Sample records for rented accommodation

  1. Housing for Female Factory Workers: The Association between Renting Accommodation and Satisfaction with Income and Living Conditions

    Quynh Thuy Nguyen


    Full Text Available Background: Vietnam has experienced a strong wave of migrants to urban and industrialized areas. This is a challenge for both local and national governments, which need to address the problems of the poor and socially marginalized, including providing housing for rural-to-urban migrants. Poor housing and the economic burden of house renting are increasingly recognized as determinants of both physical and mental health. Objectives: This paper examined the association between renting accommodation and income satisfaction and living conditions of female workers in light manufacturing industries in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented with quantitative survey of 2,818 female workers in 10 light manufacturing factories in 3 industrial zones by a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Over 38% of female workers had to rent accommodation. The average expense for accommodation, water and electricity accounted for 30.1% of renters’ income, which is 7.2% (CI 95%, 5.3–9.3% higher than for non-renters. A higher proportion of renters than non-renters considered their income was unstable and insufficient for living costs. In addition, only 7.2% of renters reported that their living conditions were suitable, notably lower than non-renters (22.4%. Conclusion: The study showed the economic burden of renting accommodation on workers’ income satisfaction and living conditions. The findings have implications for an adequate housing access strategy for workers including the integration of housing development in the planning and development of industrial zones and factories.

  2. HOME Rent Limits

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing for...

  3. 24 CFR 982.507 - Rent to owner: Reasonable rent.


    ... whether the rent to owner is a reasonable rent in comparison to rent for other comparable unassisted units... rent to owner is not more than rent charged by the owner for comparable unassisted units in...

  4. 50th Percentile Rent Estimates

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Rent estimates at the 50th percentile (or median) are calculated for all Fair Market Rent areas. Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are primarily used to determine payment...

  5. Auctions with rent seeking

    Haan, Marco; Schoonbeek, Lambert


    We present a model which combines elements of an auction and a rent-seeking contest. Players compete for a prize. Apart from exerting lobbying efforts, they also have to submit a bid which is payable only if they win the prize. First, we analyze the model if the returns-to-scale parameters of both b

  6. HPC: Rent or Buy

    Fredette, Michelle


    "Rent or buy?" is a question people ask about everything from housing to textbooks. It is also a question universities must consider when it comes to high-performance computing (HPC). With the advent of Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Microsoft Windows HPC Server, Rackspace's OpenStack, and other cloud-based services, researchers now have…

  7. HPC: Rent or Buy

    Fredette, Michelle


    "Rent or buy?" is a question people ask about everything from housing to textbooks. It is also a question universities must consider when it comes to high-performance computing (HPC). With the advent of Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Microsoft Windows HPC Server, Rackspace's OpenStack, and other cloud-based services, researchers now have…

  8. Design of forest rent accounting

    T.S. Osadcha


    Full Text Available The urgent task for the effective functioning of the national economy is the need to reflect income from the use of forest resources in accounting, which will allow management personnel to prove the effectiveness of environmental protection measures, to assess the amount of expenses taken during restoration and protection of forest resources. The study aims at identifying characteristics of forest rent to determine the amount and its reflection in the accounting for its management. The author understands a forest rent as the income received from the owner of forest resources. The above procedure for determining the amount of forest rent can be used to display it in the accounting. A forest rent is a type of business income, so for its reflection in the accounting it is proposed to open the analytical accounts to account 79 named «Financial results». To determine the amount of forest rent and its reflection in the accounting the author suggests the calculation form of a forest rent. In order to manage the size of a forest rent and expenses incurred to obtain it the author proposes to use the information from the developed report about the forest rent formation. The displaying forest rents in accounting will provide accurate and deep information to the management about the revenue and assets of a company. The rational use of forest resources and accounting reflection of a forest rent will strengthen control over the influence of human activity on natural resources and keep the conception of sustainable development.

  9. Rent Control and Unemployment Duration

    Munch, Jacob R.; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael


    In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...... control benefits, unemployed individuals are more likely to accept job offers in the local labour market. Based on a rich Danish data set, we find that the probability of finding a local job increases with the rent control intensity of the housing unit, whereas the probability of finding ajob outside...

  10. Rents in a welfare state

    Paldam, Martin


    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......, but in a number of cases as described in this chapter, the rents are revealed. The implicit welfare coalition, defined as voters receiving their income from the public budget, is the majority, placing the median voter within the welfare coalition. Rents are created and protected by the welfare coalition. Non...

  11. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  12. 24 CFR 886.110 - Contract rents.


    ... approved rent level established pursuant to 24 CFR 207.19(e)(2)(i). (c) In any case, HUD shall determine... the rents paid for comparable units in the private unassisted market, nor shall the Contract Rents exceed the rents charged by the Owner to unassisted Families for comparable units. HUD shall maintain...

  13. Rent seeking and the economics of corruption

    Aidt, T.S.


    The paper studies the influence of Gordon Tullock (1967) and the rent-seeking literature more generally on the study of corruption. The theoretical corruption literature with its emphasis on principal-agent relationships within government and rent creation by corruption politicians has largely, but not entirely, overlooked that contestable rents encourage unproductive use of real resources in seeking these rents. As a consequence, the literature underestimates the value of corruption control ...

  14. 24 CFR 850.153 - Rent control.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rent control. 850.153 Section 850... PROGRAM) HOUSING DEVELOPMENT GRANTS Project Management § 850.153 Rent control. A project constructed or substantially rehabilitated with a housing development grant is not subject to State or local rent...

  15. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.


    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  16. Immigration and housing rents in American cities

    Saiz, Albert


    Is there a local economic impact of immigration? Immigration pushes up rents and housing values in destination cities. The positive association of rent growth and immigrant inflows is pervasive in time series for all metropolitan areas. The author uses instrumental variables based on a "shift-share" of national levels of immigration into metropolitan areas. Conditioning on other variables, an immigration inflow equal to 1 percent of the city population is associated with increases in rents an...

  17. 24 CFR 884.109 - Rent adjustments.


    ... assisted and comparable unassisted units, as determined by HUD: Provided, however, That this limitation shall not be construed to prohibit differences in rents between assisted and comparable unassisted...

  18. The Capitalism, Rent and Democracy

    Victor S. Martyanov


    Full Text Available By inertia, which derives from Adam Smith, modern capitalism is described as a free-market competition. This historical model has worked while the market expands and the availability of resources increases. It provided the opportunity to maintain the political order of the welfare state as a form of non-economic egalitarian distribution of resources, which mitigates inequality and class antagonisms generated by market. However, once capitalism has engulfed the whole world, it is more prone to crises: competition intensifies, markets of demand and market outlets do not expand, technological progress creates a growing structural unemployment, economic growth due to the completion of the global village-city transition stagnates, the resources of all the peripheries are almost exhausted. As a result, nationalism and protectionism arise, the polarization between the global center and the periphery increases, and there comes the image of undemocratic and non-egalitarian labor less society on the horizon of the future, with the precariat and the unemployed growing in numbers and demanding large amounts of rent to maintain their livelihoods. Due to this, the market model of capitalism is gradually transforming into a rental one, where the pursuit of profit, the main motivational factor intrinsic to the market, is removed by the pursuit of rent and the redistribution of markets by non-economic ways. In this context, the state becomes the key economic actor, which distributes resources by extra-market means within the hierarchy of rental groups that form the framework of a new structure of the political community.

  19. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  20. 78 FR 42524 - Leasing versus Renting


    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Leasing versus Renting... assist in determining if there is a distinction between leasing and renting that is useful for the... address real property or its leasing. DATES: Interested parties should submit written comments to...

  1. Accounting management software intellectual rent companies

    T.S. Osadcha


    Full Text Available Економічні науки. – 2015. – № 4 (74. – P. 43–49: Table 4. – Refs.: 22. As a result of the study it has been established that intellectual rent as additional income arises resulting from the usage of intellectual property objects. At present the issue of the accounting reflection of transactions that form intellectual rent remains to be not thoroughly disclosed and requires more depth study for improving the performance of the innovative enterprises as well as for increasing the informativeness of the accounting system. In connection with the above defined organizational and methodical aspects of accounting operations with intellectual rent in assessing the rents of its type, the definition of accounts for the accounting reflection of the order determining the amount of intellectual rent on accounting data. Proposed document that would facilitate the work of accountants for the calculation of the amount of intellectual rent and provide information about the effectiveness of the company. Application of the proposed method of accounting reflect the formation and distribution of intellectual rent allows management personnel to provide the necessary innovative activity of the enterprise information management rent, since it is a type of income of the enterprise.

  2. Rent-to-Own: A Consumer Purchasing Alternative.

    Stein, Pat; Brown, Judy


    Examines rent-to-own, an alternative purchasing method that allows the consumer to rent an item and gain ownership after a specified number of payments. Addresses industry trends, the rent-to-own consumer, pricing structure, and legalities. (JOW)

  3. Mine rent and the new economic system

    Cadan, K. (Federalni Ministerstvo Paliv a Energetiky, Prague (Czechoslovakia))


    Reviews historical concept of ground rents with reference to works of Adam Smith and David Ricardo and to 19th century capitalism and Marxism-Leninism. Asks whether mine rents can exist under a socialist system and examines theoretical basis for mine rents, which includes socio-economic aspects, geological conditions, proximity to markets and environmental considerations. Compares mine rents with agricultural land rents and analyzes value of end product (coal) and effect of pricing method on it. Explains pricing system in Czechoslovakia, which involves 3 groupings: coking coal, coke and energy coal (including briquets), the price of each of which is set according to average costs and geological conditions. Surplus revenue (or positive mine rent) only arises therefore at mines where the production costs are lower than fixed trade prices. Discusses in general terms application of new economic system (perestroika) to concept of mine rent and assessment of mine profitability and concludes that method of pricing solid fuels will play a decisive role. 4 refs.

  4. Stochastic Control Model on Rent Seeking


    A continuous-time stochastic model is constructed to analyze how to control rent seeking behaviors. Using the stochastic optimization methods based on the modern risky theory, a unique positive solution to the dynamic model is derived. The effects of preference-related parameters on the optimal control level of rent seeking are discussed, and some policy measures are given. The results show that there exists a unique solution to the stochastic dynamic model under some macroeconomic assumptions, and that raising public expenditure may have reverse effects on rent seeking in an underdeveloped or developed economic environment.

  5. 7 CFR 3560.202 - Establishing rents and utility allowances.


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing rents and utility allowances. 3560.202... Establishing rents and utility allowances. (a) General. Rents and utility allowances for rental units in Agency... Agency. (b) Agency approval. All rents and utility allowances set by borrowers are subject to...

  6. 24 CFR 983.303 - Reasonable rent.


    ... other comparable unassisted units. (2) In determining the reasonable rent, the PHA must consider factors... units in the private unassisted market, which may include comparable unassisted units in the premises or... determined, including major differences between the contract units and comparable unassisted units. (3)...

  7. 24 CFR 886.312 - Rent adjustments.


    ... levels of such expenses in comparable assisted and unassisted housing in the area to ensure that... assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract rents may be adjusted upward or downward as may be...) Comparability between assisted and unassisted units. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this...

  8. Rent seeking with efforts and bids

    Haan, M.A.; Schoonbeek, L.


    We introduce bids in a rent-seeking contest. Players compete for a prize. Apart from exerting lobbying efforts, they also submit a bid which is payable only if they win the prize. We show that our model has a unique Nash equilibrium in pure strategies, in which each active player submits the same bi

  9. Accounting management software intellectual rent companies

    T.S. Osadcha


    Економічні науки. – 2015. – № 4 (74). – P. 43–49: Table 4. – Refs.: 22. As a result of the study it has been established that intellectual rent as additional income arises resulting from the usage of intellectual property objects...

  10. 27 CFR 6.35 - Renting display space.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.35 Section 6.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Renting display space. The renting of display space by an industry member at a retail...

  11. 27 CFR 6.56 - Renting display space.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.56 Section 6.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Distribution Service § 6.56 Renting display space. A promotion whereby an industry member rents display...

  12. Comparing markets rents from a user cost and reaction model

    Francke, M.K.


    The current policy in the Netherlands is that rents in the social housing sector are regulated and do not reflect market conditions. Housing associations are studying the possibility to partly adjust rents to the market rent, or at least they want to have insight in the size of the implicit subsidy

  13. Accommodating Translational Research

    Giles, Howard


    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  14. 75 FR 6685 - Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Contract Rent Annual Adjustment Factors, Fiscal...


    ... Expenditure Survey (CEX) and American Community Survey (ACS) data on the ratio of utilities to rents.\\2\\ \\ Survey Data Used to Produce Contract Rent AAFs In this publication, the rent and fuel and... AAFs. The utility- to-rent ratio used to produce Contract Rent AAFs comes from 2007 ACS median rent and...

  15. Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC) and...

  16. Analiza panoge rent a car v Sloveniji

    Lukić, Davorin


    Panoga rent-a-car v segmentu kratkoročnih najemov sodi v turistično panogo in je kot taka odvisna od dogajanj v tej panogi. Drug segment predstavljajo poslovni najemi, ki ima v Sloveniji še potencial za rast, saj podjetja še ne poznajo vseh prednosti, ki jih prinese upravljanje voznega parka zunanjega izvajalca. Spremembe, katerim smo trenutno priča v svetu, so posledica digitalizacije, spremenjenih vrednot po gospodarski krizi ter prihoda generacije Y na trg delovne sile in na drugi strani k...

  17. Product market integration, rents and wage inequality

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    Globalization in the form of product market integration affects labour markets and produces winners and losers. While there are aggregate gains, it is in general ambiguous how inequality is affected. We explore this issue in a Ricardian model and show that it depends on the balance between...... "protection" and "specialization" rents. In particular, wage inequality among similar workers (residual wage inequality) may be U-shaped, at first decreasing and then increasing in the process of product market integration. Consequently, there may be gains in both the efficiency and the equity dimension until...

  18. Rent-Seeking or Wealth-Creating: What to Choose?

    Gillund, Nils Ove


    This thesis presents a quite extensive literature review on literature concerning entrepreneurship, allocation of talent and rent-seeking. There is also a presentation of two models, one model concerning the allocation of talent and rent seeking. The second, demonstrates how rent-seeking affects investments in an economy. In the empirical part of the thesis there is a re-estimation of the results found in Murphy, Shleifer and Vishny, The Allocation of Talent: Implications for Growth (1991...

  19. Accommodating Picky Palates

    Lum, Lydia


    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  20. Accommodating Different Learning Styles

    Ovesen, Nis


    Design engineering educations often struggle to accommodate a highly diverse group of students as it combines an equally diverse range of topics in one education. This paper investigates how a specific course, Mathematics and Form, integrates two distinct areas into one course with the aim of fac...

  1. Water rent: essence, sources of formation and accounting reflection

    T.S. Osadcha


    Full Text Available There is the urgent necessity of the transition to a higher level of economic relations in the system of environmental management in the present conditions of economy of the country. As a result, the issues like formation of information support for water rent management, determining the ways of its calculation, distribution as well as usage of water rents require urgent solutions. The study focuses on the essence of water rent and forming organizational and methodological provisions of its accounting reflection to ensure sustainable ecological and economic development of the enterprise. As a result of research the classification of water rent, that affects reflection of such rent in accounting has been formed. It is established that the amount of water rent for accounting reflection can be defined as the difference between actual and normal profit of enterprise-water users. A number of analytical accounts of first and second order as well as the typical correspondence of accounts for accounting reflection of water rent have been suggested. The information from the Report on the formation of water rent that contains data on the sources of payback of expenses incurred for the maintenance of water bodies and the impact of ecological condition of water body on the size of water rent has been suggested to be used in order to manage the size of water rent and expenses incurred to obtain it. Thus, determining the amount of water rent will allow management personnel to adjust the activity of the company in accordance with the strategic objectives of the company’s development regarding the profitability and compliance with the concept of sustainable development.

  2. Bridging as Coercive Accommodation

    Bos, J W; Mineur, A M; Bos, Johan; Buitelaar, Paul; Mineur, Anne-Marie


    In this paper we discuss the notion of "bridging" in Discourse Representation Theory as a tool to account for discourse referents that have only been established implicitly, through the lexical semantics of other referents. In doing so, we use ideas from Generative Lexicon theory, to introduce antecedents for anaphoric expressions that cannot be "linked" to a proper antecedent, but that do not need to be "accommodated" because they have some connection to the network of discourse referents that is already established.

  3. Accommodation and Catering


    In the first five months, retail sales of the accommodation and catering sector reached 412.77 billion yuan, contributing 13.6 percent to total retail sales of consumer goods, said the Ministry of Commerce. Their year-on-year growth of 15 percent, or 53.78 billion yuan, was 1.78 percentage points higher than the overall increase of retail sales of consumer goods.

  4. Tullock's rent-seeking contest with a minimum expenditure requirement

    Schoonbeek, L.; Kooreman, P.


    We consider a rent-seeking contest of the kind introduced by Tullock (1980) in which two players compete for a monopoly rent. We extend the contest by requiring that if a player puts forward an effort, his expenditures must be larger than or equal to some minimum level. We show that, depending on

  5. Election cycles in natural resource rents : Empirical evidence

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob


    We examine whether governments' natural resource rents are affected by upcoming elections and if so, whether the incumbent uses these additional rents for re-election purposes. Estimates of a dynamic panel model for about 60 countries for 1975-2011 suggest that elections increase natural resource re

  6. Election cycles in natural resource rents: Empirical evidence

    Klomp, Jeroen; Haan, de Jakob


    We examine whether governments' natural resource rents are affected by upcoming elections and if so, whether the incumbent uses these additional rents for re-election purposes. Estimates of a dynamic panel model for about 60 countries for 1975-2011 suggest that elections increase natural resource

  7. 24 CFR 582.305 - Housing quality standards; rent reasonableness.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing quality standards; rent... Housing quality standards; rent reasonableness. (a) Housing quality standards. Housing assisted under this part must meet the applicable housing quality standards (HQS) under § 982.401 of this title—except...

  8. Contesting Resources - Rent Seeking, Conflict and the Natural Resource

    Wick, A.K.; Bulte, E.H.


    A growing empirical literature links natural resource abundance and "pointiness" to impeded economic growth and civil strife. We develop rent seeking and conflict models that capture the most salient features of contests for resource rents, and show how both resource abundance and geographical

  9. 77 FR 69651 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent...


    ... with reasonable time for public comment and shall become effective upon the date of publication in... 2005-2009 5- year ACS based ZIP code median gross rent data with 2006-2010 5-year ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) median gross rent data. The use of the more current ACS data is consistent with the update...

  10. [Spasm of accommodation].

    Lindberg, Laura


    Spasm of accommodation refers to prolonged contraction of the ciliary muscle, most commonly causing pseudomyopia to varying degrees in both eyes by keeping the lens in a state of short sightedness. It may also be manifested as inability to allow the adaptation spasticity prevailing in the ciliary muscle relax without measurable myopia. As a rule, this is a functional ailment triggered by prolonged near work and stress. The most common symptoms include blurring of distance vision, varying visual acuity as well as pains in the orbital region and the head, progressing into a chronic state. Cycloplegic eye drops are used as the treatment.

  11. Temporal accommodation response measured by photorefractive accommodation measurement device

    Song, Byoungsub; Leportier, Thibault; Park, Min-Chul


    Although accommodation response plays an important role in the human vision system for perception of distance, some three-dimensional (3D) displays offer depth stimuli regardless of the accommodation response. The consequence is that most observers watching 3D displays have complained about visual fatigue. The measurement of the accommodation response is therefore necessary to develop human-friendly 3D displays. However, only few studies about accommodation measurement have been reported. Most of the investigations have been focused on the measurement and analysis of monocular accommodation responses only because the accommodation response works individually in each eye. Moreover, a main eye perceives dominantly the object distance. However, the binocular accommodation response should be examined because both eyes are used to watch the 3D display in natural conditions. The ophthalmic instrument that we developed enabled to measure changes in the accommodation response of the two eyes simultaneously. Two cameras acquired separately the infrared images reflected from each eyes after the reflected beams passed through a cylindrical lens. The changes in the accommodation response could then be estimated from the changes in the astigmatism ratio of the infrared images that were acquired in real time. In this paper, we compared the accommodation responses of main eye between the monocular and the binocular conditions. The two eyes were measured one by one, with only one eye opened, during measurement for monocular condition. Then the two eyes were examined simultaneously for binocular condition. The results showed similar tendencies for main eye accommodation response in both cases.

  12. Neural Networks Modelling of Municipal Real Estate Market Rent Rates

    Muczyński Andrzej


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on the application of neural networks modelling of municipal real estate market rent rates. The test procedure was based on selected networks trained on the local real estate market data and transformation of the detected dependencies – through established models – to estimate the potential market rent rates of municipal premises. On this basis, the assessment of the adequacy of the actual market rent rates of municipal properties was made. Empirical research was conducted on the local real estate market of the city of Olsztyn in Poland. In order to describe the phenomenon of market rent rates formation an unidirectional three-layer network and a network of radial base was selected. Analyses showed a relatively low degree of convergence of the actual municipal rent rents with potential market rent rates. This degree was strongly varied depending on the type of business ran on the property and its’ social and economic impact. The applied research methodology and the obtained results can be used in order to rationalize municipal property management, including the activation of rental policy.

  13. Rents in property rights creation and implementation

    Žarković Jelena


    Full Text Available The institution of property rights is increasingly being recognized as an essential building block of an economically prosperous society. The question that remains unanswered however, is how do we develop effective property rights institutions? The literature dealing with the development of property rights tends to be, in general, overly optimistic since there is a tendency to view the design of property rights institutions as optimizing decisions to economize on transaction costs and to facilitate new economic activities. On the other hand, since property rights define the distribution of wealth and political power in a society changes in property rights structures are likely to be influenced by more than pure efficiency considerations. Therefore, in order to achieve a balanced analysis of the evolution of property rights institutions our article introduces the state in the whole process. Following the propositions of the interest group theory of government we show an important relationship between rent seeking and state involvement in property rights creation. The state with a coercive power to establish and enforce property rights can also use that power, through the process of economic regulation, to redistribute property rights to politically influential interest groups. Herein lies the state failure in property rights creation.

  14. HK Shop Rents to Soar as Tourism Booms


    The expansion of Abercrombie & Fitch Co and Gap Inc in Hong Kong may help push shop rents in the Central business district up almost 50 percent over the next three years, according to Jones Lang LaSalle Inc.

  15. Immigration and Housing Rents in Canada: A Panel Data Analysis

    Latif, E.


    This study examines the impact of new immigration on housing rent, using Canadian province-level panel data from 1983 to 2010. In its estimations, it utilises econometric methods such as panel unit roots, panel co-integration regressions and panel vector error correction models. Both fully-modified ordinary least squares and dynamic ordinary least squares models suggest that immigration flow has a significant positive impact on housing rent in the long run. The panel vector error correction m...

  16. [Palliative care for elderly patients living in rented housing by pharmacists].

    Uno, Tatsuya; Aoyama, Miyoshi; Shibata, Kenzo


    Yanase Pharmacy Co., Ltd. actively provides home health care intervention. The present study examined the effects of drug management guidance provided as home-visit-based health care support for elderly patients living in rented housing. The subjects were 117 patients who moved into rented accommodation for the elderly between June 2009 and February 2012, and who received drug administration guidance. The majority of the subjects had intractable diseases: 74(63%)were terminally ill with cancer, 7(6%)had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and 2(2%)had muscular dystrophy. Home-visit-based support included accompanying physicians' visits, formulation support, participation in the conference, and the provision of drug information for home-visiting nurses. The following formulation support measures were used: reducing intravenous infusion was proposed to address terminally ill cancer patients with a large amount of sputum; advice was provided on the selection of opioids for patients with renal failure; and drug options were discussed to alleviate the symptoms of gastrointestinal obstruction. All of these measures effectively alleviated symptoms.

  17. Fair Market Rents (Fair Market Rents For The Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset and map service provides information on Fair Market Rents (FMRs). FMRs are primarily used to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice...

  18. 76 FR 14421 - Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Contract Rent Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs...


    ... Survey (ACS) data on the ratio of utilities to rents.\\2\\ \\1\\ CPI indexes CUUSA103SEHA and CUSR0000SAH2... AAFs In this publication, the rent and fuel and utilities inflation factors for large metropolitan... produce Contract Rent AAFs comes from 2008 ACS median rent and utility costs. Geographic Areas Contract...

  19. 24 CFR 401.410 - Standards for determining comparable market rents.


    ... rents for project-based assistance at comparable market rents unless the PAE finds that exception rents... rents charged for properties that the PAE determines to be comparable properties (as defined in section... control and other characteristics determined by the PAE. The PAE may make appropriate adjustments...

  20. Rents in the European power sector due to carbon trading

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Cruciani, Michel [Centre de Geopolitique de l' Energie et des Matieres Premieres (CGEMP) Universite Paris - Dauphine (France)


    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) has imposed a price on the allowances for CO{sub 2} emissions of electricity companies. Integrating this allowance price into the price of electricity earns a rent for companies who have received these allowances for free. During Phase I, 2005-2007, rents corresponding to the aggregate value of allocated allowances amounted to roughly EUR 13 billion per year. However, due to the specific price-setting mechanism in electricity markets true rents were considerably higher. This is due to the fact that companies also that have not received any allowances gain additional infra-marginal rents to the extent that their variable costs are below the new market price after inclusion of the allowance price. Producers with low carbon emissions and low marginal costs thus also benefit substantially from carbon pricing. This paper develops a methodology to determine the specific interaction of the imposition of such a CO{sub 2} constraint and the price-setting mechanism in the electricity sector under the assumption of marginal cost pricing in a liberalized European electricity market. The article thus provides an empirical estimate of the true total rents of power producers during Phase I of the EU-ETS (2005-2007). The EU ETS generated in Phase I additional rents in excess of EUR 19 billion per year for electricity producers. These transfers are distributed very unevenly between different electricity producers. In a second step, the paper assesses the impact of switching from free allocation to an auctioning of allowances in 2013. We show that such a switch to auctioning will continue to create additional infra-marginal rents for certain producers and will leave the electricity sector as a whole better off than before the introduction of the EU ETS. (author)

  1. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    Zehner, Gregory F.


    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.


    A.A. Gde Putra Pemayun


    Full Text Available This present study was intended to analyze the Life Style of the Rented Land Owners at Ubud Subdistrict. The problems of the study are formulated as follows: (1 what is the characteristic of the rented land owners at Ubud Subdistrict like? (2 How has the process of life style of the rented land owners at Ubud Subdistrict  taken place? And (3 what is the implication of the life style of the rented land owners on their lives? Qualitative method was employed in the study. The data were processed using observation, interview and documentary techniques. The workability of the law regulating the demand for land at Ubud Subdistrict motivated the land owners to rent out their land to investors. Apart from that, the internal dimension, which is made up of the economical capital, was the most important element as it could activate small, medium and big enterprises. Another aspect was image which was reflected through perception, cognition, motivation, and attitude of individuals as consumers. As an illustration, they built luxurious houses and showed off luxurious cars to show the image that they were new wealthy people. On the other hand, there was external dimension, namely, the highly rapid development of tourism, which could positively and negatively contribute to the life style of the people living at Ubud Subdistrict. Such an implication could not be avoided. The other aspect was consumerism; the consumers were around the symbol and sign. Mass media were the miracles of the object liturgy; pleasure was defined as the realization of freedom, and the human body was the main object of consumers. The last aspect was the government’s policy which determined that Ubud Subdistrict was a tourist destination. As a result, the local people had the opportunity to rent out their land which was used to expand the industry of tourism and to activate the other economic enterprises.


    Homans, Frances R.; Wilen, James E.


    Using a new model of markets in regulated open access resources, we illustrate the evolution of a fishery as demand for the product grows. We show that increased demand for fish in its fresh form shortens the fishing season and leads to the development of a market for processed fish. The model allows us to calculate the rent gains from rationalizing the fishery, and we show that much of the rent gains come on the market side as the season lengthens and more fish can be delivered to the higher...

  4. Economic Analysis on Rent of Equipment Lease of Coal Enterprise

    童磊; 王立杰


    Rent is the key factor in equipment lease. The business that equipment lease company of coal mining often engaged in can be divided into three kinds, that is sublease, operating lease and inter lease, in term of the difference of the role of lease, character of business, object of the trade and condition of t he market. The problem in rent calculating of the three kind s of lease that equipment lease company of coal mining often involved was an alyzed. Hope to b e helpful to the decision-making of the equipment lease company of coal mining.

  5. Predicting returns and rent growth in the housing market using the rent-to-price ratio: Evidence from the OECD countries

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We investigate the predictive power of the rent-to-price ratio for future real estate returns and rent growth in 18 OECD countries over the period 1970 to 2011. First, we document that in most countries returns are signi…cantly predictable by the rent-price ratio. An increase (decrease...... dependent on whether returns and rents are measured in nominal or real terms. Finally, there is some evidence of sub-sample instability in the predictive patterns, especially wrt. rent growth predictability. The predictability tests are conducted within a restricted VAR framework based on the dynamic Gordon...

  6. Balti kalleim lao- ning tootmispindade rent on Riias / Kristo Kiviorg

    Kiviorg, Kristo


    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 21. sept. lk. 12. Tootmis- ja laopindade rent Baltimaades ja Soomes. Vt. samas: Tallinnas lao- ning tootmispinnad poolaastaga kallinenud kuni 37%; Helsingis on kõige rohkem tõusnud C-kvaliteediklassi pinnad; Tartu piirkonnas enamik saadaolevaid pindu keskmises või halvas seisukorras

  7. The Struggle for Rents in a Schumpterian Economy

    de Groot, H.L.F.


    This paper develops a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market. Trade unions strive for the extraction of as high a rent as possible from the growth generating imperfectly competitive primary sector. This union behaviour results in a non-competitive wage differential between the

  8. The meaning of competition between social and market rented housing

    Lennartz, C.; Haffner, M.E.A.; Oxley, M.J.


    When policy makers claim that rented housing has to become more competitive, there is no consensus on what competition in this context actually means. The same holds true for scientific housing research: Theories that have utilized the economic concept of competition tend to rely on implicit definit

  9. 18 CFR 367.1720 - Account 172, Rents receivable.


    ... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1720 Account 172, Rents... receivable. 367.1720 Section 367.1720 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005,...

  10. Developments in Accommodating Intraocular Lenses

    Zeki Tunç


    Full Text Available Technical progress in cataract surgery has decreased the incidence of severe complications in this type of surgery. The introduction of micro incision cataract surgery (MICS (sub- 2.0 mm incision allow the surgeon to achieve better postoperative control of astigmatism and higherorder aberration (HOAs with minimum induction of both. It is believed that multifocal lenses provide very successful results, however, there are limitations to these. Implantation of accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs is an option to treat presbyopia. The IOLs work by using the continued functionality of the ciliary muscle after cataract removal. Accommodating IOLs were designed to avoid the optical side effects of multifocal IOLs. Two main design concepts exist. First, axial shift concepts rely on anterior axial movement of one or two optics creating accommodative ability. Second, curvature change designs are designed to provide significant amplitudes of accommodation with little physical displacement. Accommodative IOLs to correct astigmatism and HOAs in the future are needed. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 288-93

  11. Fair Market Rents For The Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are primarily used to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice Voucher program, to determine initial renewal rents for some...

  12. 75 FR 76036 - Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise Disbursement Divisions...


    ... Employment and Training Administration Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise... of Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc., including the Accounts Payable, Rent, and Merchandise... the same division, are engaged in activities related to the supply of accounts payable,...

  13. Revenue Management approach to car rental business : Revenue Management guide for Helkama Rent Ltd

    Rantanen, Aimo


    The purpose of this product-oriented thesis is to study revenue management as a business practise and and create a Revenue Management guide for the assigning company Helkama Rent Ltd car rental. The guide is supposed to give ideas and a structure for Revenue Management in Helkama Rent Ltd. Helkama Rent Ltd has been struggling with the profitability issues recently. Revenue Management guide will help Helkama Rent to obtain Revenue Management philosophy, and give ideas and tools for more effici...

  14. 24 CFR 888.113 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Methodology.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing housing: Methodology. 888.113 Section 888.113 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... existing housing: Methodology. (a) Basis for setting fair market rents. Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are...

  15. 41 CFR 102-85.140 - How are changes in Rent reflected in OAs?


    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR... specified in OAs will serve as notice to agencies of future Rent changes for budgeting purposes. For a discussion of budgeting for Rent, see § 102-85.160. (b) Changes to Rent other than those identified in...

  16. 77 FR 46447 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...


    ... statistically valid one-year ACS data is available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are... housing of a modest (non-luxury) nature with suitable amenities. In addition, all rents subsidized under... that HUD would not want to utilize in setting FMRs (e.g., luxury efficiency apartments that rent...

  17. A centre for accommodative vergence motor control

    Wilson, D.


    Latencies in accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil-diameter responses to changing accommodation stimuli, as well as latencies in pupil response to light-intensity changes were measured. From the information obtained, a block diagram has been derived that uses the least number of blocks for representing the accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil systems. The signal transmission delays over the various circuits of the model have been determined and compared to known experimental physiological-delay data. The results suggest the existence of a motor center that controls the accommodative vergence and is completely independent of the accommodation system.

  18. Reasonable Accommodation in Training Safety.

    Sandoz, Jeff

    A pictograph and icon-driven training program has been specifically designed for educators who are responsible for teaching the developmentally disabled regarding the safe use of hazardous chemicals. In alignment with the Americans with Disabilities Act, it offers "reasonable accommodation" by those who educate and train this special…

  19. The Control of Land Rent in the Fortified Farming Town

    John Hartwick


    We consider costly administration at the center of a farming community surrounding a fortified village. Land rent taxation is high cost mode of financing central administration in a tax incidence sense. Participatory administration by the governed is a lower cost alternative. We speculate why the low cost option has been out-competed by its higher cost alternative throughout history. We also take up constraints on predation on farmers by a landlord at the center.

  20. Rent seeking oligopolistic behaviour in European gasoline markets

    Michael L. Polemis; Panagiotis N Fotis


    This paper explores the asymmetric adjustment speed of gasoline price in twelve European Union (EU) countries transmitted directly in a single stage formulation. The empirical results shed new light on the taxation effect and its role to the price asymmetry nexus, pointing that in many EU countries a crude oil price increase is passed through more forcefully than a price decrease revealing a rent-seeking oligopolistic behaviour by the marketers.

  1. Optimal Licensing Contracts with Adverse Selection and Informational Rents

    Daniela MARINESCU


    Full Text Available In the paper we analyse a model for determining the optimal licensing contract in both situations of symmetric and asymmetric information between the license’s owner and the potential buyer. Next we present another way of solving the corresponding adverse selection model, using the informational rents as variables. This approach is different from that of Macho-Stadler and Perez-Castrillo.

  2. Migration as an antidote to rent-seeking?

    Mariani, Fabio


    International audience; We develop a new mechanism through which skilled migration may influence economicperformance in the sending country. If agents can choose between acting asrent-seekers and engaging in productive activities, and only productive skills are exportable,a positive probability of migration (to a more secure economy) reduces therelative expected returns from rent-seeking, thus decreasing the proportion of skilledworkers who opt for ”parasitic” activities. Such an improvement ...

  3. Chicago's water market: Dynamics of demand, prices and scarcity rents

    Ipe, V.C.; Bhagwat, S.B.


    Chicago and its suburbs are experiencing an increasing demand for water from a growing population and economy and may experience water scarcity in the near future. The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly depleted its groundwater resources to a point where interstate conflicts with Wisconsin could accompany an increased reliance on those sources. Further, the withdrawals from Lake Michigan is limited by the Supreme Court decree. The growing demand and indications of possible scarcity suggest a need to reexamine the pricing policies and the dynamics of demand. The study analyses the demand for water and develops estimates of scarcity rents for water in Chicago. The price and income elasticities computed at the means are -0.002 and 0.0002 respectively. The estimated scarcity rents ranges from $0.98 to $1.17 per thousand gallons. The results indicate that the current prices do not fully account for the scarcity rents and suggest a current rate with in the range $1.53 to $1.72 per thousand gallons.

  4. Increasing natural resource rents from Farmland: A curse or a blessing for the rural poor?

    Hvid, Anna


    agricultural land on rent seeking and rent distribution. Results suggest that the potential for small scale farmers to organize and obtain political power determines the extent of rent seeking and rent distribution, and that while more democratic institutions may increase the share of rents going...... as a diffuse resource with low economic value, this categorization may no longer be appropriate, because demand for land is currently on the rise, and may continue to increase in the future. This study presents and discusses recent theoretical and empirical approaches to analyzing the effects of high-value...

  5. Treatment of Partly Accommodative Esotropia With a High Accommodative Convergence-Accommodation Ratio

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib)


    textabstractIn the June 1987 issue of the Archives, the results were published of a study by Kushner et al1 on the treatment of accommodative convergence excess, with bilateral medial rectus recessions or recessions with 14-mm posterior fixation sutures. Posterior fixation surgery was considered an

  6. Political rents in the European Union’s agriculture

    Czyżewski Bazyli


    Full Text Available Występowanie rent gruntowych we współczesnym rolnictwie UE potwierdza wieloletni rosnący trend cen ziemi rolniczej. Nasuwa się jednak pytanie, czy są to przede wszystkim renty różniczkowe związane z różną wydajnością gruntów rolnych, czy renty absolutne w klasycznym rozumieniu, czy też renty polityczne w ujęciu teorii wyboru publicznego? Cele artykułu mają przede wszystkim wymiar teoriopoznawczy. Podjęto w nim próbę weryfi kacji koncepcji renty gruntowej, którą sformułowano na podstawie badań przeprowadzonych w Polsce. Tym razem jednak zakres badań obejmuje pełen przekrój struktur agrarnych UE. Według wspomnianej koncepcji źródłem współczesnej renty gruntowej jest wyższa oczekiwana produktywność kapitału w rolnictwie niż w jego otoczeniu rynkowym. Często tłumaczy się to zjawisko wypłacaniem rent politycznych w ramach WPR. Czy tak jest w istocie ? Przeprowadzone badania odpowiadają na pytanie w jakich krajach i strukturach agrarnych ewentualna różnica wspomnianej produktywności kapitału jest największa i na ile wynika to z rent politycznych, a na ile z innych czynników?

  7. Adaptability: how to accommodate changing user preferences

    Remoy, H.T.; Van der Voordt, D.J.M.


    Purpose: When current accommodation is unsatisfactorily, office organisations consider relocating to new accommodation that optimally facilitate their main processes, supporting image and financial yield. However, due to high vacancy levels, public opinion and governmental awareness oppose new

  8. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul


    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  9. Rent-seeking and timber rights allocation in Ghana

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard


    This paper describes types, processes and importance of rent-seeking in the allocation of timber rights in Ghana. It is based on an analysis of 30 interviews with large-, medium- and small-scale timber firms, as well as government officials and timber industry organizations in Ghana. The paper...... involving exchange of timber rights for political support and/or material, personal benefits. Second, timber rights are allocated to persons or firms outside the timber sector allegedly as payment for political support. The paper concludes that the Voluntary Partnership Agreement between Ghana and the EU...

  10. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul


    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  11. Agricultural rent-seeking in developing countries: an empirical investigation

    Hvid, Anna


    Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...... or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis....

  12. Accommodative spasm in siblings: A unique finding

    Rutstein Robert


    Full Text Available Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm.

  13. Intraocular lens with accommodation capacity

    Dorronsoro, Carlos; Alejandre, Nicolás; Bekesi, Nandor; Marcos, Susana


    Intraocular lens with accommodation capacity comprising a first optical member (1) having a dynamic optical power, to which a second optical member (2) with a fixed optical power is affixed, in such a manner that at least a central part of each of one of one of the curved surfaces (2a, 2b) of the second optical member (2) and of at least one of the surfaces (1a, 1b) of the first optical member (1) are in contact with each other, the second optical member (2) and the first optical member (1) p...

  14. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  15. Rent, Lease or Buy: Randomized Algorithms for Multislope Ski Rental

    Lotker, Zvi; Rawitz, Dror


    In the Multislope Ski Rental problem, the user needs a certain resource for some unknown period of time. To use the resource, the user must subscribe to one of several options, each of which consists of a one-time setup cost (``buying price''), and cost proportional to the duration of the usage (``rental rate''). The larger the price, the smaller the rent. The actual usage time is determined by an adversary, and the goal of an algorithm is to minimize the cost by choosing the best option at any point in time. Multislope Ski Rental is a natural generalization of the classical Ski Rental problem (where the only options are pure rent and pure buy), which is one of the fundamental problems of online computation. The Multislope Ski Rental problem is an abstraction of many problems where online decisions cannot be modeled by just two options, e.g., power management in systems which can be shut down in parts. In this paper we study randomized algorithms for Multislope Ski Rental. Our results include the best possibl...

  16. The land rent category in mainstream economics and its contemporary applications

    Bazyli Czyżewski


    Full Text Available The economic globalisation process makes the economic factors rotate faster. As a result the value added is intercepted by market mechanism and transferred to the economically stronger entities. That process concerns especially agriculture. There exists a crucial question whether an agricultural land factor is still capable to generate economic rents which would be the determinants of comparative advantages? On the one hand, D. Ricardo’s land rents are vanishing, H. George’s rents are provoking financial crisis, monetarists assumptions are becoming unsufficient, on the other, the land factor gains new environmental applications and there is still a hope that land rents have its origins in a real value. This paper aims at presenting the evolution of the land rents theory starting from classical economics. The author makes an attempt to answer the question if the land rent theories are still relevant and how land rent category can be implemented in agricul-tural policy of the UE? One formulates a hypothesis that the neoclassical theory of rent usually presented in economic textbooks is insufficient to describe reality reducing the sources of land rent to a low land supply flexibility and treating that as constant variable in economic models.

  17. Differentiation characteristics and influencing factors of ecological land rent among provinces in China

    LONG Kaisheng; ZHAO Yali; ZHANG Honghui; CHEN Ligen; LU Fangfang; GU Yuanyuan


    Ecological land rent is the excess profit produced by resource scarcity,and is also an important indicator for measuring the social and economic effects of resource scarcity.This paper,by calculating the respective ecological land rents of all the provinces in China for the years 2002 and 2007,and with the assistance of the software programs ArcGIS and GeoDA,analyzes the spatial differentiation characteristics of ecological land rent; then,the influencing factors of ecological land rent differentiation among the provinces are examined using the methods of traditional regression and spatial correlation analysis.The following results were obtained:First,ecological land rent per unit of output in China shows stable distribution characteristics of being low in the southwestern and northeastern provinces,and high in Hebei and Henan provinces.There is also an increasing tendency in the central and western provinces,and a decreasing one in the eastern provinces.In general,the spatial distribution of ecological land rent per unit of output in China is quite scattered.Second,the total ecological land rent shows significant spatial aggregation characteristics,in particular the provinces in China possessing high total amounts of ecological land rent tend to be adjacent to one another,as do those with low total amounts,and the spatial difference characteristics of the eastern,central and western provinces are distinguished.The Bohai Rim,Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta are shown to be highly clustering regions of total ecological land rent,while the western provinces have very low ecological land rent in terms of total amount.Third,population distribution,economic level and industrial structure were all important influencing factors influencing ecological land rent differentiation among provinces in China.Furthermore,population density,urbanization level,economic density,per capita consumption level and GDP per capita were all shown to be positively related to total

  18. Rent Regulation in Jamaica: Socialist Past, Global reality, Inaction and the Working Class

    M. Mills


    Full Text Available Empirical evidence has established the association between rent control and crises such as oil and World wars; yet the Jamaican governments have not reintroduced rent control and updated the Rent Restriction Act despite global recession, oil and food crises and increased poverty. The objectives of this work are: 1 To conduct a documentary analysis of prior research on the extent of the problem, and these will provide an understanding and a content for the current work; 2 To identify the issues/concerns of the Rent Restriction Act; 3 To assess the issues/concerns of the Rent Restriction Act, and 4 Drawing on the knowledge of Rent Restriction Act, recommend policies or measures that can be instituted to address changes in the framework in Jamaica. The current work used mixed method approach, phenomenology and survey research. Landlords indicated that they had more right than for tenants; their complaints were the non-payment of rent; were more knowledge of Rent Restriction Act than the tenants and the majority of them did not answer the question on “Have you ever had a case where the Act was referred to?” Two times more males were knowledge about the Rent Restriction Act than that of female; more males indicated that they had rights than that of females, less females’ problem was harassment than that of males; more males gave the Rent Restriction Act a good rating compared to females and 3.5 times more males believed that the Rent Restriction Act was relevant in contemporary Jamaica. The findings provide understanding of the issues, and can be used to aid policy formulation.

  19. International Product Market Integration, Rents and Wage Formation

    Sørensen, Allan

    International product market integration enhances both export possibilities through easier access to foreign markets, but also the import threat arising from foreign firms penetrating into the domestic market. These mechanisms affect wage formation and employment creation through many channels...... including product market rents and the possibility that jobs may be relocated across national labour markets. Possibilities and threats, however, will not in general be uniformly distributed across firms and therefore groups in the labour market. These issues are explored in a Ricardian trade model...... with imperfect competition, heterogeneity in the labour market, and decentralized wage-bargaining. The Paper analyses how product market integration affects wage formation, and identifies characteristics of winners and losers in the integration process....

  20. Intergenerational equity and the investing of rents from exhaustible resources

    Hartwick, J.M.


    The present generation's ethical dilemma over shortchanging future generations by overconsuming exhaustible resources could be relieved by a program of converting the capital from these resources into machines and living off the current flow of machines and labor. If the stock of machines is assumed not to depreciate, then the stock of productive capital and resources is not depleted. Cobb-Douglas technology is used to determine what will happen to consumption if only the rents from exhaustible resources are invested in reproducible capital goods. An important feature of Cobb-Douglas technology is that input in the form of minerals from an exhaustible resource is needed to get a positive output of the single produced commodity. Results of the model indicate that a savings investment rule will not provide for the maintenance of per capita consumption constant over time. Further studies have explored the effects of depreciations and intergenerational equity. 7 references.

  1. Changes of Changes: Personal Life Strategy in the Context of Regional Social and Labour Policy: Purchase of Accommodation

    Nadezhda Sergeevna Zemlyanukhina


    Full Text Available This is the first of three articles in cycle that is dedicated to the regional aspect of change of Russians life strategy in solving the important personal problems like provision of housing, acquisition of income in terms of the profession and merited pension maintenance in the context of the current and prospective changes. The first article concentrates on the solution of housing problem by young Russians and young families. The methods, which are accessible for the citizens of Saratov, were analyzed in terms of the hardest ways without privileges and government support: pledge, housing rent and deposit. The authors presented the digital data on comparison between the popular pledge of OJSC Sberbank and similar ones at the start conditions of housing rent and deposits. Theyve specified the possibility of the reducing time and the amount of payment of the purchased apartment from 20 years, where is the amount of overpayment is 1 850 498, to 4.5-7 years, altogether without overpayments. The basic risks when using discussed ways of the accommodation purchase were demonstrated and specific examples of risks in Saratov were given. There are no absolute priorities when choosing the way of the accommodation purchase, there are examples in the article of a sharp increase of the efficiency within the pledge, and the rent on condition that only one factor has changed. Besides, there are examples of mixed ways including social housing and service housing. Nowadays there is a psychological aspect of the underestimate of the cost-effectively housing rent. As a result we made a conclusion that in spite of the real impossibility to plan and predict the changes, the success of individual strategy of life in solving housing and other important problems depends on the perception and understanding of the changes, on the early use for practical purposes and on the existing life stereotypes.

  2. Tullock's rent-seeking contest with a minimum expenditure requirement (vol 93, pg 477, 1997)

    Schoonbeek, L; Kooreman, P

    We consider a rent-seeking contest of the kind introduced by Tullock (1980) in which two players compete for a monopoly rent. We extend the contest by requiring that if a player puts forward an effort, his expenditures must be larger than or equal to some minimum level. We show that, depending on

  3. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.


    ... date. The applicable Federal rate for a rental agreement means— (i) The Federal short-term rate if the... interest (the stated rate of interest) on deferred or prepaid fixed rent at a single fixed rate (as defined in § 1.1273-1(c)(1)(iii)); (B) The stated rate of interest on fixed rent is no lower than 110 percent...

  4. Reducing Rents from Energy Technology Adoption Programs by Exploiting Observable Information

    Aalbers, R.F.T.; Vollebergh, H.R.J.; de Groot, H.L.F.


    In this paper, we study how regulators may improve upon the efficiency of their energy technology adoption programs by exploiting readily observable information to limit rent extraction by firms. Using panel data on 862 investment decisions in the Netherlands, we find that rent extraction is closely

  5. Fighting for rents: agricultural windfall gains and social change in land-abundant developing countries

    Hvid, Anna


    and political power and hence the distribution of rents. Specifically, when it comes to agricultural land, the characteristics of land imply that the organizational capacity of farmers is a crucial determinant of the distribution of agricultural rents. The historical case examples indicate that the extent...... of organizational capacity may be determined by land inequality, the heterogeneity of farmers and the political environment....

  6. The Effects of Rent Restructuring on Social Housing in English Rural Areas

    Walker, Bruce


    This paper discusses the impact of central government's rent restructuring policy on social housing in rural areas in England. It examines the effect that restructuring will have on the rents set by social landlords in a set of case study areas then considers some of the likely impacts on affordability and on new investment in rural social…

  7. 24 CFR 984.304 - Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income.


    ... PROGRAM Program Operation § 984.304 Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income. 984.304 Section 984.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations...

  8. 76 FR 52057 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...


    ... where statistically valid one-year ACS data is available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and... privately owned, decent, and safe rental housing of a modest (non-luxury) nature with suitable amenities. In....g., luxury efficiency apartments that rent for more than typical one-bedroom units). HUD...

  9. Barriers to the Adoption of Sustainable Agriculture on Rented Land: An Examination of Contesting Social Fields

    Carolan, Michael S.


    While over half of the cropland in the United States is rented, interest in land tenancy within sociological circles has been sporadic at best. In light of the prevalence of rented land in agriculture--particularly in the Midwest--it is vital that further research be conducted to investigate the effect that the rental relationship has upon the…

  10. Evaluating relative accommodations in general binocular dysfunctions

    García Muñoz, Ángel; Cacho Martínez, Pilar; Lara Lacarcel, Francisco


    Purpose. To examine the relationship between relative accommodation and general binocular disorders and to establish their importance in the diagnosis of these anomalies. Methods. We analyzed data of negative relative accommodation (NRA) and positive relative accommodation (PRA) in 69 patients with nonstrabismic binocular anomalies. Results. Statistical analysis showed that low values of NRA and PRA were not associated with any particular disorder. High values of PRA (>3.50 D) were related to...

  11. Uniformity of accommodation across the visual field.

    Liu, Tao; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Thibos, Larry N


    We asked the question: Does accommodation change the eye's focusing power equally over the central visual field in emmetropic and myopic adult eyes? To answer this question we modified our laboratory scanning wavefront aberrometer to rapidly measure ocular refractive state over the central 30° diameter of visual field as a function of foveal accommodative demand. On average, ocular refractive state changed uniformly over the central visual field as the eye accommodated up to 6 D. Visual field maps of accommodative error (relative to a spherical target surface of constant vergence) reveal subtle patterns of deviation on the order of ± 0.5 D that are unique to the individual and relatively invariant to changes in accommodative state. Population mean maps for accommodative error are remarkably uniform across the central visual field, indicating the retina of the hypothetical "average eye" is conjugate to a sphere of constant target vergence for all states of accommodation, even though individual eyes might deviate from the mean due to random variations. No systematic difference between emmetropic and myopic eyes was evident. Since accuracy of accommodation across the central visual field is similar to that measured in the fovea, loss of image quality due to accommodative errors, which potentially drives myopia and may affect many aspects of visual function, will be similar across the central retina.

  12. Is There Rent Sharing in Italy? Evidence from Employer-Employee Data

    Alessia Matano


    Full Text Available Using a unique employer-employee panel database, we investigate the extent of rent sharing in Italy from 1996 to 2003. We derive the following findings. First, after controlling for the national bargaining level, there is robust evidence of rent sharing at firm level. Second, by means of fixed effects estimates we show that the sorting of high-ability workers into high-profit firms appears to play a substantial role, since it captures a significant amount of cross sectional estimates of rent sharing. Third, in accordance to the related literature the endogeneity of profits causes a severe underestimation of rent sharing. Our final IV estimate of the elasticity of wages with respect to profits per employee amounts to 6%, with a "Lester" range of 24%. Moreover, we point out that the impact of rent sharing is not homogeneous across several dimensions (gender, occupation, sector and macroarea.

  13. Fighting for rents: agricultural windfall gains and social change in land-abundant developing countries

    Hvid, Anna


    In recent years, a global increase in demand for agricultural commodities and land has contributed to increasing agricultural prices. This trend can be expected to continue in the future, and may result in significantly higher land rents. This paper investigates the potential distributional effects...... of increasing land rents in land-abundant developing countries from a theoretical viewpoint, and provides historical case examples to support the theoretical propositions. It is proposed that the specific characteristics of a rent-generating natural resource have implications for the concentration of economic...... and political power and hence the distribution of rents. Specifically, when it comes to agricultural land, the characteristics of land imply that the organizational capacity of farmers is a crucial determinant of the distribution of agricultural rents. The historical case examples indicate that the extent...

  14. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.


    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  15. Accommodation Outcomes and the ICF Framework

    Schreuer, Naomi


    Accommodation of the environment and technology is one of the key mediators of adjustment to disability and participation in community. In this article, accommodations are tested empirically as facilitators of return to work and participation, as defined by the "International Classification of Disability, Function, and Health" (ICF) and…

  16. Real and Pseudoaccommodation in Accommodative Lenses

    Ioannis G. Pallikaris


    Full Text Available In the attempt to manage presbyopia, different intraocular lens designs have been proposed such as monofocal IOLs with monovision or multifocal IOLs. Even though the lenses mentioned offer satisfactory visual results, contemporary ophthalmology has not completely answered the presbyopic dilemma by simulating the accommodative properties of the crystalline lens itself. Accommodative IOLs were designed to fill this gap and provide satisfactory vision for all distances by restoring some degree of “pseudoaccommodation.” Pseudo accommodative capability can be linked to monofocal IOL’s as well but the results are not satisfactory enough to fully support unaided near vision. Pseudoaccommodation is a complex phenomenon that can be attributed to several static (i.e., pupil size, against-the-rule cylindrical refractive error, multifocality of the cornea and dynamic (i.e., anterior movement of the implant itself factors. Objective measurement of the accommodative capability offered by the accommodative IOLs is extremely difficult to obtain, and different methods such as autorefractometers, retinoscopy, and ultrasound imaging during accommodative effort, ray tracing, or pharmacological stimulation have been developed but the results are sometimes inconsistent. Despite the difficulties in measuring accommodation, accommodative IOLs represent the future in the attempt to successfully “cure” presbyopia.


    Melissa Li Sa Liow


    Full Text Available This paper starts by clarifying the role of branding orientation (BO among academic studies. It shortly introduces the development of the BO concepts. The empirical part consists of a search for and analysing of academic articles using a meta-analysis that consider BO in the accommodation industry. According to the results, significant appraisal of the branding building activities among higher star rating and luxury accommodation businesses are taking place due to the increasingly demanding guests. Thus, there is an upward pressure on small and medium accommodation businesses to survive or perform well. This paper recommends that scholars study the owners-managers, employees, and customer perspectives altogether, to better comprehend how large accommodation businesses displaying BO can generate superior performance. For the small and medium accommodation businesses, the emphasis is the owners-managers perceptions since they are the main decision-makers, and due to infancy of the small and medium enterprise (SME branding application.

  18. The Effects of Tax Competition when Politicians Create Rents to Buy Political Support

    Eggert, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    . Allowing tax base mobility may be welfare-enhancing up to a point, because the ensuing tax competition will reduce rents. However, if tax competition is carried too far, it will reduce welfare by causing an underprovision of public goods. Starting from an equilibrium where tax competition has eliminated...... all rents, a coordinated rise in capital taxation will always be welfare-improving. For plausible parameter values it will even be welfare-enhancing to carry tax coordination beyond the point where rents to public sector workers start to emerge...

  19. Nonverbal accommodation in health care communication.

    D'Agostino, Thomas A; Bylund, Carma L


    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within health care interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as joint convergence, followed closely by asymmetrical-patient convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by joint convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as asymmetrical-physician convergence. Differences were predominantly nonsignificant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre- and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as joint convergence or asymmetrical-physician convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender-concordant and nonconcordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in health care communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective.

  20. [Techniques for measuring phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Methodology for distinguishing between neurological and mechanical accommodative insufficiency].

    Roche, O; Roumes, C; Parsa, C


    The methods available for studying accommodation are evaluated: Donder's "push-up" method, dynamic retinoscopy, infrared optometry using the Scheiner principle, and wavefront analysis are each discussed with their inherent advantages and limitations. Based on the methodology described, one can also distinguish between causes of accommodative insufficiency. Dioptric insufficiency (accommodative lag) that remains equal at various testing distances from the subject indicates a sensory/neurologic (afferent), defect, whereas accommodative insufficiency changing with distance indicates a mechanical/restrictive (efferent) defect, such as in presbyopia. Determining accommodative insufficiency and the cause can be particularly useful when examining patients with a variety of diseases associated with reduced accommodative ability (e.g., Down syndrome and cerebral palsy) as well as in evaluating the effectiveness of various potentially accommodating intraocular lens designs.

  1. Accommodative performance of children with unilateral amblyopia.

    Manh, Vivian; Chen, Angela M; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A; Candy, T Rowan


    The purpose of this study was to compare the accommodative performance of the amblyopic eye of children with unilateral amblyopia to that of their nonamblyopic eye, and also to that of children without amblyopia, during both monocular and binocular viewing. Modified Nott retinoscopy was used to measure accommodative performance of 38 subjects with unilateral amblyopia and 25 subjects with typical vision from 3 to 13 years of age during monocular and binocular viewing at target distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm. The relationship between accommodative demand and interocular difference (IOD) in accommodative error was assessed in each group. The mean IOD in monocular accommodative error for amblyopic subjects across all three viewing distances was 0.49 diopters (D) (95% confidence interval [CI], ±1.12 D) in the 180° meridian and 0.54 D (95% CI, ±1.27 D) in the 90° meridian, with the amblyopic eye exhibiting greater accommodative errors on average. Interocular difference in monocular accommodative error increased significantly with increasing accommodative demand; 5%, 47%, and 58% of amblyopic subjects had monocular errors in the amblyopic eye that fell outside the upper 95% confidence limit for the better eye of control subjects at viewing distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm, respectively. When viewing monocularly, children with unilateral amblyopia had greater mean accommodative errors in their amblyopic eyes than in their nonamblyopic eyes, and when compared with control subjects. This could lead to unintended retinal image defocus during patching therapy for amblyopia. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  2. The Influence of Membership Groups on Selecting Accommodations: the Case of the Residential Tourist

    Javier Perez-Aranda


    Full Text Available An understanding of consumer behavior when choosing property as accommodations improves the use of limited resources such as land and may promote the suitable development of tourism destinations. Knowledge of the factors that influence consumer behavior and that condition the process of purchasing a residential tourism property is useful in managing and designing strategies for segmenting tourism destinations. This study analyzes the influence of membership groups such as social class, culture, and family on choosing the type of property (ownership versus renting or using family or friends’ property and the typology (single- or multifamily that is in demand among residential tourists in the destination. Firstly, we identify which membership groups specifically influence the selection of type of property (social class and family. Then, we identify which groups influence the property typology (social class and people who are traveling and, in addition, those that influence both choices (social class.

  3. Rente und subnationale Gewalt. Der Beitrag der politischen Ökonomie

    Hartmut Elsenhans


    Full Text Available Rents are a basic element of the political economy of underdeveloped economies. They hinder and often block the mechanism of social integration through gainful employment and veto the power of labour, which characterizes capitalist societies and the constitution of citizenship. The impact of rent on political structures is, however, ambiguous. Anomie is only one possible result. Hence the link between raw material exports and non-state violence is also ambiguous. Many societies, which are characterized by rents, have developed quite powerful mechanisms of keeping internal peace, possibly with limited participation. The conditions of differential impacts of rent on social structures and political behaviour call for an analysis of internal interest mediation.

  4. Retail Concentration and Shopping Center Rents - A Comparison of Two Cities

    François Des Rosiers; Marius Thériault; Catherine Lavoie


    This study aims primarily at testing whether, and to what extent, retail concentration within regional and super-regional shopping centers affect rent levels, as well as the differential impact it may...

  5. Reduced accommodation in children with cerebral palsy.

    Leat, S J


    Accommodation in 43 subjects with cerebral palsy was measured objectively using a dynamic retinoscopy technique, which has already been shown to be reliable and repeatable. The subject's ages ranged from 3 to 35 years. Of these, 42% were found to have an accommodative response pattern which was different from the normal control group for his/her age. Nearly 29% had an estimated amplitude of accommodation of 4 D or less. The presence of reduced accommodation was found to be associated with reduced visual acuity, but was not associated with cognitive or communication ability, refractive error or age. The prevalence of other ocular disorders in this group is also high. These findings have developmental and educational implications.

  6. Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Arthritis

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Arthritis By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... SOAR) at . Information about Arthritis How prevalent is arthritis? An estimated 50 million ...

  7. Accommodation of workers with chronic neurologic disorders.

    Bleecker, Margit L; Barnes, Sheryl K


    The ability to work is important to those with chronic neurologic disorders (CND) and to the aging workforce. Many signs and symptoms are similar in those with CND and normal aging, but may interfere with the ability to work if not appropriately accommodated. This requires the healthcare provider to recognize the specific features of the CND that interferes with work and how it can be accommodated. Review of the American with Disabilities Act and the subsequent amendment informs the healthcare provider as to what is covered under the law and how the disability can be accommodated. Overall employers want to retain qualified employees and therefore accommodating workers is beneficial to both the employee with CND and the employer.

  8. Exploring the Relationship Between Students Needing Accommodations and Instructor Self-Efficacy in Complying With Accommodations

    Anna M Wright; Kevin R Meyer


    .... Specifically, the authors' explored the relationship between student selfdisclosure of a disability and instructor empathy, flexibility, and self-efficacy in meeting student accommodation needs...

  9. Multiple Constructs and Effects of Accommodations on Accommodated Test Scores for Students with Disabilities

    Stephanie W. Cawthon


    Full Text Available Students with disabilities frequently use accommodations to participate in large-scale, standardized assessments. Accommodations can include changes to the administration of the test, such as extended time, changes to the test items, such as read aloud, or changes to the student's response, such as the use of a scribe. Some accommodations or modifications risk changing the difficulty of the test items or decreasing the validity of how test scores are interpreted. Questions regarding the validity of accommodated tests are heightened when scores are used in high-stakes decisions such as grade promotion, graduation, teacher merit pay, or other accountability initiatives. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on multiple constructs that affect validity of interpretations of accommodated assessment scores. Research on assessment accommodations continues to grow but offers few conclusive findings on whether they facilitate fair and accurate measurement of student knowledge and skill. The validity of an accommodated score appears to vary depending on several factors such as student characteristics, test characteristics, and the accommodations themselves. A multiple construct approach may facilitate more accurate evaluations of the effects of accommodated test scores

  10. Complex treatment of accommodation disturbances in students

    O. G. Pozdeeva


    Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the effectiveness of different methods of treatment accommodation disturbances in patients 18‑23 years old.Methods: Determination of refraction and the size of the absolute accommodation and reserves of the relative accommodationbefore and after the treatment with Midrimax and Irifrin 2.5 % in combination with the course of electrostimulation.Results: The clinical effect was obtained in all patients. The maximum improvement of visual functions with a lower degree of myopia (1.0‑3.0 D, increase of absolute accommodation (by 2.5‑3,.D and reserves of the relative accommodation (up to age norms were observed in the younger age group of patients, wich had received the treatment with Midrimax, especially when combined with electrostimulation.Conclusion: Instillation of Midrimax in the treatment of violations of accommodation contribute to the effective reduction in the degree of myopia and improve of accomodation in patients 18‑23 years old. The combination of this therapy with functional methods of treatment increase its effectiveness.

  11. Complex treatment of accommodation disturbances in students

    O. G. Pozdeeva


    Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the effectiveness of different methods of treatment accommodation disturbances in patients 18‑23 years old.Methods: Determination of refraction and the size of the absolute accommodation and reserves of the relative accommodationbefore and after the treatment with Midrimax and Irifrin 2.5 % in combination with the course of electrostimulation.Results: The clinical effect was obtained in all patients. The maximum improvement of visual functions with a lower degree of myopia (1.0‑3.0 D, increase of absolute accommodation (by 2.5‑3,.D and reserves of the relative accommodation (up to age norms were observed in the younger age group of patients, wich had received the treatment with Midrimax, especially when combined with electrostimulation.Conclusion: Instillation of Midrimax in the treatment of violations of accommodation contribute to the effective reduction in the degree of myopia and improve of accomodation in patients 18‑23 years old. The combination of this therapy with functional methods of treatment increase its effectiveness.

  12. Openness of Economy, Foreign Investment Inflows and the Phenomenon of Rent Seeking Corruption

    Syed Toqueer Akhter


    Full Text Available Rent seeking behavior has been amongst noticeable obstacles in path of economic growth and development for developing communities. Due to this the study aims at testing the hypothesis that the Rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy is being influenced by the openness of economy as well as inflows of foreign investment significantly. Model estimations imply that reforms may have an insignificant impact upon impact upon curtailing the rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy in a time series setting therefore this research will use two statistical econometric models to show the effect of corruption on the foreign direct inflow received in Pakistan. In order to pretest the impact of all the mentioned variables on rent seeking behavior generalized least square was used because its results were unbiased, consistent and the problem of Serial correlation was solved by using it. In order to quantify rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy different aspects of misuse of public offices appearing in form of petty and grand corruption were used using the variables informal sector, tax evasion, judicial outlay, G.D.P and F.D.I as percentage of G.D.P. All of the variables had proper signs aligned with the theory and all of the variables appeared to be significant except judicial outlay proving that the judiciary has been incompetent and ineffective. The robust regression showed all the same signs except in it every variable was appearing to be significant. Rent seeking corruption has been highly affecting Pakistan in adverse ways and this paper will show how many factors like judiciary is not playing effective role in limiting corruption and also how the economy is being affected by rent seeking behavior.

  13. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  14. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa


    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.


    Ramona DOBRE


    Full Text Available The present paper aims to demonstrate the role that ground rent has in establishing the agricultural land price. In order to be able to prove the connection between the ground rent and the agricultural land price, there are submitted to debate indicators that are part of ground rent such as the positioning of the land, the distance between the land and the access roads and water source, the intrinsic qualities of the land soil, the type of land and the manner of exploitation. The debate is intended to show how and in what manner the indicators part of ground rent may influence the price of an agricultural land. The final purpose of this study is to prove that a justified land price may contribute to encourage the agricultural land transactions and therefore to develop the land market. To fulfil the purpose of this paper it is necessary to understand what land ground means, why it is important the land price and how can the agricultural land price influence the agricultural land market and the development of the agriculture overall. The main methods utilized are collecting, analyze and interpreting data and information from the specialized literature. The conclusions formulated at the end of the study allow seeing the influence of ground rent on agricultural land price, the influence of the agricultural land price on agricultural land market and the influence of agricultural land market on the development of the agriculture.

  16. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.


    ..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and other... facilities, and size of budget; (2) Job restructuring, part-time or modified work schedules, acquisition and... sign language, when appropriate. (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A...

  17. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.


    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  18. Robot response behaviors to accommodate hearing problems

    Vroon, Jered; Kim, Jaebok; Koster, Raphaël


    One requirement that arises for a social (semi-autonomous telepresence) robot aimed at conversations with the elderly, is to accommodate hearing problems. In this paper we compare two approaches to this requirement; (1) moving closer, mimicking the leaning behavior commonly observed in elderly with

  19. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry


    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  20. Water Accommodation on Bare and Coated Ice

    Kong, Xiangrui


    A good understanding of water accommodation on ice surfaces is essential for quantitatively predicting the evolution of clouds, and therefore influences the effectiveness of climate models. However, the accommodation coefficient is poorly constrained within the literature where reported values vary by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, the complexity of the chemical composition of the atmosphere plays an important role in ice phase behavior and dynamics. We employ an environmental molecular beam (EMB) technique to investigate molecular water interactions with bare and impurity coated ice at temperatures from 170 K to 200 K. In this work, we summarize results of water accommodation experiments on bare ice (Kong et al., 2014) and on ice coated by methanol (Thomson et al., 2013), butanol (Thomson et al., 2013) and acetic acid (Papagiannakopoulos et al., 2014), and compare those results with analogous experiments using hexanol and nitric acid coatings. Hexanol is chosen as a complementary chain alcohol to methanol and butanol, while nitric acid is a common inorganic compound in the atmosphere. The results show a strong negative temperature dependence of water accommodation on bare ice, which can be quantitatively described by a precursor model. Acidic adlayers tend to enhance water uptake indicating that the system kinetics are thoroughly changed compared to bare ice. Adsorbed alcohols influence the temperature dependence of the accommodation coefficient and water molecules generally spend less time on the surfaces before desorbing, although the measured accommodation coefficients remain high and comparable to bare ice for the investigated systems. We conclude that impurities can either enhance or restrict water uptake in ways that are influenced by several factors including temperature and type of adsorbant, with potential implications for the description of ice particle growth in the atmosphere. This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council and

  1. Changes of levels of rent and risk in the activity of rural farms in Poland

    Agnieszka Kurdyś-Kujawska


    Full Text Available Lease of agricultural land is a form of the land use. It enables to create or increase a farm, without having to pay capital-expenditure related to the purchase of land. In exchange for the land lease, the tenant agrees to pay a rent, which is a constant burden on its budget and can affect the economic situation of the farm. Changes in the value of rent result in, to a large extent, deficit of land in some areas of Poland, increase of prices and demand for agricultural land. The aim of the study was to analyse the determinants and dynamics of changes in the rates of agricultural rents. The source material for the study were data on the agricultural land market in Poland in 2000-2011 published by the IERiGŻ and GUS.

  2. WHY MY PARTICIPATION MATTERS: Rent-seeking with endogenous prize determination

    Klarizze Anne Puzon; Marc Willinger


    We analyze an institutionalized rent-seeking game in which groups can endogenously choose the prize at stake, e.g. a common-pool resource. In the first stage, groups determine how much of the resource to protect and equally share. In the second stage, the unprotected fraction is competed for in a rent-seeking game. We consider two institutions varying in the extent by which subjects participate: majority voting (i.e. "unrestrained participation" where all group members participate in the prot...

  3. Rent taxation and its intertemporal effects in a small open economy

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Poutvaara, Panu


    Previous literature concludes that replacing wage taxation by taxes on a fixed factor or its rents benefits future generations. However, the effects of such steady-state gains on the transition generations have been left open. In this paper, we show that taxation of rents may also increase utilit...... of the current generation provided tax revenues are earmarked to reduce wage taxes. In particular, a shift in the tax mix may yield an intergenerational Pareto-improvement when the initially prevailing tax mix is sufficiently skewed toward wage taxation....

  4. Capital switching and the role of ground rent: 2 Switching between circuits and switching between submarkets

    R J King


    In the first paper of this series of three, Harvey's 'circuits of capital' argument was discussed, and was linked first to ground rent theory, and second to forms of social change and crisis in advanced, Western-style economies. In the present paper these various theoretical insights are used to reflect upon the urban housing market in Melbourne from the 1930s to the 1980s. It is concluded (1) that average rent (average annual cost relative to wages), and thereby housing-related accumulation,...

  5. The effects of tax competition when politicians create rents to buy political support

    Eggert, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Peter Birch


    We set up a probabilistic voting model to explore the hypothesis that tax competition improves public sector efficiency and social welfare. In the absence of tax base mobility, distortions in the political process induce vote-maximising politicians to create rents to public sector employees....... Allowing tax base mobility may be welfare-enhancing up to a point, because the ensuing tax competition will reduce rents. However, if tax competition is carried too far, it will reduce welfare by causing an underprovision of public goods. Starting from an equilibrium where tax competition has eliminated...

  6. The Effect of a Sports Stadium on Housing Rents: An Application of Geographically Weighted Regression

    Jorge Enrique Agudelo Torres


    Full Text Available Researchers have determined that real estate prices vary in continuous ways as a function of spatial characteristics.  In this study we examine whether geographically weighted regression (GWR provides different estimates of price effects around a sports stadium than more traditional regression techniques.  We find that an application of GWR with hedonic prices finds that the stadium has a negative external effect on housing rents that extends outward 560 meters, in contrast to the positive external effect on housing rents found using a conventional estimation technique.

  7. Finding Good Areas for Renting Apartments Using Apartments Information and Users' Trajectories

    Si, R.; Lu, M.; Arikawa, M.; Asami, Y.; Iwasaki, J.


    Current apartment renting web sites provide services to search apartments by attribute filters while they lack the services to help find areas that are convenient for living and meet customers' personal preference. In many cases, people not only need attributes of the apartments meeting their requirements, but also need the attributes of the area be satisfied. We propose an IT service that can find appropriate areas for customers to rent apartments while they want to move to new places. The areas are picked according to users' life styles mined from their former moving trajectories and to the attributes of the areas calculated from preferences of present rooms of users.


    Stephanie O. Crofton


    Full Text Available The bubonic plague that swept England in 1349 provides an example of how changes in economic conditions can change norms of social behavior. The death of almost 50 percent of the population altered the returns to labor and land. As the demand for land and the supply of labor declined, rents fell and wages rose. This increased wage-to-rent ratio shifted the structure of the economy from household production to market production. In turn, these changes affected migration, family and community ties, women s labor force participation, family size, inheritance customs, the status of landowning widows, and care for the elderly.

  9. Force and Accommodation in World Politics


    two weeks later . Finally, on 22 September two Soviet newspaper editors approached Kennedy’s press secretary, Pierre Salinger , in New York and asked if...the president had received the message . When Salinger indicated he was unaware of it, the Soviet diplomats gave him the essence of Khrushchev’ the 235 FORCE AND ACCOMMODATION United Nations in New York. After reviewing Khrushchev’s letter with Salinger and Dean Rusk, Kennedy delivered a

  10. 75 FR 11553 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... use of FMRs or voucher payment standards should be directed to the respective local HUD program staff... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate... Market Rents published on August 4, 2009 (74 FR 38716), HUD conducted Random Digit Dialing (RDD)...

  11. Using the private rented sector as a form of social housing

    Oxley, M.; Brown, T.; Haffner, M.; Hoekstra, J.; Lishman, R.


    The paper considers the role of the private rented sector in supplying housing that can be defined as social housing. It will do this by considering policy initiatives in Germany, France, the USA and England that use privately owned housing to meet social needs. The operation of these initiatives

  12. 75 FR 46958 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...


    ... metropolitan areas. However, the first publication of five-year ACS data does not begin until the fourth... current survey data. For FY 2011, FY 2010 FMRs are updated using 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) data, and more recent Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes. HUD continues to use ACS data in...

  13. 78 FR 47339 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program, Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... valid one-year ACS data is available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are used... Budget (OMB) metropolitan area definitions as updated through December 1, 2009 and include HUD... definition update has not been incorporated in the FMR process due to the timing of the release and the...

  14. The welfare costs of rent-seeking: a methodologically individualist and subjectivist revision

    Michael Makovi


    Full Text Available Gordon Tullock is acknowledged for being the first to recognize the true costs of rent-seeking as including not only the Harberger triangle but also the Tullock rectangle. This rectangle does not constitute merely a lossless transfer of wealth, but it causes a misallocation of resources as rent-seekers invest resources in lobbying. However, a close reading of Tullock’s writings shows that his arguments are formulated in a holistic fashion, speaking of what is efficient or inefficient for society. Rent-seeking is inefficient because it reduces societal welfare. But according to a methodologically individualist and subjectivist economics, such a claim is invalid. We must distinguish between positive economic fact and normative moral philosophy. We call for a reconstruction of utility and welfare economics based on methodological individualism and subjectivism with implications for the theories of monopoly and competition: practices which Neoclassical perfect-competition theory considers to be evidence of rent-seeking should instead be deemed as indications of genuine competition Political economy should be concerned with ascertaining which institutions will best enable individuals to pursue their individually subjective ends – or else economists should be explicit about their normative preferences and political philosophies.

  15. Rents From the Essential Health Benefits Mandate of Health Insurance Reform.

    Mendoza, Roger Lee


    The essential health benefits mandate constitutes one of the most controversial health care reforms introduced under the U.S. Affordable Care Act of 2010. It bears important theoretical and practical implications for health care risk and insurance management. These essential health benefits are examined in this study from a rent-seeking perspective, particularly in terms of three interrelated questions: Is there an economic rationale for standardized, minimum health care coverage? How is the scope of essential health services and treatments determined? What are the attendant and incidental costs and benefits of such determination/s? Rents offer ample incentives to business interests to expend considerable resources for health care marketing, particularly when policy processes are open to contestation. Welfare losses inevitably arise from these incentives. We rely on five case studies to illustrate why and how rents are created, assigned, extracted, and dissipated in equilibrium. We also demonstrate why rents depend on persuasive marketing and the bargained decisions of regulators and rentiers, as conditioned by the Tullock paradox. Insights on the intertwining issues of consumer choice, health care marketing, and insurance reform are offered by way of conclusion.

  16. 12 CFR 1282.19 - Affordability-Rent level definitions-tenant income is not known.


    ... GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.19 Affordability—Rent level... very low-, low-, or moderate-income families where the income of the family in the dwelling unit is not known to the Enterprise, the affordability of the unit is determined based on unit size as follows:...

  17. 24 CFR 982.613 - Group home: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.


    ...) Meaning of pro-rata portion. For a group home, the term “pro-rata portion” means the ratio derived by... owner for an assisted person may not exceed the pro-rata portion of the reasonable rent for the group...-rata portion of the payment standard amount on the PHA payment standard schedule for the group...

  18. 24 CFR 982.617 - Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.


    .... (a) Meaning of pro-rata portion. For shared housing, the term “pro-rata portion” means the ratio... for the family may not exceed the pro-rata portion of the reasonable rent for the shared housing... standard amount on the PHA payment standard schedule for the family unit size; or (2) The pro-rata...

  19. Renting a Place to Live. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 9. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, focuses on renting a place to live. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic, thinking, interpersonal, information utilization, and other skills addressed in the…

  20. Rent Control and Virtual Prices: A Case Study for Interwar Belgium

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); E. Buyst (Erik)


    textabstractAfter World War I rent control became a cornerstone of housing policy in many European countries, resulting in quantity constraints on the demand for housing. The theory on complete demand systems provides a framework for analyzing the effects of these policies on consumption. As a test

  1. Moving beyond misperceptions: the provision of workplace accommodations.

    Hernandez, Brigida; McDonald, Katherine; Lepera, Nicole; Shahna, Monna; Wang, T Arthur; Levy, Joel M


    This mixed-methods study examined the provision of workplace accommodations in the health care, hospitality, and retail sectors. First, focus groups with administrators from each sector revealed that accommodations costs were viewed as minimal (although frontline managers were perceived as having misperceptions). Second, the provision of accommodations as documented through human resources records for health care and hospitality indicated that accommodations were infrequent, not costly, and provided to employees with disabilities. Finally, retail employees (irrespective of disability status) reported many more accommodations than health care and hospitality workers. To dispel misperceptions related to accommodations, education is critical and social workers are well-positioned for this role.

  2. 林地地租量化研究%A Study on the Calculation of Woodland Rent

    邹秀清; 张志云


    以马克思地租理论为指导,阐明市场经济条件下我国林地地租的内涵及特征:求出零级土地的立地指数等级和各立地等级的年级差地租,从总地租中分离出绝对地租和级差地租。%Guided by Marxist land rent theory, under the condition of market economy, the connotation and characteristics of woodland rent in our country are expounded. By calculating site index of zero-leveled woodland, annually differential woodland rent has been separated from absolute woodland rent among total rent.


    Portolan, Ana


    The private tourism accommodation concept has not been largely represented in the scientific research. It started appearing on the margins of the actual research in the past ten years, namely with a hotel as the most analyzed form of tourism accommodation. In the structure of tourism accommodation in Croatia in 2011 private accommodation participated with 465 000 beds which represents 49,8 percent of the total capacity and therefore demands more attention. Using the main marketing postulate w...

  4. Optimal Disturbance Accommodation with Limited Model Information

    Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H


    The design of optimal dynamic disturbance-accommodation controller with limited model information is considered. We adapt the family of limited model information control design strategies, defined earlier by the authors, to handle dynamic-controllers. This family of limited model information design strategies construct subcontrollers distributively by accessing only local plant model information. The closed-loop performance of the dynamic-controllers that they can produce are studied using a performance metric called the competitive ratio which is the worst case ratio of the cost a control design strategy to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information.

  5. Reminder : Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees


    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel : 72862 / 74474

  6. Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees


    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel: 72862 / 74474

  7. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.


    ... accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to or... deckheads of each accommodation space must be a light color. (e) Each accommodation space in which water may... readily enter any sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space....

  8. Accommodation-Amplitudes following an Accommodative Lens Refilling Procedure — an in vivo Update

    Nishi, Okihiro; Nishi, Yutaro; Chang, S.; Nishi, Kayo


    Purpose To investigate whether a newly developed lens refilling procedure can provide some accommodation in monkey eyes and to evaluate the difference in accommodation with different degrees of capsular bag refilling. Setting Jinshikai Medical Foundation, Nishi Eye Hospital, Osaka, Japan. Design Experimental monkey study. Methods Following a central 3–4 mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, phacoemulsification was performed in the usual manner. A novel accommodative membrane intraocular lens for sealing capsular opening was implanted into the capsular bag. Silicone polymers were injected beneath the intraocular lens into the capsular bag through the delivery hole. In three study groups, each with six monkey eyes, the lens capsule was refilled with 0.08 ml corresponding to 65% bag volume, 0.1 ml corresponding to 80% bag volume, and 0.125 ml of silicone polymers corresponding to 100% bag volume, respectively. To calculate the accommodation-amplitudes achieved, automated refractometry was performed before and 1 hour after the topical 4% pilocarpine application before and four weeks after surgery. Results The refilling technique was successful in all monkeys without polymer leakage. Accommodation-amplitudes attained were 2.56 ± 0.74 dioptries (D), 2.42 ± 1.00D, and 2.71 ± 0.63D, respectively, 4 weeks after surgery in the three study groups. Conclusions Using the technique, some accommodation could be obtained in the young monkey eyes. Leakage of the injectable silicone polymer and anterior capsular opacification at least in the visual axis could be avoided. The results suggest that this lens refilling procedure warrants further studies for a possible clinical application. PMID:24461501

  9. 41 CFR 102-85.155 - What does a customer agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill?


    ... classification, appraised Rent, or the allocation of space), the agency may appeal its Rent bill to GSA. (b) GSA... review of the measurement, classification, service levels provided, or charges assessed that pertain to... contract rent passed through from the underlying lease cannot be appealed; (3) In GSA-owned space, when...

  10. [Dissociated near reflex and accommodative convergence excess].

    Gräf, M; Becker, R; Kloss, S


    We report on an 8-year-old boy whose near reflex could be elicited exclusively when the left eye was fixing (LF) but not when the right eye was fixing (RF). With RE +1.25/-1.25/169 degrees and LE +1.0/-0.75/24 degrees, the visual acuity was 1.0 OU at 5 m and RE 0.5, LE 1.0 at 0.3 m improving to 1.0 OU by a near addition of 3.0 D. Stereopsis was 100 degrees (Titmus test). The prism and cover test revealed an esophoria of 4 degrees at 5 m. At 3 m there was an esophoria of 6 degrees (RF) and an esotropia of 28 degrees (LF), compensating to an esophoria of 3 degrees (RF/LF) with a near addition of 3.0 D. Accommodation and the pupillary near reaction (OU) were hardly elicitable during RF. During LF, retinoscopy revealed an accommodation of 8 D (OU) and the pupils constricted normally. Correction by bifocal glasses yielded orthotropia with random dot stereopsis at near.

  11. Rent pricing decision support mathematical model for finance leases under effective risks

    Rabbani Masoud


    Full Text Available Nowadays, leasing has become an increasingly important and popular method for equipment acquisition. But, because of the rent pricing difficulties and some risks that affect the lessor and lessee's decision making, there are many people that still tend to buy equipment instead of lease it. In this paper we explore how risk can affect the leasing issue support mathematical model. For this purpose, we consider three types of risk; Credit risk, Transaction risk and Risk based pricing. In particular, our focus was on how to make decision about rent pricing in a leasing problem with different customers, various quality levels and different pricing methods. Finally, the mathematical model has been solved by Genetic Algorithm that is a search heuristic to optimize the problem. This algorithm was coded in MATLAB® R2012a to provide the best set of results.



    Operational Circular No. 4 (Rev. 1) entitled “Use of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN”, approved by the Director-general following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 15 February 2012, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 4 entitled “Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN” of April 2003. This new version enables, in particular, to include CERN contractors and their personnel, to harmonize the structure of the circular with other circulars and to simplify the procedures by permitting electronics forms. Department Head Office HR Department

  13. It's the rents, stupid. The political economy of the resource curse

    Kolstad, Ivar; Wiig, Arne [Chr. Michelsen Institute, P.O. Box 6033 Postterminalen, N-5892 Bergen (Norway)


    A number of studies suggest that natural resources can have a negative impact on the developing prospects of countries. Empirical results suggest that political economy models of patronage and rent-seeking are central to understanding why such a resource curse arises. In other words, the resource curse is created by certain resource rents leading to dysfunctional behaviour. This article introduces the term impartiality enhancing institutions to structure policy debates by distinguishing conditions under which negative effects of resources can be mitigated. Moreover, it is argued that viewing institutions as an equilibrium outcome has implications for the analysis of institutional change. Policy initiatives that do not promote the impartiality of institutions, nor attend to the underlying interests and incentives keeping a bad institutional equilibrium in place, will not help lift the resource curse. (author)

  14. Are physicians profit or rent seekers? Some evidence from state economic growth rates.

    Reilly, Mary; Santerre, Rexford E


    Previous research has debated whether physicians act as profit- or rent-seekers. We argue that these two models of physician behavior can be tested by observing empirically the relationship between physician density and economic growth rates. A direct (inverse) relationship provides evidence for the profit-seeking (rent-seeking) theory of physician behavior. We empirically examine the impact of physician density on the economic growth of all US states over the period from 1973 to 2009. The empirical analysis generally finds a statistically significant and direct relationship between physician density and the growth of gross state product. The results are robust with respect to state- and time-fixed effects, individual state time trends, and 2SLS (two-stage least squares) estimation. Thus, in support of the profit-seeking theory of physician behavior, the findings reveal that physicians generally have a positive impact on the growth of the US economy.

  15. Le référent zoulou omniprésent

    Frédéric Giraut


    Full Text Available Illustration 1 – Ephémère mémorial à la gloire de Shaka sur la plage de DurbanAuteur :  Said Boujrouf, Durban, octobre 2007.En tant qu'épopée d'un royaume précolonial conquérant et éphémère vainqueur de l'armée coloniale britannique, l'histoire zouloue avec son mythique chef Shaka a été érigée en mythe par les colonisés d’Afrique australe et par les colons britanniques et afrikaners. L'histoire guerrière a été mise scène de différents points de vue et à travers différents médias (cinéma, télé...

  16. The NBA’s Maximum Player Salary and the Distribution of Player Rents

    Kelly M. Hastings


    Full Text Available The NBA’s 1999 Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA included provisions capping individual player pay in addition to team payrolls. This study examines the effect the NBA’s maximum player salary on player rents by comparing player pay from the 1997–1998 and 2003–2004 seasons while controlling for player productivity and other factors related to player pay. The results indicate a large increase in the pay received by teams’ second highest and, to a lesser extent, third highest paid players. We interpret this result as evidence that the adoption of the maximum player salary shifted rents from stars to complementary players. We also show that the 1999 CBA’s rookie contract provisions reduced salaries of early career players.

  17. Celestial marriage and earthly rents: interests and the prohibition of polygamy.

    Anderson, G M; Tollison, R D


    Just prior to the Civil War, the US government set out on a relentless campaign to eliminate polygamy within the Mormon Church. This paper offers evidence that the political restrictions on the practice of polygamy were the result of rent seeking by potential beneficiaries of such laws (the Edmonds Act of 1882). Polygamy created benefits for women, but reduced the welfare of most men, in a time period when only adult males had the franchise.

  18. Sustainable Rent-Based Closed-Loop Supply Chain for Fashion Products

    Zhi-Hua Hu; Qing Li; Xian-Juan Chen; Yan-Feng Wang


    The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products. Considering the features of fashion products, a system of a rent-based closed-loop supply chain is developed to improve the sustainability of fashion products. The supply chain processes (fashion design and...

  19. Home : no less will do - homeless people's access to the private rented sector

    Reeve, Kesia; Cole, Ian; Batty, Elaine; Foden, Michael; Green, Stephen; Pattison, Ben


    The research on which this report is based was carried out by the Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research (CRESR) at Sheffield Hallam University. It was commissioned by Crisis in response to concerns that single homeless people are finding it difficult to access the private rented\\ud sector, at a time when there is increased reliance on the sector to meet housing need. Changes introduced through the Localism Act 2011 in England, for example, allowed local\\ud authorities to discharge ...

  20. Rent sharing to control non-cartel supply in the German cement market


    A challenge for many cartels is avoiding a destabilizing increase in non-cartel supply in response to having raised price. In the case of the German cement cartel that operated over 1991-2002, the primary source of non-cartel supply was imports from Eastern European cement manufacturers. Industry sources have claimed that the cartel sought to control imports by sharing rents with intermediaries in order to discourage them from sourcing foreign supply. Specifically, cartel members would all...

  1. Kebijakan Ekonomi Politik Stated-Centered dan Rent-Seeking Behavior dalam Kebijakan Pangan Impor Beras

    Wahyu Riawanti


    Full Text Available This present a critical assessment of the political economy that underlie food policy and rice import in Indonesia. State-centric behavior and rent-seeking practices are important determinants of food policy formulation in Indonesia. The study analyzes the importation of rice by the Indonesian government. Study result show that rice policy is based on three main point which are: relationship between farmer's term of trade (NTP, ruse production and distribution; and political power in policy formulation.

  2. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area


    The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for st...

  3. Viewpoint – Rent-Seeking in Agricultural Water Management: An Intentionally Neglected Core Dimension?

    Walter Huppert


    The author, drawing on thirty-five years of experience in the field of agricultural water management and on cases from research and from development cooperation, puts forward his personal viewpoint on this matter. He contends that local as well as international professionals on different levels in the water sector are caught in multifaceted conflicts between formal objectives and hidden interests – and often tend to resort to rent-seeking behaviour themselves.

  4. The child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome.

    Summit, R C


    Child victims of sexual abuse face secondary trauma in the crisis of discovery. Their attempts to reconcile their private experiences with the realities of the outer world are assaulted by the disbelief, blame and rejection they experience from adults. The normal coping behavior of the child contradicts the entrenched beliefs and expectations typically held by adults, stigmatizing the child with charges of lying, manipulating or imagining from parents, courts and clinicians. Such abandonment by the very adults most crucial to the child's protection and recovery drives the child deeper into self-blame, self-hate, alienation and revictimization. In contrast, the advocacy of an empathic clinician within a supportive treatment network can provide vital credibility and endorsement for the child. Evaluation of the responses of normal children to sexual assault provides clear evidence that societal definitions of "normal" victim behavior are inappropriate and procrustean, serving adults as mythic insulators against the child's pain. Within this climate of prejudice, the sequential survival options available to the victim further alienate the child from any hope of outside credibility or acceptance. Ironically, the child's inevitable choice of the "wrong" options reinforces and perpetuates the prejudicial myths. The most typical reactions of children are classified in this paper as the child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome. The syndrome is composed of five categories, of which two define basic childhood vulnerability and three are sequentially contingent on sexual assault: (1) secrecy, (2) helplessness, (3) entrapment and accommodation, (4) delayed, unconvincing disclosure, and (5) retraction. The accommodation syndrome is proposed as a simple and logical model for use by clinicians to improve understanding and acceptance of the child's position in the complex and controversial dynamics of sexual victimization. Application of the syndrome tends to challenge entrenched

  5. A Bi-modal Model for Chinese Cities: City Size, Car Use and Land Rent

    DAI Teqi; WANG Liang; ZHOU Binxue


    China is experiencing rapid urbanization and motorization.Urban transport congestion poses a challenge to the cities of China.Policies have been made trying to control the car use and the land use in Chinese cities without sound modelling researches.The existing literature on monocentric city modelling has shown that the parameters are critical for the outcome of the modelling.Following the Alonso-type monocentric model,this paper introduces a bi-modal model to simulate the city size,the distribution of land rent and the modal substitution in Chinese cities.We set the key parameters according to the recent available data of China's cities,and re-explain the hypothesis of the model.Then we make a sensitivity analysis to reveal the impacts of key parameters on the Chinese cities.According to the results,we find that the wage,the price of car use and the agriculture rent have significant impacts on city size.The land supply for the private transport or the public transport has the strongest impacts on car use and the level of transport congestion.The total population of the city and the wage level have strong impacts on land rent.Some results are counter-intuitive,but explainable.We also discuss implication of these results for policy making.

  6. Rent control and other aspects of tenancy law in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    Norberg, Per; Juul-Sandberg, Jakob

    In the Nordic EU member states legislation on landlord’s and tenant’s rights is defined from a socio-economic aspect. The three countries share a common legal »core« which originates from common contract law principles. Tenancy law regulation is different in major areas – especially rent regulation...... the rent regulation regimes in Sweden and Denmark as opposed to the »free market« in Finland. The aim is to draw conclusions on the functionality of the different and whether some things can be learned from the differences in between them. The elements of tenant »ownership rights« in the three countries...... are also compared and leads up to the question of whether they should be assessed as so important in relation to contractual principles that one can state that a tenant has a »right of ownership« to a home in the three countries. Analysing rent regulation regimes understanding the importance of path...

  7. FDI and Accommodation Using NN Based Techniques

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; de Miguel Catoira, Alberto; Sanz, Beatriz Ferreiro

    Massive application of dynamic backpropagation neural networks is used on closed loop control FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. The process dynamics is mapped by means of a trained backpropagation NN to be applied on residual generation. Process supervision is then applied to discriminate faults on process sensors, and process plant parameters. A rule based expert system is used to implement the decision making task and the corresponding solution in terms of faults accommodation and/or reconfiguration. Results show an efficient and robust FDI system which could be used as the core of an SCADA or alternatively as a complement supervision tool operating in parallel with the SCADA when applied on a heat exchanger.

  8. Workplace accommodations for people with mental illness: a scoping review.

    McDowell, Caitlin; Fossey, Ellie


    Disability discrimination legislation means that employees with a disability or mental illness are legally entitled to reasonable workplace accommodations that enable them to work effectively and safely. This scoping review aims to investigate the types of workplace accommodations provided for people with mental illness, and their costs and benefits. A literature search was conducted using five electronic databases. Peer reviewed research articles published between 1993 and June 2013 were included in this scoping review and their quality was assessed. Opinion papers, reports, and case descriptions were excluded. Nine studies explored workplace accommodations for people with mental illness. The most commonly reported work-related accommodations were flexible scheduling/reduced hours, modified training and supervision, and modified job duties/descriptions. The least common type of accommodation was physical modification to the workplace. For employees with persistent mental illness who were accessing a supported employment agency, the majority of accommodations related to support from the job coach or employment specialist, such as facilitating communication with the employer during hiring or on the job. The quality of the studies varied considerably and the benefits of the accommodations are not yet well documented. There is limited evidence that a larger number of workplace accommodations are associated with longer job tenure. Workplace accommodations appear to be important to support employees with mental illness, but more accessible information about how disability discrimination legislation applies to this population is needed. Future research should address the implementation and effectiveness of mental health-related workplace accommodations.

  9. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

    Joshua Mugambwa; George William Mugerwa; Wilson Williams Mutumba; Claire Muganzi; Bridget Namubiru; Yusuf Waswa; Isaac Newton Kayongo


    .... This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD) to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction...

  10. Can Partial Structures Accommodate Inconsistent Science?

    Peter Vickers


    Full Text Available The semantic approach to scientific representation is now long established as a favourite amongst philosophers of science. One of the foremost strains of this approach—the model-theoretic approach (MTA—is to represent scientific theories as families of models, all of which satisfy or ‘make true’ a given set of constraints. However some authors (Brown 2002, Frisch 2005 have criticised the approach on the grounds that certain scientific theories are logically inconsistent, and there can be no models of an inconsistent set of constraints. Thus it would seem that the MTA fails to represent inconsistent scientific theories at all, and this raises concerns about the way it represents in general. In a series of papers (1990, 1993, 1995 and a recent book (2003 da Costa and French have developed a variant of the MTA approach which they call ‘partial structures’, and which they claim can accommodate inconsistent theories. I assess this claim, looking to two theories which have been called ‘inconsistent’: Bohr’s theory of the atom and classical electrodynamics.

  11. Effect of Vision Therapy on Accommodation in Myopic Chinese Children

    Martin Ming-Leung Ma


    Full Text Available Introduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement to improve accommodative function in myopic children with poor accommodative response. Methods. This was a prospective unmasked pilot study. 14 Chinese myopic children aged 8 to 12 years with at least 1 D of lag of accommodation were enrolled. All subjects received 12 weeks of 60-minute office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement. Primary outcome measure was the change in monocular lag of accommodation from baseline visit to 12-week visit measured by Shinnipon open-field autorefractor. Secondary outcome measures were the changes in accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility. Results. All participants completed the study. The lag of accommodation at baseline visit was 1.29 ± 0.21 D and it was reduced to 0.84 ± 0.19 D at 12-week visit. This difference (−0.46 ± 0.22 D; 95% confidence interval: −0.33 to −0.58 D is statistically significant (p<0.0001. OBAVT also increased the amplitude and facility by 3.66 ± 3.36 D (p=0.0013; 95% confidence interval: 1.72 to 5.60 D and 10.9 ± 4.8 cpm (p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: 8.1 to 13.6 cpm, respectively. Conclusion. Standardized 12 weeks of OBAVT with home reinforcement is able to significantly reduce monocular lag of accommodation and increase monocular accommodative amplitude and facility. A randomized clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of vision therapy on myopia progression is warranted.

  12. Reducing appropriable quasi rents to combat the hold-up problem in contract agriculture

    Karantininis, Kostas; Graversen, Jesper Tranbjerg


    This paper examines the problem of hold-up in the agri-food sector. Production contracts offered to future Danish Broiler producers give rise to specific investments and appropriable quasi rents. Farmers are vulnerable to opportunistic behaviour by poultry processors which materializes in lower......, when building the broiler house, to prepare a viable future change in production from broilers to pigs. This will increase the bargaining power to farmers and may result in higher producer prices. Based on the general model of the hold-up problem with co-specific investments (Koss & Eaton, 1997...

  13. Marx’s Ground Rent Theory and Innovation of China’s Urban Land System

    Jiefang; ZHU


    China’s traditional urban land system is established in highly centralized planned economy. This system negates functions of value law and economic law fundamentally,so it is not favorable for establishment of market mechanism and development of market economy. This study took Marx’s ground rent theory as guidance,combined existing problems of China’s land use system,and made analysis on innovation of China’s urban land system from property right system,land market and land price.

  14. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    Mărioara Drugă


    Full Text Available The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for studied species, rations structure and distance from industrial platform and didn’t reach toxic level in any case.

  15. Les Glasgow Rent Strikes de 1915 ou quand la désobéissance civile des femmes contraint le législateur When Female Disobedience Lays Down the Law: the 1915 Glasgow Rent Strikes

    Olivier Esteves


    Full Text Available The outbreak of World War I in 1914 generated a massive influx of workers into the Clyde area, a hugely strategic region for heavy industry (shipyards, but also ammunition factories. This influx caused rents to rise in a certain number of districts, mostly around the factories and the shipyards. In order to protest against such grossly unfair increases, the women of Glasgow and their families decided to refuse to pay the new rents. They argued that they too contributed actively to the war effort, and that, by imposing rent hikes, the landlords of Glasgow and their factors implicitly sided with the German foe, by weakening a portion of the population so instrumental in supplying the British armed forces on the continent. After several months of actively sustained civil disobedience, Parliament passed a law that fixed rents until the end of the conflict. But in actual fact the Glasgow Rent Strikes generated certain changes that were to go way beyond the peculiar context of the Great War.

  16. ATHENA: system studies and optics accommodation

    Ayre, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Ferreira, I.; Wille, E.; Fransen, S.; Stefanescu, A.; Linder, M.


    ATHENA is currently in Phase A, with a view to adoption upon a successful Mission Adoption Review in 2019/2020. After a brief presentation of the reference spacecraft (SC) design, this paper will focus on the functional and environmental requirements, the thermo-mechanical design and the Assembly, Integration, Verification & Test (AIVT) considerations related to housing the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) Mirror Modules (MM) in the very large Mirror Assembly Module (MAM). Initially functional requirements on the MM accommodation are presented, with the Effective Area and Half Energy Width (HEW) requirements leading to a MAM comprising (depending on final mirror size selected) between 700-1000 MMs, co-aligned with exquisite accuracy to provide a common focus. A preliminary HEW budget allocated across the main error-contributors is presented, and this is then used as a reference to derive subsequent requirements and engineering considerations, including: The procedures and technologies for MM-integration into the Mirror Structure (MS) to achieve the required alignment accuracies in a timely manner; stiffness requirements and handling scheme required to constrain deformation under gravity during x-ray testing; temperature control to constrain thermo-elastic deformation during flight; and the role of the Instrument Switching Mechanism (ISM) in constraining HEW and Effective Area errors. Next, we present the key environmental requirements of the MMs, and the need to minimise shock-loading of the MMs is stressed. Methods to achieve this Ø are presented, including: Selection of a large clamp-band launch vehicle interface (LV I/F); lengthening of the shock-path from the LV I/F to the MAM I/F; modal-tuning of the MAM to act as a low-pass filter during launch shock events; use of low-shock HDRMs for the MAM; and the possibility to deploy a passive vibration solution at the LV I/F to reduce loads.

  17. Accommodating World Englishes in Developing EFL Learners' Oral Communication

    Mukminatien, Nur


    This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs) and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accommodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner's linguistic needs for…

  18. Making Accommodations: The Legal World of Students with Disabilities.

    Grossman, Paul D.


    Describes the legal requirements with which institutions of higher education must comply regarding students with disabilities. Addresses the topics of equal access, degree of deference toward institutions' accommodations decisions, documentation, types of accommodation, and benefits to the academic community from inclusion of people with…

  19. Evaluating Computer-Based Test Accommodations for English Learners

    Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Sireci, Stephen G.


    Test accommodations for English learners (ELs) are intended to reduce the language barrier and level the playing field, allowing ELs to better demonstrate their true proficiencies. Computer-based accommodations for ELs show promising results for leveling that field while also providing us with additional data to more closely investigate the…

  20. School Boarding Accommodation. A Design Guide. Building Bulletin 84.

    Wilson, Jeremy; Lloyd-Jones, Liz; Carden, Tom; Daniels, Richard; Fitzgerald, Brian; Maddick, Jenny

    This bulletin contains on-statutory guidance describing good practice and its implications for boarding accommodation to assist those responsible for briefing and designing boarding accommodations across all school sectors. It offers practical advice and illustrates examples that reflect changes in provision which are thought to be acceptable and…

  1. The Evolution of the Number of Tourists accommodated in Arad

    Sergiu Rusu


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the evolution of the number of tourists accommodated in Arad between January 2006 and September 2009. For this purpose we have used the statistics data from the official sites. As variables we chose: X – independent variable - Total tourist arrival and accommodated in Arad, Y - dependent variable - Tourists staying in hotels.

  2. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

    Joshua Mugambwa


    Full Text Available Privately provided accommodation is a growing service in Uganda’s higher education sector due to education liberalization and demand for education. This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction. Specifically, the objectives of the study were (a to find out the relationship between security and NTISD students’ satisfaction with privately provided accommodation, and (b to find out the hierarchical level of importance of NTISD student satisfaction of the three service quality dimensions (reliability, security, and tangibles with privately provided accommodation. Using quantitative and qualitative modes of data analysis and a sample of 300 students from 20 private hostels, this study established a strong positive significant relationship between security and satisfaction regarding privately provided accommodation. This implies that accommodation service providers should increase the quality of security so as to increase the satisfaction of students regarding privately provided accommodation. The study established the hierarchical order of importance from the most important service quality dimension, respectively, as follows: reliability, security, and tangibles. Therefore, private accommodation service managers should pay extra attention to the dimensions in the same order.

  3. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy


    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  4. Age-related changes in ocular aberrations with accommodation.

    Radhakrishnan, Hema; Charman, W Neil


    This study investigates the changes in aberrations with monocular accommodation as a function of age. Second-order and higher order wavefront aberrations and pupil size were measured as a function of accommodation demand over the range of 0-4 D in the right eyes of 47 normal subjects with ages between 17 and 56 years. Higher order ocular Zernike aberrations were analyzed for the natural pupil size in terms of their equivalent defocus and were also determined for fixed pupil diameters of 4.5 mm in the unaccommodated eyes and 2.5 mm in the accommodating eyes. With relaxed accommodation (0 D accommodation stimulus), the major change with age was in the value of C4(0), which increased in positive value over the age range studied, although the total higher order RMS wavefront aberration did not increase. When the data were analyzed for natural pupils, spherical aberration was again found to change systematically in the positive direction with age. The equivalent defocus of total higher order RMS error for natural pupils showed no significant correlation with age (p > .05). With active accommodation, spherical aberration was found to decrease and become negative as the accommodative response increased in the younger subjects (40 years), the spherical aberration showed only small changes, some of which were positive, within the limited amplitude of accommodation available. Other higher order aberrations and the RMS of higher order aberrations did not appear to change systematically with accommodation, except in the oldest subjects. The change with age in the relationship between aberration and accommodation is interpreted in terms of the changing gradients of refractive index and surface curvatures of the crystalline lens.


    Bazyli Czyżewski


    Full Text Available According to the “induced innovation model of agricultural development” there exist mechanisms for this sector’s participation in contributing to economic development, as well as in sharing its benefits. Nonetheless, inefficiencies of the market that distort market signals, constitute a barrier of the latter process. Therefore, the so-called “surplus drainage” from agriculture takes place. The authors claim that it is possible to objectively measure a “surplus drainage” from agriculture as a result of market failure. Assuming that rural areas generate public goods (i.e. a landscape, a biodiversity, rural culture and tradition, unique food quality, food safety, food security speculative land investors have lower willingness to contribute to its creation, than family farms. This is why agrarian policy levies more duties on them (institutional barriers and favours farmers. The mentioned premises imply that the CAP’s subsidies should not be perceived as political rents according to its classical definition. Only a part of subsidies left after subtracting a value of “surplus drainage” and a compensation of public goods has a hallmark of the rent. A valuation of these values is an important scientific challenge.

  6. Perceptions of private market landlords who rent to tenants of a Housing First program.

    Aubry, Tim; Cherner, Rebecca; Ecker, John; Jetté, Jonathan; Rae, Jennifer; Yamin, Stephanie; Sylvestre, John; Bourque, Jimmy; McWilliams, Nancy


    The rental of housing units by landlords to participants in Housing First (HF) programs is critical to the success of these programs. Therefore, it is important to understand the experiences of landlords with having these individuals as tenants. The paper presents findings of qualitative interviews with 23 landlords who rented to tenants from a HF program located in a small city and adjoining rural area in eastern Canada and in which approximately 75 % of tenants had been housed for at least six consecutive months at 2 years in the program. Findings showed that landlords are motivated to rent to HF tenants for financial and pro-social reasons. They reported holding a range of positive, neutral, and negative perceptions of these tenants. They identified problems encountered with some HF tenants that included disruptive visitors, conflict with other tenants, constant presence in their apartments, and poor upkeep of units. On the other hand, landlords perceived HF tenants as being mostly good tenants who are similar to their other tenants. Implications for practice in the context of HF programs are discussed.

  7. Study on accommodation by autorefraction and dynamic refraction in children.

    Krishnacharya, Prabhakar Srinivasapur


    Childhood accommodation interferes with accurate diagnosis of the latent refractive errors. Dynamic retinoscopy offers accurate measurements of accommodative response, while an autorefractometer can predict the accommodative system activation in children. A correlation of the accommodative effort with the dynamic refraction has been investigated in emmetropic children, before and after cycloplegia. A prospective clinical study of accommodative effort in 149 emmetropic children, in the age group 3-16 years, has been conducted using TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor. Dynamic refraction was performed by monocular estimation method before and after cycloplegia, using the retinoscope mirror light as target. Retinoscopic reflex produced 'with the motion' was corrected with positive spherical lenses, and that 'against the motion' was corrected with negative spherical lenses, to achieve neutralization. Mean accommodative effort measured for 149 children included in the study was -0.63±0.69D and dynamic refraction was -0.07±0.44D before cycloplegia, while the mean was+0.52D after cycloplegia, irrespective of the method used. Autorefractor measured -0.17D of accommodative effort per unit change in dynamic refraction before cycloplegia and +0.90D after cycloplegia. The performance of TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor was comparable to dynamic retinoscopy. Presence of many children, and in turn, large number of accommodative response data in 11-13 and 14-15 years group is probably linked to prolonged reading/writing. The accuracy and the agreement of the actual accommodative measurements revealed after cycloplegia. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Can ultrasound biomicroscopy be used to predict accommodation accurately?

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian


    Clinical accommodation testing involves measuring either accommodative optical changes or accommodative biometric changes. Quantifying both optical and biometric changes during accommodation might be helpful in the design and evaluation of accommodation restoration concepts. This study aims to establish the accuracy of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in predicting the accommodative optical response (AOR) from biometric changes. Static AOR from 0 to 6 diopters (D) stimuli in 1-D steps were measured with infrared photorefraction and a Grand Seiko autorefractor (WR-5100 K; Shigiya Machinery Works Ltd., Hiroshima, Japan) in 26 human subjects aged 21 to 36 years. Objective measurements of accommodative biometric changes to the same stimulus demands were measured from UBM (Vu-MAX; Sonomed Escalon, Lake Success, NY) images in the same group of subjects. AOR was predicted from biometry using linear regressions, 95% confidence intervals, and 95% prediction intervals. Bland-Altman analysis showed 0.52 D greater AOR with photorefraction than with the Grand Seiko autorefractor. Per-diopter changes in accommodative biometry were: anterior chamber depth (ACD): -0.055 mm/D, lens thickness (LT): +0.076 mm/D, anterior lens radii of curvature (ALRC): -0.854 mm/D, posterior lens radii of curvature (PLRC): -0.222 mm/D, and anterior segment length (ASL): +0.030 mm/D. The standard deviation of AOR predicted from linear regressions for various biometry parameters were: ACD: 0.24 D, LT: 0.30 D, ALRC: 0.24 D, PLRC: 0.43 D, ASL: 0.50 D. UBM measured parameters can, on average, predict AOR with a standard deviation of 0.50 D or less using linear regression. UBM is a useful and accurate objective technique for measuring accommodation in young phakic eyes. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. A win-win marginal rent analysis for operator and consumer under battery leasing mode in China electric vehicle market

    Li Zhe, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ouyang Minggao, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    Recently battery leasing has been introduced into the market by automobile manufacturers and power suppliers due to its potential to reduce the purchase cost of electric vehicles (EVs). However, the profit prospect of battery leasing is still uncertain. This paper takes the views of both the operators and consumers and calculates the 'win-win' marginal rent, which not only ensures the profitability of operators, but also allows consumers a lower expenditure than using Internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs) and EVs with embedded batteries. Battery cost, vehicle weight, gasoline and electricity price, and the discount rate have impacts on the rent. Battery cost plays a dominant role and a battery cost >5 Yen /W h fails to enable the survival of battery leasing to all types of EVs. Battery leasing would be more competitive when focusing on heavier EVs. At least one of the three thresholds is required for the existence of rent pricing range for a 1000 kg EV: gasoline retail price >6 Yen /L, electricity price <0.6 Yen /kW h, or the discount rate <7%. Typically, the feasible battery rent range is 0.34-0.38 Yen /W h/year for a 1000 kg EV under the present battery cost 2 Yen /W h and China current gasoline and electricity prices. - Highlights: > Rent pricing for EV battery leasing must obey win-win rule for BLO and consumers. > Rent is affected by battery cost, vehicle weight, energy price and discount rate. > Battery cost plays dominant role for the BLO survival as described in '5-3-2' Law. > Heavier EVs are more suitable for battery leasing when battery cost is high. > The profitability of BLO is sensitive to the price of gasoline and electricity.

  10. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis


    thermoregulation, muscular, and cardiac responses to weightlessness. In contrast, the five completed Cosmos/Bion flights, lacked the metabolic samples and behavioral task monitoring, but did facilitate studies of the neurovestibular system during several of the flights. The RRF accommodated two adult 8-11 kg rhesus monkeys, while the Russian experiments and hardware were configured for a younger animal in the 44 kg range. Both the American and Russian hardware maintained a controlled environmental system, specifically temperature, humidity, a timed lighting cycle, and had means for providing food and fluids to the animal(s). Crew availability during a Shuttle mission was to be an optimal condition for retrieval and refrigeration of the animal urine samples along with a manual calcein injection which could lead to greater understanding of bone calcium incorporation. A special portable bioisolation glove box was under development to support this aspect of the experiment profile along with the capability of any contingency human intervention. As a result of recent U.S./Russian negotiations, funding for Space Station, and a series of other events, the SLS-3 mission was cancelled and applicable Rhesus Project experiments incorporated into the Russian Bion 11 and 12 missions. A presentation of the RRF and COSMOS/Bion rhesus hardware is presented along with current plans for the hardware.

  11. Amplitude of Accommodation and its Relation to Refractive Errors

    Abraham Lekha


    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the relationship between amplitude of accommodation and refractive errors in the peri-presbyopic age group. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of 316 consecutive patients in the age group 35-50 years who attended our outpatient clinic were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 6/6 J1 in both eyes were included. The amplitude of accommodation (AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation (NPA. In patients with more than ± 2 diopter sphere correction for distance, the NPA was also measured using appropriate soft contact lenses. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in AA between myopes and hypermetropes ( P P P P P P >0.5. Conclusion: Our study showed higher amplitude of accommodation among myopes between 35 and 44 years compared to emmetropes and hypermetropes


    Edna Mrnjavac; Nadia Pavia; Maria Cerovic


    .... The aim is to display how linking all participants who provide private accommodation services into a logistics network will result in better and higher quality service for the guest and in reduced...


    Iwona Cieślik; Ewa Cieślik; Agnieszka Siembida; Małgorzata Tomczyk


    ... the accommodation facilities, and making a choice of a hotel in the Upper Silesia. The study involved 200 people, taking into account their gender, age, place of residence, education and occupational status...

  14. Opto-mechanical artificial eye with accommodative ability.

    Esteve-Taboada, José J; Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Marín-Franch, Iván; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Montés-Micó, Robert; López-Gil, Norberto


    The purpose of this study was to describe the design and characterization of a new opto-mechanical artificial eye (OMAE) with accommodative ability. The OMAE design is based on a second-pass configuration where a small source of light is used at the artificial retina plane. A lens whose focal length can be changed electronically was used to add the accommodation capability. The changes in the OMAE's aberrations with the lens focal length, which effectively changes the accommodative state of the OMAE, were measured with a commercial aberrometer. Changes in power and aberrations with room temperature were also measured. The OMAE's higher-order aberrations (HOAs) were similar to the ones of the human eye, including the rate at which fourth-order spherical aberration decreased with accommodation. The OMAE design proposed here is simple, and it can be implemented in an optical system to mimic the optics of the human eye.

  15. On cloud modelling and the mass accommodation coefficient of water

    A. Laaksonen


    Full Text Available The mass accommodation coefficient of water is a quantity for which different experimental techniques have yielded conflicting values in the range 0.04–1. From the viewpoint of cloud modelling, this is an unfortunate situation, since the value of the mass accommodation coefficient affects the model results, e.g. the number concentration of activated cloud droplets. In this paper we argue that a mass accommodation coefficient of unity should be used in cloud modelling, since this value has been obtained in experimental studies of water droplet growth rates, a quantity which is explicitly described in cloud models. In contrast, mass accommodation coefficient values below unity have been derived from experimental results which are analyzed with different theoretical expressions than those included in cloud models.

  16. Occlusal accommodation and mouthguards for prevention of orofacial trauma.

    Geary, Julian Lindsay


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of occlusal accommodation on the arch separation in centric and eccentric arch positions and to assess the opposing tooth contacts in professionally made, thermoformed sports mouthguards.

  17. Sustainable Rent-Based Closed-Loop Supply Chain for Fashion Products

    Zhi-Hua Hu


    Full Text Available The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products. Considering the features of fashion products, a system of a rent-based closed-loop supply chain is developed to improve the sustainability of fashion products. The supply chain processes (fashion design and manufacturing, laundry, logistics and disposal, the operations management issues (inventory management, closed-loop logistics, human-clothing matching, booking system and the rental pricing and the sustainability promotion aspects (customization, responsive system, culture and policy aspects are investigated by devising sustainable strategies. The rationalities of the developed system and strategies are reviewed and elucidated in detail. The results may contribute to building sustainable closed-loop fashion supply chains, the related information systems and operational and managerial mechanisms.

  18. An application of SODA methodology in student accommodation problems

    E. Teimoury; H. Gitinavard; Mousavi, S. M.


    The one of the main problems that students have faced with are the accommodation problems. In this paper, we review problems that may occur in university systems. Also, we use strategic options development and analysis method (SODA) to represent the accommodation problems and to create an agreement between student and staff. This method can help us with achieving goals; because in the same situation, there are different viewpoints for various reasons. By plotting the cognitive maps of involve...

  19. Accommodation in pediatric oncology: parental experiences, preferences and unmet needs.

    Daniel, Gunar; Wakefield, Claire E; Ryan, Barbara; Fleming, Catharine Ak; Levett, Nicole; Cohn, Richard J


    For families of children diagnosed with cancer, proximity to the treatment center and staying close to immediate family members are essential for proper patient management. Accommodation services are therefore a key consideration in pediatric oncology. This descriptive study explored the accommodation used, and preferred, by parents of pediatric cancer patients at Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick (SCH), Australia, and investigated their accommodation and practical needs. Forty-two parents from 25 families participated in individual semi-structured telephone interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded line-by-line. Coding was facilitated by data analysis software QSR NVivo v8 ( Emergent themes were numerically assessed to minimize the potential for researcher bias. Nine families (36%) lived near SCH and were able to stay at their own residence during treatment (mean distance of 15.4 km from SCH). The remaining families were categorized 'local, but requiring accommodation' (n=3 families represented by five parent interviews; mean distance of 82.22 km from SCH),'inner regional' (IR) (n=8 families, 15 parent interviews; mean distance of 396.75 km from SCH) or 'outer regional' (OR) (n=3 families, 5 interviews; mean distance of 547.4 km from SCH) according to the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) remoteness ratings. Accommodation provided for families from both IR and OR areas was mixed, with several families using multiple accommodation options during treatment, including Ronald Macdonald House (RMH), private accommodation or a rental property close to the hospital for the duration of the treatment. Six IR and one OR family utilized hotel or motel accommodation as an alternative to RMH due to unavailability of rooms. The majority of parents (37/42) preferred to stay on the hospital campus, near their child. Seven out of 11 IR and OR mothers preferred self-contained accommodation, while three out

  20. 24 CFR 1000.124 - What maximum and minimum rent or homebuyer payment can a recipient charge a low-income rental...


    ... homebuyer payment can a recipient charge a low-income rental tenant or homebuyer residing in housing units... Activities § 1000.124 What maximum and minimum rent or homebuyer payment can a recipient charge a low-income... charge a low-income rental tenant or homebuyer rent or homebuyer payments not to exceed 30 percent of...

  1. 77 FR 61157 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... publication of ACS data to use the 2010 Decennial census for geographic boundaries. Consequently, HUD... Community Survey (ACS). These data are updated by one-year recent-mover 2010 ACS data using areas where statistically valid one-year ACS data are available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are...

  2. 78 FR 61667 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... publication did show much lower coverage of the 2005-2009 PRCS compared with the 2005-2009 ACS, 79.5 percent... Community Survey (ACS). These data are updated by one-year recent-mover 2011 ACS data for areas where statistically valid one-year ACS data are available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are...

  3. 76 FR 12985 - Request for Comments on Trend Factor Methodology Used in the Calculation of Fair Market Rents


    ... publication in final form in the Federal Register. Each fair market rental in effect under this subsection... Bedroom FMR, (do not remove ACS Update). 3. Determine Current Year ACS Update Factor and Apply to Value in... months (to the Midpoint of the publication Fiscal Year). A. Base Year Data FMRs start with base rents...

  4. 76 FR 60967 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... by the American Community Survey (ACS). These data are updated using one-year ACS data in areas where statistically valid one-year ACS data are available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are... comment and shall become effective upon the date of publication in final form in the Federal Register...

  5. 75 FR 61253 - Final Fair Market Rents for Fiscal Year 2011 for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate...


    ..., FY 2010 FMRs are updated using 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) data, and Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes through the year end of 2009. HUD continues to use ACS data in different... of publication in final form in the Federal Register. Each fair market rental in effect under this...

  6. 77 FR 71195 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... related to use of FMRs or voucher payment standards should be directed to the respective local HUD program... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and...

  7. 41 CFR 102-85.15 - What are the basic policies for charging Rent for space and services?


    ... 2%) on the cost of the prospective capital investment. Each specific use of Return on Investment... customer agency. Once the ROI methodology is employed to establish Rent for a capital investment, the ROI...-owned buildings, a return on investment pricing approach if an appraisal-determined rental value...

  8. 76 FR 59712 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Budget-Based Rent Increase


    ... Increase AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: The proposed... to submit a Budget Worksheet when requesting rent increases. HUD Field Office's review and evaluate the amount and reasonableness of the requested increase. DATES: Comments Due Date: October 27, 2011...

  9. Why do many resource-rich countries have negative genuine saving? Anticipation of better times or rapacious rent seeking

    van der Ploeg, F.


    We investigate the Hartwick rule for saving of a nation necessary to sustain a constant level of private consumption for a small open economy with an exhaustible stock of natural resources. The amount by which a country saves and invests less than the marginal resource rents equals the expected capi

  10. 78 FR 25295 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... for Policy Development and Research, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Final Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 Fair Market.... Kahn, Economic and Market Analysis Division, Office of Economic Affairs, Office of Policy Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and...

  11. Fuzziness, democracy, control and collective decision-choice system a theory on political economy of rent-seeking and profit-harvesting

    Dompere, Kofi Kissi


    This volume presents an analysis of the problems and solutions of the market mockery of the democratic collective decision-choice system with imperfect information structure composed of defective and deceptive structures using methods of fuzzy rationality. The book is devoted to the political economy of rent-seeking, rent-protection and rent-harvesting to enhance profits under democratic collective decision-choice systems. The toolbox used in the monograph consists of methods of fuzzy decision, approximate reasoning, negotiation games and fuzzy mathematics. The monograph further discusses the rent-seeking phenomenon in the Schumpeterian and Marxian political economies where the rent-seeking activities transform the qualitative character of the general capitalism into oligarchic socialism and making the democratic collective decision-choice system as an ideology rather than social calculus for resolving conflicts in preferences in the collective decision-choice space without violence.    

  12. Accommodation and pupil responses to random-dot stereograms.

    Suryakumar, Rajaraman; Allison, Robert


    We investigated the dynamics of accommodative and pupillary responses to random-dot stereograms presented in crossed and uncrossed disparity in six visually normal young adult subjects (mean age=25.8±3.1 years). Accommodation and pupil measures were monitored monocularly with a custom built photorefraction system while subjects fixated at the center of a random-dot stereogram. On each trial, the stereogram initially depicted a flat plane and then changed to depict a sinusoidal corrugation in depth while fixation remained constant. Increase in disparity specified depth resulted in pupil constriction during both crossed and uncrossed disparity presentations. The change in pupil size between crossed and uncrossed disparity conditions was not significantly different (p>0.05). The change in pupil size was also accompanied by a small concomitant increase in accommodation. In addition, the dynamic properties of pupil responses varied as a function of their initial (starting) diameter. The finding that accommodation and pupil responses increased with disparity regardless of the sign of retinal disparity suggests that these responses were driven by apparent depth rather than shifts in mean simulated distance of the stimulus. Presumably the need for the increased depth of focus when viewing stimuli extended in depth results in pupil constriction which also results in a concomitant change in accommodation. Starting position effects in pupil response confirm the non-linearity in the operating range of the pupil.

  13. An overlooked effect of systemic anticholinergics: alteration on accommodation amplitude

    Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of oral solifenacin succinate, tolterodine-L-tartarate and oxybutinin hydrochloride (HCl on accommodation amplitude. METHODS: Female overactive bladder syndrome (OAB patients who were planned to use oral anticholinergics, patients that uses solifenacin succinate 5 mg (Group I, n=25, tolterodine-L-tartarate 4 mg (Group II, n=25, and oxybutinin HCl 5 mg b.i.d (Group III, n=25 and age matched healthy female subjects (Group IV, n=25 were recruited and complete ophthalmological examination and accommodation amplitude assessment were done at baseline and 4wk after initiation of treatment. RESULTS: The mean age of 100 consecutive female subjects was 51.6±5.7 (40-60y and there were no statistically significant difference with regard to the mean age (P=0.107 and baseline accommodation amplitude (P=0.148 between study groups. All treatment groups showed a significant decrease in accommodation amplitude following a 4-week course of anticholinergic treatment (P=0.008 in Group I, P=0.002 in Group II, P=0.001 in Group III, but there was no statistically significant difference in Group IV (P=0.065. CONCLUSION: A 4-week course of oral anticholinergic treatment have statistically significant effect on accommodation amplitude. Clinicians should avoid both overestimating this result, as this would unnecessarily restrict therapeutic possibilities, and also underestimating it which may lead to drug intolerance.

  14. Repeatability of OCT lens thickness measures with age and accommodation.

    Doyle, Lesley; Little, Julie-Anne; Saunders, Kathryn J


    To investigate crystalline lens thickness (LT) across a range of ages and accommodative demands and to evaluate the repeatability of LT measurements using the Visante Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer (AS-OCT) (Zeiss Meditec, Germany) under non-cycloplegic conditions. Participants were 98 visually normal adults aged 18-75 years, stratified into age groups of 18-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, and 60-75 years of age. Images of the crystalline lens were taken using the Visante AS-OCT during stimulation of accommodation at demands of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 D with accommodative response measured in a subgroup of participants. Images were analyzed and LT measured assuming a refractive index of 1.42. Repeat measures were taken from 86 participants for each accommodative demand at a second visit. The mean unaccommodated LT for all participants was 4.07 ± 0.40 mm. An average increase in LT of 20 μm per year was calculated (linear regression, R² = 0.61, F(1,89) = 143.92, p report the repeatability of LT measures using the Visante AS-OCT in the non-cyclopleged eye. It has also demonstrated the ability of the Visante AS-OCT to detect small changes in lens thickness with accommodation.

  15. A model of job activity description for workplace accommodation assessment.

    Sevilla, Joaquin; Sanford, Jon A


    Workplace accommodations to enable employees with disabilities to perform essential job tasks are an important strategy ways for increasing the presence of people with disabilities in the labor market. However, assessments, which are crucial to identifying necessary accommodations, are typically conducted using a variety of methods that lack consistent procedures and comprehensiveness of information. This can lead to the rediscovery of the same solutions over and over, inability to replicate assessments and a failure to effectively meet all of an individual's accommodation needs. To address standardize assessment tools and processes, a taxonomy of demand-producing activity factors is needed to complement the taxonomies of demand-producing person and environment factors already available in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The purpose of this article is to propose a hierarchical model of accommodation assessment based on level of specificity of job activity. While the proposed model is neither a taxonomy nor an assessment process, the seven-level hierarchical model provides a conceptual framework of job activity that is the first step toward such a taxonomy as well as providing a common language that can bridge the many approaches to assessment. The model was designed and refined through testing against various job examples. Different levels of activity are defined to be easily linked to different accommodation strategies. Finally, the levels can be cross-walked to the ICF, which enhances its acceptability, utility and universality.

  16. Relative Importance of Student Accommodation Quality in Higher Education

    Simon Gyasi Nimako


    Full Text Available This study, which was part of a large study, empirically examinesthe importance students attach to different dimensions of Student Accommodation Quality (SAQ delivered by Student Accommodation Providers (SAP in two tertiary (higher education institutions in Ghana. The study involved a cross-sectional survey that used a structured questionnaire administered to 700 tertiary students in residential and non-residential accommodation. The survey yielded a usable 66.6% response rate for analysis. The findings indicate that utility facility quality is the most important SAQ dimension to the students, followed by the overall impression of hostel, security, physical environment, toilet, distance to lecture, bedroom, bath room, accommodation fee, among others. Moreover, it was found that kitchen facility, access to transport and entertainment facility are less important SAQ items while the least important is garage facility. Few differences were found in the priority for SAQ items between COLTEK and K-Poly respondents and between residential and non-residential respondents. Implications for theory and recommendations to management of the two higher education institutions and SAP have been discussed. The study contributes to the body of knowledge in student affairs and managing student accommodation quality in higher education.

  17. Work accommodations and natural supports for maintaining employment.

    Corbière, Marc; Villotti, Patrizia; Lecomte, Tania; Bond, Gary R; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot M


    Job tenure for people with severe mental disorders, even for those enrolled in supported employment programs, is typically brief. Few studies to date have investigated the relationship between accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace, and job tenure for this population. The main objectives of this study were to develop and to validate a new measure to describe work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace and to determine which of them are significantly related to job tenure for participants enrolled in supported employment services. In total, 124 people with a severe mental disorder enrolled in supported employment programs and who obtained only one competitive employment at the 9-month follow-up answered the Work Accommodation and Natural Support Scale (WANSS). They also provided information regarding their disclosure (or non-) of mental disorders in the workplace and the length of their job tenure. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the WANSS showed 40 items distributed on 6 dimensions (e.g., Schedule flexibility). Correlation results showed that disclosure was significantly related to the number of work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace. Survival analyses indicated that one WANSS dimension was more salient in predicting job tenure: Supervisor and coworker supports. The WANSS is a valid and useful tool to assess work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace that employment specialists could use in their practice.

  18. Interaction between Accommodation and Vergence on Distance Perception

    Tomoyuki Daijogo


    Full Text Available Fisher and Ciuffreda (1988 and Mon-Williams and Tresilian (1999 reported that, without vergence cue, diopter change in accommodation induced change in apparent distance. Meanwhile, there is conflicting evidence about the relative roles of accommodation and vergence in distance perception (Richards & Miller, 1969; von Holst, 1973. In the current study, we investigated interaction between accommodation and vergence on distance perception. The perceived distance from integration of vergence evoked by a fixation target and accommodation by a pair of concave or convex lenses in front of eyes is measured with a mirror stereoscope. The stimulus was a white square with a black cross-shaped fixation on a black background. In dark surroundings, subjects were asked to commit the apparent distance of the target to memory, and then without the lenses, re-create the distance by changing distance of another fixation target. The apparent size of the target through lenses were equivalent to the size without lenses. The results showed that not only vergence but accommodation affect the apparent distance, and they were summed linearly.

  19. Short-term induction of assimilation and accommodation.

    Leipold, Bernhard; Bermeitinger, Christina; Greve, Werner; Meyer, Birgit; Arnold, Manuel; Pielniok, Marianna


    The dual-process model of developmental regulation distinguishes two processes of self-regulation (assimilation = tenacious goal pursuit, and accommodation = flexible goal adjustment) that depend on differing conditions, but both contribute to successful development. Four experiments were conducted to investigate whether assimilation and accommodation can be induced or at least shifted by sensorimotor and cognitive manipulations. Experiment 1 investigated the relation between body manipulation and self-regulation. It was shown that assimilation could be triggered when participants were asked to hold on to golf balls as compared to being asked to drop them. Experiment 2 showed that a semantic priming of "let go" or "hold on" via instructions influenced the processes of self-regulation. Experiment 3 and Experiment 4 investigated the role of cognitive sets (divergent thinking) and motivational processes (thinking about one's action resources) in enhancing accommodation or assimilation. As expected, accommodation was triggered by an intervention activating divergent thought, and participants were more assimilative when they thought about their action resources. In sum, the results indicate that assimilation and accommodation can be induced experimentally; they were systematically dependent on physical, cognitive, and motivational states. The implications of the findings were discussed in the light of the dual-process model.

  20. Comparison of tests of accommodation for computer users.

    Kolker, David; Hutchinson, Robert; Nilsen, Erik


    With the increased use of computers in the workplace and at home, optometrists are finding more patients presenting with symptoms of Computer Vision Syndrome. Among these symptomatic individuals, research supports that accommodative disorders are the most common vision finding. A prepresbyopic group (N= 30) and a presbyopic group (N = 30) were selected from a private practice. Assignment to a group was determined by age, accommodative amplitude, and near visual acuity with their distance prescription. Each subject was given a thorough vision and ocular health examination, then administered several nearpoint tests of accommodation at a computer working distance. All the tests produced similar results in the presbyopic group. For the prepresbyopic group, the tests yielded very different results. To effectively treat symptomatic VDT users, optometrists must assess the accommodative system along with the binocular and refractive status. For presbyopic patients, all nearpoint tests studied will yield virtually the same result. However, the method of testing accommodation, as well as the test stimulus presented, will yield significantly different responses for prepresbyopic patients. Previous research indicates that a majority of patients prefer the higher plus prescription yielded by the Gaussian image test.

  1. Mark My Words! Linguistic Style Accommodation in Social Media

    Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Dumais, Susan; 10.1145/1963405.1963509


    The psycholinguistic theory of communication accommodation accounts for the general observation that participants in conversations tend to converge to one another's communicative behavior: they coordinate in a variety of dimensions including choice of words, syntax, utterance length, pitch and gestures. In its almost forty years of existence, this theory has been empirically supported exclusively through small-scale or controlled laboratory studies. Here we address this phenomenon in the context of Twitter conversations. Undoubtedly, this setting is unlike any other in which accommodation was observed and, thus, challenging to the theory. Its novelty comes not only from its size, but also from the non real-time nature of conversations, from the 140 character length restriction, from the wide variety of social relation types, and from a design that was initially not geared towards conversation at all. Given such constraints, it is not clear a priori whether accommodation is robust enough to occur given the con...

  2. Accommodative response and cortical activity during sustained attention.

    Poltavski, Dmitri V; Biberdorf, David; Petros, Thomas V


    Greater accommodative lag and vergence deficits have been linked to attentional deficits similar to those observed in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of accommodative-vergence stress on a measure of sustained attention (Conners CPT) used in the diagnosis of ADHD. Twenty-seven normal non-ADHD adults completed the Conners CPT twice: wearing -2.00 D lenses and normally (without the -2.00 D lenses) in a counterbalanced order with at least 24 h between the sessions. Simultaneous recording of participants' dynamic accommodative responses was performed from the right eye using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 auto-refractor and electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in the left prefrontal region using the Neurosky Mindset headset. The results demonstrated a significantly greater accommodative lag in the -2.00 D stress condition and a significantly poorer performance on the Conners CPT as indexed by slower reaction time, greater standard error of hit reaction time, grater response variability, poorer stimulus detectability and a greater number of perseverations. No differences were observed on measures of EEG in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (12-20 Hz) bands. Moreover, when directly juxtaposed with each EEG band in multiple linear regression analyses, greater accommodative lag in the stress condition was significantly associated with a greater probability of clinical classification on the Conners CPT, and was also marginally predictive of the number of omissions recorded in the stress condition. The results demonstrated that sustained attention can be influenced by such factors as accommodative-vergence stress and suggest that bottom-up processes can contribute to and potentially exacerbate attentional problems in individuals with ADHD. The study also showed that cortical dysfunction (while sufficient) may not be a necessary condition for attentional deficits.

  3. Analysis on the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe


    The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.

  4. Pupil movements to light and accommodative stimulation - A comparative study.

    Semmlow, J.; Stark, L.


    Isolation and definition of specific response components in pupil reflexes through comparison of the dynamic features of light-induced and accommodation-induced pupil movements. A quantitative analysis of the behavior of the complex nonlinear pupil responses reveals the presence of two independent nonlinear characteristics: a range-dependent gain and a direction dependence or movement asymmetry. These nonlinear properties are attributed to motor processes because they are observable in pupil responses to both light and accommodation stimuli. The possible mechanisms and consequences of these pupil response characteristics are quantitatively defined and discussed.

  5. Technology needs for the development of the accommodative intraocular lens

    Nishi, Okihiro


    Refilling the lens capsule while preserving capsular integrity offers the potential to restore ocular accommodation. There are two persisting problems in capsular bag refilling for possible clinical application: Leakage of the injectable material through the capsular opening and capsular opacification. Numerous attempts for solving these cardinal problems have not been proven to be clinically applicable. Recently, we developed a novel capsular bag refilling procedure using a novel accommodative intraocular lens that serves as an optic as well as a plug for sealing the capsular opening. The procedure and the results of monkey experiments will be presented.


    Iwona Cieślik


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study about impact of accommodation services’ quality, particularly quality of work and qualifications of staff, on the guests’ opinion, and thus promoting the accommodation facilities, and making a choice of a hotel in the Upper Silesia. The study involved 200 people, taking into account their gender, age, place of residence, education and occupational status. The research tool was a survey questionnaire. The results indicate close correlation between the quality of staff services (individual approach, aesthetics, discretion, understanding and the customer is satisfaction. Particular attention was paid to the quality of service by the guests with high professional status, and higher education.

  7. Accommodation of Symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Study.

    Fox, John R E; Whittlesea, Anna


    Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN. One such understudied response is accommodation, described as a 'process' whereby caregivers 'assist or participate' in symptomatic behaviours of the cared for individual. There is a dearth of research relating to accommodation within eating disorders, particularly qualitative accounts. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore caregivers' responses to managing AN, focusing particularly on carers' experience of accommodation. Eight participants with experience of caring for an individual diagnosed with AN were interviewed. Participants were recruited from a national eating disorder charity and regional eating disorder service. A number of themes emerged, including the importance of caregivers' emotional resources in mediating accommodation responses. Low-perceived efficacy over AN contributed to caregiver burnout. Decreased emotional resources influenced a shift in caregiving aims conducive with accommodation. Nevertheless, carers perceived accommodation as counterproductive to recovery and consequently experienced internal conflict (cognitive dissonance). Dissonance was reduced using a number of cognitive and behavioural strategies. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to existing literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Anorexia nervosa (AN) can be difficult to manage. Over time, carers can feel

  8. The failure of introducing market institution in a rent sector into an economy in transition

    Locatelli, C.; Finon, D


    Privatisation is at the heart of the structural reforms for economies in transition. In theory, the main aim of privatisation is to change the structures of corporate governance in order to improve the efficiency of the enterprises and to assure their long-term future in a competitive environment. The adoption of formal market institutions would be sufficient to secure the new property rights, in particular because the new holders of the rights to control assets would have a great incentive to encourage the definition of new judicial rules that would guarantee their rights of ownership. In Russia that did not happen. The paper discusses the narrowed vision of institutional change, without consideration of the previous environment of formal and informal institutions, and the need to put together the institutional infrastructure that is needed for the market institutions to function. It offers explanations of the 'unexpected' results of the reforms in a capital-intensive natural resource industry, namely the hydrocarbons industry characterized by the opportunity of rent extraction by the exportation. It demonstrates right holders' interest for the weakness of the 'rule of law'. It demonstrates that the incompatibility of these institutions with the initial informal and formal institutions has led to adaptations that are strongly path-dependent, under the need to preserve a minimum of inter-industrial coherence. (authors)

  9. Effect of castration on performance and profitability of finishing cattle in rent feedlot

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes


    Full Text Available Effects of castration on performance and profitability of finishing beef cattle in feedlot was evaluated and compared to no-castrated animals. Data came from a rent feedlot of beef cattle, conducted from August to November of 2005. Half of 50 animals, randomly chosen, were castrated by knife 18 days before the beginning of feedlot. Averages of initial body weight for castrated and no-castrated animals were 341kg and 347kg, while for final body weight were 437kg and 463kg, respectively. Were considered as expenses arroba value of thin cattle (R$50.00, and R$2.85 daily expenses per animal paid by cattle owner to “boitel”; and were considered as earnings sale of fat cattle at R$56.14 and R$54.14/arroba, respectively for castrated and no-castrated animals. For profitability analysis, CU$TO BOVINO CORTE software was utilized. Was tested the mean differences between castrated and intact groups by Student t test of average daily weight gains (GMPD and total weight gain (GMPT. Was acceptable the minimum level of confidence of 95%. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS 17.0 program. Effect of castration negatively influenced animals´ performance, evaluated by weight gain, and, consequently profitability of the system, evaluated by net margin. Earnings from sale of additional arrobas of no-castrated animals were enough to compensate penalization practiced by packinghouses for these animals.

  10. Modifications vibrationnelles induites par différentes vapeurs acides sur les polyanilines

    Cochet, M.; Quillard, S.; Buisson, J. P.; Lefrant, S.; Louarn, G.


    We present a comparative study of conductive form of polyaniline, i.e, polyemeraldine doped with HCl vapor or with HCSA upon m-cresol vapor. UV-Vis.-nir absorption measurements on polyaniline thin films, vs acid vapors time exposure, have been made. In the same way, Raman spectra have been recorded with different excitation lines from the blue and red ranges to the infrared region. Finally, an assignment of Raman bands observed, is proposed and confirmed by vibrational calculations based on valence-force-field. Nous présentons une étude comparative de la forme conductrice de la polyaniline, c'est-à-dire de la polyéméraldine dopée par des vapeurs d'HCl ou dopée par l'acide camphre sulfonique (HCSA) sous vapeurs de m-crésol. Des mesures d'absorption UV-Vis-proche infrarouge sur des films minces de polyaniline, en fonction du temps d'exposition aux vapeurs acides, ont été réalisées. Parallèlement, les spectres Raman ont été obtenus pour différentes longueurs d'onde d'excitation allant du visible jusqu'au proche infrarouge. Finalement, une attribution des bandes Raman observées est proposée et confirmée par des calculs vibrationnels basés sur des champs de force de valence.

  11. Against the accommodation of subjective healthcare provider beliefs in medicine: counteracting supporters of conscientious objector accommodation arguments.

    Smalling, Ricardo; Schuklenk, Udo


    We respond in this paper to various counter arguments advanced against our stance on conscientious objection accommodation. Contra Maclure and Dumont, we show that it is impossible to develop reliable tests for conscientious objectors' claims with regard to the reasonableness of the ideological basis of their convictions, and, indeed, with regard to whether they actually hold they views they claim to hold. We demonstrate furthermore that, within the Canadian legal context, the refusal to accommodate conscientious objectors would not constitute undue hardship for such objectors. We reject concerns that refusing to accommodate conscientious objectors would limit the equality of opportunity for budding professionals holding particular ideological positions. We also clarify various misrepresentations of our views by respondents Symons, Glick and Jotkowitz, and Lyus.

  12. Assimilation, Accommodation, and the Dynamics of Personality Development.

    Block, Jack


    Specifies some problems in the Piagetian characterizations of assimilation and accommodation and offers an alternative formulation intended to resolve some conceptual anomalies. On the basis of the revision, the orthogenetic law of developmental progression is explicitly derived. Further, Piaget's notion of "equilibrium" is extended into…

  13. Mechanically implementable accommodation matrices for passive force control

    Goswami, A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Center for Human Modeling and Simulation; Peshkin, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Robot force control implemented by means of passive mechanical devices has inherent advantages over active implementations with regard to stability, response rapidity, and physical robustness. The class of devices considered in this paper consists of a Stewart platform-type mechanism interconnected with a network of adjustable mechanical elements such as springs and dampers. The control law repertoire of such a device, imagined as a robot wrist, is given by the range of admittance matrices that it may be programmed to possess. This paper focuses on wrists incorporating damper networks for which the admittance matrices reduce to accommodation or inverse-damping matrices. The authors show that a hydraulic network of fully adjustable damper elements may attain any diagonally dominant accommodation matrix. They describe the technique of selecting the individual damping coefficients to design a desired matrix. They identify the set of dominant matrices as a polyhedral convex cone in the space of matrix entries, and show that each dominant matrix can be composed of a positive linear combination of a fixed set of basis matrices. The overall wrist-accommodation matrix is obtained by projecting the accommodation matrix of the damper network through the wrist kinematics. The linear combination of the dominant basis matrices projected through the wrist kinematics generates the entire space of mechanically implementable force-control laws. The authors quantify the versatility of mechanically implementable force-control laws by comparing this space to the space of all matrices.

  14. Effects of combined therapy in 80 cases of accommodative esotropia

    Qi Liu


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate a comprehensive treatment for accommodative esotropia.METHODS: Eighty patients with accommodative esotropia were analyzed. All cases wore corrective glasses 7d after mydriasis by 10g/L atropine. The pupils were all comprehensively trained. If the position of the esotropic eyes could not be corrected by spectacles and both eyes had similar visual acuity in one year, surgical intervention was taken to correct the position. Refraction, visual acuity, visual function and strabismus degree change before and after treatment were evaluated.RESULTS: One year after wearing glasses, 50 cases had corrected eye position through correction and 30 cases were partially accommodative esotropia. Ten cases of esotropia degree >+15△ which could not be complete corrected by cure correction got surgical intervention. Seven cases of them got normal eye positions and 3 cases were over corrected 10△-20△. After comprehensive treatment of 3 years, the cure rate of amblyopia was 88.7%.CONCLUSION: The treatment for accommodative esotropia is a comprehensive course. It is necessary to pay attention to eye position correction, but also for the treatment of amblyopia, while paying attention to establish binocular vision.

  15. Accommodations in Homeschool Settings for Children with Special Education Needs

    Stoudt, Patricia Koelsch


    This qualitative study was designed to examine how homeschooling parents in Pennsylvania make the determination to engage with public school districts to accommodate the special education needs (SEN) of their children. This phenomenological study used direct interviews with 30 Pennsylvania families who are homeschooling children with SEN. Data…

  16. Development of the Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey: Results and Implications

    Dong, Shengli; MacDonald-Wilson, Kim L.; Fabian, Ellen


    The purpose of this study was (a) to explore the latent factors in the "Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey" (RAFS) instrument and (b) to compare scores on the latent factors of the RAFS by participant's role. Eight latent factors were identified through an exploratory factor analysis with orthogonal rotation. The reliability tests…

  17. Language Shift and Language Accommodation across Family Generations in Taiwan

    Sandel, Todd L.; Chao, Wen-Yu; Liang, Chung-Hui


    This study explored language shift and accommodation among bilingual Mandarin and Tai-gi (also called Hokkien, Holo, Tai-gu, Taiwan Min, Taiwanese) families in Taiwan. From the 1940s until the 1980s the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) on Taiwan promoted Mandarin Chinese. Recent years have witnessed a shift in policy: since 2001 elementary schools…

  18. Visual Accommodation, the Mandelbaum Effect, and Apparent Size.


    See j Boring, 1942, for an extended treatment of the history of tnese images.) Jessop (cited in Alpern, 1962) also reported instillation of cocaine L...whether the administration of overdoses of nembutal yields results representative of normal ciliary function. Accommodative measurements in cadavers

  19. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo


    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  20. Target Size and Luminance Effects on Accommodation and Vergence.


    st i mu I at ed Voluntary changes in accommodation and verger .( e Sub je(ts have been shown to be able to make vol untarN changes in vergence Oil...v ith a projected cross with smooth sides. This cross ,. Is riide on a 35 mm slide and its size was altered manually i) diaphragm. Both crosses

  1. Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Industry Training Monograph No. 8.

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…

  2. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.


    ... physically handicapped. 910.34 Section 910.34 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE... § 910.34 Accommodations for the physically handicapped. (a) Every development shall incorporate features which will make the development accessible by the physically handicapped. The standards in the...

  3. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo


    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye’s accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45–50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye.

  4. The Contribution of University Accommodation to International Student Security

    Paltridge, Toby; Mayson, Susan; Schapper, Jan


    In this paper we argue that living in university accommodation is a possible means of improving the security of international students. Our argument is supported by a qualitative case study of a single Hall of Residence on Monash University's Clayton campus. Data were collected primarily from interviews with three groups of participants--six…

  5. Teaching Disability Employment Discrimination Law: Accommodating Physical and Mental Disabilities

    Kulow, Marianne DelPo


    Disability employment discrimination is often treated summarily in legal environment courses. This is actually a topic with significant practical application in the workplace since managers are often those who are confronted with accommodation requests. It is therefore desirable to include a class with hands-on exercises for students to begin to…

  6. Cooperating or competing in three languages : Cultural accommodation or alienation?

    Gargalianou, Vasiliki; Urbig, D.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen


    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using foreign languages on cooperative behavior in a prisoner’s dilemma setting. The cultural accommodation hypothesis suggests that people are less cooperative in English, associated with the Anglophone cultural cluster, than in French, wh

  7. The relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children

    Fethiye Gulden Turgut


    Full Text Available Background: Refraction problems, motor disorders, sensorial disorders, physical and psychic traumas of eye may be responsible for development of strabismus. Anemia may cause sensory-neural disorders in children. We investigated the relationship between anemia and accommodative esotropia in children. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four patients with accommodative esotropia were evaluated. This group was identified as patient group (group 1. Eighty-three pediatric patients, who were not esotropia and only had refraction problems, were identified as control group (group 2. The difference between the groups was statistically analyzed evaluating patients for anemia. Results: 33 of 64 patients with accommodative esotropia in group 1 were male, as 43 of 83 patients with refractive error in group 2 were male. The mean age of patients in group 1 and 2 were 6 ΁ 3.92 and 6.37 ΁ 2.74 (P > 0.05 respectively. There was significant difference between two groups, when mean hemoglobin value of those was compared (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Hb level may affects the accommodative esotropia.

  8. Development of a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens

    Hermans, Erik A.; Terwee, Thom T.; Koopmans, Steven A.; Dubbelman, Michiel; van der Heijde, Rob G. L.; Heethaar, Rob M.


    PURPOSE: To develop a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) that has a large and predictable range of variable power as a step toward spectacle independence. SETTING: Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. METHODS:

  9. Accommodating Students with Disabilities in Soil Science Activities

    Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Murphy, Kate; Levin, E.


    Soil science education is lacking in terms of accommodations for persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from soil science activities in school, and from soil science careers. GLOBE (Global Learning Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on primary and secondary school-based education and…

  10. Hydrogels for an accommodating intraocular lens. An explorative study

    de Groot, JH; Spaans, CJ; van Calck, RV; van Beijma, FJ; Norrby, S; Pennings, AJ


    In this study it was investigated whether hydrogels could be used for an accommodating lens. The requirements of such a hydrogels are a low modulus, high refractive index, transparency, and strength. Since conventional hydrogels do not possess this combination of properties, a novel preparation meth

  11. Knowledge Transfer and Accommodation Effects in Multinational Corporations

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai J.; Pedersen, Torben


    Foreign subsidiaries in multinational corporations (MNCs) possess knowledge that has different sources (e.g., the firm itself or various sources in the environment). How such sources influence knowledge transfer is not well understood. Drawing on the "accommodation effect" from cognitive psychology...

  12. Solutions to Efficient Provision of Accommodations for Universities in China



    Chinese universities are facing a series of challenges in their accommodations,of which a pr\\edominant one is how to provide both students and staff with enough accommodations of a large scope and good quality in good time and with limited budgets,In order to find applicable approaches to solve this problem,the current situations of the Chinese higher education reform and the resulted rapid growth of student numbers whereby the requirement of lodgings is greatly incresed are discussed.It is elucidated that in providing enough accommodations for staff and students,Chinese universities are confronted with difficulties including demand too big,lack of funding support,time limitation and incapability in both project management and facilities management.Industrialized building approach is demonstrated to be a desirable access to build large quantities of accommodations of good quality in limited time.and Private Fuinancial Initiative(PFI) appears to be a prosperous solution to the fund shortage,Regarding project and facilities management,qualified professionals are available by either employing exterior consultants or training related staff of universities for such occupations.

  13. Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Industry Training Monograph No. 8.

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…




    Full Text Available Accommodation Infrastructure and Tourism Flows on Feleacu Hill (Cluj County. Feleacu Hill experienced tourism development between 2001 and 2015. The INS data indicates that the number of accommodation units increased from one (2001 to four (2015 and there are a few more which are not registered in the INS database. The accommodation capacity increases, as many guesthouses are expanding their premises to receive more tourists and new accommodation units emerge, such as Hotel Premier in Vâlcele (Feleacu commune. Tourism flows also registered a highly positive trend. The number of arrivals increased from 95 tourists in 2002 to 7791 tourists in 2015. However, there was a downturn between 2009 and 2012, due to the economic crisis and the opening of the Turda – Gilău motorway (A3, which redirected transit routes outside the region and led to the closure of Paradis Hotel in 2012. Since 2012, the number of arrivals and overnight stays increased steadily due to the development of new forms of tourism – rural tourism, agrotourism, extreme tourism and complex tourism, materialized in growing numbers of tourists at the two guesthouses in Ciurila commune (“La Mesteceni” and “Domeniul Regilor”. Tourism brings obvious benefits to the rural communities on Feleacu Hill, even if the average duration of stay is still low.




    Full Text Available The setting mechanism of the remuneration proper to the factors of production is not different from the merchandise price determination, in this case the type of the market pattern being. When the price of the production factors is determined it must be considered both the type of the market where the goods are sold (as output of the manufacture process and the type of the market where the production factors are provided (engaged. Among the incomes determined by using the production factors mix, the rent represents a very important one. Due to its long term existence, the revenue of rent is one of the economical notion, which has the largest application and the most different signification. For a long time, the rent was attached to the use of the natural resources, especially to those of the earth. Nowadays the application area of this notion has been extended over some other factors of production. In Romania, on the ground of the mining branch development, there were not too many reason of the economic efficiency and the theoretical developments with reference to the costs generated by using the factors of production were ignored. The correct substantiation of the decisions with reference to the application of the national mineral potential can’t ignore the costs generated by the remuneration of the production factor in the mining revenue system.

  16. Green Auctions and Reduction of Information Rents in Payments for Environmental Services: An Experimental Investigation in Sunan County, Northwestern China

    Deng, Xiaohong; Xu, Zhongmin


    Reducing information rents is an important task for government agencies wishing to purchase maximal environmental services with limited budgets. This paper reports on several green auction options for reducing information rents and improving the performance of the “Grain for Green” Payments for environmental services (PES) program implemented in northwestern China. In r experimental auctions and investigations, door-to-door interviews were conducted and bidding envelopes and survey questionnaires were used to determine the offers and the foregone profits of the participants. Three scenarios are analyzed in this paper: a uniform price auction, a discriminatory price auction, and an opportunity-cost system. The results show that compared to the uniform price auction system, the other auction systems can increase the cost-effectiveness of conservation contracting. Competitive bidding can reveal true opportunity costs and can reduce information rents extracted from the government by farmers using private information. The demographics and average bids of these auction types were also analyzed. “Perfect information” in the opportunity-cost offer system has the best performance but is very hard to implement in reality. The results of this research show that the auction is a valuable tool for purchasing conservation contracts in northwestern China, but that in the future, the performance of these auctions should be studied with relaxed model assumptions. PMID:25793263

  17. Green auctions and reduction of information rents in payments for environmental services: an experimental investigation in Sunan County, northwestern China.

    Xiaohong Deng

    Full Text Available Reducing information rents is an important task for government agencies wishing to purchase maximal environmental services with limited budgets. This paper reports on several green auction options for reducing information rents and improving the performance of the "Grain for Green" Payments for environmental services (PES program implemented in northwestern China. In r experimental auctions and investigations, door-to-door interviews were conducted and bidding envelopes and survey questionnaires were used to determine the offers and the foregone profits of the participants. Three scenarios are analyzed in this paper: a uniform price auction, a discriminatory price auction, and an opportunity-cost system. The results show that compared to the uniform price auction system, the other auction systems can increase the cost-effectiveness of conservation contracting. Competitive bidding can reveal true opportunity costs and can reduce information rents extracted from the government by farmers using private information. The demographics and average bids of these auction types were also analyzed. "Perfect information" in the opportunity-cost offer system has the best performance but is very hard to implement in reality. The results of this research show that the auction is a valuable tool for purchasing conservation contracts in northwestern China, but that in the future, the performance of these auctions should be studied with relaxed model assumptions.

  18. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    Owen-Smith, Norman


    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  19. Apropiación privada de renta de recursos naturales? El caso del cobre en Chile /Private Appropriation of Natural Resource Rent? The case of Cooper in Chile

    Benjamín Leiva Crispi


    ... a sustainable trajectory. As a case study about private appropriation of natural resource rent, this work explores the case of copper in Chile since 1990, empirically analyzing if the 12 main private mining companies...

  20. Composition of Rent and How Extracted by the Network Participants%网络参与者的租金来源与实现途径



    Value can be created through inter-organizational relationships, but not all participants can get benefit or get equal benefit from network cooperation. This paper addresses the issue of what types of rents,generated through network, are extracted by participating firms. We differentiate participant's rents between common rent and private rent and further divided into three sources: appropriated common rent, internal quasi-rent and net inbound spillover rent. All the three rents are related to the partner's resource base and resource nature.Appropriated common rent is created from the shared resourced of all participants and should be distributed among all members; quasi-rent and net inbound spillover rent come from the firm's non-shared resources which is effected by shared resources and partner's non-shared resources.%网络合作虽然可以产生协同协应,但并非所有参与者都能够从中获取均等收益.本文从网络参与者的角度分析了其从网络合作中的获益,认为参与者的租金主要来源于共有租金和私有租金两个方面,具体细分为可占用的共有租金、内部准租金和溢入租金净值三种类型.这三类租金的实现与参与者所拥有的资源基础和资源属性密切相关,可占用的共有租金是网络参与者通过资源交换、联合、共享而创造的共有租金在不同参与者之间分配的结果;内部准租金和溢入租金净值是参与者的私有资源(或非共享资源)产生的独有的、不与其他参与者分享的私有租金,私有租金的实现也与网络合作密不可分.

  1. Corporate rent-seeking and the managerial soft-budget constraint: An incremental cash flow approach to some corporate governance issues

    Apreda, Rodolfo


    This paper seeks to expand on two topical strands in Government Finance and Political Science literature, rent-seeking and the soft-budget constraint, so as to bring forth a strong linkage with corporate governance environments. It will attempt to accomplish this task by setting up a distinctive framework of analysis that hinges on incremental cash flows. Firstly, it claims that both rent-seeking behavior and the soft-budget constraint are worthy of being applied to corporate governance learn...

  2. Image registration reveals central lens thickness minimally increases during accommodation

    Schachar RA


    Full Text Available Ronald A Schachar,1 Majid Mani,2 Ira H Schachar31Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, 2California Retina Associates, El Centro, 3Byers Eye Institute of Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USAPurpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth, central crystalline lens thickness and lens curvature during accommodation.Setting: California Retina Associates, El Centro, CA, USA.Design: Healthy volunteer, prospective, clinical research swept-source optical coherence biometric image registration study of accommodation.Methods: Ten subjects (4 females and 6 males with an average age of 22.5 years (range: 20–26 years participated in the study. A 45° beam splitter attached to a Zeiss IOLMaster 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Jena, Germany biometer enabled simultaneous imaging of the cornea, anterior chamber, entire central crystalline lens and fovea in the dilated right eyes of subjects before, and during focus on a target 11 cm from the cornea. Images with superimposable foveal images, obtained before and during accommodation, that met all of the predetermined alignment criteria were selected for comparison. This registration requirement assured that changes in anterior chamber depth and central lens thickness could be accurately and reliably measured. The lens radii of curvatures were measured with a pixel stick circle.Results: Images from only 3 of 10 subjects met the predetermined criteria for registration. Mean anterior chamber depth decreased, −67 µm (range: −0.40 to −110 µm, and mean central lens thickness increased, 117 µm (range: 100–130 µm. The lens surfaces steepened, anterior greater than posterior, while the lens, itself, did not move or shift its position as appeared from the lack of movement of the lens nucleus, during 7.8 diopters of accommodation, (range: 6.6–9.7 diopters.Conclusion: Image registration, with stable invariant references for image correspondence, reveals that during accommodation a

  3. Knowledge Rent Effect to Knowledge Production and Control Mechanisms%“知识租”对知识生产的影响及治理机制

    吴黎正; 米俊


    In the era of knowledge economy, knowledge will become the core of the organization of production factors, knowledge producers by virtue of its knowledge will get a lot of rent. This rent is the knowledge rent. The cause of knowledge rent is extremely complicated, the great danger based on the analysis of knowledge rent on the reasons for the basis of knowledge rent, put forward governance model and solutions.%知识经济时代,“知识”将成为组织的核心生产要素,知识生产者凭借其拥有的知识将会得到大量的“租”,这种“租”就是“知识租”。“知识租”的产生原因是极其复杂的,其危害性很大。在分析“知识租”产生原因的基础上,提出了“知识租”的治理模型,并给出了解决思路。

  4. CHOA concussion consensus: establishing a uniform policy for academic accommodations.

    Popoli, David Michael; Burns, Thomas G; Meehan, William P; Reisner, Andrew


    Concussion research generally centers on physical challenges, though aspects such as social functioning and returning to school also warrant attention in pediatric populations. Restoring academic performance postconcussion remains a challenge. Here we provide recommendations addressing a uniform policy for pediatric concussion patients in academic institutions. Tools that may minimize difficulty with academic re-entry include independent educational evaluations, individualized educational programs (IEPs), student support teams (SSTs), letters of academic accommodation, time off, and 504 Plans. Recognition and treatment is crucial for symptom relief and prevention of functional disruption, as is specialist referral during the acute window. We recommend early intervention with a letter of academic accommodation and SST and suggest that 504 Plans and IEPs be reserved for protracted or medically complicated cases. Students with concussion should be observed for anxiety and depression because these symptoms can lead to prolonged recovery, decreased quality of life, and other social challenges.

  5. Decentralized Disturbance Accommodation with Limited Plant Model Information

    Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H


    The design of optimal disturbance accommodation and servomechanism controllers with limited plant model information is considered in this paper. Their closed-loop performance are compared using a performance metric called competitive ratio which is the worst-case ratio of the cost of a given control design strategy to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information. It was recently shown that when it comes to designing optimal centralized or partially structured decentralized state-feedback controllers with limited model information, the best control design strategy in terms of competitive ratio is a static one. This is true even though the optimal structured decentralized state-feedback controller with full model information is dynamic. In this paper, we show that, in contrast, the best limited model information control design strategy for the disturbance accommodation problem gives a dynamic controller. We find an explicit minimizer of the competitive ratio and we show that it is undomina...

  6. Ergonomic job design to accommodate and prevent musculoskeletal disabilities.

    Waters, T R; MacDonald, L A


    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) account for a major portion of the cost of work-related injury and illness in the United States. Many of these injuries and illnesses lead to temporary or permanent disability. It is generally accepted that the incidence of MSDs increases when the demands of the job exceed the capabilities of the worker. As the workforce ages and physical capabilities decline, it is anticipated that many more Americans will request disability-related leave resulting from musculoskeletal disorders because they are unable to meet the demands of the job. To prevent these disabilities and to accommodate a wider range of people in the workforce, physical job demands may have to be reduced so that a larger portion of the population will be capable of working. Providing engineering controls or alternative work arrangements allows for accommodation of workers with a wide range of capabilities and can assist in rehabilitation and early return to work following injury.

  7. Linguistic Simplification: A Promising Test Accommodation for LEP Students?

    Charles W. Stansfield


    Full Text Available This article is a synopsis of an experimental study of the effects of linguistic simplification, a test accommodation..designed for LEP students. Conducted as part of Delaware's statewide assessment program, this study examined the..effects of linguistic simplification of fourth- and sixth-grade science test items and specifically looked at score..comparability between LEP and non-LEP examinees.

  8. Recent Religious Accommodations: Have We Gone Too Far Too Fast?


    length of head hair for both men and women , making certain allowances for women to wear longer hairstyles. The regulation prohibits the wear of beards...exceptions in order to further religious sensitivity. 10 Review of Canada, United Kingdom, and Netherlands Policy on Head and Facial Hair Some...militaries have religious accommodations for males who maintain facial and head hair for religious purposes. In addition, one nation allows soldiers to

  9. Holocene reef development where wave energy reduces accommodation

    Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H.


    Analyses of 32 drill cores obtained from the windward reef of Kailua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, indicate that high wave energy significantly reduced accommodation space for reef development in the Holocene and produced variable architecture because of the combined influence of sea-level history and wave exposure over a complex antecedent topography. A paleostream valley within the late Pleistocene insular limestone shelf provided accommodation space for more than 11 m of vertical accretion since sea level flooded the bay 8000 yr BP. Virtually no net accretion (pile-up of fore-reef-derived rubble (rudstone) and sparse bindstone, and (3) a final stage of catch-up bindstone accretion in depths > 6 m. Coral framestone accreted at rates of 2.5-6.0 mm/yr in water depths > 11 m during the early Holocene; it abruptly terminated at ~4500 yr BP because of wave scour as sea level stabilized. More than 4 m of rudstone derived from the upper fore reef accreted at depths of 6 to 13 m below sea level between 4000 and 1500 yr BP coincident with late Holocene relative sea-level fall. Variations in the thickness, composition, and age of these reef facies across spatial scales of 10-1000 m within Kailua Bay illustrate the importance of antecedent topography and wave-related stress in reducing accommodation space for reef development set by sea level. Although accommodation space of 6 to 17 m has existed through most of the Holocene, the Kailua reef has been unable to catch up to sea level because of persistent high wave stress.

  10. Bimatoprost (0.03%)-induced accommodative spasm and pseudomyopia.

    Padhy, Debananda; Rao, Aparna


    Bimatoprost is a prostaglandin analogue used topically in the treatment of glaucoma. Commonly known side effects include eyelash growth, iris pigmentation and conjunctival hyperemia. While pseudomyopia is reported to be caused by parasympathomimetics, such an effect precipitated by bimatoprost has not yet been reported. We report a case demonstrating pseudomyopia and accommodative spasm caused after starting bimatoprost 0.03% in a young patient with glaucoma.

  11. Accommodating MOOCs into HEI: is blended-learning the solution?

    Martínez, Juan Antonio; Campuzano, Joaquim


    MOOCs are without discussion one of the key changers in education, and in particular in higher education. They affect both on-Campus universities and on-line. Advisory boards in Universities face the need to accommodate a new player in the learning process arena. The MOOC tsunami affects Universities, forcing them to offer MOOCs assuming costs. On the other side, MOOC platform managers need to convince Universities that creating and offering MOOCs is a must, generating revenues at the same ti...

  12. Digital electronic engine control fault detection and accommodation flight evaluation

    Baer-Ruedhart, J. L.


    The capabilities and performance of various fault detection and accommodation (FDA) schemes in existing and projected engine control systems were investigated. Flight tests of the digital electronic engine control (DEEC) in an F-15 aircraft show discrepancies between flight results and predictions based on simulation and altitude testing. The FDA methodology and logic in the DEEC system, and the results of the flight failures which occurred to date are described.

  13. Kinematic and ground reaction force accommodation during weighted walking.

    James, C Roger; Atkins, Lee T; Yang, Hyung Suk; Dufek, Janet S; Bates, Barry T


    Weighted walking is a functional activity common in daily life and can influence risks for musculoskeletal loading, injury and falling. Much information exists about weighted walking during military, occupational and recreational tasks, but less is known about strategies used to accommodate to weight carriage typical in daily life. The purposes of the study were to examine the effects of weight carriage on kinematics and peak ground reaction force (GRF) during walking, and explore relationships between these variables. Twenty subjects walked on a treadmill while carrying 0, 44.5 and 89 N weights in front of the body. Peak GRF, sagittal plane joint/segment angular kinematics, stride length and center of mass (COM) vertical displacement were measured. Changes in peak GRF and displacement variables between weight conditions represented accommodation. Effects of weight carriage were tested using analysis of variance. Relationships between peak GRF and kinematic accommodation variables were examined using correlation and regression. Subjects were classified into sub-groups based on peak GRF responses and the correlation analysis was repeated. Weight carriage increased peak GRF by an amount greater than the weight carried, decreased stride length, increased vertical COM displacement, and resulted in a more extended and upright posture, with less hip and trunk displacement during weight acceptance. A GRF increase was associated with decreases in hip extension (|r|=.53, p=.020) and thigh anterior rotation (|r|=.57, p=.009) displacements, and an increase in foot anterior rotation displacement (|r|=.58, p=.008). Sub-group analysis revealed that greater GRF increases were associated with changes at multiple sites, while lesser GRF increases were associated with changes in foot and trunk displacement. Weight carriage affected walking kinematics and revealed different accommodation strategies that could have implications for loading and stability.

  14. Cubic optical elements for an accommodative intraocular lens.

    Simonov, Aleksey N; Vdovin, Gleb; Rombach, Michiel C


    We present a new accommodative intraocular lens based on a two-element varifocal Alvarez lens. The intraocular lens consists of (1) an anterior element combining a spherical lens for refractive power with a cubic surface for the varifocal effect, and (2) a posterior element with a cubic surface only. The focal length of the IOL lens changes when the superimposed refractive elements shift in opposite directions in a plane perpendicular to the optical axis. The ciliary muscle will drive the accommodation by a natural process of contraction and relaxation. Results of ray-tracing simulations of the model eye with the two-element intraocular lens are presented for on-axis and off-axis vision. The configuration of the lens is optimized to reduce refractive errors as well as effects of misalignment. A prototype with a clear aperture of ~5.7 mm is manufactured and evaluated in air with a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor. It provides an accommodation range of ~4 dioptres in the eye at a ~0.75-mm lateral displacement of the optical elements. The experimentally measured on-axis optical performance of the IOL lens agrees with the theoretically predicted performance.

  15. Employers’ Perspectives on Hiring and Accommodating Workers With Mental Illness

    Janki Shankar


    Full Text Available Many individuals with mental illness want to return to work and stay in employment. Yet, there is little research that has examined the perspectives of employers on hiring and accommodating these workers and the kinds of supports employers need to facilitate their reintegration into the workforce. The aim of the current research was to explore the challenges employers face and the support they need to hire and accommodate workers with mental illness (WWMI. A qualitative research design guided by a grounded theory approach was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 employers selected from a wide range of industries in and around Edmonton, Canada. The employers were a mix of frontline managers, disability consultants, and human resource managers who had direct experience with hiring and supervising WWMI. Data were analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. The findings highlight several challenges that employers face when dealing with mental health issues of workers in the workplace. These challenges can act as barriers to hiring and accommodating WWMI.

  16. Workplace accommodations and job success for persons with bipolar disorder.

    Tremblay, Carol Horton


    This research seeks to identify job characteristics and workplace policies conducive to the job success of individuals with bipolar disorder, and to examine the interactions between employers and bipolar employees regarding requested workplace accommodations. The study population consists of 39 adults who were in outpatient care and diagnosed with bipolar I or II disorder. Each participant completed a mail-in questionnaire regarding workplace characteristics that would enhance job performance. Primary beneficial work characteristics reported are schedule flexibility, autonomy, and supervisor willingness to provide accommodations. Specific helpful characteristics noted by participants include allowances for working at home, leaves of absence, frequent breaks, barriers between work spaces, control over goal-setting, creativity, and avoidance of jobs with pace set by machinery. Twelve of the 26 workers requested workplace changes, and of the 12 requests, 10 were implemented. Incidents of employer bias were reported. The experiences of the survey participants regarding beneficial workplace accommodations may help to improve the productivity and well-being of other individuals with bipolar disorder.




    Full Text Available A strong infrastructure is a precondition for the development of balneology. On this base new tourism might build the modern services that supply the experiences. The key factor is the labor force: an EU project about labor force in Romania and Bulgaria in balneology allow us to present the preliminary findings focusing on general infrastructure and accommodation which allow the development of the balneology as well as the additional conditions as the existence of a social pact, easy access facilities etc. Our paper gives more details about the accommodation facilities in Romania insisting about the results of the transition and privatization of the former socialist facilities and the transformation of the property into private ones and the consequences of this. It also present the capability of new developed accommodation units built after 1990 and how they might compete in an international competition. The findings force us to conclude that the actual facilities do not allow the balneology resorts to compete in the international competition and might fill only a poor and low demanding tourists

  18. Soil erosion and mitigation measures on rented and owned fields in Uruguay: the impact of transgenic soya and foreign investors

    Caon, Lucrezia; Kessler, Aad; Keesstra, Saskia; Cruze, Rick


    Governments, companies and individuals with financial capital to invest, are worldwide buying or renting land in developing or third world countries. Uruguay is a developing country whose economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since 2000 many foreigners started to invest in the Uruguayan agricultural sector and to practice intensive large-scale agriculture. The significant presence of foreigners in the country is proven by the fact that almost 360 000 ha out of the 500 000 ha forming the study area were managed by foreigners in 2012. Nowadays farmers have abandoned the traditional crop rotation plan that included pasture to produce grain for export, and transgenic soya (soya RR) became the main crop planted by both foreigners and locals. Besides the high soil erosion rates related to having soya as main crop, planting soya implies the use of glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide leading to important environmental impacts. It is commonly said that foreigners investing in poor countries are exploiting the local natural resources aiming to get the highest possible profit from them. Is this a valid assumption in Uruguay? The purpose of this study was to compare the land management style of foreign and local farmers and to relate it to the soil erosion occurring in the study area. The land tenure (rented or owned fields) and the type of farmer interviewed ("individual farmer" equivalent to L.L.C. or "anonymous society" equivalent to P.L.C.) were taken into consideration during the analysis. Based on what stated by the farmers interviewed, the soil erosion simulations considered the seven most popular crop rotation plans on rented and owned fields, three ideals crop rotation plans, the application of no mitigation measures, and the construction of terraces and conservation buffers. Depending on the crop rotation plan, soils characterized by slope gradients higher than 2 resulted in soil erosion rates higher than the 7 ton/ha/year allowed by law. The highest

  19. Permanentnost primitivne akumulacije, ali o privatni lastnini, komodifikaciji in povratku rente

    Jernej Prodnik


    moderne in zagovarja nujnost absolutne demokracije pri upravljanju, vzpostavljanju in dojemanju skupnega. /// English title: The Permanence of Primitive Accumulation, or: On the Private Property, Commodification and Return of the Rent /// Abstract: In his analysis of current social antagonisms, the author starts from a critique of political economy and focuses on two historically and politically/theoretically important concepts, without which it would not be possible to understand the development of the capitalist system and the way it currently functions: primitive accumulation and modern private property. Newer interpretations of the process of primitive accumulation (Perelman, DeAngelis, Harvey start from the premise that primitive accumulation is not just a historical period belonging to the past, but a necessarily present part of capital in its expansion and search for news ways out of recurring crises. This permanence of primitive accumulation, which Harvey refers to as accumulation-by-disposses sion, in which a key factor is the difference between the generation and existence of capital, helps us to understand the ever present processes of capital expansion and their often violent incorporation of various fields. Although these processes are an always-already-present characteristic of capitalism, by manifesting themselves, they have marked the past decades, when capital has attempted to resolve its own profitability crisis through financialisation and privatisation. At the same time, because the existence of the modern form of private property has appeared as an important condition for capitalist accumulation and as that element which facilitates the effective functioning, development and expansion of capitalist relations of production, at the beginning of the article, this socially constructed phenomenon of modern society, which, through a process of reductionism, makes it almost impossible to consider different forms of ownership such as common forms of property

  20. 49 CFR 595.7 - Requirements for vehicle modifications to accommodate people with disabilities.


    ... accommodate people with disabilities. 595.7 Section 595.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) MAKE INOPERATIVE EXEMPTIONS Vehicle Modifications To Accommodate People With Disabilities §...

  1. Treatment of accommodative dysfunction in children: results from a randomized clinical trial.

    Scheiman, Mitchell; Cotter, Susan; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Mitchell, G Lynn; Cooper, Jeffrey; Gallaway, Michael; Hopkins, Kristine B; Bartuccio, Mary; Chung, Ida


    To report the effectiveness of various forms of vision therapy/orthoptics in improving accommodative amplitude and facility in children with symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI) and co-existing accommodative dysfunction. In a randomized clinical trial, 221 children aged 9 to 17 years with symptomatic CI were assigned to one of four treatments. Of the enrolled children, 164 (74%) had accommodative dysfunction; 63 (29%) had a decreased amplitude of accommodation with respect to age, 43 (19%) had decreased accommodative facility, and 58 (26%) had both. Analysis of variance models were used to compare mean accommodative amplitude and accommodative facility for each treatment group after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, the increases in amplitude of accommodation [office-based vergence/accommodative therapy with home reinforcement group (OBVAT) 9.9 D, home-based computer vergence/accommodative therapy group (HBCVAT+) 6.7 D, and home-based pencil push-up therapy group (HBPP) 5.8 D] were significantly greater than in the office-based placebo therapy (OBPT) group (2.2 D) (p-values ≤0.010). Significant increases in accommodative facility were found in all groups (OBVAT: 9 cpm, HBCVAT+: 7 cpm, HBPP: 5 cpm, OBPT: 5.5 cpm); only the improvement in the OBVAT group was significantly greater than that found in the OBPT group (p = 0.016). One year after completion of therapy, reoccurrence of decreased accommodative amplitude was present in only 12.5% and accommodative facility in only 11%. Vision therapy/orthoptics is effective in improving accommodative amplitude and accommodative facility in school-aged children with symptomatic CI and accommodative dysfunction.

  2. Progressive Fault Accommodation for Time-delay Systems with Parametric Faults

    WU Jun-sheng; WENG Zheng-xin; TIAN Zuo-hua


    The fault accommodation problem for time-delay system is studied in this paper. The progressive accommodation strategy based on the Newton-Raphson scheme is proposed to solve this problem. This accommodation scheme can significantly reduces the loss of performance and risk associated with system instability which results from the time-delay needed by fault accommodation aigorithms to provide a solution. Simulation results are given to illustrate the efficiency of the provided method.

  3. Symptomatology associated with accommodative and binocular vision anomalies.

    García-Muñoz, Ángel; Carbonell-Bonete, Stela; Cacho-Martínez, Pilar


    To determine the symptoms associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions and to assess the methods used to obtain the subjects' symptoms. We conducted a scoping review of articles published between 1988 and 2012 that analysed any aspect of the symptomatology associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions. The literature search was performed in Medline (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS. A total of 657 articles were identified, and 56 met the inclusion criteria. We found 267 different ways of naming the symptoms related to these anomalies, which we grouped into 34 symptom categories. Of the 56 studies, 35 employed questionnaires and 21 obtained the symptoms from clinical histories. We found 11 questionnaires, of which only 3 had been validated: the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS V-15) and CIRS parent version, both specific for convergence insufficiency, and the Conlon survey, developed for visual anomalies in general. The most widely used questionnaire (21 studies) was the CISS V-15. Of the 34 categories of symptoms, the most frequently mentioned were: headache, blurred vision, diplopia, visual fatigue, and movement or flicker of words at near vision, which were fundamentally related to near vision and binocular anomalies. There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3) were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  4. Functionalised polysiloxanes as injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lenses.

    Hao, Xiaojuan; Jeffery, Justine L; Wilkie, John S; Meijs, Gordon F; Clayton, Anthony B; Watling, Jason D; Ho, Arthur; Fernandez, Viviana; Acosta, Carolina; Yamamoto, Hideo; Aly, Mohamed G M; Parel, Jean-Marie; Hughes, Timothy C


    The aged eye's ability to change focus (accommodation) may be restored by replacing the hardened natural lens with a soft gel. Functionalised polysiloxane macromonomers, designed for application as an injectable, in situ curable accommodating intraocular lens (A-IOL), were prepared via a two-step synthesis. Prepolymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation (ROP) of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)) and 2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D(4)(H)) in toluene using trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH) as catalyst. Hexaethyldisiloxane (HEDS) was used as the end group to control the molecular weight of the prepolymers, which were then converted to macromonomers by hydrosilylation of the SiH groups with allyl methacrylate (AM) to introduce polymerisable groups. The resulting macromonomers had an injectable consistency and thus, were able to be injected into and refill the empty lens capsular bag. The macromonomers also contained a low ratio of polymerisable groups so that they may be cured on demand, in situ, under irradiation of blue light, in the presence of a photo-initiator, to form a soft polysiloxane gel (an intraocular lens) in the eye. The pre-cure viscosity and post-cure modulus of the polysiloxanes, which are crucial factors for an injectable, in situ curable A-IOL application, were controlled by adjusting the end group and D(4)(H) concentrations, respectively, in the ROP. The macromonomers were fully cured within 5 min under light irradiation, as shown by the rapid change in modulus monitored by photo-rheology. Ex vivo primate lens stretching experiments on an Ex Vivo Accommodation Simulator (EVAS) showed that the polysiloxane gel refilled lenses achieved over 60% of the accommodation amplitude of the natural lens. An in vivo biocompatibility study in rabbits using the lens refilling (Phaco-Ersatz) procedure demonstrated that the soft gels had good biocompatibility with the ocular tissue. The polysiloxane macromonomers meet the targeted


    Nur Mukminatien


    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accomodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner’s linguistic needs for international communication. It would help ELT practitioners adjust their current practices through the inclusion of varieties of WEs in developing learners’ oral communication. This offers relevant pedagogical movement to argue that changes should be made about the way English is valued and taught.

  6. 41 CFR 301-10.122 - What class of airline accommodations must I use?


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What class of airline accommodations must I use? 301-10.122 Section 301-10.122 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.122 What class of airline accommodations...

  7. Predictive Validity of Accommodated LSAT Scores. Technical Report. LSAC Research Report Series.

    Thornton, Andrea E.; Reese, Lynda M.; Pashley, Peter J.; Dalessandro, Susan P.

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the predictive validity of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) earned under accommodated testing conditions. Of special interest was the validity of scores obtained by test takers who were accommodated under nonstandard time conditions (i.e., accommodations that included extra testing time). Separate…

  8. The Use of Computer Technology in Designing Appropriate Test Accommodations for English Language Learners

    Abedi, Jamal


    Among the several forms of accommodations used in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs), language-based accommodations are the most effective in making assessments linguistically accessible to these students. However, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of many of these accommodations. This article…

  9. The Use of Computer Technology in Designing Appropriate Test Accommodations for English Language Learners

    Abedi, Jamal


    Among the several forms of accommodations used in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs), language-based accommodations are the most effective in making assessments linguistically accessible to these students. However, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of many of these accommodations. This article…

  10. 41 CFR 301-10.160 - What classes of train accommodations are available?


    ... business-class. (1) First-class—Includes bedrooms, roomettes, club service, parlor car accommodations or other premium accommodations. (2) Business-class—A class of extra fare train service that is offered... only has two classes of accommodations available, i.e., first and business class, then the...

  11. Barriers to Accommodation Use for Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education

    Lyman, Michael James


    Students with disabilities at the postsecondary level face a number of different barriers to accommodation use. Past research has shown that students with disabilities that use accommodations obtain greater academic achievement and higher graduation rates. Limited research has been conducted to identify barriers to accommodation use, and the…

  12. Are high lags of accommodation in myopic children due to motor deficits?

    Labhishetty, Vivek; Bobier, William R


    Children with a progressing myopia exhibit an abnormal pattern of high accommodative lags coupled with high accommodative convergence (AC/A) and high accommodative adaptation. This is not predicted by the current models of accommodation and vergence. Reduced accommodative plant gain and reduced sensitivity to blur have been suggested as potential causes for this abnormal behavior. These etiologies were tested by altering parameters (sensory, controller and plant gains) in the Simulink model of accommodation. Predictions were then compared to the static and dynamic blur accommodation (BA) measures taken using a Badal optical system on 12 children (6 emmetropes and 6 myopes, 8-13years) and 6 adults (20-35years). Other critical parameters such as CA/C, AC/A, and accommodative adaptation were also measured. Usable BA responses were classified as either typical or atypical. Typical accommodation data confirmed the abnormal pattern of myopia along with an unchanged CA/C. Main sequence relationship remained invariant between myopic and nonmyopic children. An overall reduction was noted in the response dynamics such as peak velocity and acceleration with age. Neither a reduced plant gain nor reduced blur sensitivity could predict the abnormal accommodative behavior. A model adjustment reflecting a reduced accommodative sensory gain (ASG) coupled with an increased AC cross-link gain and reduced vergence adaptive gain does predict the empirical findings. Empirical measures also showed a greater frequency of errors in accommodative response generation (atypical responses) in both myopic and control children compared to adults.

  13. Teaching Adolescent Students with Learning Disabilities to Self-Advocate for Accommodations

    Prater, Mary Anne; Redman, Ashleigh Smith; Anderson, Darlene; Gibb, Gordon S.


    In the general education classroom students with learning disabilities (LD) often need academic accommodations to be successful. These accommodations are typically selected and implemented by their general education teachers, not by the students themselves. High school students with LD were taught to recognize when an accommodation was needed,…

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew....

  15. Comparing family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders, and nonanxious children.

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Jones, Johnna


    Family accommodation describes ways in which parents modify their behavior to help a child avoid or alleviate distress caused by emotional disorders. Accommodation is associated with increased symptom severity, lower functioning, and poorer treatment outcomes. Accommodation is prevalent in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) but no studies have compared accommodation in these groups or compared them to healthy controls to ascertain if accommodation is prevalent in the general population. This study addresses these gaps by comparing patterns of accommodation, factors that maintain accommodation, and its relation to symptom severity in OCD and AD, relative to healthy controls. We directly compared reports of accommodation to childhood OCD (N = 26) and AD (N = 31), and a comparison group of nonanxious (NA) children (N = 30). Mothers completed measures of accommodation (Family Accommodation Scale (FAS)/Family Accommodation Scale-Anxiety (FASA)), anxiety (Screen for Childhood Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Parent Report (SCARED-PR)), and OCD (Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS)). Family accommodation is prevalent among mothers of children with OCD and AD. Few differences were found between the two clinical groups who reported more accommodation (F[2,84] = 23.411, P anxiety in AD (r = .426, P = .017) and OCD (r = .465, P = .017), but not in the NA group. Findings highlight family accommodation as a phenomenon that applies broadly and in a similar manner to children with AD and OCD. Evaluating accommodation provides useful information for clinical care and is an important part of the assessment of children with AD and OCD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Evidence for neural accommodation to a writing system following learning.

    Liu, Ying; Dunlap, Susan; Fiez, Julie; Perfetti, Charles


    Native English speakers with no knowledge of Chinese were trained on 60 Chinese characters according to one of three mapping conditions: orthography to pronunciation and meaning (P + M), orthography to pronunciation (P), and orthography to meaning (M). Following the training, fMRI scans taken during passive viewing of Chinese characters showed activation in brain regions that partially overlap the regions found in studies of skilled Chinese readers, but typically not found in alphabetic readers. Areas include bilateral middle frontal (BA 9), right occipital (BA 18/19), and fusiform (BA 37) regions. The activation pattern of Chinese characters was similar across the three groups. However, peak location was different in the left middle frontal region between groups. Direct contrasts between the groups also revealed stronger activation of left middle frontal in the P + M group. The results suggest that learners acquired skill in reading Chinese characters using a brain network similar to that used by Chinese native speakers. The results are consistent with the system accommodation hypothesis: The brain's reading network accommodates to features of an acquired writing system. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.


    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity, open up an alternate channel of communication, namely oral discussion. By doing so, teachers grant students access to a simplified linguistic input, a strategy designed to promote student comprehension of the textual contents of children's science books. It was found that nearly half (46%) of the read-aloud time was allotted to discussions with an increased percentage of less sophisticated words and reduced use of more sophisticated vocabulary than found in the books through communicative strategies such as simplified rewording, simplified definition, and simplified questioning. Further, aloud reading of more linguistically complex books required longer periods of discussion and an increased degree of teacher oral input and accommodation. We also found evidence of reversed simplification (i.e. sophistication), leading to student uptake of scientific language. The main significance of this study is that it reveals that teacher talk serves two often competing pedagogical functions (accessible communication of scientific information to students and promotion of student acquisition of the specialized language of science). It also underscores the importance of giving analytical consideration to the simplification-sophistication dimension of science classroom discourse as well as the potential of computer-based analysis of classroom discourse to inform science teaching.

  18. Accommodation coefficient of HOBr on deliquescent sodium bromide aerosol particles

    M. Wachsmuth


    Full Text Available Uptake of HOBr on sea salt aerosol, sea salt brine or ice is believed to be a key process providing a source of photolabile bromine (Br2 and sustaining ozone depletion cycles in the Arctic troposphere. In the present study, uptake of HOBr on sodium bromide (NaBr aerosol particles was investigated at an extremely low HOBr concentration of 300 cm-3 using the short-lived radioactive isotopes 83-86Br. Under these conditions, at maximum one HOBr molecule was taken up per particle. The rate of uptake was clearly limited by the mass accommodation coefficient, which was calculated to be 0.6 ± 0.2. This value is a factor of 10 larger than estimates used in earlier models. The atmospheric implications are discussed using the box model "MOCCA'', showing that the increase of the accommodation coefficient of HOBr by a factor of 10 only slightly affects net ozone loss, but significantly increases chlorine release.

  19. Can mergers-in-progress be unmerged in speech accommodation?

    Molly eBabel


    Full Text Available This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged.

  20. Validation of a nonrigid registration framework that accommodates tissue resection

    Risholm, Petter; Samset, Eigil; Wells, William, III


    We present a 3D extension and validation of an intra-operative registration framework that accommodates tissue resection. The framework is based on the bijective Demons method, but instead of regularizing with the traditional Gaussian smoother, we apply an anisotropic diffusion filter with the resection modeled as a diffusion sink. The diffusion sink prevents unwanted Demon forces that originates from the resected area from diffusing into the surrounding area. Another attractive property of the diffusion sink is the resulting continuous deformation field across the diffusion sink boundary, which allows us to move the boundary of the diffusion sink without changing values in the deformation field. The area of resection is estimated by a level-set method evolving in the space of image intensity disagreements in the intra-operative image domain. A product of using the bijective Demons method is that we can also provide an accurate estimate of the resected tissue in the preoperative image space. Validation of the proposed method was performed on a set of 25 synthetic images. Our experiments show a significant improvement in accommodating resection using the proposed method compared to two other Demons based methods.

  1. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin


    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS(+/-) mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1 mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS(+/-) mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

  2. The Effects of Branding on Purchasing Preferences of Tourists at Accommodation Enterprises: An Implementation at Chain Accommodation Enterprises in Antalya

    Banu Yıldız


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of branding on the purchasing preferences of tourists at accommodation enterprises. Towards this end questionnaire technique was used and 398 questionnaires were considered to be evaluated. The data, gathered, analyzed by using statistical methods. As a result it is revealed that branding (brad awareness, perceived quality, brand image, brand trust, brand attitude and brand loyalty parameters has a positive effect on purchasing preferences of tourists and a negative effect on the volume of perceived risk. Factors contributing to more on purchasing preferences of tourists, respectively, brand attitude, brand loyalty and brand awareness.

  3. The effect of proximity on open-loop accommodation responses measured with pinholes.

    Morrison, K A; Seidel, D; Strang, N C; Gray, L S


    Open-loop accommodation levels were measured in 41 healthy, young subjects using a Shin-Nippon SRW-5000 autorefractor in the three viewing conditions: a small physical pinhole pupil (SP), an optically projected pinhole in Maxwellian view (MV) and in the dark (DF). The target viewed through the pinholes was a high-contrast letter presented at 0 D vergence in a +5 D Badal lens system. Overall, results showed that SP open-loop accommodation levels were significantly higher than MV and DF levels. Subjects could be divided into two distinct subgroups according to their response behaviour: responders to the proximal effect of the small physical pinhole (SP accommodation > MV accommodation) and non-responders to the proximal effect of the small physical pinhole (SP accommodation approximately MV accommodation). Correlation analysis demonstrated that open-loop accommodation for both pinhole conditions was correlated with DF for the responders, while for the non-responders SP and MV accommodation were correlated, but were not related to DF accommodation. This suggests that under open-loop conditions some individuals' accommodation levels are mainly affected by proximal and cognitive factors (responders) while others are guided primarily by the presence of the more distal target (non-responders). In conclusion, MV reduces the proximal effect of the physical pinhole and produces open-loop accommodation responses which are more consistent than SP and DF responses.

  4. Sensory outcome with nonsurgical management of esotropia with convergence excess (a high accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio).

    Pratt-Johnson, J A; Tillson, G


    Twenty-seven patients with esotropia and convergence excess (a high accommodative convergence/accommodation [AC/A] ratio) managed nonsurgically underwent a final standardized evaluation of their sensory and motor status after a follow-up period of at least 8 years. All had a deviation with distance fixation of less than 10 prism dioptres (PD) of esotropia with full optical correction both initially and throughout the follow-up period. The average spherical-equivalent refractive error was +2.3 D. The AC/A ratio had tended to decrease with age, and most patients had fusion, although only a small proportion had central fusion and stereopsis. Approximately half of the patients had been treated with bifocals, but their sensory outcome did not differ from that of the other patients. Miotics had not been used for more than a few months in any patient, as they were ineffective in reducing the deviation with near fixation to less than 10 PD of esotropia. A study, possibly a multicentre one, involving larger numbers of patients should be designed to find out whether bifocal therapy offers an advantage in the final sensory outcome of such patients.

  5. Symptomatic accommodative disorders and asthenopia: Prevalence and association in Ghanaian children

    Charles Darko-Takyi


    Full Text Available Background: There is a scarcity of data on asthenopia and accommodative disorders in children in Ghana as optometrists sometimes fail to carry out comprehensive assessments because of the lack of appropriate instruments.Aim: To establish the prevalence of asthenopic symptoms and symptomatic accommodative disorders among Junior High School children in Cape Coast metropolis (in their habitual vision state and to investigate if there are any associations between asthenopic symptoms and the disorders.Method: A prospective cross-sectional school-based study using a multistage sample of 627 participants aged 12–17 years from Junior High Schools in Cape Coast metropolis, Ghana, was conducted. Participants completed a reliable asthenopic symptoms questionnaire (Cronbach’s α = 0.866, and 220 participants who expressed two or more severe or very severe symptoms were selected for comprehensive accommodative system assessment over their habitual vision state.Results: The prevalence of symptoms of asthenopia (two or more severe or very severe and symptomatic accommodative disorders were 35.1% and 17.4% respectively. For specific symptomatic accommodative disorders, the prevalence was as follows: 7.7% accommodative insufficiency, 4.5% accommodative infacility, 1.4% accommodative excess and 3.8% accommodative fatigue. There were significant associations between some specific accommodative disorders and some specific asthenopic symptoms even though these asthenopic symptoms overlapped in other accommodative disorders.Conclusion: Specific asthenopic symptoms do not discriminate between the presences of specific types of accommodative disorders. A comprehensive accommodative system assessment with appropriate instruments is relevant to the diagnosis and management of accommodative disorders to relieve asthenopic symptoms.

  6. A Study on Correlation Between Car Use Tax and Urban Space Development:Based on Bid Rent Function of Urban Land-use


    Based on the model of the bid rent function in a mono-centric city,this paper,by introducing the concept of opportunity cost and extending partial equilibrium analysis to general equilibrium analysis,conducts a theoretical analysis on the possibility that the typical car use taxes including fuel consumption tax,traffic congestion tax,and parking tax can affect the urban space development through their impact on transport cost and the rent bid under certain conditions.Some conclusions drawn from the comparison might be useful when it comes to the practical problems of urban space development.

  7. Water Recovery System Architecture and Operational Concepts to Accommodate Dormancy

    Carter, Layne; Tabb, David; Anderson, Molly


    Future manned missions beyond low Earth orbit will include intermittent periods of extended dormancy. The mission requirement includes the capability for life support systems to support crew activity, followed by a dormant period of up to one year, and subsequently for the life support systems to come back online for additional crewed missions. NASA personnel are evaluating the architecture and operational concepts that will allow the Water Recovery System (WRS) to support such a mission. Dormancy could be a critical issue due to concerns with microbial growth or chemical degradation that might prevent water systems from operating properly when the crewed mission began. As such, it is critical that the water systems be designed to accommodate this dormant period. This paper identifies dormancy issues, concepts for updating the WRS architecture and operational concepts that will enable the WRS to support the dormancy requirement.

  8. Communication accommodation and managing musculoskeletal disorders: doctors' and patients' perspectives.

    Baker, Susan C; Gallois, Cindy; Driedger, S Michelle; Santesso, Nancy


    This study examined the ways in which health care providers (general practitioners and specialists) and patients communicate with each other about managing musculoskeletal (MSK) disorders, a major cause of long-term pain and physical disability. In managing their illness, patients must interact closely with health care providers, who play a large role in transferring knowledge to them. In-depth interviews with patients, general practitioners, and specialist rheumatologists in Australia and Canada were analyzed using Leximancer (a text-mining tool). Results indicated that, in their communication, doctors subtly emphasized accepting and adjusting to the illness ("new normal"), whereas patients emphasized pain relief and getting "back to normal." These results suggest that doctors and patients should accommodate in their communication across subtle and often unexpressed differences in the priorities of provider and patient, or they are likely to be at cross purposes and thus less effective.

  9. Disturbance Accommodating Adaptive Control with Application to Wind Turbines

    Frost, Susan


    Adaptive control techniques are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. Many physical systems experience external disturbances that are persistent or continually recurring. Flexible structures and systems with compliance between components often form a class of systems that fail to meet standard requirements for adaptive control. For these classes of systems, a residual mode filter can restore the ability of the adaptive controller to perform in a stable manner. New theory will be presented that enables adaptive control with accommodation of persistent disturbances using residual mode filters. After a short introduction to some of the control challenges of large utility-scale wind turbines, this theory will be applied to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  10. Leguminous plants: inventors of root nodules to accommodate symbiotic bacteria.

    Suzaki, Takuya; Yoro, Emiko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi


    Legumes and a few other plant species can establish a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, which enables them to survive in a nitrogen-deficient environment. During the course of nodulation, infection with rhizobia induces the dedifferentiation of host cells to form primordia of a symbiotic organ, the nodule, which prepares plants to accommodate rhizobia in host cells. While these nodulation processes are known to be genetically controlled by both plants and rhizobia, recent advances in studies on two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula, have provided great insight into the underlying plant-side molecular mechanism. In this chapter, we review such knowledge, with particular emphasis on two key processes of nodulation, nodule development and rhizobial invasion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Automation for Accommodating Fuel-Efficient Descents in Constrained Airspace

    Coopenbarger, Richard A.


    Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions. During busy conditions today, airplanes are commonly forced to fly inefficient, step-down descents as airtraffic controllers work to ensure separation and maximize throughput. NASA in collaboration with government and industry partners is developing new automation to help controllers accommodate continuous descents in the presence of complex traffic and airspace constraints. This automation relies on accurate trajectory predictions to compute strategic maneuver advisories. The talk will describe the concept behind this new automation and provide an overview of the simulations and flight testing used to develop and refine its underlying technology.

  12. The Inuulitsivik Maternities: culturally appropriate midwifery and epistemological accommodation.

    Douglas, Vasiliki K


    This is a literature-based historical analysis that uses Michel Foucault's technique of tracing epistemological change over time to understand the epistemological changes and their outcomes that have occurred in Nunavik, the Inuit region of Northern Quebec, with the introduction of modern techniques and technology of childbirth in the period after the Second World War. Beginning in 1986, in the village of Puvurnituq, a series of community birthing centres known as the Inuulitsivik Maternities have been created. They incorporate biomedical techniques and technology, but are incorporated into the Inuit epistemology of health, in which the community is the final arbitrator of medical authority. This epistemological accommodation between modern biomedicine and the distinctly premodern Inuit epistemology of health has led to the creation of a new and profoundly non-modern approach to childbirth in Nunavik.

  13. Baudoinia, a new genus to accommodate Torula compniacensis.

    Scott, James A; Untereiner, Wendy A; Ewaze, Juliet O; Wong, Bess; Doyle, David


    Baudoinia gen. nov. is described to accommodate Torula compniacensis. Reported originally from the walls of buildings near brandy maturation warehouses in Cognac, France, species of Baudoinia are cosmopolitan colonists of exposed surfaces subjected to large diurnal temperature shifts, episodic high relative humidity and wetting, and ambient airborne ethanol. Morphologically B. compniacensis resembles some anamorphic Mycosphaerellaceae in possessing dark brown, nonseptate or uniseptate conidia with coarsely roughened walls that are borne acropetally in unbranched chains and released by schizolytic dehiscence. Analysis of partial nuclear rDNA SSU sequences positions B. compniacensis in the order Capnodiales and reveals that it is most closely related to the microcolonial genus Friedmanniomyces. Heat resistance is induced by brief sublethal temperature exposure.

  14. Method for compensating bellows pressure loads while accommodating thermal deformations

    Woodle, M.H.


    Many metal bellows are used on storage ring vacuum chambers. They allow the ring to accommodate deformations associated with alignment, mechanical assembly and thermal expansion. The NSLS has two such electron storage rings, the vuv ring and the x-ray ring. Both rings utilize a number of welded metal bellows within the ring and at every beam port. There are provisions for 16 beam ports on the vuv and 28 ports in the x-ray ring. At each of these locations the bellows are acted on by an external pressure of 1 atmosphere, which causes a 520 lb reaction at the vacuum chamber beam port and at the beamline flange downstream of the bellows. The use of rigid tie rods across the bellows flanges to support this load is troublesome because most storage ring vacuum chambers are baked in situ to achieve high internal vacuum. Significant forces can develop on components if thermal deformation is restrained and damage could occur.

  15. Capsular bag opacification with a new accommodating intraocular lens.

    Floyd, Anne M; Werner, Liliana; Liu, Erica; Stallings, Shannon; Ollerton, Andrew; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary; Morris, Caleb; Mamalis, Nick


    To evaluate the biocompatibility and capsular bag opacification of an accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) containing large haptic elements that separate the anterior and posterior capsules. John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Bilateral phacoemulsification with IOL implantation was performed in 6 New Zealand rabbits. Each animal received a study (accommodating) IOL and a control (1-piece hydrophobic acrylic) IOL. Eyes were examined at the slitlamp from 1 day through 6 weeks postoperatively. The globes were then enucleated and evaluated grossly. Capsular bag opacification was scored from the posterior aspect (Miyake-Apple view). The eyes were then processed for complete histopathologic evaluation. At 6 weeks, the mean posterior capsule opacification (PCO) clinical score was 0.5 ± 0.3 (SD) in the study group and 3.0 ± 0.9 in the control group (P=.001, 2-tail paired t test). Anterior capsule opacification was practically absent in the study group and mild in the control group. Miyake-Apple posterior view showed a mean central PCO score of 0 ± 0 in the study group and 3.0 ± 1.1 in the control group (P=.001), peripheral PCO score of 0.7 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 0.8 (P=.0006), respectively, and Soemmerring ring score of 2.3 ± 0.8 and 7.0 ± 2.8 (P=.01), respectively. Histopathology showed no signs of toxicity in any eye. The study IOL maintained an expanded capsular bag secondary to the large size of the haptic elements, which appears to prevent capsular bag opacification. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated modelling of nitrate loads to coastal waters and land rent applied to catchment-scale water management

    Refsgaard, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Jacobsen, Brian H.


    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires an integrated approach to river basin management in order to meet environmental and ecological objectives. This paper presents concepts and full-scale application of an integrated modelling framework. The Ringkoebing Fjord basin is characterized...... basin water management plans. The paper also includes a land rent modelling approach which can be used to choose the most cost-effective measures and the location of these measures. As a forerunner to the use of basin-scale models in WFD basin water management plans this project demonstrates...... by intensive agricultural production and leakage of nitrate constitute a major pollution problem with respect groundwater aquifers (drinking water), fresh surface water systems (water quality of lakes) and coastal receiving waters (eutrophication). The case study presented illustrates an advanced modelling...

  17. Integrated modelling of nitrate loads to coastal waters and land rent applied to catchment scale water management

    Jacosen, T.; Refsgaard, A.; Jacobsen, Brian H.

    in river basin management. Point sources (e.g. sewage treatment plant discharges) and distributed diffuse sources (nitrate leakage) are included to provide a modelling tool capable of simulating pollution transport from source to recipient to analyse effects of specific, localized basin water management...... plans. The paper also includes a land rent modelling approach which can be used to choose the most cost effective measures and the location of these measures. As a forerunner to the use of basin scale models in WFD basin water management plans this project demonstrates potential and limitations......Abstract The EU WFD requires an integrated approach to river basin management in order to meet environmental and ecological objectives. This paper presents concepts and full-scale application of an integrated modelling framework. The Ringkoebing Fjord basin is characterized by intensive...

  18. Etude comparative des différents systèmes d'alimentation au cours du gavage des canards

    Paquot épouse Negny, Virgine


    Les méthodes de gavage des canards ont beaucoup évolué ces dernières années. Pour faire face à un marché de plus en plus compétitif, la filière « canards gras » s'est organisée : cette rationalisation de la production se traduit par la mise en place de techniques de plus en plus performantes et l'utilisation de pâtées de maïs broyé. Après un rappel du mécanisme d'apparition de la stéatose hépatique de gavage, cette étude expose les différents essais réalisés pour mesurer l'influence des techn...

  19. Micro-Nano : des comportements différents, des procédés à adapter

    Guillemin, Jean-Philippe; Lamy, Peggy; Thomas, Gérard; Bonnefoy, Olivier


    6 pages; L'arrivée de nanomatériaux parmi les différents matériaux utilisés en pyrotechnie pose de nombreux problèmes de mise en œuvre. En effet, leurs propriétés texturales particulières ne permettent pas de les utiliser comme des matériaux classiques. Il est impératif d'adapter les procédés de mise en œuvre habituels. Pour obtenir l'adéquation de ces nouveaux matériaux et de nos procédés, des études spécifiques du comportement des nanomatériaux au cours des procédés de mise en œuvre par cou...

  20. The Assessment of Accommodation and Convergence System in the Bank Employees

    Monireh Mahjoob


    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the high outbreak rate of the eye disorders and problems particularly accommodation disorders and convergence insufficiency in computer users, the study tries to determine the convergence, accommodation system, condition, fusion reserves and vision dimension in bank employees (who work with computers and the control group (who are not computer users and then to compare the mentioned parameters in the two groups. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and observational study a total of 44 bank employees and 44 people as the control group members were selected randomly. Initially, refractive problems were reformed, and then accommodation, convergence and vision dimension evaluative tests were conducted. The test included measuring the near point of convergence, jump convergence, phoria, accommodation range (one eye, both eyes, ease of accommodation (one eye, both eyes, positive and negative related accommodation, near fusion versions and TNO.Results: Our results showed that there was a not significant difference among the near point of convergence, jump convergence, near phoria, accommodation range (one eye and both eyes, ease of accommodation (one eye, both eyes, positive and negative related accommodation in bank employees and control group.Conclusion: Regarding the studies, the outbreak rate of accommodation and convergence disorders is higher in bank employees than the control group which would be due to over working with computer within a fixed interval.

  1. Optimal secondary coil design for inductive powering of the Artificial Accommodation System.

    Nagel, J A; Krug, M; Gengenbach, U; Guth, H; Bretthauer, G; Guthoff, R F


    Age-related ailments like presbyopia and cataract are increasing concerns in the aging society. Both go along with a loss of ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore the patients' ability to accommodate is the Artificial Accommodation System. This micro mechatronic system will be implanted into the capsular bag to replace the human crystalline lens. Depending on the patients' actual need for accommodation, the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously adapts the refractive power of its integrated optical element in a way that the projection on the patients' retina results in a sharp image. As the Artificial Accommodation System is an active implant, its subsystems have to be supplied with electrical energy. Evolving technologies, like energy harvesting, which can potentially be used to power an implant like the Artificial Accommodation System are at the current state of art not sufficient to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously [1]. In the near future, therefore an inductive power supply system will be developed which includes an energy storage to power the Artificial Accommodation System autonomously over a period of 24 h and can be recharged wirelessly. This Paper describes a new possibility to optimize the secondary coil design in a solely analytical way, based on a new figure of merit. Within this paper the developed figure of merit is applied to optimize the secondary coil design for the Artificial Accommodation System.

  2. Parental accommodation of child anxiety and related symptoms: Range, impact, and correlates

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kerns, Caroline E.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.


    Parental accommodation—i.e., changes in parents’ behavior in attempts to prevent or reduce child distress—has been most studied in relation to OCD. Although recent work suggests parents of children with non-OCD anxiety diagnoses also engage in accommodation, little is known about the specific forms, correlates, and associated interference of such accommodation. The present study examined the range and associated interference of parental accommodation behaviors using the newly developed Family Accommodation Checklist and Interference Scale (FACLIS) in a sample of the parents of 71 clinic-referred children with anxiety disorders (NMothers = 68; NFathers= 51). The FACLIS demonstrated good reliability and validity. Ninety-seven percent of mothers and 88% of fathers reported engaging in at least one type of accommodation in the previous two weeks, with parents reporting an average of roughly 4 interfering parental accommodation behaviors. Greater parental accommodation and associated interference were associated with higher maternal distress. Among the anxiety disorders, accommodation was most strongly associated with generalized and separation anxiety disorder, as well as specific phobias. Findings (a) offer psychometric support for the FACLIS as a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of accommodation range and impact, and (b) help clarify the considerable scope and interference associated with parental accommodation of childhood anxiety. PMID:25261837

  3. The rate of change of vergence-accommodation conflict affects visual discomfort.

    Kim, Joohwan; Kane, David; Banks, Martin S


    Stereoscopic (S3D) displays create conflicts between the distance to which the eyes must converge and the distance to which the eyes must accommodate. Such conflicts require the viewer to overcome the normal coupling between vergence and accommodation, and this effort appears to cause viewer discomfort. Vergence-accommodation coupling is driven by the phasic components of the underlying control systems, and those components respond to relatively fast changes in vergence and accommodative stimuli. Given the relationship between phasic changes and vergence-accommodation coupling, we examined how the rate of change in the vergence-accommodation conflict affects viewer discomfort. We used a stereoscopic display that allows independent manipulation of the stimuli to vergence and accommodation. We presented stimuli that simulate natural viewing (i.e., vergence and accommodative stimuli changed together) and stimuli that simulate S3D viewing (i.e., vergence stimulus changes but accommodative stimulus remains fixed). The changes occurred at 0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 Hz. The lowest rate is too slow to stimulate the phasic components while the highest rate is well within the phasic range. The results were consistent with our expectation: somewhat greater discomfort was experienced when stimulus distance changed rapidly, particularly in S3D viewing when the vergence stimulus changed but the accommodative stimulus did not. These results may help in the generation of guidelines for the creation and viewing of stereo content with acceptable viewer comfort.

  4. 41 CFR 102-85.190 - Can GSA Rent be adjusted when standard levels of service are performed by other customer agencies?


    ... when standard levels of service are performed by other customer agencies? 102-85.190 Section 102-85.190... perform or contract for such services must be obtained in advance by the customer agency from the... of Service § 102-85.190 Can GSA Rent be adjusted when standard levels of service are performed by...

  5. A 27-Year-Old Man With Acute Severe Low Back Pain and Bilateral Leg Swelling That Prompted Renting a Wheelchair for Mobility.

    Williams, John G; Phan, Huy; Winston, Helena R; Fugit, Randolph V; Graney, Bridget; Jamroz, Brant; English, Benjamin; Chan, Edward D


    A 27-year-old man with OSA, posttraumatic stress disorder, and chronic mechanical back pain presented with a 3-day history of acute atraumatic worsening of his low back pain as well as right groin numbness that was exacerbated by walking. He also complained of bilateral leg "heaviness," pain, and swelling, all becoming so severe that he rented a wheelchair for mobility.

  6. 30 CFR 285.508 - What rent payments must I pay on ROW grants or RUE grants associated with renewable energy projects?


    ... RUE grants associated with renewable energy projects? 285.508 Section 285.508 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF... § 285.508 What rent payments must I pay on ROW grants or RUE grants associated with renewable...

  7. Breakdown of accommodation in nerve: a possible role for persistent sodium current

    Andersen Ole K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accommodation and breakdown of accommodation are important elements of information processing in nerve fibers, as they determine how nerve fibers react to natural slowly changing stimuli or electrical stimulation. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the biophysical mechanism of breakdown of accommodation, which at present is unknown. Results A model of a space-clamped motor nerve fiber was developed. It was found that this new model could reproduce breakdown of accommodation when it included a low-threshold, rapidly activating, persistent sodium current. However, the phenomenon was not reproduced when the persistent sodium current did not have fast activation kinetics or a low activation threshold. Conclusion The present modeling study suggests that persistent, low-threshold, rapidly activating sodium currents have a key role in breakdown of accommodation, and that breakdown of accommodation can be used as a tool for studying persistent sodium current under normal and pathological conditions.

  8. A slide rule for calculating the ocular accommodation of an ametrope corrected with a spectacle lens.

    Wang, Guang-Ji


    A slide rule has been designed to calculate the ocular accommodation of an ametrope corrected with a spectacle lens. The slide rule makes the calculation itself easier to perform than with traditional methods and is easily applicable in a clinical setting. In the slide rule, there are 3 scales indicating the power of the spectacle lens, the viewing distance, and the ocular accommodation. The most accurate accommodative unit was used to design the slide rule. The ocular accommodation is the product of the accommodative unit and the dioptric viewing distance. The calculating results are accurate from +21 diopters to all minus powers of the spectacle lens. In a clinical setting, the patients can be advised how much accommodation they exert before and after the refractive surgeries.

  9. Quality of work life of front office employees in selected accommodation establishments / Rosa Naudé

    Naudé, Rosa-Anne


    The South African hospitality industry, and more specifically the accommodation sector, is a booming industry within South African Tourism. Annually thousands of tourists, nationally and internationally, come to stay in accommodation establishments which offer a variety of services to guests (South Africa, 2009:499). What differentiates one accommodation establishment from another is the type and quality of service offered to guests. This service offered to guests can only be generated by ...

  10. The Effect of Child Distress on Accommodation of Anxiety: Relations With Maternal Beliefs, Empathy, and Anxiety.

    Settipani, Cara A; Kendall, Philip C


    Little is known about the influence of child behaviors on accommodation of anxiety and how accommodation relates to other parent factors. The present study examined the comparative effect of high and low levels of child distress on mother-reported accommodation, mother factors in relation to accommodation, and moderators of the relation between accommodation and child distress. Maternal perceptions of accommodation were measured by vignettes depicting youth exhibiting high or low levels of distress in anxiety-provoking situations that elicited social anxiety, generalized anxiety, or separation anxiety in a sample of 7- to 17-year-old youth with anxiety disorders (N = 70, M = 11.66, 47.1% male). Findings indicated an effect of child distress on mother-reported accommodation of youth anxiety, such that mothers reported more overall accommodation under conditions of high child distress; situation-level analyses revealed this effect for social and generalized anxiety situations. Furthermore, an association was found between greater mother-reported accommodation and more negative beliefs about their child's experience of anxiety, which held across situations. Maternal empathy moderated the relation between overall accommodation and child distress. Maternal anxiety also moderated the relation between accommodation and child distress, with results varying based on situation type. Findings, consistent with theory, indicate a relation between child distress and mother-reported accommodation and suggest that maternal beliefs about anxiety are an important treatment target. High maternal empathy may be related to a greater degree of adaptability in response to child behaviors, whereas maternal anxiety may be linked with less adaptive responses to child behaviors.

  11. Maximising the local development potential of Nature Tourism accommodation establishments in South Africa

    Jayne M. Rogerson


    Abstract: Within extant scholarship on tourism and local development one knowledge gap concerns the role of the accommodation sector as a base for tourism-led local development in rural areas and small towns. The focus is upon nature tourism accommodation establishments which cluster mainly in geographically marginal areas in South Africa where poverty levels are high and the imperative exists for new drivers of economic and social development. A national audit of nature tourism accommodation...

  12. Phenomenology and clinical correlates of family accommodation in pediatric anxiety disorders.

    Storch, Eric A; Salloum, Alison; Johnco, Carly; Dane, Brittney F; Crawford, Erika A; King, Morgan A; McBride, Nicole M; Lewin, Adam B


    Despite evidence documenting high prevalence of family accommodation in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder, examination in other pediatric anxiety disorders is limited. Preliminary evidence suggests that family accommodation is common amongst children with anxiety disorders; however, the impact on clinical presentation and functional impairment has not been addressed. This study assessed the nature and clinical correlates of family accommodation in pediatric anxiety, as well as validating a mechanistic model. Participants included 112 anxious youth and their parents who were administered a diagnostic clinical interview and measure of anxiety severity, as well as questionnaires assessing internalizing and externalizing symptoms, family accommodation and functional impairment. Some form of accommodation was present in all families. Family accommodation was associated with increased anxiety severity and externalizing behaviors, having a diagnosis of separation anxiety, and increased functional impairment. Family accommodation partially mediated the relationship between anxiety severity and functional impairment, as well as externalizing behaviors and functional impairment. Family accommodation is common in pediatric anxiety disorders, and is associated with more severe clinical presentations and functional impairment. These findings highlight the importance of parental involvement in treatment and the need to specifically target accommodation practices during interventions to mitigate negative outcomes in anxious youth. Further studies utilizing longitudinal data are needed to validate mechanistic models.

  13. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: parental understanding, accommodation, coping and distress.

    Futh, Annabel; Simonds, Laura M; Micali, Nadia


    Parental accommodation of pediatric OCD is common and is associated with negative affect in parents. Qualitative accounts of caring for a child with OCD are limited and no studies have assessed differences between mothers and fathers in accommodation, coping and distress. The current study used a mixed methods approach to understand parental accommodation, negative affect and coping. Forty-one mothers and 29 fathers of 43 children with OCD were asked to write narratives about their understanding and management of OCD and to complete measures of accommodation, coping, and distress. Symptom accommodation was high with almost half of the parents watching the child complete rituals or waiting for the child on a daily basis. Analysis of parental narratives indicated a distressing struggle between engaging in and resisting accommodation in order to manage their own and their child's anger and distress. T-tests and correlation analysis indicated that accommodation did not differ significantly between mothers and fathers but was more strongly associated with negative affect in mothers. Analyses indicated that mothers reported using all types of coping strategy more often than fathers, particularly escape-avoidance, taking responsibility and using social support. Escape-avoidance coping was positively correlated with accommodation and negative affect in both mothers and fathers. Interventions that target parental constructions of OCD and their behavioural and emotional responses to it may assist in reducing the occurrence of accommodation, avoidant coping and parental distress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The online potential for the development of eco-certified accommodation units in Romania

    Codruţa Adina BĂLTESCU


    Full Text Available The Internet and electronic communication have generated significant changes in the marketing strategies of accommodation units. On the other hand, sustainable development is a goal which requires concrete actions and changed mentalities. In Romania operates a number of eco-certified accommodation units. The online tools allow them to communicate the advantages and benefits of the sustainable services, and also to obtain a quick feedback from the consumers. This paper highlights the extent to which eco-certified accommodation units in our country offer relevant information to potential consumers and analyzes the online reviews regarding the eco-certified accommodation services

  15. Charles F. Prentice award lecture 2008: surgical correction of presbyopia with intraocular lenses designed to accommodate.

    Schor, Clifton M


    Surgical restoration of accommodation with accommodating intra-ocular lenses (A-IOLs) presents a complex set of problems involving the design of the prosthetic mechanism. A variety of designs are currently employed that either translate the A-IOL toward the cornea along the sagittal axis, shear two lens components laterally, or deform lens shape to change dioptric power of the eye during attempts to accommodate. Effective biomechanical properties (elasticity and viscosity) of these lenses depend on both material properties and structural design of the A-IOL. Inevitable mismatches between the neuromuscular control of accommodation and the effective biomechanical properties of the prosthetic lens could lead to either unstable oscillations or sluggishness of dynamic accommodation; however, optimal dynamic responses may possibly be restored by neural recalibration. A model of dynamic accommodation is used to predict the consequences of these mismatches on dynamic accommodation, and reverse engineering is used to test the feasibility of neuromuscular recalibration. Empirical measures verify that neuromuscular adaptation of dynamic accommodation is possible in response to optically simulated increases and decreases of ocular-lens stiffness. Other design issues for A-IOLs include stability of optical properties, aberrations and image quality, and interactions of restored accommodation with binocular eye alignment (the near response).

  16. A framework for providing telecommuting as a reasonable accommodation: some considerations on a comparative case study.

    Kaplan, Shelley; Weiss, Sally; Moon, Nathan W; Baker, Paul


    Telecommuting, whether full time, part time, or over short periods when the need arises, can be an important accommodation for employees with disabilities. Indeed, telecommuting may be the only form of accommodation that offers employees whose disabilities fluctuate a means to stay consistently and gainfully employed. This article describes one employer's experience in considering a request for telecommuting as a reasonable accommodation for a particular employee. Drawing on real-life examples, both positive and negative, this article provides a win/win framework for decision-making that can help employers evaluate the use of telecommuting as a possible accommodation and facilitates open and ongoing communication between employer and employee.

  17. An Intelligent Hierarchical Approach to Actuator Fault Diagnosis and Accommodation Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal presents a novel intelligent hierarchical approach to detection, isolation, and accommodation of primary aerodynamic actuator failures. The proposed...

  18. 技术创新网络租金分配的仿真分析%The Simulation Analysis on Rent Allocation of Technology Innovation Network

    杨娟; 阮平南; 刘晓燕


    Enterprises forming innovation network aims to adapt to changing market demands,integrate resources and share risks by the flexibility of organization.The network members can obtain economic earnings and innovation values,which is network rent above the sum of individual enterprise earnings.Whether the rent allocation is reasonable will affect the opportunistic behavior of network members and the success or failure of network cooperation.Therefore it has important theoretic and actual meanings to discuss the rent allocation strategies.It analyzes the influential factors on rent allocation and raised three kinds of allocation strategies.It compares the advantage and disadvantage of the three strategies using the method of multi-agent simulation.Finally it concludes that the allocation strategy based on innovation capability tends to be polarization,the allocation strategy based on learning capability creates rent slowly,and the allocation strategy based on resource niche is conductive to the stability and development of technology innovation network.%技术创新网络租金分配是否合理将影响到网络合作的成败.本研究分析了影响租金分配的因素,提出了3种分配策略,运用多主体仿真的方法比较了这3种分配策略的优劣,最后得出:基于创新能力的分配策略容易出现两级分化的现象,基于学习能力的分配策略获取租金的速度较慢,基于资源位的分配策略更利于技术创新网络的稳定与发展.

  19. Failure Accommodation Tested in Magnetic Suspension Systems for Rotating Machinery

    Provenza, Andy J.


    The NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and Texas A&M University are developing techniques for accommodating certain types of failures in magnetic suspension systems used in rotating machinery. In recent years, magnetic bearings have become a viable alternative to rolling element bearings for many applications. For example, industrial machinery such as machine tool spindles and turbomolecular pumps can today be bought off the shelf with magnetically supported rotating components. Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. has large gas compressors in Canada that have been running flawlessly for years on magnetic bearings. To help mature this technology and quiet concerns over the reliability of magnetic bearings, NASA researchers have been investigating ways of making the bearing system tolerant to faults. Since the potential benefits from an oil-free, actively controlled bearing system are so attractive, research that is focused on assuring system reliability and safety is justifiable. With support from the Fast Quiet Engine program, Glenn's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to demonstrate fault-tolerant magnetic suspension systems targeted for aerospace engine applications. The Flywheel Energy Storage Program is also helping to fund this research.

  20. Accommodating Thickness in Origami-Based Deployable Arrays

    Zirbel, Shannon A.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.; Lang, Robert J.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Trease, Brian P.


    The purpose of this work is to create deployment systems with a large ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter. Deployment from a compact form to a final flat state can be achieved through origami-inspired folding of panels. There are many models capable of this motion when folded in a material with negligible thickness; however, when the application requires the folding of thick, rigid panels, attention must be paid to the effect of material thickness not only on the final folded state, but also during the folding motion (i.e., the panels must not be required to flex to attain the final folded form). The objective is to develop new methods for deployment from a compact folded form to a large circular array (or other final form). This paper describes a mathematical model for modifying the pattern to accommodate material thickness in the context of the design, modeling, and testing of a deployable system inspired by an origami six-sided flasher model. The model is demonstrated in hardware as a 1/20th scale prototype of a deployable solar array for space applications. The resulting prototype has a ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter of 9.2 (or 1.25 m deployed outer diameter to 0.136 m stowed outer diameter).

  1. Big brake singularity is accommodated as an exotic quintessence field

    Chimento, Luis P


    We describe a big brake singularity in terms of a modified Chaplygin gas equation of state $p=(\\ga_{m}-1)\\rho+\\al\\ga_{m}\\rho^{-n}$, accommodate this late-time event as an exotic quintessence model obtained from an energy-momentum tensor, and focus on the cosmological behaviour of the exotic field, its kinetic energy and the potential energy. At background level, the exotic field does not blow-up whereas its kinetic energy and potential both grow without limit near the future singularity. We evaluate the classical stability of this background solution by examining the scalar perturbations of the metric along with the inclusion of entropy perturbation in the perturbed pressure. Within the Newtonian gauge, the gravitational field approaches to a constant near the singularity plus additional regular terms. When the perturbed exotic field is associated with $\\al>0$, the perturbed pressure and contrast density both diverge whereas the perturbed exotic field and the divergence of exotic field's velocity go to zero e...

  2. Setting Sight on Role Playing: To Accommodate or to Repudiate?

    Ika Apriani Fata


    Full Text Available To set sight on role play by means to look at EFL teacher’s experience and students’ perspectives of role play (RP technique enactment in teaching speaking by using qualitative design. This research was a qualitative study. It was discharged at a Senior high school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. It provided work for the instrument of observation sheet, field notes and interview guide, and also questionnaire. The methodology designated the combination of four mountainsides to expose in-depth the urgency of role play in which applied since 1936. The result of interview was exposed that the English teacher claimed that role play was a technique applied to promote speaking and it was corroborated by the result of field note. Likewise, regarding students’ perspective depicted that the students indeed agreed on themselves of the usefulness of role play to enhance their speaking skill and motivation. Thus, Students asserted that the learning was more fun and enjoyable through role play itself. It is merely found in this research study that role playing can accommodate students’ need and teacher’s side in English language teaching. Nevertheless, this article applies a small subject as the participant. Therefore, the researchers recommended to have a deep look at reasoning students’ point of view in terms of role play technique implementation in non-English class. And see ascertains how beneficial it is in terms of role play (RP in a large classroom.

  3. Eliminating accommodation-convergence conflicts in stereoscopic displays: Can multiple-focal-plane displays elicit continuous and consistent vergence and accommodation responses?

    MacKenzie, Kevin J.; Watt, Simon J.


    Conventional stereoscopic displays present images at a fixed focal distance. Depth variations in the depicted scene therefore result in conflicts between the stimuli to vergence and to accommodation. The resulting decoupling of accommodation and vergence responses can cause adverse consequences, including reduced stereo performance, difficulty fusing binocular images, and fatigue and discomfort. These problems could be eliminated if stereo displays could present correct focus cues. A promising approach to achieving this is to present each eye with a sum of images presented at multiple focal planes, and to approximate continuous variations in focal distance by distributing light energy across image planes - a technique referred to as depth-filtering1. Here we describe a novel multi-plane display in which we can measure accommodation and vergence responses. We report an experiment in which we compare these oculomotor responses to real stimuli and depth-filtered simulations of the same distance. Vergence responses were generally similar across conditions. Accommodation responses to depth-filtered images were inaccurate, however, showing an overshoot of the target, particularly in response to a small step-change in stimulus distance. This is surprising because we have previously shown that blur-driven accommodation to the same stimuli, viewed monocularly, is accurate and reliable. We speculate that an initial convergence-driven accommodation response, in combination with a weaker accommodative stimulus from depth-filtered images, leads to this overshoot. Our results suggest that stereoscopic multi-plane displays can be effective, but require smaller image-plane separations than monocular accommodation responses suggest.

  4. Development of an Accommodation-Dependent Eye Model and Studying the Effects of Accommodation on Electron and Proton Dose Conversion Coefficients

    Alireza Vejdani-Noghreiyan


    Full Text Available Introduction International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP has provided a comprehensive discussion on threshold dose for radiation-induced cataract in ICRP publication 116. Accordingly, various parts of the eye lens have different radio-sensitivities. Recently, some studies have been performed to develop a realistic eye model with the aim of providing accurate estimation of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for different parts of the eye. However, the effect of accommodation, which changes the lens shape and pupil size, on dose conversion coefficients has not been considered yet. In this study, we purport to develop an accommodation-dependent eye model and to study the effects of accommodation on the electron and proton fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. Materials and Methods Herein, a modified eye model was developed by considering the effects of accommodation on the lens shape and pupil size. In addition, MCNPX 2.6 Monte Carlo transport code was used to calculate the effects of  eye lens accommodation on electron and proton fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. Results Calculation of dose conversion coefficients demonstrated that the accommodation causes up to 40% discrepancy for fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients of electrons in the range of 600 to 800 keV, which is due to the change of eye lens shape during the accommodation of the eye. Conclusion Since the accommodation of the eye change the lens shape and pupil size, it has considerable effect on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients of electrons at some ranges of incident particle energies that should be considered in simulation. However, the fluctuation of dose conversion coefficients of protons is negligible.

  5. An initial study of family accommodation in children and adolescents with chronic tic disorders.

    Storch, Eric A; Johnco, Carly; McGuire, Joseph F; Wu, Monica S; McBride, Nicole M; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K


    This initial study examined the nature, incidence, and clinical correlates of family accommodation in youth with tic disorders, and validated a brief self-report measure of tic-related family accommodation, the Tic Family Accommodation Scale (TFAS). Seventy-five youth aged 6-18 who were diagnosed with a tic disorder and their parent completed a diagnostic clinical interview, and clinician and parent-report measures of tic severity, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems, family accommodation and impairment. An exploratory factor analysis of the TFAS showed a two-factor structure, with good internal consistency for the Total score, Modification of Child Environment and Modification of Parent Environment subscales (α = 0.88, 0.86, and 0.81, respectively). Family accommodation was not associated with tic severity. Family accommodation was associated with increased anxiety and depressive symptoms, higher externalizing, rule breaking, aggressive behaviors and social problems, and with greater tic-related functional impairment. Anxiety and externalizing problems (but not depressive symptoms) predicted family accommodation when controlling for tic severity. Family accommodation predicted high levels of functional impairment over and above the effect of tic severity, anxiety, depression and externalizing problems. Family accommodation is a common phenomenon for youth with tic disorders, with modifications typically encompassing changes to the child and/or parent environments. Accommodation was not associated with tic severity, but was related to higher levels of anxiety, depressive symptoms, externalizing symptoms, aggression, and rule breaking behaviors. Results suggest that other emotional symptoms are more likely to drive accommodation practices than the tic symptoms per se.

  6. Workplace accommodations for persons with physical disabilities: evidence synthesis of the peer-reviewed literature.

    Padkapayeva, Kathy; Posen, Andrew; Yazdani, Amin; Buettgen, Alexis; Mahood, Quenby; Tompa, Emile


    To identify and synthesize research evidence on workplace accommodations used by employers to recruit, hire, retain, and promote persons with physical disabilities. A structured search of six electronic journal databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed literature on the topic published from January 1990 to March 2016. Articles describing or evaluating workplace disability accommodation policies and practices were given a full-text review. Topic experts were contacted to identify additional studies. Details on specific accommodations described in 117 articles were synthesized and organized into three groups comprised of a total of 12 categories. The majority of studies did not rigorously evaluate effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of the accommodations under study. This evidence synthesis provides an overview of the peer-reviewed literature of value to occupational rehabilitation professionals and employers seeking guidance on workplace accommodation policies and practices for persons with physical disabilities. A wide range of accommodation options is available for addressing physical, social, and attitudinal barriers to successful employment. Besides physical/technological modifications, accommodations to enhance workplace flexibility and worker autonomy and strategies to promote workplace inclusion and integration are important. More comprehensive reporting and evaluations of the effectiveness of accommodations in research literature are needed to develop best practices for accommodating persons with disabilities. Implications for rehabilitation There is a substantial peer-reviewed literature that provides insights into the barriers for persons with physical disabilities and the workplace accommodation practices to address them, though rigorous evaluations of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are uncommon. Attitudinal and social barriers stemming from stereotypes, ignorance and lack of knowledge are as important as physical barriers to employment for

  7. Botulinum toxin type A as treatment of partially accommodative esotropia.

    Flores-Reyes, E M; Castillo-López, M G; Toledo-Silva, R; Vargas-Ortega, J; Murillo-Correa, C E; Aguilar-Ruiz, A


    To determine the effectiveness of a botulinum toxin type A injection in both medial rectus muscles in patients with partially accommodative esotropia. Residual deviation and stability of strabismus were evaluated at 18 months follow up. A prospective, analytical, quasi-experimental study was conducted on a cohort of 21 patients who underwent total cycloplegic refraction and with a residual deviation of at least 14 DP. A botulinum toxin type A dose of 5 IU was injected into each medial rectus muscle for a residual deviation greater than 18 DP, with a dose of 2.5 IU being used for a deviation between 14 and 18 DP. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to relate residual deviation to variables recorded as potential predictors. A total of 21 patients were included, 33.3% (n=7) males and 66.6% (n=14) females. Mean visual acuity was -.28±.25 logMAR for right eye (range 0 to -1) and -.42±.31 logMAR for left eye (range 0 to -1.3). Mean angle of residual deviation before application of botulinum toxin was 40.95±8.6DP without spectacles correction, and 22.3±7.99 DP with full cycloplegic refraction. Adverse effects were ptosis in 14.2% (n=3), diplopia 23.8% (n=5), and vertical deviation in 33% (n=7). One patient had a poor outcome, therefore required surgical treatment. At one year follow up, 85.71% of patients showed good results with esotropia of 12 DP or less, dropping to 71.43% at 18 months of follow up. Botulinum toxin type A is an effective long-term treatment with a good response in 71.43% of patients. No predictors of good response were demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Authentication and Access: Accommodating Public Users in an Academic World

    Lynne Weber


    Full Text Available In the fall of 2004, the Academic Computing Center, a division of the Information Technology Services Department (ITS at Minnesota State University, Mankato took over responsibility for the computers in the public areas of Memorial Library. For the first time, affiliated Memorial Library users were required to authenticate using a campus username and password, a change that effectively eliminated computer access for anyone not part of the university community. This posed a dilemma for the librarians. Because of its Federal Depository status, the library had a responsibility to provide general access to both print and online government publications for the general public. Furthermore, the library had a long tradition of providing guest access to most library resources, and there was reluctance to abandon the practice. Therefore the librarians worked with ITS to retain a small group of six computers that did not require authentication and were clearly marked for community use, along with several standup, open-access computers on each floor used primarily for searching the library catalog. The additional need to provide computer access to high school students visiting the library for research and instruction led to more discussions with ITS and resulted in a means of generating temporary usernames and passwords through a Web form. These user accommodations were implemented in the library without creating a written policy governing the use of open-access computers.

  9. Disturbance Accommodating Control Design for Wind Turbines Using Solvability Conditions

    Wang, Na [National Renewable Energy Laboratory,15013 Denver West Parkway,Golden, CO 80401e-mail:; Wright, Alan D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory,15013 Denver West Parkway,Golden, CO 80401e-mail:; Balas, Mark J. [ProfessorFellow ASMEAerospace Engineering Department,Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University,Daytona Beach, FL 32114e-mail:


    In this paper, solvability conditions for disturbance accommodating control (DAC) have been discussed and applied on wind turbine controller design in above-rated wind speed to regulate rotor speed and to mitigate turbine structural loads. DAC incorporates a predetermined waveform model and uses it as part of the state-space formulation, which is known as the internal model principle to reduce or minimize the wind disturbance effects on the outputs of the wind turbine. An asymptotically stabilizing DAC controller with disturbance impact on the wind turbine being totally canceled out can be found if certain conditions are fulfilled. Designing a rotor speed regulation controller without steady-state error is important for applying linear control methodology such as DAC on wind turbines. Therefore, solvability conditions of DAC without steady-state error are attractive and can be taken as examples when designing a multitask turbine controller. DAC controllers solved via Moore-Penrose Pseudoinverse and the Kronecker product are discussed, and solvability conditions of using them are given. Additionally, a new solvability condition based on inverting the feed-through D term is proposed for the sake of reducing computational burden in the Kronecker product. Applications of designing collective pitch and independent pitch controllers based on DAC are presented. Recommendations of designing a DAC-based wind turbine controller are given. A DAC controller motivated by the proposed solvability condition that utilizes the inverse of feed-through D term is developed to mitigate the blade flapwise once-per-revolution bending moment together with a standard proportional integral controller in the control loop to assist rotor speed regulation. Simulation studies verify the discussed solvability conditions of DAC and show the effectiveness of the proposed DAC control design methodology.

  10. Disentangling Mathematics Target and Access Skills: Implications for Accommodation Assignment Practices

    Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Jamgochian, Elisa M.; Nelson-Walker, Nancy J.; Geller, Joshua P.


    Appropriate assignment of accommodations is predicated on a clear distinction between target skills and access skills. In this study, we examine the agreement between test developer/researchers' and educators' classification of target and access skills as a possible explanatory mechanism for assigning accommodations. Findings indicate that…

  11. Recognizing and Accommodating Employees with PTSD: The Intersection of Human Resource Development, Rehabilitation, and Psychology

    Hughes, Claretha; Lusk, Stephanie L.; Strause, Stephanie


    All employees within the workplace must be treated fairly and equitably including those with disabilities who may require accommodations that serve to increase access to and maintenance of competitive employment. Human Resource Development (HRD) researchers and practitioners have experience in accommodating employees with disabilities but are now…

  12. The Effect of Sharing Health Information on Teachers' Production of Classroom Accommodations

    Cunningham, Melissa M.; Wodrich, David L.


    Ninety elementary-school teachers read information about a hypothetical student experiencing school-related problems due to Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), generated classroom accommodations to assist the student, and rated their confidence in these accommodations. Each teacher was provided one of three levels of information about T1DM: (a) "no…

  13. An Analysis of Accommodations Issues from the Standards and Assessments Peer Review. Technical Report 51

    Thurlow, Martha; Christensen, Laurene; Lail, Kathryn E.


    To meet the assessment requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), states must ensure the inclusion of students with disabilities, as well as provide for the appropriate use of assessment accommodations. Accommodations have been defined in a number of ways. In the Council of Chief…

  14. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.


    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

  15. Visual discomfort and the temporal properties of the vergence-accommodation conflict

    Kim, Joohwan; Kane, David; Banks, Martin S.


    The vergence-accommodation conflict associated with viewing stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content can cause visual discomfort. Previous studies of vergence and accommodation have shown that the coupling between the two responses is driven by a fast, phasic component. We investigated how the temporal properties of vergence-accommodation conflicts affect discomfort. Using a unique volumetric display, we manipulated the stimulus to vergence and the stimulus to accommodation independently. There were two experimental conditions: 1) natural viewing in which the stimulus to vergence was perfectly correlated with the stimulus to accommodation; and 2) conflict viewing in which the stimulus to vergence varied while the stimulus to accommodation remained constant (thereby mimicking S3D viewing). The stimulus to vergence (and accommodation in natural viewing) varied at one of three temporal frequencies in those conditions. The magnitude of the conflict was the same for all three frequencies. The young adult subjects reported more visual discomfort when vergence changes were faster, particularly in the conflict condition. Thus, the temporal properties of the vergence-accommodation conflict in S3D media affect visual discomfort. The results can help content creators minimize discomfort by making conflict changes sufficiently slow.

  16. Relationship of ocular accommodation and motor skills performance in developmental coordination disorder.

    Rafique, Sara A; Northway, Nadia


    Ocular accommodation provides a well-focussed image, feedback for accurate eye movement control, and cues for depth perception. To accurately perform visually guided motor tasks, integration of ocular motor systems is essential. Children with motor coordination impairment are established to be at higher risk of accommodation anomalies. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between ocular accommodation and motor tasks, which are often overlooked, in order to better understand the problems experienced by children with motor coordination impairment. Visual function, gross and fine motor skills were assessed in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing control children. Children with DCD had significantly poorer accommodation facility and amplitude dynamics compared to controls. Results indicate a relationship between impaired accommodation and motor skills. Specifically, accommodation anomalies correlated with visual motor, upper limb and fine dexterity task performance. Consequently, we argue accommodation anomalies influence the ineffective coordination of action and perception in DCD. Furthermore, reading disabilities were related to poorer motor performance. We postulate the role of the fastigial nucleus as a common pathway for accommodation and motor deficits. Implications of the findings and recommended visual screening protocols are discussed.

  17. Computer-Based Signing Accommodations: Comparing a Recorded Human with an Avatar

    Russell, Michael; Kavanaugh, Maureen; Masters, Jessica; Higgins, Jennifer; Hoffmann, Thomas


    Many students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing are eligible for a signing accommodation for state and other standardized tests. The signing accommodation, however, presents several challenges for testing programs that attempt to administer tests under standardized conditions. One potential solution for many of these challenges is the use of…

  18. Housing First: permanent supported accommodation for people with psychosis who have experienced chronic homelessness.

    Holmes, Alex; Carlisle, Trevor; Vale, Zoe; Hatvani, George; Heagney, Camillie; Jones, Simon


    The objective of this study was to determine whether a 'housing first' permanent supported accommodation was effective in improving housing stability, continuity of care and reducing mental health admissions for persons experiencing chronic homelessness with psychosis. A quasi prospective cohort study of 42 chronic homeless persons with psychosis accommodated in a new purpose built facility in central Melbourne. Accommodation stability, mental health service contacts and psychiatric admissions were compared across the 2 years prior, the first 2 years of placement and the 2 years after leaving. The mean number of mental health admissions in the first 2 years of accommodation was less (0.56, SD = 1.0) when compared with in the 2 years prior to accommodation (1.0, SD = 1.4, p = 0.05). There was an increase in the mean total number of days admitted in the 2 years after having left the supported accommodation, (33.3 days, SD = 86.7, p = 0.043) Conclusions: The accommodation of chronic homeless persons with psychosis in a 'housing first' permanent supported accommodation lead to increased housing stability and optimism, improved continuity of care and reduced psychiatric admissions.

  19. Classroom Use of Test Accommodations: Issues of Access, Equity, and Conflation

    Schissel, Jamie L.


    Test accommodations are changes to test administration, responses, or the test itself that are offered to emergent bilingual students for standardized tests and also for classroom assessments in some states in the USA. Currently there is a lack of research examining the use of test accommodations as a pedagogical practice. This paper presents a…

  20. Supervisor Autonomy and Considerate Leadership Style are Associated with Supervisors’ Likelihood to Accommodate Back Injured Workers

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Shaw, William; Soklaridis, Sophie


    PURPOSE To determine the association between supervisors’ leadership style and autonomy and supervisors’ likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors’ likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale. We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. RESULTS A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β= .012; 95% CI: .009–.016) and autonomy (β= .066; 95% CI: .025–.11) were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI: −.0026–.0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. CONCLUSIONS Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability. PMID:25595332

  1. Predictors of Assessment Accommodations Use for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Wurtz, Keith A.


    Current accountability reform requires annual assessment for all students, including students with disabilities. Testing accommodations are one way to increase access to assessments while maintaining the validity of test scores. This paper provides findings from an exploratory logistic regression analysis of predictors of four accommodations used…

  2. Computer Testing as a Form of Accommodation for English Language Learners

    Abedi, Jamal


    This study compared performance of both English language learners (ELLs) and non-ELL students in Grades 4 and 8 under accommodated and nonaccommodated testing conditions. The accommodations used in this study included a computerized administration of a math test with a pop-up glossary, a customized English dictionary, extra testing time, and…

  3. Polymer refilling of presbyopic human lenses in vitro restores the ability to undergo accommodative changes

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, B; Haitjema, HJ; Kooijman, AC; Barkhof, J


    PURPOSE. Because presbyopia is thought to be accompanied by increased lens sclerosis this study was conducted to investigate whether refilling the capsule of the presbyopic human lens with a soft polymer would restore the ability of the lens to undergo accommodative changes. METHODS. Accommodative f

  4. Being an Elbow: A Phenomenological Autoethnography of Faculty-Student Collaboration for Accommodations

    Aguirre, Regina T. P.; Duncan, Chad


    Hybrid and online courses and advances in assistive technologies make accommodating students with disabilities ever-changing, requiring innovation. This reality, coupled with students' reluctance to disclose disabilities, points toward a need for replacing accommodations directed at those with disabilities with universal design whereby they…

  5. A Structural Equation Analysis of Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.


    Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…

  6. Social accommodation and energy efficiency dossier; Dossier habitat social et efficacite energetique

    Despretz, H. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Morlot, R. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment, (CSTB), 75 - Paris (France); Gibert, M. [OPAC 38, Grenoble (France); Marichez, J.M. [CDHR 62 - Arras (France); Bouchardeau, Ph. [ADIL 26 (France); Sidler, O. [Enertech, 26 - Felines sur Rimandoule (France); Hamadou, H. [Mouvement pour les Villages d' Enfants, MVE (France)


    This dossier takes stock of the experiences and programs in progress in some French regions about the enforcement of the new thermal regulation from June 2001 in social accommodations: recall of the principles of the new regulation, practices and needs for renewable energy uses in accommodations for underprivileged people; campaign of sensitization to water, electricity and heat saving; the energy policy of the OPAC 38, a social accommodation organization of Grenoble (SE France); the energy mastery in Northern France rural accommodations; the social stake of energy mastery, its impact on standard of living, health and public finances; the first lessons gained from the scheduled operations of improvement of accommodations (rehabilitation of private buildings) in Drome region (SE France); the electricity mastery action of Montreuil-Vincennes Energie organization for the evaluation of the different specific uses of electricity in common and private parts of social apartment buildings. (J.S.)

  7. Electrical properties of Lupinus angustifolius L. stem. II. Accommodation and anode break excitation

    Tadeusz Zawadzki


    Full Text Available Under electrical stimulation of Lupinus stem phenomena of accommodation and anode break excitation appear. Their characteristic is the same as in the axon or nerve. Only their duration is about 103-104 longer in plants. The constant characterizing the rate of accommodation was calculated. A limiting threshold value was found beyond which excitation occurs, irrespective of the rate of stimulus rise (voltage gradient. The accommodation rate is approximately constant, whereas the range of accommodation varies and is dependent on the difference between the rheobase value and the limiting threshold value. Hence plants with a low rheobase are characterized by a wider range of accommodation. It is suggested that the changes in potential (including AP recorded on the stem surface are connected with changes of the potential on cell membranes (Sibaoka, 1962.

  8. Integrated modelling of nitrate loads to coastal waters and land rent applied to catchment-scale water management.

    Refsgaard, A; Jacobsen, T; Jacobsen, B; Ørum, J-E


    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires an integrated approach to river basin management in order to meet environmental and ecological objectives. This paper presents concepts and full-scale application of an integrated modelling framework. The Ringkoebing Fjord basin is characterized by intensive agricultural production and leakage of nitrate constitute a major pollution problem with respect groundwater aquifers (drinking water), fresh surface water systems (water quality of lakes) and coastal receiving waters (eutrophication). The case study presented illustrates an advanced modelling approach applied in river basin management. Point sources (e.g. sewage treatment plant discharges) and distributed diffuse sources (nitrate leakage) are included to provide a modelling tool capable of simulating pollution transport from source to recipient to analyse the effects of specific, localized basin water management plans. The paper also includes a land rent modelling approach which can be used to choose the most cost-effective measures and the location of these measures. As a forerunner to the use of basin-scale models in WFD basin water management plans this project demonstrates the potential and limitations of comprehensive, integrated modelling tools.

  9. Effects of linguistic complexity and accommodations on estimates of ability for students with learning disabilities.

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Kaye, Alyssa D; Lockhart, L Leland; Beretvas, S Natasha


    Many students with learning disabilities (SLD) participate in standardized assessments using test accommodations such as extended time, having the test items read aloud, or taking the test in a separate setting. Yet there are also aspects of the test items themselves, particularly the language demand, which may contribute to the effects of test accommodations. This study entailed an analysis of linguistic complexity (LC) and accommodation use for SLD in grade four on 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading and mathematics items. The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the effects of test item LC on reading and mathematics item difficulties for SLD; (b) the impact of accommodations (presentation, response, setting, or timing) on estimates of student ability, after controlling for LC effects; and (c) the impact of differential facet functioning (DFF), a person-by-item-descriptor interaction, on estimates of student ability, after controlling for LC and accommodations' effects. For both reading and mathematics, the higher an item's LC, the more difficult it was for SLD. After controlling for differences due to accommodations, LC was not a significant predictor of mathematics items' difficulties, but it remained a significant predictor for reading items. There was no effect of accommodations on mathematics item performance, but for reading items, students who received presentation and setting accommodations scored lower than those who did not. No significant LC-by-accommodation interactions were found for either subject area, indicating that the effect of LC did not depend on the type of accommodation received. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The influence of family accommodation on pediatric hospital experience in Canada.

    Franck, Linda S; Ferguson, Deron; Fryda, Sarah; Rubin, Nicole


    The goals of our study were to describe the types of family accommodation for parents of hospitalized children and to examine their influence on the pediatric hospital experience. This multi-site cohort survey included 10 hospitals in Ontario Province, Canada. Participants were parents of inpatient children (n = 1240). Main outcome measures included ratings of three parent-reported measures of hospital experience: overall hospital experience; willingness to recommend the hospital to family or friends; and how much the accommodation type helped parent stay involved in their child's hospital care. Parents most often stayed in the child's room (74.7%), their own home (12.3%), hotel (4.0%) or a Ronald McDonald House (3.0%). Accommodation varied based on hospital, parent and child factors. Length of stay and the child's health status were significant predictors for overall hospital experience and recommending the hospital to family or friends, but accommodation type was not. Families who stayed at a Ronald McDonald House reported greater involvement in their child's care compared with other accommodation types (odds ratio: 1.54-20.73 for contrasted accommodation types). Use of different overnight accommodations for families of hospitalized pediatric patients in Canada is similar to a previous report of U.S. family hospital accommodations. In contrast to the previous U.S. findings, Canadian hospital experience scores were lower and accommodation type was not a significant predictor of overall hospital experience or willingness to recommend the hospital. In Canada, as in the U.S., families who stayed at a Ronald McDonald House reported that this accommodation type significantly improved their ability to be involved in their child's care.

  11. Prediction of accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic patients using ultrasound biomicroscopy

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian


    PURPOSE To determine whether relatively low-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) can predict the accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes as well as in a previous study of young phakic subjects, despite lower accommodative amplitudes. SETTING College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, USA. DESIGN Observational cross-sectional study. METHODS Static accommodative optical response was measured with infrared photorefraction and an autorefractor (WR-5100K) in subjects aged 36 to 46 years. A 35 MHz UBM device (Vumax, Sonomed Escalon) was used to image the left eye, while the right eye viewed accommodative stimuli. Custom-developed Matlab image-analysis software was used to perform automated analysis of UBM images to measure the ocular biometry parameters. The accommodative optical response was predicted from biometry parameters using linear regression, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and 95% prediction intervals. RESULTS The study evaluated 25 subjects. Per-diopter (D) accommodative changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature, and anterior segment length were similar to previous values from young subjects. The standard deviations (SDs) of accommodative optical response predicted from linear regressions for UBM-measured biometry parameters were ACD, 0.15 D; lens thickness, 0.25 D; anterior lens radii of curvature, 0.09 D; posterior lens radii of curvature, 0.37 D; and anterior segment length, 0.42 D. CONCLUSIONS Ultrasound biomicroscopy parameters can, on average, predict accommodative optical response with SDs of less than 0.55 D using linear regressions and 95% CIs. Ultrasound biomicroscopy can be used to visualize and quantify accommodative biometric changes and predict accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes. PMID:26049831

  12. Prediction of accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic subjects using ultrasound biomicroscopy.

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian


    To determine whether relatively low-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) can be used to predict the accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes as well as in a previous study of young phakic subjects, despite lower accommodative amplitudes. College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, USA. Observational cross-sectional study. Static accommodative optical response was measured with infrared photorefraction and an autorefractor (WR-5100K) in subjects aged 36 to 46 years. A 35 MHz UBM device (Vumax, Sonomed Escalon) was used to image the left eye, while the right eye viewed accommodative stimuli. Custom-developed Matlab image-analysis software was used to perform automated analysis of UBM images to measure the ocular biometry parameters. The accommodative optical response was predicted from biometry parameters using linear regression, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and 95% prediction intervals. The study evaluated 25 subjects. Per-diopter (D) accommodative changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature, and anterior segment length were similar to previous values from young subjects. The standard deviations (SDs) of accommodative optical response predicted from linear regressions for UBM-measured biometry parameters were ACD, 0.15 D; lens thickness, 0.25 D; anterior lens radii of curvature, 0.09 D; posterior lens radii of curvature, 0.37 D; and anterior segment length, 0.42 D. Ultrasound biomicroscopy parameters can, on average, predict accommodative optical responses with SDs of less than 0.55 D using linear regressions and 95% CIs. Ultrasound biomicroscopy can be used to visualize and quantify accommodative biometric changes and predict accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the accommodation response after near visual tasks using different handheld electronic devices

    Aikaterini I. Moulakaki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the accommodation response after short reading periods using a tablet and a smartphone as well as determine potential differences in the accommodation response at various stimulus vergences using a Hartmann- Shack aberrometer. Methods: Eighteen healthy subjects with astigmatism of less than 1 D, corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better, and normal findings in an ophthalmic examination were enrolled. Accommodation responses were obtained under three different conditions: accommodation system of the eye relaxed and visually stressed with a tablet and an smartphone for 10 min, at a distance of 0.25 m from the subject's eyes. Three measurements of accommodation response were monocularly acquired at stimulus vergences ranging from 0 to 4 D (1-D step. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the accommodation responses among the conditions. A moderate but gradually increasing root mean square, coma-like aberration was found for every condition. Conversely, the spherical aberration decreased as stimulus vergences increased. These outcomes were identified in comparison to the one-to-one ideal accommodation response, implying that a certain lag value was present in all stimulus vergences different from 0 D. Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that the difference between the ideal and real accommodation responses is mainly attributed to parameters associated with the accommodation process, such as the near visual acuity, depth of focus, pupil diameter, and wavefront aberrations. The wavefront aberrations were dependent on the 3-mm pupil size selected in this study. The accommoda tion response was not dependent on the electronic device employed in each condition, and it was mainly associated with young age and level of amplitude of accommodation of the subjects.

  14. Experience in public-rent-house building scheme design%公租房建筑方案设计体会



    结合具体工程实例,对重庆市公租房建筑方案设计进行了阐述,分别介绍了公租房项目规划设计思想、规划设计布局、户型设计、交通设计及配套公建等方面的内容,对今后其他城市同类项目规划设计具有指导意义。%Combining with specific engineering case,it describes the public-rent-house building scheme design in Chongqing city,and respectively introduces the design thinking,planning and design layout,housing model design,traffic design and matching public facilities in public-rent-house project,which has guiding significance for future similar project plan and design in other cities.

  15. Research on urban old residential renovation for Low-rent housing%面向廉租房的城市旧住宅改造研究



    通过对城市发展中遗留的大量旧住宅进行改造研究,分析当前低收入人群的居住生活需求,提出面向廉租房的旧住宅改造建议,以及旧住宅改造方式,探讨旧住宅改造廉租住宅的可能性。%Through the study on a large number of old residential left when urban development,analysis of the current demand for low-income people's living,proposed proposals on urban old residential renovation for Low-rent housing and renovated the way for old house,explored the renovation of the old low-rent residential housing possibilities.

  16. Etude comparative de différents superalliages base Ni pour ressorts de systèmes de maintien

    Ter-Ovanessian, Benoît


    Les systèmes de maintien situés sur les structures assemblages-combustibles des réacteurs nucléaires à eau sous pression (REP) sont constitués d'un empilement de lames qui agissent à la fois, comme élément accommodant les incompatibilités thermiques résultant des différences de coefficients de dilatation Acier, alliages de zirconium et principalement, comme système permettant de limiter les effets hydrodynamiques induits par le passage du fluide caloporteur à travers les assemblages. Actuelle...

  17. Franchissement du seuil dans un laser monomode à milieu actif homogène : étude spectrale auto-cohérente

    Boucher, Y. G.


    Nous présentons une étude auto-cohérente du franchissement du seuil dans un laser monomode à milieu actif homogène. Nous obtenons pour la puissance, la longueur d'onde et la largeur de raie des expressions universelles en coordonnées normalisées, continûment valables de part et d'autre du seuil.

  18. An influenza outbreak among pilgrims sleeping at a school without purpose built overnight accommodation facilities.

    Staff, Michael; Torres, Maria I


    This report describes a respiratory illness outbreak amongst a group of over 700 World Youth Day 2008 pilgrims staying at a basic accommodation venue for 1 week in July 2008. At this venue, 1 group of pilgrims was accommodated as a large group in a gymnasium and another group was sub-divided into smaller groups and accommodated in classrooms. Following confirmation of an influenza B outbreak by influenza point of care testing, control measures were promptly implemented. Isolation of cases, improved hand, respiratory and general hygiene, establishment of a mobile tent health facility at the accommodation venue, and the use of oseltamivir for the treatment of cases and prophylaxis of high risk contacts were implemented and the outbreak was brought under control within the week. Overall, 20% of pilgrims met the case definition for an influenza-like illness and 36% had an onset prior to arrival at the venue. The attack rate for those with onset while at the venue was significantly higher amongst pilgrims accommodated in the gymnasium than those staying in the classrooms. Findings from this study highlight the importance of early detection, the rapid implementation of control measures and appropriate prescribing of antivirals to manage influenza outbreaks. The findings also highlight the benefits of accommodating individuals in smaller groups within basic accommodation venues in the context of mass gatherings.

  19. Comparative reference of accommodation tension in schoolchildren of junior classes depending on emotional state

    L. E. Fedorischeva


    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the change of adaptation mechanisms in children of junior classes during working on close distance depending on their psychoemotional state.Methods: 52 children of the second classes of grammar school were included into the study. There were allocated 30 emotional labile schoolchildren with choleric temperament. The children were examined by pediatrician, neurologist and in laboratory. Standard ophthalmic examination was performed. Accommodation was examined by subjective (reserve of relative accommodation and objective (familiar tone of accommodation methods.Results: All children had low reserve of relative accommodation (RRA and high familiar tone of accommodation (FTA in the end of educational week especially in emotional labile children. After course of treatment (hygiene of visual activity; restoration of accommodation and therapy of visual tiredness; gymnastics for cervical spine; preparations with microelements, vitamins C,E, B-carotene; fenibute RRA was increased and FTA was decreased even in emotional labile children.Conclusion: There is correlation between refractive-accommodative apparatus and psychoemotional state in schoolchildren ofjunior classes.

  20. Workplace accommodations and unmet needs specific to individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    Haynes, Scott; Linden, Maureen


    The purpose of this paper is to identify the workplace accommodations used by individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing, to report the perceived impact of the accommodations and to identify unmet needs with respect to workplace accommodations. Individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing participated in an online survey. Respondents identified with one of four levels of functional hearing ability and selected from descriptions of workplace accommodations. Each selection was ranked according to perceived importance, satisfaction and frequency of use. Respondents also commented on unmet needs. The most common accommodations were telephone aids (55%), co-worker helps (34%) and electronic communication (31%). Importance and frequency of use ranked high among most respondents (76% and 87%, respectively). However, perceived satisfaction ranked high among only 50% of respondents. The most common unmet needs were effective communication in groups and lack of co-worker support. Workplace accommodations are viewed as important and frequently used by individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. However, satisfaction with the accommodations is marginal at best. Unmet needs remain in the areas of communication in meetings, support of co-workers and the development of a more universally accessible workplace environment.

  1. Quantifying interactions between accommodation and vergence in a binocularly normal population.

    Sweeney, Laura E; Seidel, Dirk; Day, Mhairi; Gray, Lyle S


    Stimulation of the accommodation system results in a response in the vergence system via accommodative vergence cross-link interactions, and stimulation of the vergence system results in an accommodation response via vergence accommodation cross-link interactions. Cross-link interactions are necessary in order to ensure simultaneous responses in the accommodation and vergence systems. The crosslink interactions are represented most comprehensively by the response AC/A (accommodative vergence) and CA/C (vergence accommodation) ratios, although the stimulus AC/A ratio is measured clinically, and the stimulus CA/C ratio is seldom measured in clinical practice. The present study aims to quantify both stimulus and response AC/A and CA/C ratios in a binocularly normal population, and determine the relationship between them. 25 Subjects (mean ± SD age 21.0 ± 1.9 years) were recruited from the university population. A significant linear relationship was found between the stimulus and response ratios, for both AC/A (r² = 0.96, p values, and lower than response ratios at high values (95% CI -0.46 to 0.42 D/MA). Agreement between stimulus and response CA/C ratios is poorer than that found for AC/A ratios due to increased variability in vergence responses when viewing the Gaussian blurred target. This study has shown that more work is needed to refine the methodology of CA/C ratio measurement.

  2. Generating workplace accommodations: lessons learned from the integrated case management study.

    Shaw, William S; Feuerstein, Michael


    Modified duty and other accommodations by employers have been shown to be helpful in managing workplace disability associated with injuries and illnesses. Benefits of accommodation have been attributed to both reduced physical and psychosocial exposures. Although many employers have adopted proactive return to work policies that emphasize temporary work modifications, standardized methods for specifying appropriate accommodations have been elusive. On the basis of the experiences and results of a randomized controlled study of case management services for work-related upper extremity disorders, we describe issues pertaining to the application of self-report measures of function and exposure assessment for generating accommodations. Challenges of this approach are 1) including specific work tasks on measures of physical function; 2) improving concordance between ergonomic exposure categories and methods of accommodation; and 3) providing a structured process for negotiating employee and employer preferences. To improve the effectiveness and efficiency of accommodation efforts, new tools for assessing function and ergonomic exposures in the workplace should be developed to specify accommodations more directly.

  3. Effects of viewing distance on accommodative and pupillary responses following a three-dimensional task.

    Iwasaki, Tsuneto; Tawara, Akihiko


    We have investigated accommodation and pupil responses after viewing stereoscopic images related to the resting position of accommodation. After a 10-min visual task viewing stereoscopic three-dimensional images, measurements of dynamic accommodation and pupil response were made using an infrared optometer and a pupil analyser. Four conditions were given for the viewing distance: 0.4 m (closer than the subjects' resting position), 1 m (approximating to their resting state), and 1.5 and 3 m (farther than the resting position). For the 0.4- and 1-m groups, a delay in the accommodation response for near-to-far movement was shown after the task, from 817 to 1120 ms and from 830 to 898 ms, respectively, but there was no change in the pupillary response. In the 1.5- and 3-m groups, on the other hand, a significant delay in the accommodation response for far-to-near movement was shown, from 827 to 912 ms and from 857 to 1150 ms, respectively, and greater miosis was found, from 7.2 to 9.2 mm2 and from 8.0 to 10.4 mm2. The data reveal that there are different after-effects on accommodation and pupillary functions when subjects perform the task within their accommodative resting position, than when the task is performed outside the resting position.

  4. Accommodation-induced variations in retinal thickness measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Fan, Shanhui; Sun, Yong; Dai, Cuixia; Zheng, Haihua; Ren, Qiushi; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhou, Chuanqing


    To research retinal stretching or distortion with accommodation, accommodation-induced changes in retinal thickness (RT) in the macular area were investigated in a population of young adults (n=23) by using a dual-channel spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system manufactured in-house for this study. This dual-channel SD-OCT is capable of imaging the cornea and retina simultaneously with an imaging speed of 24 kHz A-line scan rate, which can provide the anatomical dimensions of the eye, including the RT and axial length. Thus, the modification of the RT with accommodation can be calculated. A significant decrease in the RT (13.50±1.25 μm) was observed during maximum accommodation. In the 4 mm×4 mm macular area centered at the fovea, we did not find a significant quadrant-dependent difference in retinal volume change, which indicates that neither retinal stretching nor distortion was quadrant-dependent during accommodation. We speculate that the changes in RT with maximum accommodation resulted from accommodation-induced ciliary muscle contractions.

  5. Analysis and Countermeasures of Wind Power Accommodation by Aluminum Electrolysis Pot-Lines in China

    Zhang, Hongliang; Ran, Ling; He, Guixiong; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Jie


    The unit energy consumption and its price have become the main obstacles for the future development of the aluminum electrolysis industry in China. Meanwhile, wind power is widely being abandoned because of its instability. In this study, a novel idea for wind power accommodation is proposed to achieve a win-win situation: the idea is for nearby aluminum electrolysis plants to absorb the wind power. The features of the wind power distribution and aluminum electrolysis industry are first summarized, and the concept of wind power accommodation by the aluminum industry is introduced. Then, based on the characteristics of aluminum reduction cells, the key problems, including the bus-bar status, thermal balance, and magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, are analyzed. In addition, a whole accommodation implementation plan for wind power by aluminum reduction is introduced to explain the theoretical value of accommodation, evaluation of the reduction cells, and the industrial experiment scheme. A numerical simulation of a typical scenario proves that there is large accommodation potential for the aluminum reduction cells. Aluminum electrolysis can accommodate wind power and remain stable under the proper technique and accommodation scheme, which will provide promising benefits for the aluminum plant and the wind energy plant.

  6. Family Accommodation in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Study on Associated Variables

    Teresa Cosentino


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine family accommodation in relatives of obsessive-compulsive disease (OCD patients. Accommodation was assessed in a sample of 31 relatives of OCD patients by means of the Family Accommodation Scale. Other variables measured as predictors of accommodation were the tendency of a family member to feel guilty, sensitivity to guilt, anxiety sensitivity and the prevalence of a passive communication style. Accommodation was found to be rather widespread in the family members who took part in our study, and they tended to show more accommodation the greater their sensitivity to guilt and the stable tendency to experience this emotion as well as anxiety sensitivity and a passive communication style. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that, among the variables considered, the family member’s sensitivity to guilt is the only factor which can predict accommodation with regard to the patient’s demands for involvement. On the other hand, the small number of family members in the sample and the lack of clinical data on patients (such as the severity, typology and duration of their obsessive-compulsive disorder pose limits to the generalizability of the results and point to the need for further research.

  7. Analysis and Countermeasures of Wind Power Accommodation by Aluminum Electrolysis Pot-Lines in China

    Zhang, Hongliang; Ran, Ling; He, Guixiong; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Jie


    The unit energy consumption and its price have become the main obstacles for the future development of the aluminum electrolysis industry in China. Meanwhile, wind power is widely being abandoned because of its instability. In this study, a novel idea for wind power accommodation is proposed to achieve a win-win situation: the idea is for nearby aluminum electrolysis plants to absorb the wind power. The features of the wind power distribution and aluminum electrolysis industry are first summarized, and the concept of wind power accommodation by the aluminum industry is introduced. Then, based on the characteristics of aluminum reduction cells, the key problems, including the bus-bar status, thermal balance, and magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, are analyzed. In addition, a whole accommodation implementation plan for wind power by aluminum reduction is introduced to explain the theoretical value of accommodation, evaluation of the reduction cells, and the industrial experiment scheme. A numerical simulation of a typical scenario proves that there is large accommodation potential for the aluminum reduction cells. Aluminum electrolysis can accommodate wind power and remain stable under the proper technique and accommodation scheme, which will provide promising benefits for the aluminum plant and the wind energy plant.

  8. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  9. A model of supervisor decision-making in the accommodation of workers with low back pain

    Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Kristman, Vicki; Shaw, William S.; Soklaridis, Sophie; Reguly, Paula


    PURPOSE To explore supervisors’ perspectives and decision-making processes in the accommodation of back injured workers. METHODS Twenty-three semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with supervisors from eleven Canadian organizations about their role in providing job accommodations. Supervisors were identified through an on-line survey and interviews were recorded, transcribed and entered into NVivo software. The initial analyses identified common units of meaning, which were used to develop a coding guide. Interviews were coded, and a model of supervisor decision-making was developed based on the themes, categories and connecting ideas identified in the data. RESULTS The decision-making model includes a process element that is described as iterative “trial and error” decision-making. Medical restrictions are compared to job demands, employee abilities and available alternatives. A feasible modification is identified through brainstorming and then implemented by the supervisor. Resources used for brainstorming include information, supervisor experience and autonomy, and organizational supports. The model also incorporates the experience of accommodation as a job demand that causes strain for the supervisor. Accommodation demands affect the supervisor’s attitude, brainstorming and monitoring effort and communication with returning employees. Resources and demands have a combined effect on accommodation decision complexity, which in turn affects the quality of the accommodation option selected. If the employee is unable to complete the tasks or is reinjured during the accommodation, the decision cycle repeats. More frequent iteration through the trial and error process reduces the likelihood of return to work success. CONCLUSIONS A series of propositions is developed to illustrate the relationships among categories in the model. The model and propositions show: a) the iterative, problem solving nature of the RTW process; b) decision resources

  10. Accommodating Conscientious Objection in Medicine-Private Ideological Convictions Must Not Trump Professional Obligations.

    Schuklenk, Udo


    The opinion of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (CEJA) on the accommodation of conscientious objectors among medical doctors aims to balance fairly patients' rights of access to care and accommodating doctors' deeply held personal beliefs. Like similar documents, it fails. Patients will not find it persuasive, and neither should they. The lines drawn aim at a reasonable compromise between positions that are not amenable to compromise. They are also largely arbitrary. This article explains why that is the case. The view that conscientious objection accommodation has no place in modern medicine is defended.

  11. Worker Adaptation and Workplace Accommodations after the Onset of an Illness

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    Workers who become work-incapacitated may either change employer or stay with their current employer in an accommodated job. This paper studies the effect of these two adaptation strategies on long-term sick-listed workers’ employment durations. We use combined survey and register data consisting...... of 809 workers who were continuously sick-listed more than eight weeks. Using a joint proportional mixed hazard rate model, we simultaneously estimate the duration until returning to work (in an accommodated job with the current employer, in a non-accommodated job with the current employer, or in a job...

  12. Sustainable development of the today accommodation; Developpement durable de l'habitat existant



    This first colloquium deals with the energy mastership and the greenhouse gases reduction in the today accommodation. The accommodation represent u=indeed the main part of the energy consumption in front of the industry, the transports, the ternary buildings and the agricultural. This document proposes six papers presented during this day: the importance of the accommodation improvement market; the energy performance of buildings and the main requirements of the french directive; the energy performance of buildings and the german regulations in existing buildings; the energy performance standards in existing buildings in UK; the example of the danish certification; the home energy conservation Act (HECA) in United Kingdom. (A.L.B.)

  13. Worker Adaptation and Workplace Accommodations after the Onset of an Illness

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    Workers who become work-incapacitated may either change employer or stay with their current employer in an accommodated job. This paper studies the effect of these two adaptation strategies on long-term sick-listed workers’ employment durations. We use combined survey and register data consisting...... of 809 workers who were continuously sick-listed more than eight weeks. Using a joint proportional mixed hazard rate model, we simultaneously estimate the duration until returning to work (in an accommodated job with the current employer, in a non-accommodated job with the current employer, or in a job...

  14. Flow and rent-based opportunity costs of water ecosystem service provision in a complex farming system

    Olivia R. Rendon


    Full Text Available Unsustainable land uses present many challenges for securing ecosystem service provision. It is also difficult to estimate the cost of a transition to more sustainable land-management practices for individual landholders. The main cost to landholders is the opportunity costs, the income foregone when changing land use for continued or enhanced ecosystem service provision. Thus accurate estimation of opportunity costs and understanding their distribution are crucial starting points for determining the economic viability and design of any payment for ecosystem services (PES scheme. We compare two opportunity cost approaches and examine the distribution of these costs for improving drinking water quality in a complex farming system in a Honduran forest catchment. Data for both approaches was collected through a survey applied to upstream catchment landholders. Our results indicate that the direct flow approach and the proxy rent approach provide comparable and consistent opportunity cost estimates. The mean net flow return ha-1 was US$1410, but this estimate was skewed, mainly by exceptionally high coffee returns and negative returns of land uses making a loss. This estimate would imply spending over US$2 million per annum for water conservation, but a revised estimate comes to US$257,057 per annum. Opportunity costs were found to vary according to differences in land use and landholder characteristics. High value cash crops upholding the local economy, such as coffee, entail much higher opportunity costs than for example cattle grazing. These results suggest that discriminate PES payments, that vary according to opportunity costs and thus discriminate between land uses and landholders, are essential. Water quality at our case study site could be managed sustainably by a scheme focusing on high-impact land uses with lower opportunity costs and closer to water sources.

  15. Chemical Looping Combustion with Different Types of Liquid Fuels Combustion en boucle chimique avec différentes charges liquides

    Hoteit A.


    travail est d’étudier la faisabilité de la combustion partielle ou totale des charges liquides dans les conditions du CLC au contact d’un matériau porteur d’oxygène. Un petit réacteur en lit fluidisé opérant en batch a été développé pour permettre alternativement le contact du matériau porteur d’oxygène avec une charge liquide ou de l’air. Le réacteur de 20 mm de diamètre est rempli de 45 g de particules de NiAl0.44O1.67. Environ 1-2 g de charge liquide est injecté par pulse dans le lit à des températures allant jusqu’à 950˚C. Différentes charges liquides ont été étudiées, du dodécane au fioul lourd n˚2. Les résultats montrent que pendant la période de réduction du matériau porteur d’oxygène, il est possible de convertir tous les hydrocarbures injectés. À l’issue de cette phase, il ne subsiste pas de dépôt de coke à la surface des particules. En fonction de la quantité d’oxygène disponible dans le lit, on effectue une combustion totale ou partielle des hydrocarbures injectés. Des résultats similaires sont obtenus pour les différents hydrocarbures testés, malgré leurs propriétés a priori très différentes.

  16. Rent Design for BOT Public Rental Housing Projects%基于BOT模式的公租房定价机制研究

    盛和太; 臧崇晓; 王守清


      增加公租房供给是我国住房保障政策的重点,而公租房定价是住房保障可持续发展的难题。基于BOT模式发展公租房,能够借助民营资本的综合优势解决政府财政资金相对紧缺与保障家庭支付能力不足的矛盾。基于保障性、公平性、可持续发展等原则,深入研究设计了BOT模式下的公租房定价机制,提出了采取名义租金、实际租金的“双租金制”和实行“租补分离”的定价思路。研究结果为完善我国住房保障制度提供了理论支持,也为公租房定价实践提供了重要参考。%Increasing the supply of public rental housing is the focus of China’s housing security policy. While the rent design is a critical issue for sustainable development of public rental housing. BOT could be applied to solve the contradictoriness between relative shortage of financial funds and poor ability of the Public in realizing government’s objectives with the comprehensive advantages of the Private’s capital and capability. Based on some basic principles such as indemnificatory,fairness and sustainable development,this paper conducts an in-depth study and designs a mechanism of pricing the rent of public rental housing. A‘double-rent’ system consists of nominal and real rent is proposed in which the rent paid by the lessee and the subsidy from the government are separated. The paper provides a theoretical basis to improve China's housing security system and an important practical reference for pricing the rent of public rental housing.

  17. The Issue of Tourist Accommodation in the Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism

    Małgorzata Ambrozik


    The aim of the study is to analyze the contents of the articles published in the Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism with special attention paid to texts describing tourist accommodation...

  18. [Accommodation and presbyopia : part 2: surgical procedures for the correction of presbyopia].

    Baumeister, M; Kohnen, T


    There are two basic approaches for the surgical correction of presbyopia: increasing depth of focus (e.g. by means of multifocal laser abrasion of the cornea), Or restoring accommodation in the sense of a dynamic change in ocular refraction (accommodative intraocular lenses, scleral expansion). Pseudoaccommodative procedures are able to achieve satisfactory near vision, albeit at the price of lower performance in the intermediate range and decreased image quality. The restoration of accommodation remains problematic, partly because the mechanism of accommodation and the development of presbyopia are still not fully understood. Some surgical procedures are based on concepts, the validity of which is not confirmed or which even contradict experimental evidence. Thus, it is necessary to assess the results and presumed mechanisms critically and objectively.

  19. Accommodations quality for students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing.

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Leppo, Rachel


    Students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing often receive accommodations that are intended to increase access to the educational environment. The authors provide the results of a large national study of accommodations use in secondary and postsecondary settings. The article focuses on three aspects of accommodations use: access, quality, and consistency. The participants were 1,350 professionals working with a diverse group of students who were d/Deaf or hard of hearing in a variety of roles, including educators, administrators, interpreters, vocational rehabilitation agency staff, and allied service providers. Data were collected from both a national survey and a series of focus groups conducted over a 1-year period. The authors discuss the results in light of the crucial nature of accommodations during the transition into a variety of educational, training, and employment options.

  20. Evolutionary significance of phenotypic accommodation in novel environments: an empirical test of the Baldwin effect

    Alexander V Badyaev


    ... (later termed the Baldwin effect) by which non-heritable developmental accommodation of novel inputs, which makes an organism fit in its current environment, can become internalized in a lineage and affect the course of evolution...

  1. 75 FR 36414 - Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Directions for Reporting Other Than Coach-Class Accommodations...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Federal Travel Regulation (FTR); Directions for Reporting Other Than Coach-Class Accommodations for Employees on Official Travel AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General...

  2. Best Sensor Configuration and Accommodation Rule Based on Navigation Performance for INS with Seven Inertial Sensors

    Cheol-Kwan Yang


    Full Text Available This paper considers the best sensor configuration and fault accommodation problem for inertial navigation systems which use seven inertial sensors such as gyroscopes and accelerometers. We prove that when six inertial sensors are used, the isolation of a double fault cannot be achieved for some combinations of fault magnitudes, whereas when seven inertial sensors are used, the isolation of any double fault can be achieved. There are many configurations which provide the minimum position errors. This paper proposes four configurations which show the best navigation performance and compares their FDI performances. Considering the FDI performance and the complexity of the accommodation rule, we choose one sensor configuration and provide accommodation rules for double faults. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed to show that the accommodation rules work well.

  3. Istanbul hotels from a 360 0 perspective: A comprehensive view of the Istanbul accommodation industry

    Maria D. Alvarez; Burçin Hatipoğlu; Kıvanç İnelmen; Dilek Ünalan


    ... of the investigations focus on a specific area of the organization and its relationship with the hotel’s performance. Therefore, the research aims to provide a comprehensive view of the accommodation industry in Istanbul...


    Simona Cristina Martin


    Full Text Available The indicators of demand distribution for various types of accommodation provide information regarding changing tourist preferences for different ways of tourist accommodation. Appreciation of economic efficiency for hotels activity is done through quantitative results obtained in accommodation units. For this purpose it uses, currently, a partial or synthetic indicators system. Taking into account the fact that, in appreciation of hotel business, it must start from the premise that it may not be fully reflected only in terms of economic results, but also through social results, appear obvious the need to maintain costs at a level that satisfies both requirements at the same time. Achieving superior social-financial indicators, remains one of the main goals also in hotel activities, but do not be overlooked the fact that it is necessary that these indicators must be obtained by ensuring a higher level of satisfaction of consumers requirements. Only simultaneous achievement of these two objectives can provide raising efficiency in accommodation sector.

  5. Morphology and Accommodative Function of the Vitreous Zonule in Human and Monkey Eyes

    Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L.; Wasielewski, Rainer; Ting-Li, Lin; Croft, Mary Ann


    The vitreous zonule may be a therapeutic target for presbyopia. The age-related changes in the vitreous zonular system and the correlation with loss of accommodative forward movement of the ciliary body are reported.

  6. Rooms to Rent



    @@ This is a big year for China's booming five-star hotel industry.Almost 40 fivestar hotels are currently under construction in Beijing,while luxury hotel group Marriott will add three more properties in the city by the end of the year.But what is driving all this growth,and is it sustainable? Rauf Malik,general manager of the new Marriot City Wall Hotel,Beiiing,recently drew on his 20-plus years of hotel management experience in China to weigh in on the industry's outlook.





    Christian Bidard


    In order to extend the theory of value and the trade-off property to economic systems with lands, Ricardo reduced their study to that of productive systems without lands by considering the marginal agricultural methods. Sraffa generalised the analysis to prices of production and rejected the notion of order of cultivation. The strategy works sometimes for extensive cultivation, fails in most cases of intensive cultivation, and always when the net product of agriculture is increased by making ...

  9. 41 CFR 301-10.123 - When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations?


    ... than coach-class airline accommodations? 301-10.123 Section 301-10.123 Public Contracts and Property... 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.123 When may I use other than coach-class airline accommodations? Government travelers are required to exercise...

  10. A Model of Supervisor Decision-Making in the Accommodation of Workers with Low Back Pain.

    Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Kristman, Vicki; Shaw, William S; Soklaridis, Sophie; Reguly, Paula


    Purpose To explore supervisors' perspectives and decision-making processes in the accommodation of back injured workers. Methods Twenty-three semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with supervisors from eleven Canadian organizations about their role in providing job accommodations. Supervisors were identified through an on-line survey and interviews were recorded, transcribed and entered into NVivo software. The initial analyses identified common units of meaning, which were used to develop a coding guide. Interviews were coded, and a model of supervisor decision-making was developed based on the themes, categories and connecting ideas identified in the data. Results The decision-making model includes a process element that is described as iterative "trial and error" decision-making. Medical restrictions are compared to job demands, employee abilities and available alternatives. A feasible modification is identified through brainstorming and then implemented by the supervisor. Resources used for brainstorming include information, supervisor experience and autonomy, and organizational supports. The model also incorporates the experience of accommodation as a job demand that causes strain for the supervisor. Accommodation demands affect the supervisor's attitude, brainstorming and monitoring effort, and communication with returning employees. Resources and demands have a combined effect on accommodation decision complexity, which in turn affects the quality of the accommodation option selected. If the employee is unable to complete the tasks or is reinjured during the accommodation, the decision cycle repeats. More frequent iteration through the trial and error process reduces the likelihood of return to work success. Conclusion A series of propositions is developed to illustrate the relationships among categories in the model. The model and propositions show: (a) the iterative, problem solving nature of the RTW process; (b) decision resources necessary

  11. Creation of the Driver Fixed Heel Point (FHP) CAD Accommodation Model for Military Ground Vehicle Design


    Standard: Human Engineering, 2012. The unifying factor amongst these is the requirement to accommodate the central 90% of the Soldier population . MIL...Heel Point (FHP), accommodation model, occupant work space, central 90% of the Soldier population , encumbrance, posture and position, computer aided...which the occupant is an integral element of vehicle workstation design. Ensuring that a given percentage of the population can sit safely and

  12. Effects of pirenzepine on pupil size and accommodation in rhesus monkeys.

    Ostrin, Lisa A; Frishman, Laura J; Glasser, Adrian


    Pirenzepine is suggested to be a relatively selective muscarinic (M(1)) antagonist and is currently under investigation for the treatment of myopia. Atropine, a nonselective M-type antagonist, is used in the treatment of myopia, but has undesired ocular and systemic side effects. An M(1)-specific antagonist may decrease side effects and remain effective at reducing the progression of myopia. In the current study, the effects of pirenzepine on pupil diameter, resting refraction, and accommodation were studied in rhesus monkeys. The time course and extent of mydriasis from subconjunctival injection of 2% pirenzepine were determined in five normal rhesus monkeys, and the effects on static and dynamic accommodation were determined in four rhesus monkeys with permanent indwelling electrodes in the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus of the midbrain. Subconjunctival injections of 0.0002% to 0.2% pirenzepine in log unit dilutions were tested in three monkeys to determine the effects on static EW-stimulated accommodation. At 40 to 50 minutes after pirenzepine injection, accommodation was stimulated pharmacologically in both eyes, and the response was measured for 30 minutes. After 2% pirenzepine injection, pupil size increased 2.02 +/- 0.41 mm, there was a hyperopic shift in resting refraction of 1.07 +/- 0.23 D, and nearly complete cycloplegia occurred. Maximum EW-stimulated accommodation was significantly decreased 20 to 40 minutes after 0.02% or greater pirenzepine. Carbachol-stimulated accommodation was significantly decreased after 0.2% or greater pirenzepine. Subconjunctival injections of 0.02% or greater pirenzepine result in a significant decrease in accommodation and are probably acting through nonselective muscarinic antagonism. Subconjunctival injections of 0.002% or less pirenzepine do not decrease EW-stimulated accommodation.

  13. Encouraging Environmental Management Among Small And Medium Accommodations (SMAs) Through E-Learning Initiative

    KASIM, Azilah; DZAKIRIA, Hisham


    This paper is a continuance of an empirical work on hotels in a developing country and its acceptance on environmental impact. The study measured the responsiveness of small and medium accommodations (SMAs) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia towards environmental management, by means of their awareness, attitudes and opinion on the meaning, marketability and practicality of environmental management in an accommodation property. A combination of quantitative and qualitative approach was used for the st...


    I. G. Ovechkin


    Full Text Available Increased load on the visual analyzer of an operator, increase in everyday visual performance, universal introduction of information displaying on cathode-ray tubes result in temporary and stable visual disturbances. Accommodative refractive apparatus of an eye is one of the key points of application of visually intensive labor. Work associated with permanent eyestrain overloads oculomotor and accommodative apparatus thus provoking myopic shift, increase in dynamic refraction, exophoric or esophoric shift of initial visual equilibrium. Accommodation disorders are accompanied by changes in ciliary muscle blood supply, abnormalities of vegetative segment regulation, parasympathetic brain vascular dystonia due to the decreased tonus of sympathetic nervous system. Evaluation of certain kind of activity in terms of ergonomics includes examination of visual status and visual working capacity, development of visual professiograms and vision standards for certain professions, justification of methods and tools of visual work optimization. Visual disturbances in operators developing in the course of visually intensive occupational work should be considered from the viewpoint of traditional accommodation and refraction disorders as well as functional manifestations of general fatigue or thoracic cervical spine dysfunction. Symptoms of accommodative asthenopia can be regarded as a functional manifestation of general fatigue syndrome or functional neurosis. Development of multidisciplinary approach to the correction of accommodation refraction disorders in visually intensive labor persons is of scientific urgency and practical reasonability. There is a long-felt need in additional attraction of different specialists who use in their work physical factors for accommodative asthenopia correction. Development of multidisciplinary approach to accommodation refraction disorder correction in visually intensive labor persons is based on syndromic pathogenic

  15. Decoupled crust-mantle accommodation of Africa-Eurasia convergence in the NW Moroccan margin

    Jiménez-Munt, Ivone; Fernandez, Manel; Vergés, Jaume; García-Castellanos, Daniel; Fullea, J.; M. Pérez-Gussinyé; Afonso, Juan Carlos


    The extent of the area accommodating convergence between the African and Iberian plates, how this convergence is partitioned between crust and mantle, and the role of the plate boundary in accommodating deformation are not well-understood subjects. We calculate the structure of the lithosphere derived from its density distribution along a profile running from the Tagus Abyssal Plain to the Sahara Platform and crossing the Gorringe Bank, the NW Moroccan margin, and the Atlas Mountains. The mod...

  16. Ocular accommodation and cognitive demand: An additional indicator besides pupil size and cardiovascular measures?

    Jaschinski Wolfgang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to assess accommodation as a possible indicator of changes in the autonomic balance caused by altered cognitive demand. Accounting for accommodative responses from a human factors perspective may be motivated by the interest of designing virtual image displays or by establishing an autonomic indicator that allows for remote measurement at the human eye. Heart period, pulse transit time, and the pupillary response were considered as reference for possible closed-loop accommodative effects. Cognitive demand was varied by presenting monocularly numbers at a viewing distance of 5 D (20 cm which had to be read, added or multiplied; further, letters were presented in a "n-back" task. Results Cardiovascular parameters and pupil size indicated a change in autonomic balance, while error rates and reaction time confirmed the increased cognitive demand during task processing. An observed decrease in accommodation could not be attributed to the cognitive demand itself for two reasons: (1 the cognitive demand induced a shift in gaze direction which, for methodological reasons, accounted for a substantial part of the observed accommodative changes. (2 Remaining effects disappeared when the correctness of task processing was taken into account. Conclusion Although the expectation of accommodation as possible autonomic indicator of cognitive demand was not confirmed, the present results are informative for the field of applied psychophysiology noting that it seems not to be worthwhile to include closed-loop accommodation in future studies. From a human factors perspective, expected changes of accommodation due to cognitive demand are of minor importance for design specifications – of, for example, complex visual displays.

  17. Dynamic distance direct ophthalmoscopy, a novel technique to assess accommodation in children

    Mihir Kothari


    Full Text Available Aim: To describe and compare dynamic distance direct ophthalmoscopy (DDDO with dynamic retinoscopy (DR in assessment of accommodation in children. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study had four components. Component 1: to understand the characteristic digital images of DDDO. Component 2: to compare DDDO with DR for detection of accommodative defects in children (1-16 years. Component 3: to compare DDDO with DR for the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia in children (5-16 years and Component 4: to assess which one of the two techniques was more sensitive to detect onset of cycloplegia after instillation of 1% cyclopentolate eye drops. Results: Component 1: image analysis of DDDO on two subjects (7 years and 35 years demonstrated superior pupillary crescent that progressively disappeared with increasing accommodation. Concurrently an inferior crescent appeared that became bigger in size with increasing accommodation. Component 2: the prevalence of defects in accommodation was 3.3% (33/1000 children. Three had unilateral accommodation failure. Sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 99%, and clinical agreement (kappa 0.97. Component 3: in the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia (n=30, the sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 96%, positive predictive value 97%, negative predictive value 93% and kappa 0.9. DR had two false positives. DDDO had one false negative. Component 4: DDDO detected onset of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia 5 min earlier than DR (n=5. Conclusion: DDDO is a novel, simple, clinical and reliable method to assess accommodation in young children. This test can assess the accommodative response of both eyes simultaneously.

  18. Water accommodation on ice and organic surfaces: insights from environmental molecular beam experiments.

    Kong, Xiangrui; Thomson, Erik S; Papagiannakopoulos, Panos; Johansson, Sofia M; Pettersson, Jan B C


    Water uptake on aerosol and cloud particles in the atmosphere modifies their chemistry and microphysics with important implications for climate on Earth. Here, we apply an environmental molecular beam (EMB) method to characterize water accommodation on ice and organic surfaces. The adsorption of surface-active compounds including short-chain alcohols, nitric acid, and acetic acid significantly affects accommodation of D2O on ice. n-Hexanol and n-butanol adlayers reduce water uptake by facilitating rapid desorption and function as inefficient barriers for accommodation as well as desorption of water, while the effect of adsorbed methanol is small. Water accommodation is close to unity on nitric-acid- and acetic-acid-covered ice, and accommodation is significantly more efficient than that on the bare ice surface. Water uptake is inefficient on solid alcohols and acetic acid but strongly enhanced on liquid phases including a quasi-liquid layer on solid n-butanol. The EMB method provides unique information on accommodation and rapid kinetics on volatile surfaces, and these studies suggest that adsorbed organic and acidic compounds need to be taken into account when describing water at environmental interfaces.

  19. Comparison between carbachol iontophoresis and intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys.

    Wendt, Mark; He, Lin; Glasser, Adrian


    Rhesus monkeys are an animal model for human accommodation and presbyopia and consistent and repeatable methods are needed to stimulate and measure accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys. Accommodation has typically been pharmacologically stimulated with topical pilocarpine or carbachol iontophoresis. Intravenous (i.v.) pilocarpine has recently been shown to produce more natural, rapid and reproducible accommodative responses compared to topical pilocarpine. Here, i.v. pilocarpine was compared to carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation. Experiments were performed under anaesthesia on five previously iridectomized monkeys aged 10-16 years. In three monkeys, accommodation was stimulated with carbachol iontophoresis in five successive experiments and refraction measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer. In separate experiments, accommodation was stimulated using a 5 mg/kg bolus of i.v. pilocarpine given over 30 s followed by a continuous infusion of 20 mg/kg/hr for 5.5 min in three successive experiments with the same monkeys as well as in single experiments with two additional monkeys. Refraction was measured continuously using photorefraction with baseline and accommodated refraction also measured with the Hartinger. In subsequent i.v. pilocarpine experiments with each monkey, accommodative changes in lens equatorial diameter were measured in real-time with video-image analysis. Maximum accommodation of three monkeys with carbachol iontophoresis (five repeats) was (mean ± SD; range) 14.0 ± 3.5; 9.9-20.3 D and with i.v. pilocarpine stimulation (three repeats) was 11.1 ± 1.1; 9.9-13.0 D. The average of the standard deviations of maximum accommodation from each monkey was 0.8 ± 0.3 D from carbachol iontophoresis and 0.3 ± 0.2 from i.v. pilocarpine. The average latency to the start of the response after carbachol iontophoresis was 2.5 ± 3.9; 0.0-12.0 min with a time constant of 12.7 ± 9.5; 2.3-29.2 min. The average

  20. « Au fracas de la foudre, les animaux intelligents s'éveillèrent »

    Agnès Bouvier


    Full Text Available Félix Pouchet, dans son Hétérogénie, ou Traité de la génération spontanée qu’il publie en 1859, défend, contre Pasteur et Milne-Edwards, l’idée d’une « force génésique » inhérente à la matière qui aurait présidé à la création et qui continuerait de s’exercer dans la formation et la transformation des espèces. Le livre fait partie des lectures de Flaubert pendant la période de rédaction de Salammbô. Le 5 août 1860, il écrit dans une lettre à madame Jules Sandeau : « J’entremêle mes lectures puniques (qui ne sont pas légères d’autres facéties graves. Je me livre maintenant au volumineux bouquin de mon ami le docteur Pouchet sur les générations spontanées. » C’est la nature de cet entrelacement que nous proposons d’interroger, à travers l’étude génétique d’un passage du chapitre III de Salammbô où Flaubert récrit la cosmogonie phénicienne à la lumière du spontanéisme moderne.Félix Pouchet, in Heterogeny or Spontaneous generation Treatise (1859, argues, against Pasteur and Milne-Edwards, for the existence of a « genesical force » inside matter at the beginning of the universe, still active in the formation and transformation of species. Flaubert read Pouchet’s book when he was writing Salammbô. On August 5th 1860, he wrote to madame Jules Sandeau : « I mingle my Punic readings (which are not light with other serious jokes. I now dedicate myself to my friend doctor Pouchet’s bulky book on spontaneous generations. » This interlacing of archaeology and science is precisely what I will examine in my paper, through the genetic study of a passage of Salammbô (chapter III where Flaubert rewrites the Phoenician cosmogony in the light of modern spontaneism.

  1. Supervisors' perceptions of organizational policies are associated with their likelihood to accommodate back-injured workers.

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Shaw, William S; Loisel, Patrick; Reguly, Paula; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Soklaridis, Sophie


    Background Low back pain (LBP) is a major concern among North American workplaces and little is known regarding a supervisor's decision to support job accommodation for workers with LBP. The extent to which supervisors are included in a company's effort to institute disability management policies and practices and workplace safety climate are two factors that may influence a supervisor's decision to accommodate workers with LBP. Objective Determine the association between supervisors' perceptions of disability management policies, corporate safety culture and their likelihood of supporting job accommodations for workers with LBP. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of supervisors (N=796) recruited from a non-random, convenience sample of 19 Canadian and US employers. The outcome was supervisors' likeliness to support job accommodation and the exposure was global work safety culture and disability management policies and practices. A multivariable generalized linear modelling strategy was used and final models for each exposure were obtained after assessing potential effect modifiers and confounders. Results In the study, 796 eligible supervisors from 19 employers participated. Disability management policies and practices were positively associated with supervisors' likeliness to accommodate (β=0.19; 95% CI: 0.13; 0.24) while no significant association was found between corporate safety culture (β= -0.084; 95% CI: -0.19; 0.027) and supervisors' likeliness to accommodate. Conclusions Employers should ensure that proactive disability management policies and practices are clearly communicated to supervisors in order to improve job modification and return to work efforts. Implications for Rehabilitation Low back pain (LBP) is a major workplace concern and little is known regarding what factors are associated with a supervisor's likelihood to support job accommodation for workers with LBP. The objective of this article was to determine the association

  2. Accommodations Use Patterns in High School and Postsecondary Settings for Students Who Are d/Deaf or Hard of Hearing.

    Cawthon, Stephanie W; Leppo, Rachel; Ge, Jin Jin; Bond, Mark


    Using data from the second National Longitudinal Transition Study (Newman et al., 2011), the authors investigated longitudinal patterns of educational accommodations use in secondary and, later, postsecondary settings by students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH). The study focused on language and communication (LC) accommodations used primarily by SDHH, plus non-LC accommodations typically used by a broad range of students. Both LC accommodations for standardized testing and instruction showed decreased use in postsecondary settings compared with high school. After student demographic characteristics were controlled for, no relationships were found between types of accommodations students used in high school and those they later used in postsecondary settings. Student accommodations use in postsecondary settings was not significantly predictive of retention or degree completion. However, several student- and parent-level demographic characteristics were predictive of accommodations use in postsecondary settings. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  3. Bifocals in children with Down syndrome (BiDS) - visual acuity, accommodation and early literacy skills.

    Nandakumar, Krithika; Leat, Susan J


    Reduced accommodation is seen in children and young adults with Down syndrome (DS), yet providing bifocals has not become a routine clinical management. This study investigates the impact of bifocals on visual function, visual perceptual and early literacy skills in a group of school children with DS.   In this longitudinal study, each child was followed for 5months with single-vision (SV) lenses after which bifocals were prescribed if required, based on their accommodative response. Visual acuity (VA), accommodation, perceptual and literacy skills were measured after adaptation to bifocals and 5months later. Educational progress and compliance with spectacle wear were assessed through school and parental reports.   Fourteen children and young adults with DS participated in the study. Eighty-five percent required bifocals with additions ranging from +1.00D to +3.50D. The mean near logMAR VA improved with bifocals (p=0.007) compared to SV lenses. Repeated measures anova showed that there was more accurate focus (less accommodative lag) through the bifocals (p=0.002), but no change in the accommodation exerted through the distance portion compared to SV lenses (p=0.423). There was a main effect of time on sight words (p=0.013), Word Identification (p=0.047), Visual Closure (p=0.006) and Visual Form Constancy (p=0.001). Bifocals provide clearer near vision in DS children with reduced accommodation. This is shown by improved VA and decreased lag of accommodation. The results indicate that the improvement in VA results in improved scores in early literacy skills. Better compliance with bifocals over SV lenses was seen. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.

  4. Home Stay Accommodation for Tourism Development in East Coast Economic Region

    Md. Anowar Hossain Bhuiyan


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Home stay program provided tourists multi ethnic life condition with cultural experiences and economic well beings for the local people. Malaysian home stay program differed from the other commercial home stay in the world. Home stay accommodation can create a scope to the local communities for active participation in tourism activities. Home stay accommodation might be a potential economic activity in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER. The study examined the potentialities of home stay accommodation for tourism development in ECER. The aim of the study was to analyze the overall situations of home stay accommodation in ECER from the perception of operators. Approach: The data of this study perceived from both the primary and secondary sources. A structured questionnaire had been used for data collection. In 2006, home stay accommodation was remaining 31 villages and in the year 2008 it spreads in 38 villages of ECER. Within this period, there were 482 and 648 home stay operators in this region. The necessary requirements for home stay operations are located; basic facilities; hygiene; safety and security. Results: There were some potentialities are remaining in ECER for establishing home stay in this region. These were low charging, hospitality, motivation for young generation, women entrepreneurship, profitable investment, easy access and satisfactory income. Some initiatives such as government support, capacity building, develop facilities, appropriate act, Community involvement, loan facilities and infrastructure development might be taken for the home stay accommodations in ECER. Conclusion: Research initiatives, various services for customer satisfaction, sustainable marketing and proper policy in management had been considered for home stay development in ECER. Home stay accommodations would be ensured the economic advancement in this region as well as sustainable regional development.

  5. A comparison in university students of the amplitude of accommodation determined subjectively

    Solani D. Mathebula


    Full Text Available Background: Historically, the push-up and the minus lens methods have been used for the measurements of the amplitude of accommodation, and the differences between the results of these methods are well known.Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare three methods for determining the monocular amplitude of accommodation and consider whether agreement exists between such methods.Setting: The study was conducted at the Optometry Clinic, University of Limpopo.Method: Thirty-four (N = 34 African optometry students participated in this study. There were 20 female and 14 male students. The age range of the participants was 20–34 years. Amplitude of accommodation was measured via the subjective push-up, push-down and minus lens methods only on the right eyes of the sample.Results: The highest average amplitude of accommodation was obtained with the push-up method (10.20 D ± 0.96 D, while the minus lens method produced the smallest mean amplitude of accommodation (9.66 D ± 0.75 D. A higher correlation was found between the push-up and push-down methods (r = 0.80, p = 0.06. The smallest correlation was observed between the push-up and the minus lens methods (r = 0.60, p = 0.062. There were no statistically significant differences between the amplitude of accommodation in male and female students for all three methods (p > 0.005.Conclusion: It seems easier to recognise the point where one can identify a target in pushdown amplitude than the point of first sustained blur in the push-up method. The push-up method tends to overestimate the actual amplitude of accommodation because of the effects of depth of focus. The less evaluated method in the literature is the push-away method; however, further research is necessary to answer the question of which (if any method is more accurate.

  6. Amplitude, facility and accuracy of accommodation in a primary school population

    V. R. Moodley


    Full Text Available Vision screening at an early age in children is important as it can identify aspects in the visual system that may need to be managed to enable a child to function optimally at school.  The National School Vision Screening Programme was discontinued in many provinces of South Africa, often due to a lack of financial resources or adequately trained personnel. This action has resulted in the majority of children not having a visual examination during their school career.  In a few instances where vision screenings are performed, these are usually limited to visual acuity (VA evaluation alone; an endeavour that may miss many significant visual problems.  The purpose of this article is to highlight the need for vision screening to be conducted in schools and for the screening protocols to include the various accommodative tests. A retrospective analysis of the amplitudes of accommodation, accommodative facility and accuracy of accommodation findingsfrom a primary school vision screening of 264 children between 6 and 13 years was undertaken in this study.  Data was captured and analysed with Microsoft Excel. The ages of the children ranged from 6 to 13 years with a mean of 9.38 years (SD = 1.85.  One hundred and thirty eight (52.3% were males and 126 (47.7% females.  A significant number of the children failed the monocular accommodative amplitude tests (24%, binocular accommodative amplitude test (26%, the accommodative facility (30% and the MEM test (27%.  These results highlight the need for a more comprehensive vision screening exercise rather than VA alone as this approach would have  missed more than a quarter of the children who had other visual problems that could impact on their ability to perform optimally at school.

  7. 基于排队理论的汽车租赁运营策略%Queuing Theory-Based Operation Policies for Car Renting

    王娟; 杨爱峰


    In car renting, customer demands rental time are subject to random variation. Thus, it is difficult to model and optimize such a process. The car renting is treated as a real-time queuing process. Based on this concept, for a car rental company, aiming at maximizing its profit by determiriing the number of vehicles needed,a mathematical model is developed. With this model, the profit obtained by two companies under cooperation is compared with that obtained without cooperation. Results show that more profit can be obtained with cooperation than without cooperation. Furthermore, based on the total profit increase for the two cooperative companies, the acceptable sublet price range ispresented. Thus, by using the proposed method,a car renting company can select its most profitable operation policy. Numerical examples are given to verify the proposed method.%将汽车租赁问题转化为即时排队系统M/M/n/n/∞模型,解决了在租赁模型中顾客需求与租期都是随机参数的难题.在租赁商独立经营的情况下,以利润最大化为目标建立模型,得到租赁商的最优车辆购置数;比较两家租赁商合作经营与独立经营情况下的利润,得出合作经营后总利润增加值与两租赁商均可以接受的转租价格,为租赁商选择有利的运营策略提供了理论依据;通过算例验证了模型的有效性.

  8. Répartition et dynamique de différentes populations bactériennes autochtones et allochtones dans les eaux de l'étang de Thau


    L'objectif de ce travail est de définir le comportement de deux types de peuplements bactériens dans un écosystème lagunaire (Etang de Thau, France) : le peuplement bactérien d'origine continentale (peuplement allochtone) et le peuplement bactérien lagunaire (peuplement autochtone). Une étude préliminaire a permis de définir dans quelle mesure l'utilisation de deux milieux de culture différents (Gélose Nutritive de salinité 8, bioMérieux; milieu Marine Agar de salinité 34, Difco) permettait d...

  9. Vibrations et relaxations dans les molécules biologiques. Apports de la diffusion incohérente inélastique de neutrons

    Zanotti, J.-M.


    Le présent document ne se veut pas un article de revue mais plutôt un élément d'initiation à une technique encore marginale en Biologie. Le lecteur est supposé être un non spécialiste de la diffusion de neutrons poursuivant une thématique à connotation biologique ou biophysique mettant en jeu des phénomènes dynamiques. En raison de la forte section de diffusion incohérente de l'atome d'hydrogène et de l'abondance de cet élément dans les protéines, la diffusion incohérente inélastique de neutrons est une technique irremplaçable pour sonder la dynamique interne des macromolécules biologiques. Après un rappel succinct des éléments théoriques de base, nous décrivons le fonctionnement de différents types de spectromètres inélastiques par temps de vol sur source continue ou pulsée et discutons leurs mérites respectifs. Les deux alternatives utilisées pour décrire la dynamique des protéines sont abordées: (i)l'une en termes de physique statistique, issue de la physique des verres, (ii) la seconde est une interprétation mécanistique. Nous montrons dans ce cas, comment mettre à profit les complémentarités de domaines en vecteur de diffusion et de résolution en énergie de différents spectromètres inélastiques de neutrons (temps de vol, backscattering et spin-écho) pour accéder, à l'aide d'un modèle physique simple, à la dynamique des protéines sur une échelle de temps allant d'une fraction de picoseconde à quelques nanosecondes.

  10. Etude d'un commutateur hybride optoélectronique gérant différentes classes de service

    Samoud, Wiem; Lourdiane, Mounia; Ware, Cédric


    International audience; Nous étudions les performances d'un commutateur hybride de paquets, associant une mémoire électronique `a un commutateur tout-optique qui prend en charge différentes classes de priorité. Nos simulations montrent que, comparé à un commutateur tout-optique, le commutateur hybride améliore significativement le taux de pertes de paquets (PLR) et la charge maximale du système, avec relativement peu de ports vers la mémoire électronique, ce qui entrainerait une consommation ...

  11. [Ecological effect of No.0 diesel water accommodated fraction on marine algae].

    Li, Ke-Qiang; Wang, Xiu-Lin; Zhu, Chen-Jian; Shi, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Hai-Yan; Li, Rui-Xiang; Sun, Sheng-Yu


    With batch culture experiments in field and laboratory, the ecological effect of No. 0 diesel water accommodated fraction on marine algae was studied. A growth model of marine algae under grazing pressure and a model of growth effect on marine algae with different doses No.0 diesel water accommodated fraction were proposed. Based on the model and experiments, the growth effect of No.0 diesel water accommodated fraction on marine algae was studied. The results show that, the growth model of marine algae under grazing pressure is more suited for the marine ecological system than Logistic model. And the final biomass (B(f)) of marine algae with different doses No.0 diesel water accommodated fraction was calculated by the model with none-linear fitting software. The results also show that, under the field and laboratory conditions, lower doses No.0 diesel water accommodated fraction promotes the growth of marine algae, and the most promoting ratio are 180% and 120% respectively, however, higher doses hardly promotes but bates the growth of marine algae.

  12. Evaluation of lightning accommodation systems for wind-driven turbine rotors

    Bankaitis, H


    Several concepts of lightning accommodation systems for wind-driven turbine rotor blades were evaluated by submitting them to simulated lightning tests. Test samples representative of epoxy-fiberglass and wood-epoxy composite structural materials were submitted to a series of high-voltage and high-current damage tests. The high-voltage tests were designed to determine the strike points and current paths through the sample and the need for, and the most proper type of, lightning accommodation. The high-current damage tests were designed to determine the capability of the potential lightning accommodation system to sustain the 200-kA lightning current without causing damage to the composite structure. The observations and data obtained in the series of tests of lightning accommodation systems clearly led to the conclusions that composite-structural-material rotor blades require a lightning accommodation system; that the concepts tested prevent internal streamering; and that keeping discharge currents on the blade surface precludes structure penetration. Induced voltage effects or any secondary effects on the integral components of the total system could not be addressed. Further studies should be carried out to encompass effects on the total system design.

  13. Salivary oxytocin in clinically anxious youth: Associations with separation anxiety and family accommodation.

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Leckman, James F; Feldman, Ruth; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; McDonald, Nicole; Silverman, Wendy K


    Clinical anxiety disorders in youth are common and associated with interpersonal behaviors including reliance on parents for family accommodation, or changes that parents make to their own behaviors to help the youth avoid anxiety related distress. The neuropeptide oxytocin is associated with the regulation of anxiety and of close interpersonal behavior leading to the hypothesis that oxytocinergic functioning plays a role in youth anxiety and its disorders, and the resulting family accommodation. To test this hypothesis salivary OT from 50 youth with primary DSM-5 anxiety disorders was assayed. A multi-source/multi-method anxiety assessment including semistructured interviews with youth and mothers, rating scales, and behavioral observations was used to assess anxiety disorders and symptoms, and family accommodation. Youth with separation anxiety disorder had significantly lower salivary OT levels than clinically anxious youth not diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder. Salivary OT levels were significantly negatively correlated with separation anxiety symptoms based on both youth- and mother-ratings. Anxious behavior displayed by youth during interactions with their mothers was associated with lower salivary OT levels in youth. Maternal ratings of family accommodation were negatively associated with salivary OT levels in youth. Results support the role of the oxytocinergic system in youth anxiety and its disorders and in parental involvement in youth anxiety through family accommodation. OT may be particularly important for diagnoses and symptoms of separation anxiety, which is inherently interpersonal in nature. Findings have potentially important implications for assessment and treatment of anxiety in youth.

  14. Simultaneous refraction measurement and OCT axial biometry of the eye during accommodation (Conference Presentation)

    De Freitas, Carolina; Hernandez, Victor M.; Ruggeri, Marco; Durkee, Heather A.; Williams, Siobhan; Gregori, Giovanni; Ho, Arthur; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie


    The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate a system that will enable objective assessment of the optical accommodative response in real-time while acquiring axial biometric information. The system combines three sub-systems which were integrated and mounted on a joystick x-y-z adjustable modified slit-lamp base to facilitate alignment and data acquisition: (1) a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for dynamic refraction measurement, provided software calculates sphere, cylinder and axis values, (2) an extended-depth Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system using an optical switch records high-resolution cross-sectional images across the length of the eye, from which, dynamic axial biometry (corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, crystalline lens thickness and vitreous depth) can be extracted, and (3) a modified dual-channel accommodation stimulus unit based on the Badal optometer for providing a step change in accommodative stimulus. The prototypal system is capable of taking simultaneous measurements of both the optical and the mechanical response of lens accommodation. These measurements can provide insight into correlating changes in lens shape with changes in lens power and ocular refraction and ultimately provide a more comprehensive understanding of accommodation, presbyopia and an objective assessment of presbyopia correction techniques.

  15. Managing Guest as an Asset: a Conceptual Review in the Context of Accommodation Services

    Dwi Suhartanto


    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of a customer as an asset of business in the accommodation industry. The purpose of this article is to examine the value of guests as a firm asset and to propose a model for managing guests as an asset in the context of accommodation services. A guest is considered an asset due to its role in providing revenue to the accommodation firm. Because of this role, the accommodation guest needs to be managed appropriately. This article argues that guest service evaluation (i.e. service quality, perceived value, and guest satisfaction and service loyalty are important factors in the development of guest lifetime value. The proposed model of managing guests as an asset consists of marketing instruments, service evaluation, guest loyalty, and financial outcomes provides a comprehensive guide on how accommodation firms can manage the lifetime value of their guests. Finally, as there are limited studies examining this issue, future research should test the proposed model.

  16. Discussion on Market Rational Value of Housing in China Based on the Market Rent System of Public Rent Houses%基于公租房市场化租金体系的住房市场合理价值探讨

    吕筱萍; 程大涛


    在分析我国住房市场多元价值体系并存的基础上,提出以按年征收土地出让金方式统一公共租赁房的用地性质;赋予公共租赁房以完全产权,使体现所有权资金成本的虚拟租金向体现住房物业价值的承租租金回归;使公共租赁房的市场化租金水平,在居民家庭住房消费支出成本制约下成为我国住房价值体系的标杆.%Based on the analysis of the phenomenon of coexistence of multi-value system of China's housing market and institutional factors, this paper proposes unified nature of land for public rental housing by levying land premium annually, and public rental housing with full property rights, embodying ownership the capital cost of the virtual rent to reflect the value of the housing property leased rent regression, making the market rent levels subject to household income level with the cost of housing consumption expenditure constraints become the benchmark of the value of China' s housing system.

  17. Monocular accommodation condition in 3D display types through geometrical optics

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Min-Chul; Son, Jung-Young


    Eye fatigue or strain phenomenon in 3D display environment is a significant problem for 3D display commercialization. The 3D display systems like eyeglasses type stereoscopic or auto-stereoscopic multiview, Super Multi-View (SMV), and Multi-Focus (MF) displays are considered for detail calculation about satisfaction level of monocular accommodation by geometrical optics calculation means. A lens with fixed focal length is used for experimental verification about numerical calculation of monocular defocus effect caused by accommodation at three different depths. And the simulation and experiment results consistently show relatively high level satisfaction about monocular accommodation at MF display condition. Additionally, possibility of monocular depth perception, 3D effect, at monocular MF display is discussed.

  18. Analysis of source-grid-load contribution to wind power accommodation

    Li, Nan; Zhang, Jinfang; Zhang, Fuqiang


    In recent years, China’s wind power is developing rapidly, but wind electricity curtailment becomes a serious problem. This paper evaluates wind power penetration limit from peak regulation, analyses relevant technical elements that impact wind power accommodation, coving the source side, the transmission side and the load side. By taking certain measures around the three aspects, for example, reducing the minimum technical output of conventional units, increasing outbound transmission capacity, or increasing the valley load, wind electricity curtailment will be effectively reduced. This paper quantitatively analyses wind power penetration limit under certain conditions and the source-grid-load contribution to wind power accommodation, and explores the important technical factors that affect wind power accommodation.

  19. Payload accommodations on future environmental sensing spacecraft: lessons learned from EOS and the future with NPOESS

    Andreoli, Leopold J.; Coyle, Kellie A.


    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) spacecraft design is based on the Northrop Grumman T430 that has legacy to the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Aura. The EOS conceived and was structured to achieve cost/schedule savings over multiple builds by adhering to rigorous requirements and minimizing changes to accommodate instruments. The larger sized NPOESS bus has been enhanced to support 14 or more sensors in common locations for the 3 NPOESS orbit planes. Spacecraft deck space and other spacecraft resources such as mass, power and data accommodation have been reserved for "Instruments of Opportunity" that may be selected and inserted into the baseline mission schedule at later dates. This poster will examine the EOS lessons learned from Aqua and Aura and report on the progress of the pre-planned product improvement (P3I) payload accommodations for NPOESS.

  20. Near-unity mass accommodation coefficient of organic molecules of varying structure.

    Julin, Jan; Winkler, Paul M; Donahue, Neil M; Wagner, Paul E; Riipinen, Ilona


    Atmospheric aerosol particles have a significant effect on global climate, air quality, and consequently human health. Condensation of organic vapors is a key process in the growth of nanometer-sized particles to climate relevant sizes. This growth is very sensitive to the mass accommodation coefficient α, a quantity describing the vapor uptake ability of the particles, but knowledge on α of atmospheric organics is lacking. In this work, we have determined α for four organic molecules with diverse structural properties: adipic acid, succinic acid, naphthalene, and nonane. The coefficients are studied using molecular dynamics simulations, complemented with expansion chamber measurements. Our results are consistent with α = 1 (indicating nearly perfect accommodation), regardless of the molecular structural properties, the phase state of the bulk condensed phase, or surface curvature. The results highlight the need for experimental techniques capable of resolving the internal structure of nanoparticles to better constrain the accommodation of atmospheric organics.


    Rotariu Ilie


    Full Text Available The Sibiu 2007 European Cultural Capital (ECOC was monitored in order to highlight the long-term impacts of the event. Preliminary findings on the tourism impacts are presented based on field research among visitors and statistics and field inventory. The most visible as well as the most significant impact on the city is the growth of accommodation supply. Not only did the number of licensed units and room grow substantially, but there was also considerable growth in the informal accommodation sector. Not only the city of Sibiu, but also the surrounding region benefited from the ECOC opportunity. The research shows that although the informal sector was able to respond fastest to the growth in accommodation demand, the greatest economic impact came from the development of large commercial hotels in the city itself.

  2. The availability of smoking-permitted accommodations from Airbnb in 12 Canadian cities.

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Douglas, Ornell; Stehouwer, Lindsay; Dawson, Jackie


    Airbnb is a web-based peer-to-peer (P2P) service that enables potential hosts and guests to broker accommodations in private homes as an alternative to traditional hotels. The hospitality sector has increasingly gone smoke-free over the last decade. This study identified the availability and cost of smoking-permitted accommodations identified on Airbnb. The study team searched for Airbnb accommodations in 12 Canadian cities across each of Canada's 10 provinces. Searches included availability for a single person for a private room, or double occupancy for an entire home/apartment; searches were for 1-night and 1-week stays. Cities across Canada, including Regina, Fredericton and Charlottetown, had no smoking-permitted accommodations available for the searches conducted. The proportion of private rooms available for one night that permitted smoking ranged from 2% in Calgary, 4% in Winnipeg and St. John's, 10% in Halifax and Victoria, 18% in Toronto, 45% in Vancouver and 69% in Montréal. The average cost for a private room for one night in Vancouver was $128, while the cost for a private room that permits smoking was $62; however, in other markets prices were more similar. Across Canada, there is a wide range of smoking-permitted accommodations available through Airbnb. In some markets, smoking-permitted accommodation may be significantly less expensive than smoke-free options. As hotel chains increasingly go smoke-free, it is possible that the marketplace will respond with offerings to fulfil consumer demand. As policy makers consider how to regulate P2P services like Airbnb, public health considerations should be included. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Changes in anterior chamber eye during accommodation as assessed using a Dual Scheimpflug system

    Alberto Domínguez-Vicent


    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber angle (ACA, and pupil diameter (PD during accommodation. Methods: Eighty eyes of 80 subjects, aged 22 to 40 years, were included. The rotating Dual Scheimpflug and a Placido disc system (Galilei G4, Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems AG, Switzerland was used to measure the changes in ACD, ACA, and PD during accommodation. ACD measurement was taken for the central zone and for 4 more positions, each in different orientation (nasal, superior, temporal and inferior, 4 mm away from the centre. ACA was measured for the whole eye as well for the nasal, superior, temporal, and inferior quadrants. These metrics were obtained for various accommodation stimuli, ranging from +1 D to -4 D in 1-D steps. Results: For a given position, the ACD did not vary significantly with accommodation. For the central ACD, the percentage of relative change between far and near vision was -4.11%. The ACA was significantly lower at the inferior, temporal, and superior positions. There was no change in the ACA of the whole eye and that of the nasal orientation. These two eye metrics were significantly lower in the superior-nasal than in the inferior-temporal region. At each vergence studied, the PD decreased significantly with accommodation. The relative change after the -4 D stimulus was -8.13%. Conclusion: ACA and PD varied significantly with accommodation, whereas no such variation of ACD was observed. Further, the anterior chamber was found to be asymmetrical, with the nasal-superior area becoming significantly shallower than the inferior temporal region.

  4. Changes in anterior chamber eye during accommodation as assessed using a Dual Scheimpflug system.

    Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; Monsálvez-Romín, Daniel; Albarrán-Diego, César; Sanchis-Jurado, Vicent; Montés-Micó, Robert


    To study the changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (ACA), and pupil diameter (PD) during accommodation. Eighty eyes of 80 subjects, aged 22 to 40 years, were included. The rotating Dual Scheimpflug and a Placido disc system (Galilei G4, Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems AG, Switzerland) was used to measure the changes in ACD, ACA, and PD during accommodation. ACD measurement was taken for the central zone and for 4 more positions, each in different orientation (nasal, superior, temporal and inferior), 4 mm away from the centre. ACA was measured for the whole eye as well for the nasal, superior, temporal, and inferior quadrants. These metrics were obtained for various accommodation stimuli, ranging from +1 D to -4 D in 1-D steps. For a given position, the ACD did not vary significantly with accommodation. For the central ACD, the percentage of relative change between far and near vision was -4.11%. The ACA was significantly lower at the inferior, temporal, and superior positions. There was no change in the ACA of the whole eye and that of the nasal orientation. These two eye metrics were significantly lower in the superior-nasal than in the inferior-temporal region. At each vergence studied, the PD decreased significantly with accommodation. The relative change after the -4 D stimulus was -8.13%. ACA and PD varied significantly with accommodation, whereas no such variation of ACD was observed. Further, the anterior chamber was found to be asymmetrical, with the nasal-superior area becoming significantly shallower than the inferior temporal region.

  5. Prevalence of Accommodative and Non-Strabismic Binocular Anomalies in a Puerto Rican Pediatric Population

    Stefania M. Paniccia, OD, MS


    Full Text Available Background: There exists a considerable void in the literature of studies that examine the prevalence of non-strabismic binocular and accommodative disorders in the pediatric population of Puerto Rico. The purpose of this retrospective study was to fill this void by performing a comprehensive record review of the pediatric clinical population of the InterAmerican University College of Optometry satellite clinics. Methods: This study was performed using a random selection of 593 existing health records of patients between the ages of 5 and 20 years. Patients had participated in a complete optometric assessment between the years 2004 and 2012. The criteria for selection were the absence of strabismus, amblyopia, nystagmus, vertical deviation, corneal pathology, retinal pathology, lens pathology, or any other parameter outside of population requirements. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS program. Results of this study indicate that the most common non-strabismic and accommodative anomalies in the studied population are accommodative insufficiency (39.0%, convergence insufficiency (12.6%, convergence excess (9.1%, and accommodative infacility (7.6%. Conclusions: Accommodative and non-strabismic binocular vision problems are prevalent in the pediatric population of the InterAmerican satellite clinics. This is the first epidemiologic study about the prevalence of these conditions in Puerto Rico. Due to the possibility of these non-strabismic and accommodative anomalies resulting in a reduced quality of life for children and affecting school performance, sports performance, and play activities, an appropriate vision evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment is important. Lastly, further comprehensive studies should be conducted in Puerto Rico using this study as a base for data collection and analysis.

  6. Static and Dynamic Measurement of Accommodation Using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 Autorefractor

    Win-Hall, Dorothy M.; Houser, Jaime; Glasser, Adrian


    Purpose The Grand Seiko WR-5500 (WAM) is an open field autorefractor capable of measuring accommodation and pupil diameter dynamically. This study was undertaken to compare static and dynamic accommodation measurements with this instrument in young, phakic subjects. Methods Fifteen subjects, aged 20–28 years (23.8±0.58; mean±SD) participated. Accommodation was stimulated with text printed on a transparent sheet presented at various distances. In static mode, subjects focused on the near text and three measurements were taken for each stimulus amplitude. In dynamic mode, the 5 Hz recording was started and subjects alternately looked through the transparent near chart and focused on a letter chart at 6 m for 5 seconds and then focused on the near letter chart for 5 seconds for a total of 30 seconds. After smoothing the raw data, the highest three individual values recorded in each 5 second interval of focusing at near were averaged for each stimulus amplitude. ANOVA and Bland-Altman analysis were used to compare the static and dynamic measurements. A calibration was performed with +3.00 to -10.00 D trial lenses behind an IR filter, in 1.00 D steps in 5 of the 15 subjects. Results Stimulus-response graphs from static and dynamic modes were not significantly different in the lower stimulus range (static and dynamic modes. Corresponding pupil diameter could be recorded along with the accommodation responses for the subjects and pupil diameter decreased with increasing stimulus demand. Calibration curves for static and dynamic measurements were not significantly different from the 1:1 line or from each other (p = 0.32). Conclusion Although slight differences between the dynamically and statically recorded responses were identified, the Grand-Seiko WAM autorefractor provides the ability to measure both. Dynamic measurement of accommodation and pupil constriction potentially provides additional useful information on the accommodative response other than simply the


    I. Shaniukevich


    Full Text Available The paper considers a theme of typological urban housing diversity  which is relevant for a modern residential real estate market. Analyzed Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the existing urban residential accommodation, new  house building have been analyzed in the paper. The paper presents author’s calculations of differentiation extent and changes in economic opportunities of the population. Differentiation of  potential consumer accommodation models with specific standardized characteristics has been made in terms of the population economic prosperity.  The paper substantiates proposals on accountability and implementation of typological differences in the government housing policy.

  8. Cultural Diversity and Reasonable Accommodation. An Approach based on Freedom as Non-domination

    Isabel Wences


    Full Text Available One of the challenges that culturally diverse societies now face is that of learning to live with differences. Harmonization practices such as concerted adjustment and reasonable accommodation are some of the mechanisms proposed by cultural diversity management policies to deal with this contemporary situation. In the case of reasonable accommodation, this practice can be justified not only because it is based on a recognition of equality in difference, but also on a belief in freedom as a form of non domination, given the inequality present in power relations.

  9. Individuals' perceptions of employment accommodation decisions and solutions: lessons for social workers.

    Hartnett, Helen P; Thurman, Hanna; Cordingly, Kim


    Disability rights advocates in social work have claimed that employment opportunities for people with disabilities are an important part of personal empowerment and social inclusion. Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act is aimed at ensuring meaningful employment opportunities are available. Hahn and Raske (2005) state that social work needs to develop a research paradigm that values the inclusion of people with disabilities. This article examines these efforts by incorporating the voices of individuals with disabilities who accessed services at the Job Accommodation Network. Understanding individuals' perspectives could contribute to better accommodation outcomes for people with disabilities, employers, and advocacy professionals alike.

  10. The effects of emotional intelligence on human resources selection: A research on managers of accommodation enterprises

    Mahmut Demir


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of emotional intelligence characteristics of managers on human resources selection in the accommodation enterprises. Previously questionnaire was developed from MSCEIT. Data were gathered from hotel managers with the help of a questionnaire which is conducted face to face. Data was tested with factor analysis and regression analysis on SPSS. The results of the study show that emotional intelligence characteristics of managers in the accommodation enterprises, effect on their decision of human resources selection

  11. Seven rules to live by: accommodations in social work education and the field.

    Neely-Barnes, Susan Louise; McCabe, Heather A; Barnes, Craig P


    Students with disabilities are a growing population in higher education (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009 ). Providing accommodations for students with disabilities can raise ethical and social justice questions and pose challenges for social work faculty, administrators, and field instructors. Social work educators must balance the legal mandates for nondiscrimination and reasonable accommodation against ethical obligations around protection of clients and preparation for practice. This article presents case examples in the context of legal analysis to help social work educators make difficult decisions about student academic performance.

  12. Fault detection and accommodation via neural network and variable structure control

    Hao YANG; Bin JIANG


    This paper proposes a novel idea that classifies faults into two different kinds: serious faults and small faults,and treats them with different strategies respectively. A kind of artificial neural network (ANN) is proposed for detecting serious faults, and variable structure (VS) model-following control is constructed for accommodating small faults. The proposed framework takes both advantages of qualitative way and quantitative way of fault detection and accommodation.Moreover, the uncertainty case is investigated and the VS controller is modified. Simulation results of a remotely piloted aircraft with control actuator failures illustrate the performance of the developed algorithm.

  13. Voltage-controlled accommodating IOL system using an ion polymer metal composite actuator.

    Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Mihashi, Toshifumi; Fujikado, Takashi; Oshika, Tetsuro; Asaka, Kinji


    Surgeons treat cataracts by replacing the clouded lens with an intraocular lens (IOL), but patients are required to wear reading glasses for tasks requiring near vision. We suggest a new voltage-controlled accommodating IOL made of an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) actuator to change focus. An in vitro experiment was conducted where an actuator was placed inside the eye and moved with applied voltage. The lens attached to the actuator was deformed by its movement to change the patient's focus. The results showed that this system can accommodate a change of approximately 0.8 diopters under an applied voltage of ± 1.3 V.

  14. Work Accommodations and Natural Supports for Employees with Severe Mental Illness in Social Businesses: An International Comparison.

    Villotti, Patrizia; Corbière, Marc; Fossey, Ellie; Fraccaroli, Franco; Lecomte, Tania; Harvey, Carol


    Little is known about the types of work accommodations and natural supports that are useful for people experiencing severe mental illness working in social businesses. We conducted an exploratory, descriptive and cross-sectional investigation in Australia, Canada and Italy to study the nature of work accommodations and natural supports available in social businesses. Study findings are drawn from survey responses of a convenience sample of 90 employees with self-reported psychiatric disabilities. Results showed that, regardless of the country, social businesses provide many work accommodations and natural supports, especially those linked to schedule flexibility and support, while work accommodations related to training and schedule flexibility were linked to longer job tenure. Overall, this study advances our knowledge about the spectrum of work accommodations and natural supports that are available in social businesses for people with severe mental illness. Also, it highlights the type of work accommodations that are likely to support this population to sustain employment.

  15. Vergence and accommodation to multiple-image-plane stereoscopic displays: ``real world'' responses with practical image-plane separations?

    MacKenzie, Kevin J.; Dickson, Ruth A.; Watt, Simon J.


    Conventional stereoscopic displays present images on a single focal plane. The resulting mismatch between the stimuli to the eyes' focusing response (accommodation) and to convergence causes fatigue and poor stereo performance. One solution is to distribute image intensity across a number of widely spaced image planes--a technique referred to as depth filtering. Previously, we found this elicits accurate, continuous monocular accommodation responses with image-plane separations as large as 1.1 Diopters (D, the reciprocal of distance in meters), suggesting that a small number of image planes could eliminate vergence-accommodation conflicts over a large range of simulated distances. Evidence exists, however, of systematic differences between accommodation responses to binocular and monocular stimuli when the stimulus to accommodation is degraded, or at an incorrect distance. We examined the minimum image-plane spacing required for accurate accommodation to binocular depth-filtered images. We compared accommodation and vergence responses to changes in depth specified by depth filtering, using image-plane separations of 0.6 to 1.2 D, and equivalent real stimuli. Accommodation responses to real and depth-filtered stimuli were equivalent for image-plane separations of ~0.6 to 0.9 D, but differed thereafter. We conclude that depth filtering can be used to precisely match accommodation and vergence demand in a practical stereoscopic display.

  16. Implementation of the Eco-label for Tourist Accommodation Units in Arad

    F. S. Barbu


    Full Text Available This study examines tourist accommodation managers' attitude towards implementing the eco-labeling scheme; and, also, the degree of awareness regarding the necessity of directing businesses towards sustainable development by adopting the following: limited water and energy consumption, reduced waste production, the use of renewable resources and low-environmental impact substances, the promotion of the environmental protection education.

  17. Voice Onset Time in Consonant Cluster Errors: Can Phonetic Accommodation Differentiate Cognitive from Motor Errors?

    Pouplier, Marianne; Marin, Stefania; Waltl, Susanne


    Purpose: Phonetic accommodation in speech errors has traditionally been used to identify the processing level at which an error has occurred. Recent studies have challenged the view that noncanonical productions may solely be due to phonetic, not phonological, processing irregularities, as previously assumed. The authors of the present study…

  18. Workplace Accommodations for Persons with Musculoskeletal Disorders. Implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act Series.

    Morosky, Frank N.

    This brief paper summarizes requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 related to workplace accommodations for persons with musculo-skeletal disorders. The following topics are addressed: (1) the relevance of the ADA to people with musculo-skeletal disorders; (2) employment provisions of the ADA to protect individuals with…

  19. Prevalence of Physical Disability and Accommodation Needs among Students in Physical Therapy Education Programs

    Hinman, Martha R.; Peterson, Cathryn A.; Gibbs, Karen A.


    Most research on graduate students with disabilities (SWDs) has focused on medical education. The purposes of this study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of students with physical disabilities (SWPDs) in physical therapy programs, (2) identify common types of physical disabilities, (3) document the types of accommodations requested by SWPDs,…

  20. Assessing Student Performance in Distance Education Courses: Implications for Testing Accommodations for Students with Learning Disabilities.

    Banerjee, Manju; Brinckerhoff, Loring C.


    This article highlights some of the defining characteristics of distance education courses and their impact on traditional assessment practices for instructors and students, including those with learning disabilities. Factors that instructors need to consider for dealing with test accommodations for students with learning disabilities are…

  1. The capacity of the US food system to accommodate improved diet quality: Projections to 2030

    Objective: To estimate the capacity of the US agricultural system to produce enough food, in the right amounts, to accommodate a population shift toward healthier diet patterns. This analysis has immediate and long-term implications for the nutritional quality of the food supply, as well as for envi...

  2. 75 FR 61604 - Small Business Size Standards; Accommodation and Food Services Industries


    ... Historically Underutilized Business Zones (HUBZone), women owned small businesses and service disabled veteran... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN: 3245-AF71 Small Business Size Standards; Accommodation and Food...

  3. High School General Education English Teachers' Perception of IEP Accommodations for Students with Asperger Syndrome

    Krones, Mary Patricia


    The purpose of this qualitative design study was to better understand the experiences of high school general education English teachers who have students with Asperger Syndrome in their classes. More specifically, this researcher wanted to better understand the teacher's perception of the IEP-denoted accommodations the general education teachers…

  4. Accommodating Learning Styles: Relevance and Good Practice in Vocational Education and Training--Supporting Documents

    Smith, Peter; Dalton, Jennifer; Henry, John


    This document was produced by the author(s) based on their research for the Australian report, "Accommodating Learning Styles: Relevance and Good Practice in Vocational Education and Training," and contains three parts. Part 1, Research Methodology and Findings (Peter Smith and Jennifer Dalton), contains: (1) Research Questions; (2)…

  5. Podcasts on Mobile Devices as a Read-Aloud Testing Accommodation in Middle School Science Assessment

    McMahon, Don; Wright, Rachel; Cihak, David F.; Moore, Tara C.; Lamb, Richard


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a digitized podcast to deliver read-aloud testing accommodations on mobile devices to students with disabilities and reading difficulties. The total sample for this study included 47 middle school students with reading difficulties. Of the 47 students, 16 were identified as students with…

  6. Math Learning Model That Accommodates Cognitive Style to Build Problem-Solving Skills

    Warli; Fadiana, Mu'jizatin


    The purpose of this research is to develop mathematical learning models that accommodate the cognitive styles reflective vs. impulsive students to build problem-solving skills, quality (valid, practical, and effective). To achieve the target would do research development (development research) and method development that consists of five stages,…

  7. 13 CFR 113.3-2 - Accommodations to religious observance and practice.


    ..., at least the following factors should be considered: (a) Business necessity, (b) financial costs and... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accommodations to religious observance and practice. 113.3-2 Section 113.3-2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

  8. Voice Onset Time in Consonant Cluster Errors: Can Phonetic Accommodation Differentiate Cognitive from Motor Errors?

    Pouplier, Marianne; Marin, Stefania; Waltl, Susanne


    Purpose: Phonetic accommodation in speech errors has traditionally been used to identify the processing level at which an error has occurred. Recent studies have challenged the view that noncanonical productions may solely be due to phonetic, not phonological, processing irregularities, as previously assumed. The authors of the present study…

  9. Students' Thinking Process in Solving Combination Problems Considered from Assimilation and Accommodation Framework

    Jalan, Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji, Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel


    This study aims to explain the thinking process of students in solving combination problems considered from assimilation and accommodation frameworks. This research used a case study approach by classifying students into three categories of capabilities namely high, medium and low capabilities. From each of the ability categories, one student was…

  10. A formal translation of the Assimilation-Accommodation Coping Scale from German to Dutch

    L. Aben (Laurien); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan)


    textabstractThe Assimilation-Accommodation Coping Scale was developed in Germany by Brandtstädter and Renner and applied in the UK and the Netherlands. A formal translation was never reported. Such formal translation was warranted as we found ambivalent language and atypical sentences in the Dutch t

  11. OSHA and ADA: "Reasonable Accommodation" in Training Persons with Developmental Disabilities.

    Sandoz, Charles J.

    This paper documents an approach to meeting the training requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) and the "reasonable accommodation" requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) for individuals with developmental disabilities. It describes a training program used with three adult workers with mild mental…


    Cristinel Petrisor Constantin


    Full Text Available Ecolabels are key instruments for a sustainable tourism development and implementation of environmental certification of tourist accommodation facilities and services. The present paper aimes to analyze whether eco-certification is considered by tourists in the choice of accommodation in Romanian destinations. We have chosen as a case study the city of Brasov in order to evaluate if certification as a sustainability policy tool is needed for accommodation facilities. A survey was conducted among 940 tourists from the analyzed destination. Data collected in the survey was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS and several statistical methods have been used: descriptive analysis, crosstabs, Cluster Analysis. The results of the research outline the necessity for Brasov’s accommodation managers to consider the eco-certification of their businesses. However, since some tourists remain unaware regarding the existence of tourism certification programs and far fewer understand their meaning, they would have to consider educating tourists with respect to the utility and scope of tourism ecolabels alongside efforts towards creating or adopting tourism ecolabeling programs.

  13. Destinations and accommodations--how linked are they from a customer's perspective?

    Mi Ran Kim; Christine Vogt; Annette Rummel


    Success in the hotel and tourism industry depends on understanding the key factors of customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction leads to purchase repetition, intention to revisit, and potential increased future patronage of the hotel. The purpose of this research is to better understand (1) the factors that influence overnight accommodation decisions; (2) how these...

  14. Culture Change from Tobacco Accommodation to Intolerance: Time to Connect the Dots

    Livingood, William C., Jr.; Allegrante, John P.; Green, Lawrence W.


    Broad changes in normative health behavior are critical to overcoming many of the contemporary challenges to public health. Reduction in tobacco use during the last third of the 20th century--one of the greatest improvements in public health--illustrates such change. The culture change from accommodation to intolerance of smoking is irrefutable.…

  15. Optical method for measuring thermal accommodation coefficients using a whispering-gallery microresonator

    Ganta, D.; Dale, E. B.; Rezac, J. P.; Rosenberger, A. T.


    A novel optical method has been developed for the measurement of thermal accommodation coefficients in the temperature-jump regime. The temperature dependence of the resonant frequency of a fused-silica microresonator's whispering-gallery mode is used to measure the rate at which the microresonator comes into thermal equilibrium with the ambient gas. The thermal relaxation time is related to the thermal conductivity of the gas under some simplifying assumptions and measuring this time as a function of gas pressure determines the thermal accommodation coefficient. Using a low-power tunable diode laser of wavelength around 1570 nm to probe a microsphere's whispering-gallery mode through tapered-fiber coupling, we have measured the accommodation coefficients of air, helium, and nitrogen on fused silica at room temperature. In addition, by applying thin-film coatings to the microsphere's surface, we have demonstrated that accommodation coefficients can be measured for various gases on a wide range of modified surfaces using this method.

  16. Prevention of capsular opacification after accommodative lens refilling surgery in rabbits

    Koopmans, Steven A.; Terwee, Thom; van Kooten, Theo G.


    Silicone gel-like polymers have been proposed to replace the cataractous lens and therewith restore both vision and accommodation. Lens replacement is associated with opacification of the capsular bag due to the lens epithelial cell response. In this study, the in vivo effectiveness of a 5 min treat

  17. 77 FR 16163 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability by Public Accommodations and in Commercial...


    ... Parts 35 and 36 RIN 1190-AA68 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability by Public Accommodations and in Commercial Facilities; Swimming Pools AGENCY: Civil Rights Division, Department of Justice. ACTION... certain requirements in the 2010 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Standards for Accessible...

  18. Lighting in your accommodation. Synthesis; L'eclairage dans votre logement. Note de synthese



    This study has been realized on 10000 families in order to know the French attitudes concerning the lighting of their accommodation. The questions asked dealt with the nature and the use conditions of the lighting and the attitude in the framework of energy consumption. (A.L.B.)

  19. The Effects of Vocalics and Nonverbal Sensitivity on Compliance: A Speech Accommodation Theory Explanation.

    Buller, David B.; Aune, R. Kelly


    Explains a speech accommodation theory for the interaction between a receiver's decoding ability and a speaker's voice tone on compliance with requests for help. Good decoders complied more with the fast request, whereas poor decoders complied more with the slow request. (RAE)

  20. Why Interculturalisation? A Neo-Marxist Approach to Accommodate Cultural Diversity in Higher Education

    Jiang, Xiaoping


    The paper offers a neo-Marxist framework of interculturalisation to accommodate the increasing cultural diversity in the internationalisation of higher education with specific reference to Chinese students in New Zealand. At present, there are few official strategies in place to provide for the needs of international students in New Zealand…