Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn
in homes was measured and the Buildings were registered for a series of variables describing upgrades, facilities, building components, Construction characteristics and used materials. In addition, the radon level was measured in the basement in 9 of the buildings. The mean year value of the indoor radon......Indoor radon levels were measured in 221 homes located in 53 buildings, including 28 multi-occupant houses and 25 single-family terraced houses. The homes consisted of rented accommodation located in buildings recorded as being constructed before 2010 and after the year 1850. The radon level...... radon levels exceeding 100 Bq/m3 in homes in multi-occupant houses was found to be very low, but the risk was highest on the ground floor in a building constructed with slab on ground....
Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn
Indoor radon levels were measured in 221 homes in rented accommodation. In addition, buildings were registered for a series of variables describing building characteristics and used materials. The mean year value of the indoor radon level was 30.7 (1~250) Bq/m3. The indoor radon level exceeded 100...... Bq/m3 in 5.9% of the homes. Of the investigated variables, only homes in single-family terraced houses, were statistically significant. Approx. 75% of homes exceeding 100 Bq/m3 indoor radon level had levels between 100 and 200 Bq/m3 and 25% had indoor radon levels exceeding 200 Bq/m3. Significant...... differences in indoor radon levels were found in homes located in multi-occupant houses. Additionally, the risk of indoor radon levels exceeding 100 Bq/m3 in homes in multi-occupant houses was found to be very low, but the risk was the highest on the ground floor in a building constructed with slab on ground....
Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing for...
Shepherd, A. Ross; McDonald, John F.
Questions the recently developed arguments (per George Kondor and R. Arnott) that rent controls can increase the quantity of housing supplied. Maintains that tenant favorable regulatory programs constrict profit, mobility, development, and construction. Argues that any subsequent increases in housing are due to price discrimination. (MJP)
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Rent estimates at the 50th percentile (or median) are calculated for all Fair Market Rent areas. Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are primarily used to determine payment...
"Rent or buy?" is a question people ask about everything from housing to textbooks. It is also a question universities must consider when it comes to high-performance computing (HPC). With the advent of Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Microsoft Windows HPC Server, Rackspace's OpenStack, and other cloud-based services, researchers now have…
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.507 Rent to owner: Reasonable rent. (a) PHA determination. (1) The PHA may not.... To make this determination, the PHA must consider: (1) The location, quality, size, unit type, and...
Luechinger, Simon; Meier, Stephan; Stutzer, Alois
Institutions affect bureaucrats' possibilities to acquire rents; they determine the degree of accountability and responsiveness of officials and of political control of the bureaucracy and, thereby, the size and distribution of rents in the public sphere. Those rents can involve higher wages, monetary and nonmonetary fringe benefits, and bribes. We propose a direct measure to capture the total of these rents: the difference in subjective well-being between bureaucrats and people working in th...
Svarer, Michael; Rosholm, Michael; Munch, Jakob Roland
In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...
Omtale af Michael Tomasellos teorier om at sproget som det rent menneskelige er baseret på en empati og tillid, som kommer til udtryk i at selv små børn forstår når en anden peger, hvad aber ikke gør. Udgivelsesdato: 12.april 2006......Omtale af Michael Tomasellos teorier om at sproget som det rent menneskelige er baseret på en empati og tillid, som kommer til udtryk i at selv små børn forstår når en anden peger, hvad aber ikke gør. Udgivelsesdato: 12.april 2006...
Full Text Available Recent case law shows that vulnerable, previously disadvantaged private sector tenants are currently facing eviction orders – and consequential homelessness – on the basis that their leases have expired. In terms of the case law it is evident that once their leases have expired, these households do not have access to alternative accommodation. In terms of the Constitution, this group of marginalised tenants have a constitutional right of access to adequate housing and a right to occupy land with legally secure tenure. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse a number of legislative interventions, and specifically rent control, that were imposed in various jurisdictions in order to provide strengthened tenure protection for tenants. The rationale for this analysis is to determine whether the current South African landlord-tenant regime is able to provide adequate tenure protection for vulnerable tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. The legal construction of rent control was adopted in pre-1994 South Africa, England and New York City to provide substantive tenure protection for tenants during housing shortages. These statutory interventions in the different private rental markets were justified on the basis that there was a general need to protect tenants against exploitation by landlords. However, the justification for the persistent imposition of rent control in New York City is different since it protects a minority group of financially weak tenants against homelessness. The English landlord-tenant regime highlights the importance of a well-structured social sector that can provide secure, long-term housing options for low-income households who are struggling to access the private rental sector. Additionally, the English rental housing framework shows that if the social sector is functioning as a "safety net" for low-income households, the private sector would be able to uphold
Full Text Available The urgent task for the effective functioning of the national economy is the need to reflect income from the use of forest resources in accounting, which will allow management personnel to prove the effectiveness of environmental protection measures, to assess the amount of expenses taken during restoration and protection of forest resources. The study aims at identifying characteristics of forest rent to determine the amount and its reflection in the accounting for its management. The author understands a forest rent as the income received from the owner of forest resources. The above procedure for determining the amount of forest rent can be used to display it in the accounting. A forest rent is a type of business income, so for its reflection in the accounting it is proposed to open the analytical accounts to account 79 named «Financial results». To determine the amount of forest rent and its reflection in the accounting the author suggests the calculation form of a forest rent. In order to manage the size of a forest rent and expenses incurred to obtain it the author proposes to use the information from the developed report about the forest rent formation. The displaying forest rents in accounting will provide accurate and deep information to the management about the revenue and assets of a company. The rational use of forest resources and accounting reflection of a forest rent will strengthen control over the influence of human activity on natural resources and keep the conception of sustainable development.
The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)
Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, W.
This report addresses the responses related to scarcity rents and airport charges. The Commission has asked ITF/SEO to provide evidence on scarcity rents in the London airport system. Different reports submitted in response to the Commission’s consultation make different assumptions on the way
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.509 Rent to owner: Effect of rent control. In addition to the rent reasonableness...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...
This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......-governmental organizations have been coopted to serve large welfare expenditure programs that benefit the welfare coalition....
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... tenants and therefore in the process of transforming in line with the Constitution. ... KEYWORDS: Constitution; landlord-tenant law; rent control; rent regulation; ...
... PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Rent to Owner § 983.303 Reasonable rent. (a) Comparability requirement... that affect market rent, such as: (i) The location, quality, size, unit type, and age of the contract... the housing assistance payment based on the comparability analysis may not have any direct or indirect...
D. Brounen (Dirk); M.G.J. Jennen (Maarten)
textabstractIn this paper we use an error correction model for understanding the changes in real office rents for a panel of 15 U.S. MSA's over the period 1990-2007. We find that office rents in all cities react positively to a rise in office employment and lagged rent changes, while lagged
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rent control. 850.153 Section 850... PROGRAM) HOUSING DEVELOPMENT GRANTS Project Management § 850.153 Rent control. A project constructed or substantially rehabilitated with a housing development grant is not subject to State or local rent control...
Kalkuhl, Matthias; Brecha, Robert J.
By reducing the demand for fossil fuels, climate policy can reduce scarcity rents for fossil resource owners. As mitigation policies ultimately aim to limit emissions, a new scarcity for “space” in the atmosphere to deposit emissions is created. The associated scarcity rent, or climate rent (that is, for example, directly visible in permit prices under an emission trading scheme) can be higher or lower than the original fossil resource rent. In this paper, we analyze analytically and numerically the impact of mitigation targets, resource availability, backstop costs, discount rates and demand parameters on fossil resource rents and the climate rent. We assess whether and how owners of oil, gas and coal can be compensated by a carbon permit grandfathering rule. One important finding is that reducing (cumulative) fossil resource use could actually increase scarcity rents and benefit fossil resource owners under a permit grandfathering rule. For our standard parameter setting overall scarcity rents under climate policy increase slightly. While low discount rates of resource owners imply higher rent losses due to climate policies, new developments of reserves or energy efficiency improvements could more than double scarcity rents under climate policy. Another important implication is that agents receiving the climate rent (regulating institutions or owners of grandfathered permits) could influence the climate target such that rents are maximized, rather than to limit global warming to a socially desirable level. For our basic parameter setting, rents would be maximized at approximately 650 GtC emissions (50% of business-as-usual emissions) implying a virtual certainty of exceeding a 2 °C target and a likelihood of 4 °C warming. - Highlights: • Fossil resource rents form a substantial share of the global GDP. • Fossil resource owners can benefit from climate policy. • Climate targets might be influenced by rent-maximizing aspects
Shrestha, Ram M.; Abeygunawardana, A.M.A.K.
Existing studies have mostly estimated the ex post economic rent of hydropower for the hydroelectric system of a province or a country as a whole and have ignored the site- or project-specific variations in the economic rent of hydropower plants. Further, most of the existing studies have used simplified methods to calculate the rent ex post. This paper presents a rigorous methodology for estimation of site-specific (i.e., project specific) economic rent of hydropower ex ante. It applies the methodology in the case of a hydropower project and analyzes the sensitivity of the rent to variations in some key parameters.
Prljić, Stefan; Nikitović, Zorana; Stojanović, Aleksandra Golubović; Cogoljević, Dušan; Pešić, Gordana; Alizamir, Meysam
Economic profit could be influenced by economic rents. However natural resource rents provided different impact on the economic growth or economic profit. The main focus of the study was to evaluate the economic growth as function of natural resource rents. For such a purpose machine learning approach, artificial neural network, was used. The used natural resource rents were coal rents, forest rents, mineral rents, natural gas rents and oil rents. Based on the results it is concluded that the machine learning approach could be used as the tool for the economic growth evaluation as function of natural resource rents. Moreover the more advanced approaches should be incorporated to improve more the forecasting accuracy.
Kjetil Bjorvatn; Mohammad Reza Farzanegan
We study the association between resource rents and political stability, highlighting the importance of the distribution of political power as a mediating factor. We present a simple theoretical model showing that increased rents are likely to be positively associated with the stability of a powerful incumbent while destabilizing a less powerful incumbent. Our empirical analysis confirms this prediction: Using panel data for more than 120 countries from 1984-2009, our results show that rents ...
Victor S. Martyanov
Full Text Available By inertia, which derives from Adam Smith, modern capitalism is described as a free-market competition. This historical model has worked while the market expands and the availability of resources increases. It provided the opportunity to maintain the political order of the welfare state as a form of non-economic egalitarian distribution of resources, which mitigates inequality and class antagonisms generated by market. However, once capitalism has engulfed the whole world, it is more prone to crises: competition intensifies, markets of demand and market outlets do not expand, technological progress creates a growing structural unemployment, economic growth due to the completion of the global village-city transition stagnates, the resources of all the peripheries are almost exhausted. As a result, nationalism and protectionism arise, the polarization between the global center and the periphery increases, and there comes the image of undemocratic and non-egalitarian labor less society on the horizon of the future, with the precariat and the unemployed growing in numbers and demanding large amounts of rent to maintain their livelihoods. Due to this, the market model of capitalism is gradually transforming into a rental one, where the pursuit of profit, the main motivational factor intrinsic to the market, is removed by the pursuit of rent and the redistribution of markets by non-economic ways. In this context, the state becomes the key economic actor, which distributes resources by extra-market means within the hierarchy of rental groups that form the framework of a new structure of the political community.
Full Text Available Економічні науки. – 2015. – № 4 (74. – P. 43–49: Table 4. – Refs.: 22. As a result of the study it has been established that intellectual rent as additional income arises resulting from the usage of intellectual property objects. At present the issue of the accounting reflection of transactions that form intellectual rent remains to be not thoroughly disclosed and requires more depth study for improving the performance of the innovative enterprises as well as for increasing the informativeness of the accounting system. In connection with the above defined organizational and methodical aspects of accounting operations with intellectual rent in assessing the rents of its type, the definition of accounts for the accounting reflection of the order determining the amount of intellectual rent on accounting data. Proposed document that would facilitate the work of accountants for the calculation of the amount of intellectual rent and provide information about the effectiveness of the company. Application of the proposed method of accounting reflect the formation and distribution of intellectual rent allows management personnel to provide the necessary innovative activity of the enterprise information management rent, since it is a type of income of the enterprise.
Davis, Joseph M.
This booklet offers guidelines by which a person can make an informed decision about whether buying or renting a house is the best individual alternative. Advantages and disadvantages of both buying and renting are listed. Cost considerations are discussed and compared along with such considerations as selection of the time to buy and estimation…
... SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES... Fair Market Rents for Existing Housing, except that they may be exceeded by: (1) Up to 10 percent if... 75 percent of the published Section 8 Fair Market Rents for New Construction, which limitation may be...
Full Text Available The status rent and conditions of its appearance are characterized in new developing economy by the position of new political economy. The bases of the general theory of rent were laid by classicists of political economy (F. Cene, A. Smith, J. Anderson, J. Mill, T. Maltus, D. Ricardo, K. Marx. They differentiated the rare rent (natural, absolute rent and differential land rent. Neoclassicists widened the definition of rent understanding it as income from any productive factor not only from land. Mostly, investigators of rent keep to two main postulates. Firstly, it is over profit, the income of special kind connected with using of exclusive, limited or rare goods for some time. Secondly, the rent is owned by the owners of these goods. These statements belonging to the natural rent can be used for the analysis of others, unnatural kinds of rent. The status rent belongs here. Let us analyze the status rent from the position of new political economy. As old political economy the new one also has its object - economic relations in the society and it call for the opening of deep, important processes of economic life. But by contrast with old political economy the new one, firstly, is based on other methodology (institutional economy, the theory of social choice, system approach; secondly, it studies economic relations not as static (the position of different classes, but as dynamic in economic behavior; thirdly, it is not confrontational: economic relations are understood not as antagonistic with non-avoidance of social cataclysm but as conflict-compromising; fourthly, it operates not only with social aggregates (class, country, social group, but it is also directed to a person, his/her freedom of choice in economic behavior; and, finally, fifthly, it overcomes the past careful marking out of other sciences, and, on the contrary, strives for an interdisciplinary approach in the stream of modern institutionalism including the problems of sociology
... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.506 Negotiating rent to owner. The owner and the family negotiate the rent to owner. At the...
Cadan, K. (Federalni Ministerstvo Paliv a Energetiky, Prague (Czechoslovakia))
Reviews historical concept of ground rents with reference to works of Adam Smith and David Ricardo and to 19th century capitalism and Marxism-Leninism. Asks whether mine rents can exist under a socialist system and examines theoretical basis for mine rents, which includes socio-economic aspects, geological conditions, proximity to markets and environmental considerations. Compares mine rents with agricultural land rents and analyzes value of end product (coal) and effect of pricing method on it. Explains pricing system in Czechoslovakia, which involves 3 groupings: coking coal, coke and energy coal (including briquets), the price of each of which is set according to average costs and geological conditions. Surplus revenue (or positive mine rent) only arises therefore at mines where the production costs are lower than fixed trade prices. Discusses in general terms application of new economic system (perestroika) to concept of mine rent and assessment of mine profitability and concludes that method of pricing solid fuels will play a decisive role. 4 refs.
Andersen, Jørgen Juel; Johannesen, Niels; Lassen, David Dreyer
Do political institutions limit rent seeking by politicians? We study the transformation of petroleum rents, almost universally under direct government control, into hidden wealth using unique data on bank deposits in offshore financial centers that specialize in secrecy and asset protection. Our...... rulers is diverted to secret accounts. We find very limited evidence that shocks to other types of income not directly controlled by governments affect hidden wealth....
... 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH...-Basic Policies § 882.408 Initial contract rents. (a) Fair Market Rent limitation. The Fair Market Rent Schedule for Moderate Rehabilitation is 120 percent of the Existing Housing Fair Market Rent Schedule...
Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Selvik, Kjetil
In countries with poorly developed institutions, rent seeking may impose serious costs for the economy. Our analysis demonstrates how rent seeking distorts the economy through two channels. First, there is the direct cost of the resources wasted in the rent seeking contest. Second, rent seeking distorts firms’ investment decisions, and leads to underinvestment. We conduct a case study of rent seeking in Iran in order to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon. Iran is ...
... PROGRAM) SECTION 8 MODERATE REHABILITATION PROGRAMS Special Procedures for Moderate Rehabilitation-Basic... Annual Adjustment Factor by the base rents. However, if the amounts borrowed to finance the rehabilitation costs or to finance purchase of the property are subject to a variable rate or are otherwise...
Amundsen, Eirik S.
The paper considers the effects of introducing large scale gas power production capacity into an electricity sector based on hydropower. In this process the economic rent is transmitted from the hydro power sector to the resource rent in the gas power sector, but is along the way intermingled with ordinary producer surplus and quasi-rent stemming from increasing cost conditions in the production infrastructure and capacity constraints. The net effect on total rent generated depends on development in demand, demand elasticities, costs saved from delaying hydropower projects and the existence of producer surplus in gas power generation. The paper closes with a discussion of possible tax base changes following from the introduction of a thermal power system based on natural gas
Ali, Suhaila; Aziz, Abdul Rashid Abdul
This paper reviews the literature on rent-seeking behaviors in property development, and discusses three major areas: (1) definition and concept of rent-seeking; (2) factors for the rent-seeking behavior appeared; and (3) the impact of rent-seeking behaviors, particularly on property development. In general, there is no exact word that can define what rent-seeking is. It is found that from the reviewed studies that a few researches have adopted search tasks to predict rent-seeking behavior effects in the economy and the respective economic performance. Based on the findings of the review, rent-seeking behavior increases social cost and this might lead to problems such as corruption. This paper paves the way for future studies in examining rent-seeking behaviors in the Malaysian property development, especially for targeted actions to be taken to alleviate upward pressure on home prices.
Lisichko Andriyana M.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching the concept of forest rent as an object of economic analysis. The essence of the concept of «forest rent» has been researched. It has been defined that the forest rent is the object of management of the forest complex of Ukraine as a whole and forest enterprises in particular. Rent for special use of forest resources is the object of interest om the part of both the State and the corporate sector, because its value depends on the cost of timber for industry and households. Works of scholars on classification of rents were studied. It has been determined that the rent for specialized use of forest resources is a special kind of natural rent. The structure of constituents in the system of rent relations in the forest sector has been defined in accordance with provisions of the tax code of Ukraine.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.35 Section 6.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Renting display space. The renting of display space by an industry member at a retail establishment...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.56 Section 6.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Distribution Service § 6.56 Renting display space. A promotion whereby an industry member rents display space...
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Payment to Owner § 983.353 Tenant rent; payment to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tenant rent; payment to owner. 983... owner. (b) Tenant payment to owner. (1) The family is responsible for paying the tenant rent (total...
Austvik, Ole Gunnar
In petroleum producing countries it has been a prevailing opinion that a resource rent should be earned by petroleum producers due to the commodities' non-renewable nature. An important element in this logic is that the supply of oil and natural gas is limited to relatively few places in the world. As the resources are exploited, the remaining reserves are reduced. What is extracted today cannot be extracted tomorrow. Rationing of the scarce resource takes place through pricing mechanisms. Due to the scarcity the consumers must pay a higher price than the marginal production costs, so that the amounts supplied and demanded become equal. Most producers of oil and gas and not just the ones that produce the cheapest, have therefore until now earned an economic rent
Banfi, Silvia; Filippini, Massimo; Mueller, Adrian
The electricity generation in Switzerland is mostly based on hydropower (∼58%) and nuclear power (∼38%). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant economic rent. One possibility to capture this rent is through royalties or fees. This system has been used in Switzerland since many decades. However, the actual water fee system is not flexible and does not take into consideration different production costs between the type and location of hydropower plants. Furthermore, storage plants can sell electricity to a higher price than run-of-river plants. A flexible system is needed in a liberalized electricity market, to take into account these different production situations and the fact that prices may vary considerably over time. The main goal of this paper is to calculate the potential economic rent that could be generated in the Swiss hydropower sector under a future liberalized market. Based on the results of the paper, it can be concluded that the introduction of a flexible fee system could improve the competitiveness of the hydropower sector and promote an energy system based on renewable energy sources
Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan
"protection" and "specialization" rents. In particular, wage inequality among similar workers (residual wage inequality) may be U-shaped, at first decreasing and then increasing in the process of product market integration. Consequently, there may be gains in both the efficiency and the equity dimension until......Globalization in the form of product market integration affects labour markets and produces winners and losers. While there are aggregate gains, it is in general ambiguous how inequality is affected. We explore this issue in a Ricardian model and show that it depends on the balance between...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC) and...
Theodore M. Crone; Leonard I. Nakamura; Richard Voith
Until the end of 1977, the method used in the U.S. consumer price index (CPI) to measure rent inflation tended to omit rent increases when units had a change of tenants or were vacant. Since such units typically had more rapid increases in rents than average units, this response bias biased inflation estimates downward. Beginning in 1978, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) implemented a series of methodological changes that reduced response bias but substantial bias remained until 1985. We ...
We report an experiment designed to evaluate the impact of loss aversion on rent-seeking contests. We find, as theoretically predicted, a negative relationship between rent-seeking expenditures and loss aversion. However, for any degree of loss aversion, levels of rent-seeking expenditure are higher than predicted. Moreover, we find that the effect of loss aversion becomes weaker with repetition of the contest.
Patlatoy Oleksandr Ye.
Full Text Available The article is concerned with studying the economic content of the categories of «rent» and «quasi-rent», classification of their main forms arising in terms of relationships in the science and innovation sphere, and analyzing the specificity of formation of these incomes in conditions of contemporary innovation economy. The content of the category of «rent» as a form of income arising from the relationship of at least three entities has been revised; in the case of a scientific-innovation rent, it is the holder of a patent or a license holder, an industrial capitalist or an employee who creates a new or improved product; in some cases, the fourth entity of rent may be a hired researcher. In this relationship, the additional income earned by entrepreneurs in the event of commercial success has been defined as technological (innovation quasi-rent, which can change inversely proportional to the scientific-innovation rent. It has been proved that countries with innovation economies, acting as the main recipients of scientific-innovation rents, may concede to the technological quasi-rent of the less developed countries, in particular, to China.
Full Text Available There is the urgent necessity of the transition to a higher level of economic relations in the system of environmental management in the present conditions of economy of the country. As a result, the issues like formation of information support for water rent management, determining the ways of its calculation, distribution as well as usage of water rents require urgent solutions. The study focuses on the essence of water rent and forming organizational and methodological provisions of its accounting reflection to ensure sustainable ecological and economic development of the enterprise. As a result of research the classification of water rent, that affects reflection of such rent in accounting has been formed. It is established that the amount of water rent for accounting reflection can be defined as the difference between actual and normal profit of enterprise-water users. A number of analytical accounts of first and second order as well as the typical correspondence of accounts for accounting reflection of water rent have been suggested. The information from the Report on the formation of water rent that contains data on the sources of payback of expenses incurred for the maintenance of water bodies and the impact of ecological condition of water body on the size of water rent has been suggested to be used in order to manage the size of water rent and expenses incurred to obtain it. Thus, determining the amount of water rent will allow management personnel to adjust the activity of the company in accordance with the strategic objectives of the company’s development regarding the profitability and compliance with the concept of sustainable development.
Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing..., SECTION 202 DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM, SECTION 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811... MARKET RENTS AND CONTRACT RENT ANNUAL ADJUSTMENT FACTORS Fair Market Rents § 888.115 Fair market rents...
... section. Except for financial hardship cases as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, the family may... on the market rent charged for comparable units in the private unassisted rental market. It is equal... determine the flat rent, the PHA must consider: (i) The location, quality, size, unit type and age of the...
Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob
We examine whether governments' natural resource rents are affected by upcoming elections and if so, whether the incumbent uses these additional rents for re-election purposes. Estimates of a dynamic panel model for about 60 countries for 1975-2011 suggest that elections increase natural resource
Klomp, Jeroen; Haan, de Jakob
We examine whether governments' natural resource rents are affected by upcoming elections and if so, whether the incumbent uses these additional rents for re-election purposes. Estimates of a dynamic panel model for about 60 countries for 1975-2011 suggest that elections increase natural resource
Politicians and businessmen use various strategies to outwit their opponents. One such strategy is crowd renting, a powerful virtual strategy. A mathematical model developed by Nwobi-Okoye using game theory is used to show that crowd renting would always be the equilibrium strategy in strategic interactions involving ...
Tempelmans Plat, H.; Witting, S.
Office rents are not sufficient to compensate for the costs of the continuation of the exploitation process in the long run. Together with the book profit at the moment of sale, the rent may be sufficient merely to give a reasonable return on the historical investment. Viewing the exploitation
Knox, G.A.H.; Eliashberg, J.
In this paper, we focus on the perspective and business model of the rentailer — a retail outlet that rents and sells new and used home video titles. This requires predicting the consumer's decision to rent or buy a particular title, segmenting its customer base, and pricing new and used titles. We
Peer-to-peer platforms such as airbnb have recently entered the market thanks to the development of new technologies and their influence on traditional markets remains still understudied. Similarly, the multiplicity of local regulations adopted by big touristic cities in developed countries shows a lack of consensus both on the consequences and on the role of regulation. However, the actual impact of airbnb’s market entry on rents remains still unknown. I assess the causal impact of the begin...
Design engineering educations often struggle to accommodate a highly diverse group of students as it combines an equally diverse range of topics in one education. This paper investigates how a specific course, Mathematics and Form, integrates two distinct areas into one course with the aim of fac...... shapes and form, whereas other types of students do not. The results thereby underpin that learning is typically based on individual preferences and that cross-disciplinary educational programmes have to accommodate this....... of facilitating learning across this diverse group of students. The paper is based on a survey with 99 former participants of the course as respondents. The results of the survey imply that certain types of students benefit from the combination of mathematical theory and practical exercises related to basic...
Full Text Available In ecotourism, as a specific form of tourism, conscientious individuals and groups participate, who by its influence on nature are trying to reduce effects produced by so called mass tourism. Ecotourism product should be developed on the contemporary tourism trends, with full respect of local specificity which represent commitment in regard to competitive destinations. Existence of receptive factors, such as facilities for accommodation, nutrition, entertainment and recreation, represent one of the basic prerequisites for the development of any ecotourism destination. Ecotourists seek accommodation which is ecologically acceptable, modest but cozy at the same time and provides unique experience in natural surroundings. In accordance with these demands protected areas all around the world offer its visitors high quality Ecolodge facilities, which are fully submerged into nature. During their construction and management strict criteria of protection of the environment are followed with optimal waste and energy management. Montenegro has enviable spacious potential for this kind of accommodation in protected areas, especially in its five national parks, so this form of accommodation has to find its place in the future development of tourism. Designing and construction of ecotourism facilities has to be strategically planned and the fact, that it is not enough just to have attractive location but also specific content it has to offer, has to be respected. Ecolodge facilities should be designed and built in accordance with traditional architecture and surrounding materials, to influence as little as possible on the environment and to use alternative energy sources. In other words, it is necessary to provide sustainability of these facilities.
Uno, Tsuyoshi; Okuyama, Michiko; Tanabe, Tatsuro; Kawamura, Ryosuke; Ideta, Hidenao
To investigate the effects of peripheral retinal cryotherapy on accommodative amplitude in patients with retinal lattice degeneration. Prospective, observational case series. We studied 92 eyes in 69 patients (age range, 13 to 79 years) treated with cryotherapy for lattice degeneration between December 2001 and September 2004. Pretreatment and posttreatment accommodative amplitudes were measured. Acute accommodative loss was calculated from the difference between accommodative amplitudes before treatment and one week after treatment. We investigated the time course of accommodative amplitudes, acute accommodative loss in different age groups and in pretreatment accommodative amplitude groups, the influence of cryotherapy numbers on accommodative amplitude, and the influence of cryotherapy sites on accommodative amplitude. No significant difference was noted between pretreatment and posttreatment accommodative amplitudes in the overall subject cohort. Dividing subjects by age revealed significant decreases in accommodative amplitude only among patients in their 10s and 20s at one and three weeks after treatment. Accommodative amplitude was lowest among those in their 10s, followed by that among those in their 20s (P < .01). Accommodative amplitudes recovered to pretreatment level by six weeks. Acute accommodative loss was greatest in those in their 10s compared with other age groups (P < .01). A significant correlation was observed between acute accommodative loss and cryotherapy numbers (P = .03; r = 0.41). The decrease in accommodative amplitude was greatest at one week after treatment and recovered to pretreatment levels after six weeks. Accommodative amplitude showed the greatest decrease after cryotherapy among patients in their 10s and 20s. A decrease in accommodative amplitude was observed with increased numbers of cryotherapy spots administered.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on the application of neural networks modelling of municipal real estate market rent rates. The test procedure was based on selected networks trained on the local real estate market data and transformation of the detected dependencies – through established models – to estimate the potential market rent rates of municipal premises. On this basis, the assessment of the adequacy of the actual market rent rates of municipal properties was made. Empirical research was conducted on the local real estate market of the city of Olsztyn in Poland. In order to describe the phenomenon of market rent rates formation an unidirectional three-layer network and a network of radial base was selected. Analyses showed a relatively low degree of convergence of the actual municipal rent rents with potential market rent rates. This degree was strongly varied depending on the type of business ran on the property and its’ social and economic impact. The applied research methodology and the obtained results can be used in order to rationalize municipal property management, including the activation of rental policy.
Full Text Available The institution of property rights is increasingly being recognized as an essential building block of an economically prosperous society. The question that remains unanswered however, is how do we develop effective property rights institutions? The literature dealing with the development of property rights tends to be, in general, overly optimistic since there is a tendency to view the design of property rights institutions as optimizing decisions to economize on transaction costs and to facilitate new economic activities. On the other hand, since property rights define the distribution of wealth and political power in a society changes in property rights structures are likely to be influenced by more than pure efficiency considerations. Therefore, in order to achieve a balanced analysis of the evolution of property rights institutions our article introduces the state in the whole process. Following the propositions of the interest group theory of government we show an important relationship between rent seeking and state involvement in property rights creation. The state with a coercive power to establish and enforce property rights can also use that power, through the process of economic regulation, to redistribute property rights to politically influential interest groups. Herein lies the state failure in property rights creation.
Full Text Available Authors analyses available position of more full distribution of natural rents from obtaining business to State for decision many socio-economic problem in scientific and journalistic literature. With position of civil law they reveal fact that present-day appropriation of State minerals which become property of extracting enterprises show the legal nonsense. This fact is contradict current legislation. Instead of function point of view about forms of rent withdrawal from income obtaining enterprises authoress thinking that the most lawful and fair way of receipt natural rent by State like owner of minerals is contractor’s agreement on extraction minerals.
The aim of this thesis is to create a business plan focused on the rent of the house which might be built in Ostrava-Vitkovice. It analyses 2 renting possibilities-flats for senior residents or rooms for tourists. The aim of the work is to find out if it makes sense to built that house. The work compares both renting options and evaluate the most viable and effective one. In the introduction there are described methodics which are used and discussed subsequently in the practical part. In the ...
Amundsen, E.S.; Tjoetta, Sigve
Norway is about to reorganize its electricity production sector from a predominantly administered one to one which is based on market prices and principles of efficiency. The objective of this paper is to model the energy sector and to measure the size of hydro rent before and after the reorganization. We construct a regionally diversified and integrated equilibrium model of production, transmission and distribution of hydroelectricity. Particular attention is paid to the role of precipitation variability for the size and regional variation of hydro rent. We consider alternative routes for assessing the size of hydro rent in a long-run perspective. (author)
D’Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.
This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within healthcare interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results...
This article investigates the background of Soviet industrial design in Soviet art theory. Instead of considering design's interconnection with technology and science, or with consumption and everyday life, the author traces its conceptualisation as a new artistic phenomenon. Using archival records...... of professional discussions, polemical articles in the art press and design projects, the author looks at how industrial design was incorporated into the Soviet order of things. She concludes that accommodation of the Western model was the way to reform the system of socialism from inside, typical for the Soviet...
Spasm of accommodation refers to prolonged contraction of the ciliary muscle, most commonly causing pseudomyopia to varying degrees in both eyes by keeping the lens in a state of short sightedness. It may also be manifested as inability to allow the adaptation spasticity prevailing in the ciliary muscle relax without measurable myopia. As a rule, this is a functional ailment triggered by prolonged near work and stress. The most common symptoms include blurring of distance vision, varying visual acuity as well as pains in the orbital region and the head, progressing into a chronic state. Cycloplegic eye drops are used as the treatment.
... 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH... and do not exceed 120 percent of the most recently published Section 8 Fair Market Rents for Existing...
Hotopp, Henning; Mußhoff, Oliver
Risk management is gaining importance in agriculture. In addition to traditional instruments, new risk management instruments are increasingly being proposed. These proposals include the rent adjustment clauses (RACs), which seem to be an unusual instrument at first sight. In contrast with conventional instruments, RACs intentionally allow fixed-cost â€˜rent paymentsâ€™ to fluctuate. We investigate the whole-farm risk reduction potential of different types of RACs via a historical simulation....
Sabatini, Fabio; Sarracino, Francesco; Yamamura, Eiji
Empirical studies have shown that preferences for redistribution are sig- nificantly correlated with expectations of future mobility and the belief that society offers equal opportunities. We add to previous research by inves- tigating the role of individual and social norms on rent seeking. We find that the individual propensity for stigmatizing rent seeking significantly and positively affects preferences for redistribution. On the other hand, living in an area where most citizens do not st...
This thesis focuses on the industry wage differentials, rent-sharing and the gender wage gap. I empirically investigate: i) the interaction between inter-industry wage differentials and the gender wage gap in six European countries, ii) how rent sharing interacts with the gender wage gap in the Belgian private sector and iii) the existence of inter-industry wage differentials in Belgium, through the unobserved ability hypothesis.The first chapter is devoted to the analysis of the interaction ...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset and map service provides information on Fair Market Rents (FMRs). FMRs are primarily used to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice...
... without receiving fair market value rent? 18.5 Section 18.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... leased without receiving fair market value rent? Property may be leased under this part only if the lease requires payment of rent to the government equal to or higher than the property's fair market value rent...
Keppler, Jan Horst; Cruciani, Michel
The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) has imposed a price on the allowances for CO 2 emissions of electricity companies. Integrating this allowance price into the price of electricity earns a rent for companies who have received these allowances for free. During Phase I, 2005-2007, rents corresponding to the aggregate value of allocated allowances amounted to roughly EUR 13 billion per year. However, due to the specific price-setting mechanism in electricity markets true rents were considerably higher. This is due to the fact that companies also that have not received any allowances gain additional infra-marginal rents to the extent that their variable costs are below the new market price after inclusion of the allowance price. Producers with low carbon emissions and low marginal costs thus also benefit substantially from carbon pricing. This paper develops a methodology to determine the specific interaction of the imposition of such a CO 2 constraint and the price-setting mechanism in the electricity sector under the assumption of marginal cost pricing in a liberalized European electricity market. The article thus provides an empirical estimate of the true total rents of power producers during Phase I of the EU-ETS (2005-2007). The EU ETS generated in Phase I additional rents in excess of EUR 19 billion per year for electricity producers. These transfers are distributed very unevenly between different electricity producers. In a second step, the paper assesses the impact of switching from free allocation to an auctioning of allowances in 2013. We show that such a switch to auctioning will continue to create additional infra-marginal rents for certain producers and will leave the electricity sector as a whole better off than before the introduction of the EU ETS. (author)
López-Gil, Norberto; Martin, Jesson; Liu, Tao; Bradley, Arthur; Díaz-Muñoz, David; Thibos, Larry N
We asked if retinal image quality is maximum during accommodation, or sub-optimal due to accommodative error, when subjects perform an acuity task. Subjects viewed a monochromatic (552 nm), high-contrast letter target placed at various viewing distances. Wavefront aberrations of the accommodating eye were measured near the endpoint of an acuity staircase paradigm. Refractive state, defined as the optimum target vergence for maximising retinal image quality, was computed by through-focus wavefront analysis to find the power of the virtual correcting lens that maximizes visual Strehl ratio. Despite changes in ocular aberrations and pupil size during binocular viewing, retinal image quality and visual acuity typically remain high for all target vergences. When accommodative errors lead to sub-optimal retinal image quality, acuity and measured image quality both decline. However, the effect of accommodation errors of on visual acuity are mitigated by pupillary constriction associated with accommodation and binocular convergence and also to binocular summation of dissimilar retinal image blur. Under monocular viewing conditions some subjects displayed significant accommodative lag that reduced visual performance, an effect that was exacerbated by pharmacological dilation of the pupil. Spurious measurement of accommodative error can be avoided when the image quality metric used to determine refractive state is compatible with the focusing criteria used by the visual system to control accommodation. Real focusing errors of the accommodating eye do not necessarily produce a reliably measurable loss of image quality or clinically significant loss of visual performance, probably because of increased depth-of-focus due to pupil constriction. When retinal image quality is close to maximum achievable (given the eye's higher-order aberrations), acuity is also near maximum. A combination of accommodative lag, reduced image quality, and reduced visual function may be a useful
This article explains the three components of eBooks: an eBook file, software to read the eBook, and a hardware device to read it on. The use of eBooks for students with special needs, the advantages of eBooks, built in accommodations, and creating accommodations are discussed. EBook resources are included. (Contains references.) (CR)
This paper analyses issues in resource rent through a case study of the Canadian coal industry. A model of the coal industry is constructed to estimate the magnitude of rent and distribution of coal rent between government and industry over the 30-year period from 1970 to 2000. Disaggregation of results by coal sector shows that rent varied widely, with one sector generating substantial rent and other sectors incurring large losses. The pattern of development of the coal sector followed what can be termed a 'rent dissipation cycle' in which the generation of rent in the profitable sector created excessively optimistic expectations that encouraged new entrants to dissipate rent by developing uneconomic capacity. The analysis also shows that the system used to collect rent was ineffective. The public owner collected only one-third of the rent on the profitable mines and collected royalty revenue from the unprofitable mines even though no rent was generated. The case study illustrates that improvements in private sector planning based on a better appreciation of resource market fundamentals, elimination of government subsidies that encourage uneconomic expansion and more effective rent collection are all needed to avoid rent dissipation and increase the benefits of energy development in producing jurisdictions. The study also illustrates that estimates of rent in the resource sector should disaggregate results by sector and make adjustments for market imperfections to accurately assess the magnitude of potential rent
Dennis Davis; Raphael Kaplinsky; Mike Morris
This paper addresses the generation of rents and the distribution of gains in the global operations of governed Global Value Chains (GVCs) and seeks to provide an architecture for analyzing the governance of GVCs. It distinguishes between four sets of rent—gifts of nature; innovation rents; exogenously defined rents; and market power—and three spheres of governance—setting the rules -“legislative governance”; implementing the rules -“executive governance”; and mo...
A.A. Gde Putra Pemayun
Full Text Available This present study was intended to analyze the Life Style of the Rented Land Owners at Ubud Subdistrict. The problems of the study are formulated as follows: (1 what is the characteristic of the rented land owners at Ubud Subdistrict like? (2 How has the process of life style of the rented land owners at Ubud Subdistrict taken place? And (3 what is the implication of the life style of the rented land owners on their lives? Qualitative method was employed in the study. The data were processed using observation, interview and documentary techniques. The workability of the law regulating the demand for land at Ubud Subdistrict motivated the land owners to rent out their land to investors. Apart from that, the internal dimension, which is made up of the economical capital, was the most important element as it could activate small, medium and big enterprises. Another aspect was image which was reflected through perception, cognition, motivation, and attitude of individuals as consumers. As an illustration, they built luxurious houses and showed off luxurious cars to show the image that they were new wealthy people. On the other hand, there was external dimension, namely, the highly rapid development of tourism, which could positively and negatively contribute to the life style of the people living at Ubud Subdistrict. Such an implication could not be avoided. The other aspect was consumerism; the consumers were around the symbol and sign. Mass media were the miracles of the object liturgy; pleasure was defined as the realization of freedom, and the human body was the main object of consumers. The last aspect was the government’s policy which determined that Ubud Subdistrict was a tourist destination. As a result, the local people had the opportunity to rent out their land which was used to expand the industry of tourism and to activate the other economic enterprises.
Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard
We investigate the predictive power of the rent-to-price ratio for future real estate returns and rent growth in 18 OECD countries over the period 1970 to 2011. First, we document that in most countries returns are signi…cantly predictable by the rent-price ratio. An increase (decrease...... dependent on whether returns and rents are measured in nominal or real terms. Finally, there is some evidence of sub-sample instability in the predictive patterns, especially wrt. rent growth predictability. The predictability tests are conducted within a restricted VAR framework based on the dynamic Gordon...
Satou, Tsukasa; Ito, Misae; Shinomiya, Yuma; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Hara, Naoto; Niida, Takahiro
To investigate differences in the stimulus accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio using various techniques and accommodative stimuli, and to describe a method for determining the stimulus AC/A ratio. A total of 81 subjects with a mean age of 21 years (range, 20-23 years) were enrolled. The relationship between ocular deviation and accommodation was assessed using two methods. Ocular deviation was measured by varying the accommodative requirement using spherical plus/minus lenses to create an accommodative stimulus of 10.00 diopters (D) (in 1.00 D steps). Ocular deviation was assessed using the alternate prism cover test in method 1 at distance (5 m) and near (1/3 m), and the major amblyoscope in method 2. The stimulus AC/A ratios obtained using methods 1 and 2 were calculated and defined as the stimulus AC/A ratios with low and high accommodation, respectively, using the following analysis method. The former was calculated as the difference between the convergence response to an accommodative stimulus of 3 D and 0 D, divided by 3. The latter was calculated as the difference between the convergence response to a maximum (max) accommodative stimulus with distinct vision of the subject and an accommodative stimulus of max minus 3.00 D, divided by 3. The median stimulus AC/A ratio with low accommodation (1.0 Δ/D for method 1 at distance, 2.0 Δ/D for method 1 at near, and 2.7 Δ/D for method 2) differed significantly among the measurement methods (P accommodation (4.0 Δ/D for method 1 at distance, 3.7 Δ/D for method 1 at near, and 4.7 Δ/D for method 2) between method 1 at distance and method 2 were statistically significant (P accommodative stimuli. However, differences caused by measurement technique may be reduced by using a high accommodative stimulus during measurements.
Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 21. sept. lk. 12. Tootmis- ja laopindade rent Baltimaades ja Soomes. Vt. samas: Tallinnas lao- ning tootmispinnad poolaastaga kallinenud kuni 37%; Helsingis on kõige rohkem tõusnud C-kvaliteediklassi pinnad; Tartu piirkonnas enamik saadaolevaid pindu keskmises või halvas seisukorras
Lennartz, C.; Haffner, M.E.A.; Oxley, M.J.
When policy makers claim that rented housing has to become more competitive, there is no consensus on what competition in this context actually means. The same holds true for scientific housing research: Theories that have utilized the economic concept of competition tend to rely on implicit
We consider a two-stage model of a Tullock rent-seeking contest where one new potential entrant makes his appearance. In the first stage each other player can contribute to bribe this new player to commit not to enter the contest. In the second stage we have the actual contest either with or without
Thampapillai, Dodo J.; Hansen, Jan; Bolat, Aigerim
Economies rich in mineral resources, need to evaluate the merits of investing rents earned from resource extraction in other income generating activities to sustain the flow of income. It is hence important to estimate and assess the potential uses of the resource rent tax (RRT). This paper illustrates how the reinvestment of the RRT and other government revenue from mining can reduce the depreciation of the mine. This illustration is made with reference to a coal deposit in the Tavan-Tolgoi region of Mongolia. The paper also illustrates impact of mining on the macroeconomic performance of Mongolia. Standard macroeconomic frameworks that ignore the depreciation of mineral assets overstate economic performance. The paper also reviews the political issues and constraints that surround the implementation of the RRT. One option canvassed here is the granting of qualified custodial rights of the RRT to the mining firm. Such qualified rights are pertinent given that the RRT is legally the income owed to the State and investments in ventures such as human capital development can yield returns as high as 10% per annum. This study illustrates that even an investment option yielding an annual 3% return can make a significant difference. - Highlights: • We estimate resource rents owed to the state from energy resource extraction. • We show that mining revenues are over-stated when the depreciation of mineral assets are ignored. • We show that the investment of resource rents offers avenues for sustaining the flow of income. • We argue that the state can grant custody of the rents to mining firms for the management of investments
... the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent Demonstration Program Participants... Authorities (PHAs) participating in the Small Area FMR Demonstration. SUMMARY: Section 8(c)(1) of the United... Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program for those PHAs selected to participate in the Small Area FMR...
..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.520 Regular tenancy: Special adjustment of rent to owner. (a...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are primarily used to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice Voucher program, to determine initial renewal rents for some...
Keyhani, M; Levesque, M.; Madhok, A.
While strategy theory relies heavily on equilibrium theories of economic rents such as Ricardian and monopoly rents, we do not yet have a comprehensive theory of disequilibrium or entrepreneurial rents. We use cooperative game theory to structure computer simulations of the market process in which
... owned space provided by GSA is based on market appraisals of fully serviced rental values for the..., and security charges are calculated separately and added to the appraised shell Rent to establish the... addition to the shell Rent, the Rent includes amortization of TI allowances used, real estate taxes...
..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.519 Regular tenancy: Annual adjustment of rent to owner. (a... rent to owner will only be increased for housing assistance payments covering months commencing on the...
This paper aims to investigate the influential factors of Chinese young consumers’ rent-versus-buy housing decisions before marriage, and thus to explain why most Chinese consumers prefer housing ownership to renting or even regard an own-occupied housing as a prerequisite of marriage. The research was based on rich literatures concerning rent-versus-buy housing decisions and consumer decision making theory. A qualitative approach was adopted to conduct the research to gain in-depth insight o...
Full Text Available Tourism is extremely interacted with the environment. Taking into account that tourism uses the space and related resources, it seems right to pay for the damages caused to the environment. This is the basis of the tourist spatial eco rent. The paper evaluates the space and resources used by tourism as the basis for the introduction of the tourism eco-rent in the area of Makarska Riviera, a traditional tourism destination. It is divided into three main spatial units: urban areas, bathing zone (beaches, Biokovo Park of Nature. According to natural and geographical reasoning, a number of zones with different spatial values within each spatial unit has been identified. Each unit, i.e. zone was evaluated according to various criteria relevant to the evaluation of space for tourism and tourism development purposes. Having ranked zones within each unit, using the multiriteria ranking method PROMETHEE II, comparative analysis of the obtained results was carried out as well.
Glenn Jenkins; RICHARD ZUKER
In this study, an attempt is made to develop estimates of the value of economic rent from production of hydro-electricity. These estimates are made for the year 1979, which is the latest period for which a comprehensive set of data was available at the time this work was undertaken. The estimates are developed for the hydro-electricity generated (or used) by electric utilities in four provinces: Quebec (including Churchill Falls), Ontario, Manitoba and British Columbia. These electric systems...
Full Text Available In the paper we analyse a model for determining the optimal licensing contract in both situations of symmetric and asymmetric information between the license’s owner and the potential buyer. Next we present another way of solving the corresponding adverse selection model, using the informational rents as variables. This approach is different from that of Macho-Stadler and Perez-Castrillo.
Matano, Alessia; Naticchioni, Paolo
In this paper we show that rent sharing plays a role in accounting for the glass ceiling effect. We make use of a unique employer-employee panel database for Italy from 1996 to 2003, which allows controlling for observed individual and firm heterogeneity and for collective bargaining. Moreover, by means of IV quantile fixed effects estimates we can cope with unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity. We then go on to discuss the possible related explanations.
Takada, Masumi; Miyao, Masaru; Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Takada, Hiroki
By relaxing the contracted focus-adjustment muscles around the eyeball, known as the ciliary and extraocular muscles, the degree of pseudomyopia can be reduced. This understanding has led to accommodation training in which a visual target is presented in stereoscopic video clips. However, it has been pointed out that motion sickness can be induced by viewing stereoscopic video clips. In Measurement 1 of the present study, we verified whether the new 3D technology reduced the severity of motion sickness in accordance with stabilometry. We then evaluated the short-term effects of accommodation training using new stereoscopic video clips on foreign workers (11 females) suffering from eye fatigue in Measurement 2. The foreign workers were trained for three days. As a result, visual acuity was statistically improved by continuous accommodation training, which will help promote ciliary muscle stretching.
Ipe, V.C.; Bhagwat, S.B.
Chicago and its suburbs are experiencing an increasing demand for water from a growing population and economy and may experience water scarcity in the near future. The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly depleted its groundwater resources to a point where interstate conflicts with Wisconsin could accompany an increased reliance on those sources. Further, the withdrawals from Lake Michigan is limited by the Supreme Court decree. The growing demand and indications of possible scarcity suggest a need to reexamine the pricing policies and the dynamics of demand. The study analyses the demand for water and develops estimates of scarcity rents for water in Chicago. The price and income elasticities computed at the means are -0.002 and 0.0002 respectively. The estimated scarcity rents ranges from $0.98 to $1.17 per thousand gallons. The results indicate that the current prices do not fully account for the scarcity rents and suggest a current rate with in the range $1.53 to $1.72 per thousand gallons.
as a diffuse resource with low economic value, this categorization may no longer be appropriate, because demand for land is currently on the rise, and may continue to increase in the future. This study presents and discusses recent theoretical and empirical approaches to analyzing the effects of high......-value agricultural land on rent seeking and rent distribution. Results suggest that the potential for small scale farmers to organize and obtain political power determines the extent of rent seeking and rent distribution, and that while more democratic institutions may increase the share of rents going...
Full Text Available This paper addresses the generation of rents and the distribution of gains in the global operations of governed Global Value Chains (GVCs and seeks to provide an architecture for analyzing the governance of GVCs. It distinguishes between four sets of rent—gifts of nature; innovation rents; exogenously defined rents; and market power—and three spheres of governance—setting the rules -“legislative governance”; implementing the rules -“executive governance”; and monitoring rules and sanctioning malfeasance -“judicial governance.” The exercise of governance power in GVCs over the generation, protection and appropriation of rents is considered though the lens of four sets of key GVC stakeholders—the corporate sector, civil society organizations, the nation state and supranational institutions. This general analysis is given flesh through three case studies: food-safety standards in GVCs; taxation policies and competition policies. In these sectors, the corporate sector is generally much more effective in governing rent generation and appropriation in the global operations of GVCs than are the three sets of non-corporate stakeholders. From this observation we offer a hypothesis that the capacity of non-corporate stakeholders, including national states, to govern GVCs is contingent upon the extent to which this coincides with the interest of the corporate sector. However, as noted, this balance of power between private and non-corporate actors is a contested terrain and dynamic in nature.
Accommodation. The Academy has made arrangements to accommodate all participants who have requested for it. Details of accommodation have been sent to all registered participants. Volunteers at the airport will assist the participants in reaching their respective places of accommodation. For any queries ...
Examines the perceptual learning style preferences of sixth- and seventh-grade students in the Philippines. Finds that the visual modality was the most preferred and the auditory modality was the least preferred. Offers suggestions for accommodating visual, tactile, and kinesthetic preferences. (RS)
building investments have prompted high rental expectations. ..... and financing and delayed contractor payments as major bane of cost influence in ..... anxiety, tension and panicky emotions they exhibit when searching for accommodation.
H.J. Simonsz (Huib)
textabstractIn the June 1987 issue of the Archives, the results were published of a study by Kushner et al1 on the treatment of accommodative convergence excess, with bilateral medial rectus recessions or recessions with 14-mm posterior fixation sutures. Posterior fixation surgery was considered an
Jack M. Mintz
Full Text Available Oil price fluctuations, concerns over the division of resource revenues, and unconventional oil and gas developments are forcing governments to confront the same issue: how to design optimal royalty and corporate tax systems that bring in a publicly acceptable share of revenues without discouraging private investment. This paper surveys tax and royalty systems across six countries, as well as four US states and five Canadian provinces, offering concise analyses of their strengths and shortcomings to describe the best and simplest approaches to both. As in a public-private partnership, government owns the resources and allows private agents to maximize the rents resources generate. An optimal royalty system will thus be rent-based, ensuring that both owner and agent obtain maximally competitive returns so that each has incentives to continue the partnership. Such a system will also be simple, making compliance easy, manipulation difficult, and risks affordable. And it will be stable, instilling in the private sector the confidence needed to invest for the long term. As for corporate income taxes, they should be neutral across business activities, and applied at equal effective rates on economic income, to avoid distorting market forces through subsidies or needless complexity. A clean rent-based tax that allows all costs incurred by producers to be expensed or carried over, along with a corporate income tax system shorn of many of the preferences that negatively affect business activity, should be the way forward for any government looking to update their fiscal regimes for the 21st century.
or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.......Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...
L'objectif de ce projet est de comparer et contraster les différents systèmes réglementaires de transfusion sanguine dans le monde. Avec une demande toujours croissante sur des approvisionnements en sang dans le monde entier, il y - a un immense besoin d'assurer des produits sûrs et suffisants d'apport de sang. Cependant le cadre juridique pour un système de sang exprime la politique nationale de sang et décrit des mécanismes régissant la collection, le traitement et la transfusio...
Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul
The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...
Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard
This paper describes types, processes and importance of rent-seeking in the allocation of timber rights in Ghana. It is based on an analysis of 30 interviews with large-, medium- and small-scale timber firms, as well as government officials and timber industry organizations in Ghana. The paper...... documents that timber rights allocation is associated with both bureaucratic and political corruption. The latter comes in two forms. First, the findings suggest that well-established relationships exist between politicians and senior bureaucrats on the one side and large-scale timber firms on the other...
Kok, Nils; Jennen, Maarten
Energy consumption in the commercial property sector offers an important opportunity for conserving resources. In this study, we evaluate the financial implications of two elements of “sustainability” – energy efficiency and accessibility – in the market for commercial real estate. An empirical analysis of some 1100 leasing transactions in the Netherlands over the 2005–2010 period shows that buildings designated as inefficient (with an EU energy performance certificate D or worse) command rental levels that are some 6.5 percent lower as compared to energy efficient, but otherwise similar buildings (labeled A, B or C). Furthermore, this study shows that office buildings in multi-functional areas, with access to public transport and facilities, achieve rental premiums over mono-functional office districts. For policymakers, the results documented in this paper provide an indication on the effectiveness of the EU energy performance certificate as a market signal in the commercial property sector. The findings documented here are also relevant for investors in European office markets, as the importance of energy efficiency and locational diversification is bound to increase following stricter environmental regulation and changing tenant preferences. - Highlights: ► Built environment plays important role in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. ► Energy certification of buildings may increase transparency and awareness. ► Tenants pay lower rent for less efficient commercial office buildings. ► Accessibility important determinant of commercial office rents.
Rabah Arezki; Thorvaldur Gylfason
We examine the effect of the interaction between resource rents and democracy on corruption for a panel of 29 Sub-Saharan countries during the period from 1985 to 2007. We find that higher resource rents lead to more corruption and that the effect is significantly stronger in less democratic countries. Surprisingly, we also find that higher resource rents lead to fewer internal conflicts and that less democratic countries face not a higher but a lower likelihood of conflicts following an incr...
Massification of Higher Education and Students' Accommodation: The ... of students' accommodation at the University of Dar es salaam (UDSM) over the past 50 years. ... and the quality of learning, as well as the quality of students' life.
Remoy, H.T.; van der Voordt, D.J.M.
Purpose: When current accommodation is unsatisfactorily, office organisations consider relocating to new accommodation that optimally facilitate their main processes, supporting image and financial yield. However, due to high vacancy levels, public opinion and governmental awareness oppose new
Full Text Available The economic globalisation process makes the economic factors rotate faster. As a result the value added is intercepted by market mechanism and transferred to the economically stronger entities. That process concerns especially agriculture. There exists a crucial question whether an agricultural land factor is still capable to generate economic rents which would be the determinants of comparative advantages? On the one hand, D. Ricardo’s land rents are vanishing, H. George’s rents are provoking financial crisis, monetarists assumptions are becoming unsufficient, on the other, the land factor gains new environmental applications and there is still a hope that land rents have its origins in a real value. This paper aims at presenting the evolution of the land rents theory starting from classical economics. The author makes an attempt to answer the question if the land rent theories are still relevant and how land rent category can be implemented in agricul-tural policy of the UE? One formulates a hypothesis that the neoclassical theory of rent usually presented in economic textbooks is insufficient to describe reality reducing the sources of land rent to a low land supply flexibility and treating that as constant variable in economic models.
Full Text Available Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm.
Rutstein, Robert P
Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm. PMID:20534925
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A class...
including product market rents and the possibility that jobs may be relocated across national labour markets. Possibilities and threats, however, will not in general be uniformly distributed across firms and therefore groups in the labour market. These issues are explored in a Ricardian trade model......International product market integration enhances both export possibilities through easier access to foreign markets, but also the import threat arising from foreign firms penetrating into the domestic market. These mechanisms affect wage formation and employment creation through many channels...... with imperfect competition, heterogeneity in the labour market, and decentralized wage-bargaining. The Paper analyses how product market integration affects wage formation, and identifies characteristics of winners and losers in the integration process....
This paper starts with incredulity first. Whilst doing some research for this paper, I came across members of the top political elite from Zaire to Nigeria often taken as 'kleptocrat extraordinaire' to be also in the forefront in denoucing rennt-seeking and corruption with an equal extraordinaire...... on this dlemma in order to address how rent-seeking cleansing can be attempted to align the elites as part of the solution rather than the problem of African economic and political development.......' flair and completeness at the same time.Some might ignore their stance as cynical and self-servingg and move on to other concerns. Others might condemn the fadulent behaviour, add what one can expect anyway from such immoral and unethical characters and pass on to other things.... This paper reflects...
Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.
Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.
This article sets out to explain the ARENH mechanism, the regulated price at which the EDF (France's historic monopoly supplier) must sell part of its production to its competitors in the framework of the Nome Act (New Organisation of the Electricity Market). This price by its nature is different from the Current Economic Cost (CEC) of nuclear power, as estimated by France's Government Accounting Office in its report submitted in January 2012. These two approaches revert to the problem of the determination of the scarcity rent of nuclear power in the context of the liberalised European market, in which nuclear power benefits from a 'cost' advantage relative to thermal electricity generated from fossil fuels. Furthermore, scarcity rent is not the same thing as differential rent. Selling a nuclear kWh at the price of a 'gas' kWh at certain times results in a differential rent enabling nuclear generated power to cover fixed costs. One can only speak of scarcity rent for nuclear power when the price at which the kWh is sold allows the recovery of more than is necessary to cover overall costs of nuclear power and it is this scarcity rent and its allocation that is the subject of debate. (author)
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.521 Rent to owner in subsidized project. (a) Applicability to subsidized project. This section applies to a program tenancy in any of the following types of federally subsidized project...
..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Special Housing Types Manufactured Home Space Rental § 982.622 Manufactured home space rental: Rent to owner. (a) What is included. (1) Rent to owner for rental of a manufactured home space includes payment...
... Special Housing Types Shared Housing § 982.617 Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment. 982.617 Section 982.617 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...
... Special Housing Types Group Home § 982.613 Group home: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Group home: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment. 982.613 Section 982.613 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a recipient charge flat or income-adjusted rents? 1000.126 Section 1000.126 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... § 1000.126 May a recipient charge flat or income-adjusted rents? Yes, providing the rental or homebuyer...
Based on secondary data on 79 companies in Mekelle, Ethiopia, this paper investigates the influence of transaction cost and real option factors on firms' own or rent decision for building resources. Empirical results suggest that both transaction cost and option factors have significant influence on firms' own or rent decision.
Dobbelaere, Sabien; Mairesse, Jacques
The extent to which employers share rents with their employees is typically assessed by estimating the responsiveness of workers’ wages on firms’ ability to pay. This paper compares rent-sharing estimates using such a wage determination regression with estimates based on a productivity regression
This paper discusses the impact of central government's rent restructuring policy on social housing in rural areas in England. It examines the effect that restructuring will have on the rents set by social landlords in a set of case study areas then considers some of the likely impacts on affordability and on new investment in rural social…
... PROGRAM, SECTION 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET RENTS AND... Elderly or Handicapped, and Special Allocations Projects § 888.320 One-time Contract Rent determination...
... Information Collection: Transformation Initiative Rent Reform Demonstration Small Grants AGENCY: Office of... information: Title of Proposal: Notice of Funding Availability for the Transformation Initiative Rent Reform...-96011. Members of the affected public: Institutions of higher education accredited by a national or...
Full Text Available Using a unique employer-employee panel database, we investigate the extent of rent sharing in Italy from 1996 to 2003. We derive the following findings. First, after controlling for the national bargaining level, there is robust evidence of rent sharing at firm level. Second, by means of fixed effects estimates we show that the sorting of high-ability workers into high-profit firms appears to play a substantial role, since it captures a significant amount of cross sectional estimates of rent sharing. Third, in accordance to the related literature the endogeneity of profits causes a severe underestimation of rent sharing. Our final IV estimate of the elasticity of wages with respect to profits per employee amounts to 6%, with a "Lester" range of 24%. Moreover, we point out that the impact of rent sharing is not homogeneous across several dimensions (gender, occupation, sector and macroarea.
Nadezhda Sergeevna Zemlyanukhina
Full Text Available This is the first of three articles in cycle that is dedicated to the regional aspect of change of Russians life strategy in solving the important personal problems like provision of housing, acquisition of income in terms of the profession and merited pension maintenance in the context of the current and prospective changes. The first article concentrates on the solution of housing problem by young Russians and young families. The methods, which are accessible for the citizens of Saratov, were analyzed in terms of the hardest ways without privileges and government support: pledge, housing rent and deposit. The authors presented the digital data on comparison between the popular pledge of OJSC Sberbank and similar ones at the start conditions of housing rent and deposits. Theyve specified the possibility of the reducing time and the amount of payment of the purchased apartment from 20 years, where is the amount of overpayment is 1 850 498, to 4.5-7 years, altogether without overpayments. The basic risks when using discussed ways of the accommodation purchase were demonstrated and specific examples of risks in Saratov were given. There are no absolute priorities when choosing the way of the accommodation purchase, there are examples in the article of a sharp increase of the efficiency within the pledge, and the rent on condition that only one factor has changed. Besides, there are examples of mixed ways including social housing and service housing. Nowadays there is a psychological aspect of the underestimate of the cost-effectively housing rent. As a result we made a conclusion that in spite of the real impossibility to plan and predict the changes, the success of individual strategy of life in solving housing and other important problems depends on the perception and understanding of the changes, on the early use for practical purposes and on the existing life stereotypes.
Airbnb, an online marketplace for accommodations, has experienced a staggering growth accompanied by intense debates and scattered regulations around the world. Current discourses, however, are largely focused on opinions rather than empirical evidences. Here, we aim to bridge this gap by presenting the first large-scale measurement study on Airbnb, using a crawled data set containing 2.3 million listings, 1.3 million hosts, and 19.3 million reviews. We measure several key characteristics at ...
Van Witteloostuijn, A.; Brakman, S.; Van Marrewijk, C.
As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise (Gas Transport Services GTS) to lower its prices. In this report, we simulate the welfare effects of a five per cent transport price reduction. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. However, at least three observations complicate matters substantially: Observation 1: government ownership. GTS is government -owned, and the dominant shipper (Gasunie Trade and Supply) is partly so (50 %). Hence, lost revenues from the gas transport business will all emerge at the debit side of the government's budget, and part of the shippers' rent returns in the government's pockets. Observation 2: imperfect competition. Firms enter into the competitive game to make profits. Shippers are not different. So, apart from in the extreme case of perfect competition (or, more generally, perfect contestability), part of the rents will end up in the pockets of the shippers, rather than the endconsumers. Observation 3: rent export. The Netherlands are not an isolated island in the European gas ocean. Not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but apart from that have foreign owners a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, given the fact that the Dutch industry is not autarktic, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will always 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other (Observation 1). Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the endconsumers (Observation 2). Third, it is unavoidable
... Trend Factor Methodology Used in the Calculation of Fair Market Rents AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... used to calculate the trend factor component of the Fair Market Rent estimates. SUMMARY: Section 8(c)(1... comment regarding the manner in which HUD calculates the trend factor used in the Fair Market Rent (FMR...
This article examines the politics of private renting in 1950s and early 1960s Britain, through the radical approach taken by Labour Party towards private landlords. Through setting the radical aims of Labour in a mid-twentieth-century context of decrepit housing, rising rents and sluggish public housing programmes, Labour's rationale in arguing for the 'abolition' of the private landlord is more transparent. This article takes a chronological approach, investigating what actions Labour actors took, at local and national level, and what effect this had on the wider housing market. Part one takes a long view of Labour attitudes to the private rented sector. Part two explores the policy of 'municipalization'-the attempt to place rented homes under local authority control. Part three discusses the post-1962 policy shift to state-sponsored 'improvement' of private rented housing, prior to Labour's victory at the 1964 general election. Three key arguments are made: that Labour's radicalism hastened the collapse of the post-war private rented sector; that rental market weaknesses indicated the confused place of renting in the 'tenurial pattern'; and that the proposed 'abolition' of private landlords had a direct effect on slum clearance and the composition of British cities. The conclusion suggests that Labour's pursuit of the private landlord can shed light on the vast urban transformations of the post-war period. It invites greater attention to be paid to the effects that political ideas had on the composition of the twentieth-century British housing market.
Morbee, J.; Himpens, P.; Proost, S.
This paper studies the taxation of nuclear energy using a stylized model of the electricity sector, with one dominant nuclear producer and a competitive fringe of non-nuclear plants. First, we find that the optimal nuclear tax is different depending on the time horizon: the optimal short-run tax has the same order of magnitude as the nuclear taxes imposed in Belgium and Germany, while in the long run the optimal tax may be negative, i.e. a subsidy. Second, government credibility is important: when a government cannot credibly commit, the mere possibility of a short-run tax could severely harm incentives for future investments in lifetime-extending refurbishment or new plants. Third, when there is natural scarcity in nuclear potential, other policies like inviting multiple competitive bidders for lifetime extension franchises or for investments in new plants, may be more efficient ways to increase government revenue. - Highlights: • Taxation of nuclear rents is studied using a dominant firm–competitive fringe model. • The optimal tax can be large in the short run, but possibly negative in the long run. • When a government cannot credibly commit, the tax harms investment incentives. • Other policies like auctioning of nuclear franchises can be more efficient than taxes. • The analytical results are numerically illustrated for the case of Belgium.
Hamilton, K.; Hartwick, J.M.
This study presented a brief analysis of the concept of maintaining capital intact in an economy with 2 capital goods: one produced, and one an exhaustible oil stock. Oil stock supplies a vital input flow to the economy every day. The authors characterized dollar-valued national wealth and income. The magnitude of net investment has become pivotal in measuring the sustainability of an economy. This study linked the investment of exhaustible resource rents to growth in a model with energy consumption varying through time, as in a model of optimal savings. Dollar-valued net national product was set out for the economy with the essential, but wasting oil stock. The study applied the principle of maintaining capital intact and locally unchanging consumption. The percentage change in net investment or genuine savings, relative to the market rate of interest, determines whether current consumption is rising, constant, or declining. In the case of utility discount rates, it was observed that at a point of locally unchanging consumption, the net investment equals the prevailing market rate of interest, and the level of net investment is negative. The consumption increases when the percentage change in net investment is lower than the market rate of interest, and the reverse is true when consumption decreases. The connection between zero net investment and constant consumption was clarified. The sign of current net investment was found to be a good indicator of the direction of national wealth and income. 15 refs
Chen, Hong; Feng, Qun; Zhu, Dandan; Han, Shuai; Long, Ruyin
During the “golden decade” (2001–2011) of the coal industry in China, rent-seeking increased in coal mine safety supervision alongside significant improvements in coal mine safety status and increased economic benefits in the coal industry. To explore this internal relationship, we developed a Matlab simulation system and simulated the impact of rent-seeking from each level of the supervision department on coal mine productivity in different scenarios. The results showed the following. (1) Rent-seeking had no significant influence on the average level of material productivity but it had an adverse effect on the average level of mental productivity. Due to the effects of rent-seeking, productivity tended to exhibit unstable and destructive fluctuations, and rent-seeking had the dual effect of promoting and restraining productivity in a wide range with a high frequency. (2) In the supervision scenario, supervision by the high-level department was efficient, and productivity was promoted more by the national and provincial supervision department. (3) In the rent-seeking scenario, each level of the department had an intensity threshold above which coal mine accidents occurred. We also propose suggestions that focuses on the improved supervision of Chinese coal mine safety in three areas based on the “new normal” safety concept. - Highlights: •We discussed rent-seeking behavior in Chinese coal mine safety supervision. •We explored the characteristics of coal mine productivity. •We investigated the impact of rent-seeking on coal mine productivity in three scenarios. •We found rent-seeking led to great fluctuations in productivity with a dual effect. •We proposed a model strategy for Chinese coal mine safety supervision in three areas.
Mohammad Etezad Razavi
Full Text Available Introduction: To compare various accommodative parameters in prepresbyopic diabetic patients with age-matched healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Study populationconsisted of 32 younger-onset diabetic patients (30-40 years of age and 28 age-matched healthy normal individuals. Using the best correction for distance visual acuity (20.20 by Snellen chart, multiple accommodative ability tests such as near point of accommodation, accommodative amplitude, negative or positive accommodative facility and near point of convergence were measured in both groups. Results: Mean near point of accommodation in diabetic patients was significantly greater than the control group (18.5±4.4 centimeters [cm] versus 9.5±2 centimeters, p= 0.000. Mean accommodative amplitude was (5.93±1.75 Diopter (D and (10.95±2.16 Diopter in diabetics and normal individuals, respectively (p=0.000. Mean accommodation facility was (3.19±3.04 cycle/minute [cyl/min] in patients and 10.01±5.09 cycle/minute in the control group (p= 0.000. Mean positive relative accommodation was (–3.37±1.19 D in diabetic and (-2.11±0.99 D in healthy participants (p=0.000. Mean negative relative accommodation was lower in diabetic patients compared with the control group, however, this difference did not reach statistical significance (2.61±0.65 D versus (2.61±0.60 D, p= 0.23. Mean near point of convergence was (8.23±1.43 cm and (7.13±0.67 cm in normal and diabetic groups, respectively which had insignificant difference (p= 0.45. Conclusion: Majority of accommodative ability functions decreased in prepresbyopic diabetic patients. Early detection and rehabilitation of such patients with corrective near spectacles are strongly recommended.
Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.
Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Job Accommodation Network AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. Announcement Type: New Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant... cooperative agreement to manage and operate its Job Accommodation Network (JAN), a national technical...
Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Irving, Elizabeth L; Bobier, William R
Investigations into the progression of myopia in children have long considered the role of accommodation as a cause and solution. Myopic children show high levels of accommodative adaptation, coupled with accommodative lag and high response AC/A (accommodative convergence per diopter of accommodation). This pattern differs from that predicted by current models of interaction between accommodation and vergence, where weakened reflex responses and a high AC/A would be associated with a low not high levels of accommodative adaptation. However, studies of young myopes were limited to only part of the accommodative vergence synkinesis and the reciprocal components of vergence adaptation and convergence accommodation were not studied in tandem. Accordingly, we test the hypothesis that the accommodative behavior of myopic children is not predicted by current models and whether that departure is explained by differences in the accommodative plant of the myopic child. Responses to incongruent stimuli (-2D, +2D adds, 10 prism diopter base-out prism) were investigated in 28 myopic and 25 non-myopic children aged 7-15 years. Subjects were divided into phoria groups - exo, ortho and eso based upon their near phoria. The school aged myopes showed high levels of accommodative adaptation but with reduced accommodation and high AC/A. This pattern is not explained by current adult models and could reflect a sluggish gain of the accommodative plant (ciliary muscle and lens), changes in near triad innervation or both. Further, vergence adaptation showed a predictable reciprocal relationship with the high accommodative adaptation, suggesting that departures from adult models were limited to accommodation not vergence behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hilliard, Elizabeth Dianne
The purpose of this review was to examine workplace lactation accommodations, and their association with breastfeeding duration, and identify strategies occupational health professionals can use to promote lactation improvements. This study included literature published from 1985 through 2015 and listed in PubMed and CINAHL. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), 11 articles were identified for review. Presence of a corporate lactation program, on-site child care, and return to work/telephone lactation consultation were consistently associated with breastfeeding at 6 months. Other breastfeeding accommodations (i.e., lactation spaces, lactation breaks, worksite lactation policies, and supervisor/coworker support) were not consistently associated with breastfeeding duration. Occupational health professionals can play key roles in improving the effectiveness of lactation accommodations. Assuring adequate implementation of accommodations, increasing communication and marketing of accommodations, and promoting supervisor and coworker support are areas that occupational health professionals should explore for improving lactation duration.
Melissa Li Sa Liow
Full Text Available This paper starts by clarifying the role of branding orientation (BO among academic studies. It shortly introduces the development of the BO concepts. The empirical part consists of a search for and analysing of academic articles using a meta-analysis that consider BO in the accommodation industry. According to the results, significant appraisal of the branding building activities among higher star rating and luxury accommodation businesses are taking place due to the increasingly demanding guests. Thus, there is an upward pressure on small and medium accommodation businesses to survive or perform well. This paper recommends that scholars study the owners-managers, employees, and customer perspectives altogether, to better comprehend how large accommodation businesses displaying BO can generate superior performance. For the small and medium accommodation businesses, the emphasis is the owners-managers perceptions since they are the main decision-makers, and due to infancy of the small and medium enterprise (SME branding application.
Mellifont, Damian; Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Scanlan, Justin Newton
Accommodating mental health in the workplace is challenging. Despite policy efforts to encourage the availability of mental health accommodations in the workplace, employees experiencing mental illness are missing out on accommodations that they need. To inform vocational rehabilitation professionals and managers in the public service of best practice accommodations for government employees with anxiety disorders. Thematic analysis was applied to data collected from the online Accommodating Government Employees with Anxiety Disorders Survey undertaken by 71 Australian public service employees diagnosed with at least one anxiety disorder. Our research results include theme and sub-theme representations of accommodations received, accommodations reported as missing, accommodations that study participants felt they couldn't request, along with rejected accommodations. From the study participants' accounts, three key findings supporting desirable vocational outcomes become apparent. First, that the availability of 'standard' flexible work arrangements, along with personalised accommodations, can assist persons with anxiety disorders (where needed) to reach and retain government positions. Second, the chief barriers reported to making accommodation requests revolve around fears of being stigmatised and penalised. Finally, there is a need for managerial decision-makers to remain open-minded, particularly when assessing requests for accommodations that may break from government norms.
Full Text Available This paper examines the concept of geographic brand rent in production and marketing of New Zealand wine. It is argued that the region of origin for fine wine is not only a recognised feature of its value but that this may be conceived as a form of brand rent and furthermore that it is measurable. The analysis uses both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches to consider grape and vineyard land prices, as well as interviews with industry informants to explore wine company strategies. Explicit use is made of the value-added chain in order to identify and situate the construction of rents and the positionality of industry actors in respect to these. The analysis highlights the quest to control different forms of brand rent that have led the restructuring of the wine industry. It also exposes countervailing pressures towards economic resilience and market vulnerability facing the fine wine industry.
... PROGRAM, SECTION 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET RENTS AND...
Hanousek, Jan; Bena, Jan
-, č. 556 (2006), s. 1-38 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/06/1293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rent extraction * large shareholders * dividend policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics
D'Agostino, Thomas A; Bylund, Carma L
This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within health care interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as joint convergence, followed closely by asymmetrical-patient convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by joint convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as asymmetrical-physician convergence. Differences were predominantly nonsignificant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre- and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as joint convergence or asymmetrical-physician convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender-concordant and nonconcordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in health care communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective.
Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M
Disparity cues can be a major drive to accommodation via the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) linkage, but, on decompensation of exotropia, disparity cues are extinguished by suppression so this drive is lost. This study investigated accommodation and vergence responses to disparity, blur and proximal cues in a group of distance exotropes aged between 4 and 11 years both during decompensation and when exotropic. 19 participants with distance exotropia were tested using a PlusoptiXSO4 photo refractor set in a remote haploscopic device that assessed simultaneous vergence and accommodation to a range of targets incorporating different combinations of blur, disparity and proximal cues at four fixation distances between 2 m and 33 cm. Responses on decompensation were compared with those from the same children when their deviation was controlled. Manifest exotropia was more common in the more impoverished cue conditions. When decompensated for near, mean accommodation gain for the all-cue (naturalistic) target was significantly reduced (paccommodation of 2.33 D at 33 cm. The profile of near cues usage changed after decompensation, with blur and proximity driving residual responses, but these remaining cues did not compensate for loss of accommodation caused by the removal of disparity. Accommodation often reduces on decompensation of distance exotropia as the drive from convergence is extinguished, providing a further reason to try to prevent decompensation for near.
José J. Esteve-Taboada
Full Text Available Accommodation is controlled by the action of the ciliary muscle and mediated primarily by parasympathetic input through postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. During accommodation the pupil constricts to increase the depth of focus of the eye and improve retinal image quality. Researchers have traditionally faced the challenge of measuring the accommodative properties of the eye through a small pupil and thus have relied on pharmacological agents to dilate the pupil. Achieving pupil dilation (mydriasis without affecting the accommodative ability of the eye (cycloplegia could be useful in many clinical and research contexts. Phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHCl is a sympathomimetic agent that is used clinically to dilate the pupil. Nevertheless, first investigations suggested some loss of functional accommodation in the human eye after PHCl instillation. Subsequent studies, based on different measurement procedures, obtained contradictory conclusions, causing therefore an unexpected controversy that has been spread almost to the present days. This manuscript reviews and summarizes the main research studies that have been performed to analyze the effect of PHCl on the accommodative system and provides clear conclusions that could help clinicians know the real effects of PHCl on the accommodative system of the human eye.
Eisenack, Klaus; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Kalkuhl, Matthias
Carbon dioxide emissions correspond to fossil resource use. When considering this supply side of climate protection, crucial questions come to fore. It seems likely that owners of fossil resources would object to emission reductions. Moreover, policy instruments such as taxes may not be effective at all: it seems individually rational to leave no fossil resources unused. In this context, it can be expected that economic sectors will react strategically to climate policy, aiming at a re-distribution of rents. To address these questions, we investigate the effectiveness, efficiency, and resource rents for energy taxes, resource taxes, and quantity rationing of emissions. The analysis is based on a game theoretic growth model with explicit factor markets and policy instruments. Market equilibrium depends on a government that acts as a Stackelberg leader with a climate protection goal. We find that resource taxes and quantity rationing achieve this objective efficiently, energy taxation is only second-best. The use of quantity rationing to achieve climate protection generates substantial rents for resource owners. - Highlights: ► Resource taxes and quantity rationing (carbon budgets) are efficient. ► Carbon budgets increase resource rents, while taxes decrease rents. ► Resource owners may support climate protection. ► Climate protection introduces a climate rent.
Full Text Available An understanding of consumer behavior when choosing property as accommodations improves the use of limited resources such as land and may promote the suitable development of tourism destinations. Knowledge of the factors that influence consumer behavior and that condition the process of purchasing a residential tourism property is useful in managing and designing strategies for segmenting tourism destinations. This study analyzes the influence of membership groups such as social class, culture, and family on choosing the type of property (ownership versus renting or using family or friends’ property and the typology (single- or multifamily that is in demand among residential tourists in the destination. Firstly, we identify which membership groups specifically influence the selection of type of property (social class and family. Then, we identify which groups influence the property typology (social class and people who are traveling and, in addition, those that influence both choices (social class.
Johnston, Miriam S; Firth, Alison Y
Previous studies have reported variation in stimulus accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio across differing accommodative stimuli. Response AC/A ratio was assessed across 4 accommodative demands to determine if these differences could be due to accommodative inaccuracies to stimuli. Twenty-three student participants aged 18 to 26 years (mean age 20.3 ± 1.7 years) successfully completed all testing conditions. The modified Thorington technique was used at 4 m to measure heterophoria. The Shin Nippon SRW 5000 infrared autorefractor was used to determine accommodative change to -1.50, -3.00, -4.50, and -6.00D lens stimuli. Significant differences were found in response AC/A ratio between different minus lens stimulated accommodative demands (p accommodative stimuli, but tended to increase with accommodative demand. Significant variability in response AC/A ratio was found, both within individuals to different accommodative demands, and between individuals across the data set.
Several models of myopia predict that growth of axial length is stimulated by blur. Accommodative lag has been suggested as an important source of blur in the development of myopia and this study has modeled how cross-link interactions between accommodation and convergence might interact with uncorrected distance heterophoria and refractive error to influence accommodative lag. Accommodative lag was simulated with two models of interactions between accommodation and convergence (one with and one without adaptable tonic elements). Simulations of both models indicate that both uncorrected hyperopia and esophoria increase the lag of accommodative and uncorrected myopia and exophoria decrease the lag or introduce a lead of accommodation in response to the near (40 cm) stimulus. These effects were increased when gain of either cross-link, accommodative convergence (AC/A) or convergence accommodation (CA/C), was increased within a moderate range of values while the other was fixed at a normal value (clamped condition). These effects were exaggerated when both the AC/A and CA/C ratios were increased (covaried condition) and affects of cross-link gain were negated when an increase of one cross-link (e.g. AC/A) was accompanied by a reduction of the other cross-link (e.g. CA/C) (reciprocal condition). The inclusion of tonic adaptation in the model reduced steady state errors of accommodation for all conditions except when the AC/A ratio was very high (2 MA/D). Combinations of cross-link interactions between accommodation and convergence that resemble either clamped or reciprocal patterns occur naturally in clinical populations. Simulations suggest that these two patterns of abnormal cross-link interactions could affect the progression of myopia differently. Adaptable tonic accommodation and tonic vergence could potentially reduce the progression of myopia by reducing the lag of accommodation.
Full Text Available In children, intensive near-work affects the accommodation system of the eye. Younger children, due to anatomical parameters, read at smaller distance than older children and we can expect that the accommodation system of younger can be affected more than that of older children. We wanted to test this hypothesis. Some authors showed that the norms of amplitude of accommodation (AA developed by Hofstetter (1950 not always could be applied for children. We also wanted to verify these results. A total of 106 (age 7-15 children participated in the study. Distance visual acuity was measured for all children and only data of children with good visual acuity 1.0 or more (dec. units were analysed (73 children. Accommodative amplitude was measured before and after lessons using subjective push-up technique (with RAF Near Point Ruler. The results showed that the amplitude of accommodation reduced significantly (p < 0.05 during the day and decrease of AA was similar in different age groups (about ~0.70 D. Additional measurements are needed to verify that the observed changes in AA were associated with fatigue effect. The results showed lower accommodation values compared to average values calculated according to the Hofstetter equation (p < 0.05.
Syed Toqueer Akhter
Full Text Available Rent seeking behavior has been amongst noticeable obstacles in path of economic growth and development for developing communities. Due to this the study aims at testing the hypothesis that the Rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy is being influenced by the openness of economy as well as inflows of foreign investment significantly. Model estimations imply that reforms may have an insignificant impact upon impact upon curtailing the rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy in a time series setting therefore this research will use two statistical econometric models to show the effect of corruption on the foreign direct inflow received in Pakistan. In order to pretest the impact of all the mentioned variables on rent seeking behavior generalized least square was used because its results were unbiased, consistent and the problem of Serial correlation was solved by using it. In order to quantify rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy different aspects of misuse of public offices appearing in form of petty and grand corruption were used using the variables informal sector, tax evasion, judicial outlay, G.D.P and F.D.I as percentage of G.D.P. All of the variables had proper signs aligned with the theory and all of the variables appeared to be significant except judicial outlay proving that the judiciary has been incompetent and ineffective. The robust regression showed all the same signs except in it every variable was appearing to be significant. Rent seeking corruption has been highly affecting Pakistan in adverse ways and this paper will show how many factors like judiciary is not playing effective role in limiting corruption and also how the economy is being affected by rent seeking behavior.
Anna M. Wright
Full Text Available The willingness and flexibility of university instructors to comply with and provide accommodations for students with disabilities is critical to academic success. The authors examine how communication between students needing accommodations and university instructors impacts instructor self-efficacy, or instructors’ perception that they can meet the accommodation. Specifically, the authors’ explored the relationship between student self-disclosure of a disability and instructor empathy, flexibility, and self-efficacy in meeting student accommodation needs. Results revealed that the more a student self-discloses about a needed accommodation, the more self-efficacy an instructor has in making that accommodation. For the low-disclosure condition, empathy and flexibility were both significant predictors of self-efficacy, whereas, for the high-disclosure condition, only flexibility was a significant predictor of self-efficacy. Finally, instructors’ levels of empathy and flexibility both decreased after reading both the high and low self-disclosure scenarios.
Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Harms, H; Stiller, P; Guth, H; Stachs, O; Bretthauer, G
Presbyopia and cataract are gaining more and more importance in the ageing society. Both age-related complaints are accompanied with a loss of the eye's ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore accommodation is the Artificial Accommodation System, an autonomous micro system, which will be implanted into the capsular bag instead of a rigid intraocular lens. The Artificial Accommodation System will, depending on the actual demand for accommodation, autonomously adapt the refractive power of its integrated optical element. One possibility to measure the demand for accommodation non-intrusively is to analyse eye movements. We present an efficient algorithm, based on the CORDIC technique, to calculate the demand for accommodation from magnetic field sensor data. It can be shown that specialised algorithms significantly shorten calculation time without violating precision requirements. Additionally, a communication strategy for the wireless exchange of sensor data between the implants of the left and right eye is introduced. The strategy allows for a one-sided calculation of the demand for accommodation, resulting in an overall reduction of calculation time by 50 %. The presented methods enable autonomous microsystems, such as the Artificial Accommodation System, to save significant amounts of energy, leading to extended autonomous run-times. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Chen, Hong; Feng, Qun; Cao, Jing
There are extensive governmental rent-seeking activities in safety supervision of the Chinese coal industry. The rents come from industry safety barriers, low resource taxes, and privilege policies for coalmining enterprises. The rent-seeking mechanism was analyzed using a model comprising dynamic games with incomplete information. The equilibrium results indicate that the probability of national supervision is influenced by penalties and bribery: there is negative correlation with penalties and positive correlation with bribery. The rent-seeking probability of a governmental safety supervision department is influenced by several factors, and positively correlates with the cost of national supervision. The probability of bribery of coalmining enterprises is influenced by several factors, and positively correlates with wages of governmental departments and a reasonable rent-seeking range. Reversed rent-seeking reduces the probability of bribery, but it's not worth recommending. Some recommendations are proposed. - Highlights: • We analyze rent-seeking mechanism for safety supervision in the coal industry. • A dynamic game with incomplete information for Chinese coal industry is built. • Reversed rent-seeking is proposed as a new rent-seeking form. • We analyze the selection probability of the three participants. • We give some policies about how to enhance safety supervision
Lee, Eui Chul; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung
PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, because they could not be quantified. METHODS. A head-wearable eyeglasses-based, eye-capturing device was designed to measure pupil size. It included a near-infrared (NIR) camera and an NIR light-emitting diode. Twenty-four subjects watched two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic videos of the same content, and the changes in pupil size were measured by using the eye-capturing device and image-processing methods: RESULTS. The pupil size changed with the intensity of the videos and the disparities between the left and right images of a 3D stereoscopic video. There was correlation between the pupil size and average intensity. The pupil diameter could be estimated as being contracted from approximately 5.96 to 4.25 mm as the intensity varied from 0 to 255. Further, from the changes in the depth fixation for the pupil accommodation, it was confirmed that the depth fixation also affected accommodation of pupil size. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that the lighting condition was an even more significant factor in pupil accommodation than was depth fixation (significance ratio: approximately 3.2:1) when watching 3D stereoscopic video. Pupil accommodation was more affected by depth fixation in the real world than was the binocular convergence in the 3D stereoscopic display.
Miyata, Manabu; Hasebe, Satoshi; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi
To determine the influence of the lag of accommodation (LOA) on the accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio measured by the far-gradient method in strabismic patients. The AC/A ratio was measured with a distance target viewed with and without -3.00 diopter (D) addition lenses in 63 patients with different types of strabismus (age range, 7-34 years; range of strabismic angle, -60 to +40 prism diopters; refractive error range, -7.33 to +6.63 D). The LOA for the same lens was measured with an open-view-type autorefractometer. The stimulus AC/A ratio and the AC/A ratio adjusted by the individually measured LOA (adjusted AC/A ratio) were compared. The mean +/- SD of the LOA to the -3.00 D lenses was 1.06 +/- 0.43 D. The mean adjusted AC/A ratio was 41% greater than the stimulus AC/A ratio. The LOA differed widely among patients (0.13 to 2.14 D), and a large LOA tended to appear in myopic or young patients. The AC/A ratio obtained using the conventional far-gradient method is significantly biased by the LOA, and thus does not always represent the actual relationship between accommodation and vergence control systems. Copyright Japanese Ophthalmological Society 2006.
Bilgihan, K; Akata, F; Or, M; Hasanreisoğlu, B
Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) was performed on a 19-year-old man with hyperopic astigmatism and refractive accommodative esotropia. The patient was orthophoric while wearing spectacles, but had an esotropia of 30 prism dioptres at near and distance vision without spectacles. The best corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 20/50 and of the left eye was 20/20. The excessive accommodative convergence of the patient was eliminated by correcting the hyperopic refractive error by performing PRK, and the patient became orthophoric after the treatment.
Fritzsch, M; Dawczynski, J; Jurkutat, S; Vollandt, R; Strobel, J
Monochromatic aberrations may influence the visual acuity of the eye. They are not stable and can be affected by different factors. The subject of the following paper is the dynamic investigation of the changes in wavefront aberration with accommodation. Dynamic measurement of higher and lower order aberrations was performed with a WASCA Wavefront Analyzer (Carl-Zeiss-Meditec) and a specially constructed target device for aligning objects in far and near distances on 25 subjects aged from 15 to 27 years old. Wavefront aberrations showed some significant changes in accommodation. In addition to the characteristic sphere reaction accompanying miosis and changes in horizontal prism (Z(1) (1)) in the sense of a convergence movement of the eyeball also occurred. Furthermore defocus rose (Z(2) (0)) and astigmatism (Z(2) (-2)) changed. In higher-order aberrations a decrease in coma-like Zernike polynomials (Z(3) (-1), Z(3) (1)) was found. The most obvious change appeared in spherical aberration (Z(4) (0)) which increased and changed from positive to negative. In addition the secondary astigmatism (Z(4) (-2)) and quadrafoil (Z(4) (4)) rise also increased. The total root mean square (RMS), as well as the higher-order aberrations (RMS-HO) significantly increased in accommodation which is associated with a theoretical reduction of visual acuity. An analysis of the influence of pupil size on aberrations showed significant increases in defocus, spherical aberration, quadrafoil, RMS and RMS HO by increasing pupil diameter. By accommodation-associated miosis, the growing aberrations are partially compensated by focusing on near objects. Temporal analysis of the accommodation process with dynamic wavefront analysis revealed significant delays in pupil response and changing of prism in relation to the sphere reaction. In accommodation to near objects a discrete time ahead of third order aberrations in relation to the sphere response was found. Using dynamic wavefront measurement
Köthenbürger, Marko; Poutvaara, Panu
Previous literature concludes that replacing wage taxation by taxes on a fixed factor or its rents benefits future generations. However, the effects of such steady-state gains on the transition generations have been left open. In this paper, we show that taxation of rents may also increase utilit...... of the current generation provided tax revenues are earmarked to reduce wage taxes. In particular, a shift in the tax mix may yield an intergenerational Pareto-improvement when the initially prevailing tax mix is sufficiently skewed toward wage taxation....
Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard
reduction. Our main question is whether the final choice of allocation rule can be explained by potential industrial net winners involved in the policy making process. We answer this question by using rent-seeking theory and by analysing the Green Paper hearing replies from the main industrial groups....... In other words, we want to explain and observe how rent-seeking (or lobbyism) affects the design of environmental regulation and energy policy in favour of well-organized industrial interest groups. We argue that some firms are likely to reap a net gain from being regulated by a grandfathered emission...
Desde 1920, la economía venezolana descansa sobre una estructura cuyo principal determinante es la renta del petróleo. Cabe así hablar, para darle un nombre propio, de capitalismo rentístico. Con el apoyo primario de una definición operativa de la renta petrolera que permite la introducción de un nuevo concepto contable, el producto interno bruto no rentístico, aquí se buscar darle su caracterización cuantitativa en términos de ciertos indicadores especialmente relevantes, a saber: la relació...
Stephanie O. Crofton
Full Text Available The bubonic plague that swept England in 1349 provides an example of how changes in economic conditions can change norms of social behavior. The death of almost 50 percent of the population altered the returns to labor and land. As the demand for land and the supply of labor declined, rents fell and wages rose. This increased wage-to-rent ratio shifted the structure of the economy from household production to market production. In turn, these changes affected migration, family and community ties, women s labor force participation, family size, inheritance customs, the status of landowning widows, and care for the elderly.
Jorge Enrique Agudelo Torres
Full Text Available Researchers have determined that real estate prices vary in continuous ways as a function of spatial characteristics. In this study we examine whether geographically weighted regression (GWR provides different estimates of price effects around a sports stadium than more traditional regression techniques. We find that an application of GWR with hedonic prices finds that the stadium has a negative external effect on housing rents that extends outward 560 meters, in contrast to the positive external effect on housing rents found using a conventional estimation technique.
Objective: The link between child anxiety and maternal anxiety has been well established but the factors underlying this association are not well understood. One potential factor is family accommodation, which describes ways in which parents change their behaviour to help a child avoid or alleviate anxiety. Family ...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodations. 100.204 Section 100.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE... dog. The building has a no pets policy. It is a violation of § 100.204 for the owner or manager of the...
..." and "carrots" to achieve political objectives. Clearly the subject-the use of force and accommodation to achieve political ends-is a topic that has been analyzed over the years by a host of observers, ranging from Niccol Machiavelli to John F. Kennedy...
Hvid, Anna; Henningsen, Geraldine
Price induced increases in land rents trigger an increasing incentive for rent- seeking behavior. To analyse distributional and welfare eects of increasing land rents in developing countries, we develop a game theoretic model where a large and heterogeneous group of farmers competes with a small...... and wealthy elite. The results indicate that only relatively small rent increases benet the farmers more than the elite. Moreover, political institutions have an ambiguous eect on farmers' rent share, and may even reduce overall welfare, because they induce wasteful expenditure on rent-seeking....
Ren, Qiujin; Yue, Hui; Zhou, Qing
To evaluate the change in accommodative lag and accommodation convergence/accommodation (AC/A) after patients with myopia wear orthokeratology lenses. A total of 48 myopic subjects (a test group), who wore orthokeratology lenses regularly, and 48 myopic subjects (a control group), who wore spectacles regularly, were enrolled for this study from January 2011 to January 2013 in Optometric Center, the Forth Hospital of Changsha. Accommodative lag was measured by fused cross cylinder method, where the patients should gaze at the front optotypes 40 cm away. Gradient of the AC/A ratio was measured by Von Grafe method to check closer distance heterophoria. Accommodative lag and AC/A ratio were analyzed by statistics. After 1-year follow-up, accommodative lag and AC/A rate in patients with low or moderate myopia in the test group was decreased in 1, 3, 6 months or 1 year compared with that in the control group (Paccommodative lag and high AC/A rate in patients with low or moderate myopia. The relationship between accommodation and convergence is improved by orthokeratology lenses. Orthokeratology is an effective way to control myopia.
Collier, Juanita D; Rosenfield, Mark
With computer usage becoming almost universal in contemporary society, the reported prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) is extremely high. However, the precise physiological mechanisms underlying CVS remain unclear. Although abnormal accommodation and vergence responses have been cited as being responsible for the symptoms produced, there is little objective evidence to support this claim. Accordingly, this study measured both of these oculomotor parameters during a sustained period of computer use. Subjects (N = 20) were required to read text aloud from a laptop computer at a viewing distance of 50 cm for a sustained 30-minute period through their habitual refractive correction. At 2-minute intervals, the accommodative response (AR) to the computer screen was measured objectively using a Grand Seiko WAM 5500 optometer (Grand Seiko, Hiroshima, Japan). Additionally, the vergence response was assessed by measuring the associated phoria (AP), i.e., prism to eliminate fixation disparity, using a customized fixation disparity target that appeared on the computer screen. Subjects were asked to rate the degree of difficulty of the reading task on a scale from 1 to 10. Mean accommodation and AP values during the task were 1.07 diopters and 0.74∆ base-in (BI), respectively. The mean discomfort score was 4.9. No significant changes in accommodation or vergence were observed during the course of the 30-minute test period. There was no significant difference in the AR as a function of subjective difficulty. However, the mean AP for the subjects who reported the least and greatest discomfort during the task was 1.55∆ BI and 0, respectively (P = 0.02). CVS, after 30 minutes was worse in subjects exhibiting zero fixation disparity when compared with those subjects having a BI AP but does not appear to be related to differences in accommodation. A slightly reduced vergence response increases subject comfort during the task. Copyright © 2011 American Optometric
... Voucher Program--Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in Certain Metropolitan Areas for.... ACTION: Notice of Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents (FMRs) in Selected Metropolitan... topics related to small area FMRs, including how these small areas should be defined. Small area FMRs...
... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5525-N-01] Use of Small Area Fair Market Rents for Project Base Vouchers in the Dallas TX Metropolitan Area AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Small Area Fair Market Rents (SAFMRs) for Project-Based Vouchers (PBVs) located in the Dallas, TX...
In recent years, a global increase in demand for agricultural commodities and land has contributed to increasing agricultural prices. This trend can be expected to continue in the future, and may result in significantly higher land rents. This paper investigates the potential distributional effec...
Altenburg, Tilman; Engelmeier, Tobias
In order to avoid irreversible damage to global ecosystems, new ‘green’ technologies are needed, some of which are nowhere near commercial maturity. In these cases, governments may create temporary rents to make investments ‘artificially’ attractive, but the creation of such rents involves risks of faulty allocation and political capture. This article first highlights the importance of managing rents effectively in promoting ‘green’ technologies; it then shows how India's National Solar Mission has been remarkably effective in triggering solar investments and managing the necessary subsidies, e.g. through a process of competitive reverse bidding for tariffs. Policy design and implementation also reflect considerable experimentation and learning. Some risks remain, especially regarding the enforceability of renewable energy quotas at the level of Indian states. - Highlights: • India's National Solar Mission effectively triggered solar investments. • Reverse bidding substantially decreased policy costs. • Sequenced implementation allowed for policy learning. • India's solar policy is a good example of green rent management
The clean development mechanism (CDM) should foster sustainable development and greenhouse gas emission reductions. The design of the CDM and first experience suggest that it may not achieve these goals. Developing countries hosting CDM projects may lose cheap emission reduction possibilities for their own future use, and sustainable development and technology transfer may not take place. On the other hand, the CDM has the potential to generate considerable rents if permit prices are high or costs low. To account for equity and distributional issues, a deliberate decision on how to distribute these rents could be taken and the potential failure of the CDM in meeting its goals calls for some further regulation. I suggest to combine these two issues and to extract the rents by a profit tax. Ideally, the tax revenues could contribute to national sustainable development strategies, to offset external costs imposed by CDM projects and to extract part of the resource rent they may generate. The international character of the CDM could offer a frame for internationally coordinated tax design. This would hedge against a potential race to the bottom
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Rent to Owner § 983.304 Other subsidy: effect on...) Subsidized projects. (1) This paragraph (c) applies to any contract units in any of the following types of... non-insured Section 236 project that continues to receive Interest Reduction Payment following a...
Tsharakyan, Ashot; Zemčík, Petr
Roč. 24, č. 2 (2016), s. 335-360 ISSN 0967-0750 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : Czech Republic * rent regulation and deregulation * real estate prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2016
Tsharakyan, Ashot; Zemčík, Petr
Roč. 24, č. 2 (2016), s. 335-360 ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : Czech Republic * rent regulation and deregulation * real estate prices Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2016
Full Text Available Gordon Tullock is acknowledged for being the first to recognize the true costs of rent-seeking as including not only the Harberger triangle but also the Tullock rectangle. This rectangle does not constitute merely a lossless transfer of wealth, but it causes a misallocation of resources as rent-seekers invest resources in lobbying. However, a close reading of Tullock’s writings shows that his arguments are formulated in a holistic fashion, speaking of what is efficient or inefficient for society. Rent-seeking is inefficient because it reduces societal welfare. But according to a methodologically individualist and subjectivist economics, such a claim is invalid. We must distinguish between positive economic fact and normative moral philosophy. We call for a reconstruction of utility and welfare economics based on methodological individualism and subjectivism with implications for the theories of monopoly and competition: practices which Neoclassical perfect-competition theory considers to be evidence of rent-seeking should instead be deemed as indications of genuine competition Political economy should be concerned with ascertaining which institutions will best enable individuals to pursue their individually subjective ends – or else economists should be explicit about their normative preferences and political philosophies.
Dobbelaere, S.; Mairesse, J.
Empirical labor economists have resorted to estimating the responsiveness of workers' wages on firms' ability to pay to assess the extent to which employers share rents with their employees. This paper compares this labor economics approach with two other approaches that rely on standard micro
..., Washington, DC 20410- 0001. Communications should refer to the above docket number and title and should.... Public Inspection of Comments. All comments and communications submitted to HUD will be available... FMRs, HUD tests these rent changes for statistical significance \\3\\ [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TN04AU10...
Eggert, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Peter Birch
We set up a probabilistic voting model to explore the hypothesis that tax competition improves public sector efficiency and social welfare. In the absence of tax base mobility, distortions in the political process induce vote-maximising politicians to create rents to public sector employees...
Eggert, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Peter Birch
We set up a probabilistic voting model to explore the hypothesis that tax competition improves public sector efficiency and social welfare. In the absence of tax base mobility, distortions in the political process induce vote-maximising politicians to create rents to public sector employees...
...; or (2) All other space: Either GSA's space charges for 4 months plus the cost of tenant improvements or GSA's actual costs, whichever is less. ... PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.145 When are customer agencies...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing... DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM, SECTION 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing... DIRECT LOAN PROGRAM, SECTION 202 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR THE ELDERLY PROGRAM AND SECTION 811 SUPPORTIVE HOUSING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES PROGRAM) SECTION 8 HOUSING ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS PROGRAM-FAIR MARKET...
Bena, Jan; Hanousek, Jan
-, č. 291 (2006), s. 1-45 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/06/1293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : rent extraction * large shareholders * corporate governance Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp291.pdf
31 janv. 2014 ... Effet de la substrats culturaux sur paramètres de croissance ... des graines, mais ce substrat a donné des performances acceptables sur la croissance longitudinale des ..... élevés en conteneurs sur différents types de.
Oxley, M.; Brown, T.; Haffner, M.; Hoekstra, J.
The size of the private rented housing sector (PRS) varies markedly between coun-tries. The paper explores the role of policy in supporting the PRS with emphasis on the evidence from France, Germany, the UK and the USA. The definition and meas-urement of the size of the sector in each country is
Oxley, M.; Brown, T.; Haffner, M.; Hoekstra, J.; Lishman, R.
The paper considers the role of the private rented sector in supplying housing that can be defined as social housing. It will do this by considering policy initiatives in Germany, France, the USA and England that use privately owned housing to meet social needs. The operation of these initiatives
Afin d'établir une classification des machines d'embouteillage, on peut, comme dans toutes les tentatives de ce genre, utiliser différents critères. De prime abord, le plus important nous semble être de distinguer entre les tireuses à niveau constant et les tireuses volumétriques
Çubukcu, Muhammed İhsan
OBJECTIVE: In a situation in which present economy is called as a digital economy, all organizations have to make up their informatics infrastructures. The societies that can use and share the information by using the technology as it requires will be societies that have the power of competition; and the power of competition will just be measured by the ability of reaching the information. This applicational study includes the analysis of the web pages of the five star accommodation companies...
Komarov V. F.
Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon called «rent». In the research authors have obtained scientific knowledge in three directions. The first new scientific result is based on the fundamental scientific fact: «All products in the competitive market are sold at a price equilibrium. Therefore, if the seller can sell goods cheaper than the equilibrium price, they extract rents as super-profits: entrepreneur or monopoly rents (including natural, mining, as well as patent, license, author». Note that the term «entrepreneur rent» was introduced into scientific discourse for the first time in this article. The second new scientific result is based on the fundamental scientific fact: «the right of ownership includes three powers: the right of ownership, the right of use, the right of disposal». The right of possession and temporary use can be sold separately, which allows to extract the lease rent. Important fact is that rental contracts as rents (between a landlord and a tenant employ the concept of «time»! Note that such an understanding of rent is formalized in the Civil Code. The third new scientific result is based on the fundamental scientific fact: «any administrative (governmental service can be carried out: (a strictly according to instructions, or (b initiatively, inventively, with a focus on the customer, especially if it is accompanied by a personal benefit of the service provider. The difference between formal and creative execution of duties constitutes «an increase» (discretion to the result of the administrative acts. Corrupt official can sell this “increase”, extracting discretionary (corrupt rent». The article presents the formulations of the scientific facts mentioned above, the concept of «rent» formulations, relevant to these facts, as well as studies, formulas, illustrations of the identified theoretical ideas and practical examples of their manifestations.
Helen P Hartnett
Full Text Available AbstractThe Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA requires employersto provide reasonable accommodations for any qualified individual with adisability. By examining the ongoing evaluation data from the Job AccommodationNetwork (JAN, this study seeks to investigate whether or not genderdifferences are present in the reasonable accommodation process. Open andclosed-ended data are collected using a 20-minute structured telephoneinterview of JAN customers (n= 1,247; 44% response rate. The results show veryfew differences between men’s and women’s accommodation request types, whetheror not accommodations were granted, the costs of requested accommodations, andsatisfaction with JAN. A significant difference, however, was found by genderon the effectiveness of the accommodation. Key Words: Accommodations, Disabilities, Gender, Employment, Social Work Practice
Project 0-5475 performed a comprehensive analysis of utility conflict data/information flows between utility : accommodation stakeholders in the Texas Department of Transportation project development process, : developed data models to accommodate wo...
Full Text Available The direct income of owners and tenants of dwellings is not comparable since the owners have a hidden income from the investment in their dwelling. This hidden income is considered a part of the disposable income of owners. It may be predicted with the help of a linear model of the rent. Since such a model must be developed and estimated for tenants with observed market rents a selection bias may occur. The selection bias can be minimised through a Heckman correction. The paper applies the Heckman correction to data from the Swiss Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The Heckman method is adapted to the survey context, the modeling process including the choice of covariates is explained and the effect of the prediction using the model is discussed.
Alexandrov, Gennady; Yablonev, Alexander
In this article, as determinants in the system factors underlying the investment attractiveness of the peat industry is considered a rental factor, which predetermines the significant differences and peculiarities of the investment climate in the mining business and, in particular, in the sphere of peat mining. In contrast to modern studies treated the essence and role of rents in the economic mechanism, is proposed for a new approach to solving the problems of its formation. Our approach differs in that it, firstly, adequate rental relations, objectively in extractive industries, secondly, provides consensus in the interests of the owner of peat deposits and entrepreneurs, businesses in these deposits and, thus, thirdly, contributes to the creation of a favourable investment climate in the peat extraction industry. In practical terms, in accordance with the proposed approach, we have proposed specific allocation algorithm of mining rents from the profits of peat extraction enterprises.
Kolstad, Ivar; Wiig, Arne
A number of studies suggest that natural resources can have a negative impact on the developing prospects of countries. Empirical results suggest that political economy models of patronage and rent-seeking are central to understanding why such a resource curse arises. In other words, the resource curse is created by certain resource rents leading to dysfunctional behaviour. This article introduces the term impartiality enhancing institutions to structure policy debates by distinguishing conditions under which negative effects of resources can be mitigated. Moreover, it is argued that viewing institutions as an equilibrium outcome has implications for the analysis of institutional change. Policy initiatives that do not promote the impartiality of institutions, nor attend to the underlying interests and incentives keeping a bad institutional equilibrium in place, will not help lift the resource curse.
Merayo, Eugenia; Waldo, Staffan; Nielsen, Max
of the largest fishing nations within the EU. A static bio-economic model is used to analyze the effect of simultaneous elimination of subsidies and introduction of an economically efficient management system for the Northwest Spanish fleet. It is concluded that improvements in management would bring substantial......Subsidies to the fishing sector have long been criticized for fueling over-fishing, and a reduction in subsidies is currently on the agenda in the negotiations within the World Trade Organization (WTO). This article analyzes the role of subsidies and other management measures for Spain, one...... rents to the industry, up to €164 million, irrespective of subsidy level, but also a reduction in fishing effort of almost 60%. Under a management scheme that maximizes economic rents, elimination of subsidies in the fishery would increase social welfare, induced by a decrease in the equilibrium fishing...
Kelly M. Hastings
Full Text Available The NBA’s 1999 Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA included provisions capping individual player pay in addition to team payrolls. This study examines the effect the NBA’s maximum player salary on player rents by comparing player pay from the 1997–1998 and 2003–2004 seasons while controlling for player productivity and other factors related to player pay. The results indicate a large increase in the pay received by teams’ second highest and, to a lesser extent, third highest paid players. We interpret this result as evidence that the adoption of the maximum player salary shifted rents from stars to complementary players. We also show that the 1999 CBA’s rookie contract provisions reduced salaries of early career players.
The European gas market will become 'more liberal'. Depending on in which segments competition is intensified and public interference takes place, prices in the gas chain will be affected. Rent may be redistributed among firms and prices will become more volatile. If supply overshoots demand for a long period, average consumer prices may also be pushed down. Rent may also end up as tax revenues for public authorities. This article argues that an active use of gas taxes as an instrument to derive public revenues increases the probability of a politically led liberalization process. The effect of these economic and political forces and actions may, however, be less new gas to the market. (author)
Kolstad, Ivar; Wiig, Arne [Chr. Michelsen Institute, P.O. Box 6033 Postterminalen, N-5892 Bergen (Norway)
A number of studies suggest that natural resources can have a negative impact on the developing prospects of countries. Empirical results suggest that political economy models of patronage and rent-seeking are central to understanding why such a resource curse arises. In other words, the resource curse is created by certain resource rents leading to dysfunctional behaviour. This article introduces the term impartiality enhancing institutions to structure policy debates by distinguishing conditions under which negative effects of resources can be mitigated. Moreover, it is argued that viewing institutions as an equilibrium outcome has implications for the analysis of institutional change. Policy initiatives that do not promote the impartiality of institutions, nor attend to the underlying interests and incentives keeping a bad institutional equilibrium in place, will not help lift the resource curse. (author)
Full Text Available As an immobile, durable and heterogonous good, each housing unit has a bundle of different characteristics. Hedonic price method, which depends on the consumer theory of the classical economics, implies that each characteristic of heterogeneous goods provides a different level of satisfaction or utility to the consumer, being widely accepted as a toolkit for estimating effects of these characteristics on prices and rents. HPM expresses housing prices as the function of structural characteristics, location characteristics, and neighborhood characteristics. Theory and empirical applications of the HPM, which have been used for more than 40 years in developed countries, due to the lack of suitable data related literature is limited in Albania. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between housing rents and housing characteristics in urban Albania with micro database of Living Conditions and Income Survey 2012.
Operational Circular No. 4 (Rev. 1) entitled “Use of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN”, approved by the Director-general following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 15 February 2012, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: https://hr-docs.web.cern.ch/hr-docs/opcirc/opcirc.asp It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 4 entitled “Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN” of April 2003. This new version enables, in particular, to include CERN contractors and their personnel, to harmonize the structure of the circular with other circulars and to simplify the procedures by permitting electronics forms. Department Head Office HR Department
Full Text Available Nowadays, leasing has become an increasingly important and popular method for equipment acquisition. But, because of the rent pricing difficulties and some risks that affect the lessor and lessee's decision making, there are many people that still tend to buy equipment instead of lease it. In this paper we explore how risk can affect the leasing issue support mathematical model. For this purpose, we consider three types of risk; Credit risk, Transaction risk and Risk based pricing. In particular, our focus was on how to make decision about rent pricing in a leasing problem with different customers, various quality levels and different pricing methods. Finally, the mathematical model has been solved by Genetic Algorithm that is a search heuristic to optimize the problem. This algorithm was coded in MATLAB® R2012a to provide the best set of results.
Bena, J.; Hanousek, Jan
Roč. 58, 3-4 (2008), s. 106-130 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/06/1293; GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : rent extraction * large shareholders * dividend policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.275, year: 2008 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1125_str_106_130--bena-hanousek.pdf
Anderson, G M; Tollison, R D
Just prior to the Civil War, the US government set out on a relentless campaign to eliminate polygamy within the Mormon Church. This paper offers evidence that the political restrictions on the practice of polygamy were the result of rent seeking by potential beneficiaries of such laws (the Edmonds Act of 1882). Polygamy created benefits for women, but reduced the welfare of most men, in a time period when only adult males had the franchise.
The author, drawing on thirty-five years of experience in the field of agricultural water management and on cases from research and from development cooperation, puts forward his personal viewpoint on this matter. He contends that local as well as international professionals on different levels in the water sector are caught in multifaceted conflicts between formal objectives and hidden interests – and often tend to resort to rent-seeking behaviour themselves.
This thesis was commissioned by Emi-Rent Properties, a real estate company based in Bel-grade, Serbia. The main objective of this thesis is to help determine the value of growth hack-er marketing for the case company’s newly commissioned marketing campaign. Secondary objective of this thesis is to present practical advice on the implementation of a successful marketing campaign with strong international aspects. The thesis will cover major marketing concepts and provide an alternative view by...
Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel : 72862 / 74474
Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel: 72862 / 74474
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that provides...
Escalante, Jaime Bernal; Rosenfield, Mark
Measurement of the stimulus accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio is a standard procedure in clinical optometric practice. Typically, heterophoria is assessed at several accommodative stimulus levels, and the gradient of the vergence to accommodation function computed. A number of procedures are available for the subjective measurement of heterophoria, but it is unclear whether the use of different vergence measurement techniques will alter the obtained AC/A value. Accordingly, the current study compared AC/A ratios measured using 3 clinical subjective heterophoria tests, namely the von Graefe (VG), Maddox Rod (MR), and Modified Thorington (MT) procedures. The AC/A ratio was measured in 60 visually normal subjects between 20 and 25 years of age using each of the 3 procedures listed above. The accommodative stimulus was varied by the introduction of +/-1.00 diopter (D) spherical lenses over the distance refractive correction while subjects viewed a target at a viewing distance of 40 cm. To examine the repeatability of each procedure, the AC/A ratio was measured on 2 separate occasions for each measurement technique, with the 2 sessions being separated by at least 24 hours. Mean values of stimulus AC/A ratio measured using the VG, MR, and MT procedures were 3.47, 2.99, and 2.46Delta/D, respectively. These differences were significant (p=0.0001). In addition, the coefficient of repeatability for the 3 techniques was 2.22, 1.99, and 1.20 Delta/D, respectively. Ratios obtained using the Modified Thorington technique with +/-1.00 D lenses showed the best repeatability, whereas the poorest repeatability was found with the von Graefe technique when only +1.00 D lenses were used to vary the accommodative stimulus. Accordingly, we recommend that that Modified Thorington procedure with +/-1.00 D lenses be used to quantify heterophoria during clinical measurement of the stimulus AC/A ratio.
... PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Rent Charges § 102-85.160 How does a customer agency... pricing due to changes in scope of proposed projects or repair and/or replacement of building components ...
Full Text Available This study aims at determining the parallel process of car rental agreement between Harkat Rent Car Company and the owner of the car, and between the company and its customers in an Islamic economics perspective. This study also aims to analyze the risk coverage of the leased car. The data for this study was gathered through interviews, observation and documentation studies. The collected data was then analyzed using descriptive analysis method. Results showed that the process of car leasing begin when customer rented a car from CV. Harkat which was owned by its partner. The company provided a shared price for car owners according to a mutual agreement and applied only for a certain period. Furthermore, the partner has to allocate 20 percent of the income for the company. In addition, the company also required the partner to cover for maintenance costs, insurance, equipment, and spare parts. In the context of Islamic economics, the practice of leasing parallel conducted by the company was not fully Shariah compliance due to practice a lease above a lease and using two contracts in one transaction. =========================================== Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perjanjian sewa menyewa mobil secara paralel antara Perusahaan Rent Car CV. Harkat dengan pemilik mobil dan dengan konsumennya dalam perspektif ekonomi Islam. Penelitian ini juga bertujuan untuk menanganalisis pertanggungan resiko terhadap mobil yang dijadikan objek sewa menyewa tersebut sewa menyewa mobil di Perusahaan Rent Car CV. Data untuk penelitian ini bersumber dari wawancara, obesrvasi dan studi dokumentasi. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah deskriptif analisis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa CV. Harkat menyewakan mobil milik mitra kerjanya (pemilik mobil kepada pelanggan yang membutuhkan sewa mobil untuk keperluannya. Pemilik usaha memberikan harga kongsi kepada pemilik mobil sesuai dengan kesepakatan bersama dan untuk jangka waktu
Aslanides, loannis M; Plainis, Sotiris; Kumar, Vinod; Ginis, Harilaos
To present a case of phacoemulsification and implantation of an accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) in a patient with cataract formation after previous refractive surgery. A 50-year-old man, who initially had photorefractive keratectomy to correct moderate myopia, developed a cataract in one eye. He subsequently underwent phacoemulsification and implantation of a 1CU accommodating IOL, as he wished to remain spectacle independent. The patient's distance vision was fully restored. However, accommodative function, which was assessed using subjective and novice objective techniques, was only partially restored. Although the accommodating IOL fully restored the patient's distance vision, accommodative function was only partially restored.
Jarvis, Lovell S.
Rent seeking is well known, but empirical evidence of its effects is relatively rare. This paper analyzes how the domestic and international rent seeking caused Brazil to provide coffee export tax rebates that transferred foreign exchange to coffee importers. Although Brazil was the world's largest exporter, it began to pay export tax rebates to selected coffee importers in 1965 and, by 1988, had paid rebates totaling $8 billion. Brazil explained these rebates as a mechanism to price disc...
Xu, Jing-jing; Xu, Dan; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Jian; Lü, Fan
To detect the accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios measured respectively by objective and subjective methods. The differences and its relative factors were explored. Forty young volunteers were measured by eye tracker to get the amount of convergence when fixating at the target at 100 cm, 50 cm, 33 cm and 25 cm and were measured by infrared auto-refractor to get corresponding accommodative responses. AC/A ratio based on these two measurements were compared with the calculated and the gradient AC/A ratio from Von Graefe tests. Mean value of stimulated AC/A ratio measured by eye tracker was higher than the calculated and gradient AC/A ratio by Von Graefe method (P = 0.003, 0.001). There are statistic correlation (r = 0.871, P = 0.000) and difference (P = 0.000) between stimulated AC/A ratio and response AC/A ratios both measured by eye tracker, and the difference trends to be greater with the higher AC/A ratio. The objective AC/A ratio is usually higher than the clinical subjective measurement because of more proximal effect. The response AC/A ratio measured objectively may reveal realistically the mutual effect and relationship between accommodation and convergence and it seems to be more credible to be the monitor parameter on progression of myopia in clinics.
Full Text Available The occupancy rate of Public Rental Housing (PRH in China is relatively low due to the unreasonable rents. At the same time, the development of PRH using Public Private Partnerships (PPPs increases the complexity of the rents. Therefore, the critical factors influencing the rents of PRH delivery by PPPs should be identified. Based on the comprehensive literature, this article identified a conceptual model for the factors influencing the rents of PRH delivery by PPPs in China, composed of 14 factors grouped in three factor packages, and discussed the relationships among three factor packages. A survey based on Nanjing was conducted to assess the relative significance of 14 factors. According to the results, six critical factors were identified: construction costs, household income, floor area and structure, transportation, market rents in the same district and public facilities. In addition, the proposed conceptual model had a good fit. The results also supported two hypothetical relationships among three factor packages: (1 the increase of the affordability of the target tenants had a positive effect on the increase of profits of private sectors; and (2 the increase of the affordability of the target tenants had a positive effect on the increase of level of the characteristics of PRH units. For future research, six critical factors and the relationships among three factor packages can be used to determine the reasonable rents for PRH delivery by PPPs in China.
Semmlow, J L; Bérard, P V; Vercher, J L; Putteman, A; Gauthier, G M
A near target generates two different, though related stimuli: image disparity and image blur. Fixation of that near target evokes three motor responses: the so-called oculomotor "near triad". It has long been known that both disparity and blur stimuli are each capable of independently generating all three responses, and a recent theory of near triad control (the Dual Interactive Theory) describes how these stimulus components normally work together in the aid of near vision. However, this theory also indicates that when the system becomes unbalanced, as in high AC/A ratios of some accommodative esotropes, the two components will become antagonistic. In this situation, the interaction between the blur and disparity driven components exaggerates the imbalance created in the vergence motor output. Conversely, there is enhanced restoration when the AC/A ratio is effectively reduced surgically.
Arno, Roger D.
The NASA Ames Research Center Biological Research Project (BRP) is responsible for identifying and accommodating high priority life science activities, utilizing nonhuman specimens, on the Space Station and is charged to bridge the gap between the science community and the Space Station Program. This paper discusses the approaches taken by the BRP in accomodating these research objectives to constraints imposed by the Space Station System, while maintaining a user-friendly environment. Consideration is given to the particular research disciplines which are given priority, the science objectives in each of these disciplines, the functions and activities required by these objectives, the research equipment, and the equipment suits. Life sciences programs planned by the Space Station participating partners (USA, Europe, Japan, and Canada) are compared.
McDowell, Caitlin; Fossey, Ellie
Disability discrimination legislation means that employees with a disability or mental illness are legally entitled to reasonable workplace accommodations that enable them to work effectively and safely. This scoping review aims to investigate the types of workplace accommodations provided for people with mental illness, and their costs and benefits. A literature search was conducted using five electronic databases. Peer reviewed research articles published between 1993 and June 2013 were included in this scoping review and their quality was assessed. Opinion papers, reports, and case descriptions were excluded. Nine studies explored workplace accommodations for people with mental illness. The most commonly reported work-related accommodations were flexible scheduling/reduced hours, modified training and supervision, and modified job duties/descriptions. The least common type of accommodation was physical modification to the workplace. For employees with persistent mental illness who were accessing a supported employment agency, the majority of accommodations related to support from the job coach or employment specialist, such as facilitating communication with the employer during hiring or on the job. The quality of the studies varied considerably and the benefits of the accommodations are not yet well documented. There is limited evidence that a larger number of workplace accommodations are associated with longer job tenure. Workplace accommodations appear to be important to support employees with mental illness, but more accessible information about how disability discrimination legislation applies to this population is needed. Future research should address the implementation and effectiveness of mental health-related workplace accommodations.
Tuite, M.J.; Turnbull, J.R.; Orwin, J.F.
Purpose. To determine the relative distribution of the locations of rotator cuff tears, and the sensitivity of anterior versus posterior tears on MR images. Patients and methods. We identified 110 consecutive patients who had a shoulder MR and either a partial-thickness or a small full-thickness rotator cuff tear diagnosed at arthroscopy. MR sensitivity and patient age were compared between patients with tears in the anterior and posterior halves of the cuff. In addition, in patients with partial tears less than 2 cm in diameter, an age comparison between those with tears in the critical zone and those with articular surface tears adjacent to the bony insertion (rim-rent tear) was performed. Results. The tear was centered in the anterior half of the rotator cuff in 79% of the patients younger than 36 years old, and in 89% of the patients 36 years old and over. The average age of the patients with tears in the anterior half (44 years) was not significantly different from the average age of those with posterior tears (40 years). The sensitivity of MR for anterior tears was 0.69, and for posterior tears it was 0.56. Five of the nine rim-rent tears (0.56) were interpreted correctly on the original MR report; two of the other tears were misinterpreted as intratendinous fluid but were diagnosable in retrospect. Conclusion. Even in patients less than 36 years old, most partial and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears are centered in the anterior half of the supraspinatus. Although our figure for MR sensitivity for these tears is lower than in recent articles, we found no significant difference between the sensitivity of MR for diagnosing posterior tears versus tears in the anterior half of the supraspinatus tendon. Rim-rent tears can be mistaken for intratendinous signal, and should be carefully looked for in younger patients with shoulder pain. (orig.)
Norberg, Per; Juul-Sandberg, Jakob
In the Nordic EU member states legislation on landlord’s and tenant’s rights is defined from a socio-economic aspect. The three countries share a common legal »core« which originates from common contract law principles. Tenancy law regulation is different in major areas – especially rent regulation....... In other areas the regulation is quite alike and the results are most often a result of trying to keep the balance between the tenant’s rights to dispose over a home contrary to the landlord’s rights as a property owner. This paper will explore some different aspects of tenancy law regulation – especially...
Tomaz Ponce Dentinho
Full Text Available This paper aims at demonstrating how countries' dependency on natural resources plays a crucial role in urban concentration. The Zipf's Curve Elasticity is estimated for a group of countries and related to a set of indicators of unilateral transferences. Results show that in comparison to others, countries with higher urban concentration explained by higher Zipf's Curve Elasticity have a higher percentage of income coming from natural resources and education expenditures whereas public spending in health and outflow of Foreign Direct Investment seem to have spatial redistribution effects. Summing up, there are signs that the spatial allocation of property rights over natural resources and related rents influences urban concentration.
Tuite, M J; Turnbull, J R; Orwin, J F [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Radiology
Purpose. To determine the relative distribution of the locations of rotator cuff tears, and the sensitivity of anterior versus posterior tears on MR images. Patients and methods. We identified 110 consecutive patients who had a shoulder MR and either a partial-thickness or a small full-thickness rotator cuff tear diagnosed at arthroscopy. From the arthroscopy videotapes, we classified the tears as centered in the anterior or posterior half of the cuff, and as either in the critical zone or adjacent to the bony insertion. The original MR interpretation was compared with the arthroscopic findings. MR sensitivity and patient age were compared between patients with tears in the anterior and posterior halves of the cuff. In addition, in patients with partial tears less than 2 cm in diameter, an age comparison between those with tears in the critical zone and those with articular surface tears adjacent to the bony insertion (rim-rent tear) was performed. Results. The tear was centered in the anterior half of the rotator cuff in 79% of the patients younger than 36 years old, and in 89% of the patients 36 years old and over. The average age of the patients with tears in the anterior half (44 years) was not significantly different from the average age of those with posterior tears (40 years)(P=0.23). The sensitivity of MR for anterior tears was 0.69, and for posterior tears it was 0.56 (P=0.17). The average age of the 9 patients with rim-rent tears was 31 years, while that of the 28 patients with similarly-sized partial tears not involving the insertion was 40 years old (P=0.048). Five of the nine rim-rent tears (0.56) were interpreted correctly on the original MR report; two of the other tears were misinterpreted as intratendinous fluid but were diagnosable in retrospect. Conclusion. Even in patients less than 36 years old, most partial and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears are centered in the anterior half of the supraspinatus. Although our figure for MR sensitivity
Cameroon is Africa in miniature with a lot of tourist attractions owing to its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, deserts, mountains, rainforests, and savannas. Accommodation services have been a grand phenomenon within the tourism industry in Cameroon. The accommodation sector has developed tremendously within the past decades. The objective of this research work was to find about out the marketing of accommodation services in Cameroon with Hotel Azam as...
Recreation activities represent quality of company, image and attractiveness for both staying guests and day use guests. At the same time recreation can be important income source for accommodation companies. This study investigate the web page of 82 five star accommodation company in Istanbul from the side of recreation activities. At the end of the study find that most of accommodation company don't have in place recreation activities, recreation tab and representation about activities in t...
Sjekavica, Tomo; Žitnik, Marjan; Miličević, Mario
Extreme expansion of digital technologies and social networks in recent years has had a huge impact on the travel market and online tourism. Along with the digitalization of tourism and travel business, every day more and more accommodation bookings take place online. Most popular online travel web sites are commonly charging provision for the accommodation booking and don't allow direct contact with the accommodation owners. Today tourists demand more for their money, so they are more likely...
Napierała, Tomasz; Leśniewska, Katarzyna
In the presentation authors discuss the location-based factors’ impact on accommodation prices. The aim of the presentation is to compare the results of qualitative and quantitative research on location-based determinants of accommodation prices in Lodz Metropolitan Area (Poland). The authors employ methodological triangulation (Yeung 2000), both to explore statistical significance of location-based determinants of accommodation prices, and to present managerial opinions about the influence o...
Eichmann, Traci L; Santerre, Rexford E
Prior research suggests that Certificate of Need (CON) laws reduce competition in the hospital services industry. As a result, this study empirically investigates if not-for-profit hospital chief executive officers (CEOs) are able to extract rents from CON laws in the form of higher compensation. A sample of 256 not-for-profit hospital CEOs in states with and without CON laws and data for 2007 are used in the empirical analysis. The study considers the endogenous nature of a CON law and allows such a law to indirectly affect CEO compensation through its impact on the number of hospitals and beds. The multiple regression results indicate that special and public interests both motivate the decision of a state to maintain a CON law. CON laws are shown to reduce the number of beds at the typical hospital by 12 percent, on average, and the number of hospitals per 100,000 persons by 48 percent. These reductions ultimately lead urban hospital CEOs in states with CON laws to extract economic rents of $91,000 annually.
Banfi, Silvia; Filippini, Massimo
The electricity generation in Switzerland is mainly based on hydropower (55% of total production). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant so-called resource rents. These are defined by the surplus return above the value of capital, labor, materials, and energy used to exploit hydropower. In Switzerland, hydropower producers pay to the State a fixed fee per kW gross capacity. With this system the substantial differences in costs, revenues and in the production characteristics of the hydropower plants are not taken into account. In this context, the following paper has two main goals: (1) to discuss the introduction in the Swiss hydropower sector of a new payment system based on a resource rent tax; (2) To propose a combination of a RRT system with a benchmarking analysis of the production cost obtained through the estimation of a stochastic frontier variable cost function. We estimate a true random effects stochastic frontier variable cost function using panel data in order to overcome the asymmetric information problem. In addition, using the information on cost efficiency of the single companies, we show how to introduce in the RRT scheme a benchmark system which gives incentives to minimize the production costs.
Full Text Available According to the “induced innovation model of agricultural development” there exist mechanisms for this sector’s participation in contributing to economic development, as well as in sharing its benefits. Nonetheless, inefficiencies of the market that distort market signals, constitute a barrier of the latter process. Therefore, the so-called “surplus drainage” from agriculture takes place. The authors claim that it is possible to objectively measure a “surplus drainage” from agriculture as a result of market failure. Assuming that rural areas generate public goods (i.e. a landscape, a biodiversity, rural culture and tradition, unique food quality, food safety, food security speculative land investors have lower willingness to contribute to its creation, than family farms. This is why agrarian policy levies more duties on them (institutional barriers and favours farmers. The mentioned premises imply that the CAP’s subsidies should not be perceived as political rents according to its classical definition. Only a part of subsidies left after subtracting a value of “surplus drainage” and a compensation of public goods has a hallmark of the rent. A valuation of these values is an important scientific challenge.
Jarvis, Lovell S.
Brazil, the world's largest coffee exporter, encouraged efforts in the 1960s to form the International Coffee Agreement (ICA), which restricted total coffee exports via country export quotas. The quotas led to significant domestic quota rents in producing countries. This paper analyzes the effects of rent seeking in Brazil. The Brazilian Institute of Coffee (IBC), which was responsible for coffee policy, was the focus of rent seeking. The paper models the policy instruments used by the IB...
Maiello, Guido; Kerber, Kristen L; Thorn, Frank; Bex, Peter J; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A
The formation of focused and corresponding foveal images requires a close synergy between the accommodation and vergence systems. This linkage is usually decoupled in virtual reality systems and may be dysfunctional in people who are at risk of developing myopia. We study how refractive error affects vergence-accommodation interactions in stereoscopic displays. Vergence and accommodative responses were measured in 21 young healthy adults (n=9 myopes, 22-31 years) while subjects viewed naturalistic stimuli on a 3D display. In Step 1, vergence was driven behind the monitor using a blurred, non-accommodative, uncrossed disparity target. In Step 2, vergence and accommodation were driven back to the monitor plane using naturalistic images that contained structured depth and focus information from size, blur and/or disparity. In Step 1, both refractive groups converged towards the stereoscopic target depth plane, but the vergence-driven accommodative change was smaller in emmetropes than in myopes (F 1,19 =5.13, p=0.036). In Step 2, there was little effect of peripheral depth cues on accommodation or vergence in either refractive group. However, vergence responses were significantly slower (F 1,19 =4.55, p=0.046) and accommodation variability was higher (F 1,19 =12.9, p=0.0019) in myopes. Vergence and accommodation responses are disrupted in virtual reality displays in both refractive groups. Accommodation responses are less stable in myopes, perhaps due to a lower sensitivity to dioptric blur. Such inaccuracies of accommodation may cause long-term blur on the retina, which has been associated with a failure of emmetropization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martin Ming-Leung Ma
Full Text Available Introduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement to improve accommodative function in myopic children with poor accommodative response. Methods. This was a prospective unmasked pilot study. 14 Chinese myopic children aged 8 to 12 years with at least 1 D of lag of accommodation were enrolled. All subjects received 12 weeks of 60-minute office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement. Primary outcome measure was the change in monocular lag of accommodation from baseline visit to 12-week visit measured by Shinnipon open-field autorefractor. Secondary outcome measures were the changes in accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility. Results. All participants completed the study. The lag of accommodation at baseline visit was 1.29 ± 0.21 D and it was reduced to 0.84 ± 0.19 D at 12-week visit. This difference (−0.46 ± 0.22 D; 95% confidence interval: −0.33 to −0.58 D is statistically significant (p<0.0001. OBAVT also increased the amplitude and facility by 3.66 ± 3.36 D (p=0.0013; 95% confidence interval: 1.72 to 5.60 D and 10.9 ± 4.8 cpm (p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: 8.1 to 13.6 cpm, respectively. Conclusion. Standardized 12 weeks of OBAVT with home reinforcement is able to significantly reduce monocular lag of accommodation and increase monocular accommodative amplitude and facility. A randomized clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of vision therapy on myopia progression is warranted.
This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs) and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accommodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner's linguistic needs for…
Full Text Available The paper analyses the evolution of the number of tourists accommodated in Arad between January 2006 and September 2009. For this purpose we have used the statistics data from the official sites. As variables we chose: X – independent variable - Total tourist arrival and accommodated in Arad, Y - dependent variable - Tourists staying in hotels.
Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy
Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…
Ide, Takeshi; Negishi, Kazuno; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Hara, Shuya; Toda, Ikuko; Tsubota, Kazuo
This study aimed to evaluate a newly designed compact accommodometer (CA) and compare this with a conventional accommodometer for measuring accommodation as a biomarker for aging and lifestyle. This is an observational case series. Accommodative amplitude was measured using 2 different accommodometers in 114 patients. We obtained the data of the near-point accommodation amplitude. Subsequently, we used smoking habit as an example of lifestyle-related factor to evaluate its effect on the accommodative power. The first part of the study included 60 eyes of 60 men and 54 eyes of 54 women, with a mean (SD) age of 43.8 (12.9) years (range, 18-58 years). There was a consistency within each measuring method despite a significant difference between the 2 devices (P the second part of the study, we found a significant correlation between age and accommodative amplitude both in smokers and in nonsmokers. The accommodative amplitude of the smoker group was significantly lower than that of the nonsmoker group (P the conventional accommodometer for measuring accommodative amplitude as an aging biomarker. Lifestyle factors can affect the magnitude of accommodation, which can be measured by this newly developed CA.
Cancel, Amanda E.; Mitrook, Michael A.; Cameron, Glen T.
Interviews 18 public-relations professionals to provide grounding and refinement of the contingency theory of accommodation in public relations. Supports a continuum from pure accommodation to pure advocacy and a matrix of variables affecting the continuum. Concludes that the practitioners' view of their communication world offers validity to the…
Drew, Stefanie A; Borsting, Eric; Stark, Lawrence R; Chase, Chris
Asthenopia is a common problem associated with near work and reports suggest that colored lenses or overlays may be applied to reduce symptoms. In this study, we examine the relationship between eyestrain, color preferences, and function of the accommodation and vergence system. Specifically, we examine whether symptomatic observers select colors that reduce accommodative demand based on longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA). Forty-seven undergraduate students participated in this study. Visual discomfort symptoms were assessed using the Conlon survey. A Mark 2 Intuitive Colorimeter was used to obtain optimal colored light preferences. LCA was modeled using the Chromatic Eye and spectral power density data. A comprehensive evaluation of accommodation and vergence was performed following standard procedures. A significant negative correlation (r = -0.51) was found between eyestrain symptoms and the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) v' axis of colors preferences. Additionally, a significant negative correlation (r = -0.31) was found between eyestrain symptoms and LCA accommodation. Two thirds of the participants in the high discomfort group chose colors that decreased accommodative demand. Accommodative amplitude and vergence facility also correlated with LCA, accounting for 25% of the variance. The color preferences of individuals are systematically influenced by the functioning of their accommodation and vergence systems with increased symptomatology resulting in color selections that reduce LCA accommodative stimulus demand.
Full Text Available Privately provided accommodation is a growing service in Uganda’s higher education sector due to education liberalization and demand for education. This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction. Specifically, the objectives of the study were (a to find out the relationship between security and NTISD students’ satisfaction with privately provided accommodation, and (b to find out the hierarchical level of importance of NTISD student satisfaction of the three service quality dimensions (reliability, security, and tangibles with privately provided accommodation. Using quantitative and qualitative modes of data analysis and a sample of 300 students from 20 private hostels, this study established a strong positive significant relationship between security and satisfaction regarding privately provided accommodation. This implies that accommodation service providers should increase the quality of security so as to increase the satisfaction of students regarding privately provided accommodation. The study established the hierarchical order of importance from the most important service quality dimension, respectively, as follows: reliability, security, and tangibles. Therefore, private accommodation service managers should pay extra attention to the dimensions in the same order.
Prabhakar Srinivasapur Krishnacharya
Conclusions: The performance of TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor was comparable to dynamic retinoscopy. Presence of many children, and in turn, large number of accommodative response data in 11–13 and 14–15 years group is probably linked to prolonged reading/writing. The accuracy and the agreement of the actual accommodative measurements revealed after cycloplegia.
Hermans, E.A.; Dubbelman, M.; van der Heijde, R.G.L.; Heethaar, R.M.
PURPOSE.: To experimentally verify the suggestion of Gullstrand (1909), i.e., that the equivalent refractive index of the human lens increases with accommodation. METHODS.: The left eye of five subjects was focused on different accommodation stimuli, while the right eye was imaged with Scheimpflug
Li Zhe; Ouyang Minggao
Recently battery leasing has been introduced into the market by automobile manufacturers and power suppliers due to its potential to reduce the purchase cost of electric vehicles (EVs). However, the profit prospect of battery leasing is still uncertain. This paper takes the views of both the operators and consumers and calculates the 'win-win' marginal rent, which not only ensures the profitability of operators, but also allows consumers a lower expenditure than using Internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs) and EVs with embedded batteries. Battery cost, vehicle weight, gasoline and electricity price, and the discount rate have impacts on the rent. Battery cost plays a dominant role and a battery cost >5 Yen /W h fails to enable the survival of battery leasing to all types of EVs. Battery leasing would be more competitive when focusing on heavier EVs. At least one of the three thresholds is required for the existence of rent pricing range for a 1000 kg EV: gasoline retail price >6 Yen /L, electricity price <0.6 Yen /kW h, or the discount rate <7%. Typically, the feasible battery rent range is 0.34-0.38 Yen /W h/year for a 1000 kg EV under the present battery cost 2 Yen /W h and China current gasoline and electricity prices. - Highlights: → Rent pricing for EV battery leasing must obey win-win rule for BLO and consumers. → Rent is affected by battery cost, vehicle weight, energy price and discount rate. → Battery cost plays dominant role for the BLO survival as described in '5-3-2' Law. → Heavier EVs are more suitable for battery leasing when battery cost is high. → The profitability of BLO is sensitive to the price of gasoline and electricity.
Gaines, Stanley O; Henderson, Michael C; Kim, Mary; Gilstrap, Samuel; Yi, Jennifer; Rusbult, Caryl E; Hardin, Deletha P; Gaertner, Lowell
In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect, responses to partners' anger or criticism) in heterosexual and gay relationships; and we examined the impact of internalized homophobia (i.e., attitudes toward self, other, and disclosure) on accommodation specifically in gay relationships. A total of 262 heterosexuals (102 men and 162 women) and 857 gays (474 men and 383 women) participated in the present study. Consistent with hypotheses, among heterosexuals and gays, socially oriented values were significantly and positively related to accommodation (whereas the personally oriented value of individualism was unrelated to accommodation); and among gays in particular, internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively related to accommodation. Implications for the study of heterosexual and gay relationships are discussed.
Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M
This study considered whether vergence drives accommodation or accommodation drives vergence during the control of distance exotropia for near fixation. High accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios are often used to explain this control, but the role of convergence to drive accommodation (the CA/C relationship) is rarely considered. Atypical CA/C characteristics could equally, or better, explain common clinical findings. Nineteen distance exotropes, aged 4-11 years, were compared while controlling their deviation with 27 non-exotropic controls aged 5-9 years. Simultaneous vergence and accommodation responses were measured to a range of targets incorporating different combinations of blur, disparity and looming cues at four fixation distances between 2 m and 33 cm. Stimulus and response AC/A and CA/C ratios were calculated. Accommodation responses for near targets (p = 0.017) and response gains (p = 0.026) were greater in the exotropes than in the controls. Despite higher clinical stimulus AC/A ratios, the distance exotropes showed lower laboratory response AC/A ratios (p = 0.02), but significantly higher CA/C ratios (p = 0.02). All the exotropes, whether the angle changed most with lenses ('controlled by accommodation') or on occlusion ('controlled by fusion'), used binocular disparity not blur as their main cue to target distance. Increased vergence demand to control intermittent distance exotropia for near also drives significantly more accommodation. Minus lens therapy is more likely to act by correcting overaccommodation driven by controlling convergence, rather than by inducing blur-driven vergence. The use of convergence as a major drive to accommodation explains many clinical characteristics of distance exotropia, including apparently high near stimulus AC/A ratios. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.
Im, Jongho; Seo, Youngme; Cetin, Kristen S.; Singh, Jasmeet
Highlights: •Rental units listings collected and analyzed for 10 U.S. cities. •Energy efficient features included in 5.3–21.6% of rental units in each city. •The most common efficient features are lighting and appliance upgrades. •Propensity score matching and conditional mean comparison methods used. •Generally, energy efficient features increases the units’ rent, overall from 6% to 14%. -- Abstract: For 118 million residential housing units in the U.S., there is currently a gap between the potential energy savings that can be achieved through the use of existing energy efficiency technologies, and the actual level of energy savings realized, particularly for the 37% of housing units that are considered residential rental properties. Additional quantifiable benefits are needed beyond energy savings to help further motivate residential property owners to invest in energy efficiency upgrades. This research focuses on assessing the adoption of energy efficient upgrades in U.S. residential housing and the impact on rental prices. Ten U.S. cities are chosen for analysis; these cities vary in size across multiple climate zones, and represent a diverse set of housing market conditions. Data was collected for over 159,000 rental property listings, their characteristics, and their energy efficiency measures listed in rental housing postings across each city. Following an extensive data quality control process, over thirty different types energy efficient features were identified. The level of adoption was determined for each city, ranging from 5.3% to 21.6%. Efficient lighting and appliances were among the most common, with many features doubling as energy efficient and other desirable aesthetic or comfort improvements. Then using propensity score matching and conditional mean comparison methods, the relative impact on rent charged in each city was calculated, which ranged from a 6% to 14.1% increase in rent for properties with energy efficient features
Samuel O. Wajuihian
Full Text Available Comfortable reading and the performance of related near point activities involve efficient accommodative and vergence systems. However, accommodative and convergence anomalies are associated with various symptoms of asthenopia that impair efficient near point tasks. In Part 1 of this two-part article, studies on vergence anomalies were reviewed. In the current paper (Part 2, anomalies of accommodation are reviewed. The aims of the latter paper were to derive the prevalence and distribution estimates of anomalies of accommodation in school-age children and address variations in the study methods and findings. Despite variations in the study methods and findings, anomalies of accommodation are prevalent among school-age populations. Variations and limitations of previous studies are discussed and recommendations for improving future studies are suggested.
Full Text Available The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products. Considering the features of fashion products, a system of a rent-based closed-loop supply chain is developed to improve the sustainability of fashion products. The supply chain processes (fashion design and manufacturing, laundry, logistics and disposal, the operations management issues (inventory management, closed-loop logistics, human-clothing matching, booking system and the rental pricing and the sustainability promotion aspects (customization, responsive system, culture and policy aspects are investigated by devising sustainable strategies. The rationalities of the developed system and strategies are reviewed and elucidated in detail. The results may contribute to building sustainable closed-loop fashion supply chains, the related information systems and operational and managerial mechanisms.
Liu, Minghai; Gross, George
Evaluation of key metrics for congestion management, including the congestion rents and the financial transmission rights (FTR) payoffs, requires the efficient allocation of transmission services and the calculation of appropriate locational marginal prices (LMPs). This requirement is particularly acute when there are bilateral transactions coexisting with the centralized pool markets. We propose a new formulation for this purpose, which captures explicitly the contribution of the bilateral transactions to the social welfare. The proposed formulation effectively integrates the pool market and the bilateral transactions on a consistent basis and results in the more efficient allocation of the transmission resources than the conventional tool. We assess analytically the capabilities of the proposed formulation and solution and quantify the improvements in the evaluations over those done using the conventional approach. Such improvements are also illustrated using simulation results on a wide range of test systems including the IEEE 118-bus network. (author)
Natural resource revenues differ from other government revenues both in their time profile, and in their political and legal status: they are volatile and exhaustible, and belong to all citizens of the country in which they are located. This paper discusses the theory of natural resource revenues and examines expenditure practices in a range of resource-rich countries. It considers both the distributional impact and the efficiency of expenditure policies, focusing on the extent to which they succeed in providing all citizens with their share of the benefits due to natural resources. - Highlights: ► We examine the relationship between resource rents and government resource revenues. ► We discuss the intertemporal management of resource revenues in theory and in practice. ► We critically examine existing policies for distributing resource revenues to populations.
Karantininis, Kostas; Graversen, Jesper Tranbjerg
, when building the broiler house, to prepare a viable future change in production from broilers to pigs. This will increase the bargaining power to farmers and may result in higher producer prices. Based on the general model of the hold-up problem with co-specific investments (Koss & Eaton, 1997......This paper examines the problem of hold-up in the agri-food sector. Production contracts offered to future Danish Broiler producers give rise to specific investments and appropriable quasi rents. Farmers are vulnerable to opportunistic behaviour by poultry processors which materializes in lower...... prices and results in lower investments. One obvious alternative to producing broilers is to produce pigs; since the pork industry is very well developed with the pork slaughter and processing being mainly (more than 90 %) run by two producer-owned cooperatives. Then it might be possible for the farmer...
Residential building accommodation projects undertaken by individuals and organizations are investment whose returns and rewards should be adequate to offset the costs incurred and give good level of profit for entrepreneurial risks. In the recent times there existed unprecedented rise in rental values of newly completed ...
Akar, Serpil; Gokyigit, Birsen; Sayin, Nihat; Demirok, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk
To evaluate the results of Faden operations on the medial rectus (MR) muscles with or without recession for the treatment of partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC : A) ratio and to determine whether there was a decrease in the effects of posterior fixation over time. In this retrospective study, 108 of 473 patients who underwent surgery for partially accommodative esotropia with a high AC : A ratio received Faden operations on both MR muscles, and 365 received symmetric MR muscle recessions combined with a Faden operation. For the Faden operation, a satisfactory outcome of 76.9% at 1 month postoperation, decreased to 71.3% by the final follow-up visit (mean 4.8 years). A moderate positive correlation was observed between the increase in the postoperative near deviation and postoperative time. For the Faden operations combined with MR recession, a satisfactory outcome of 78.9% at 1 month post-operation, decreased to 78.4% by the final follow-up visit. A Faden operation of the MR muscles with or without recession is an effective surgical option for treating partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high AC : A ratio. For Faden operations of the MR muscles without recession, the effects of the posterior fixation decline over time.
Full Text Available Umberto Albert, Alessandra Baffa, Giuseppe Maina Rita Levi Montalcini Department of Neuroscience, A.O.U. San Luigi Gonzaga, University of Turin, Turino, Italy Abstract: The term accommodation has been used to refer to family responses specifically related to obsessive–compulsive (OC symptoms: it encompasses behaviors such as directly participating in compulsions, assisting a relative with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD when he/she is performing a ritual, or helping him/her to avoid triggers that may precipitate obsessions and compulsions. At the opposite side, family responses to OCD may also include interfering with the rituals or actively opposing them; stopping accommodating OC symptoms or actively interfering with their performance is usually associated with greater distress and sometimes even with aggressive behaviors from the patients. This article summarizes progress of the recent research concerning family accommodation in relatives of patients with OCD. Family accommodation is a prevalent phenomenon both among parents of children/adolescents with OCD and relatives/caregivers of adult patients. It can be measured with a specific instrument, the Family Accommodation Scale, of which there are several versions available for use in clinical practice. The vast majority of both parents of children/adolescents with OCD and family members of adult patients show at least some accommodation; providing reassurances to obsessive doubts, participating in rituals and assisting the patient in avoidance are the most frequent accommodating behaviors displayed by family members. Modification of routine and modification of activities specifically due to OC symptoms have been found to be equally prevalent. Specific characteristics of patients (such as contamination/washing symptoms and of relatives (the presence of anxiety or depressive symptoms or a family history positive for another anxiety disorder are associated with a higher degree of family
Holt, Alan C.
The paper examines the features of the accommodation equipment designed for the candidate technology payloads of the Space Station, which include magnetic plasma thruster systems and a hypothetical advanced electromagnetic propulsion system utilizing high-temperature superconductivity materials. The review of the accommodation-equipment concepts supports the assumption that some propulsion technologies can be tested on the Space Station while being attached externally to the station's truss structure. For testing technologies with inherent operation or performance hazards, space platforms and smaller free-flyers coordinated with the Space Station can be used. Diagrams illustrating typical accommodation equipment configurations are included.
Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis
thermoregulation, muscular, and cardiac responses to weightlessness. In contrast, the five completed Cosmos/Bion flights, lacked the metabolic samples and behavioral task monitoring, but did facilitate studies of the neurovestibular system during several of the flights. The RRF accommodated two adult 8-11 kg rhesus monkeys, while the Russian experiments and hardware were configured for a younger animal in the 44 kg range. Both the American and Russian hardware maintained a controlled environmental system, specifically temperature, humidity, a timed lighting cycle, and had means for providing food and fluids to the animal(s). Crew availability during a Shuttle mission was to be an optimal condition for retrieval and refrigeration of the animal urine samples along with a manual calcein injection which could lead to greater understanding of bone calcium incorporation. A special portable bioisolation glove box was under development to support this aspect of the experiment profile along with the capability of any contingency human intervention. As a result of recent U.S./Russian negotiations, funding for Space Station, and a series of other events, the SLS-3 mission was cancelled and applicable Rhesus Project experiments incorporated into the Russian Bion 11 and 12 missions. A presentation of the RRF and COSMOS/Bion rhesus hardware is presented along with current plans for the hardware.
... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination with personal holding company provisions in case of certain produced film rents. 1.992-4 Section 1.992-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International...
... HMFA. Las Vegas-Paradise, NV MSA New Haven-Meriden, CT HMFA. North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota, FL MSA... areas of New Jersey, Anchorage and several non-metropolitan areas of Alaska, Dallas, TX and Burlington... Projects and Low-Income Housing Tax Credit Projects at Risk If a current HUD Section 8 project uses rents...
... 2%) on the cost of the prospective capital investment. Each specific use of Return on Investment... customer agency. Once the ROI methodology is employed to establish Rent for a capital investment, the ROI...-owned buildings, a return on investment pricing approach if an appraisal-determined rental value does...
Gwiazda, Jane; Thorn, Frank; Held, Richard
The purpose of this study was to investigate accommodation, accommodative convergence, and AC/A ratios before and at the onset of myopia in children. Refractive error, accommodation, and phorias were measured annually over a period of 3 years in 80 6- to 18-year-old children (mean age at first visit = 11.1 years), including 26 who acquired myopia of at least -0.50 D and 54 who remained emmetropic (-0.25 to + 0.75 D). Refraction was measured by noncycloplegic distance retinoscopy. Concomitant measures of accommodation and phorias were taken for letter targets at 4.0 m and 0.33 m using the Canon R-1 open field-of-view autorefractor with an attached motorized Risley prism and Maddox rod. The accommodation and phoria measurements were used to calculate response AC/A ratios. Compared with children who remained emmetropic, those who became myopic had elevated response AC/A ratios at 1 and 2 years before the onset of myopia, in addition to at onset and 1 year later (t's = -2.97 to -4.04, p accommodation. Accommodative convergence was significantly greater in myopes only at onset. These findings suggest that the abnormal oculomotor factors found before the onset of myopia may contribute to myopigenesis by producing hyperopic retinal defocus when a child is engaged in near-viewing tasks.
Dompere, Kofi Kissi
This volume presents an analysis of the problems and solutions of the market mockery of the democratic collective decision-choice system with imperfect information structure composed of defective and deceptive structures using methods of fuzzy rationality. The book is devoted to the political economy of rent-seeking, rent-protection and rent-harvesting to enhance profits under democratic collective decision-choice systems. The toolbox used in the monograph consists of methods of fuzzy decision, approximate reasoning, negotiation games and fuzzy mathematics. The monograph further discusses the rent-seeking phenomenon in the Schumpeterian and Marxian political economies where the rent-seeking activities transform the qualitative character of the general capitalism into oligarchic socialism and making the democratic collective decision-choice system as an ideology rather than social calculus for resolving conflicts in preferences in the collective decision-choice space without violence.
This instructor and student guide is designed to guide the instructor in conveying information at the district level concerning Research Project 0-6404 Accommodating Oversize and Overweight Loads. The specific information focuses on the Bryan D...
Geary, Julian Lindsay
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of occlusal accommodation on the arch separation in centric and eccentric arch positions and to assess the opposing tooth contacts in professionally made, thermoformed sports mouthguards.
Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the relationship between amplitude of accommodation and refractive errors in the peri-presbyopic age group. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of 316 consecutive patients in the age group 35-50 years who attended our outpatient clinic were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 6/6 J1 in both eyes were included. The amplitude of accommodation (AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation (NPA. In patients with more than ± 2 diopter sphere correction for distance, the NPA was also measured using appropriate soft contact lenses. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in AA between myopes and hypermetropes ( P P P P P P >0.5. Conclusion: Our study showed higher amplitude of accommodation among myopes between 35 and 44 years compared to emmetropes and hypermetropes
Bingol Kiziltunc, Pinar; Atilla, Huban; Yalcindag, F Nilufer
We present a case in which Gilbert syndrome was diagnosed following a neuro-ophthalmic complaint. Adverse effects of drugs as well as various systemic, neurological, and local ocular pathologies can cause accommodative insufficiency and loss of accommodation. A 29-year-old man was admitted to an ophthalmology department with blurred vision and diagnosed as suffering from acute accommodation paralysis. He had a history of being given a pheniramine maleate injection for pruritus 20 days previously. Symptoms began immediately following the injection. After systemic evaluation and laboratory tests, he was diagnosed as having Gilbert syndrome. His complaints and symptoms recovered in approximately a further 10 days. Metabolism of pheniramine maleate can be impaired in Gilbert syndrome and anticholinergic effects can cause accommodation paralysis.
Geary, Julian Lindsay; Clifford, Thomas Joseph; Kinirons, Martin James
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of occlusal accommodation on the arch separation in centric and eccentric arch positions and to assess the opposing tooth contacts in professionally made, thermoformed sports mouthguards. Maxillary and mandibular alginate impressions, a wax interocclusal record of centric occlusion together with maxillary/condylar face-bow registrations, were recorded clinically for 10 undergraduate dental students who are sports activist volunteers of the School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen's University Belfast. Two ethylene vinyl acetate thermoformed maxillary mouthguards were made for each player (N = 20) using a standardised procedure. Ten mouthguards served both as the control (i.e. the non-accommodated) group and also the accommodated, occlusally 'imprinted' group. The other 10 mouthguards served as the accommodated, occlusally 'ground' group. Casts were articulated, each non-accommodated and accommodated mouthguard was seated and the extent of the interocclusal opening was recorded in all three arch relationships. The number of mouthguard and mandibular tooth contacts were also recorded in each position. The increased vertical occlusal dimension that was found in the presence of non-accommodated mouthguards equated to the full-sheet thickness of the material that was used to form the mouthguards. Only mouthguards accommodated by grinding retained high levels of occlusal contact in all arch relationships that were tested. Within the limitations of this study, the modification of the occlusal surface made by flat grinding reduced the arch separation in eccentric movements and increased the opposing tooth contacts in custom-made mouthguards. This may contribute to increased comfort, compliance and the protective effect of these appliances thus resulting in a reduction of injuries to the teeth, arches and soft tissues.
Reino, Sofia; Frew, Andrew J; Albacete-Saez, Carlos
Purpose – The work described in this paper is of direct relevance to those with an interest in the phenomena surrounding ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) adoption by the rural accommodation sector. The paper provides the results from a preliminary study, which examined differences in the level of inter-firm technology adoption between rural and urban accommodation establishments within a major tourism destination, Scotland. Design/methodology/approach – A survey was conducted,...
Sisó-Fuertes, Irene; Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; Montés-Micó, Robert
To assess whether corneal parameters and aberrations are affected by accommodation. Optics Department, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Prospective cross-sectional study. The Galilei G4 dual Scheimpflug device was used to obtain data on the anterior and posterior axial curvatures, total corneal power (TCP), and corneal pachymetry from 3 corneal zones (central: 0.0 up to 4.0 mm; paracentral or mid: 4.0 up to 7.0 mm; peripheral: 7.0 up to 10.0 mm) in young emmetropic eyes in the unaccommodated and 4 accommodated states (from -1.0 to -4.0 diopters [D] in 1.0 D steps). The 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-order aberrations as well as the root mean square (RMS) were also determined for the entire cornea at the same accommodative demands. The study evaluated 7 subjects (12 eyes). No significant changes in any measured parameter were found during accommodation for any corneal zone (P > .05). Statistically significant differences were found in the various corneal zones when it was assumed they were constant with accommodation (P the high standard deviation values. Different parameters in various zones of the cornea as well as corneal aberrations were stable during accommodation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Horwood, Anna M; Toor, Sonia S; Riddell, Patricia M
This study investigated whether vergence and accommodation development in preterm infants is preprogrammed or is driven by experience. Thirty-two healthy infants, born at mean 34 weeks gestation (range, 31.2-36 weeks), were compared with 45 healthy full-term infants (mean 40.0 weeks) over a 6-month period, starting at 4 to 6 weeks postnatally. Simultaneous accommodation and convergence to a detailed target were measured using a Plusoptix PowerRefII infrared photorefractor as a target moved between 0.33 and 2 m. Stimulus/response gains and responses at 0.33 and 2 m were compared by both corrected (gestational) age and chronological (postnatal) age. When compared by their corrected age, preterm and full-term infants showed few significant differences in vergence and accommodation responses after 6 to 7 weeks of age. However, when compared by chronological age, preterm infants' responses were more variable, with significantly reduced vergence gains, reduced vergence response at 0.33 m, reduced accommodation gain, and increased accommodation at 2 m compared to full-term infants between 8 and 13 weeks after birth. When matched by corrected age, vergence and accommodation in preterm infants show few differences from full-term infants' responses. Maturation appears preprogrammed and is not advanced by visual experience. Longer periods of immature visual responses might leave preterm infants more at risk of development of oculomotor deficits such as strabismus.
Lanchares, Elena; Navarro, Rafael; Calvo, Begoña
Purpose The modification of the mechanical properties of the human crystalline lens with age can be a major cause of presbyopia. Since these properties cannot be measured in vivo, numerical simulation can be used to estimate them. We propose an inverse method to determine age-dependent change in the material properties of the tissues composing the human crystalline lens. Methods A finite element model of a 30-year-old lens in the accommodated state was developed. The force necessary to achieve full accommodation in a 30-year-old lens of known external geometry was computed using this model. Two additional numerical models of the lens corresponding to the ages of 40 and 50 years were then built. Assuming that the accommodative force applied to the lens remains constant with age, the material properties of nucleus and cortex were estimated by inverse analysis. Results The zonular force necessary to reshape the model of a 30-year-old lens from the accommodated to the unaccommodated geometry was 0.078 newton (N). Both nucleus and cortex became stiffer with age. The stiffness of the nucleus increased with age at a higher rate than the cortex. Conclusions In agreement with the classical theory of Helmholtz, on which we based our model, our results indicate that a major cause of presbyopia is that both nucleus and cortex become stiffer with age; therefore, a constant value of the zonular forces with aging does not achieve full accommodation, that is, the accommodation capability decreases.
... subtense but lying at different distances, allied to errors in accommodation. Thus an error in accommodation, caused perhaps by the tendency of the accommodation system to revert to its somewhat myopic tonic or resting state (Toates, 1972...
Full Text Available AIM: To study the ortho-k lens and frame glasses in patients with juvenile myopia the influence of the accommodative convergence/accommodation(AC/A, further clear the effectiveness of controlling the myopia development and security.METHODS: Randomly select 60 patients to our hospital check-up successfully with ortho-k lens of juvenile myopia patients as experimental group, and 60 cases were randomly selected given frame glasses as control group. we observed two groups of patients before and after refractive correction the changes of AC/A and spherical equivalent. Observation time was 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year.RESULTS: The AC/A of experimental group worn glasses before and after 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year were 4.05±2.03, 3.05±1.85, 3.31±1.02, 3.14±1.64 and 3.20±1.55,respectively with statistically significant difference(PP>0.05. Three months after worn glasses there was significant difference(PP>0.05. Wearing glasses after 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, the two groups had significant difference(PP>0.05. Spherical equivalent, observation time was 1 year: experimental group spherical equivalent degrees increased by 0.38±0.35DS, the control group spherical equivalent degrees increased by 0.84±0.56DS, the two groups were statistically significant difference(PCONCLUSION: Both groups could reduce the AC/A value. The experimental group than the control group was better and faster to improve the relationship between the adjustment and collection. The AC/A value was on the high side after myopic degree growth. The ortho-k lens is an effective lens for the moderate myopia.It can more effectively control the growth of juvenile myopia than frame glasses, which is an effective way to control myopia. The mechanism of improving his visual function remains to be further studied.
Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Leck, Joanne; Shen, Winny; Stinson, Jennifer
Many youths with disabilities find it challenging to disclose their medical condition and request workplace accommodations. Our objective was to explore when and how young people with disabilities disclose their condition and request workplace accommodations. We conducted 17 in-depth interviews (11 females, six males) with youth with disabilities aged 15-34 (mean age 26). We analyzed our data using an interpretive, qualitative, and thematic approach. Our results showed the timing of when youth disclosed their disability to their employer depended on disability type and severity, comfort level, type of job, and industry. Youth's strategies and reasons for disclosure included advocating for their needs, being knowledgeable about workplace rights, and accommodation solutions. Facilitators for disclosure included job preparation, self-confidence, and self-advocacy skills, and having an inclusive work environment. Challenges to disability disclosure included the fear of stigma and discrimination, lack of employer's knowledge about disability and accommodations, negative past experiences of disclosing, and not disclosing on your own terms. Our findings highlight that youth encounter several challenges and barriers to disclosing their condition and requesting workplace accommodations. The timing and process for disclosing is complex and further work is needed to help support youth with disclosing their condition. Implications for rehabilitation Clinicians, educators, and employers should emphasize the importance of mentoring and leadership programs to give youth the confidence and self-advocacy skills needed to disclose and ask for accommodations in the workplace. Clinicians should advocate for the inclusion of youth with disabilities in the workforce and educate employers on the importance of doing so. Youth with disabilities need more opportunities for employment training and particularly how to disclose their disability and request workplace accommodations.
Locatelli, C.; Finon, D.
Privatisation is at the heart of the structural reforms for economies in transition. In theory, the main aim of privatisation is to change the structures of corporate governance in order to improve the efficiency of the enterprises and to assure their long-term future in a competitive environment. The adoption of formal market institutions would be sufficient to secure the new property rights, in particular because the new holders of the rights to control assets would have a great incentive to encourage the definition of new judicial rules that would guarantee their rights of ownership. In Russia that did not happen. The paper discusses the narrowed vision of institutional change, without consideration of the previous environment of formal and informal institutions, and the need to put together the institutional infrastructure that is needed for the market institutions to function. It offers explanations of the 'unexpected' results of the reforms in a capital-intensive natural resource industry, namely the hydrocarbons industry characterized by the opportunity of rent extraction by the exportation. It demonstrates right holders' interest for the weakness of the 'rule of law'. It demonstrates that the incompatibility of these institutions with the initial informal and formal institutions has led to adaptations that are strongly path-dependent, under the need to preserve a minimum of inter-industrial coherence. (authors)
Locatelli, C.; Finon, D
Privatisation is at the heart of the structural reforms for economies in transition. In theory, the main aim of privatisation is to change the structures of corporate governance in order to improve the efficiency of the enterprises and to assure their long-term future in a competitive environment. The adoption of formal market institutions would be sufficient to secure the new property rights, in particular because the new holders of the rights to control assets would have a great incentive to encourage the definition of new judicial rules that would guarantee their rights of ownership. In Russia that did not happen. The paper discusses the narrowed vision of institutional change, without consideration of the previous environment of formal and informal institutions, and the need to put together the institutional infrastructure that is needed for the market institutions to function. It offers explanations of the 'unexpected' results of the reforms in a capital-intensive natural resource industry, namely the hydrocarbons industry characterized by the opportunity of rent extraction by the exportation. It demonstrates right holders' interest for the weakness of the 'rule of law'. It demonstrates that the incompatibility of these institutions with the initial informal and formal institutions has led to adaptations that are strongly path-dependent, under the need to preserve a minimum of inter-industrial coherence. (authors)
Marcos Aurélio Lopes
Full Text Available Effects of castration on performance and profitability of finishing beef cattle in feedlot was evaluated and compared to no-castrated animals. Data came from a rent feedlot of beef cattle, conducted from August to November of 2005. Half of 50 animals, randomly chosen, were castrated by knife 18 days before the beginning of feedlot. Averages of initial body weight for castrated and no-castrated animals were 341kg and 347kg, while for final body weight were 437kg and 463kg, respectively. Were considered as expenses arroba value of thin cattle (R$50.00, and R$2.85 daily expenses per animal paid by cattle owner to “boitel”; and were considered as earnings sale of fat cattle at R$56.14 and R$54.14/arroba, respectively for castrated and no-castrated animals. For profitability analysis, CU$TO BOVINO CORTE software was utilized. Was tested the mean differences between castrated and intact groups by Student t test of average daily weight gains (GMPD and total weight gain (GMPT. Was acceptable the minimum level of confidence of 95%. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS 17.0 program. Effect of castration negatively influenced animals´ performance, evaluated by weight gain, and, consequently profitability of the system, evaluated by net margin. Earnings from sale of additional arrobas of no-castrated animals were enough to compensate penalization practiced by packinghouses for these animals.
Full Text Available It is claimed in this article that one of the main aims of the “bureaucratic tutelage” system in Turkey is to control the distribution of the economic rents created by the import-substituting industrialization. Thus, economic statism and the bureaucratic control over elected politicians were compatible with each other until economic liberalization in 1980. Even a limited economic liberalization created great opportunities for the politicians to weaken the power of the bureaucratic elites, particularly military officers. Thus, there is a strong relationship between economic liberalization and democratization in Turkey after 1980. However, even though, bureaucratic tutelage is regressed, Turkey is still far from having a transparent government and efficient public organizations. The conventional explanations are not adequate to grasp the intermingled relations between economic and political institutionalization in Turkey. Therefore, public choice may help to understand the role of the economic motivations of the political actors/elites in the context of shaping the political institutions. The political actors are seen as utility maximizers within the limits of institutional rules and practices, and the institutional change is explained with the help of changing interests and power relations of these actors. Enlarging economic liberties have gradually forced bureaucratic tutelage system to dissolve. For sure, dissolving the bureaucratic tutelage system is not a perfect or an intended process but examining this process from Turgut Ozal to Tayyip Erdogan gives us a theoretical framework to understand the political transformation of Turkey in the era of an open economy.
Choi, Young Jae; Kwon, Oh Joon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
An unstructured mesh Navier-Stokes solver employing a Maxwell slip boundary condition was developed. The present flow solver was applied to the simulation of flows around an axisymmetric hollow cylinder in a Mach 10.4 free stream, known as Calspan-UB Research Center (CUBRC) Run 14 case, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump on the cylinder surface were investigated. The effect of tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients used in the Maxwell condition was also investigated by adjusting their values. The results show that the reverse flow region is developed on the body surface due to the interaction between the shock and the boundary layer. Also, the shock impingement makes pressure high. The flow properties on the surface agree well with the experimental data, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump vary consistently with the local Knudsen number change. The accommodation coefficients affect the slip phenomena and the size of the flow region. The slip phenomena become larger when both tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients are decreased. However, the range of the reverse flow region decreases when the momentum accommodation coefficient is decreased. The characteristics of the momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients also are overlapped when they are altered together.
Kolker, David; Hutchinson, Robert; Nilsen, Erik
With the increased use of computers in the workplace and at home, optometrists are finding more patients presenting with symptoms of Computer Vision Syndrome. Among these symptomatic individuals, research supports that accommodative disorders are the most common vision finding. A prepresbyopic group (N= 30) and a presbyopic group (N = 30) were selected from a private practice. Assignment to a group was determined by age, accommodative amplitude, and near visual acuity with their distance prescription. Each subject was given a thorough vision and ocular health examination, then administered several nearpoint tests of accommodation at a computer working distance. All the tests produced similar results in the presbyopic group. For the prepresbyopic group, the tests yielded very different results. To effectively treat symptomatic VDT users, optometrists must assess the accommodative system along with the binocular and refractive status. For presbyopic patients, all nearpoint tests studied will yield virtually the same result. However, the method of testing accommodation, as well as the test stimulus presented, will yield significantly different responses for prepresbyopic patients. Previous research indicates that a majority of patients prefer the higher plus prescription yielded by the Gaussian image test.
Corbière, Marc; Villotti, Patrizia; Lecomte, Tania; Bond, Gary R; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot M
Job tenure for people with severe mental disorders, even for those enrolled in supported employment programs, is typically brief. Few studies to date have investigated the relationship between accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace, and job tenure for this population. The main objectives of this study were to develop and to validate a new measure to describe work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace and to determine which of them are significantly related to job tenure for participants enrolled in supported employment services. In total, 124 people with a severe mental disorder enrolled in supported employment programs and who obtained only one competitive employment at the 9-month follow-up answered the Work Accommodation and Natural Support Scale (WANSS). They also provided information regarding their disclosure (or non-) of mental disorders in the workplace and the length of their job tenure. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the WANSS showed 40 items distributed on 6 dimensions (e.g., Schedule flexibility). Correlation results showed that disclosure was significantly related to the number of work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace. Survival analyses indicated that one WANSS dimension was more salient in predicting job tenure: Supervisor and coworker supports. The WANSS is a valid and useful tool to assess work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace that employment specialists could use in their practice.
Garneau, Christopher J; Parkinson, Matthew B
The size and shape of users are an important consideration for many products and environments. Designers and engineers in many disciplines must often accommodate these attributes to meet objectives such as fit and safety. When practitioners have academic training in addressing these issues, it is typically through courses in Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E). This paper investigates education related to physical accommodation and offers suggestions for improvement. A survey was conducted wherein 21 instructors at 18 universities in the United States provided syllabi for 29 courses, which were analysed to determine topics related to anthropometry and resources used for the courses. The results show that within the U.S., anthropometry is covered in the majority of courses discussing physical ergonomics, but important related concepts were often omitted (e.g., digital human modelling, multivariate accommodation and variability across global populations). Curricula could be improved by incorporating more accurate anthropometry, multivariate problems and interactive online tools. This paper describes a study investigating collegiate ergonomics courses within the U.S. in the area of physical accommodation. Course schedules and texts were studied for their treatment of several topics related to accommodating the spatial requirements (anthropometry) of users. Recommendations are made for improving course curricula.
Abokyi, S; Owusu-Mensah, J; Osei, K A
PurposeIt is purported that caffeine, an autonomic stimulant, affects visual performance. This study sought to assess whether caffeine intake was associated with changes in pupil size and/or amplitude of accommodation.Patients and methodsA double-masked, crossover study was conducted in 50 healthy subjects of age range 19 to 25 years. Subjects were randomized to treatments such that subjects consumed either 250 mg caffeine drink or vehicle on separate days. Amplitude of accommodation was measured by the push-up technique, and pupil size using a millimeter ruler fixed to a slit lamp biomicroscope in dim illumination (5 lux). Amplitude of accommodation and pupil size were taken at baseline, and at 30, 60 and 90 min time points post treatment. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired t-test were used in analyzing data.ResultsAmplitude of accommodation and pupil size after caffeine intake were significantly greater than vehicle (Pcaffeine beverage was associated with significant increases in amplitude of accommodation and pupil size with time (Pcaffeine. This study suggests caffeine may have some influence on visual functions.
Marco Aurélio Lima de Queiroz
Full Text Available Are sources of economic rent, as defined by the prevalent business strategy paradigm, sufficient to attain and maintain superior returns? The perspective developed within the conceptual framework of the Institutional Theory may offer managers a contribution towards understanding the strategy process and its potentialities,particularly by stressing the leading role played by legitimacy, the influence of many institutional spheres, the isomorphic pressures, ceremonial behavior and decoupling, among other elements, that mainstream business strategy fails to address directly, but which may have a significant effect on firm performance. We advance thatthese elements must be accounted for in the pursuit and acquisition of economic rents, even if the ability to articulate them purposefully is constrained by rationality, agency conditions and the manager's social embeddedness.
Adner, Ron; Zemsky, Peter
We develop a novel approach to the dynamics of business strategy that is grounded in an explicit treatment of consumer choice when technologies improve over time. We address the evolution of market boundaries, resource rents and competitive positions by adapting models of competition with differentiated products. Our model is consistent with the central strategy assertion that competitive interactions are governed by superior value creation and competitive advantage. More importantly, it show...
The refusal of blood products by Jehovah's Witness patients has provoked court proceedings, social science research, and contemporary fiction, all of which emphasize a seemingly intractable conflict between religious and secular ways of being. This article takes a different approach, focusing instead on the space that Witness patients have carved out for their accommodation in a major pediatric research hospital. Using discourse analysis and interview data, I map the way moralizing discourses surrounding Witness families have shifted over the past 70 years alongside advancements in bloodless medicine. I argue that Witnesses have helped to enable their present accommodation and recognition by marshaling particular forms of economic, human, and social capital, and consider whether their success might be attainable by other treatment-resisting patient groups. Thus, this article explores the shifting limits of multicultural accommodation and the conditions that make understanding, collaboration, and compromise possible.
Who has never had a need for accommodation to perform a job because of age-related changes, gender issues related to family care, religious practices, health status, or disability? Who has never had the benefit of universal accommodations designed to provide access for individuals with disabilities, such as using the handicap button to open a door when one's arms are loaded? All of society has had the benefit of inclusion of individuals with disabilities within the work force. Occupational health nurses are essential to accommodating new employees with disabilities, assisting ill or injured employees in returning to work, and changing attitudes toward disabled workers. Additionally, nurses have the skills and knowledge for leading and managing newly emerging disease management programs for workers with disabilities caused by chronic illness.
Chan, R V Paul; Trobe, Jonathan D
Spasm of accommodation, creating pseudomyopia, is generally associated with miosis and excess convergence as part of spasm of the near reflex. It may also exist as an isolated entity, usually attributed to psychogenic causes. We present six cases of accommodative spasm associated with closed head injury. All patients were male, ranging in age between 16 and 37 years. The degree of pseudomyopia, defined as the difference between manifest and cycloplegic refraction, was 1.5 to 2 diopters. A 3-year trial of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia in one patient did not lead to reversal of the spasm when the cycloplegia was stopped. All patients required the manifest refraction to see clearly at distance. The pseudomyopia endured for at least 7 years following head trauma. This phenomenon may represent traumatic activation or disinhibition of putative brain stem accommodation centers in young individuals.
Goldberg, Daniel B
To understand, demonstrate, and further research the mechanisms of accommodation and presbyopia. Private practice, Little Silver, New Jersey, USA. Experimental study. The CAMA 2.0 computer-animated model of accommodation and presbyopia was produced in collaboration with an experienced medical animator using Autodesk Maya animation software and Adobe After Effects. The computer-animated model demonstrates the configuration and synchronous movements of all accommodative elements. A new classification of the zonular apparatus based on structure and function is proposed. There are 3 divisions of zonular fibers; that is, anterior, crossing, and posterior. The crossing zonular fibers form a scaffolding to support the lens; the anterior and posterior zonular fibers work reciprocally to achieve focused vision. The model demonstrates the important support function of Weiger ligament. Dynamic movement of the ora serrata demonstrates that the forces of ciliary muscle contraction store energy for disaccommodation in the elastic choroid. The flow of aqueous and vitreous provides strong evidence for our understanding of the hydrodynamic interactions during the accommodative cycle. The interaction may result from the elastic stretch in the choroid transmitted to the vitreous rather than from vitreous pressue. The model supports the concept that presbyopia results from loss of elasticity and increasing ocular rigidity in both the lenticular and extralenticular structures. The computer-animated model demonstrates the structures of accommodation moving in synchrony and might enhance understanding of the mechanisms of accommodation and presbyopia. Dr. Goldberg is a consultant to Acevision, Inc., and Bausch & Lomb. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Deng, Xiaohong; Xu, Zhongmin
Reducing information rents is an important task for government agencies wishing to purchase maximal environmental services with limited budgets. This paper reports on several green auction options for reducing information rents and improving the performance of the “Grain for Green” Payments for environmental services (PES) program implemented in northwestern China. In r experimental auctions and investigations, door-to-door interviews were conducted and bidding envelopes and survey questionnaires were used to determine the offers and the foregone profits of the participants. Three scenarios are analyzed in this paper: a uniform price auction, a discriminatory price auction, and an opportunity-cost system. The results show that compared to the uniform price auction system, the other auction systems can increase the cost-effectiveness of conservation contracting. Competitive bidding can reveal true opportunity costs and can reduce information rents extracted from the government by farmers using private information. The demographics and average bids of these auction types were also analyzed. “Perfect information” in the opportunity-cost offer system has the best performance but is very hard to implement in reality. The results of this research show that the auction is a valuable tool for purchasing conservation contracts in northwestern China, but that in the future, the performance of these auctions should be studied with relaxed model assumptions. PMID:25793263
The period of economic transformation in Poland started from 1989 and resulted in significant changes on the housing market. Flats became goods and process of privatizing of the housing market took place in last decade of the 20th century. It became clear, that it was necessary to create the system of housing for the people who cannot afford to buy the flat on free market. Such solutions were implemented in 1996 and since then affordable housing associations started coming into existence - organizations building flats for rent, supported by city and government budget. Large complex of such housing for rent was built in Bialystok, the major city of northeastern Poland, and it is regarded as one of the biggest in the country. The purpose of the study is characteristics of the contemporary social housing for rent in Bialystok, as good example of that kind of housing realized in Poland. The author uses a kind of parametrical method and analysis some aspects of housing environment: the urban concepts of housing developments, architectural ideas, standards of flats, and also solutions of parking places, road systems and access to basic services, including recreational areas. He gets factors of housing standards as a final result.
Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe
The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.
Bohlmann, B J; France, T D
Spasm of the near reflex is most often seen on a functional basis in young adults with underlying emotional problems. In particular, when convergence spasm is associated with miosis on attempted lateral gaze, a functional basis for the disorder should be suspected. Patients who experience spasm of the near reflex following trauma commonly follow a benign course with spontaneous resolution of their ocular complaints within 1-2 years. Accommodative spasm, manifested by pseudomyopia, or spasm of convergence, alone, or in combination with miosis, may be found as isolated signs of spasm of the near reflex. We report a patient who continues to demonstrate accommodative spasm 9 years after a motor vehicle accident.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study about impact of accommodation services’ quality, particularly quality of work and qualifications of staff, on the guests’ opinion, and thus promoting the accommodation facilities, and making a choice of a hotel in the Upper Silesia. The study involved 200 people, taking into account their gender, age, place of residence, education and occupational status. The research tool was a survey questionnaire. The results indicate close correlation between the quality of staff services (individual approach, aesthetics, discretion, understanding and the customer is satisfaction. Particular attention was paid to the quality of service by the guests with high professional status, and higher education.
... assisted with NAHASDA grant amounts? 1000.124 Section 1000.124 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Activities § 1000.124 What maximum and minimum rent or homebuyer payment can a recipient charge a low-income...
Bowen, Elizabeth A; Mitchell, Christopher G
A growing body of health determinants research recognizes that housing and health are intimately linked. This study explores the relationship between rent burden (the ratio of rent to income) and health risk behaviors among a sample of single room occupancy (SRO) building residents. Cross-sectional data were gathered from a sample of 162 residents living in privately owned, for-profit SROs in Chicago. Findings indicated that participants who had full rental subsidies and thus were designated in a no-rent-burden category were more likely to engage in risk behaviors including illicit drug use, having multiple sexual partners, and having sex without a condom, in comparison to participants with moderate or high-rent burdens. These findings suggest that interventions to increase housing stability and affordability and bolster reliable income sources (in addition to rental subsidies) may be key in reducing risk behaviors and improving health for vulnerably housed populations such as SRO residents.
Full Text Available AIM: To investigate a comprehensive treatment for accommodative esotropia.METHODS: Eighty patients with accommodative esotropia were analyzed. All cases wore corrective glasses 7d after mydriasis by 10g/L atropine. The pupils were all comprehensively trained. If the position of the esotropic eyes could not be corrected by spectacles and both eyes had similar visual acuity in one year, surgical intervention was taken to correct the position. Refraction, visual acuity, visual function and strabismus degree change before and after treatment were evaluated.RESULTS: One year after wearing glasses, 50 cases had corrected eye position through correction and 30 cases were partially accommodative esotropia. Ten cases of esotropia degree >+15△ which could not be complete corrected by cure correction got surgical intervention. Seven cases of them got normal eye positions and 3 cases were over corrected 10△-20△. After comprehensive treatment of 3 years, the cure rate of amblyopia was 88.7%.CONCLUSION: The treatment for accommodative esotropia is a comprehensive course. It is necessary to pay attention to eye position correction, but also for the treatment of amblyopia, while paying attention to establish binocular vision.
Burns, Michael I.; Baylor, Carolyn; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Starks, Helene; Yorkston, Kathryn
Health care providers can experience increased diffculty communicating with adult patients during medical interactions when the patients have communication disorders. Meeting the communication needs of these patients can also create unique challenges for providers. The authors explore Communication Accommodation Theory (H. Giles, 1979) as a guide…
Sakata, T; Miyao, M; Ishigaki, H; Shiraiwa, Y; Ishihara, S; Furuta, M; Kondo, T; Toyoshima, H
We analyzed and compared the visual accommodation of kindergarten children who were gazing fixedly at images from three different sources: Nintendo Game Boy DMG-01(TM) (non-backlit type game console: NBGC), NEC PC EnginePI-TG6(TM) (color backlit-type game console: CBGC) and a cartoon drawing (drawing). Subjects for the experiment were 13 4- to 5-year-old kindergarten children. The contrast ratios were, in the order, 1.1 (NBGC), 3.1 (drawing), and 3.4 (CBGC). These values show that the contrast of the NBGC screen was considerably lower than the others. The mean accommodative power increased when looking at all three types of image: a drawing (1.75±0.52 D; mean±S.D.), CBGC (1.82±0.61 D), and NBGC (2.26±0.50 D). Compared with the other 2 targets, NBGC required stronger accommodation, indicating that the legibility of the NBGC was poor. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for the values of accommodation for each type of target. There were significant differences among the 3 targets (p<0.01). Significant differences were seen between NBGC and drawings (p<0.01) and NBGC and CBGC (p<0.05) using paired Scheffe test, but not between CBGC and drawings. This supports the finding that the legibility of NBGC is low due to dark and low contrast screens with poor resolution.
The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…
Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…
Gaines, S.O.; Henderson, M.C.; Kim, M.; Gilstrap, S.; Yi, J.; Rusbult, C.E.; Hardin, D.P.; Gaertner, L.A.
In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect,
Gargalianou, Vasiliki; Urbig, Diemo; Van Witteloostuijn, Arjen
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using foreign languages on cooperative behavior in a prisoner's dilemma setting. The cultural accommodation hypothesis suggests that people are less cooperative in English, associated with the Anglophone cultural cluster, than in French,
... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.211 State transportation... effects of any loss of productive agricultural land or any impairment of the productivity of any agricultural land that would result from the disapproval. The environmental and economic effects on productive...
Full Text Available Accommodation Infrastructure and Tourism Flows on Feleacu Hill (Cluj County. Feleacu Hill experienced tourism development between 2001 and 2015. The INS data indicates that the number of accommodation units increased from one (2001 to four (2015 and there are a few more which are not registered in the INS database. The accommodation capacity increases, as many guesthouses are expanding their premises to receive more tourists and new accommodation units emerge, such as Hotel Premier in Vâlcele (Feleacu commune. Tourism flows also registered a highly positive trend. The number of arrivals increased from 95 tourists in 2002 to 7791 tourists in 2015. However, there was a downturn between 2009 and 2012, due to the economic crisis and the opening of the Turda – Gilău motorway (A3, which redirected transit routes outside the region and led to the closure of Paradis Hotel in 2012. Since 2012, the number of arrivals and overnight stays increased steadily due to the development of new forms of tourism – rural tourism, agrotourism, extreme tourism and complex tourism, materialized in growing numbers of tourists at the two guesthouses in Ciurila commune (“La Mesteceni” and “Domeniul Regilor”. Tourism brings obvious benefits to the rural communities on Feleacu Hill, even if the average duration of stay is still low.
Allison, Barbara N.; Rehm, Marsha L.
Online classes have become a popular and viable method of educating students in both K-12 settings and higher education, including in family and consumer sciences (FCS) programs. Online learning dramatically affects the way students learn. This article addresses how online learning can accommodate the sensory learning modalities (sight, hearing,…
... Government mortgage to secure the private lender notes including, but not limited to, those of the private... affiliated companies with the proceeds of private lender notes qualifying for an automatic lien accommodation... forth in this section. (b) Private lender responsibility. The private lender is responsible for ensuring...
power by the eye in order to maintain a clear images as objects ... to work harmoniously for clear single binocular vision to be ... a balance between accommodation and convergence ... activity of life of the child especially with respect to school ...
Kulow, Marianne DelPo
Disability employment discrimination is often treated summarily in legal environment courses. This is actually a topic with significant practical application in the workplace since managers are often those who are confronted with accommodation requests. It is therefore desirable to include a class with hands-on exercises for students to begin to…
Caffeine is widely consumed in kola nuts and in other products in Sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the acute effect of caffeine on the amplitude of accommodation and near point of convergence of healthy Nigerians. Forty volunteers between ages of 20 and 27 years with refractive power± 0.50 DS were employed.
López-Gil, Norberto; Rucker, Frances J; Stark, Lawrence R; Badar, Mustanser; Borgovan, Theodore; Burke, Sean; Kruger, Philip B
We investigate the potential for the third-order aberrations coma and trefoil to provide a signed cue to accommodation. It is first demonstrated theoretically (with some assumptions) that the point spread function is insensitive to the sign of spherical defocus in the presence of odd-order aberrations. In an experimental investigation, the accommodation response to a sinusoidal change in vergence (1-3D, 0.2Hz) of a monochromatic stimulus was obtained with a dynamic infrared optometer. Measurements were obtained in 10 young visually normal individuals with and without custom contact lenses that induced low and high values of r.m.s. trefoil (0.25, 1.03 microm) and coma (0.34, 0.94 microm). Despite variation between subjects, we did not find any statistically significant increase or decrease in the accommodative gain for low levels of trefoil and coma, although effects approached or reached significance for the high levels of trefoil and coma. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that the presence of Zernike third-order aberrations on the eye does not seem to play a crucial role in the dynamics of the accommodation response.
Panke, Karola; Svede, Aiga; Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Krumina, Gunta
To date, there is no assessment of more than one survey used for a clinical research study that address subjects with and without symptoms related to accommodative or binocular vision disorders. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate two different surveys - CISS and Conlon for the same subject group and analyse also critical visual function parameters. Monocular and binocular accommodative response for 20 subjects was measured for dominant eye with openfield infrared autorefractometer (Shin-Nippon SRW-5000) at three distances (24 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm). Subjects were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic group using cut off score 21 for CISS and 20 for Conlon survey. We found positive exponential growth relationship between CISS and Conlon scores (R² = 0.7), but separation between symptomatic and asymptomatic group differed significantly depending on which survey was used. We found positive correlation between Conlon score and exophoria at 30 cm (r=0.41, p=0.01) and 24 cm (r=0.27, p=0.03). Relationship between subjective symptoms and following clinical parameters - accommodation lag (r accommodation (r convergence near point (r = 0.26, p < 0.05) were not significant. Our results confirmed that using different subjective symptom surveys can provide different results within the same subject group, therefore we recommend to use surveys as a part of case history and tool to measure patient satisfaction and results of treatment effectiveness instead of using them for clinical trials as a criteria to divide symptomatic and asymptomatic group.
Conclusions: There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3 were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies.
Gargalianou, Vasiliki; Urbig, D.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using foreign languages on cooperative behavior in a prisoner’s dilemma setting. The cultural accommodation hypothesis suggests that people are less cooperative in English, associated with the Anglophone cultural cluster, than in French,
From the 1970s the pattern of hotels becomes more closely linked to tourism market considerations and areas of potential demand for leisure and business travellers. In spatial terms, a polarization of the accommodation sector is observed and paralleled by the hollowing out and closure of hotels in many small towns.
This article explores the language context of Information Technology (IT) classes in the Free State province. An overview of the multilingual context within which the research was done is provided through a brief historical background of language accommodation and recognition in South Africa in general, and then ...
Engelina du Plessis
Full Text Available Price is a significant factor of competitiveness. Price is a complex issue and is determined by a variety of demand and supply factors. These factors also differ from industry to industry. The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that influence pricing in the South African accommodation sector. In order to generate proper data, a survey was conducted at various South African accommodation establishments that were obtained from the databases of the three major associations in the accommodation sector. Two-hundred and forty seven questionnaires completed by managers from accommodation establishments were used in this research. Principal component factor analyses with Varimax rotation in STATISTICA were carried out. These resulted in ten factors, namely environmental qualities, amenities, image, management factor, positioning, quality service factor, infrastructure service factor, location, marketing and product quality factor. The results revealed that the major factors in pricing are service quality, image and product quality. Consequently this article can be used to assist managers in pricing and in obtaining a better competitive position in the industry by revising management structures and marketing campaigns. Keywords and phrases: Tourism industry, price competitiveness, service quality, image, product quality, entrepreneur and factor analysis
Caon, Lucrezia; Kessler, Aad; Keesstra, Saskia; Cruze, Rick
Governments, companies and individuals with financial capital to invest, are worldwide buying or renting land in developing or third world countries. Uruguay is a developing country whose economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since 2000 many foreigners started to invest in the Uruguayan agricultural sector and to practice intensive large-scale agriculture. The significant presence of foreigners in the country is proven by the fact that almost 360 000 ha out of the 500 000 ha forming the study area were managed by foreigners in 2012. Nowadays farmers have abandoned the traditional crop rotation plan that included pasture to produce grain for export, and transgenic soya (soya RR) became the main crop planted by both foreigners and locals. Besides the high soil erosion rates related to having soya as main crop, planting soya implies the use of glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide leading to important environmental impacts. It is commonly said that foreigners investing in poor countries are exploiting the local natural resources aiming to get the highest possible profit from them. Is this a valid assumption in Uruguay? The purpose of this study was to compare the land management style of foreign and local farmers and to relate it to the soil erosion occurring in the study area. The land tenure (rented or owned fields) and the type of farmer interviewed ("individual farmer" equivalent to L.L.C. or "anonymous society" equivalent to P.L.C.) were taken into consideration during the analysis. Based on what stated by the farmers interviewed, the soil erosion simulations considered the seven most popular crop rotation plans on rented and owned fields, three ideals crop rotation plans, the application of no mitigation measures, and the construction of terraces and conservation buffers. Depending on the crop rotation plan, soils characterized by slope gradients higher than 2 resulted in soil erosion rates higher than the 7 ton/ha/year allowed by law. The highest
moderne in zagovarja nujnost absolutne demokracije pri upravljanju, vzpostavljanju in dojemanju skupnega. /// English title: The Permanence of Primitive Accumulation, or: On the Private Property, Commodification and Return of the Rent /// Abstract: In his analysis of current social antagonisms, the author starts from a critique of political economy and focuses on two historically and politically/theoretically important concepts, without which it would not be possible to understand the development of the capitalist system and the way it currently functions: primitive accumulation and modern private property. Newer interpretations of the process of primitive accumulation (Perelman, DeAngelis, Harvey start from the premise that primitive accumulation is not just a historical period belonging to the past, but a necessarily present part of capital in its expansion and search for news ways out of recurring crises. This permanence of primitive accumulation, which Harvey refers to as accumulation-by-disposses sion, in which a key factor is the difference between the generation and existence of capital, helps us to understand the ever present processes of capital expansion and their often violent incorporation of various fields. Although these processes are an always-already-present characteristic of capitalism, by manifesting themselves, they have marked the past decades, when capital has attempted to resolve its own profitability crisis through financialisation and privatisation. At the same time, because the existence of the modern form of private property has appeared as an important condition for capitalist accumulation and as that element which facilitates the effective functioning, development and expansion of capitalist relations of production, at the beginning of the article, this socially constructed phenomenon of modern society, which, through a process of reductionism, makes it almost impossible to consider different forms of ownership such as common forms of property
Gao, Yuanqian; Li, Jinhua; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Shuxin
The stereo laparoscope is an important tool for achieving depth perception in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS). A dynamic convergence accommodation algorithm is proposed to improve the viewing experience and achieve accurate depth perception. Based on the principle of the human vision system, a positional kinematic model of the binocular view system is established. The imaging plane pair is rectified to ensure that the two rectified virtual optical axes intersect at the fixation target to provide immersive depth perception. Stereo disparity was simulated with the roll and pitch movements of the binocular system. The chessboard test and the endoscopic peg transfer task were performed, and the results demonstrated the improved disparity distribution and robustness of the proposed convergence accommodation method with respect to the position of the fixation target. This method offers a new solution for effective depth perception with the stereo laparoscopes used in robot-assisted MIS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lovett, Benjamin J; Leja, Ashley M
To investigate the relationship between ADHD symptoms, executive functioning problems, and benefit from extended time testing accommodations. College students completed a battery of measures assessing processing speed and reading fluency, reading comprehension (under two different time limits), symptoms of ADHD, executive functioning deficits, and perceptions of need for extended time. Students reporting more symptoms of ADHD and executive functioning deficits actually benefited less from extended time, and students' perceptions of their timing needs did not predict benefit. Students with more ADHD symptoms are less likely to use extended time effectively, possibly because of their associated executive functioning problems. These results suggest there may be little justification for examining a student's ADHD symptoms when making extended time accommodation decisions. © 2013 SAGE Publications.
Full Text Available This article analyzes policy innovation in Colombia, through the adoption of a new centralized oil-rent management system in 2011, after 20 years of decentralized policies. Using a policy-design framework, we identify a causal mechanism linking the opening of a policy window to policy change as a combination of the emergence of a new policy network, the adoption of a new policy paradigm and the selection of a new instruments mix. Drawing on Bayesian statistics, the 11 tests conducted on the causal mechanism show the importance of State resources of information, authority, treasury and organization to assess the outcome of policy change.
Full Text Available The robustness of the EU’s constitutional framework – and its ability to accommodate democratic politics – is challenged as never before. The growing disconnect between formally democratic procedures and substantive choice is well illustrated by the Greek crisis. Since its first bailout in May 2010, Greece has held four general elections and a referendum. Yet, the anti-austerity preferences of the Greek electorate have not been effectively translated into policy.
Padhy, Debananda; Rao, Aparna
Bimatoprost is a prostaglandin analogue used topically in the treatment of glaucoma. Commonly known side effects include eyelash growth, iris pigmentation and conjunctival hyperemia. While pseudomyopia is reported to be caused by parasympathomimetics, such an effect precipitated by bimatoprost has not yet been reported. We report a case demonstrating pseudomyopia and accommodative spasm caused after starting bimatoprost 0.03% in a young patient with glaucoma.
Padhy, Debananda; Rao, Aparna
Bimatoprost is a prostaglandin analogue used topically in the treatment of glaucoma. Commonly known side effects include eyelash growth, iris pigmentation and conjunctival hyperemia. While pseudomyopia is reported to be caused by parasympathomimetics, such an effect precipitated by bimatoprost has not yet been reported. We report a case demonstrating pseudomyopia and accommodative spasm caused after starting bimatoprost 0.03% in a young patient with glaucoma. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
James, C Roger; Atkins, Lee T; Yang, Hyung Suk; Dufek, Janet S; Bates, Barry T
Weighted walking is a functional activity common in daily life and can influence risks for musculoskeletal loading, injury and falling. Much information exists about weighted walking during military, occupational and recreational tasks, but less is known about strategies used to accommodate to weight carriage typical in daily life. The purposes of the study were to examine the effects of weight carriage on kinematics and peak ground reaction force (GRF) during walking, and explore relationships between these variables. Twenty subjects walked on a treadmill while carrying 0, 44.5 and 89 N weights in front of the body. Peak GRF, sagittal plane joint/segment angular kinematics, stride length and center of mass (COM) vertical displacement were measured. Changes in peak GRF and displacement variables between weight conditions represented accommodation. Effects of weight carriage were tested using analysis of variance. Relationships between peak GRF and kinematic accommodation variables were examined using correlation and regression. Subjects were classified into sub-groups based on peak GRF responses and the correlation analysis was repeated. Weight carriage increased peak GRF by an amount greater than the weight carried, decreased stride length, increased vertical COM displacement, and resulted in a more extended and upright posture, with less hip and trunk displacement during weight acceptance. A GRF increase was associated with decreases in hip extension (|r|=.53, p=.020) and thigh anterior rotation (|r|=.57, p=.009) displacements, and an increase in foot anterior rotation displacement (|r|=.58, p=.008). Sub-group analysis revealed that greater GRF increases were associated with changes at multiple sites, while lesser GRF increases were associated with changes in foot and trunk displacement. Weight carriage affected walking kinematics and revealed different accommodation strategies that could have implications for loading and stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B
Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H.
Analyses of 32 drill cores obtained from the windward reef of Kailua Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, indicate that high wave energy significantly reduced accommodation space for reef development in the Holocene and produced variable architecture because of the combined influence of sea-level history and wave exposure over a complex antecedent topography. A paleostream valley within the late Pleistocene insular limestone shelf provided accommodation space for more than 11 m of vertical accretion since sea level flooded the bay 8000 yr BP. Virtually no net accretion (pile-up of fore-reef-derived rubble (rudstone) and sparse bindstone, and (3) a final stage of catch-up bindstone accretion in depths > 6 m. Coral framestone accreted at rates of 2.5-6.0 mm/yr in water depths > 11 m during the early Holocene; it abruptly terminated at ~4500 yr BP because of wave scour as sea level stabilized. More than 4 m of rudstone derived from the upper fore reef accreted at depths of 6 to 13 m below sea level between 4000 and 1500 yr BP coincident with late Holocene relative sea-level fall. Variations in the thickness, composition, and age of these reef facies across spatial scales of 10-1000 m within Kailua Bay illustrate the importance of antecedent topography and wave-related stress in reducing accommodation space for reef development set by sea level. Although accommodation space of 6 to 17 m has existed through most of the Holocene, the Kailua reef has been unable to catch up to sea level because of persistent high wave stress.
Hughes, Mary; Savage, Eileen; Andrews, Tom
The aim of this study was to develop an explanatory theory on the lives of young people with asthma, issues affecting them and the impact of asthma on their day-to-day lives. Accommodating Interruptions is a theory that explains young people's concerns about living with asthma. Although national and international asthma management guidelines exist, it is accepted that the symptom control of asthma among the young people population is poor. This study was undertaken using Classic Grounded Theory. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and clinic consultations with young people aged 11-16 years who had asthma for over 1 year. Data were also collected from participant diaries. Constant comparative analysis, theoretical coding and memo writing were used to develop the substantive theory. The theory explains how young people resolve their main concern of being restricted by Accommodating Interruptions in their lives. They do this by assimilating behaviours in balance finding, moderating influence, fitting in and assuming control minimising the effects of asthma on their everyday lives. The theory of Accommodating Interruptions explains young people's asthma management behaviours in a new way. It allows us to understand how and why young people behave the way they do because they want to participate and be included in everyday activities, events and relationships. The theory adds to the body of knowledge on how young people with asthma live their day-to-day lives and it challenges some existing viewpoints in the literature regarding their behaviours. The findings have implications for developing services to support young people in a more meaningful way as they accommodate the interruptions associated with asthma in their lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This thesis treats of security provisions, which hotels are using to protect health and property of accommodated persons. In the opening part is caught the progress of attendance and capacities of hotels in the Czech republic during a specific time period. The next chapter focuses on possible threats, which are imminent to hotels during the operation. The third part of the thesis solves particular methods of application of security provisions, these are verified in two concrete hotels in the ...
Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Pritlove, Cheryl; van Eerd, Dwayne; Holness, Linn D; Kirsh, Bonnie; Duncan, Andrea; Jones, Jennifer
With improvements in screening, diagnosis, and treatment, the number of persons surviving cancer and staying at or returning to work is increasing. While workplace accommodations optimize workers' abilities to participate in the workforce, there has been little in-depth investigation of the types of accommodations reported to have been provided to cancer survivors and the processes relevant to ensuring their successful implementation. We employed an exploratory qualitative method and conducted 40 semi-structured interviews with three groups: (i) cancers survivors (n = 16), (ii) health/vocational service providers (n = 16), and (iii) employer representatives (n = 8) to explore return to work and accommodation processes, successes, and challenges. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the data. Four types of accommodations were recommended: (1) graduated return to work plans and flexible scheduling, (2) modification of work duties and performance expectations, (3) retraining and supports at the workplace, and (4) modification of the physical work environment and/or the provision of adaptive aids/technologies. Processes relevant to ensuring effective accommodations included: (1) developing knowledge about accommodations, (2) employer's ability to accommodate, (3) negotiating reasonable accommodations, (4) customizing accommodations, and (5) implementing and monitoring accommodation plans. Accommodation challenges included: (1) survivors' fears requesting accommodations, (2) developing clear and specific accommodations, (3) difficult to accommodate jobs, and (4) workplace challenges, including strained pre-cancer workplace relationships, insufficient/inflexible workplace policies, employer concerns regarding productivity and precedent setting, and limited modified duties. Accommodations need to be customized and clearly linked to survivors' specific job demands, work context, and available workplace supports. Survivors need to feel
Full Text Available A strong infrastructure is a precondition for the development of balneology. On this base new tourism might build the modern services that supply the experiences. The key factor is the labor force: an EU project about labor force in Romania and Bulgaria in balneology allow us to present the preliminary findings focusing on general infrastructure and accommodation which allow the development of the balneology as well as the additional conditions as the existence of a social pact, easy access facilities etc. Our paper gives more details about the accommodation facilities in Romania insisting about the results of the transition and privatization of the former socialist facilities and the transformation of the property into private ones and the consequences of this. It also present the capability of new developed accommodation units built after 1990 and how they might compete in an international competition. The findings force us to conclude that the actual facilities do not allow the balneology resorts to compete in the international competition and might fill only a poor and low demanding tourists
Magli, Adriano; Forte, Raimondo; Gallo, Flavio; Carelli, Roberta
To assess the long-term effectiveness and safety of refractive surgery with LASIK or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for treating accommodative esotropia in adults. All patients with accommodative esotropia treated with LASIK or PRK until December 2007 and with a minimum follow-up of 5 years were retrospectively included. LASIK was performed on 44 eyes of 22 patients (12 women, 10 men; mean age: 22.7 ± 2.9 years). Mean postoperative follow-up was 62.1 ± 3.2 months. PRK was performed on 16 eyes of 8 patients (4 women, 4 men; mean age: 23.7 ± 1.7 years). Mean postoperative follow-up was 61.3 ± 2.8 months. At the 5-year follow-up, the mean cycloplegic refraction was more hyperopic in the PRK group (0.3 ± 0.8 vs 0.06 ± 0.3 diopters, P = .01). Correction of esotropia to esophoria or orthotropia was present in 21 patients (95.4%) treated with LASIK and in all patients treated with PRK. Both LASIK and PRK were effective in the long-term reduction of accommodative esotropia. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available Many individuals with mental illness want to return to work and stay in employment. Yet, there is little research that has examined the perspectives of employers on hiring and accommodating these workers and the kinds of supports employers need to facilitate their reintegration into the workforce. The aim of the current research was to explore the challenges employers face and the support they need to hire and accommodate workers with mental illness (WWMI. A qualitative research design guided by a grounded theory approach was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 employers selected from a wide range of industries in and around Edmonton, Canada. The employers were a mix of frontline managers, disability consultants, and human resource managers who had direct experience with hiring and supervising WWMI. Data were analyzed using the principles of grounded theory. The findings highlight several challenges that employers face when dealing with mental health issues of workers in the workplace. These challenges can act as barriers to hiring and accommodating WWMI.
Tremblay, Carol Horton
This research seeks to identify job characteristics and workplace policies conducive to the job success of individuals with bipolar disorder, and to examine the interactions between employers and bipolar employees regarding requested workplace accommodations. The study population consists of 39 adults who were in outpatient care and diagnosed with bipolar I or II disorder. Each participant completed a mail-in questionnaire regarding workplace characteristics that would enhance job performance. Primary beneficial work characteristics reported are schedule flexibility, autonomy, and supervisor willingness to provide accommodations. Specific helpful characteristics noted by participants include allowances for working at home, leaves of absence, frequent breaks, barriers between work spaces, control over goal-setting, creativity, and avoidance of jobs with pace set by machinery. Twelve of the 26 workers requested workplace changes, and of the 12 requests, 10 were implemented. Incidents of employer bias were reported. The experiences of the survey participants regarding beneficial workplace accommodations may help to improve the productivity and well-being of other individuals with bipolar disorder.
Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Bobier, William R; Irving, Elizabeth L; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan
Several theoretical control models depict the adaptation effects observed in the accommodation and vergence mechanisms of the human visual system. Two current quantitative models differ in their approach of defining adaptation and in identifying the effect of controller adaptation on their respective cross-links between the vergence and accommodative systems. Here, we compare the simulation results of these adaptation models with empirical data obtained from emmetropic adults when they performed sustained near task through + 2D lens addition. The results of our experimental study showed an initial increase in exophoria (a divergent open-loop vergence position) and convergence-accommodation (CA) when viewing through +2D lenses. Prolonged fixation through the near addition lenses initiated vergence adaptation, which reduced the lens-induced exophoria and resulted in a concurrent reduction of CA. Both models showed good agreement with empirical measures of vergence adaptation. However, only one model predicted the experimental time course of reduction in CA. The pattern of our empirical results seem to be best described by the adaptation model that indicates the total vergence response to be a sum of two controllers, phasic and tonic, with the output of phasic controller providing input to the cross-link interactions.
Fasano, G.; Saia, D.; Piras, A.
A challenging issue related to the International Space Station utilization concerns the on-board stowage, implying a strong impact on habitability, safety and crew productivity. This holds in particular for the European Columbus laboratory, nowadays also utilized to provide the station with logistic support. The volume exploitation has to be maximized, in compliance with the given accommodation rules. At each upload step, the stowage problem must be solved quickly and efficiently. This leads to the comparison of different scenarios to select the most suitable one. Last minute upgrades, due to possible re-planning, may, moreover arise, imposing the further capability to rapidly readapt the current solution to the updated status. In this context, looking into satisfactory solutions represents a very demanding job, even for experienced designers. Thales Alenia Space Italia has achieved a remarkable expertise in the field of cargo accommodation and stowage. The company has recently developed CAST, a dedicated in-house software tool, to support the cargo accommodation of the European automated transfer vehicle. An ad hoc version, tailored to the Columbus stowage, has been further implemented and is going to be used from now on. This paper surveys the on-board stowage issue, pointing out the advantages of the proposed approach.
Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Nabovati, Payam; Shahraki, Fatemeh Azad; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Faghihi, Mohammad; Aghamirsalim, Mohamadreza; Doostdar, Asgar; Yekta, Abbasali
To determine the prevalence of accommodative insufficiency (AI) and its relation with age, gender, and refractive errors in a college-age student population in Iran. The present study was conducted cross-sectionally in 2017. All students had optometric tests including measurement of visual acuity, objective and subjective refraction, as well as binocular vision and accommodative examinations. Amplitude of accommodation was measured with the Donders' push-up method using the Royal Air Force (RAF) rule. Monocular accommodative facility was measured with ±2.00diopter flipper lenses. The accommodative response was tested using dynamic retinoscopy with the monocular estimation method (MEM). The prevalence of AI in the studied population was 4.07% (95% CI: 2.61-5.52). The rate was 6.04% (95% CI: 3.58-8.50) in females and 2.01% (95% CI: 0.53-3.48) in males, and logistic regression showed a significantly higher odds of AI in females (OR=3.14, 95% CI: 1.33-7.45, p-value=0.009). The prevalence of AI was 2.59% (95% CI: 0.55-7.56) in the 18-19-year-old age group and 4.08% (95% CI: 0.09-8.07) in the 24-25-year-old group (p-value=0.848). The prevalence of AI among emmetropic, myopic, and hyperopic individuals was 3.74% (95% CI: 1.88-5.61), 4.44% (95% CI: 2.07-6.81), and 5.26% (95% CI: 4.79-16.32), respectively (p-value=0.869). In the multiple regression model, only gender showed significant relationship with AI (Odds ratio=3.14, 95% CI: 1.33-7.45; p-values=0.009). The prevalence of AI in the present study is lower than the most prevalence rates reported in previous studies. In the present study, gender and AI showed a strong association, such that AI prevalence was significantly higher in females than males. Copyright © 2018 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... minimum height, width, backsets, gaps, energy absorption, height retention, backset retention... Accommodate People With Disabilities, Head Restraints AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... in the context of vehicle modifications to accommodate people with disabilities. The rule facilitates...
Remøy, HT; van der Voordt, Theo
Purpose When current accommodation is unsatisfactory, office organisations consider relocating to new accommodation that optimally facilitates their main processes and supports image and financial yield. However, due to high vacancy levels, public opinion and governmental awareness oppose new office
Antona, B; Sanchez, I; Barrio, A; Barra, F; Gonzalez, E
Clinical measurement of the accommodative response (AR) identifies the focusing plane of a subject with respect to the accommodative target. To establish whether a significant change in AR has occurred, it is important to determine the repeatability of this measurement. This study had two aims: First, to determine the intraexaminer repeatability of AR measurements using four clinical methods: Nott retinoscopy, monocular estimate method (MEM) retinoscopy, binocular crossed cylinder test (BCC) and near autorefractometry. Second, to study the level of agreement between AR measurements obtained with the different methods. The AR of the right eye at one accommodative demand of 2.50 D (40 cm) was measured on two separate occasions in 61 visually normal subjects of mean age 19.7 years (range 18-32 years). The intraexaminer repeatability of the tests, and agreement between them, were estimated by the Bland-Altman method. We determined mean differences (MD) and the 95% limits of agreement [coefficient of repeatability (COR) and coefficient of agreement (COA)]. Nott retinoscopy and BCC offered the best repeatability, showing the lowest MD and narrowest 95% interval of agreement (Nott: -0.10 +/- 0.66 D, BCC: -0.05 +/- 0.75 D). The 95% limits of agreement for the four techniques were similar (COA = +/- 0.92 to +/-1.00 D) yet clinically significant, according to the expected values of the AR. The two dynamic retinoscopy techniques (Nott and MEM) had a better agreement (COA = +/-0.64 D) although this COA must be interpreted in the context of the low MEM repeatability (COR = +/-0.98 D). The best method of assessing AR was Nott retinoscopy. The BCC technique was also repeatable, and both are recommended as suitable methods for clinical use. Despite better agreement between MEM and Nott, agreement among the remaining methods was poor such that their interchangeable use in clinical practice is not recommended.
García-Muñoz, Ángel; Carbonell-Bonete, Stela; Cacho-Martínez, Pilar
To determine the symptoms associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions and to assess the methods used to obtain the subjects' symptoms. We conducted a scoping review of articles published between 1988 and 2012 that analysed any aspect of the symptomatology associated with accommodative and non-strabismic binocular dysfunctions. The literature search was performed in Medline (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO and FRANCIS. A total of 657 articles were identified, and 56 met the inclusion criteria. We found 267 different ways of naming the symptoms related to these anomalies, which we grouped into 34 symptom categories. Of the 56 studies, 35 employed questionnaires and 21 obtained the symptoms from clinical histories. We found 11 questionnaires, of which only 3 had been validated: the convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS V-15) and CIRS parent version, both specific for convergence insufficiency, and the Conlon survey, developed for visual anomalies in general. The most widely used questionnaire (21 studies) was the CISS V-15. Of the 34 categories of symptoms, the most frequently mentioned were: headache, blurred vision, diplopia, visual fatigue, and movement or flicker of words at near vision, which were fundamentally related to near vision and binocular anomalies. There is a wide disparity of symptoms related to accommodative and binocular dysfunctions in the scientific literature, most of which are associated with near vision and binocular dysfunctions. The only psychometrically validated questionnaires that we found (n=3) were related to convergence insufficiency and to visual dysfunctions in general and there no specific questionnaires for other anomalies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.
Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Foss, Nicolai J.; Pedersen, Torben
Foreign subsidiaries in multinational corporations (MNCs) possess knowledge that has different sources (e.g., the firm itself or various sources in the environment). How such sources influence knowledge transfer is not well understood. Drawing on the "accommodation effect" from cognitive psychology...... if a certain tipping point of internally sourced knowledge has been surpassed. This suggests that subsidiary knowledge stocks that are balanced in terms of their origins tend to be more valuable, congruous, and fungible, and therefore more likely to be transferred to other MNC units...
Tanaka, Keiji; Ohara, Kazuho; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Edagawa, Noboru
We report the performance of an IEEE 802.3 standard compliant Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) system accommodating 64 optical network units (ONUs). After investigating the optical transmission performance, we successfully demonstrate that a high throughput of more than 900Mbits/s can be achieved in a 64-ONU EPON system using multiple logical link identifiers per ONU within a range of 10km. In addition, we confirm the feasibility of IP-based high-quality triple play services in the EPON system.
Olson, Richard L.; Gustan, Edith A.; Wiley, Lowell F.
An extended study has been conducted with the goals of defining and analyzing relevant parameters and significant tradeoffs for the accommodation of nonhuman research aboard the NASA Space Station, as well as conducting tradeoff analyses for orbital reconfiguring or reoutfitting of the laboratory facility and developing laboratory designs and program plans. The two items exerting the greatest influence on nonhuman life sciences research were identified as the centrifuge and the specimen environmental control and life support system; both should be installed on the ground rather than in orbit.
This patent describes a method and an apparatus for separating isotope types by inducing an isotopically selective vibrational excitation of molecules containing at least one atom of the element type whose isotopes are to be separated. Vibrational excitation is induced in the molecules by finely tuned, narrow bandwidth laser radiation applied to a gaseous flow of the molecules. Isotopic separation of the molecules is achieved from the enhanced difference in diffusion rates for the molecules due to an alteration of the accommodation coefficients in the excited molecules. 40 claims, 4 figures
Weidman, Deene J.; Cirillo, William; Llewellyn, Charles; Kaszubowski, Martin; Kienlen, E. Michael, Jr.
The results of a study conducted at NASA-LaRC to assess the impact on the space station of accommodating a Manned Lunar Base are documented. Included in the study are assembly activities for all infrastructure components, resupply and operations support for lunar base elements, crew activity requirements, the effect of lunar activities on Cape Kennedy operations, and the effect on space station science missions. Technology needs to prepare for such missions are also defined. Results of the study indicate that the space station can support the manned lunar base missions with the addition of a Fuel Depot Facility and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.
The Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts ruled that a person who applies for disability benefits does not forfeit his right to pursue an employment discrimination claim if the employer refuses to accommodate his disability. The court ruled in favor of [name removed], who sued the law firm of [name removed] and [name removed] in Boston for violating the State's Anti-Discrimination Law. The law firm cited Federal and State precedents to show that [name removed] should be estopped from pursuing his lawsuit. [Name removed], who had multiple sclerosis, proved that he was capable of performing the tasks required of him as long as his schedule was flexible.
CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2005
These guidelines address methods for administering Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) assessments using accommodations for learners with documented disabilities. The suggested accommodations for disability categories include provisions for: (1) Accommodations in test administration procedures; and (2) Use of appropriate CASAS…
Among the several forms of accommodations used in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs), language-based accommodations are the most effective in making assessments linguistically accessible to these students. However, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of many of these accommodations. This article…
Allaire, Saralynn H.; Li, Wei; LaValley, Michael P.
Many people with arthritis become work disabled, but little is known about the types of work barriers they experience and their use of job accommodations. This article describes work barriers and use of accommodations and examines factors associated with accommodation use in persons with arthritis at risk for work disability. (Contains 30…
Weis, Robert; Dean, Emily L.; Osborne, Karen J.
Clinicians uniformly recommend accommodations for college students with learning disabilities; however, we know very little about which accommodations they select and the validity of their recommendations. We examined the assessment documentation of a large sample of community college students receiving academic accommodations for learning…
Lebowitz, Eli R; Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Jones, Johnna
Family accommodation describes ways in which parents modify their behavior to help a child avoid or alleviate distress caused by emotional disorders. Accommodation is associated with increased symptom severity, lower functioning, and poorer treatment outcomes. Accommodation is prevalent in childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) but no studies have compared accommodation in these groups or compared them to healthy controls to ascertain if accommodation is prevalent in the general population. This study addresses these gaps by comparing patterns of accommodation, factors that maintain accommodation, and its relation to symptom severity in OCD and AD, relative to healthy controls. We directly compared reports of accommodation to childhood OCD (N = 26) and AD (N = 31), and a comparison group of nonanxious (NA) children (N = 30). Mothers completed measures of accommodation (Family Accommodation Scale (FAS)/Family Accommodation Scale-Anxiety (FASA)), anxiety (Screen for Childhood Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Parent Report (SCARED-PR)), and OCD (Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS)). Family accommodation is prevalent among mothers of children with OCD and AD. Few differences were found between the two clinical groups who reported more accommodation (F[2,84] = 23.411, P anxiety in AD (r = .426, P = .017) and OCD (r = .465, P = .017), but not in the NA group. Findings highlight family accommodation as a phenomenon that applies broadly and in a similar manner to children with AD and OCD. Evaluating accommodation provides useful information for clinical care and is an important part of the assessment of children with AD and OCD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M
The purpose of this study was to assess current lactation accommodations in a workplace environment and to examine the association between the different dimensions of support and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. A survey was conducted with employees of a higher-education institution and clients of an obstetric hospital in New Jersey. Factor analysis identified dimensions of workplace support. The dimensions were correlated with the duration of exclusive breastfeeding using Pearson's r correlation analysis. One hundred and thirteen working mothers participated in the study. The mean (SD) number of working hours of the participants was 34.3 (2.8) hours per week. Participants were primarily white (89.4%), older (mean age, 33.8 [6.0] years), highly educated (>82% above college graduate), and married (92%). Participants indicated that in their workplaces, breastfeeding was not common, breast pumps were not available, and on-site day care was not always an option. The analysis identified 4 dimensions of breastfeeding accommodation: break time, workplace environment, technical support, and workplace policy. Technical support (r = 0.71, P = .01) and workplace environment (r = 0.26, P = .01) were significantly associated with the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Employers can strengthen technical support and workplace environment to encourage breastfeeding continuation in working mothers. New federal laws should consider specific guidelines for minimum requirements for functional lactation support to achieve comprehensive breastfeeding benefits. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Babel, Molly; McAuliffe, Michael; Haber, Graham
This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged.
Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.
This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity, open up an alternate channel of communication, namely oral discussion. By doing so, teachers grant students access to a simplified linguistic input, a strategy designed to promote student comprehension of the textual contents of children's science books. It was found that nearly half (46%) of the read-aloud time was allotted to discussions with an increased percentage of less sophisticated words and reduced use of more sophisticated vocabulary than found in the books through communicative strategies such as simplified rewording, simplified definition, and simplified questioning. Further, aloud reading of more linguistically complex books required longer periods of discussion and an increased degree of teacher oral input and accommodation. We also found evidence of reversed simplification (i.e. sophistication), leading to student uptake of scientific language. The main significance of this study is that it reveals that teacher talk serves two often competing pedagogical functions (accessible communication of scientific information to students and promotion of student acquisition of the specialized language of science). It also underscores the importance of giving analytical consideration to the simplification-sophistication dimension of science classroom discourse as well as the potential of computer-based analysis of classroom discourse to inform science teaching.
Abraham, Neethu G.; Srinivasan, Krithica; Thomas, Jyothi
Background: Measurement of for near point of convergence (NPC), amplitude of accommodation (AA) and phoria are important components of diagnosing nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies. There is a huge variation in the normative data established for orthoptic parameters because of the variation in measurement technique. There are only limited studies for normative data based on nonclinical population in Indian population. Therefore, we aim estimate the normative values for NPC, AA, and phoria measurement in Indian population using techniques, which has good repeatability and reliability. Materials and Methods: Subjects between the age group 10-35 years participated in this prospective cross-sectional study. A self-administered symptom questionnaire was used to exclude patients with asthenopic symptoms. Clinical techniques which have good repeatability and reliability were used. NPC was measured using pen light red, green glass test. AA was measured using minus lens technique. Horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near was measured using modified Thorington method. Results: One hundred and fifty subjects participated in the study. We found that NPC receded with age, which could because of the increase in horizontal phoria at near with age. The mean normative value for objective NPC, break and recovery of subjective NPC, monocular and binocular AA, horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near for the three age groups are reported in the study. Conclusion: The data presented in this study can be used as a cut-off by eye care practitioners while diagnosing convergence, accommodation related anomalies in Indian population. PMID:25709268
Full Text Available This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of branding on the purchasing preferences of tourists at accommodation enterprises. Towards this end questionnaire technique was used and 398 questionnaires were considered to be evaluated. The data, gathered, analyzed by using statistical methods. As a result it is revealed that branding (brad awareness, perceived quality, brand image, brand trust, brand attitude and brand loyalty parameters has a positive effect on purchasing preferences of tourists and a negative effect on the volume of perceived risk. Factors contributing to more on purchasing preferences of tourists, respectively, brand attitude, brand loyalty and brand awareness.
Wang, Xi; Chen, Bingjie; Liu, Longqian
To report a patient with cyclic esotropia with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio after surgical correction of intermittent exotropia who was found to have bilateral anomalous medial rectus muscle insertion sites. A 5-year-old girl developed intermittent esotropia on alternating days after undergoing bilateral lateral rectus recessions for correction of intermittent exotropia. Alternate prism and cover measurement of ocular alignment and binocular function was assessed on consecutive days. Surgical correction was performed for the full amount measured on a "crossed" day. On "straight" days, her eyes were orthotropic with normal binocular vision. Examination on "crossed" days revealed a left esotropia of 75 prism diopters (PD) at near fixation and 40 PD at distance fixation in primary gaze without fusion or stereopsis. The patient underwent bilateral medial rectus recessions in conjunction with posterior fixation sutures (MRP). During surgery, the distance from the limbus to the medial rectus muscle insertion was 3.5 mm bilaterally. Postoperatively, the cycle was broken, and the esotropia disappeared with no recurrence at the latest follow-up at 12 months. MRP is an effective procedure for correction of cyclic esotropia with a high AC/A ratio. Strabismus surgeons should design surgical strategies based on preoperative measurement of deviations at all distances and the anatomy of muscle insertions in patients with cyclic esotropia.
Full Text Available Background: There is a scarcity of data on asthenopia and accommodative disorders in children in Ghana as optometrists sometimes fail to carry out comprehensive assessments because of the lack of appropriate instruments. Aim: To establish the prevalence of asthenopic symptoms and symptomatic accommodative disorders among Junior High School children in Cape Coast metropolis (in their habitual vision state and to investigate if there are any associations between asthenopic symptoms and the disorders. Method: A prospective cross-sectional school-based study using a multistage sample of 627 participants aged 12–17 years from Junior High Schools in Cape Coast metropolis, Ghana, was conducted. Participants completed a reliable asthenopic symptoms questionnaire (Cronbach’s α = 0.866, and 220 participants who expressed two or more severe or very severe symptoms were selected for comprehensive accommodative system assessment over their habitual vision state. Results: The prevalence of symptoms of asthenopia (two or more severe or very severe and symptomatic accommodative disorders were 35.1% and 17.4% respectively. For specific symptomatic accommodative disorders, the prevalence was as follows: 7.7% accommodative insufficiency, 4.5% accommodative infacility, 1.4% accommodative excess and 3.8% accommodative fatigue. There were significant associations between some specific accommodative disorders and some specific asthenopic symptoms even though these asthenopic symptoms overlapped in other accommodative disorders. Conclusion: Specific asthenopic symptoms do not discriminate between the presences of specific types of accommodative disorders. A comprehensive accommodative system assessment with appropriate instruments is relevant to the diagnosis and management of accommodative disorders to relieve asthenopic symptoms.
It is widely accepted that both eustatic and tectonically controlled regional changes of sea level have contributed to the record of stratigraphic sequences. I suggest that environmental change be added as a third, autonomous control. Sedimentologic principles clearly indicate that sequences and their systems tracts are controlled by the interplay of two rates —the rate of change in accommodation (space available for sedimentation) and the rate of sediment supply. Sea level has direct control on accommodation, but its influence on sediment supply is remote and easily overshadowed by environmental factors. For instance, the record of the most recent sea-level rise is a transgressive systems tract where supply is low; it is a prograding highstand systems tract in deltas where the supply is high. Examples of sequence boundaries generated by changes in sediment supply include tectonically driven shifts in sediment input into basins, changes in ocean currents, pulsating supply from failure of submarine slopes and drowning of carbonate platforms by environmental stress. Furthermore, the stratigraphic sequences in fluviatile continental basins are physically removed from sea-level induced changes in accommodation and must have formed by changes in the rate and pattern of supply. Subaerial exposure of marine sediments at the sequence boundary is a most important criterion for recognizing sea level cycles as opposed to supply cycles. Other criteria include downstepping of shelf breaks and characteristic patterns in the spacing of time lines within sequences. Some third-order cycles (ca. 0.5-3 Ma duration) meet these criteria, others do not. Cycle-stacking patterns and the shifting facies belts on cratons indicate that many second- and third-order cycles lack pronounced exposure unconformities and represent gradual changes superimposed on more rapid, shorter oscillations. Seismic data yield poor images of these gradational changes because they lack resolution. Seismic
... when standard levels of service are performed by other customer agencies? 102-85.190 Section 102-85.190... perform or contract for such services must be obtained in advance by the customer agency from the... of Service § 102-85.190 Can GSA Rent be adjusted when standard levels of service are performed by...
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Many metal bellows are used on storage ring vacuum chambers. They allow the ring to accommodate deformations associated with alignment, mechanical assembly and thermal expansion. The NSLS has two such electron storage rings, the vuv ring and the x-ray ring. Both rings utilize a number of welded metal bellows within the ring and at every beam port. There are provisions for 16 beam ports on the vuv and 28 ports in the x-ray ring. At each of these locations the bellows are acted on by an external pressure of 1 atmosphere, which causes a 520 lb reaction at the vacuum chamber beam port and at the beamline flange downstream of the bellows. The use of rigid tie rods across the bellows flanges to support this load is troublesome because most storage ring vacuum chambers are baked in situ to achieve high internal vacuum. Significant forces can develop on components if thermal deformation is restrained and damage could occur
Adaptive control techniques are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. Many physical systems experience external disturbances that are persistent or continually recurring. Flexible structures and systems with compliance between components often form a class of systems that fail to meet standard requirements for adaptive control. For these classes of systems, a residual mode filter can restore the ability of the adaptive controller to perform in a stable manner. New theory will be presented that enables adaptive control with accommodation of persistent disturbances using residual mode filters. After a short introduction to some of the control challenges of large utility-scale wind turbines, this theory will be applied to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.
Coopenbarger, Richard A.
Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions. During busy conditions today, airplanes are commonly forced to fly inefficient, step-down descents as airtraffic controllers work to ensure separation and maximize throughput. NASA in collaboration with government and industry partners is developing new automation to help controllers accommodate continuous descents in the presence of complex traffic and airspace constraints. This automation relies on accurate trajectory predictions to compute strategic maneuver advisories. The talk will describe the concept behind this new automation and provide an overview of the simulations and flight testing used to develop and refine its underlying technology.
Carter, Layne; Tabb, David; Anderson, Molly
Future manned missions beyond low Earth orbit will include intermittent periods of extended dormancy. The mission requirement includes the capability for life support systems to support crew activity, followed by a dormant period of up to one year, and subsequently for the life support systems to come back online for additional crewed missions. NASA personnel are evaluating the architecture and operational concepts that will allow the Water Recovery System (WRS) to support such a mission. Dormancy could be a critical issue due to concerns with microbial growth or chemical degradation that might prevent water systems from operating properly when the crewed mission began. As such, it is critical that the water systems be designed to accommodate this dormant period. This paper identifies dormancy issues, concepts for updating the WRS architecture and operational concepts that will enable the WRS to support the dormancy requirement.
Armstrong, F; Heidingsfeld, V
This article looks at ways in which aromatherapy and therapeutic massage have been found to be beneficial for a group of deaf and deafblind adults with special needs, living in residential accommodation. Our basic aim is to promote confidence and communication as well as enhancing a sense of well-being through the judicial use of aromatic plant materials and therapeutic massage. Aromatherapy sessions have become an accepted enjoyable and therapeutic part of the residents' lifestyle. It is our belief that this gentle, non-invasive therapy can benefit deaf and deafblind people, especially as their intact senses can be heightened. This paper explores both professional and caring issues related to the use of aromatherapy in this environment.
Buhrmann, Thomas; Di Paolo, Ezequiel A
The dynamic interaction of limb segments during movements that involve multiple joints creates torques in one joint due to motion about another. Evidence shows that such interaction torques are taken into account during the planning or control of movement in humans. Two alternative hypotheses could explain the compensation of these dynamic torques. One involves the use of internal models to centrally compute predicted interaction torques and their explicit compensation through anticipatory adjustment of descending motor commands. The alternative, based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis, claims that descending signals can be simple and related to the desired movement kinematics only, while spinal feedback mechanisms are responsible for the appropriate creation and coordination of dynamic muscle forces. Partial supporting evidence exists in each case. However, until now no model has explicitly shown, in the case of the second hypothesis, whether peripheral feedback is really sufficient on its own for coordinating the motion of several joints while at the same time accommodating intersegmental interaction torques. Here we propose a minimal computational model to examine this question. Using a biomechanics simulation of a two-joint arm controlled by spinal neural circuitry, we show for the first time that it is indeed possible for the neuromusculoskeletal system to transform simple descending control signals into muscle activation patterns that accommodate interaction forces depending on their direction and magnitude. This is achieved without the aid of any central predictive signal. Even though the model makes various simplifications and abstractions compared to the complexities involved in the control of human arm movements, the finding lends plausibility to the hypothesis that some multijoint movements can in principle be controlled even in the absence of internal models of intersegmental dynamics or learned compensatory motor signals.
Full Text Available The dynamic interaction of limb segments during movements that involve multiple joints creates torques in one joint due to motion about another. Evidence shows that such interaction torques are taken into account during the planning or control of movement in humans. Two alternative hypotheses could explain the compensation of these dynamic torques. One involves the use of internal models to centrally compute predicted interaction torques and their explicit compensation through anticipatory adjustment of descending motor commands. The alternative, based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis, claims that descending signals can be simple and related to the desired movement kinematics only, while spinal feedback mechanisms are responsible for the appropriate creation and coordination of dynamic muscle forces. Partial supporting evidence exists in each case. However, until now no model has explicitly shown, in the case of the second hypothesis, whether peripheral feedback is really sufficient on its own for coordinating the motion of several joints while at the same time accommodating intersegmental interaction torques. Here we propose a minimal computational model to examine this question. Using a biomechanics simulation of a two-joint arm controlled by spinal neural circuitry, we show for the first time that it is indeed possible for the neuromusculoskeletal system to transform simple descending control signals into muscle activation patterns that accommodate interaction forces depending on their direction and magnitude. This is achieved without the aid of any central predictive signal. Even though the model makes various simplifications and abstractions compared to the complexities involved in the control of human arm movements, the finding lends plausibility to the hypothesis that some multijoint movements can in principle be controlled even in the absence of internal models of intersegmental dynamics or learned compensatory motor signals.
Full Text Available Background: Regarding the high outbreak rate of the eye disorders and problems particularly accommodation disorders and convergence insufficiency in computer users, the study tries to determine the convergence, accommodation system, condition, fusion reserves and vision dimension in bank employees (who work with computers and the control group (who are not computer users and then to compare the mentioned parameters in the two groups. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and observational study a total of 44 bank employees and 44 people as the control group members were selected randomly. Initially, refractive problems were reformed, and then accommodation, convergence and vision dimension evaluative tests were conducted. The test included measuring the near point of convergence, jump convergence, phoria, accommodation range (one eye, both eyes, ease of accommodation (one eye, both eyes, positive and negative related accommodation, near fusion versions and TNO.Results: Our results showed that there was a not significant difference among the near point of convergence, jump convergence, near phoria, accommodation range (one eye and both eyes, ease of accommodation (one eye, both eyes, positive and negative related accommodation in bank employees and control group.Conclusion: Regarding the studies, the outbreak rate of accommodation and convergence disorders is higher in bank employees than the control group which would be due to over working with computer within a fixed interval.
Julia M. Kensbock
Full Text Available By modifying the work environments, work routines, and work tasks of employees with health restrictions, organizations can effectively help them continue to perform their jobs successfully. As such, job accommodations are an effective tool to secure the continued employment of aging workers who develop disabilities across their life span. However, while accommodations tackle health-related performance problems, they might create new challenges on the part of the affected employee. Building on the organizational change and accommodations literatures, we propose a theoretical framework of negative experiences during accommodation processes and apply it to qualitative data from group interviews with 73 manufacturing workers at a German industrial company who were part of the company's job accommodation program. Although problems associated with health-related impairments were mostly solved by accommodation, affected employees with disabilities reported about interpersonal problems and conflicts similar to those that typically occur during organizational change. Lack of social support as well as poor communication and information were raised as criticisms. Furthermore, our findings indicate that discrimination, bullying, and maltreatment appear to be common during accommodation processes. To make accommodation processes more successful, we derive recommendations from the organizational change literature and apply it to the accommodation context. We also emphasize unique characteristics of the accommodation setting and translate these into practical implications.
Kim, Joohwan; Kane, David; Banks, Martin S
Stereoscopic (S3D) displays create conflicts between the distance to which the eyes must converge and the distance to which the eyes must accommodate. Such conflicts require the viewer to overcome the normal coupling between vergence and accommodation, and this effort appears to cause viewer discomfort. Vergence-accommodation coupling is driven by the phasic components of the underlying control systems, and those components respond to relatively fast changes in vergence and accommodative stimuli. Given the relationship between phasic changes and vergence-accommodation coupling, we examined how the rate of change in the vergence-accommodation conflict affects viewer discomfort. We used a stereoscopic display that allows independent manipulation of the stimuli to vergence and accommodation. We presented stimuli that simulate natural viewing (i.e., vergence and accommodative stimuli changed together) and stimuli that simulate S3D viewing (i.e., vergence stimulus changes but accommodative stimulus remains fixed). The changes occurred at 0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 Hz. The lowest rate is too slow to stimulate the phasic components while the highest rate is well within the phasic range. The results were consistent with our expectation: somewhat greater discomfort was experienced when stimulus distance changed rapidly, particularly in S3D viewing when the vergence stimulus changed but the accommodative stimulus did not. These results may help in the generation of guidelines for the creation and viewing of stereo content with acceptable viewer comfort.
Kensbock, Julia M.; Boehm, Stephan A.; Bourovoi, Kirill
By modifying the work environments, work routines, and work tasks of employees with health restrictions, organizations can effectively help them continue to perform their jobs successfully. As such, job accommodations are an effective tool to secure the continued employment of aging workers who develop disabilities across their life span. However, while accommodations tackle health-related performance problems, they might create new challenges on the part of the affected employee. Building on the organizational change and accommodations literatures, we propose a theoretical framework of negative experiences during accommodation processes and apply it to qualitative data from group interviews with 73 manufacturing workers at a German industrial company who were part of the company's job accommodation program. Although problems associated with health-related impairments were mostly solved by accommodation, affected employees with disabilities reported about interpersonal problems and conflicts similar to those that typically occur during organizational change. Lack of social support as well as poor communication and information were raised as criticisms. Furthermore, our findings indicate that discrimination, bullying, and maltreatment appear to be common during accommodation processes. To make accommodation processes more successful, we derive recommendations from the organizational change literature and apply it to the accommodation context. We also emphasize unique characteristics of the accommodation setting and translate these into practical implications. PMID:28979218
Vilupuru, Abhiram S.; Glasser, Adrian
Experiments were undertaken to understand the relationship between dynamic accommodative refractive and biometric (lens thickness (LT), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and anterior segment length (ASL=ACD+LT)) changes during Edinger–Westphal stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys. Experiments were conducted on three rhesus monkeys (aged 11·5, 4·75 and 4·75 years) which had undergone prior, bilateral, complete iridectomies and implantation of a stimulating electrode in the Edinger–Westphal (EW) nucleus. Accommodative refractive responses were first measured dynamically with video-based infrared photorefraction and then ocular biometric responses were measured dynamically with continuous ultrasound biometry (CUB) during EW stimulation. The same stimulus amplitudes were used for the refractive and biometric measurements to allow them to be compared. Main sequence relationships (ratio of peak velocity to amplitude) were calculated. Dynamic accommodative refractive changes are linearly correlated with the biometric changes and accommodative biometric changes in ACD, ASL and LT show systematic linear correlations with increasing accommodative amplitudes. The relationships are relatively similar for the eyes of the different monkeys. Dynamic analysis showed that main sequence relationships for both biometry and refraction are linear. Although accommodative refractive changes in the eye occur primarily due to changes in lens surface curvature, the refractive changes are well correlated with A-scan measured accommodative biometric changes. Accommodative changes in ACD, LT and ASL are all well correlated over the full extent of the accommodative response. PMID:15721617
Hoseini-Yazdi, Seyed Hosein; Yekta, AbbasAli; Nouri, Hosein; Heravian, Javad; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi
To investigate the frequency of convergence and accommodation anomalies in an optometric clinical setting in Mashhad, Iran, and to determine tests with highest accuracy in diagnosing these anomalies. From 261 patients who came to the optometric clinics of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences during a month, 83 of them were included in the study based on the inclusion criteria. Near point of convergence (NPC), near and distance heterophoria, monocular and binocular accommodative facility (MAF and BAF, respectively), lag of accommodation, positive and negative fusional vergences (PFV and NFV, respectively), AC/A ratio, relative accommodation, and amplitude of accommodation (AA) were measured to diagnose the convergence and accommodation anomalies. The results were also compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The accuracy of these tests was explored using sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp), and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+, LR-). Mean age of the patients was 21.3 ± 3.5 years and 14.5% of them had specific binocular and accommodative symptoms. Convergence and accommodative anomalies were found in 19.3% of the patients; accommodative excess (4.8%) and convergence insufficiency (3.6%) were the most common accommodative and convergence disorders, respectively. Symptomatic patients showed lower values for BAF (p = .003), MAF (p = .001), as well as AA (p = .001) compared with asymptomatic patients. Moreover, BAF (S = 75%, Sp = 62%) and MAF (S = 62%, Sp = 89%) were the most accurate tests for detecting accommodative and convergence disorders in terms of both sensitivity and specificity. Convergence and accommodative anomalies are the most common binocular disorders in optometric patients. Including tests of monocular and binocular accommodative facility in routine eye examinations as accurate tests to diagnose these anomalies requires further investigation.
Full Text Available The accommodation services sector is a vital underpinning of the competitiveness of destinations in especially emerging tourism regions of the global economy. Within the environment of Africa building the competitiveness of countries as tourism destinations is inseparable from the challenge of establishing a network of different forms of accommodation at competitive prices and internationally acceptable quality standards. This paper uses a longitudinal approach to analyse the development of the accommodation services sector in one African country - Malawi - which is scaling up its tourism industry. Using historical evidence the objective is to examine the unfolding evolution of accommodation services as a factor in enhancing tourism destination competitiveness. The chequered pathway followed in Malawi to building the country’s network of hotels and small-scale accommodation establishments is traced from the colonial period to post-independence developments. It is argued that in understanding the historical evolution of accommodation services policy re-orientations have been significant drivers of change.
The South African hospitality industry, and more specifically the accommodation sector, is a booming industry within South African Tourism. Annually thousands of tourists, nationally and internationally, come to stay in accommodation establishments which offer a variety of services to guests (South Africa, 2009:499). What differentiates one accommodation establishment from another is the type and quality of service offered to guests. This service offered to guests can only be generated by ...
Kennedy, Ryan David; Douglas, Ornell; Stehouwer, Lindsay; Dawson, Jackie
Purpose Airbnb is a web-based peer-to-peer (P2P) service that enables potential hosts and guests to broker accommodations in private homes as an alternative to traditional hotels. The hospitality sector has increasingly gone smoke-free over the last decade. This study identified the availability and cost of smoking-permitted accommodations identified on Airbnb. Methods The study team searched for Airbnb accommodations in 12 Canadian cities across each of Canada’s 10 provinces. Searches includ...
Ohtsuka, Kenji; Maeda, Sachie; Oguri, Naomi
To report a patient who developed accommodation and convergence palsy caused by lesions in the bilateral rostral superior colliculus. Observational case report. A 30-year-old right-handed man experienced sudden onset of diplopia and blurred vision at near vision. The patient showed accommodation and convergence palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed lesions located in the bilateral rostral superior colliculus. These findings suggest that the rostral superior colliculus is involved in the control of accommodation and vergence eye movements.
坂東, 武彦; 戸田, 春男; 安藤, 誠男; 高木, 峰夫; 吉沢, 豊久; 原, 直人; Bando, Takehiko; Toda, Haruo; Ando, Tomoo; Takagi, Mineo; Yoshizawa, Toyohisa; Hara, Naoto
Experimental findings obtained by our group were reviewed, and functional significance of the visual association cortex in controlling lens accommodation and ocular convergence was discussed. By intracortical microstimulation in an extrastriate visual area in the cat, lens accommodation and vergence eye movement were evoked. In the same cortical area, a group of neurons was also activated in correlation with lens accommodation or ocular convergence. In addition, after the lesion in this area,...
Full Text Available AIM: To research the characteristics of positive relative accommodation(PRA, negative relative accommodation(NRAand PRA/NRA ratio in myopes. To analyze the relationship among PRA, NRA, PRA/NRA ratio, spherical equivalent degree, years and habbits of wearing glasses, myopia development, and pupil diameter.METHODS: Aretrospective study of ninety eyes in the 180th Hospital of Quanzhou from August 2014 to December 2014. PRA, NRA and PRA/NRA ratio were compared among low, moderate, high myopes and emmetropes. The correlation were analyzed among PRA, NRA, PRA/NRA ratio, spherical equivalent degree, years and habbits of wearing glasses, myopia development and pupil diameter. PRA, NRA, PRA/NRA ratio, years and habbits of wearing glasses and pupil diameter were compared between progress group and non-progress group.RESULTS:(1Without statistical differences in age, sex and intraocular pressure, PRA and PRA/NRA ratio of myopes were lower than emmetropes, while NRA was higher.(2Without statistical differences in age, sex and intraocular pressure, PRA, PRA/NRA ratio and NRA had no statistical differences while years and habbits of wearing glasses had statistical differences among low, moderate, high myopes.(3With longer years of wearing glasses, PRA, PRA/NRA ratio were larger and NRA, pupils were smaller.(4Without statistical differences in age, diopter and intraocular pressure, one group which were not easy to deepen degree had more often-wear-glasses myopia patiens and longer years of wearing glasses, the other group which were easy to deepen degree had more seldom-wear-glasses myopia patiens and shorter years of wearing glasses.CONCLUSION: PRA and PRA/NRA ratio of myopes were lower than emmetropes, while NRA was higher. No correlated relation was detected among PRA, NRA, PRA/NRA ratio, spherical equivalent degree and myopia development. It suggests the onset and progress of myopia are related to many factors. Wearing-glass timely and accurately can
Horwood, A M; Turner, J E; Houston, S M; Riddell, P M
A remote haploscopic photorefractor, designed for assessment of accommodation and convergence in infants and clinical groups, was used to determine heterophoria accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratios in normal naïve adults. These were compared with conventional clinical measures. Twenty-one naïve subjects were used to compare occluded and unoccluded prism cover test responses with the remote haploscopic photorefractor using a text and picture target. Although luminance was generally low for both targets, binocular vergences were appropriate for target demand in both studies. Binocular accommodation showed greater lag for the highest target accommodative demand and the less demanding target. Occlusion not only reduced vergence response, but also frequently caused a marked reduction in accommodation, especially to the picture target. Normal mean AC/A values were found, but with wide variations between individual subjects. Although mean accommodation, vergence, and AC/A values were comparable with published data, we suggest that in these conditions using naïve subjects, accommodation is frequently inaccurate, especially on occlusion, without concomitant loss of vergence, at least at low light levels. Accommodative convergence may play a less important part in, and other cues contribute more to, the near reflex than has been previously suggested.
Kaplan, Shelley; Weiss, Sally; Moon, Nathan W; Baker, Paul
Telecommuting, whether full time, part time, or over short periods when the need arises, can be an important accommodation for employees with disabilities. Indeed, telecommuting may be the only form of accommodation that offers employees whose disabilities fluctuate a means to stay consistently and gainfully employed. This article describes one employer's experience in considering a request for telecommuting as a reasonable accommodation for a particular employee. Drawing on real-life examples, both positive and negative, this article provides a win/win framework for decision-making that can help employers evaluate the use of telecommuting as a possible accommodation and facilitates open and ongoing communication between employer and employee.
Hellberg, Ingela; Augustsson, Veronica; Hellström Muhli, Ulla
This article presents a hermeneutic phenomenological analysis of interview material in which 12 seniors living in Special Housing Accommodation (SHA) facilities reflect on the experience of living in such facilities. Of particular interest in the analysis is living in a SHA as a phenomenon. The finding shows that the phenomenon of lived experience in a SHA seems to be a state of ambiguity regarding one's existence, which is made up of several constituents (elements of meaning). The analysis contributes to the understanding of how the phenomenon of SHA living is coming into existence as a need, due to an individual's failing health; however, the SHA is not considered to be a true home. Accordingly, this has consequences to the subject position for the seniors in that they have to navigate between existing and not existing. The seniors learn to cope with living in the SHA by lowering their expectations of life and existence while the SHA provides the prerequisites for their existence. An implication for promoting care is to support the seniors to enable a full existence of life within SHA living. PMID:21412446
Schaeffel, F; Glasser, A; Howland, H C
We raised chickens with defocusing lenses of differing powers in front of their eyes. For this purpose, small hoods made from soft, thin leather were carefully fitted to their heads. Lenses were attached to the hoods by velcro fasteners and could be easily removed for cleaning. The powers of the lenses were such that their optical effects could be compensated for by accommodation. It was verified by infrared (IR) photoretinoscopy that the chickens could keep their retinal images in focus. Wearing a lens resulted in a consistent shift of the non cycloplegic refractive state (measured without the lens) which was in the direction to compensate for the lens. We used a sensitive technique (precision = +/- 50 micron as estimated from the variability of repeated measurements) to measure the posterior nodal distance (PND) in excised eyes of birds grown with lenses. The PND, in turn, was used to compare eyes treated with different lenses. It was found that the PND was increased in eyes which were treated with negative lenses compared to those treated with positive lenses. This effect occurs independently in both eyes and it is not due to changes in corneal curvature. We discuss our result in terms of a closed-loop feedback system for the regulation of eye growth.
Zirbel, Shannon A.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.; Lang, Robert J.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Trease, Brian P.
The purpose of this work is to create deployment systems with a large ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter. Deployment from a compact form to a final flat state can be achieved through origami-inspired folding of panels. There are many models capable of this motion when folded in a material with negligible thickness; however, when the application requires the folding of thick, rigid panels, attention must be paid to the effect of material thickness not only on the final folded state, but also during the folding motion (i.e., the panels must not be required to flex to attain the final folded form). The objective is to develop new methods for deployment from a compact folded form to a large circular array (or other final form). This paper describes a mathematical model for modifying the pattern to accommodate material thickness in the context of the design, modeling, and testing of a deployable system inspired by an origami six-sided flasher model. The model is demonstrated in hardware as a 1/20th scale prototype of a deployable solar array for space applications. The resulting prototype has a ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter of 9.2 (or 1.25 m deployed outer diameter to 0.136 m stowed outer diameter).
The purpose of this paper is to present an industry perspective on water hammer, revisit the issues, and renew interest in this area with aim to prevent, mitigate, and accommodate water hammer. Water hammer keeps recurring in nuclear power plants and damages plant components and impacts on plant operations and availability through forced outages of plants. The implication is that water hammer in nuclear power plants still needs attention and is a problem that has not been fundamentally resolved. The paper displays statistics of the reported water hammer events between 1969 and 1985. The consequences of these water hammer events were: pipe support damage (hangers, anchors, and snubbers), 60%; component damage (piping, pumps, and valves), 17%; reactor trip, 10%; and plant shutdown, 7%. Reactor trips and plant shutdowns account for 17% of the event consequences. At the request of the nuclear utility industry, a workshop on water hammer was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with cosponsorship from Northeast Utility Service Company, Yankee Atomic Electric Company, and Boston Edison Company, which drew some 90 specialists representing 28 utility companies as well as other nuclear industry, academia, and the NRC. The workshop recommendations are summarized
Ika Apriani Fata
Full Text Available To set sight on role play by means to look at EFL teacher’s experience and students’ perspectives of role play (RP technique enactment in teaching speaking by using qualitative design. This research was a qualitative study. It was discharged at a Senior high school in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. It provided work for the instrument of observation sheet, field notes and interview guide, and also questionnaire. The methodology designated the combination of four mountainsides to expose in-depth the urgency of role play in which applied since 1936. The result of interview was exposed that the English teacher claimed that role play was a technique applied to promote speaking and it was corroborated by the result of field note. Likewise, regarding students’ perspective depicted that the students indeed agreed on themselves of the usefulness of role play to enhance their speaking skill and motivation. Thus, Students asserted that the learning was more fun and enjoyable through role play itself. It is merely found in this research study that role playing can accommodate students’ need and teacher’s side in English language teaching. Nevertheless, this article applies a small subject as the participant. Therefore, the researchers recommended to have a deep look at reasoning students’ point of view in terms of role play technique implementation in non-English class. And see ascertains how beneficial it is in terms of role play (RP in a large classroom.
Tahi, Hassan; Chapon, Pascal F.; Hamaoui, Marie; Lee, William E.; Holden, Brien; Parel, Jean-Marie A.
Purpose. To evaluate an innovative surgical technique for phaco-ersatz, a cataract surgery designed to restore accommodation. Techniques for very small capsulorhexis as well as the refilling procedure were developed. This study evaluates the feasibility and reproducibility of the surgical technique. Methods. The right eye of 8 NZW rabbits (~ 2 Kg) were operated following the ARVO Statements for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research. The surgery is begun by making a small peripheral capsulorhexis of about 1 mm using. The lens content is then removed. The lens is then refilled with a novel in situ polymerizable gel and the corneal incision is closed using one 10/0 Nylon interrupted stitch. Results. The capsulorhexis technique was succesfully performed and reproducible in all animals. The average size of the capsulorhexis opening was 1. 2 mm (+/-0.14). Lens material removal and refilling of the capsular bag with an in situ polymerizable material was also performed in each trial study. Conclusion. This surgical technique seemed feasible and reproducible.
Larry B. Crowder
Full Text Available Valuing ecosystem services with microeconomic underpinnings presents challenges because these services typically constitute nonmarket values and contribute to human welfare indirectly through a series of ecological pathways that are dynamic, nonlinear, and difficult to quantify and link to appropriate economic spatial and temporal scales. This paper develops and demonstrates a method to value a portion of ecosystem services when a commercial fishery is dependent on the quality of estuarine habitat. Using a lumped-parameter, dynamic open access bioeconomic model that is spatially explicit and includes predator-prey interactions, this paper quantifies part of the value of improved ecosystem function in the Neuse River Estuary when nutrient pollution is reduced. Specifically, it traces the effects of nitrogen loading on the North Carolina commercial blue crab fishery by modeling the response of primary production and the subsequent impact on hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen. Hypoxia, in turn, affects blue crabs and their preferred prey. The discounted present value fishery rent increase from a 30% reduction in nitrogen loadings in the Neuse is $2.56 million, though this welfare estimate is fairly sensitive to some parameter values. Surprisingly, this number is not sensitive to initial conditions.
Storch, Eric A; Johnco, Carly; McGuire, Joseph F; Wu, Monica S; McBride, Nicole M; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K
This initial study examined the nature, incidence, and clinical correlates of family accommodation in youth with tic disorders, and validated a brief self-report measure of tic-related family accommodation, the Tic Family Accommodation Scale (TFAS). Seventy-five youth aged 6-18 who were diagnosed with a tic disorder and their parent completed a diagnostic clinical interview, and clinician and parent-report measures of tic severity, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems, family accommodation and impairment. An exploratory factor analysis of the TFAS showed a two-factor structure, with good internal consistency for the Total score, Modification of Child Environment and Modification of Parent Environment subscales (α = 0.88, 0.86, and 0.81, respectively). Family accommodation was not associated with tic severity. Family accommodation was associated with increased anxiety and depressive symptoms, higher externalizing, rule breaking, aggressive behaviors and social problems, and with greater tic-related functional impairment. Anxiety and externalizing problems (but not depressive symptoms) predicted family accommodation when controlling for tic severity. Family accommodation predicted high levels of functional impairment over and above the effect of tic severity, anxiety, depression and externalizing problems. Family accommodation is a common phenomenon for youth with tic disorders, with modifications typically encompassing changes to the child and/or parent environments. Accommodation was not associated with tic severity, but was related to higher levels of anxiety, depressive symptoms, externalizing symptoms, aggression, and rule breaking behaviors. Results suggest that other emotional symptoms are more likely to drive accommodation practices than the tic symptoms per se.
Padkapayeva, Kathy; Posen, Andrew; Yazdani, Amin; Buettgen, Alexis; Mahood, Quenby; Tompa, Emile
To identify and synthesize research evidence on workplace accommodations used by employers to recruit, hire, retain, and promote persons with physical disabilities. A structured search of six electronic journal databases was undertaken to identify peer-reviewed literature on the topic published from January 1990 to March 2016. Articles describing or evaluating workplace disability accommodation policies and practices were given a full-text review. Topic experts were contacted to identify additional studies. Details on specific accommodations described in 117 articles were synthesized and organized into three groups comprised of a total of 12 categories. The majority of studies did not rigorously evaluate effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of the accommodations under study. This evidence synthesis provides an overview of the peer-reviewed literature of value to occupational rehabilitation professionals and employers seeking guidance on workplace accommodation policies and practices for persons with physical disabilities. A wide range of accommodation options is available for addressing physical, social, and attitudinal barriers to successful employment. Besides physical/technological modifications, accommodations to enhance workplace flexibility and worker autonomy and strategies to promote workplace inclusion and integration are important. More comprehensive reporting and evaluations of the effectiveness of accommodations in research literature are needed to develop best practices for accommodating persons with disabilities. Implications for rehabilitation There is a substantial peer-reviewed literature that provides insights into the barriers for persons with physical disabilities and the workplace accommodation practices to address them, though rigorous evaluations of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness are uncommon. Attitudinal and social barriers stemming from stereotypes, ignorance and lack of knowledge are as important as physical barriers to employment for
Lee, Jung Jin; Baek, Seung-Hee; Kim, Ungsoo Samuel
To define the long-term results of accommodation insufficiency and to investigate the correlation between accommodation insufficiency and other factors including near point of convergence (NPC), age, and refractive errors. From January 2008 to December 2009, 11 patients with acute near vision disturbance and remote near point of accommodation (NPA) were evaluated. Full ophthalmologic examinations, including best corrected visual acuity, manifest refraction and prism cover tests were performed. Accommodation ability was measured by NPA using the push-up method. We compared accommodation insufficiency and factors including age, refractive errors and NPC. We also investigated the recovery from loss of accommodation in patients. Mean age of patients was 20 years (range, 9 to 34 years). Five of the 11 patients were female. Mean refractive error was -0.6 diopters (range, -3.5 to +0.25 diopters) and 8 of 11 patients (73%) had emmetropia (+0.50 to -0.50 diopters). No abnormalities were found in brain imaging tests. Refractive errors were not correlated with NPA or NPC (rho = 0.148, p = 0.511; rho = 0.319, p = 0.339; respectively). The correlation between age and NPA was not significant (rho = -395, p = 0.069). However, the correlation between age and NPC was negative (rho = -0.508, p = 0.016). Three of 11 patients were lost to follow-up, and 6 of 8 patients had permanent insufficiency of accommodation. Accommodation insufficiency is most common in emmetropia, however, refractive errors and age are not correlated with accommodation insufficiency. Dysfunction of accommodation can be permanent in the isolated accommodation insufficiency.
Chhibba, Tarun; Walker, John R; Sexton, Kathryn; Restall, Gayle; Ivekovic, Melony; Shafer, Leigh Ann; Singh, Harminder; Targownik, Laura E; Bernstein, Charles N
People with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often experience periods of illness that interfere with their ability to work. We aimed to understand the need for workplace accommodation during periods of acute illness among persons IBD. Participants were recruited from the population-based University of Manitoba Research Registry and received a survey including questions assessing experiences with workplace accommodations. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression modelling. A total of 1143 individuals responded to the survey (46% response rate), of whom 881 had experienced IBD symptoms in the workplace and were included in the analysis. The mean age was 48.3 years (standard deviation, 10.9); 61% were female. Mean IBD duration was 20.6 years (standard deviation, 10.5). Most respondents (73%) described IBD symptoms experienced in the workplace as severe to very severe. The most commonly required accommodations were time to go to medical appointments during working hours (81%), easy access to a toilet (71%), and a chance to take a break when not feeling well (54%). Most accommodations were arranged informally or through a supervisor. The accommodations required were very or somewhat easy to arrange about half the time. Being female, having high symptom severity, and high level of current distress were associated with a need for more accommodations, difficulty implementing accommodations, and not asking for needed accommodations. This study provides important information as to the types of accommodations that are necessary, common practices arranging for these, and level of difficulty arranging accommodations. Furthermore, characteristics associated with greater need for accommodation, reluctance to ask for them, and difficulty in arranging them were identified. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flores-Reyes, E M; Castillo-López, M G; Toledo-Silva, R; Vargas-Ortega, J; Murillo-Correa, C E; Aguilar-Ruiz, A
To determine the effectiveness of a botulinum toxin type A injection in both medial rectus muscles in patients with partially accommodative esotropia. Residual deviation and stability of strabismus were evaluated at 18 months follow up. A prospective, analytical, quasi-experimental study was conducted on a cohort of 21 patients who underwent total cycloplegic refraction and with a residual deviation of at least 14 DP. A botulinum toxin type A dose of 5 IU was injected into each medial rectus muscle for a residual deviation greater than 18 DP, with a dose of 2.5 IU being used for a deviation between 14 and 18 DP. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to relate residual deviation to variables recorded as potential predictors. A total of 21 patients were included, 33.3% (n=7) males and 66.6% (n=14) females. Mean visual acuity was -.28±.25 logMAR for right eye (range 0 to -1) and -.42±.31 logMAR for left eye (range 0 to -1.3). Mean angle of residual deviation before application of botulinum toxin was 40.95±8.6DP without spectacles correction, and 22.3±7.99 DP with full cycloplegic refraction. Adverse effects were ptosis in 14.2% (n=3), diplopia 23.8% (n=5), and vertical deviation in 33% (n=7). One patient had a poor outcome, therefore required surgical treatment. At one year follow up, 85.71% of patients showed good results with esotropia of 12 DP or less, dropping to 71.43% at 18 months of follow up. Botulinum toxin type A is an effective long-term treatment with a good response in 71.43% of patients. No predictors of good response were demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lutsey, Nicholas; Sperling, Daniel
This paper addresses the policy challenges of adjusting established regulations to accommodate evolving and new technologies. We examine energy and emissions regulations for older petroleum powered vehicles and newer plug-in electric vehicles. Until now, vehicle regulations across the world have ignored energy consumption and emissions upstream of the vehicle (at refineries, pipelines, etc), largely because of the convenient fact that upstream emissions and energy use are nearly uniform across petroleum-fueled vehicles and play a relatively minor role in total lifecycle emissions. Including upstream impacts would greatly complicate the regulations. But because the vast majority of emissions and energy consumption for electric vehicles (and hydrogen and, to a lesser extent, biofuels) are upstream, the old regulatory design is no longer valid. The pressing regulatory question is whether to assign upstream GHG emissions to electric vehicles, or not, and if so, how. We find that assigning zero upstream emissions—as a way of incentivizing the production and sale of PEVs—would eventually lead to an erosion of 20% of the GHG emission benefits from new vehicles, assuming fixed vehicle standards. We suggest alternative policy mechanisms and strategies to account for upstream emissions and energy use. - Highlights: ► We quantify the effects of electric vehicles within greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation. ► Electric vehicle GHG impacts are substantial and vary greatly by grid power sources. ► Existing “zero emission” electric vehicle incentives undermine regulation benefits. ► 10% electric vehicle sales leads to 20% erosion in regulation benefits by 2020–2025. ► Lifecycle crediting improves policy cost-effectiveness and technology neutrality.
Full Text Available In the fall of 2004, the Academic Computing Center, a division of the Information Technology Services Department (ITS at Minnesota State University, Mankato took over responsibility for the computers in the public areas of Memorial Library. For the first time, affiliated Memorial Library users were required to authenticate using a campus username and password, a change that effectively eliminated computer access for anyone not part of the university community. This posed a dilemma for the librarians. Because of its Federal Depository status, the library had a responsibility to provide general access to both print and online government publications for the general public. Furthermore, the library had a long tradition of providing guest access to most library resources, and there was reluctance to abandon the practice. Therefore the librarians worked with ITS to retain a small group of six computers that did not require authentication and were clearly marked for community use, along with several standup, open-access computers on each floor used primarily for searching the library catalog. The additional need to provide computer access to high school students visiting the library for research and instruction led to more discussions with ITS and resulted in a means of generating temporary usernames and passwords through a Web form. These user accommodations were implemented in the library without creating a written policy governing the use of open-access computers.
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination in furnishing public accommodations and transportation services. 5.9 Section 5.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... furnishing public accommodations and transportation services. (a) The proprietor, owner or operator and the...
Moskaliuk, J.; Matschke, C.
Learning is a complex process that can be differentiated into assimilation and accommodation. The Internet enables both types of learning through collaboration. There is, however, little research investigating the specific impact of social and information incongruity on assimilation and accommodation. The current research investigates how the…
... higher than coach and lower than first-class, in both cost and amenities. This class of accommodation is...-class. The basic class of accommodation by airlines that is normally the lowest fare offered regardless of airline terminology used. For reference purposes only, coach-class may also be referred to by...
Hetler, Angela Dawn
This qualitative case study examines teachers' perspectives on testing accommodations for Limited English Proficient (LEP) students taking Indiana's Graduation Qualifying Exam (GQE). The Indiana Department of Education (IDOE) states that the purpose of testing accommodations is to "level the playing field" between LEP students and their…
McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Shaw, William; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Soklaridis, Sophie
To determine the association between supervisors' leadership style and autonomy and supervisors' likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors' likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale (JAS). We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β = .012; 95% CI .009-.016) and autonomy (β = .066; 95% CI .025-.11) were positively associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI -.0026 to .0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability.
McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Shaw, William; Soklaridis, Sophie
PURPOSE To determine the association between supervisors’ leadership style and autonomy and supervisors’ likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors’ likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale. We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. RESULTS A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β= .012; 95% CI: .009–.016) and autonomy (β= .066; 95% CI: .025–.11) were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI: −.0026–.0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. CONCLUSIONS Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability. PMID:25595332
Smith, Derrick W.; Amato, Sheila
Because of the mandates found in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act that specifically focus on assessment, most states have developed a set of policies that focus on the types of accommodations that can be provided to students with disabilities. Students with visual impairments require a unique set of accommodations. Braille and large…
This study compared performance of both English language learners (ELLs) and non-ELL students in Grades 4 and 8 under accommodated and nonaccommodated testing conditions. The accommodations used in this study included a computerized administration of a math test with a pop-up glossary, a customized English dictionary, extra testing time, and…
Hughes, Claretha; Lusk, Stephanie L.; Strause, Stephanie
All employees within the workplace must be treated fairly and equitably including those with disabilities who may require accommodations that serve to increase access to and maintenance of competitive employment. Human Resource Development (HRD) researchers and practitioners have experience in accommodating employees with disabilities but are now…
This article explores the changing attitudes towards student accommodation in higher education in the United Kingdom since the end of the Second World War. In the first part of this period there was a firm assumption, in universities and teacher training colleges, that the accommodation of students in or close to their university or college,…
Caporino, Nicole E.; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.
Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and…
Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Jamgochian, Elisa M.; Nelson-Walker, Nancy J.; Geller, Joshua P.
Appropriate assignment of accommodations is predicated on a clear distinction between target skills and access skills. In this study, we examine the agreement between test developer/researchers' and educators' classification of target and access skills as a possible explanatory mechanism for assigning accommodations. Findings indicate that…
The availability of accommodation for contractors working on the proposed EDRP at Dounreay is discussed. It is predicted that the contractors could be accommodated without the need for special arrangement and with no adverse effect on the tourist industry. (U.K.)
Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lynn, C. Allen
While many teachers and teacher educators in the United States K-12 system acknowledge that the English language learners (ELLs) in our schools need modifications and accommodations to help them succeed in school, few attempt to parse out how different types of accommodations may affect learning in the mainstream classroom, specifically linguistic…
Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Sharma, Prashant K.; van Kooten, Theo G.; Koopmans, Steven A.
Accommodation may be restored to presbyopic lenses by refilling the lens capsular bag with a soft polymer. After this accommodative lens refilling prevention of capsular opacification is a requirement, since capsular opacification leads to a decreased clarity of the refilled lens. It has been
Danby, Susan; Farrell, Ann; Leiminer, Michele
This paper investigates young people's accounts of governance in their everyday lives within a Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP) in regional Australia. The SAAP is a joint Commonwealth and State/Territory programme for assisting people who are homeless or at risk of homelessness by providing transitional supported accommodation and…
Thomsen, Tamara; Fritz, Viktoria; Mößle, Regine; Greve, Werner
Coping research has consistently shown that accommodative coping is positively correlated with individuals' health. Until now, however, there have been little to no studies on the prognostic impact of accommodative coping on health, and only a few studies investigating its buffering effect on the relation between stress and health in childhood and…
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must be...
Rafique, Sara A; Northway, Nadia
Ocular accommodation provides a well-focussed image, feedback for accurate eye movement control, and cues for depth perception. To accurately perform visually guided motor tasks, integration of ocular motor systems is essential. Children with motor coordination impairment are established to be at higher risk of accommodation anomalies. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between ocular accommodation and motor tasks, which are often overlooked, in order to better understand the problems experienced by children with motor coordination impairment. Visual function, gross and fine motor skills were assessed in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing control children. Children with DCD had significantly poorer accommodation facility and amplitude dynamics compared to controls. Results indicate a relationship between impaired accommodation and motor skills. Specifically, accommodation anomalies correlated with visual motor, upper limb and fine dexterity task performance. Consequently, we argue accommodation anomalies influence the ineffective coordination of action and perception in DCD. Furthermore, reading disabilities were related to poorer motor performance. We postulate the role of the fastigial nucleus as a common pathway for accommodation and motor deficits. Implications of the findings and recommended visual screening protocols are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lindstrom, Jennifer H.
One of the most significant barriers facing postsecondary students with reading and written expression disorders who are eligible to receive specific accommodations is the lack of professional knowledge pertaining to issues surrounding accommodations. Though guided by Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with…
Shafer Willner, Lynn; Mokhtari, Kouider
For more than two decades, accommodations have served as the primary strategy for ensuring the valid participation of multilingual learners (MLLs) in high-stakes summative assessments. Using historical analyses of the evolution of testing accommodation guidelines and related instructional practices, the authors explain how the application of…
Baker, Nancy A; Rubinstein, Elaine N; Rogers, Joan C
Little is known about the problems experienced by and the accommodation strategies used by computer users with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or fibromyalgia (FM). This study (1) describes specific problems and accommodation strategies used by people with RA and FM during computer use; and (2) examines if there were significant differences in the problems and accommodation strategies between the different equipment items for each diagnosis. Subjects were recruited from the Arthritis Network Disease Registry. Respondents completed a self-report survey, the Computer Problems Survey. Data were analyzed descriptively (percentages; 95% confidence intervals). Differences in the number of problems and accommodation strategies were calculated using nonparametric tests (Friedman's test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test). Eighty-four percent of respondents reported at least one problem with at least one equipment item (RA = 81.5%; FM = 88.9%), with most respondents reporting problems with their chair. Respondents most commonly used timing accommodation strategies to cope with mouse and keyboard problems, personal accommodation strategies to cope with chair problems and environmental accommodation strategies to cope with monitor problems. The number of problems during computer use was substantial in our sample, and our respondents with RA and FM may not implement the most effective strategies to deal with their chair, keyboard, or mouse problems. This study suggests that workers with RA and FM might potentially benefit from education and interventions to assist with the development of accommodation strategies to reduce problems related to computer use.
Tuition and living accommodation costs for students at most Canadian universities are summarized in this publication from Statistics Canada. Extensive data tables include information on accommodation costs for university-operated residences and housing and tuition fees. The range of tuition fees at the undergraduate level reflects a fee structure…
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for ADA... the ADA Accommodations Packet. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before April 15, 2013...: ADA Accommodations Request Packet. OMB Number: 1545-2027. Abstract: Information is collected so that...
Full Text Available AIM:To compare the difference of accommodation response under the variety reading conditions including computer screen, mobile phone screen and printed texts. The investigation also included the accommodation response under these conditions with different distances, brightness, dynamic and static testing status. METHODS:Thirty volunteer subjects were included with normal vision function. The reading target on computer screen, mobile screen and paper were used, respectively. Grand Seiko WAM 5500 infrared automatic refractometer was applied to measure accommodation response. The influence of different reading conditions on accommodation was compared using variance analysis with SPSS17.0.RESULTS:Accommodation lag under the computer screen with high brightness was 0.52±0.24D, that under papers was 0.73±0.28D, that under mobile phone was 0.72±0.29D. Accommodation lag under the computer screen with high brightness was less than that under mobile phones and paper, the differences were statistically significant(PCONCLUSION:Accommodation lag under the computer screen with high brightness is relatively smaller than that under mobile phone or paper. There is no significant difference between those under phones and paper. With the brightness of computers in a certain range, there is no effect for accommodation response.
Wu, Monica S; McGuire, Joseph F; Martino, Charitie; Phares, Vicky; Selles, Robert R; Storch, Eric A
Family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by myriad behaviors, such as modifying family routines, facilitating avoidance, and engaging in compulsions to reduce obsessional distress. It has been linked to various deleterious outcomes including increased functional impairment and poorer treatment response for OCD. Although extant literature suggests a linear relationship between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity, the magnitude and statistical significance of this association has been inconsistent across studies, indicating that moderators may be influencing this relationship. The present study examined this relationship using meta-analytic techniques, and investigated sample-dependent (age, gender, comorbid anxiety/mood disorders) and methodological (administration method and number of items used in family accommodation measure, informant type, sample size, publication year) moderators. Forty-one studies were included in the present meta-analysis, and the overall effect size (ES) for the correlation between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity was moderate (r=.42). Moderator analyses revealed that the number of items on the family accommodation scale moderated the ES. No other sample-dependent or methodological characteristics emerged as moderators. In addition to being the first systematic examination of family accommodation moderators, these results highlight the moderate relationship between family accommodation and OCD severity that is influenced by measurement scales. Findings may be used to guide clinical care and inform future investigations by providing a more nuanced understanding of family accommodation in OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders
of 809 workers who were continuously sick-listed more than eight weeks. Using a joint proportional mixed hazard rate model, we simultaneously estimate the duration until returning to work (in an accommodated job with the current employer, in a non-accommodated job with the current employer, or in a job...
Van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Van Marrewijk, Charles
As part of the larger energy market deregulation program, the Dutch energy authority - DTe - has developed the habit to force the Dutch gas transport enterprise - Gas Transport Services, or GTS - to lower its prices. DTe's key argument is that lower gas transport prices will benefit the end-user. Indeed, that might well be the case. This policy, in general, is in line with European legislation on the liberalization of the gas market. We model and simulate the (domestic) welfare effects of a 5 percent transport price reduction. From this, we conclude that at least three observations complicate matters substantially. First, GTS is government-owned, and the dominant shipper - Gasunie Trade and Supply (or GasTerra, as it was recoined recently) - is partly so (50%). Second, shippers enter into the competitive game to make profits. Third, not only is the majority of gas transported in the Netherlands exported to foreign end-users, but also foreign owners have a large stake in Dutch shippers. As a result, part of the rents will always be distributed, or will 'leak' away, to foreign consumers and shippers (or their shareholders). These three observations together have three important implications. First, state ownership implies that much rent allocation is simply a matter of circulating money from one government sub-budget to the other. Second, given that the industry is imperfectly competitive, part of the rents will not be passed on to the end-consumers. Third, it is unavoidable that a substantial part of the rents are transferred abroad. A general conclusion for policy-makers is that market liberalization might not bring ex post what they expected ex ante. (author)
Many studies on the office market have been conducted for the last thirty years. Especially variables which are expected to affect office rents were examined for different cities. The extent of variables was used in these studies reflecting variations in locational and/or economical conditions of the different cities.It is aimed to examine the development of the Istanbul office market in the last decade from the perspective of brokerage firms. The perception of brokerage firms on the effectiv...
Mineral Taxation Policies in Developing Countries: An Application of Resource Rent Tax (L'imposition des ressources dans les pays en développement: application du concept de taxe sur la rente minière) (Políticas de impuestos a los minerales en los países en desarrollo: Aplicación del impuesto a la renta de recursos)
Keith F. Palmer
The central problem of mineral taxation policy in developing countries is to establish a stable fiscal framework that, under conditions of uncertainty, both obtains a high share of mineral rent for the resource-owning country and ensures for the investor the prospect of a return on his investment commensurate with his risk. The main concern of the paper is to propose a practical fiscal framework, based on the resource rent tax concept, that meets these objectives. The resource rent tax is a p...
Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Birkbak, Andreas
This paper has been commissioned by the European Commission’s DG GROWTH to examine the impact of regulatory approaches targeting collaborative economy in the tourism accommodation sector in the cities of Barcelona, Berlin, Amsterdam and Paris. In relation to tourism, the growth of the collaborative...... economy peer-to-peer accommodation sector has significant impacts for traditional tourism industry structures and relationships. The growth of the collaborative economy peer-to-peer accommodation market has led to a diversification of accommodation stock, it has led to increased competition, and it has...... governments and host communities are also raising concerns over the impact of unregulated tourist accommodation within residential neighbourhoods and the conflicts that are emerging due to the changing commercial nature of traditional residential areas close to city centres. In many cities across Europe...
Full Text Available Under electrical stimulation of Lupinus stem phenomena of accommodation and anode break excitation appear. Their characteristic is the same as in the axon or nerve. Only their duration is about 103-104 longer in plants. The constant characterizing the rate of accommodation was calculated. A limiting threshold value was found beyond which excitation occurs, irrespective of the rate of stimulus rise (voltage gradient. The accommodation rate is approximately constant, whereas the range of accommodation varies and is dependent on the difference between the rheobase value and the limiting threshold value. Hence plants with a low rheobase are characterized by a wider range of accommodation. It is suggested that the changes in potential (including AP recorded on the stem surface are connected with changes of the potential on cell membranes (Sibaoka, 1962.
In the aftermath of large refugee arrivals in 2015, EU regulations and national asylum laws were tightened, especially those regarding reception and accommodation. The current contribution introduces the concept of "campization" to explain the impact of law and policy changes on the socio-spatial configuration and functions of refugee accommodation in European capital regions. Based on qualitative research concerning case studies for Athens, Berlin, and Copenhagen, I argue that refugee accommodation has increasingly been transformed into large, camp-like structures with lowered living standards and a closed character. This is shown by the structural, functional, and socio-spatial characteristics of the accommodation in the three case studies, as well as the political and administrative objectives that determine the campization of accommodation. The contribution lastly highlights changing notions and forms of containment, exclusion, and temporality as part of campization, and links this process to current trends in asylum and urban development.
The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.
Franck, Linda S; Ferguson, Deron; Fryda, Sarah; Rubin, Nicole
The goals of our study were to describe the types of family accommodation for parents of hospitalized children and to examine their influence on the pediatric hospital experience. This multi-site cohort survey included 10 hospitals in Ontario Province, Canada. Participants were parents of inpatient children (n = 1240). Main outcome measures included ratings of three parent-reported measures of hospital experience: overall hospital experience; willingness to recommend the hospital to family or friends; and how much the accommodation type helped parent stay involved in their child's hospital care. Parents most often stayed in the child's room (74.7%), their own home (12.3%), hotel (4.0%) or a Ronald McDonald House (3.0%). Accommodation varied based on hospital, parent and child factors. Length of stay and the child's health status were significant predictors for overall hospital experience and recommending the hospital to family or friends, but accommodation type was not. Families who stayed at a Ronald McDonald House reported greater involvement in their child's care compared with other accommodation types (odds ratio: 1.54-20.73 for contrasted accommodation types). Use of different overnight accommodations for families of hospitalized pediatric patients in Canada is similar to a previous report of U.S. family hospital accommodations. In contrast to the previous U.S. findings, Canadian hospital experience scores were lower and accommodation type was not a significant predictor of overall hospital experience or willingness to recommend the hospital. In Canada, as in the U.S., families who stayed at a Ronald McDonald House reported that this accommodation type significantly improved their ability to be involved in their child's care.
Aikaterini I. Moulakaki
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To assess the accommodation response after short reading periods using a tablet and a smartphone as well as determine potential differences in the accommodation response at various stimulus vergences using a Hartmann- Shack aberrometer. Methods: Eighteen healthy subjects with astigmatism of less than 1 D, corrected visual acuity of 20/20 or better, and normal findings in an ophthalmic examination were enrolled. Accommodation responses were obtained under three different conditions: accommodation system of the eye relaxed and visually stressed with a tablet and an smartphone for 10 min, at a distance of 0.25 m from the subject's eyes. Three measurements of accommodation response were monocularly acquired at stimulus vergences ranging from 0 to 4 D (1-D step. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the accommodation responses among the conditions. A moderate but gradually increasing root mean square, coma-like aberration was found for every condition. Conversely, the spherical aberration decreased as stimulus vergences increased. These outcomes were identified in comparison to the one-to-one ideal accommodation response, implying that a certain lag value was present in all stimulus vergences different from 0 D. Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that the difference between the ideal and real accommodation responses is mainly attributed to parameters associated with the accommodation process, such as the near visual acuity, depth of focus, pupil diameter, and wavefront aberrations. The wavefront aberrations were dependent on the 3-mm pupil size selected in this study. The accommoda tion response was not dependent on the electronic device employed in each condition, and it was mainly associated with young age and level of amplitude of accommodation of the subjects.
travail est d’étudier la faisabilité de la combustion partielle ou totale des charges liquides dans les conditions du CLC au contact d’un matériau porteur d’oxygène. Un petit réacteur en lit fluidisé opérant en batch a été développé pour permettre alternativement le contact du matériau porteur d’oxygène avec une charge liquide ou de l’air. Le réacteur de 20 mm de diamètre est rempli de 45 g de particules de NiAl0.44O1.67. Environ 1-2 g de charge liquide est injecté par pulse dans le lit à des températures allant jusqu’à 950˚C. Différentes charges liquides ont été étudiées, du dodécane au fioul lourd n˚2. Les résultats montrent que pendant la période de réduction du matériau porteur d’oxygène, il est possible de convertir tous les hydrocarbures injectés. À l’issue de cette phase, il ne subsiste pas de dépôt de coke à la surface des particules. En fonction de la quantité d’oxygène disponible dans le lit, on effectue une combustion totale ou partielle des hydrocarbures injectés. Des résultats similaires sont obtenus pour les différents hydrocarbures testés, malgré leurs propriétés a priori très différentes.
Ale, Jit B; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur
Purpose Using an analytical approach of paraxial optics, we evaluated the magnification of a model eye implanted with single-element (1E) and dual-element (2E) translating-optics accommodative intraocular lenses (AIOL) with an objective of understanding key control parameters relevant to their design. Potential clinical implications of the results arising from pseudophakic accommodation were also considered. Methods Lateral and angular magnifications in a pseudophakic model eye were analyzed using the matrix method of paraxial optics. The effects of key control parameters such as direction (forward or backward) and distance (0 to 2 mm) of translation, power combinations of the 2E-AIOL elements (front element power range +20.0 D to +40.0 D), and amplitudes of accommodation (0 to 4 D) were tested. Relative magnification, defined as the ratio of the retinal image size of the accommodated eye to that of unaccommodated phakic (rLM1) or pseudophakic (rLM2) model eyes, was computed to determine how retinal image size changes with pseudophakic accommodation. Results Both lateral and angular magnifications increased with increased power of the front element in 2E-AIOL and amplitude of accommodation. For a 2E-AIOL with front element power of +35 D, rLM1 and rLM2 increased by 17.0% and 16.3%, respectively, per millimetre of forward translation of the element, compared to the magnification at distance focus (unaccommodated). These changes correspond to a change of 9.4% and 6.5% per dioptre of accommodation, respectively. Angular magnification also increased with pseudophakic accommodation. 1E-AIOLs produced consistently less magnification than 2E-AIOLs. Relative retinal image size decreased at a rate of 0.25% with each dioptre of accommodation in the phakic model eye. The position of the image space nodal point shifted away from the retina (towards the cornea) with both phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Conclusion Power of the mobile element, and amount and direction of
Lebowitz, Eli R; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Bloch, Michael H
Family accommodation describes changes that individuals make to their behavior, to help their relative who is dealing with a psychiatric and/or psychological disorder(s), avoid or alleviate distress related to the disorder. Research on family accommodation has advanced rapidly. In this update we aim to provide a synthesis of findings from the past five years. A search of available, peer-reviewed, English language papers was conducted through PubMed and PsycINFO, cross referencing psychiatric disorders with accommodation and other family-related terms. The resulting 121 papers were individually reviewed and evaluated and the main findings were discussed. Family accommodation is common in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in anxiety disorders, and manifests similarly across these disorders. Family accommodation is associated with more severe psychopathology and poorer clinical outcomes. Treatments have begun to focus on the reduction of family accommodation as a primary therapeutic goal and finally, neurobiological underpinnings of family accommodation are beginning to be investigated.
Juan Carlos Luna da Costa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The objective of this paper was to compare the symptoms of asthenopia in patients at different levels of hyperopia and corrected for different accommodative efforts. Methods: This study is an experimental design and quantitative approach. Sixty-nine hyperopic patients aged between 15 and 40 were selected. Individuals with a diagnosis of accommodative insufficiency and paralysis, accommodative spasm or any type of ocular deviation were excluded. Subjects were randomly divided into four groups. Each one performed a nearvision task with different corrective lenses, varying the value of the accommodative effort. Results: There is significant reduction in the asthenopia score during the near-vision task when leaving 35% or more of the amplitude of accommodation in reserve. The linear regression showed that the variables total hyperopia (r = 0.109 and the difference between static and dynamic refraction (r = 0.135 did not obtain significant linear relationship to the asthenopia score. Conclusions: There is significant reduction in the asthenopia score when leaving 35% or more of the amplitude of accommodation in reserve. The symptoms of asthenopia are not associated to the severity of the hyperopic refractive error. The search for symptoms before the near vision task, using a questionnaire, related to the symptoms during the accommodative effort task, revealing the importance of searching for complaints about asthenopia during anamnesis, which can help ophthalmologists with prescriptions of glasses for hyperopic patients with asthenopia.
L. E. Fedorischeva
Full Text Available Purpose: to study the change of adaptation mechanisms in children of junior classes during working on close distance depending on their psychoemotional state.Methods: 52 children of the second classes of grammar school were included into the study. There were allocated 30 emotional labile schoolchildren with choleric temperament. The children were examined by pediatrician, neurologist and in laboratory. Standard ophthalmic examination was performed. Accommodation was examined by subjective (reserve of relative accommodation and objective (familiar tone of accommodation methods.Results: All children had low reserve of relative accommodation (RRA and high familiar tone of accommodation (FTA in the end of educational week especially in emotional labile children. After course of treatment (hygiene of visual activity; restoration of accommodation and therapy of visual tiredness; gymnastics for cervical spine; preparations with microelements, vitamins C,E, B-carotene; fenibute RRA was increased and FTA was decreased even in emotional labile children.Conclusion: There is correlation between refractive-accommodative apparatus and psychoemotional state in schoolchildren ofjunior classes.
L. E. Fedorischeva
Full Text Available Purpose: to study the change of adaptation mechanisms in children of junior classes during working on close distance depending on their psychoemotional state.Methods: 52 children of the second classes of grammar school were included into the study. There were allocated 30 emotional labile schoolchildren with choleric temperament. The children were examined by pediatrician, neurologist and in laboratory. Standard ophthalmic examination was performed. Accommodation was examined by subjective (reserve of relative accommodation and objective (familiar tone of accommodation methods.Results: All children had low reserve of relative accommodation (RRA and high familiar tone of accommodation (FTA in the end of educational week especially in emotional labile children. After course of treatment (hygiene of visual activity; restoration of accommodation and therapy of visual tiredness; gymnastics for cervical spine; preparations with microelements, vitamins C,E, B-carotene; fenibute RRA was increased and FTA was decreased even in emotional labile children.Conclusion: There is correlation between refractive-accommodative apparatus and psychoemotional state in schoolchildren ofjunior classes.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine family accommodation in relatives of obsessive-compulsive disease (OCD patients. Accommodation was assessed in a sample of 31 relatives of OCD patients by means of the Family Accommodation Scale. Other variables measured as predictors of accommodation were the tendency of a family member to feel guilty, sensitivity to guilt, anxiety sensitivity and the prevalence of a passive communication style. Accommodation was found to be rather widespread in the family members who took part in our study, and they tended to show more accommodation the greater their sensitivity to guilt and the stable tendency to experience this emotion as well as anxiety sensitivity and a passive communication style. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that, among the variables considered, the family member’s sensitivity to guilt is the only factor which can predict accommodation with regard to the patient’s demands for involvement. On the other hand, the small number of family members in the sample and the lack of clinical data on patients (such as the severity, typology and duration of their obsessive-compulsive disorder pose limits to the generalizability of the results and point to the need for further research.
Redondo, Beatriz; Vera, Jesús; Molina, Rubén; García, José Antonio; Ouadi, Miriam; Muñoz-Hoyos, Antonio; Jiménez, Raimundo
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common paediatric neurobehavioural disorders causing multiple functional impairments in children. Based on the relationship between the neural system that controls attention and ocular dynamics, the present study compares the magnitude and variability of accommodation between a group of non-medicated ADHD children and an age-matched control group. The magnitude and variability of the accommodative response were objectively measured in 36 children using the WAM-5500 autorefractometer for 90 consecutive seconds at three static viewing distances (500, 40, and 20 cm). Participants were divided into ADHD (n = 18) or control (n = 18) groups based on clinically validated criteria. Children with ADHD exhibited higher lags of accommodation (p = 0.024), increasing at closer viewing distances, in comparison to the control group. Marginal statistical differences were found for the variability of accommodation (p = 0.066), with the ADHD group showing a trend towards higher variability. Our analysis showed that the magnitude and variability of accommodation did not vary over time between groups (p > 0.05). Our data suggest that children with ADHD have a less accurate accommodative response. These results provide a new ocular index that could help to clarify the relationship between accommodative response and attentional deficits, which could have a direct impact on the academic, cognitive, and visual performance of ADHD children.
Iwasaki, Tsuneto; Tawara, Akihiko; Miyake, Nobuyuki
We investigated the effect on eyestrain of optical stimuli that we designed for accommodation and convergence systems. Eight female students were given optical stimuli for accommodation and convergence systems for 1.5 min immediately after 20 min of a sustained task on a 3-D display. Before and after the trial, their ocular functions were measured and their symptoms were assessed. The optical stimuli were applied by moving targets of scenery images far and near around the far point position of both eyes on a horizonal place, which induced divergence in the direction of the eye position of rest. In a control group, subjects rested with closed eyes for 1.5 min instead of applying the optical stimuli. There were significant changes in the accommodative contraction time (from far to near) and the accommodative relaxation time (from near to far) and the lag of accommodation at near target, from 1.26 s to 1.62 s and from 1.49 s to 1.63 s and from 0.5 D to 0.65 D, respectively, and in the symptoms in the control group after the duration of closed-eye rest. In the stimulus group, however, the changes of those functions were smaller than in the control group. From these results, we suggest that our designed optical stimuli for accommodation and convergence systems are effective on asthenopia following accommodative dysfunction.
Suryakumar, R; Bobier, W R
Convergence-accommodation is the synkinetic change in accommodation driven by vergence. A few studies have investigated the static and dynamic properties of this cross-link in adults but little is known about convergence-accommodation in children. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for measuring convergence-accommodation and to study its dynamics (gain and movement time) in a sample of pre-school children. Convergence-accommodation measures were examined on thiry-seven normal pre-school children (mean age = 4.0 +/- 1.31 yrs). Stimulus CA/C (sCA/C) ratios and movement time measures of convergence-accommodation were assessed using a photorefractor while subjects viewed a DOG target. Repeated measures were obtained on eight normal adults (mean age = 23 +/- 0.2 yrs). The mean sCA/C ratios and movement times were not significantly different between adults and children (0.10 D/Delta [0.61 D/M.A.], 743 +/- 70 ms and 0.11 D/Delta [0.50 D/M.A.], 787 +/- 216 ms). Repeated measures on adults showed a non-significant mean difference of 0.001 D/Delta. The results suggest that the possible differences in crystalline lens (plant) characteristics between children and adults do not appear to influence convergence-accommodation gain or duration.
Nonaka, Fumitaka; Hasebe, Satoshi; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi
To evaluate the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratio in strabismic patients and to clarify its clinical implications. Seventy-eight consecutive patients (mean age: 12.9 +/- 6.0 years) with intermittent exotropia and decompensated exophoria who showed binocular fusion at least at near viewing were recruited. The CA/C ratio was estimated by measuring accommodative responses induced by horizontal prisms with different magnitudes under accommodation feedback open-loop conditions. The CA/C ratios were compared with accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios and other clinical parameters. A linear regression analysis indicated that the mean (+/-SD) CA/C ratio was 0.080 +/- 0.043 D/prism diopter or 0.48 +/- 0.26 D/meter angle. There was no inverse or reciprocal relationship between CA/C and AC/A ratios. The patients with lower CA/C ratios tended to have smaller tonic accommodation under binocular viewing conditions and larger exodeviation at near viewing. The CA/C ratio, like the AC/A ratio, is an independent parameter that characterizes clinical features. A lower CA/C may be beneficial for the vergence control system to compensate for ocular misalignment with minimum degradation of accommodation accuracy.
Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L; Wasielewski, Rainer; Ting-Li, Lin; Croft, Mary Ann
To explore the attachments of the posterior zonule and vitreous in relation to accommodation and presbyopia in monkeys and humans. Novel scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) techniques were used to visualize the anterior, intermediate, and posterior vitreous zonule and their connections to the ciliary body, vitreous membrane, lens capsule, and ora serrata, and to characterize their age-related changes and correlate them with loss of accommodative forward movement of the ciliary body. alpha-Chymotrypsin was used focally to lyse the vitreous zonule and determine the effect on movement of the accommodative apparatus in monkeys. The vitreous attached to the peripheral lens capsule and the ora serrata directly. The pars plana zonule and the posterior tines of the anterior zonule were separated from the vitreous membrane except for strategically placed attachments, collectively termed the vitreous zonule, that may modulate and smooth the forward and backward movements of the entire system. Age-dependent changes in these relationships correlated significantly with loss of accommodative amplitude. Lysis of the intermediate vitreous zonule partially restored accommodative movement. The vitreous zonule system may help to smoothly translate to the lens the driving forces of accommodation and disaccommodation generated by the ciliary muscle, while maintaining visual focus and protecting the lens capsule and ora serrata from acute tractional forces. Stiffening of the vitreous zonular system may contribute to age-related loss of accommodation and offer a therapeutic target for presbyopia.
Zhang, Hongliang; Ran, Ling; He, Guixiong; Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Jie
The unit energy consumption and its price have become the main obstacles for the future development of the aluminum electrolysis industry in China. Meanwhile, wind power is widely being abandoned because of its instability. In this study, a novel idea for wind power accommodation is proposed to achieve a win-win situation: the idea is for nearby aluminum electrolysis plants to absorb the wind power. The features of the wind power distribution and aluminum electrolysis industry are first summarized, and the concept of wind power accommodation by the aluminum industry is introduced. Then, based on the characteristics of aluminum reduction cells, the key problems, including the bus-bar status, thermal balance, and magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, are analyzed. In addition, a whole accommodation implementation plan for wind power by aluminum reduction is introduced to explain the theoretical value of accommodation, evaluation of the reduction cells, and the industrial experiment scheme. A numerical simulation of a typical scenario proves that there is large accommodation potential for the aluminum reduction cells. Aluminum electrolysis can accommodate wind power and remain stable under the proper technique and accommodation scheme, which will provide promising benefits for the aluminum plant and the wind energy plant.
Fredman, Steffany J.; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Wagner, Anne C.; Vorstenbosch, Valerie; Monson, Candice M.
Objective Partner accommodation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (i.e., altering one’s own behaviors to minimize patient distress and/or relationship conflict due to patients’ PTSD symptoms) has been shown to be positively associated with patient and partner psychopathology and negatively associated with patient and partner relationship satisfaction cross-sectionally. However, the prognostic value of partner accommodation in treatment outcomes is unknown. The goals of the present study were to determine if partner accommodation decreases as a function of couple therapy for PTSD and if pretreatment partner accommodation moderates the efficacy of couple therapy for PTSD. Method Thirty-nine patients with PTSD and their intimate partners (n = 39) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy (CBCT) for PTSD (Monson & Fredman, 2012) and received CBCT for PTSD immediately or after three months of waiting. Blinded assessors determined clinician-rated PTSD symptoms and patient-rated PTSD and depressive symptoms and relationship satisfaction at baseline, mid-treatment/4 weeks of waiting, and posttreatment/12 weeks of waiting. Results Contrary to expectation, partner accommodation levels did not change over time for either treatment condition. However, baseline partner accommodation significantly moderated treatment outcomes. Higher levels of partner accommodation were associated with greater improvements in PTSD, depressive symptoms, and relationship satisfaction among patients receiving CBCT for PTSD compared with waiting list. At lower levels of partner accommodation, patients in both groups improved or remained at low levels of these outcomes. Conclusions Individuals with PTSD who have more accommodating partners may be particularly well-suited for couple therapy for PTSD. PMID:26501498
Telwatte, Apsara; Anglim, Jeromy; Wynton, Sarah K A; Moulding, Richard
Existing research suggests that the decision to grant or deny workplace accommodations for people with disabilities is influenced by a range of legal and nonlegal factors. However, less is known about how these factors operate at the within-person level. Thus, we proposed and tested a multilevel model of the accommodation decision-making process, which we applied to better understand why people with psychological disabilities often experience greater challenges in obtaining accommodations. A sample of 159 Australian adults, composed mostly of managers and HR professionals, read 12 vignettes involving requests for accommodations from existing employees. The requests differed in whether they were for psychological or physical disabilities. For each vignette, participants rated their empathy with the employee, the legitimacy of the employee's disability, the necessity for productivity, the perceived cost, and the reasonableness, and indicated whether they would grant the accommodation. Multilevel modeling indicated that greater empathy, legitimacy, and necessity, and lower perceived cost predicted perceptions of greater reasonableness and greater granting. Accommodation requests from employees with psychological disabilities were seen as less reasonable and were less likely to be granted; much of this effect seemed to be driven by perceptions that such accommodations were less necessary for productivity. Ratings on accommodations were influenced both by general between-person tendencies and within-person appraisals of particular scenarios. The study points to a need for organizations to more clearly establish guidelines for how decision-makers should fairly evaluate accommodation requests for employees with psychological disabilities and disability more broadly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Kristman, Vicki; Shaw, William S; Soklaridis, Sophie; Reguly, Paula
Purpose To explore supervisors' perspectives and decision-making processes in the accommodation of back injured workers. Methods Twenty-three semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with supervisors from eleven Canadian organizations about their role in providing job accommodations. Supervisors were identified through an on-line survey and interviews were recorded, transcribed and entered into NVivo software. The initial analyses identified common units of meaning, which were used to develop a coding guide. Interviews were coded, and a model of supervisor decision-making was developed based on the themes, categories and connecting ideas identified in the data. Results The decision-making model includes a process element that is described as iterative "trial and error" decision-making. Medical restrictions are compared to job demands, employee abilities and available alternatives. A feasible modification is identified through brainstorming and then implemented by the supervisor. Resources used for brainstorming include information, supervisor experience and autonomy, and organizational supports. The model also incorporates the experience of accommodation as a job demand that causes strain for the supervisor. Accommodation demands affect the supervisor's attitude, brainstorming and monitoring effort, and communication with returning employees. Resources and demands have a combined effect on accommodation decision complexity, which in turn affects the quality of the accommodation option selected. If the employee is unable to complete the tasks or is reinjured during the accommodation, the decision cycle repeats. More frequent iteration through the trial and error process reduces the likelihood of return to work success. Conclusion A series of propositions is developed to illustrate the relationships among categories in the model. The model and propositions show: (a) the iterative, problem solving nature of the RTW process; (b) decision resources necessary
Horwood, Anna M; Toor, Sonia S; Riddell, Patricia M
Although eye exercises appear to help heterophoria, convergence insufficiency, and intermittent strabismus, results can be confounded by placebo, practice, and encouragement effects. This study assessed objective changes in vergence and accommodation responses in naive young adults after a 2-week period of eye exercises under controlled conditions to determine the extent to which treatment effects occur over other factors. Asymptomatic young adults were randomly assigned to one of two no-treatment (control) groups or to one of six eye exercise groups: accommodation, vergence, both, convergence in excess of accommodation, accommodation in excess of convergence, and placebo. Subjects were tested and retested under identical conditions, except for the second control group, who were additionally encouraged. Objective accommodation and vergence were assessed to a range of targets moving in depth containing combinations of blur, disparity, and proximity/looming cues. A total of 156 subjects were included. Response gain improved more for less naturalistic targets where more improvement was possible. Convergence exercises improved vergence for near across all targets (P = 0.035). Mean accommodation changed similarly but nonsignificantly. No other treatment group differed significantly from the nonencouraged control group, whereas encouraging effort produced significantly increased vergence (P = 0.004) and accommodation (P = 0.005) gains in the second control group. True treatment effects were small, significantly better only after vergence exercises to a nonaccommodative target, and rarely related to the response they were designed to improve. Exercising accommodation without convergence made no difference to accommodation to cues containing detail. Additional effort improved objective responses the most. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Due to changes in tourism habits when planning development of tourism industry both on national and regional scale, the significance of recreation is highlighted. As a result, in tourism products made by guest accommodation enterprises the recreation offer is included more and more often. Within the research it has been found out that in guest accommodation enterprises in Kurzeme, in addition to accommodation opportunities, the offer of catering dominates, but regarding recreation activities- walking and relaxation in nature. The offer of bath-house treatment and cycling are more popular than SPA procedure and water attractions. The tendency of relaxation and entertainment event organization also increases in the companies. One realized imperfection of the offer is the tendency that in half of the regional accommodation enterprises the arrangement of relaxation activities has to be provided by the clients themselves. The aim of the research is to find out the offer of the current recreation in guest accommodation enterprises in Kurzeme Region and the necessary employees’ competences for its further development. Within the research a survey of 32 managers of guest accommodation enterprises in Kurzeme Region was carried out. The outcomes of the research reveal that additional services to accommodation are offered by 55% guest accommodation enterprises of Kurzeme. However, in 53.1% cases the clients, staying at a guest accommodation enterprise in Kurzeme Region, have to provide arrangement of relaxation activities themselves. Only one fifth (21.9% of the companies provide it involving a specialist working for the company. Complex recreation programmes are offered by 9.7%, but separate recreation activities by 29% guest accommodation enterprises. Managers of guest accommodation enterprises in Kurzeme are aware of the potential in sports recreation events and relaxation activity organization. The outcomes of the research showed that the main
Yu, Q W; Zhang, P; Zhou, S B; Hu, Y; Ji, M X; Luo, Y C; You, H L; Yao, Z X
To observe the accommodative accuracy of children with early-onset myopia at different near-work distances, and discuss the relationship between accommodative accuracy and early-onset myopia. This was a case-control study. Thirty-seven emmetropic children, 41 early-onset myopic children without correction, and 39 early-onset myopic children with spectacles, aged 7 to 13 years, were included. Measures of refractive errors and accommodative accuracy at four near-work distances, including 50 cm, 40 cm, 30 cm, and 20 cm, were made using the binocular fusion cross cylinder (FCC) of an automatic phoropter. Most candidates showed accommodative lags, including the children with emmetropia. The ratio of lags in all candidates at different near-work distances was 75.21% (50 cm), 87.18% (40 cm), 92.31% (30 cm), and 98.29% (20 cm), respectively. All accommodative accuracies became worse, and the accommodative lag ratio and values of FCC increased, along with the shortening of the distance. The difference in accommodative accuracy among groups was statistically significant at 30 cm (χ(2)=7.852, P= 0.020) and 20 cm (χ(2)=6.480, P=0.039). The values of FCC among groups were significantly different at 30 cm (F=3.626, P=0.030) and 20 cm (F=3.703, P=0.028), but not at 50 cm and 40 cm (P>0.05). In addition, the FCC values of 30 cm and 20 cm had a statistically significant difference between myopic children without correction [(1.25±0.44) D and (1.76±0.43) D] and emmetropic children [(0.95±0.52) D and (1.41±0.58) D] (P=0.012, 0.008). The correlation between diopters of myopia and accommodative accuracy at different nearwork distances was not statistically significant (P>0.05). However, the correlation between diopters of myopia and the accommodative lag value (FCC) at 20 cm was statistically significant (r=0.246, P=0.028). The closer the near-work distance is, the worse the accommodative accuracy is. This is more significant in early-onset myopia, especially myopia without
The purpose of the study was to investigate the concept of peer-to-peer accommodation as a travel lodging option from the customers’ point of view and the reasons for choosing that. Airbnb and Couchsurfing were used as examples of peer-to-peer accommodation. The theoretical section of the thesis covers the history of the homestay concept as the original form of peer-to-peer accommodation, its features as a part of hospitality exchange network, and the influence of modern technologies. The...
This first colloquium deals with the energy mastership and the greenhouse gases reduction in the today accommodation. The accommodation represent u=indeed the main part of the energy consumption in front of the industry, the transports, the ternary buildings and the agricultural. This document proposes six papers presented during this day: the importance of the accommodation improvement market; the energy performance of buildings and the main requirements of the french directive; the energy performance of buildings and the german regulations in existing buildings; the energy performance standards in existing buildings in UK; the example of the danish certification; the home energy conservation Act (HECA) in United Kingdom. (A.L.B.)
Full Text Available Félix Pouchet, dans son Hétérogénie, ou Traité de la génération spontanée qu’il publie en 1859, défend, contre Pasteur et Milne-Edwards, l’idée d’une « force génésique » inhérente à la matière qui aurait présidé à la création et qui continuerait de s’exercer dans la formation et la transformation des espèces. Le livre fait partie des lectures de Flaubert pendant la période de rédaction de Salammbô. Le 5 août 1860, il écrit dans une lettre à madame Jules Sandeau : « J’entremêle mes lectures puniques (qui ne sont pas légères d’autres facéties graves. Je me livre maintenant au volumineux bouquin de mon ami le docteur Pouchet sur les générations spontanées. » C’est la nature de cet entrelacement que nous proposons d’interroger, à travers l’étude génétique d’un passage du chapitre III de Salammbô où Flaubert récrit la cosmogonie phénicienne à la lumière du spontanéisme moderne.Félix Pouchet, in Heterogeny or Spontaneous generation Treatise (1859, argues, against Pasteur and Milne-Edwards, for the existence of a « genesical force » inside matter at the beginning of the universe, still active in the formation and transformation of species. Flaubert read Pouchet’s book when he was writing Salammbô. On August 5th 1860, he wrote to madame Jules Sandeau : « I mingle my Punic readings (which are not light with other serious jokes. I now dedicate myself to my friend doctor Pouchet’s bulky book on spontaneous generations. » This interlacing of archaeology and science is precisely what I will examine in my paper, through the genetic study of a passage of Salammbô (chapter III where Flaubert rewrites the Phoenician cosmogony in the light of modern spontaneism.
In the workplace this conflict arises "where the employer's right to the employee's ... the rights of the employer to manage his business operations efficiently with the ... to accommodate diversity and promote religious freedom in the workplace.
Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the changes of the positive relative accommodation in adolescent pseudomyopia with visual training.METHODS: A total of 42 cases(84 eyeswere randomly divided into the visual training group and the control group. Visual acuity, average refraction of two groups 4wk after the training were measured, as well as positive relative accommodation(5mwere checked before the training and repeated 1, 2, 4wk after the training. Correlation analysis were given.RESULTS: There was statistically significant difference in visual acuity 4wk after the training between the two groups(PP>0.05. There was statistically significant difference in positive relative accommodation(5m1, 2, 4wk after the training between the two groups(PPCONCLUSION: Visual training has significant effect on the positive relative accommodation on adolescent pseudomyopia.
Han, Gil-Soo; Wearne, Ben; O'Meara, Peter; McGrail, Matthew; Chesters, Janice
Medical education in Australia is currently entering a new era, including support for the significant extension of medical students and general practitioner (GP) registrars' training programs in rural communities. This commitment to rural medical student and general practitioner recruitment and retention has made the provision of accommodation in rural communities a vital issue. This study has found that approximately half of all medical students on placement with rural GPs are currently accommodated with their GP supervisor or with other practice staff. This is a burden for many GPs and when the anticipated increase in the frequency and length of rural placements occurs what is currently a burden will become unsustainable. The changing gender and cultural demographics of medical students and rural general practitioners will also contribute to stresses on this accommodation system. It is important to have a systematic approach towards more appropriate and sustainable models of accommodation for both medical students and GP registrars.
Cawthon, Stephanie W; Leppo, Rachel
Students who are d/Deaf or hard of hearing often receive accommodations that are intended to increase access to the educational environment. The authors provide the results of a large national study of accommodations use in secondary and postsecondary settings. The article focuses on three aspects of accommodations use: access, quality, and consistency. The participants were 1,350 professionals working with a diverse group of students who were d/Deaf or hard of hearing in a variety of roles, including educators, administrators, interpreters, vocational rehabilitation agency staff, and allied service providers. Data were collected from both a national survey and a series of focus groups conducted over a 1-year period. The authors discuss the results in light of the crucial nature of accommodations during the transition into a variety of educational, training, and employment options.
Full Text Available Five hundred and five small tourism accommodation business owners in Ghana were surveyed to determine their motivation for owning/operating a small tourism business and the challenges they encounter. Tourism accommodation business owners indicated factors such as maintaining lifestyle, being their own bosses, capitalising on a business opportunity, generation of retirement income influence the decision to own/operate a small tourism accommodation businesses. These variables can be categorized as non-economic and economic factors. It was found that though the owners were motivated by commercial enterprise goals, these are subordinated to the pursuit of socially driven lifestyle motivation factors. Small tourism accommodation business owners in Ghana perceive the non-availability of skilled hospitality personnel and limited access to structured hospitality training programmes as the greatest challenge facing their industry.
Neumark, David; Bradley, Cathy J.; Henry, Miguel
Given the short- and long-term disabilities associated with breast cancer and its treatment, the authors investigate the influence of workplace accommodations on the employment and hours worked of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Accommodations that allow women to work fewer hours or that ease the burden of work could also generate health benefits by reducing workplace demands and allowing women more time to tend to treatment needs and recovery. In prior research, the authors found modest labor supply impacts on employment for this group of women. Evidence from this study suggests that some accommodations are associated with fewer hours worked, while some are associated with higher employment or hours. In addition, some of the accommodations that may affect hours of work—sometimes positively and sometimes negatively—are associated with positive health benefits. PMID:26778848
Simona Cristina Martin
Full Text Available The indicators of demand distribution for various types of accommodation provide information regarding changing tourist preferences for different ways of tourist accommodation. Appreciation of economic efficiency for hotels activity is done through quantitative results obtained in accommodation units. For this purpose it uses, currently, a partial or synthetic indicators system. Taking into account the fact that, in appreciation of hotel business, it must start from the premise that it may not be fully reflected only in terms of economic results, but also through social results, appear obvious the need to maintain costs at a level that satisfies both requirements at the same time. Achieving superior social-financial indicators, remains one of the main goals also in hotel activities, but do not be overlooked the fact that it is necessary that these indicators must be obtained by ensuring a higher level of satisfaction of consumers requirements. Only simultaneous achievement of these two objectives can provide raising efficiency in accommodation sector.
McConkey, Roy; Bunting, Brendan; Keogh, Fiona; Garcia Iriarte, Edurne
A natural experiment contrasted the social relationships of people with intellectual disabilities ( n = 110) before and after they moved from congregated settings to either personalized accommodation or group homes. Contrasts could also be drawn with individuals who had enduring mental health problems ( n = 46) and who experienced similar moves. Face-to-face interviews were conducted in each person's residence on two occasions approximately 24 months apart. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to determine significant effects. Greater proportions of people living in personalized settings scored higher on the five chosen indicators of social relationships than did persons living in grouped accommodation. However, multivariate statistical analyses identified that only one in five persons increased their social relationships as a result of changes in their accommodation, particularly persons with an intellectual disability and high support needs. These findings reinforce the extent of social isolation experienced by people with disabilities and mental health problems that changes in their accommodation only partially counter.
Kim, Jung Sook
Arguing the issue of fairness and the additional advantage for test takers with visual impairments, some professionals have expressed negative attitudes toward test accommodation. However, researchers have found that the validity of test accommodations increases when the test scores of students who need a particular accommodation increases, while…
This English-Spanish language booklet is designed to help parents understand two important features of special education services, accommodations and modifications for students with disabilities. Examples of accommodations and modifications are provided, federal laws requiring schools to provide accommodations and modifications are cited, and…
Gusev, K.I.; Rijov, Y.A.; Shkarban, I.I.
Methods and results of experimental measurements of energy accommodation for Ar + , Kr + , and Xe + ions with initial energy E 0 - 100-500eV bombarding Cu, Mo, Ag and other (including Mo - monocrystal) foil target are presented. The angular dependencies for the energy accommodation coefficient are obtained within the range of angle phi=0+70 deg (phi is the angle between the target surface normal and the beam direction)
Full Text Available Aim: To describe and compare dynamic distance direct ophthalmoscopy (DDDO with dynamic retinoscopy (DR in assessment of accommodation in children. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study had four components. Component 1: to understand the characteristic digital images of DDDO. Component 2: to compare DDDO with DR for detection of accommodative defects in children (1-16 years. Component 3: to compare DDDO with DR for the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia in children (5-16 years and Component 4: to assess which one of the two techniques was more sensitive to detect onset of cycloplegia after instillation of 1% cyclopentolate eye drops. Results: Component 1: image analysis of DDDO on two subjects (7 years and 35 years demonstrated superior pupillary crescent that progressively disappeared with increasing accommodation. Concurrently an inferior crescent appeared that became bigger in size with increasing accommodation. Component 2: the prevalence of defects in accommodation was 3.3% (33/1000 children. Three had unilateral accommodation failure. Sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 99%, and clinical agreement (kappa 0.97. Component 3: in the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia (n=30, the sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 96%, positive predictive value 97%, negative predictive value 93% and kappa 0.9. DR had two false positives. DDDO had one false negative. Component 4: DDDO detected onset of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia 5 min earlier than DR (n=5. Conclusion: DDDO is a novel, simple, clinical and reliable method to assess accommodation in young children. This test can assess the accommodative response of both eyes simultaneously.
Khamis Norasyikin; Suratkon Azeanita; Mohammad Hairuddin; Yaman Siti Khalijah
Construction industry in Malaysia covers almost 1.3 million workers. Thus, realizing the importance of human-centred trait, a long-term plan that is led by the Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB) has been designed to improve accommodation and facilities of workers at construction site. In conjunction to that, the Institute for Industrial Research and Standards Malaysia (SIRIM) has developed Malaysia Standard (MS 2593:2015) as the guideline for improvement of accommodation ...
Off-campus student accommodation in the form of shared rental housing has become increasingly significant in the UK, with studies suggesting that this is having important consequences for housing markets in university towns. However, the continuing expansion of higher education, the increased involvement of private investment capital, and changing student demands are seen to be encouraging a move away from houses in multiple occupation towards purpose-built accommodation. Drawing on housing s...
Monireh Mahjoob; Abbas Azimi-Khorasani; Hamed Momeni-Moghadam; Masoud Raeisi; Jalil Nejati
Background: Regarding the high outbreak rate of the eye disorders and problems particularly accommodation disorders and convergence insufficiency in computer users, the study tries to determine the convergence, accommodation system, condition, fusion reserves and vision dimension in bank employees (who work with computers) and the control group (who are not computer users) and then to compare the mentioned parameters in the two groups. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and observ...
Hori, Hiroki; Shiomi, Tomoki; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Takada, Hiroki; Omori, Masako; Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Ishio, Hiromu; Miyao, Masaru
Accommodation and convergence were measured simultaneously while subjects viewed 2D and 3D images. The aim was to compare fixation distances between accommodation and convergence in young subjects while they viewed 2D and 3D images. Measurements were made three times, 40 seconds each, using 2D and 3D images. The result suggests that ocular functions during viewing of 3D images are very similar to those during natural viewing. Previously established and widely used theories, such that within a...
Md. Anowar Hossain Bhuiyan; Chamhuri Siwar; Shaharuddin Mohamad Ismail; Rabiul Islam
Problem statement: Home stay program provided tourists multi ethnic life condition with cultural experiences and economic well beings for the local people. Malaysian home stay program differed from the other commercial home stay in the world. Home stay accommodation can create a scope to the local communities for active participation in tourism activities. Home stay accommodation might be a potential economic activity in the East Coast Economic Region (ECER). The study examined the potentiali...
I. G. Ovechkin
Full Text Available Increased load on the visual analyzer of an operator, increase in everyday visual performance, universal introduction of information displaying on cathode-ray tubes result in temporary and stable visual disturbances. Accommodative refractive apparatus of an eye is one of the key points of application of visually intensive labor. Work associated with permanent eyestrain overloads oculomotor and accommodative apparatus thus provoking myopic shift, increase in dynamic refraction, exophoric or esophoric shift of initial visual equilibrium. Accommodation disorders are accompanied by changes in ciliary muscle blood supply, abnormalities of vegetative segment regulation, parasympathetic brain vascular dystonia due to the decreased tonus of sympathetic nervous system. Evaluation of certain kind of activity in terms of ergonomics includes examination of visual status and visual working capacity, development of visual professiograms and vision standards for certain professions, justification of methods and tools of visual work optimization. Visual disturbances in operators developing in the course of visually intensive occupational work should be considered from the viewpoint of traditional accommodation and refraction disorders as well as functional manifestations of general fatigue or thoracic cervical spine dysfunction. Symptoms of accommodative asthenopia can be regarded as a functional manifestation of general fatigue syndrome or functional neurosis. Development of multidisciplinary approach to the correction of accommodation refraction disorders in visually intensive labor persons is of scientific urgency and practical reasonability. There is a long-felt need in additional attraction of different specialists who use in their work physical factors for accommodative asthenopia correction. Development of multidisciplinary approach to accommodation refraction disorder correction in visually intensive labor persons is based on syndromic pathogenic
Codruţa-Adina BĂLTESCU; Dana BOŞCOR
The market of hotel services from Romania has been characterized in recent years, by the significant extension of the accommodation offer. The difficulties inherent associated to the setting up of an accommodation unit are multiplied on the period of its functioning, because the essential problem which needs to be solved is to assure the constant flow of customers which can bring the revenues and the expected profitability. The article aims to highlight some specific elements in the managemen...
Full Text Available AIM:To study the differences of accommodative responses between the two eyes under 3 different polarized viewing conditions. METHODS:Fifteen volunteers with emmetrope were recruited into this study(aged 18～38, 6 males and 9 females. Three different viewing conditions were set up by using polarizing glasses and liquid crystal display:(1right eye could see the visual target on the screen, but left eye cannot see it;(2left eye could see the visual target on the screen, but right eye cannot see it;(3both eyes could see the target. Accommodative responses were measured by infrared auto-refractor when fixating at the target at 5, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.33m under the above 3 viewing conditions. The differences of accommodative responses under different viewing conditions were compared by using variance analysis of repeated measuring and t test. RESULTS:Significant differences of accommodative responses between the two eyes were found under condition(1and(2at all the fixating distance. The accommodative responses in used eyes which can see the visual target were higher than in non-used eyes which cannot see the visual target(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION:Ciliary muscles in the used eyes were more relatively tonic than non-used eyes under binocular open viewing condition. The imbalance of accommodative responses between two eyes may be one of the risk factors resulting into the occurrence of myopia.
Full Text Available Using the paradigmatic example of Catalunya Banc, this paper analyses the Spanish varieties of the new financial engineering used to appropriate urban rent by home dispossession. It aims to contribute to the study of the new forms of financialization that have appeared since 2008. Particular attention is given to the role of the state, the emergence of private equity funds as global real estate owners and how this has translated into a wave of evictions due to mortgage foreclosures. In short, this article highlights the implications of the uneven development resulting from the exhaustion of the so-called Spanish model of accumulation during the real estate boom years.
Le présent document ne se veut pas un article de revue mais plutôt un élément d'initiation à une technique encore marginale en Biologie. Le lecteur est supposé être un non spécialiste de la diffusion de neutrons poursuivant une thématique à connotation biologique ou biophysique mettant en jeu des phénomènes dynamiques. En raison de la forte section de diffusion incohérente de l'atome d'hydrogène et de l'abondance de cet élément dans les protéines, la diffusion incohérente inélastique de neutrons est une technique irremplaçable pour sonder la dynamique interne des macromolécules biologiques. Après un rappel succinct des éléments théoriques de base, nous décrivons le fonctionnement de différents types de spectromètres inélastiques par temps de vol sur source continue ou pulsée et discutons leurs mérites respectifs. Les deux alternatives utilisées pour décrire la dynamique des protéines sont abordées: (i)l'une en termes de physique statistique, issue de la physique des verres, (ii) la seconde est une interprétation mécanistique. Nous montrons dans ce cas, comment mettre à profit les complémentarités de domaines en vecteur de diffusion et de résolution en énergie de différents spectromètres inélastiques de neutrons (temps de vol, backscattering et spin-écho) pour accéder, à l'aide d'un modèle physique simple, à la dynamique des protéines sur une échelle de temps allant d'une fraction de picoseconde à quelques nanosecondes.
Jaskulski, Mateusz; Marín-Franch, Iván; Bernal-Molina, Paula; López-Gil, Norberto
Longitudinal chromatic aberration is present in all states of accommodation and may play a role in the accommodation response and the emmetropisation process. We study the change of the depth of field (DOFi) with the state of accommodation, taking into account the longitudinal chromatic aberration. Subjective DOFi was defined as the range of defocus beyond which the blur of the target (one line of optotypes of 0.1 logMAR shown on a black-and-white microdisplay, seen through different colour filters) was perceived as objectionable. The subject's eye was paralysed and different, previously-measured accommodative states (corresponding to the accommodative demands of 0D, 2D and 4D) were simulated with a deformable mirror. Different colour conditions (monochromatic red, green and blue and polychromatic (white) were tested. The DOFi was measured subjectively, using a motorised Badal system. Taking as reference the average accommodative response for the white stimulus, the blue response exhibits on average a lead of 0.45 ± 0.09D, the green a negligible lead of 0.07 ± 0.02D and red a lag of 0.49 ± 0.10D. The monochromatic DOFi, calculated by averaging DOFi over the red, green and blue colour conditions for each accommodative demand was 1.10 ± 0.10D for 0D, 1.20 ± 0.08D for 2D, and 1.26 ± 0.40D for 4D. The polychromatic white DOFi were greater than the average monochromatic DOFi by 19%, 9% and 14% for 0D, 2D, and 4D of accommodative demand, respectively. The longitudinal chromatic aberration causes a dioptric shift of the monochromatic accommodation response. The study did not reveal this shift to depend on the accommodative demand or to have an effect on the DOFi. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.
Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M
To describe preliminary findings of how the profile of the use of blur, disparity, and proximal cues varies between non-strabismic groups and those with different types of esotropia. This was a case control study. A remote haploscopic photorefractor measured simultaneous convergence and accommodation to a range of targets containing all combinations of binocular disparity, blur, and proximal (looming) cues. Thirteen constant esotropes, 16 fully accommodative esotropes, and 8 convergence excess esotropes were compared with age- and refractive error-matched controls and 27 young adult emmetropic controls. All wore full refractive correction if not emmetropic. Response AC/A and CA/C ratios were also assessed. Cue use differed between the groups. Even esotropes with constant suppression and no binocular vision (BV) responded to disparity in cues. The constant esotropes with weak BV showed trends for more stable responses and better vergence and accommodation than those without any BV. The accommodative esotropes made less use of disparity cues to drive accommodation (p = 0.04) and more use of blur to drive vergence (p = 0.008) than controls. All esotropic groups failed to show the strong bias for better responses to disparity cues found in the controls, with convergence excess esotropes favoring blur cues. AC/A and CA/C ratios existed in an inverse relationship in the different groups. Accommodative lag of > 1.0 D at 33 cm was common (46%) in the pooled esotropia groups compared with 11% in typical children (p = 0.05). Esotropic children use near cues differently from matched non-esotropic children in ways characteristic to their deviations. Relatively higher weighting for blur cues was found in accommodative esotropia compared to matched controls.
Huang, Zhihui; Zhang, Nina; Xu, Feng; Yin, Jieyun; Dai, Ning; Chen, Jiande D Z
Impaired gastric accommodation is recognized as one of major pathophysiologies in functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis. Electroacupuncture has been shown to improve gastric accommodation in laboratory settings. It is, however, unknown whether it exerts similar ameliorating effect in humans and whether needleless transcutaneous electroacupuncture (TEA) is also effective in improving gastric accommodation. The aim was to investigate the effects of TEA on gastric accommodation, gastric slow waves, and dyspeptic related symptoms. Thirteen healthy volunteers were studied in four randomized sessions: control, cold nutrient liquid, cold nutrient liquid + sham-TEA, and cold nutrient liquid + TEA. The subjects were requested to drink Ensure until reaching maximum satiety. The electrogastrogram (EGG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded to assess the gastric and autonomic functions respectively. 1) Gastric accommodation was reduced with the cold drink in comparison with the warm drink (P = 0.023). TEA improved the impaired gastric accommodation from 539.2 ± 133.8 ml to 731.0 ± 185.7 ml (P = 0.005). 2) The percentage of normal gastric slow waves in six subjects was significantly decreased in the cold session (P = 0.002) and improved in the TEA session (P = 0.009 vs sham; P 0.05). TEA improves impaired gastric accommodation and slow waves induced by cold drink and the effect does not seem to be mediated via the vagal mechanisms. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
This document concerns the award of two contracts for the renting and possible subsequent purchase of magnetic tape drives and tape libraries for LHC data storage. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the procedure described in section 3 of this document for the evaluation and possible subsequent purchase of tape drives and tape libraries for the storage of data from the LHC experiments. Subject to approval of this procedure, the Finance Committee is further invited to approve the negotiation of a contract for the renting of tape drives and tape libraries for evaluation purposes from IBM, for an amount of 579 707 Swiss francs, and from StorageTek, for an amount of 472 297 Swiss francs, during the period January 2006 â?" March 2007, plus the purchase of the associated tape cartridges for amounts of 202 500 Swiss francs and 284 748 Swiss francs respectively. The Finance Committee will be informed of the results of the evaluation by the end of 2006 and, subject to the outcome, will be invited to approve...
Zheng, Sui-lian; Zhang, Ai; Shi, Jian-jing; Zhou, Yun-xin
To evaluate the effects of accommodation on lens morphological characters. From January 2011 to June 2011, magnetic resonance images of eyes were acquired from 30 subjects aged 20 to 24 years during accommodation and at rest. The optimal images were analyzed by Autocad 2010 to obtain the total lens cross-sectional area (CSA) and CSA of anterior and posterior portions of lens, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, lens diameter, vitreous chamber depth and axial length during accommodation and at rest. Paired-t test was performed. The anterior curvature radius (mm), posterior curvature radius (mm), CSA of anterior portion (mm(2)), CSA of posterior portion (mm(2)), total lens CSA (mm(2)) was (8.7 ± 0.8), (6.2 ± 0.5), (7.5 ± 2.1), (12.0 ± 2.6), (20 ± 4) during relaxed accommodation; anterior curvature radius (mm), posterior curvature radius (mm), CSA of anterior portion (mm(2)), CSA of posterior portion (mm(2)), total lens CSA (mm(2)) was (7.1 ± 1.3), (5.6 ± 0.5), (14.7 ± 2.9), (12.2 ± 2.1) and (27 ± 4) during accommodation. The total lens CSA (t = -11.556, P 0.05) under a statistically independent accommodative state. There was significant difference in the anterior chamber depth (t = 4.366, P 0.05) and axial length (t = 0.418, P > 0.05) under accommodative states. During accommodation, the anterior chamber depth decreases, lens thickness increases and diameter of lens decreases while anterior portions and total lens CSA increase. There are insignificant changes in posterior portions of lens CSA, vitreous chamber depth and axial length. The accommodative changes in CSA indicate that the anterior portion of lens may be related with the properties of anterior capsule and lens material, the position of zonular attachments and the location of fetal nucleus. Helmholtz theory is supported.
Strauss, Clara; Hale, Lucy; Stobie, Blake
Accommodation of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms by family members is common. This paper presents a systematic meta-analytic review on family accommodation and OCD symptom severity. Fourteen studies investigating the relationship between family accommodation and OCD symptoms were selected. The medium effect size of the relationship between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity was significant (r = .35; 95% CI: .23 to .47), based on a Hunter-Schmidt random effects model with a total of 849 participants. Although there was some evidence of publication bias, Rosenthal's fail-safe N suggested that 596 studies with zero effect would be needed to reduce the mean effect size to non-significant. Findings are discussed in the context of the limitations of the studies, and in particular the reliance on cross-sectional designs which impede causal conclusions. Future research to evaluate a family accommodation intervention in a randomized controlled design and using mediation analysis to explore change mechanisms is called for. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of a customer as an asset of business in the accommodation industry. The purpose of this article is to examine the value of guests as a firm asset and to propose a model for managing guests as an asset in the context of accommodation services. A guest is considered an asset due to its role in providing revenue to the accommodation firm. Because of this role, the accommodation guest needs to be managed appropriately. This article argues that guest service evaluation (i.e. service quality, perceived value, and guest satisfaction and service loyalty are important factors in the development of guest lifetime value. The proposed model of managing guests as an asset consists of marketing instruments, service evaluation, guest loyalty, and financial outcomes provides a comprehensive guide on how accommodation firms can manage the lifetime value of their guests. Finally, as there are limited studies examining this issue, future research should test the proposed model.
Sarkar, A.; Koohikamali, M.; Pick, J. B.
In recent years, disruptive innovation by peer-to-peer platforms in a variety of industries, notably transportation and hospitality have altered the way individuals consume everyday essential services. With growth in sharing economy platforms such as Uber for ridesharing and Airbnb for short-term accommodations, interest in examining spatiotemporal patterns of participation in the sharing economy by suppliers and consumers is increasing. This research is motivated by key questions: who are the sharing economy workers, where are they located, and does their location influence their participation in the sharing economy? This paper is the first systematic effort to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of participation by hosts in the shared accommodation-based economy. Using three different kinds of shared accommodations listed in a 3-year period in the popular short-term accommodation platform, Airbnb, we examine spatiotemporal dimensions of host participation in a major U.S. market, Los Angeles CA. The paper also develops a conceptual model by positing associations of demographic, socioeconomic, occupational, and social capital attributes of hosts, along with their attitudes toward trust and greener consumption with hosts' participation in a shared accommodation market. Results confirm host participation to be influenced by young dependency ratio, the potential of supplemental income, as well as the sustainability potential of collaborative consumption, along with finance, insurance, and real estate occupation, but not so much by trust for our overall study area. These results add new insights to limited prior knowledge about the sharing economy worker and have policy implications.
Full Text Available In recent years, disruptive innovation by peer-to-peer platforms in a variety of industries, notably transportation and hospitality have altered the way individuals consume everyday essential services. With growth in sharing economy platforms such as Uber for ridesharing and Airbnb for short-term accommodations, interest in examining spatiotemporal patterns of participation in the sharing economy by suppliers and consumers is increasing. This research is motivated by key questions: who are the sharing economy workers, where are they located, and does their location influence their participation in the sharing economy? This paper is the first systematic effort to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of participation by hosts in the shared accommodation-based economy. Using three different kinds of shared accommodations listed in a 3-year period in the popular short-term accommodation platform, Airbnb, we examine spatiotemporal dimensions of host participation in a major U.S. market, Los Angeles CA. The paper also develops a conceptual model by positing associations of demographic, socioeconomic, occupational, and social capital attributes of hosts, along with their attitudes toward trust and greener consumption with hosts’ participation in a shared accommodation market. Results confirm host participation to be influenced by young dependency ratio, the potential of supplemental income, as well as the sustainability potential of collaborative consumption, along with finance, insurance, and real estate occupation, but not so much by trust for our overall study area. These results add new insights to limited prior knowledge about the sharing economy worker and have policy implications.
Shaw, Lynn; Tetlaff, Britta; Jennings, Mary Beth; Southall, Kenneth E
The perspectives of persons who live and work with hearing loss were sought to examine workplace accommodation challenges and strategies. A convenience sample of seven older adults with hearing loss participated in in-depth interviews. A systematic grounded theory approach informed the study design and analysis. Categories of facilitators and challenges in the data were identified through axial coding and clustering. Core categories of social processes emerged through constant comparison and theoretical sampling of the data to reveal the actions and interactions used to negotiate or implement adaptations or workplace accommodations. Persons with hearing loss use a realm of strategies to live and work with a hearing loss. Social processes used to navigate the challenges to working with hearing loss and to manage optimal work performance included: self-accommodation, self-advocacy, self-management of hearing loss, and lobbying. Success in overcoming work disparities for persons with hearing loss requires individuals to take control of identifying their needs within the workplace and at home, and to negotiate for specific accommodations. These strategies and processes draw attention to the need for a repository on contextualized workplace accommodation strategies for improving communication and hearing in the workplace. Further to this a best practice guide for use by workers, employers, and work rehabilitation and health care workers is indicated.