Qi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, No.1 document of central government demanded strengthening mediation and settlement of ownership of rural collective land, to complete confirmation of right and registration and issue of certificate of rural collective land in 3 years. However, the mediation and settlement of land ownership in China still remain at starting stage, and there are many problems in both theory and practice. In this situation, this paper summarizes current situations of disputes about ownership of collective land in Beijing, analyzes causes of disputes, introduces existing working mechanism, methods and problems of dispute mediation and settlement, and finally presents feasible recommendations, in the hope of providing guidance for mediation and settlement of land ownership disputes.

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Cerro Gordo County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. This data set includes internal links to...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Lamar County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Lamar County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Campbell County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Campbell County, KY. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Campbell County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Campbell County, TN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Wheeler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Wheeler County, OR. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, OBrien County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally O'brien County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Butler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Butler County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Hancock County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Hancock County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Montgomery County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Montgomery County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Lee County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Lee County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Greene County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Greene County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Carroll County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Carroll County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Calhoun County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Calhoun County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Warren County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Warren County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Honolulu County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Honolulu County, HI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Kauai County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Kauai County, HI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Maui County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Maui County, HI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Butler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Butler County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  5. Mapping strategy, structure, ownership and performance in European corporations : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colli, A.; Iversen, M.J.; de Jong, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the introduction to the Business History special issue on European Business Models. The volume presents results of the international project about mapping European corporations, within the strategy, structure, ownership and performance (SSOP) framework. The paper describes the

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Hernando County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Hernando County, FL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Crawford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Crawford County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Shelby County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Shelby County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Pocahontas County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Pocahontas County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Scott County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Scott County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Jefferson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Jefferson County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Madison County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Madison County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Ida County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Ida County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Johnson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Johnson County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Poweshiek County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Poweshiek County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Henry County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Henry County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Story County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Story County, IA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Gilpin County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Gilpin County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Sheridan County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Sheridan County, WY. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Sheridan County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Sheridan County, ND. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Sherburne County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Sheridan County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Itawamba County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Izard County, AR. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Knott County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Knott County, KY. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Pasco County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Pasco County, FL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Pasco County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Pasquotank County, NC. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Manatee County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Manatee County, FL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Christian County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Christian County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Christian County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Christian County, KY. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Esmeralda City Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Esmeralda County, NV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Rice County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Rice County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Rice County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Rice County, MN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Codington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Coffee County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Dolores County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Dolores County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Slop County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Smith County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Smith County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Smith County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Howell County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Howell County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  17. Total Ownership Cost Reduction Case Study: AEGIS Radar Phase Shifters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridger, Wray W; Ruiz, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this research is to provide a case study that captures the production and design processes and program management solutions used to reduce total ownership costs of AEGIS Radar Phase Shifters...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cameron County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cameron County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cameron County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cameron County, PA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Cameron County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Cameron Parish County, LA. This metadata was auto-generated through the...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Mecosta County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Mecosta County, MI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Wayne County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Wayne County, MI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Saginaw County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Saginaw County, MI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Murray County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Murray County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Murray County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Murray County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Winnebago County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Winnebago County, WI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Madison County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Madison County, NE. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Becker County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Becker County, MN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Limestone County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Limestone County, AL. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Limstone County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Limestone County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Gentry County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally George County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Gentry County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Gentry County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Huntington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Huntington County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Sabine Parish Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Sabine Parish County, LA. This metadata was auto-generated through the...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Sabine County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Sabine County, TX. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Turner County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Turner County, SD. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  17. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Turner County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Turner County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Porter County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Porter County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Taos County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Tate County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  20. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Weld County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Weld County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Webster County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Weld County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Schuyler County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Schuyler County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Phillips County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Phillips County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  4. How vestibular stimulation interacts with illusory hand ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christophe; Lenggenhager, Bigna; Blanke, Olaf

    2010-03-01

    Artificial stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system has been shown to improve ownership of body parts in neurological patients, suggesting vestibular contributions to bodily self-consciousness. Here, we investigated whether galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) interferes with the mechanisms underlying ownership, touch, and the localization of one's own hand in healthy participants by using the "rubber hand illusion" paradigm. Our results show that left anodal GVS increases illusory ownership of the fake hand and illusory location of touch. We propose that these changes are due to vestibular interference with spatial and/or temporal mechanisms of visual-tactile integration leading to an enhancement of visual capture. As only left anodal GVS lead to such changes, and based on neurological data on body part ownership, we suggest that this vestibular interference is mediated by the right temporo-parietal junction and the posterior insula.

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Humboldt County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Humphreys County, MS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Prowers County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Prowers County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Steele County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Steele County, ND. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2008, Steele County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2008. The extent of these data is generally Steele County, MN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Buffalo County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Buffalo County, WI. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  10. 15 CFR 971.206 - Statement of ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., including: (i) Whether the citizen is a natural person, partnership, corporation, joint venture, or other... of the association, partnership, or joint venture, including information about the participation and/or ownership of stock of each partner or joint venturer....

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Rutherford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Rutherford County, TN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  12. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2007, Mineral County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2007. The extent of these data is generally Mineral County, NV. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  13. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Mineral County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Mineral County, CO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  14. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Evans County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Evans County, GA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  15. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Pulaski County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Pulaski County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  16. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Sanpete County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Sanpete County, UT. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  17. Ownership, knowledge, patient care cost and use of mobile cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ownership, knowledge, patient care cost and use of mobile cell phones by family ... care delivery with regards to mobile phone technology should be explored. ... A survey of 250 Family Medicine residents in training centres in Nigeria was ...

  18. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Madison County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of unknown. This data set includes internal links to Building...

  19. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Darke County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Darke County, OH. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  20. Yampa coal field land status and Federal mineral ownership (yamowng)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and unioned polygon ownership coverage used to calculate coal resources of the A through D coal zones, Yampa coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  1. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in unknown, Garfield County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. The extent of these data is generally Garfield County, UT. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Parke County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Parke County, IN. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  3. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Otoe County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Otoe County, NE. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  4. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Andrew County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Andrew County, MO. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  5. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Washington County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Washington County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  6. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Texas County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Texas County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  7. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Jefferson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Jefferson County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  8. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Greer County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Greer County, OK. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  9. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Norton County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Norton County, KS. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  10. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Norton City Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Norton City County, VA. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona...

  11. Parcels and Land Ownership, Published in 2011, Conway County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of 2011. The extent of these data is generally Conway County, AR. This metadata was auto-generated through the Ramona GIS...

  12. 混合所有制企业员工持股计划财务问题探讨%Financial Issues Inquiry of Employee Stock Ownership Plan in Mixed Ownership Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任婷钰; 王彩霞

    2015-01-01

    “允许混合所有制经济实行企业员工持股”,这是在国企混合所有制改革中,政府对其在员工利益分配方面所给予的一项政策。混合所有制企业推行员工持股计划应坚持全员均可持股的指导思想,但不能搞绝对化和平均化,特别是须对员工持股计划中所涉及的有关财务问题进行探讨,包括各类员工持股的参与比例、资金来源、产权问题、股份来源、持股期限、风险防范以及员工持股信息披露内容等。%Allowing mixed ownership enterprises employee shareholding is a policy that the government promises and guideline of employee benefit allocation in mixed ownership reform of state-owned enterprises. Mixed ownership enterprises to implement employee stock ownership plan should adhere to the guiding ideology for all staff shareholding, but to avoid the absolute and average. In particular, consider about relevant financial problems involved in employee stock ownership plan, such as the proportion of all kinds of employee shareholding, sources of funds, property rights, stock sources, holding period, risk prevention, employee stock ownership information dis-closure content and so on.

  13. Celestial marriage and earthly rents: interests and the prohibition of polygamy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G M; Tollison, R D

    1998-01-01

    Just prior to the Civil War, the US government set out on a relentless campaign to eliminate polygamy within the Mormon Church. This paper offers evidence that the political restrictions on the practice of polygamy were the result of rent seeking by potential beneficiaries of such laws (the Edmonds Act of 1882). Polygamy created benefits for women, but reduced the welfare of most men, in a time period when only adult males had the franchise.

  14. Sustainable Rent-Based Closed-Loop Supply Chain for Fashion Products

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Hua Hu; Qing Li; Xian-Juan Chen; Yan-Feng Wang

    2014-01-01

    The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products. Considering the features of fashion products, a system of a rent-based closed-loop supply chain is developed to improve the sustainability of fashion products. The supply chain processes (fashion design and...

  15. Home : no less will do - homeless people's access to the private rented sector

    OpenAIRE

    Reeve, Kesia; Cole, Ian; Batty, Elaine; Foden, Michael; Green, Stephen; Pattison, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The research on which this report is based was carried out by the Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research (CRESR) at Sheffield Hallam University. It was commissioned by Crisis in response to concerns that single homeless people are finding it difficult to access the private rented\\ud sector, at a time when there is increased reliance on the sector to meet housing need. Changes introduced through the Localism Act 2011 in England, for example, allowed local\\ud authorities to discharge ...

  16. Rent sharing to control non-cartel supply in the German cement market

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A challenge for many cartels is avoiding a destabilizing increase in non-cartel supply in response to having raised price. In the case of the German cement cartel that operated over 1991-2002, the primary source of non-cartel supply was imports from Eastern European cement manufacturers. Industry sources have claimed that the cartel sought to control imports by sharing rents with intermediaries in order to discourage them from sourcing foreign supply. Specifically, cartel members would all...

  17. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for st...

  18. Viewpoint – Rent-Seeking in Agricultural Water Management: An Intentionally Neglected Core Dimension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Huppert

    2013-06-01

    The author, drawing on thirty-five years of experience in the field of agricultural water management and on cases from research and from development cooperation, puts forward his personal viewpoint on this matter. He contends that local as well as international professionals on different levels in the water sector are caught in multifaceted conflicts between formal objectives and hidden interests – and often tend to resort to rent-seeking behaviour themselves.

  19. CREDIT CARD OWNERSHIP AND DEBT STATUS IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    YIING JIA LOKE; Yen, Steven T; Andrew K.G. Tan

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of socio-demographic and credit consumption tendencies in affecting credit card ownership and debt status. Based on a sample of 938 individuals from three major cities in Malaysia, card holders' debt status is measured in relation to credit card expenditure, which in turn is categorized into convenience users, low-risk credit revolvers and high-risk credit revolvers. While socio-demographic factors play significant roles in determining card ownership, card holders...

  20. Backup Power Cost of Ownership Analysis and Incumbent Technology Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Saur, G.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.

    2014-09-01

    This cost of ownership analysis identifies the factors impacting the value proposition for fuel cell backup power and presents the estimated annualized cost of ownership for fuel cell backup power systems compared with the incumbent technologies of battery and diesel generator systems. The analysis compares three different backup power technologies (diesel, battery, and fuel cell) operating in similar circumstances in four run time scenarios (8, 52, 72, and 176 hours).