Sample records for rent

  1. HOME Rent Limits

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing for...

  2. 24 CFR 982.507 - Rent to owner: Reasonable rent.


    ... whether the rent to owner is a reasonable rent in comparison to rent for other comparable unassisted units... rent to owner is not more than rent charged by the owner for comparable unassisted units in...

  3. 50th Percentile Rent Estimates

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Rent estimates at the 50th percentile (or median) are calculated for all Fair Market Rent areas. Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are primarily used to determine payment...

  4. Auctions with rent seeking

    Haan, Marco; Schoonbeek, Lambert


    We present a model which combines elements of an auction and a rent-seeking contest. Players compete for a prize. Apart from exerting lobbying efforts, they also have to submit a bid which is payable only if they win the prize. First, we analyze the model if the returns-to-scale parameters of both b

  5. HPC: Rent or Buy

    Fredette, Michelle


    "Rent or buy?" is a question people ask about everything from housing to textbooks. It is also a question universities must consider when it comes to high-performance computing (HPC). With the advent of Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Microsoft Windows HPC Server, Rackspace's OpenStack, and other cloud-based services, researchers now have…

  6. HPC: Rent or Buy

    Fredette, Michelle


    "Rent or buy?" is a question people ask about everything from housing to textbooks. It is also a question universities must consider when it comes to high-performance computing (HPC). With the advent of Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Microsoft Windows HPC Server, Rackspace's OpenStack, and other cloud-based services, researchers now have…

  7. Design of forest rent accounting

    T.S. Osadcha


    Full Text Available The urgent task for the effective functioning of the national economy is the need to reflect income from the use of forest resources in accounting, which will allow management personnel to prove the effectiveness of environmental protection measures, to assess the amount of expenses taken during restoration and protection of forest resources. The study aims at identifying characteristics of forest rent to determine the amount and its reflection in the accounting for its management. The author understands a forest rent as the income received from the owner of forest resources. The above procedure for determining the amount of forest rent can be used to display it in the accounting. A forest rent is a type of business income, so for its reflection in the accounting it is proposed to open the analytical accounts to account 79 named «Financial results». To determine the amount of forest rent and its reflection in the accounting the author suggests the calculation form of a forest rent. In order to manage the size of a forest rent and expenses incurred to obtain it the author proposes to use the information from the developed report about the forest rent formation. The displaying forest rents in accounting will provide accurate and deep information to the management about the revenue and assets of a company. The rational use of forest resources and accounting reflection of a forest rent will strengthen control over the influence of human activity on natural resources and keep the conception of sustainable development.

  8. Rent Control and Unemployment Duration

    Munch, Jacob R.; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael


    In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...... control benefits, unemployed individuals are more likely to accept job offers in the local labour market. Based on a rich Danish data set, we find that the probability of finding a local job increases with the rent control intensity of the housing unit, whereas the probability of finding ajob outside...

  9. Rents in a welfare state

    Paldam, Martin


    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......, but in a number of cases as described in this chapter, the rents are revealed. The implicit welfare coalition, defined as voters receiving their income from the public budget, is the majority, placing the median voter within the welfare coalition. Rents are created and protected by the welfare coalition. Non...

  10. Small Area Fair Market Rent

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Due to the increasing demand for more localized rents for a variety of purposes, HUD is making Small Area FMRs for all metropolitan areas available. Small Area FMRs...

  11. 24 CFR 886.110 - Contract rents.


    ... approved rent level established pursuant to 24 CFR 207.19(e)(2)(i). (c) In any case, HUD shall determine... the rents paid for comparable units in the private unassisted market, nor shall the Contract Rents exceed the rents charged by the Owner to unassisted Families for comparable units. HUD shall maintain...

  12. Rent seeking and the economics of corruption

    Aidt, T.S.


    The paper studies the influence of Gordon Tullock (1967) and the rent-seeking literature more generally on the study of corruption. The theoretical corruption literature with its emphasis on principal-agent relationships within government and rent creation by corruption politicians has largely, but not entirely, overlooked that contestable rents encourage unproductive use of real resources in seeking these rents. As a consequence, the literature underestimates the value of corruption control ...

  13. 24 CFR 850.153 - Rent control.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rent control. 850.153 Section 850... PROGRAM) HOUSING DEVELOPMENT GRANTS Project Management § 850.153 Rent control. A project constructed or substantially rehabilitated with a housing development grant is not subject to State or local rent...

  14. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.


    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  15. Immigration and housing rents in American cities

    Saiz, Albert


    Is there a local economic impact of immigration? Immigration pushes up rents and housing values in destination cities. The positive association of rent growth and immigrant inflows is pervasive in time series for all metropolitan areas. The author uses instrumental variables based on a "shift-share" of national levels of immigration into metropolitan areas. Conditioning on other variables, an immigration inflow equal to 1 percent of the city population is associated with increases in rents an...

  16. 24 CFR 884.109 - Rent adjustments.


    ... assisted and comparable unassisted units, as determined by HUD: Provided, however, That this limitation shall not be construed to prohibit differences in rents between assisted and comparable unassisted...

  17. The Capitalism, Rent and Democracy

    Victor S. Martyanov


    Full Text Available By inertia, which derives from Adam Smith, modern capitalism is described as a free-market competition. This historical model has worked while the market expands and the availability of resources increases. It provided the opportunity to maintain the political order of the welfare state as a form of non-economic egalitarian distribution of resources, which mitigates inequality and class antagonisms generated by market. However, once capitalism has engulfed the whole world, it is more prone to crises: competition intensifies, markets of demand and market outlets do not expand, technological progress creates a growing structural unemployment, economic growth due to the completion of the global village-city transition stagnates, the resources of all the peripheries are almost exhausted. As a result, nationalism and protectionism arise, the polarization between the global center and the periphery increases, and there comes the image of undemocratic and non-egalitarian labor less society on the horizon of the future, with the precariat and the unemployed growing in numbers and demanding large amounts of rent to maintain their livelihoods. Due to this, the market model of capitalism is gradually transforming into a rental one, where the pursuit of profit, the main motivational factor intrinsic to the market, is removed by the pursuit of rent and the redistribution of markets by non-economic ways. In this context, the state becomes the key economic actor, which distributes resources by extra-market means within the hierarchy of rental groups that form the framework of a new structure of the political community.

  18. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  19. 78 FR 42524 - Leasing versus Renting


    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Leasing versus Renting... assist in determining if there is a distinction between leasing and renting that is useful for the... address real property or its leasing. DATES: Interested parties should submit written comments to...

  20. Accounting management software intellectual rent companies

    T.S. Osadcha


    Full Text Available Економічні науки. – 2015. – № 4 (74. – P. 43–49: Table 4. – Refs.: 22. As a result of the study it has been established that intellectual rent as additional income arises resulting from the usage of intellectual property objects. At present the issue of the accounting reflection of transactions that form intellectual rent remains to be not thoroughly disclosed and requires more depth study for improving the performance of the innovative enterprises as well as for increasing the informativeness of the accounting system. In connection with the above defined organizational and methodical aspects of accounting operations with intellectual rent in assessing the rents of its type, the definition of accounts for the accounting reflection of the order determining the amount of intellectual rent on accounting data. Proposed document that would facilitate the work of accountants for the calculation of the amount of intellectual rent and provide information about the effectiveness of the company. Application of the proposed method of accounting reflect the formation and distribution of intellectual rent allows management personnel to provide the necessary innovative activity of the enterprise information management rent, since it is a type of income of the enterprise.

  1. Rent-to-Own: A Consumer Purchasing Alternative.

    Stein, Pat; Brown, Judy


    Examines rent-to-own, an alternative purchasing method that allows the consumer to rent an item and gain ownership after a specified number of payments. Addresses industry trends, the rent-to-own consumer, pricing structure, and legalities. (JOW)

  2. Mine rent and the new economic system

    Cadan, K. (Federalni Ministerstvo Paliv a Energetiky, Prague (Czechoslovakia))


    Reviews historical concept of ground rents with reference to works of Adam Smith and David Ricardo and to 19th century capitalism and Marxism-Leninism. Asks whether mine rents can exist under a socialist system and examines theoretical basis for mine rents, which includes socio-economic aspects, geological conditions, proximity to markets and environmental considerations. Compares mine rents with agricultural land rents and analyzes value of end product (coal) and effect of pricing method on it. Explains pricing system in Czechoslovakia, which involves 3 groupings: coking coal, coke and energy coal (including briquets), the price of each of which is set according to average costs and geological conditions. Surplus revenue (or positive mine rent) only arises therefore at mines where the production costs are lower than fixed trade prices. Discusses in general terms application of new economic system (perestroika) to concept of mine rent and assessment of mine profitability and concludes that method of pricing solid fuels will play a decisive role. 4 refs.

  3. Stochastic Control Model on Rent Seeking


    A continuous-time stochastic model is constructed to analyze how to control rent seeking behaviors. Using the stochastic optimization methods based on the modern risky theory, a unique positive solution to the dynamic model is derived. The effects of preference-related parameters on the optimal control level of rent seeking are discussed, and some policy measures are given. The results show that there exists a unique solution to the stochastic dynamic model under some macroeconomic assumptions, and that raising public expenditure may have reverse effects on rent seeking in an underdeveloped or developed economic environment.

  4. 7 CFR 3560.202 - Establishing rents and utility allowances.


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing rents and utility allowances. 3560.202... Establishing rents and utility allowances. (a) General. Rents and utility allowances for rental units in Agency... Agency. (b) Agency approval. All rents and utility allowances set by borrowers are subject to...

  5. 24 CFR 983.303 - Reasonable rent.


    ... other comparable unassisted units. (2) In determining the reasonable rent, the PHA must consider factors... units in the private unassisted market, which may include comparable unassisted units in the premises or... determined, including major differences between the contract units and comparable unassisted units. (3)...

  6. 24 CFR 886.312 - Rent adjustments.


    ... levels of such expenses in comparable assisted and unassisted housing in the area to ensure that... assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract rents may be adjusted upward or downward as may be...) Comparability between assisted and unassisted units. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this...

  7. Rent seeking with efforts and bids

    Haan, M.A.; Schoonbeek, L.


    We introduce bids in a rent-seeking contest. Players compete for a prize. Apart from exerting lobbying efforts, they also submit a bid which is payable only if they win the prize. We show that our model has a unique Nash equilibrium in pure strategies, in which each active player submits the same bi

  8. Accounting management software intellectual rent companies

    T.S. Osadcha


    Економічні науки. – 2015. – № 4 (74). – P. 43–49: Table 4. – Refs.: 22. As a result of the study it has been established that intellectual rent as additional income arises resulting from the usage of intellectual property objects...

  9. 27 CFR 6.35 - Renting display space.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.35 Section 6.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Renting display space. The renting of display space by an industry member at a retail...

  10. 27 CFR 6.56 - Renting display space.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renting display space. 6.56 Section 6.56 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Distribution Service § 6.56 Renting display space. A promotion whereby an industry member rents display...

  11. Comparing markets rents from a user cost and reaction model

    Francke, M.K.


    The current policy in the Netherlands is that rents in the social housing sector are regulated and do not reflect market conditions. Housing associations are studying the possibility to partly adjust rents to the market rent, or at least they want to have insight in the size of the implicit subsidy

  12. 75 FR 6685 - Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Contract Rent Annual Adjustment Factors, Fiscal...


    ... Expenditure Survey (CEX) and American Community Survey (ACS) data on the ratio of utilities to rents.\\2\\ \\ Survey Data Used to Produce Contract Rent AAFs In this publication, the rent and fuel and... AAFs. The utility- to-rent ratio used to produce Contract Rent AAFs comes from 2007 ACS median rent and...

  13. Analiza panoge rent a car v Sloveniji

    Lukić, Davorin


    Panoga rent-a-car v segmentu kratkoročnih najemov sodi v turistično panogo in je kot taka odvisna od dogajanj v tej panogi. Drug segment predstavljajo poslovni najemi, ki ima v Sloveniji še potencial za rast, saj podjetja še ne poznajo vseh prednosti, ki jih prinese upravljanje voznega parka zunanjega izvajalca. Spremembe, katerim smo trenutno priča v svetu, so posledica digitalizacije, spremenjenih vrednot po gospodarski krizi ter prihoda generacije Y na trg delovne sile in na drugi strani k...

  14. Product market integration, rents and wage inequality

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    Globalization in the form of product market integration affects labour markets and produces winners and losers. While there are aggregate gains, it is in general ambiguous how inequality is affected. We explore this issue in a Ricardian model and show that it depends on the balance between...... "protection" and "specialization" rents. In particular, wage inequality among similar workers (residual wage inequality) may be U-shaped, at first decreasing and then increasing in the process of product market integration. Consequently, there may be gains in both the efficiency and the equity dimension until...

  15. Rent-Seeking or Wealth-Creating: What to Choose?

    Gillund, Nils Ove


    This thesis presents a quite extensive literature review on literature concerning entrepreneurship, allocation of talent and rent-seeking. There is also a presentation of two models, one model concerning the allocation of talent and rent seeking. The second, demonstrates how rent-seeking affects investments in an economy. In the empirical part of the thesis there is a re-estimation of the results found in Murphy, Shleifer and Vishny, The Allocation of Talent: Implications for Growth (1991...

  16. Water rent: essence, sources of formation and accounting reflection

    T.S. Osadcha


    Full Text Available There is the urgent necessity of the transition to a higher level of economic relations in the system of environmental management in the present conditions of economy of the country. As a result, the issues like formation of information support for water rent management, determining the ways of its calculation, distribution as well as usage of water rents require urgent solutions. The study focuses on the essence of water rent and forming organizational and methodological provisions of its accounting reflection to ensure sustainable ecological and economic development of the enterprise. As a result of research the classification of water rent, that affects reflection of such rent in accounting has been formed. It is established that the amount of water rent for accounting reflection can be defined as the difference between actual and normal profit of enterprise-water users. A number of analytical accounts of first and second order as well as the typical correspondence of accounts for accounting reflection of water rent have been suggested. The information from the Report on the formation of water rent that contains data on the sources of payback of expenses incurred for the maintenance of water bodies and the impact of ecological condition of water body on the size of water rent has been suggested to be used in order to manage the size of water rent and expenses incurred to obtain it. Thus, determining the amount of water rent will allow management personnel to adjust the activity of the company in accordance with the strategic objectives of the company’s development regarding the profitability and compliance with the concept of sustainable development.

  17. Tullock's rent-seeking contest with a minimum expenditure requirement

    Schoonbeek, L.; Kooreman, P.


    We consider a rent-seeking contest of the kind introduced by Tullock (1980) in which two players compete for a monopoly rent. We extend the contest by requiring that if a player puts forward an effort, his expenditures must be larger than or equal to some minimum level. We show that, depending on

  18. Election cycles in natural resource rents : Empirical evidence

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob


    We examine whether governments' natural resource rents are affected by upcoming elections and if so, whether the incumbent uses these additional rents for re-election purposes. Estimates of a dynamic panel model for about 60 countries for 1975-2011 suggest that elections increase natural resource re

  19. Election cycles in natural resource rents: Empirical evidence

    Klomp, Jeroen; Haan, de Jakob


    We examine whether governments' natural resource rents are affected by upcoming elections and if so, whether the incumbent uses these additional rents for re-election purposes. Estimates of a dynamic panel model for about 60 countries for 1975-2011 suggest that elections increase natural resource

  20. 24 CFR 582.305 - Housing quality standards; rent reasonableness.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing quality standards; rent... Housing quality standards; rent reasonableness. (a) Housing quality standards. Housing assisted under this part must meet the applicable housing quality standards (HQS) under § 982.401 of this title—except...

  1. Contesting Resources - Rent Seeking, Conflict and the Natural Resource

    Wick, A.K.; Bulte, E.H.


    A growing empirical literature links natural resource abundance and "pointiness" to impeded economic growth and civil strife. We develop rent seeking and conflict models that capture the most salient features of contests for resource rents, and show how both resource abundance and geographical

  2. 77 FR 69651 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program for Small Area Fair Market Rent...


    ... with reasonable time for public comment and shall become effective upon the date of publication in... 2005-2009 5- year ACS based ZIP code median gross rent data with 2006-2010 5-year ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) median gross rent data. The use of the more current ACS data is consistent with the update...

  3. Neural Networks Modelling of Municipal Real Estate Market Rent Rates

    Muczyński Andrzej


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research on the application of neural networks modelling of municipal real estate market rent rates. The test procedure was based on selected networks trained on the local real estate market data and transformation of the detected dependencies – through established models – to estimate the potential market rent rates of municipal premises. On this basis, the assessment of the adequacy of the actual market rent rates of municipal properties was made. Empirical research was conducted on the local real estate market of the city of Olsztyn in Poland. In order to describe the phenomenon of market rent rates formation an unidirectional three-layer network and a network of radial base was selected. Analyses showed a relatively low degree of convergence of the actual municipal rent rents with potential market rent rates. This degree was strongly varied depending on the type of business ran on the property and its’ social and economic impact. The applied research methodology and the obtained results can be used in order to rationalize municipal property management, including the activation of rental policy.

  4. Rents in property rights creation and implementation

    Žarković Jelena


    Full Text Available The institution of property rights is increasingly being recognized as an essential building block of an economically prosperous society. The question that remains unanswered however, is how do we develop effective property rights institutions? The literature dealing with the development of property rights tends to be, in general, overly optimistic since there is a tendency to view the design of property rights institutions as optimizing decisions to economize on transaction costs and to facilitate new economic activities. On the other hand, since property rights define the distribution of wealth and political power in a society changes in property rights structures are likely to be influenced by more than pure efficiency considerations. Therefore, in order to achieve a balanced analysis of the evolution of property rights institutions our article introduces the state in the whole process. Following the propositions of the interest group theory of government we show an important relationship between rent seeking and state involvement in property rights creation. The state with a coercive power to establish and enforce property rights can also use that power, through the process of economic regulation, to redistribute property rights to politically influential interest groups. Herein lies the state failure in property rights creation.

  5. HK Shop Rents to Soar as Tourism Booms


    The expansion of Abercrombie & Fitch Co and Gap Inc in Hong Kong may help push shop rents in the Central business district up almost 50 percent over the next three years, according to Jones Lang LaSalle Inc.

  6. Immigration and Housing Rents in Canada: A Panel Data Analysis

    Latif, E.


    This study examines the impact of new immigration on housing rent, using Canadian province-level panel data from 1983 to 2010. In its estimations, it utilises econometric methods such as panel unit roots, panel co-integration regressions and panel vector error correction models. Both fully-modified ordinary least squares and dynamic ordinary least squares models suggest that immigration flow has a significant positive impact on housing rent in the long run. The panel vector error correction m...

  7. Fair Market Rents (Fair Market Rents For The Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program) - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset and map service provides information on Fair Market Rents (FMRs). FMRs are primarily used to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice...

  8. 76 FR 14421 - Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Contract Rent Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs...


    ... Survey (ACS) data on the ratio of utilities to rents.\\2\\ \\1\\ CPI indexes CUUSA103SEHA and CUSR0000SAH2... AAFs In this publication, the rent and fuel and utilities inflation factors for large metropolitan... produce Contract Rent AAFs comes from 2008 ACS median rent and utility costs. Geographic Areas Contract...

  9. 24 CFR 401.410 - Standards for determining comparable market rents.


    ... rents for project-based assistance at comparable market rents unless the PAE finds that exception rents... rents charged for properties that the PAE determines to be comparable properties (as defined in section... control and other characteristics determined by the PAE. The PAE may make appropriate adjustments...

  10. Rents in the European power sector due to carbon trading

    Keppler, Jan Horst; Cruciani, Michel [Centre de Geopolitique de l' Energie et des Matieres Premieres (CGEMP) Universite Paris - Dauphine (France)


    The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) has imposed a price on the allowances for CO{sub 2} emissions of electricity companies. Integrating this allowance price into the price of electricity earns a rent for companies who have received these allowances for free. During Phase I, 2005-2007, rents corresponding to the aggregate value of allocated allowances amounted to roughly EUR 13 billion per year. However, due to the specific price-setting mechanism in electricity markets true rents were considerably higher. This is due to the fact that companies also that have not received any allowances gain additional infra-marginal rents to the extent that their variable costs are below the new market price after inclusion of the allowance price. Producers with low carbon emissions and low marginal costs thus also benefit substantially from carbon pricing. This paper develops a methodology to determine the specific interaction of the imposition of such a CO{sub 2} constraint and the price-setting mechanism in the electricity sector under the assumption of marginal cost pricing in a liberalized European electricity market. The article thus provides an empirical estimate of the true total rents of power producers during Phase I of the EU-ETS (2005-2007). The EU ETS generated in Phase I additional rents in excess of EUR 19 billion per year for electricity producers. These transfers are distributed very unevenly between different electricity producers. In a second step, the paper assesses the impact of switching from free allocation to an auctioning of allowances in 2013. We show that such a switch to auctioning will continue to create additional infra-marginal rents for certain producers and will leave the electricity sector as a whole better off than before the introduction of the EU ETS. (author)


    A.A. Gde Putra Pemayun


    Full Text Available This present study was intended to analyze the Life Style of the Rented Land Owners at Ubud Subdistrict. The problems of the study are formulated as follows: (1 what is the characteristic of the rented land owners at Ubud Subdistrict like? (2 How has the process of life style of the rented land owners at Ubud Subdistrict  taken place? And (3 what is the implication of the life style of the rented land owners on their lives? Qualitative method was employed in the study. The data were processed using observation, interview and documentary techniques. The workability of the law regulating the demand for land at Ubud Subdistrict motivated the land owners to rent out their land to investors. Apart from that, the internal dimension, which is made up of the economical capital, was the most important element as it could activate small, medium and big enterprises. Another aspect was image which was reflected through perception, cognition, motivation, and attitude of individuals as consumers. As an illustration, they built luxurious houses and showed off luxurious cars to show the image that they were new wealthy people. On the other hand, there was external dimension, namely, the highly rapid development of tourism, which could positively and negatively contribute to the life style of the people living at Ubud Subdistrict. Such an implication could not be avoided. The other aspect was consumerism; the consumers were around the symbol and sign. Mass media were the miracles of the object liturgy; pleasure was defined as the realization of freedom, and the human body was the main object of consumers. The last aspect was the government’s policy which determined that Ubud Subdistrict was a tourist destination. As a result, the local people had the opportunity to rent out their land which was used to expand the industry of tourism and to activate the other economic enterprises.


    Homans, Frances R.; Wilen, James E.


    Using a new model of markets in regulated open access resources, we illustrate the evolution of a fishery as demand for the product grows. We show that increased demand for fish in its fresh form shortens the fishing season and leads to the development of a market for processed fish. The model allows us to calculate the rent gains from rationalizing the fishery, and we show that much of the rent gains come on the market side as the season lengthens and more fish can be delivered to the higher...

  13. Economic Analysis on Rent of Equipment Lease of Coal Enterprise

    童磊; 王立杰


    Rent is the key factor in equipment lease. The business that equipment lease company of coal mining often engaged in can be divided into three kinds, that is sublease, operating lease and inter lease, in term of the difference of the role of lease, character of business, object of the trade and condition of t he market. The problem in rent calculating of the three kind s of lease that equipment lease company of coal mining often involved was an alyzed. Hope to b e helpful to the decision-making of the equipment lease company of coal mining.

  14. Predicting returns and rent growth in the housing market using the rent-to-price ratio: Evidence from the OECD countries

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    We investigate the predictive power of the rent-to-price ratio for future real estate returns and rent growth in 18 OECD countries over the period 1970 to 2011. First, we document that in most countries returns are signi…cantly predictable by the rent-price ratio. An increase (decrease...... dependent on whether returns and rents are measured in nominal or real terms. Finally, there is some evidence of sub-sample instability in the predictive patterns, especially wrt. rent growth predictability. The predictability tests are conducted within a restricted VAR framework based on the dynamic Gordon...

  15. Balti kalleim lao- ning tootmispindade rent on Riias / Kristo Kiviorg

    Kiviorg, Kristo


    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 21. sept. lk. 12. Tootmis- ja laopindade rent Baltimaades ja Soomes. Vt. samas: Tallinnas lao- ning tootmispinnad poolaastaga kallinenud kuni 37%; Helsingis on kõige rohkem tõusnud C-kvaliteediklassi pinnad; Tartu piirkonnas enamik saadaolevaid pindu keskmises või halvas seisukorras

  16. The Struggle for Rents in a Schumpterian Economy

    de Groot, H.L.F.


    This paper develops a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market. Trade unions strive for the extraction of as high a rent as possible from the growth generating imperfectly competitive primary sector. This union behaviour results in a non-competitive wage differential between the

  17. The meaning of competition between social and market rented housing

    Lennartz, C.; Haffner, M.E.A.; Oxley, M.J.


    When policy makers claim that rented housing has to become more competitive, there is no consensus on what competition in this context actually means. The same holds true for scientific housing research: Theories that have utilized the economic concept of competition tend to rely on implicit definit

  18. 18 CFR 367.1720 - Account 172, Rents receivable.


    ... ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1720 Account 172, Rents... receivable. 367.1720 Section 367.1720 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005,...

  19. Fair Market Rents For The Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are primarily used to determine payment standard amounts for the Housing Choice Voucher program, to determine initial renewal rents for some...

  20. 75 FR 76036 - Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise Disbursement Divisions...


    ... Employment and Training Administration Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc. Accounts Payable, Rent, Merchandise... of Charming Shoppes of Delaware, Inc., including the Accounts Payable, Rent, and Merchandise... the same division, are engaged in activities related to the supply of accounts payable,...

  1. Revenue Management approach to car rental business : Revenue Management guide for Helkama Rent Ltd

    Rantanen, Aimo


    The purpose of this product-oriented thesis is to study revenue management as a business practise and and create a Revenue Management guide for the assigning company Helkama Rent Ltd car rental. The guide is supposed to give ideas and a structure for Revenue Management in Helkama Rent Ltd. Helkama Rent Ltd has been struggling with the profitability issues recently. Revenue Management guide will help Helkama Rent to obtain Revenue Management philosophy, and give ideas and tools for more effici...

  2. 24 CFR 888.113 - Fair market rents for existing housing: Methodology.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fair market rents for existing housing: Methodology. 888.113 Section 888.113 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... existing housing: Methodology. (a) Basis for setting fair market rents. Fair Market Rents (FMRs) are...

  3. 41 CFR 102-85.140 - How are changes in Rent reflected in OAs?


    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR... specified in OAs will serve as notice to agencies of future Rent changes for budgeting purposes. For a discussion of budgeting for Rent, see § 102-85.160. (b) Changes to Rent other than those identified in...

  4. 77 FR 46447 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...


    ... statistically valid one-year ACS data is available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are... housing of a modest (non-luxury) nature with suitable amenities. In addition, all rents subsidized under... that HUD would not want to utilize in setting FMRs (e.g., luxury efficiency apartments that rent...

  5. The Control of Land Rent in the Fortified Farming Town

    John Hartwick


    We consider costly administration at the center of a farming community surrounding a fortified village. Land rent taxation is high cost mode of financing central administration in a tax incidence sense. Participatory administration by the governed is a lower cost alternative. We speculate why the low cost option has been out-competed by its higher cost alternative throughout history. We also take up constraints on predation on farmers by a landlord at the center.

  6. Rent seeking oligopolistic behaviour in European gasoline markets

    Michael L. Polemis; Panagiotis N Fotis


    This paper explores the asymmetric adjustment speed of gasoline price in twelve European Union (EU) countries transmitted directly in a single stage formulation. The empirical results shed new light on the taxation effect and its role to the price asymmetry nexus, pointing that in many EU countries a crude oil price increase is passed through more forcefully than a price decrease revealing a rent-seeking oligopolistic behaviour by the marketers.

  7. Optimal Licensing Contracts with Adverse Selection and Informational Rents

    Daniela MARINESCU


    Full Text Available In the paper we analyse a model for determining the optimal licensing contract in both situations of symmetric and asymmetric information between the license’s owner and the potential buyer. Next we present another way of solving the corresponding adverse selection model, using the informational rents as variables. This approach is different from that of Macho-Stadler and Perez-Castrillo.

  8. Migration as an antidote to rent-seeking?

    Mariani, Fabio


    International audience; We develop a new mechanism through which skilled migration may influence economicperformance in the sending country. If agents can choose between acting asrent-seekers and engaging in productive activities, and only productive skills are exportable,a positive probability of migration (to a more secure economy) reduces therelative expected returns from rent-seeking, thus decreasing the proportion of skilledworkers who opt for ”parasitic” activities. Such an improvement ...

  9. Chicago's water market: Dynamics of demand, prices and scarcity rents

    Ipe, V.C.; Bhagwat, S.B.


    Chicago and its suburbs are experiencing an increasing demand for water from a growing population and economy and may experience water scarcity in the near future. The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly depleted its groundwater resources to a point where interstate conflicts with Wisconsin could accompany an increased reliance on those sources. Further, the withdrawals from Lake Michigan is limited by the Supreme Court decree. The growing demand and indications of possible scarcity suggest a need to reexamine the pricing policies and the dynamics of demand. The study analyses the demand for water and develops estimates of scarcity rents for water in Chicago. The price and income elasticities computed at the means are -0.002 and 0.0002 respectively. The estimated scarcity rents ranges from $0.98 to $1.17 per thousand gallons. The results indicate that the current prices do not fully account for the scarcity rents and suggest a current rate with in the range $1.53 to $1.72 per thousand gallons.

  10. Increasing natural resource rents from Farmland: A curse or a blessing for the rural poor?

    Hvid, Anna


    agricultural land on rent seeking and rent distribution. Results suggest that the potential for small scale farmers to organize and obtain political power determines the extent of rent seeking and rent distribution, and that while more democratic institutions may increase the share of rents going...... as a diffuse resource with low economic value, this categorization may no longer be appropriate, because demand for land is currently on the rise, and may continue to increase in the future. This study presents and discusses recent theoretical and empirical approaches to analyzing the effects of high-value...

  11. Political rents in the European Union’s agriculture

    Czyżewski Bazyli


    Full Text Available Występowanie rent gruntowych we współczesnym rolnictwie UE potwierdza wieloletni rosnący trend cen ziemi rolniczej. Nasuwa się jednak pytanie, czy są to przede wszystkim renty różniczkowe związane z różną wydajnością gruntów rolnych, czy renty absolutne w klasycznym rozumieniu, czy też renty polityczne w ujęciu teorii wyboru publicznego? Cele artykułu mają przede wszystkim wymiar teoriopoznawczy. Podjęto w nim próbę weryfi kacji koncepcji renty gruntowej, którą sformułowano na podstawie badań przeprowadzonych w Polsce. Tym razem jednak zakres badań obejmuje pełen przekrój struktur agrarnych UE. Według wspomnianej koncepcji źródłem współczesnej renty gruntowej jest wyższa oczekiwana produktywność kapitału w rolnictwie niż w jego otoczeniu rynkowym. Często tłumaczy się to zjawisko wypłacaniem rent politycznych w ramach WPR. Czy tak jest w istocie ? Przeprowadzone badania odpowiadają na pytanie w jakich krajach i strukturach agrarnych ewentualna różnica wspomnianej produktywności kapitału jest największa i na ile wynika to z rent politycznych, a na ile z innych czynników?

  12. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul


    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  13. Rent-seeking and timber rights allocation in Ghana

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard


    This paper describes types, processes and importance of rent-seeking in the allocation of timber rights in Ghana. It is based on an analysis of 30 interviews with large-, medium- and small-scale timber firms, as well as government officials and timber industry organizations in Ghana. The paper...... involving exchange of timber rights for political support and/or material, personal benefits. Second, timber rights are allocated to persons or firms outside the timber sector allegedly as payment for political support. The paper concludes that the Voluntary Partnership Agreement between Ghana and the EU...

  14. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul


    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  15. Agricultural rent-seeking in developing countries: an empirical investigation

    Hvid, Anna


    Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...... or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis....

  16. Rent, Lease or Buy: Randomized Algorithms for Multislope Ski Rental

    Lotker, Zvi; Rawitz, Dror


    In the Multislope Ski Rental problem, the user needs a certain resource for some unknown period of time. To use the resource, the user must subscribe to one of several options, each of which consists of a one-time setup cost (``buying price''), and cost proportional to the duration of the usage (``rental rate''). The larger the price, the smaller the rent. The actual usage time is determined by an adversary, and the goal of an algorithm is to minimize the cost by choosing the best option at any point in time. Multislope Ski Rental is a natural generalization of the classical Ski Rental problem (where the only options are pure rent and pure buy), which is one of the fundamental problems of online computation. The Multislope Ski Rental problem is an abstraction of many problems where online decisions cannot be modeled by just two options, e.g., power management in systems which can be shut down in parts. In this paper we study randomized algorithms for Multislope Ski Rental. Our results include the best possibl...

  17. The land rent category in mainstream economics and its contemporary applications

    Bazyli Czyżewski


    Full Text Available The economic globalisation process makes the economic factors rotate faster. As a result the value added is intercepted by market mechanism and transferred to the economically stronger entities. That process concerns especially agriculture. There exists a crucial question whether an agricultural land factor is still capable to generate economic rents which would be the determinants of comparative advantages? On the one hand, D. Ricardo’s land rents are vanishing, H. George’s rents are provoking financial crisis, monetarists assumptions are becoming unsufficient, on the other, the land factor gains new environmental applications and there is still a hope that land rents have its origins in a real value. This paper aims at presenting the evolution of the land rents theory starting from classical economics. The author makes an attempt to answer the question if the land rent theories are still relevant and how land rent category can be implemented in agricul-tural policy of the UE? One formulates a hypothesis that the neoclassical theory of rent usually presented in economic textbooks is insufficient to describe reality reducing the sources of land rent to a low land supply flexibility and treating that as constant variable in economic models.

  18. Differentiation characteristics and influencing factors of ecological land rent among provinces in China

    LONG Kaisheng; ZHAO Yali; ZHANG Honghui; CHEN Ligen; LU Fangfang; GU Yuanyuan


    Ecological land rent is the excess profit produced by resource scarcity,and is also an important indicator for measuring the social and economic effects of resource scarcity.This paper,by calculating the respective ecological land rents of all the provinces in China for the years 2002 and 2007,and with the assistance of the software programs ArcGIS and GeoDA,analyzes the spatial differentiation characteristics of ecological land rent; then,the influencing factors of ecological land rent differentiation among the provinces are examined using the methods of traditional regression and spatial correlation analysis.The following results were obtained:First,ecological land rent per unit of output in China shows stable distribution characteristics of being low in the southwestern and northeastern provinces,and high in Hebei and Henan provinces.There is also an increasing tendency in the central and western provinces,and a decreasing one in the eastern provinces.In general,the spatial distribution of ecological land rent per unit of output in China is quite scattered.Second,the total ecological land rent shows significant spatial aggregation characteristics,in particular the provinces in China possessing high total amounts of ecological land rent tend to be adjacent to one another,as do those with low total amounts,and the spatial difference characteristics of the eastern,central and western provinces are distinguished.The Bohai Rim,Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta are shown to be highly clustering regions of total ecological land rent,while the western provinces have very low ecological land rent in terms of total amount.Third,population distribution,economic level and industrial structure were all important influencing factors influencing ecological land rent differentiation among provinces in China.Furthermore,population density,urbanization level,economic density,per capita consumption level and GDP per capita were all shown to be positively related to total

  19. Rent Regulation in Jamaica: Socialist Past, Global reality, Inaction and the Working Class

    M. Mills


    Full Text Available Empirical evidence has established the association between rent control and crises such as oil and World wars; yet the Jamaican governments have not reintroduced rent control and updated the Rent Restriction Act despite global recession, oil and food crises and increased poverty. The objectives of this work are: 1 To conduct a documentary analysis of prior research on the extent of the problem, and these will provide an understanding and a content for the current work; 2 To identify the issues/concerns of the Rent Restriction Act; 3 To assess the issues/concerns of the Rent Restriction Act, and 4 Drawing on the knowledge of Rent Restriction Act, recommend policies or measures that can be instituted to address changes in the framework in Jamaica. The current work used mixed method approach, phenomenology and survey research. Landlords indicated that they had more right than for tenants; their complaints were the non-payment of rent; were more knowledge of Rent Restriction Act than the tenants and the majority of them did not answer the question on “Have you ever had a case where the Act was referred to?” Two times more males were knowledge about the Rent Restriction Act than that of female; more males indicated that they had rights than that of females, less females’ problem was harassment than that of males; more males gave the Rent Restriction Act a good rating compared to females and 3.5 times more males believed that the Rent Restriction Act was relevant in contemporary Jamaica. The findings provide understanding of the issues, and can be used to aid policy formulation.

  20. International Product Market Integration, Rents and Wage Formation

    Sørensen, Allan

    International product market integration enhances both export possibilities through easier access to foreign markets, but also the import threat arising from foreign firms penetrating into the domestic market. These mechanisms affect wage formation and employment creation through many channels...... including product market rents and the possibility that jobs may be relocated across national labour markets. Possibilities and threats, however, will not in general be uniformly distributed across firms and therefore groups in the labour market. These issues are explored in a Ricardian trade model...... with imperfect competition, heterogeneity in the labour market, and decentralized wage-bargaining. The Paper analyses how product market integration affects wage formation, and identifies characteristics of winners and losers in the integration process....

  1. Intergenerational equity and the investing of rents from exhaustible resources

    Hartwick, J.M.


    The present generation's ethical dilemma over shortchanging future generations by overconsuming exhaustible resources could be relieved by a program of converting the capital from these resources into machines and living off the current flow of machines and labor. If the stock of machines is assumed not to depreciate, then the stock of productive capital and resources is not depleted. Cobb-Douglas technology is used to determine what will happen to consumption if only the rents from exhaustible resources are invested in reproducible capital goods. An important feature of Cobb-Douglas technology is that input in the form of minerals from an exhaustible resource is needed to get a positive output of the single produced commodity. Results of the model indicate that a savings investment rule will not provide for the maintenance of per capita consumption constant over time. Further studies have explored the effects of depreciations and intergenerational equity. 7 references.

  2. Tullock's rent-seeking contest with a minimum expenditure requirement (vol 93, pg 477, 1997)

    Schoonbeek, L; Kooreman, P

    We consider a rent-seeking contest of the kind introduced by Tullock (1980) in which two players compete for a monopoly rent. We extend the contest by requiring that if a player puts forward an effort, his expenditures must be larger than or equal to some minimum level. We show that, depending on

  3. 26 CFR 1.467-2 - Rent accrual for section 467 rental agreements without adequate interest.


    ... date. The applicable Federal rate for a rental agreement means— (i) The Federal short-term rate if the... interest (the stated rate of interest) on deferred or prepaid fixed rent at a single fixed rate (as defined in § 1.1273-1(c)(1)(iii)); (B) The stated rate of interest on fixed rent is no lower than 110 percent...

  4. Reducing Rents from Energy Technology Adoption Programs by Exploiting Observable Information

    Aalbers, R.F.T.; Vollebergh, H.R.J.; de Groot, H.L.F.


    In this paper, we study how regulators may improve upon the efficiency of their energy technology adoption programs by exploiting readily observable information to limit rent extraction by firms. Using panel data on 862 investment decisions in the Netherlands, we find that rent extraction is closely

  5. Fighting for rents: agricultural windfall gains and social change in land-abundant developing countries

    Hvid, Anna


    and political power and hence the distribution of rents. Specifically, when it comes to agricultural land, the characteristics of land imply that the organizational capacity of farmers is a crucial determinant of the distribution of agricultural rents. The historical case examples indicate that the extent...... of organizational capacity may be determined by land inequality, the heterogeneity of farmers and the political environment....

  6. The Effects of Rent Restructuring on Social Housing in English Rural Areas

    Walker, Bruce


    This paper discusses the impact of central government's rent restructuring policy on social housing in rural areas in England. It examines the effect that restructuring will have on the rents set by social landlords in a set of case study areas then considers some of the likely impacts on affordability and on new investment in rural social…

  7. 24 CFR 984.304 - Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income.


    ... PROGRAM Program Operation § 984.304 Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income. 984.304 Section 984.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations...

  8. 76 FR 52057 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...


    ... where statistically valid one-year ACS data is available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and... privately owned, decent, and safe rental housing of a modest (non-luxury) nature with suitable amenities. In....g., luxury efficiency apartments that rent for more than typical one-bedroom units). HUD...

  9. Barriers to the Adoption of Sustainable Agriculture on Rented Land: An Examination of Contesting Social Fields

    Carolan, Michael S.


    While over half of the cropland in the United States is rented, interest in land tenancy within sociological circles has been sporadic at best. In light of the prevalence of rented land in agriculture--particularly in the Midwest--it is vital that further research be conducted to investigate the effect that the rental relationship has upon the…

  10. Is There Rent Sharing in Italy? Evidence from Employer-Employee Data

    Alessia Matano


    Full Text Available Using a unique employer-employee panel database, we investigate the extent of rent sharing in Italy from 1996 to 2003. We derive the following findings. First, after controlling for the national bargaining level, there is robust evidence of rent sharing at firm level. Second, by means of fixed effects estimates we show that the sorting of high-ability workers into high-profit firms appears to play a substantial role, since it captures a significant amount of cross sectional estimates of rent sharing. Third, in accordance to the related literature the endogeneity of profits causes a severe underestimation of rent sharing. Our final IV estimate of the elasticity of wages with respect to profits per employee amounts to 6%, with a "Lester" range of 24%. Moreover, we point out that the impact of rent sharing is not homogeneous across several dimensions (gender, occupation, sector and macroarea.

  11. Fighting for rents: agricultural windfall gains and social change in land-abundant developing countries

    Hvid, Anna


    In recent years, a global increase in demand for agricultural commodities and land has contributed to increasing agricultural prices. This trend can be expected to continue in the future, and may result in significantly higher land rents. This paper investigates the potential distributional effects...... of increasing land rents in land-abundant developing countries from a theoretical viewpoint, and provides historical case examples to support the theoretical propositions. It is proposed that the specific characteristics of a rent-generating natural resource have implications for the concentration of economic...... and political power and hence the distribution of rents. Specifically, when it comes to agricultural land, the characteristics of land imply that the organizational capacity of farmers is a crucial determinant of the distribution of agricultural rents. The historical case examples indicate that the extent...

  12. The Effects of Tax Competition when Politicians Create Rents to Buy Political Support

    Eggert, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    . Allowing tax base mobility may be welfare-enhancing up to a point, because the ensuing tax competition will reduce rents. However, if tax competition is carried too far, it will reduce welfare by causing an underprovision of public goods. Starting from an equilibrium where tax competition has eliminated...... all rents, a coordinated rise in capital taxation will always be welfare-improving. For plausible parameter values it will even be welfare-enhancing to carry tax coordination beyond the point where rents to public sector workers start to emerge...

  13. Rente und subnationale Gewalt. Der Beitrag der politischen Ökonomie

    Hartmut Elsenhans


    Full Text Available Rents are a basic element of the political economy of underdeveloped economies. They hinder and often block the mechanism of social integration through gainful employment and veto the power of labour, which characterizes capitalist societies and the constitution of citizenship. The impact of rent on political structures is, however, ambiguous. Anomie is only one possible result. Hence the link between raw material exports and non-state violence is also ambiguous. Many societies, which are characterized by rents, have developed quite powerful mechanisms of keeping internal peace, possibly with limited participation. The conditions of differential impacts of rent on social structures and political behaviour call for an analysis of internal interest mediation.

  14. Retail Concentration and Shopping Center Rents - A Comparison of Two Cities

    François Des Rosiers; Marius Thériault; Catherine Lavoie


    This study aims primarily at testing whether, and to what extent, retail concentration within regional and super-regional shopping centers affect rent levels, as well as the differential impact it may...

  15. Openness of Economy, Foreign Investment Inflows and the Phenomenon of Rent Seeking Corruption

    Syed Toqueer Akhter


    Full Text Available Rent seeking behavior has been amongst noticeable obstacles in path of economic growth and development for developing communities. Due to this the study aims at testing the hypothesis that the Rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy is being influenced by the openness of economy as well as inflows of foreign investment significantly. Model estimations imply that reforms may have an insignificant impact upon impact upon curtailing the rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy in a time series setting therefore this research will use two statistical econometric models to show the effect of corruption on the foreign direct inflow received in Pakistan. In order to pretest the impact of all the mentioned variables on rent seeking behavior generalized least square was used because its results were unbiased, consistent and the problem of Serial correlation was solved by using it. In order to quantify rent seeking behavior among bureaucracy different aspects of misuse of public offices appearing in form of petty and grand corruption were used using the variables informal sector, tax evasion, judicial outlay, G.D.P and F.D.I as percentage of G.D.P. All of the variables had proper signs aligned with the theory and all of the variables appeared to be significant except judicial outlay proving that the judiciary has been incompetent and ineffective. The robust regression showed all the same signs except in it every variable was appearing to be significant. Rent seeking corruption has been highly affecting Pakistan in adverse ways and this paper will show how many factors like judiciary is not playing effective role in limiting corruption and also how the economy is being affected by rent seeking behavior.


    Ramona DOBRE


    Full Text Available The present paper aims to demonstrate the role that ground rent has in establishing the agricultural land price. In order to be able to prove the connection between the ground rent and the agricultural land price, there are submitted to debate indicators that are part of ground rent such as the positioning of the land, the distance between the land and the access roads and water source, the intrinsic qualities of the land soil, the type of land and the manner of exploitation. The debate is intended to show how and in what manner the indicators part of ground rent may influence the price of an agricultural land. The final purpose of this study is to prove that a justified land price may contribute to encourage the agricultural land transactions and therefore to develop the land market. To fulfil the purpose of this paper it is necessary to understand what land ground means, why it is important the land price and how can the agricultural land price influence the agricultural land market and the development of the agriculture overall. The main methods utilized are collecting, analyze and interpreting data and information from the specialized literature. The conclusions formulated at the end of the study allow seeing the influence of ground rent on agricultural land price, the influence of the agricultural land price on agricultural land market and the influence of agricultural land market on the development of the agriculture.

  17. Changes of levels of rent and risk in the activity of rural farms in Poland

    Agnieszka Kurdyś-Kujawska


    Full Text Available Lease of agricultural land is a form of the land use. It enables to create or increase a farm, without having to pay capital-expenditure related to the purchase of land. In exchange for the land lease, the tenant agrees to pay a rent, which is a constant burden on its budget and can affect the economic situation of the farm. Changes in the value of rent result in, to a large extent, deficit of land in some areas of Poland, increase of prices and demand for agricultural land. The aim of the study was to analyse the determinants and dynamics of changes in the rates of agricultural rents. The source material for the study were data on the agricultural land market in Poland in 2000-2011 published by the IERiGŻ and GUS.

  18. WHY MY PARTICIPATION MATTERS: Rent-seeking with endogenous prize determination

    Klarizze Anne Puzon; Marc Willinger


    We analyze an institutionalized rent-seeking game in which groups can endogenously choose the prize at stake, e.g. a common-pool resource. In the first stage, groups determine how much of the resource to protect and equally share. In the second stage, the unprotected fraction is competed for in a rent-seeking game. We consider two institutions varying in the extent by which subjects participate: majority voting (i.e. "unrestrained participation" where all group members participate in the prot...

  19. Rent taxation and its intertemporal effects in a small open economy

    Köthenbürger, Marko; Poutvaara, Panu


    Previous literature concludes that replacing wage taxation by taxes on a fixed factor or its rents benefits future generations. However, the effects of such steady-state gains on the transition generations have been left open. In this paper, we show that taxation of rents may also increase utilit...... of the current generation provided tax revenues are earmarked to reduce wage taxes. In particular, a shift in the tax mix may yield an intergenerational Pareto-improvement when the initially prevailing tax mix is sufficiently skewed toward wage taxation....

  20. Capital switching and the role of ground rent: 2 Switching between circuits and switching between submarkets

    R J King


    In the first paper of this series of three, Harvey's 'circuits of capital' argument was discussed, and was linked first to ground rent theory, and second to forms of social change and crisis in advanced, Western-style economies. In the present paper these various theoretical insights are used to reflect upon the urban housing market in Melbourne from the 1930s to the 1980s. It is concluded (1) that average rent (average annual cost relative to wages), and thereby housing-related accumulation,...

  1. The effects of tax competition when politicians create rents to buy political support

    Eggert, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Peter Birch


    We set up a probabilistic voting model to explore the hypothesis that tax competition improves public sector efficiency and social welfare. In the absence of tax base mobility, distortions in the political process induce vote-maximising politicians to create rents to public sector employees....... Allowing tax base mobility may be welfare-enhancing up to a point, because the ensuing tax competition will reduce rents. However, if tax competition is carried too far, it will reduce welfare by causing an underprovision of public goods. Starting from an equilibrium where tax competition has eliminated...

  2. The Effect of a Sports Stadium on Housing Rents: An Application of Geographically Weighted Regression

    Jorge Enrique Agudelo Torres


    Full Text Available Researchers have determined that real estate prices vary in continuous ways as a function of spatial characteristics.  In this study we examine whether geographically weighted regression (GWR provides different estimates of price effects around a sports stadium than more traditional regression techniques.  We find that an application of GWR with hedonic prices finds that the stadium has a negative external effect on housing rents that extends outward 560 meters, in contrast to the positive external effect on housing rents found using a conventional estimation technique.

  3. Finding Good Areas for Renting Apartments Using Apartments Information and Users' Trajectories

    Si, R.; Lu, M.; Arikawa, M.; Asami, Y.; Iwasaki, J.


    Current apartment renting web sites provide services to search apartments by attribute filters while they lack the services to help find areas that are convenient for living and meet customers' personal preference. In many cases, people not only need attributes of the apartments meeting their requirements, but also need the attributes of the area be satisfied. We propose an IT service that can find appropriate areas for customers to rent apartments while they want to move to new places. The areas are picked according to users' life styles mined from their former moving trajectories and to the attributes of the areas calculated from preferences of present rooms of users.


    Stephanie O. Crofton


    Full Text Available The bubonic plague that swept England in 1349 provides an example of how changes in economic conditions can change norms of social behavior. The death of almost 50 percent of the population altered the returns to labor and land. As the demand for land and the supply of labor declined, rents fell and wages rose. This increased wage-to-rent ratio shifted the structure of the economy from household production to market production. In turn, these changes affected migration, family and community ties, women s labor force participation, family size, inheritance customs, the status of landowning widows, and care for the elderly.

  5. 75 FR 11553 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... use of FMRs or voucher payment standards should be directed to the respective local HUD program staff... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate... Market Rents published on August 4, 2009 (74 FR 38716), HUD conducted Random Digit Dialing (RDD)...

  6. Using the private rented sector as a form of social housing

    Oxley, M.; Brown, T.; Haffner, M.; Hoekstra, J.; Lishman, R.


    The paper considers the role of the private rented sector in supplying housing that can be defined as social housing. It will do this by considering policy initiatives in Germany, France, the USA and England that use privately owned housing to meet social needs. The operation of these initiatives

  7. 75 FR 46958 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation...


    ... metropolitan areas. However, the first publication of five-year ACS data does not begin until the fourth... current survey data. For FY 2011, FY 2010 FMRs are updated using 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) data, and more recent Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes. HUD continues to use ACS data in...

  8. 78 FR 47339 - Proposed Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program, Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... valid one-year ACS data is available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are used... Budget (OMB) metropolitan area definitions as updated through December 1, 2009 and include HUD... definition update has not been incorporated in the FMR process due to the timing of the release and the...

  9. The welfare costs of rent-seeking: a methodologically individualist and subjectivist revision

    Michael Makovi


    Full Text Available Gordon Tullock is acknowledged for being the first to recognize the true costs of rent-seeking as including not only the Harberger triangle but also the Tullock rectangle. This rectangle does not constitute merely a lossless transfer of wealth, but it causes a misallocation of resources as rent-seekers invest resources in lobbying. However, a close reading of Tullock’s writings shows that his arguments are formulated in a holistic fashion, speaking of what is efficient or inefficient for society. Rent-seeking is inefficient because it reduces societal welfare. But according to a methodologically individualist and subjectivist economics, such a claim is invalid. We must distinguish between positive economic fact and normative moral philosophy. We call for a reconstruction of utility and welfare economics based on methodological individualism and subjectivism with implications for the theories of monopoly and competition: practices which Neoclassical perfect-competition theory considers to be evidence of rent-seeking should instead be deemed as indications of genuine competition Political economy should be concerned with ascertaining which institutions will best enable individuals to pursue their individually subjective ends – or else economists should be explicit about their normative preferences and political philosophies.

  10. Rents From the Essential Health Benefits Mandate of Health Insurance Reform.

    Mendoza, Roger Lee


    The essential health benefits mandate constitutes one of the most controversial health care reforms introduced under the U.S. Affordable Care Act of 2010. It bears important theoretical and practical implications for health care risk and insurance management. These essential health benefits are examined in this study from a rent-seeking perspective, particularly in terms of three interrelated questions: Is there an economic rationale for standardized, minimum health care coverage? How is the scope of essential health services and treatments determined? What are the attendant and incidental costs and benefits of such determination/s? Rents offer ample incentives to business interests to expend considerable resources for health care marketing, particularly when policy processes are open to contestation. Welfare losses inevitably arise from these incentives. We rely on five case studies to illustrate why and how rents are created, assigned, extracted, and dissipated in equilibrium. We also demonstrate why rents depend on persuasive marketing and the bargained decisions of regulators and rentiers, as conditioned by the Tullock paradox. Insights on the intertwining issues of consumer choice, health care marketing, and insurance reform are offered by way of conclusion.

  11. 12 CFR 1282.19 - Affordability-Rent level definitions-tenant income is not known.


    ... GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.19 Affordability—Rent level... very low-, low-, or moderate-income families where the income of the family in the dwelling unit is not known to the Enterprise, the affordability of the unit is determined based on unit size as follows:...

  12. 24 CFR 982.613 - Group home: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.


    ...) Meaning of pro-rata portion. For a group home, the term “pro-rata portion” means the ratio derived by... owner for an assisted person may not exceed the pro-rata portion of the reasonable rent for the group...-rata portion of the payment standard amount on the PHA payment standard schedule for the group...

  13. 24 CFR 982.617 - Shared housing: Rent and voucher housing assistance payment.


    .... (a) Meaning of pro-rata portion. For shared housing, the term “pro-rata portion” means the ratio... for the family may not exceed the pro-rata portion of the reasonable rent for the shared housing... standard amount on the PHA payment standard schedule for the family unit size; or (2) The pro-rata...

  14. Renting a Place to Live. Tierra de Oportunidad Module 9. LAES: Latino Adult Education Services Project.

    Kissam, Ed; Dorsey, Holda

    This module, which may be used as the basis for a workshop or as a special topic unit in adult basic education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) courses, focuses on renting a place to live. The following items are included: module overview; list of basic, thinking, interpersonal, information utilization, and other skills addressed in the…

  15. Rent Control and Virtual Prices: A Case Study for Interwar Belgium

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); E. Buyst (Erik)


    textabstractAfter World War I rent control became a cornerstone of housing policy in many European countries, resulting in quantity constraints on the demand for housing. The theory on complete demand systems provides a framework for analyzing the effects of these policies on consumption. As a test

  16. 林地地租量化研究%A Study on the Calculation of Woodland Rent

    邹秀清; 张志云


    以马克思地租理论为指导,阐明市场经济条件下我国林地地租的内涵及特征:求出零级土地的立地指数等级和各立地等级的年级差地租,从总地租中分离出绝对地租和级差地租。%Guided by Marxist land rent theory, under the condition of market economy, the connotation and characteristics of woodland rent in our country are expounded. By calculating site index of zero-leveled woodland, annually differential woodland rent has been separated from absolute woodland rent among total rent.

  17. 41 CFR 102-85.155 - What does a customer agency do if it does not agree with a Rent bill?


    ... classification, appraised Rent, or the allocation of space), the agency may appeal its Rent bill to GSA. (b) GSA... review of the measurement, classification, service levels provided, or charges assessed that pertain to... contract rent passed through from the underlying lease cannot be appealed; (3) In GSA-owned space, when...

  18. Rent pricing decision support mathematical model for finance leases under effective risks

    Rabbani Masoud


    Full Text Available Nowadays, leasing has become an increasingly important and popular method for equipment acquisition. But, because of the rent pricing difficulties and some risks that affect the lessor and lessee's decision making, there are many people that still tend to buy equipment instead of lease it. In this paper we explore how risk can affect the leasing issue support mathematical model. For this purpose, we consider three types of risk; Credit risk, Transaction risk and Risk based pricing. In particular, our focus was on how to make decision about rent pricing in a leasing problem with different customers, various quality levels and different pricing methods. Finally, the mathematical model has been solved by Genetic Algorithm that is a search heuristic to optimize the problem. This algorithm was coded in MATLAB® R2012a to provide the best set of results.



    Operational Circular No. 4 (Rev. 1) entitled “Use of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN”, approved by the Director-general following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 15 February 2012, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 4 entitled “Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN” of April 2003. This new version enables, in particular, to include CERN contractors and their personnel, to harmonize the structure of the circular with other circulars and to simplify the procedures by permitting electronics forms. Department Head Office HR Department

  20. It's the rents, stupid. The political economy of the resource curse

    Kolstad, Ivar; Wiig, Arne [Chr. Michelsen Institute, P.O. Box 6033 Postterminalen, N-5892 Bergen (Norway)


    A number of studies suggest that natural resources can have a negative impact on the developing prospects of countries. Empirical results suggest that political economy models of patronage and rent-seeking are central to understanding why such a resource curse arises. In other words, the resource curse is created by certain resource rents leading to dysfunctional behaviour. This article introduces the term impartiality enhancing institutions to structure policy debates by distinguishing conditions under which negative effects of resources can be mitigated. Moreover, it is argued that viewing institutions as an equilibrium outcome has implications for the analysis of institutional change. Policy initiatives that do not promote the impartiality of institutions, nor attend to the underlying interests and incentives keeping a bad institutional equilibrium in place, will not help lift the resource curse. (author)

  1. Are physicians profit or rent seekers? Some evidence from state economic growth rates.

    Reilly, Mary; Santerre, Rexford E


    Previous research has debated whether physicians act as profit- or rent-seekers. We argue that these two models of physician behavior can be tested by observing empirically the relationship between physician density and economic growth rates. A direct (inverse) relationship provides evidence for the profit-seeking (rent-seeking) theory of physician behavior. We empirically examine the impact of physician density on the economic growth of all US states over the period from 1973 to 2009. The empirical analysis generally finds a statistically significant and direct relationship between physician density and the growth of gross state product. The results are robust with respect to state- and time-fixed effects, individual state time trends, and 2SLS (two-stage least squares) estimation. Thus, in support of the profit-seeking theory of physician behavior, the findings reveal that physicians generally have a positive impact on the growth of the US economy.

  2. Le référent zoulou omniprésent

    Frédéric Giraut


    Full Text Available Illustration 1 – Ephémère mémorial à la gloire de Shaka sur la plage de DurbanAuteur :  Said Boujrouf, Durban, octobre 2007.En tant qu'épopée d'un royaume précolonial conquérant et éphémère vainqueur de l'armée coloniale britannique, l'histoire zouloue avec son mythique chef Shaka a été érigée en mythe par les colonisés d’Afrique australe et par les colons britanniques et afrikaners. L'histoire guerrière a été mise scène de différents points de vue et à travers différents médias (cinéma, télé...

  3. The NBA’s Maximum Player Salary and the Distribution of Player Rents

    Kelly M. Hastings


    Full Text Available The NBA’s 1999 Collective Bargaining Agreement (CBA included provisions capping individual player pay in addition to team payrolls. This study examines the effect the NBA’s maximum player salary on player rents by comparing player pay from the 1997–1998 and 2003–2004 seasons while controlling for player productivity and other factors related to player pay. The results indicate a large increase in the pay received by teams’ second highest and, to a lesser extent, third highest paid players. We interpret this result as evidence that the adoption of the maximum player salary shifted rents from stars to complementary players. We also show that the 1999 CBA’s rookie contract provisions reduced salaries of early career players.

  4. Celestial marriage and earthly rents: interests and the prohibition of polygamy.

    Anderson, G M; Tollison, R D


    Just prior to the Civil War, the US government set out on a relentless campaign to eliminate polygamy within the Mormon Church. This paper offers evidence that the political restrictions on the practice of polygamy were the result of rent seeking by potential beneficiaries of such laws (the Edmonds Act of 1882). Polygamy created benefits for women, but reduced the welfare of most men, in a time period when only adult males had the franchise.

  5. Sustainable Rent-Based Closed-Loop Supply Chain for Fashion Products

    Zhi-Hua Hu; Qing Li; Xian-Juan Chen; Yan-Feng Wang


    The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products. Considering the features of fashion products, a system of a rent-based closed-loop supply chain is developed to improve the sustainability of fashion products. The supply chain processes (fashion design and...

  6. Home : no less will do - homeless people's access to the private rented sector

    Reeve, Kesia; Cole, Ian; Batty, Elaine; Foden, Michael; Green, Stephen; Pattison, Ben


    The research on which this report is based was carried out by the Centre for Regional Economic and Social Research (CRESR) at Sheffield Hallam University. It was commissioned by Crisis in response to concerns that single homeless people are finding it difficult to access the private rented\\ud sector, at a time when there is increased reliance on the sector to meet housing need. Changes introduced through the Localism Act 2011 in England, for example, allowed local\\ud authorities to discharge ...

  7. Rent sharing to control non-cartel supply in the German cement market


    A challenge for many cartels is avoiding a destabilizing increase in non-cartel supply in response to having raised price. In the case of the German cement cartel that operated over 1991-2002, the primary source of non-cartel supply was imports from Eastern European cement manufacturers. Industry sources have claimed that the cartel sought to control imports by sharing rents with intermediaries in order to discourage them from sourcing foreign supply. Specifically, cartel members would all...

  8. Kebijakan Ekonomi Politik Stated-Centered dan Rent-Seeking Behavior dalam Kebijakan Pangan Impor Beras

    Wahyu Riawanti


    Full Text Available This present a critical assessment of the political economy that underlie food policy and rice import in Indonesia. State-centric behavior and rent-seeking practices are important determinants of food policy formulation in Indonesia. The study analyzes the importation of rice by the Indonesian government. Study result show that rice policy is based on three main point which are: relationship between farmer's term of trade (NTP, ruse production and distribution; and political power in policy formulation.

  9. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area


    The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for st...

  10. Viewpoint – Rent-Seeking in Agricultural Water Management: An Intentionally Neglected Core Dimension?

    Walter Huppert


    The author, drawing on thirty-five years of experience in the field of agricultural water management and on cases from research and from development cooperation, puts forward his personal viewpoint on this matter. He contends that local as well as international professionals on different levels in the water sector are caught in multifaceted conflicts between formal objectives and hidden interests – and often tend to resort to rent-seeking behaviour themselves.

  11. A Bi-modal Model for Chinese Cities: City Size, Car Use and Land Rent

    DAI Teqi; WANG Liang; ZHOU Binxue


    China is experiencing rapid urbanization and motorization.Urban transport congestion poses a challenge to the cities of China.Policies have been made trying to control the car use and the land use in Chinese cities without sound modelling researches.The existing literature on monocentric city modelling has shown that the parameters are critical for the outcome of the modelling.Following the Alonso-type monocentric model,this paper introduces a bi-modal model to simulate the city size,the distribution of land rent and the modal substitution in Chinese cities.We set the key parameters according to the recent available data of China's cities,and re-explain the hypothesis of the model.Then we make a sensitivity analysis to reveal the impacts of key parameters on the Chinese cities.According to the results,we find that the wage,the price of car use and the agriculture rent have significant impacts on city size.The land supply for the private transport or the public transport has the strongest impacts on car use and the level of transport congestion.The total population of the city and the wage level have strong impacts on land rent.Some results are counter-intuitive,but explainable.We also discuss implication of these results for policy making.

  12. Rent control and other aspects of tenancy law in Sweden, Denmark and Finland

    Norberg, Per; Juul-Sandberg, Jakob

    In the Nordic EU member states legislation on landlord’s and tenant’s rights is defined from a socio-economic aspect. The three countries share a common legal »core« which originates from common contract law principles. Tenancy law regulation is different in major areas – especially rent regulation...... the rent regulation regimes in Sweden and Denmark as opposed to the »free market« in Finland. The aim is to draw conclusions on the functionality of the different and whether some things can be learned from the differences in between them. The elements of tenant »ownership rights« in the three countries...... are also compared and leads up to the question of whether they should be assessed as so important in relation to contractual principles that one can state that a tenant has a »right of ownership« to a home in the three countries. Analysing rent regulation regimes understanding the importance of path...

  13. Reducing appropriable quasi rents to combat the hold-up problem in contract agriculture

    Karantininis, Kostas; Graversen, Jesper Tranbjerg


    This paper examines the problem of hold-up in the agri-food sector. Production contracts offered to future Danish Broiler producers give rise to specific investments and appropriable quasi rents. Farmers are vulnerable to opportunistic behaviour by poultry processors which materializes in lower......, when building the broiler house, to prepare a viable future change in production from broilers to pigs. This will increase the bargaining power to farmers and may result in higher producer prices. Based on the general model of the hold-up problem with co-specific investments (Koss & Eaton, 1997...

  14. Marx’s Ground Rent Theory and Innovation of China’s Urban Land System

    Jiefang; ZHU


    China’s traditional urban land system is established in highly centralized planned economy. This system negates functions of value law and economic law fundamentally,so it is not favorable for establishment of market mechanism and development of market economy. This study took Marx’s ground rent theory as guidance,combined existing problems of China’s land use system,and made analysis on innovation of China’s urban land system from property right system,land market and land price.

  15. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    Mărioara Drugă


    Full Text Available The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for studied species, rations structure and distance from industrial platform and didn’t reach toxic level in any case.

  16. Les Glasgow Rent Strikes de 1915 ou quand la désobéissance civile des femmes contraint le législateur When Female Disobedience Lays Down the Law: the 1915 Glasgow Rent Strikes

    Olivier Esteves


    Full Text Available The outbreak of World War I in 1914 generated a massive influx of workers into the Clyde area, a hugely strategic region for heavy industry (shipyards, but also ammunition factories. This influx caused rents to rise in a certain number of districts, mostly around the factories and the shipyards. In order to protest against such grossly unfair increases, the women of Glasgow and their families decided to refuse to pay the new rents. They argued that they too contributed actively to the war effort, and that, by imposing rent hikes, the landlords of Glasgow and their factors implicitly sided with the German foe, by weakening a portion of the population so instrumental in supplying the British armed forces on the continent. After several months of actively sustained civil disobedience, Parliament passed a law that fixed rents until the end of the conflict. But in actual fact the Glasgow Rent Strikes generated certain changes that were to go way beyond the peculiar context of the Great War.


    Bazyli Czyżewski


    Full Text Available According to the “induced innovation model of agricultural development” there exist mechanisms for this sector’s participation in contributing to economic development, as well as in sharing its benefits. Nonetheless, inefficiencies of the market that distort market signals, constitute a barrier of the latter process. Therefore, the so-called “surplus drainage” from agriculture takes place. The authors claim that it is possible to objectively measure a “surplus drainage” from agriculture as a result of market failure. Assuming that rural areas generate public goods (i.e. a landscape, a biodiversity, rural culture and tradition, unique food quality, food safety, food security speculative land investors have lower willingness to contribute to its creation, than family farms. This is why agrarian policy levies more duties on them (institutional barriers and favours farmers. The mentioned premises imply that the CAP’s subsidies should not be perceived as political rents according to its classical definition. Only a part of subsidies left after subtracting a value of “surplus drainage” and a compensation of public goods has a hallmark of the rent. A valuation of these values is an important scientific challenge.

  18. [Palliative care for elderly patients living in rented housing by pharmacists].

    Uno, Tatsuya; Aoyama, Miyoshi; Shibata, Kenzo


    Yanase Pharmacy Co., Ltd. actively provides home health care intervention. The present study examined the effects of drug management guidance provided as home-visit-based health care support for elderly patients living in rented housing. The subjects were 117 patients who moved into rented accommodation for the elderly between June 2009 and February 2012, and who received drug administration guidance. The majority of the subjects had intractable diseases: 74(63%)were terminally ill with cancer, 7(6%)had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and 2(2%)had muscular dystrophy. Home-visit-based support included accompanying physicians' visits, formulation support, participation in the conference, and the provision of drug information for home-visiting nurses. The following formulation support measures were used: reducing intravenous infusion was proposed to address terminally ill cancer patients with a large amount of sputum; advice was provided on the selection of opioids for patients with renal failure; and drug options were discussed to alleviate the symptoms of gastrointestinal obstruction. All of these measures effectively alleviated symptoms.

  19. Perceptions of private market landlords who rent to tenants of a Housing First program.

    Aubry, Tim; Cherner, Rebecca; Ecker, John; Jetté, Jonathan; Rae, Jennifer; Yamin, Stephanie; Sylvestre, John; Bourque, Jimmy; McWilliams, Nancy


    The rental of housing units by landlords to participants in Housing First (HF) programs is critical to the success of these programs. Therefore, it is important to understand the experiences of landlords with having these individuals as tenants. The paper presents findings of qualitative interviews with 23 landlords who rented to tenants from a HF program located in a small city and adjoining rural area in eastern Canada and in which approximately 75 % of tenants had been housed for at least six consecutive months at 2 years in the program. Findings showed that landlords are motivated to rent to HF tenants for financial and pro-social reasons. They reported holding a range of positive, neutral, and negative perceptions of these tenants. They identified problems encountered with some HF tenants that included disruptive visitors, conflict with other tenants, constant presence in their apartments, and poor upkeep of units. On the other hand, landlords perceived HF tenants as being mostly good tenants who are similar to their other tenants. Implications for practice in the context of HF programs are discussed.

  20. A win-win marginal rent analysis for operator and consumer under battery leasing mode in China electric vehicle market

    Li Zhe, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ouyang Minggao, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    Recently battery leasing has been introduced into the market by automobile manufacturers and power suppliers due to its potential to reduce the purchase cost of electric vehicles (EVs). However, the profit prospect of battery leasing is still uncertain. This paper takes the views of both the operators and consumers and calculates the 'win-win' marginal rent, which not only ensures the profitability of operators, but also allows consumers a lower expenditure than using Internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs) and EVs with embedded batteries. Battery cost, vehicle weight, gasoline and electricity price, and the discount rate have impacts on the rent. Battery cost plays a dominant role and a battery cost >5 Yen /W h fails to enable the survival of battery leasing to all types of EVs. Battery leasing would be more competitive when focusing on heavier EVs. At least one of the three thresholds is required for the existence of rent pricing range for a 1000 kg EV: gasoline retail price >6 Yen /L, electricity price <0.6 Yen /kW h, or the discount rate <7%. Typically, the feasible battery rent range is 0.34-0.38 Yen /W h/year for a 1000 kg EV under the present battery cost 2 Yen /W h and China current gasoline and electricity prices. - Highlights: > Rent pricing for EV battery leasing must obey win-win rule for BLO and consumers. > Rent is affected by battery cost, vehicle weight, energy price and discount rate. > Battery cost plays dominant role for the BLO survival as described in '5-3-2' Law. > Heavier EVs are more suitable for battery leasing when battery cost is high. > The profitability of BLO is sensitive to the price of gasoline and electricity.

  1. Sustainable Rent-Based Closed-Loop Supply Chain for Fashion Products

    Zhi-Hua Hu


    Full Text Available The textile and clothing industry generates much pollution and consumes a large amount of resources. Improper uses and disposal of clothing products make the problems much more severe. Fast fashion products shorten the valid lifecycle and generate more waste than regular clothing products. Considering the features of fashion products, a system of a rent-based closed-loop supply chain is developed to improve the sustainability of fashion products. The supply chain processes (fashion design and manufacturing, laundry, logistics and disposal, the operations management issues (inventory management, closed-loop logistics, human-clothing matching, booking system and the rental pricing and the sustainability promotion aspects (customization, responsive system, culture and policy aspects are investigated by devising sustainable strategies. The rationalities of the developed system and strategies are reviewed and elucidated in detail. The results may contribute to building sustainable closed-loop fashion supply chains, the related information systems and operational and managerial mechanisms.

  2. 24 CFR 1000.124 - What maximum and minimum rent or homebuyer payment can a recipient charge a low-income rental...


    ... homebuyer payment can a recipient charge a low-income rental tenant or homebuyer residing in housing units... Activities § 1000.124 What maximum and minimum rent or homebuyer payment can a recipient charge a low-income... charge a low-income rental tenant or homebuyer rent or homebuyer payments not to exceed 30 percent of...

  3. 77 FR 61157 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... publication of ACS data to use the 2010 Decennial census for geographic boundaries. Consequently, HUD... Community Survey (ACS). These data are updated by one-year recent-mover 2010 ACS data using areas where statistically valid one-year ACS data are available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are...

  4. 78 FR 61667 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... publication did show much lower coverage of the 2005-2009 PRCS compared with the 2005-2009 ACS, 79.5 percent... Community Survey (ACS). These data are updated by one-year recent-mover 2011 ACS data for areas where statistically valid one-year ACS data are available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are...

  5. 76 FR 12985 - Request for Comments on Trend Factor Methodology Used in the Calculation of Fair Market Rents


    ... publication in final form in the Federal Register. Each fair market rental in effect under this subsection... Bedroom FMR, (do not remove ACS Update). 3. Determine Current Year ACS Update Factor and Apply to Value in... months (to the Midpoint of the publication Fiscal Year). A. Base Year Data FMRs start with base rents...

  6. 76 FR 60967 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... by the American Community Survey (ACS). These data are updated using one-year ACS data in areas where statistically valid one-year ACS data are available. The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes are... comment and shall become effective upon the date of publication in final form in the Federal Register...

  7. 75 FR 61253 - Final Fair Market Rents for Fiscal Year 2011 for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate...


    ..., FY 2010 FMRs are updated using 2008 American Community Survey (ACS) data, and Consumer Price Index (CPI) rent and utility indexes through the year end of 2009. HUD continues to use ACS data in different... of publication in final form in the Federal Register. Each fair market rental in effect under this...

  8. 77 FR 71195 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... related to use of FMRs or voucher payment standards should be directed to the respective local HUD program... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and...

  9. 41 CFR 102-85.15 - What are the basic policies for charging Rent for space and services?


    ... 2%) on the cost of the prospective capital investment. Each specific use of Return on Investment... customer agency. Once the ROI methodology is employed to establish Rent for a capital investment, the ROI...-owned buildings, a return on investment pricing approach if an appraisal-determined rental value...

  10. 76 FR 59712 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Budget-Based Rent Increase


    ... Increase AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: The proposed... to submit a Budget Worksheet when requesting rent increases. HUD Field Office's review and evaluate the amount and reasonableness of the requested increase. DATES: Comments Due Date: October 27, 2011...

  11. Why do many resource-rich countries have negative genuine saving? Anticipation of better times or rapacious rent seeking

    van der Ploeg, F.


    We investigate the Hartwick rule for saving of a nation necessary to sustain a constant level of private consumption for a small open economy with an exhaustible stock of natural resources. The amount by which a country saves and invests less than the marginal resource rents equals the expected capi

  12. 78 FR 25295 - Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and Moderate Rehabilitation Single...


    ... for Policy Development and Research, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Final Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 Fair Market.... Kahn, Economic and Market Analysis Division, Office of Economic Affairs, Office of Policy Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Final Fair Market Rents for the Housing Choice Voucher Program and...

  13. Fuzziness, democracy, control and collective decision-choice system a theory on political economy of rent-seeking and profit-harvesting

    Dompere, Kofi Kissi


    This volume presents an analysis of the problems and solutions of the market mockery of the democratic collective decision-choice system with imperfect information structure composed of defective and deceptive structures using methods of fuzzy rationality. The book is devoted to the political economy of rent-seeking, rent-protection and rent-harvesting to enhance profits under democratic collective decision-choice systems. The toolbox used in the monograph consists of methods of fuzzy decision, approximate reasoning, negotiation games and fuzzy mathematics. The monograph further discusses the rent-seeking phenomenon in the Schumpeterian and Marxian political economies where the rent-seeking activities transform the qualitative character of the general capitalism into oligarchic socialism and making the democratic collective decision-choice system as an ideology rather than social calculus for resolving conflicts in preferences in the collective decision-choice space without violence.    

  14. The failure of introducing market institution in a rent sector into an economy in transition

    Locatelli, C.; Finon, D


    Privatisation is at the heart of the structural reforms for economies in transition. In theory, the main aim of privatisation is to change the structures of corporate governance in order to improve the efficiency of the enterprises and to assure their long-term future in a competitive environment. The adoption of formal market institutions would be sufficient to secure the new property rights, in particular because the new holders of the rights to control assets would have a great incentive to encourage the definition of new judicial rules that would guarantee their rights of ownership. In Russia that did not happen. The paper discusses the narrowed vision of institutional change, without consideration of the previous environment of formal and informal institutions, and the need to put together the institutional infrastructure that is needed for the market institutions to function. It offers explanations of the 'unexpected' results of the reforms in a capital-intensive natural resource industry, namely the hydrocarbons industry characterized by the opportunity of rent extraction by the exportation. It demonstrates right holders' interest for the weakness of the 'rule of law'. It demonstrates that the incompatibility of these institutions with the initial informal and formal institutions has led to adaptations that are strongly path-dependent, under the need to preserve a minimum of inter-industrial coherence. (authors)

  15. Effect of castration on performance and profitability of finishing cattle in rent feedlot

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes


    Full Text Available Effects of castration on performance and profitability of finishing beef cattle in feedlot was evaluated and compared to no-castrated animals. Data came from a rent feedlot of beef cattle, conducted from August to November of 2005. Half of 50 animals, randomly chosen, were castrated by knife 18 days before the beginning of feedlot. Averages of initial body weight for castrated and no-castrated animals were 341kg and 347kg, while for final body weight were 437kg and 463kg, respectively. Were considered as expenses arroba value of thin cattle (R$50.00, and R$2.85 daily expenses per animal paid by cattle owner to “boitel”; and were considered as earnings sale of fat cattle at R$56.14 and R$54.14/arroba, respectively for castrated and no-castrated animals. For profitability analysis, CU$TO BOVINO CORTE software was utilized. Was tested the mean differences between castrated and intact groups by Student t test of average daily weight gains (GMPD and total weight gain (GMPT. Was acceptable the minimum level of confidence of 95%. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS 17.0 program. Effect of castration negatively influenced animals´ performance, evaluated by weight gain, and, consequently profitability of the system, evaluated by net margin. Earnings from sale of additional arrobas of no-castrated animals were enough to compensate penalization practiced by packinghouses for these animals.

  16. Modifications vibrationnelles induites par différentes vapeurs acides sur les polyanilines

    Cochet, M.; Quillard, S.; Buisson, J. P.; Lefrant, S.; Louarn, G.


    We present a comparative study of conductive form of polyaniline, i.e, polyemeraldine doped with HCl vapor or with HCSA upon m-cresol vapor. UV-Vis.-nir absorption measurements on polyaniline thin films, vs acid vapors time exposure, have been made. In the same way, Raman spectra have been recorded with different excitation lines from the blue and red ranges to the infrared region. Finally, an assignment of Raman bands observed, is proposed and confirmed by vibrational calculations based on valence-force-field. Nous présentons une étude comparative de la forme conductrice de la polyaniline, c'est-à-dire de la polyéméraldine dopée par des vapeurs d'HCl ou dopée par l'acide camphre sulfonique (HCSA) sous vapeurs de m-crésol. Des mesures d'absorption UV-Vis-proche infrarouge sur des films minces de polyaniline, en fonction du temps d'exposition aux vapeurs acides, ont été réalisées. Parallèlement, les spectres Raman ont été obtenus pour différentes longueurs d'onde d'excitation allant du visible jusqu'au proche infrarouge. Finalement, une attribution des bandes Raman observées est proposée et confirmée par des calculs vibrationnels basés sur des champs de force de valence.

  17. Housing for Female Factory Workers: The Association between Renting Accommodation and Satisfaction with Income and Living Conditions

    Quynh Thuy Nguyen


    Full Text Available Background: Vietnam has experienced a strong wave of migrants to urban and industrialized areas. This is a challenge for both local and national governments, which need to address the problems of the poor and socially marginalized, including providing housing for rural-to-urban migrants. Poor housing and the economic burden of house renting are increasingly recognized as determinants of both physical and mental health. Objectives: This paper examined the association between renting accommodation and income satisfaction and living conditions of female workers in light manufacturing industries in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented with quantitative survey of 2,818 female workers in 10 light manufacturing factories in 3 industrial zones by a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Over 38% of female workers had to rent accommodation. The average expense for accommodation, water and electricity accounted for 30.1% of renters’ income, which is 7.2% (CI 95%, 5.3–9.3% higher than for non-renters. A higher proportion of renters than non-renters considered their income was unstable and insufficient for living costs. In addition, only 7.2% of renters reported that their living conditions were suitable, notably lower than non-renters (22.4%. Conclusion: The study showed the economic burden of renting accommodation on workers’ income satisfaction and living conditions. The findings have implications for an adequate housing access strategy for workers including the integration of housing development in the planning and development of industrial zones and factories.




    Full Text Available The setting mechanism of the remuneration proper to the factors of production is not different from the merchandise price determination, in this case the type of the market pattern being. When the price of the production factors is determined it must be considered both the type of the market where the goods are sold (as output of the manufacture process and the type of the market where the production factors are provided (engaged. Among the incomes determined by using the production factors mix, the rent represents a very important one. Due to its long term existence, the revenue of rent is one of the economical notion, which has the largest application and the most different signification. For a long time, the rent was attached to the use of the natural resources, especially to those of the earth. Nowadays the application area of this notion has been extended over some other factors of production. In Romania, on the ground of the mining branch development, there were not too many reason of the economic efficiency and the theoretical developments with reference to the costs generated by using the factors of production were ignored. The correct substantiation of the decisions with reference to the application of the national mineral potential can’t ignore the costs generated by the remuneration of the production factor in the mining revenue system.

  19. Green Auctions and Reduction of Information Rents in Payments for Environmental Services: An Experimental Investigation in Sunan County, Northwestern China

    Deng, Xiaohong; Xu, Zhongmin


    Reducing information rents is an important task for government agencies wishing to purchase maximal environmental services with limited budgets. This paper reports on several green auction options for reducing information rents and improving the performance of the “Grain for Green” Payments for environmental services (PES) program implemented in northwestern China. In r experimental auctions and investigations, door-to-door interviews were conducted and bidding envelopes and survey questionnaires were used to determine the offers and the foregone profits of the participants. Three scenarios are analyzed in this paper: a uniform price auction, a discriminatory price auction, and an opportunity-cost system. The results show that compared to the uniform price auction system, the other auction systems can increase the cost-effectiveness of conservation contracting. Competitive bidding can reveal true opportunity costs and can reduce information rents extracted from the government by farmers using private information. The demographics and average bids of these auction types were also analyzed. “Perfect information” in the opportunity-cost offer system has the best performance but is very hard to implement in reality. The results of this research show that the auction is a valuable tool for purchasing conservation contracts in northwestern China, but that in the future, the performance of these auctions should be studied with relaxed model assumptions. PMID:25793263

  20. Green auctions and reduction of information rents in payments for environmental services: an experimental investigation in Sunan County, northwestern China.

    Xiaohong Deng

    Full Text Available Reducing information rents is an important task for government agencies wishing to purchase maximal environmental services with limited budgets. This paper reports on several green auction options for reducing information rents and improving the performance of the "Grain for Green" Payments for environmental services (PES program implemented in northwestern China. In r experimental auctions and investigations, door-to-door interviews were conducted and bidding envelopes and survey questionnaires were used to determine the offers and the foregone profits of the participants. Three scenarios are analyzed in this paper: a uniform price auction, a discriminatory price auction, and an opportunity-cost system. The results show that compared to the uniform price auction system, the other auction systems can increase the cost-effectiveness of conservation contracting. Competitive bidding can reveal true opportunity costs and can reduce information rents extracted from the government by farmers using private information. The demographics and average bids of these auction types were also analyzed. "Perfect information" in the opportunity-cost offer system has the best performance but is very hard to implement in reality. The results of this research show that the auction is a valuable tool for purchasing conservation contracts in northwestern China, but that in the future, the performance of these auctions should be studied with relaxed model assumptions.

  1. Apropiación privada de renta de recursos naturales? El caso del cobre en Chile /Private Appropriation of Natural Resource Rent? The case of Cooper in Chile

    Benjamín Leiva Crispi


    ... a sustainable trajectory. As a case study about private appropriation of natural resource rent, this work explores the case of copper in Chile since 1990, empirically analyzing if the 12 main private mining companies...

  2. Composition of Rent and How Extracted by the Network Participants%网络参与者的租金来源与实现途径



    Value can be created through inter-organizational relationships, but not all participants can get benefit or get equal benefit from network cooperation. This paper addresses the issue of what types of rents,generated through network, are extracted by participating firms. We differentiate participant's rents between common rent and private rent and further divided into three sources: appropriated common rent, internal quasi-rent and net inbound spillover rent. All the three rents are related to the partner's resource base and resource nature.Appropriated common rent is created from the shared resourced of all participants and should be distributed among all members; quasi-rent and net inbound spillover rent come from the firm's non-shared resources which is effected by shared resources and partner's non-shared resources.%网络合作虽然可以产生协同协应,但并非所有参与者都能够从中获取均等收益.本文从网络参与者的角度分析了其从网络合作中的获益,认为参与者的租金主要来源于共有租金和私有租金两个方面,具体细分为可占用的共有租金、内部准租金和溢入租金净值三种类型.这三类租金的实现与参与者所拥有的资源基础和资源属性密切相关,可占用的共有租金是网络参与者通过资源交换、联合、共享而创造的共有租金在不同参与者之间分配的结果;内部准租金和溢入租金净值是参与者的私有资源(或非共享资源)产生的独有的、不与其他参与者分享的私有租金,私有租金的实现也与网络合作密不可分.

  3. Corporate rent-seeking and the managerial soft-budget constraint: An incremental cash flow approach to some corporate governance issues

    Apreda, Rodolfo


    This paper seeks to expand on two topical strands in Government Finance and Political Science literature, rent-seeking and the soft-budget constraint, so as to bring forth a strong linkage with corporate governance environments. It will attempt to accomplish this task by setting up a distinctive framework of analysis that hinges on incremental cash flows. Firstly, it claims that both rent-seeking behavior and the soft-budget constraint are worthy of being applied to corporate governance learn...

  4. Knowledge Rent Effect to Knowledge Production and Control Mechanisms%“知识租”对知识生产的影响及治理机制

    吴黎正; 米俊


    In the era of knowledge economy, knowledge will become the core of the organization of production factors, knowledge producers by virtue of its knowledge will get a lot of rent. This rent is the knowledge rent. The cause of knowledge rent is extremely complicated, the great danger based on the analysis of knowledge rent on the reasons for the basis of knowledge rent, put forward governance model and solutions.%知识经济时代,“知识”将成为组织的核心生产要素,知识生产者凭借其拥有的知识将会得到大量的“租”,这种“租”就是“知识租”。“知识租”的产生原因是极其复杂的,其危害性很大。在分析“知识租”产生原因的基础上,提出了“知识租”的治理模型,并给出了解决思路。

  5. Soil erosion and mitigation measures on rented and owned fields in Uruguay: the impact of transgenic soya and foreign investors

    Caon, Lucrezia; Kessler, Aad; Keesstra, Saskia; Cruze, Rick


    Governments, companies and individuals with financial capital to invest, are worldwide buying or renting land in developing or third world countries. Uruguay is a developing country whose economy is mainly based on agriculture. Since 2000 many foreigners started to invest in the Uruguayan agricultural sector and to practice intensive large-scale agriculture. The significant presence of foreigners in the country is proven by the fact that almost 360 000 ha out of the 500 000 ha forming the study area were managed by foreigners in 2012. Nowadays farmers have abandoned the traditional crop rotation plan that included pasture to produce grain for export, and transgenic soya (soya RR) became the main crop planted by both foreigners and locals. Besides the high soil erosion rates related to having soya as main crop, planting soya implies the use of glyphosate, a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide leading to important environmental impacts. It is commonly said that foreigners investing in poor countries are exploiting the local natural resources aiming to get the highest possible profit from them. Is this a valid assumption in Uruguay? The purpose of this study was to compare the land management style of foreign and local farmers and to relate it to the soil erosion occurring in the study area. The land tenure (rented or owned fields) and the type of farmer interviewed ("individual farmer" equivalent to L.L.C. or "anonymous society" equivalent to P.L.C.) were taken into consideration during the analysis. Based on what stated by the farmers interviewed, the soil erosion simulations considered the seven most popular crop rotation plans on rented and owned fields, three ideals crop rotation plans, the application of no mitigation measures, and the construction of terraces and conservation buffers. Depending on the crop rotation plan, soils characterized by slope gradients higher than 2 resulted in soil erosion rates higher than the 7 ton/ha/year allowed by law. The highest

  6. Permanentnost primitivne akumulacije, ali o privatni lastnini, komodifikaciji in povratku rente

    Jernej Prodnik


    moderne in zagovarja nujnost absolutne demokracije pri upravljanju, vzpostavljanju in dojemanju skupnega. /// English title: The Permanence of Primitive Accumulation, or: On the Private Property, Commodification and Return of the Rent /// Abstract: In his analysis of current social antagonisms, the author starts from a critique of political economy and focuses on two historically and politically/theoretically important concepts, without which it would not be possible to understand the development of the capitalist system and the way it currently functions: primitive accumulation and modern private property. Newer interpretations of the process of primitive accumulation (Perelman, DeAngelis, Harvey start from the premise that primitive accumulation is not just a historical period belonging to the past, but a necessarily present part of capital in its expansion and search for news ways out of recurring crises. This permanence of primitive accumulation, which Harvey refers to as accumulation-by-disposses sion, in which a key factor is the difference between the generation and existence of capital, helps us to understand the ever present processes of capital expansion and their often violent incorporation of various fields. Although these processes are an always-already-present characteristic of capitalism, by manifesting themselves, they have marked the past decades, when capital has attempted to resolve its own profitability crisis through financialisation and privatisation. At the same time, because the existence of the modern form of private property has appeared as an important condition for capitalist accumulation and as that element which facilitates the effective functioning, development and expansion of capitalist relations of production, at the beginning of the article, this socially constructed phenomenon of modern society, which, through a process of reductionism, makes it almost impossible to consider different forms of ownership such as common forms of property

  7. A Study on Correlation Between Car Use Tax and Urban Space Development:Based on Bid Rent Function of Urban Land-use


    Based on the model of the bid rent function in a mono-centric city,this paper,by introducing the concept of opportunity cost and extending partial equilibrium analysis to general equilibrium analysis,conducts a theoretical analysis on the possibility that the typical car use taxes including fuel consumption tax,traffic congestion tax,and parking tax can affect the urban space development through their impact on transport cost and the rent bid under certain conditions.Some conclusions drawn from the comparison might be useful when it comes to the practical problems of urban space development.

  8. Integrated modelling of nitrate loads to coastal waters and land rent applied to catchment-scale water management

    Refsgaard, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Jacobsen, Brian H.


    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires an integrated approach to river basin management in order to meet environmental and ecological objectives. This paper presents concepts and full-scale application of an integrated modelling framework. The Ringkoebing Fjord basin is characterized...... basin water management plans. The paper also includes a land rent modelling approach which can be used to choose the most cost-effective measures and the location of these measures. As a forerunner to the use of basin-scale models in WFD basin water management plans this project demonstrates...... by intensive agricultural production and leakage of nitrate constitute a major pollution problem with respect groundwater aquifers (drinking water), fresh surface water systems (water quality of lakes) and coastal receiving waters (eutrophication). The case study presented illustrates an advanced modelling...

  9. Integrated modelling of nitrate loads to coastal waters and land rent applied to catchment scale water management

    Jacosen, T.; Refsgaard, A.; Jacobsen, Brian H.

    in river basin management. Point sources (e.g. sewage treatment plant discharges) and distributed diffuse sources (nitrate leakage) are included to provide a modelling tool capable of simulating pollution transport from source to recipient to analyse effects of specific, localized basin water management...... plans. The paper also includes a land rent modelling approach which can be used to choose the most cost effective measures and the location of these measures. As a forerunner to the use of basin scale models in WFD basin water management plans this project demonstrates potential and limitations......Abstract The EU WFD requires an integrated approach to river basin management in order to meet environmental and ecological objectives. This paper presents concepts and full-scale application of an integrated modelling framework. The Ringkoebing Fjord basin is characterized by intensive...

  10. Etude comparative des différents systèmes d'alimentation au cours du gavage des canards

    Paquot épouse Negny, Virgine


    Les méthodes de gavage des canards ont beaucoup évolué ces dernières années. Pour faire face à un marché de plus en plus compétitif, la filière « canards gras » s'est organisée : cette rationalisation de la production se traduit par la mise en place de techniques de plus en plus performantes et l'utilisation de pâtées de maïs broyé. Après un rappel du mécanisme d'apparition de la stéatose hépatique de gavage, cette étude expose les différents essais réalisés pour mesurer l'influence des techn...

  11. Micro-Nano : des comportements différents, des procédés à adapter

    Guillemin, Jean-Philippe; Lamy, Peggy; Thomas, Gérard; Bonnefoy, Olivier


    6 pages; L'arrivée de nanomatériaux parmi les différents matériaux utilisés en pyrotechnie pose de nombreux problèmes de mise en œuvre. En effet, leurs propriétés texturales particulières ne permettent pas de les utiliser comme des matériaux classiques. Il est impératif d'adapter les procédés de mise en œuvre habituels. Pour obtenir l'adéquation de ces nouveaux matériaux et de nos procédés, des études spécifiques du comportement des nanomatériaux au cours des procédés de mise en œuvre par cou...

  12. 41 CFR 102-85.190 - Can GSA Rent be adjusted when standard levels of service are performed by other customer agencies?


    ... when standard levels of service are performed by other customer agencies? 102-85.190 Section 102-85.190... perform or contract for such services must be obtained in advance by the customer agency from the... of Service § 102-85.190 Can GSA Rent be adjusted when standard levels of service are performed by...

  13. A 27-Year-Old Man With Acute Severe Low Back Pain and Bilateral Leg Swelling That Prompted Renting a Wheelchair for Mobility.

    Williams, John G; Phan, Huy; Winston, Helena R; Fugit, Randolph V; Graney, Bridget; Jamroz, Brant; English, Benjamin; Chan, Edward D


    A 27-year-old man with OSA, posttraumatic stress disorder, and chronic mechanical back pain presented with a 3-day history of acute atraumatic worsening of his low back pain as well as right groin numbness that was exacerbated by walking. He also complained of bilateral leg "heaviness," pain, and swelling, all becoming so severe that he rented a wheelchair for mobility.

  14. 30 CFR 285.508 - What rent payments must I pay on ROW grants or RUE grants associated with renewable energy projects?


    ... RUE grants associated with renewable energy projects? 285.508 Section 285.508 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF... § 285.508 What rent payments must I pay on ROW grants or RUE grants associated with renewable...

  15. 技术创新网络租金分配的仿真分析%The Simulation Analysis on Rent Allocation of Technology Innovation Network

    杨娟; 阮平南; 刘晓燕


    Enterprises forming innovation network aims to adapt to changing market demands,integrate resources and share risks by the flexibility of organization.The network members can obtain economic earnings and innovation values,which is network rent above the sum of individual enterprise earnings.Whether the rent allocation is reasonable will affect the opportunistic behavior of network members and the success or failure of network cooperation.Therefore it has important theoretic and actual meanings to discuss the rent allocation strategies.It analyzes the influential factors on rent allocation and raised three kinds of allocation strategies.It compares the advantage and disadvantage of the three strategies using the method of multi-agent simulation.Finally it concludes that the allocation strategy based on innovation capability tends to be polarization,the allocation strategy based on learning capability creates rent slowly,and the allocation strategy based on resource niche is conductive to the stability and development of technology innovation network.%技术创新网络租金分配是否合理将影响到网络合作的成败.本研究分析了影响租金分配的因素,提出了3种分配策略,运用多主体仿真的方法比较了这3种分配策略的优劣,最后得出:基于创新能力的分配策略容易出现两级分化的现象,基于学习能力的分配策略获取租金的速度较慢,基于资源位的分配策略更利于技术创新网络的稳定与发展.

  16. Integrated modelling of nitrate loads to coastal waters and land rent applied to catchment-scale water management.

    Refsgaard, A; Jacobsen, T; Jacobsen, B; Ørum, J-E


    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires an integrated approach to river basin management in order to meet environmental and ecological objectives. This paper presents concepts and full-scale application of an integrated modelling framework. The Ringkoebing Fjord basin is characterized by intensive agricultural production and leakage of nitrate constitute a major pollution problem with respect groundwater aquifers (drinking water), fresh surface water systems (water quality of lakes) and coastal receiving waters (eutrophication). The case study presented illustrates an advanced modelling approach applied in river basin management. Point sources (e.g. sewage treatment plant discharges) and distributed diffuse sources (nitrate leakage) are included to provide a modelling tool capable of simulating pollution transport from source to recipient to analyse the effects of specific, localized basin water management plans. The paper also includes a land rent modelling approach which can be used to choose the most cost-effective measures and the location of these measures. As a forerunner to the use of basin-scale models in WFD basin water management plans this project demonstrates the potential and limitations of comprehensive, integrated modelling tools.

  17. Experience in public-rent-house building scheme design%公租房建筑方案设计体会



    结合具体工程实例,对重庆市公租房建筑方案设计进行了阐述,分别介绍了公租房项目规划设计思想、规划设计布局、户型设计、交通设计及配套公建等方面的内容,对今后其他城市同类项目规划设计具有指导意义。%Combining with specific engineering case,it describes the public-rent-house building scheme design in Chongqing city,and respectively introduces the design thinking,planning and design layout,housing model design,traffic design and matching public facilities in public-rent-house project,which has guiding significance for future similar project plan and design in other cities.

  18. Research on urban old residential renovation for Low-rent housing%面向廉租房的城市旧住宅改造研究



    通过对城市发展中遗留的大量旧住宅进行改造研究,分析当前低收入人群的居住生活需求,提出面向廉租房的旧住宅改造建议,以及旧住宅改造方式,探讨旧住宅改造廉租住宅的可能性。%Through the study on a large number of old residential left when urban development,analysis of the current demand for low-income people's living,proposed proposals on urban old residential renovation for Low-rent housing and renovated the way for old house,explored the renovation of the old low-rent residential housing possibilities.

  19. Franchissement du seuil dans un laser monomode à milieu actif homogène : étude spectrale auto-cohérente

    Boucher, Y. G.


    Nous présentons une étude auto-cohérente du franchissement du seuil dans un laser monomode à milieu actif homogène. Nous obtenons pour la puissance, la longueur d'onde et la largeur de raie des expressions universelles en coordonnées normalisées, continûment valables de part et d'autre du seuil.

  20. Actual Condition of Paddy Field Levee Maintenance by Various Farm Households including Large-scale Farming in the Developed Land Renting Area

    Sakata, Yasuyo

    The survey of interview, resource acquisition, photographic operation, and questionnaire were carried out in the “n” Community in the “y” District in Hakusan City in Ishikawa Prefecture to investigate the actual condition of paddy field levee maintenance in the area where land-renting market was proceeding, large-scale farming was dominant, and the problems of geographically scattered farm-land existed. In the study zone, 1) an agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the paddy fields and maintained the levees, 2) another agricultural production legal person rent-cultivated some of the soy bean fields for crop changeover and land owners maintained the levees. The results indicated that sufficient maintenance was executed on the levees of the paddy fields cultivated by the agricultural production legal person, the soy bean fields for crop changeover, and the paddy fields cultivated by the land owners. Each reason is considered to be the managerial strategy, the economic incentive, the mutual monitoring and cross-regulatory mechanism, etc.

  1. Flow and rent-based opportunity costs of water ecosystem service provision in a complex farming system

    Olivia R. Rendon


    Full Text Available Unsustainable land uses present many challenges for securing ecosystem service provision. It is also difficult to estimate the cost of a transition to more sustainable land-management practices for individual landholders. The main cost to landholders is the opportunity costs, the income foregone when changing land use for continued or enhanced ecosystem service provision. Thus accurate estimation of opportunity costs and understanding their distribution are crucial starting points for determining the economic viability and design of any payment for ecosystem services (PES scheme. We compare two opportunity cost approaches and examine the distribution of these costs for improving drinking water quality in a complex farming system in a Honduran forest catchment. Data for both approaches was collected through a survey applied to upstream catchment landholders. Our results indicate that the direct flow approach and the proxy rent approach provide comparable and consistent opportunity cost estimates. The mean net flow return ha-1 was US$1410, but this estimate was skewed, mainly by exceptionally high coffee returns and negative returns of land uses making a loss. This estimate would imply spending over US$2 million per annum for water conservation, but a revised estimate comes to US$257,057 per annum. Opportunity costs were found to vary according to differences in land use and landholder characteristics. High value cash crops upholding the local economy, such as coffee, entail much higher opportunity costs than for example cattle grazing. These results suggest that discriminate PES payments, that vary according to opportunity costs and thus discriminate between land uses and landholders, are essential. Water quality at our case study site could be managed sustainably by a scheme focusing on high-impact land uses with lower opportunity costs and closer to water sources.

  2. Chemical Looping Combustion with Different Types of Liquid Fuels Combustion en boucle chimique avec différentes charges liquides

    Hoteit A.


    travail est d’étudier la faisabilité de la combustion partielle ou totale des charges liquides dans les conditions du CLC au contact d’un matériau porteur d’oxygène. Un petit réacteur en lit fluidisé opérant en batch a été développé pour permettre alternativement le contact du matériau porteur d’oxygène avec une charge liquide ou de l’air. Le réacteur de 20 mm de diamètre est rempli de 45 g de particules de NiAl0.44O1.67. Environ 1-2 g de charge liquide est injecté par pulse dans le lit à des températures allant jusqu’à 950˚C. Différentes charges liquides ont été étudiées, du dodécane au fioul lourd n˚2. Les résultats montrent que pendant la période de réduction du matériau porteur d’oxygène, il est possible de convertir tous les hydrocarbures injectés. À l’issue de cette phase, il ne subsiste pas de dépôt de coke à la surface des particules. En fonction de la quantité d’oxygène disponible dans le lit, on effectue une combustion totale ou partielle des hydrocarbures injectés. Des résultats similaires sont obtenus pour les différents hydrocarbures testés, malgré leurs propriétés a priori très différentes.

  3. Rent Design for BOT Public Rental Housing Projects%基于BOT模式的公租房定价机制研究

    盛和太; 臧崇晓; 王守清


      增加公租房供给是我国住房保障政策的重点,而公租房定价是住房保障可持续发展的难题。基于BOT模式发展公租房,能够借助民营资本的综合优势解决政府财政资金相对紧缺与保障家庭支付能力不足的矛盾。基于保障性、公平性、可持续发展等原则,深入研究设计了BOT模式下的公租房定价机制,提出了采取名义租金、实际租金的“双租金制”和实行“租补分离”的定价思路。研究结果为完善我国住房保障制度提供了理论支持,也为公租房定价实践提供了重要参考。%Increasing the supply of public rental housing is the focus of China’s housing security policy. While the rent design is a critical issue for sustainable development of public rental housing. BOT could be applied to solve the contradictoriness between relative shortage of financial funds and poor ability of the Public in realizing government’s objectives with the comprehensive advantages of the Private’s capital and capability. Based on some basic principles such as indemnificatory,fairness and sustainable development,this paper conducts an in-depth study and designs a mechanism of pricing the rent of public rental housing. A‘double-rent’ system consists of nominal and real rent is proposed in which the rent paid by the lessee and the subsidy from the government are separated. The paper provides a theoretical basis to improve China's housing security system and an important practical reference for pricing the rent of public rental housing.

  4. Rooms to Rent



    @@ This is a big year for China's booming five-star hotel industry.Almost 40 fivestar hotels are currently under construction in Beijing,while luxury hotel group Marriott will add three more properties in the city by the end of the year.But what is driving all this growth,and is it sustainable? Rauf Malik,general manager of the new Marriot City Wall Hotel,Beiiing,recently drew on his 20-plus years of hotel management experience in China to weigh in on the industry's outlook.





    Christian Bidard


    In order to extend the theory of value and the trade-off property to economic systems with lands, Ricardo reduced their study to that of productive systems without lands by considering the marginal agricultural methods. Sraffa generalised the analysis to prices of production and rejected the notion of order of cultivation. The strategy works sometimes for extensive cultivation, fails in most cases of intensive cultivation, and always when the net product of agriculture is increased by making ...

  7. « Au fracas de la foudre, les animaux intelligents s'éveillèrent »

    Agnès Bouvier


    Full Text Available Félix Pouchet, dans son Hétérogénie, ou Traité de la génération spontanée qu’il publie en 1859, défend, contre Pasteur et Milne-Edwards, l’idée d’une « force génésique » inhérente à la matière qui aurait présidé à la création et qui continuerait de s’exercer dans la formation et la transformation des espèces. Le livre fait partie des lectures de Flaubert pendant la période de rédaction de Salammbô. Le 5 août 1860, il écrit dans une lettre à madame Jules Sandeau : « J’entremêle mes lectures puniques (qui ne sont pas légères d’autres facéties graves. Je me livre maintenant au volumineux bouquin de mon ami le docteur Pouchet sur les générations spontanées. » C’est la nature de cet entrelacement que nous proposons d’interroger, à travers l’étude génétique d’un passage du chapitre III de Salammbô où Flaubert récrit la cosmogonie phénicienne à la lumière du spontanéisme moderne.Félix Pouchet, in Heterogeny or Spontaneous generation Treatise (1859, argues, against Pasteur and Milne-Edwards, for the existence of a « genesical force » inside matter at the beginning of the universe, still active in the formation and transformation of species. Flaubert read Pouchet’s book when he was writing Salammbô. On August 5th 1860, he wrote to madame Jules Sandeau : « I mingle my Punic readings (which are not light with other serious jokes. I now dedicate myself to my friend doctor Pouchet’s bulky book on spontaneous generations. » This interlacing of archaeology and science is precisely what I will examine in my paper, through the genetic study of a passage of Salammbô (chapter III where Flaubert rewrites the Phoenician cosmogony in the light of modern spontaneism.

  8. 基于排队理论的汽车租赁运营策略%Queuing Theory-Based Operation Policies for Car Renting

    王娟; 杨爱峰


    In car renting, customer demands rental time are subject to random variation. Thus, it is difficult to model and optimize such a process. The car renting is treated as a real-time queuing process. Based on this concept, for a car rental company, aiming at maximizing its profit by determiriing the number of vehicles needed,a mathematical model is developed. With this model, the profit obtained by two companies under cooperation is compared with that obtained without cooperation. Results show that more profit can be obtained with cooperation than without cooperation. Furthermore, based on the total profit increase for the two cooperative companies, the acceptable sublet price range ispresented. Thus, by using the proposed method,a car renting company can select its most profitable operation policy. Numerical examples are given to verify the proposed method.%将汽车租赁问题转化为即时排队系统M/M/n/n/∞模型,解决了在租赁模型中顾客需求与租期都是随机参数的难题.在租赁商独立经营的情况下,以利润最大化为目标建立模型,得到租赁商的最优车辆购置数;比较两家租赁商合作经营与独立经营情况下的利润,得出合作经营后总利润增加值与两租赁商均可以接受的转租价格,为租赁商选择有利的运营策略提供了理论依据;通过算例验证了模型的有效性.

  9. Répartition et dynamique de différentes populations bactériennes autochtones et allochtones dans les eaux de l'étang de Thau


    L'objectif de ce travail est de définir le comportement de deux types de peuplements bactériens dans un écosystème lagunaire (Etang de Thau, France) : le peuplement bactérien d'origine continentale (peuplement allochtone) et le peuplement bactérien lagunaire (peuplement autochtone). Une étude préliminaire a permis de définir dans quelle mesure l'utilisation de deux milieux de culture différents (Gélose Nutritive de salinité 8, bioMérieux; milieu Marine Agar de salinité 34, Difco) permettait d...

  10. Vibrations et relaxations dans les molécules biologiques. Apports de la diffusion incohérente inélastique de neutrons

    Zanotti, J.-M.


    Le présent document ne se veut pas un article de revue mais plutôt un élément d'initiation à une technique encore marginale en Biologie. Le lecteur est supposé être un non spécialiste de la diffusion de neutrons poursuivant une thématique à connotation biologique ou biophysique mettant en jeu des phénomènes dynamiques. En raison de la forte section de diffusion incohérente de l'atome d'hydrogène et de l'abondance de cet élément dans les protéines, la diffusion incohérente inélastique de neutrons est une technique irremplaçable pour sonder la dynamique interne des macromolécules biologiques. Après un rappel succinct des éléments théoriques de base, nous décrivons le fonctionnement de différents types de spectromètres inélastiques par temps de vol sur source continue ou pulsée et discutons leurs mérites respectifs. Les deux alternatives utilisées pour décrire la dynamique des protéines sont abordées: (i)l'une en termes de physique statistique, issue de la physique des verres, (ii) la seconde est une interprétation mécanistique. Nous montrons dans ce cas, comment mettre à profit les complémentarités de domaines en vecteur de diffusion et de résolution en énergie de différents spectromètres inélastiques de neutrons (temps de vol, backscattering et spin-écho) pour accéder, à l'aide d'un modèle physique simple, à la dynamique des protéines sur une échelle de temps allant d'une fraction de picoseconde à quelques nanosecondes.

  11. Etude d'un commutateur hybride optoélectronique gérant différentes classes de service

    Samoud, Wiem; Lourdiane, Mounia; Ware, Cédric


    International audience; Nous étudions les performances d'un commutateur hybride de paquets, associant une mémoire électronique `a un commutateur tout-optique qui prend en charge différentes classes de priorité. Nos simulations montrent que, comparé à un commutateur tout-optique, le commutateur hybride améliore significativement le taux de pertes de paquets (PLR) et la charge maximale du système, avec relativement peu de ports vers la mémoire électronique, ce qui entrainerait une consommation ...

  12. Discussion on Market Rational Value of Housing in China Based on the Market Rent System of Public Rent Houses%基于公租房市场化租金体系的住房市场合理价值探讨

    吕筱萍; 程大涛


    在分析我国住房市场多元价值体系并存的基础上,提出以按年征收土地出让金方式统一公共租赁房的用地性质;赋予公共租赁房以完全产权,使体现所有权资金成本的虚拟租金向体现住房物业价值的承租租金回归;使公共租赁房的市场化租金水平,在居民家庭住房消费支出成本制约下成为我国住房价值体系的标杆.%Based on the analysis of the phenomenon of coexistence of multi-value system of China's housing market and institutional factors, this paper proposes unified nature of land for public rental housing by levying land premium annually, and public rental housing with full property rights, embodying ownership the capital cost of the virtual rent to reflect the value of the housing property leased rent regression, making the market rent levels subject to household income level with the cost of housing consumption expenditure constraints become the benchmark of the value of China' s housing system.

  13. The Theory of Housing Rent-to-price Ratio and Implication:Based on Ownership Cost Model%基于所有权成本模型的住房租售比理论及应用



    根据我国许多城市住房租售比超过国际警戒线的事实,对传统租售比模型进行了评述,指出了其应用前提和不足之处。然后从住房所有权成本(业主成本)的角度研究房价与租金的关系,并构建了相应的数学模型。应用此模型,对我国住房租售比超过1:300的原因进行了综合分析,同时指出了未来的发展趋势和降低住房租售比可以采取的措施。%This paper analyses the relation between housing price and rent, based on the fact that housing price-to-rent ratio is higher than the international standard in many cities of China. Firstly, this paper reviews two classical models, and points out their application conditions and limitations. Then, the author studies housing rent-to-price ratio from annual cost of ownership (owner cost), and build up corresponding model. Using this model, the paper analyzes the causes that housing rent-to-price ratio exceeds 1:300, at the same time, puts forward the trend of housing rent-to-price ratio in China and effective measures to depress rent-to-price ratio.

  14. L’organisation des activités d’audit interne dans les différentes autorités publiques belges

    Christian De Visscher; Diane Van Gils; Gerrit Sarens; Jürgen Spanhove


    L’objet de l’article vise à décrire et comparer le cadre institutionnel dans lequel se sont développées les activités d’audit interne dans les différentes autorités publiques en Belgique. L’analyse porte sur le mandat, la structure organisationnelle et le rattachement hiérarchique des activités d’audit interne de l’autorité fédérale, de la Communauté française, de la Région wallonne et de la Communauté flamande. On observe que lesdites activités ont été rendues obligatoires et qu’elles sont s...

  15. Comparaison des différentes formes de méthylphénidate dans le trouble hyperactivité avec déficit d'attention

    Indermaur, Sabine


    Le trouble hyeractivité avec déficit d'attention touche 5-7% des enfants en âge scolaire. Plusieurs traitements médicamenteux ont été proposés (psychostimulants tels le méthylphénidate et la dextroamphétamine), l'atomoxétine, les anti-dépresseurs tricycliques et la clonidine. En Suisse, seul le méthylphénidate, sous différentes formes galéniques, est commercialisé au moment de cette étude. Le but de cette étude était de comparer l'efficacité, la durée d'action, les effets secondaires et la sa...

  16. 租售比与房地产市场宏观调控*%Rent-sale Price Ratio and Real Estate Market Macro-control



    There is always a concern about bubble in the development of Chinese real estate market. Recently, with the increase of housing price, discussion in the regard is getting more attention. If the bubble bursts, it will cause great damage to Chinese economy and society. Thus, it has significant practical meaning to prevent real estate bubble. In this paper it analyzes the rent-sale price ratio in China. It indicates that the housing price in current China is too high; much of the housing demand is investment and speculation; and bubble exists in real estate market. In this paper,it further discusses the reasons of unbalanced rent-sale price ratio and puts forward some suggestions.%  我国房地产业发展历程充满着关于房地产泡沫的争论。近年来,随着房价的上涨,这种争论持续升温。房地产泡沫一旦发生,将给国家的经济和社会生活带来严重的后果,因此,防范房地产泡沫的发生具有重要的现实意义。本文通过对我国房屋租售比现状的分析,指出了我国住宅销售价格过高,住宅需求更多地体现为投资和投机的需求,住房价格中存在着泡沫。在此基础之上,本文就我国房屋租售比失调的成因进行了简要的讨论,并针对房地产市场宏观调控提出了一系列建议。

  17. Influence du solvant sur la dynamique interne de la butyrylcholinestérase et sur la dynamique de l' eau d' hydratation : une étude par diffusion élastique incohérente de neutrons

    Gabel, F.


    L'enzyme butyrylcholinestérase humaine a été étudiée par diffusion élastique incohérente de neutrons entre 20 et 285 K sous différentes conditions de solvant. La dynamique globale sur une échelle de l'Ångström et de la nanoseconde, exprimée en déplacements carrés moyens, a été déterminée dans le cadre de l'approximation Gaussienne. La comparaison d'échantillons lyophilisés de différents tampons et hydratés en H{2}O ou en D{2}O a donné les résultats suivants: 1) La dynamique globale interne de l'enzyme varie en fonction du type de sel présent dans le solvant. 2) La dynamique de l'eau d'hydratation est différente en fonction de la température et de la dynamique interne de l'enzyme.

  18. On the Rent-Seeking Phenomenon of Library Literature Information and Preventive Strategy%图书馆文献信息寻租现象及预防策略



    In library there are some rent-seeking phenomenon which are dominant, recessive rent-seeking and rent-seeking in the process. The behaviors of rent-seeking come from the attribute paradox of the literature information, the value choice of libraries and librarians and the defects of library management system. According to these phenomenon, the library needs to enhance the governance ability, insist on governing the museum, strengthen the socialist core values of education, public museum information, and construct the service type librarians.%图书馆文献信息存在着显性寻租、隐性寻租和过程寻租等现象。根源于文献信息的属性悖论、图书馆及馆员的价值选择、图书馆管理体制弊端等方面。图书馆需要采取提升治理能力、坚持依法治馆、加强馆员社会主义核心价值观教育、公开馆务信息、建设服务型图书馆等策略进行预防。

  19. 1997-2007年中国生态地租变化分析%Analysis on the Changes of Ecological Land Rent in China from 1997 to 2007

    龙开胜; 陈利根


    Ecological land rent is an important indicator to measure the social-economic effect of ecological resources utilization. On the basis of input-output table and ecological footprint, the change of ecological land rent in China from 1997 to 2007 was analyzed. The result shows that, in this period, the ecological land rent in per unit economy output decreased, and the quantity of ecological land rent in per unit economy output of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery, and production and supply of electric power, heat and water was much more than that of other industries. But the total number of ecological land rent still increased. And the ecological land rent of mining, quarrying and manufacturing industries, and that of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery were the main constitute proportions. In the meantime, ecological land rent greatly transferred between different industries. With the numbers of 2007 as a control group, in which the parameters such as total output, ecological footprint, bio-capacity and agricultural land area changed, would cause a significant change in ecological land rent. Among this, the change of the ecological land rent in per unit economy output of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery would be the most sensitive. Therefore, if considering the influence of ecological land rent, the price of consumption product will increase the most. This equals the high cost to be paid to improve the environment for excessive grabbing resources from nature by human. S%生态地租是衡量生态资源利用带来的社会经济效果的重要指标.以投入产出表和生态足迹为基础,分析中国1997 - 2007年生态地租变化情况.结果表明,1997-2007年中国各产业单位经济产出的生态地租量呈减少趋势,农林牧渔业,电、热及水生产和供应业单位经济产出的生态地租量明显高于其他产业;生态地租总量呈不断增加趋势,构成上以工矿业和农林

  20. 基于非对称演化博弈的农业产业投资基金寻租问题%Rent-seeking Problems of Agricultural Industrial Investment Fund Based on the Asymmetric Evolution Game

    岳意定; 廖建湘


    由于农业产业投资基金市场制度的不完善、信息不对称和代理问题的存在,基金管理人的"内部人控制"成为可能,这使得农业产业投资基金在发展运作中存在寻租问题。本文通过非对称演化博弈分析了农业产业投资基金中的基金管理人和农业企业家的寻租问题。通过寻租博弈的四种情况分析了基金管理人和农业企业家寻租策略的演化路径和稳定状态,指出提高政府监管、完善市场制度是解决农业产业投资基金市场寻租问题的最好途径。%Because of the imperfect investment fund market system of agricultural industry,asymmetric information and agency problems,the fund manager’s "internal control" is possible,which leads to rent-seeking problem ot the managers of the agricultural industrial investment funds.In this paper,we use asymmetric evolutionary game analysis of rent-seeking problem of the fund managers and agricultural entrepreneurs in the agricultural industrial investment funds.Through analyzing four Rent-seeking game situations,we analyze the evolution path of agricultural entrepreneurs’ and fund managers’ rent-seeking strategies.Finally,we point out that increasing government regulation and improving the market system is the best way to solve the problem of rent-seeking in the agricultural industrial investment funds’ markets.

  1. Un modèle animal simple pour l’apprentissage des techniques de microanastomoses vasculaires de congruences différentes

    Leclère, Franck Marie P; Kolb, Frédéric; Lewbart, Gregory A; Casoli, Vincent; Vögelin, Esther


    INTRODUCTION: Depuis les premiers travaux de Jacobson et Suarez, la microchirurgie a considérablement évolué et celle-ci est devenue omniprésente en chirurgie plastique comme dans les autres spécialités chirurgicales. L’apprentissage au laboratoire des techniques de base est nécessaire avant d’envisager l’exécution de procédures cliniques. Dans cet article, nous avons évalué un modèle animal permettant de fournir une solution aux problèmes suivants : règles d’éthique, coût, anesthésie, temps nécessaire à la formation. MATÉRIEL ET MÉTHODE: Entre juillet et septembre 2012, 150 simulations de microanastomoses de vaisseaux incongruents par la technique d’Harashina ont été réalisées sur 182 Lumbricus terrestris. L’entrainement a été divisé en 10 périodes de 7 jours comprenant chacune 15 simulations de microanastomoses de vaisseaux incongruents, dont le plus petit diamètre était supérieur à 1,5 mm (n = 5), compris entre 1,0 mm et 1,5 mm (n = 5), ou inférieur à 1,0 mm (n = 5). Un modèle linéaire avec le numéro de la période comme variable principale et la taille de l’animal comme facteur étaient utilisés afin de déterminer la tendance de la durée d’exécution de l’exercice microchirurgical ainsi que les différences entre les sous-groupes de tailles différentes au cours des périodes d’apprentissages. RÉSULTATS: Le modèle linéaire montre une tendance significative (P < 0,001) à la réduction du temps opératoire durant le décours du training ainsi qu’une différence significative entre les groupes d’animaux de tailles différentes. Pour les microanastomoses de taille supérieure à 1,5 mm, le temps d’anastomose moyen est passé de 19,6±1,9 min à 12,6±0,7 min entre la première et la dernière semaine de formation (diminution de 35,7 %). Pour un training avec des vaisseaux de diamètre inférieur, les résultats montraient une diminution dans le temps d’exécution de 36,1 % (diamètre compris

  2. Electrotechnique les enroulements des machines électriques, différents types, spécificités, conception, placement

    Abdessemed, Rachid


    L'ouvrage est une présentation détaillée des différents types d'enroulement des machines électriques (tournantes et transformateurs), explicitant leurs domaines d'utilisation, leurs avantages et inconvénients respectifs ainsi que leurs spécificités. Ce panorama est accompagné d'une méthode généralisée de conception. Il est complété par l'exposé des méthodes de mise en encoches manuelles et automatisées qui leurs sont associées. Le document est élaboré avec un minimum de texte au profit d'une illustration évolutive permettant une assimilation efficace. Les enroulements sont représentés sous une forme originale, simple et aisément assimilable. Le livre est principalement destiné aux étudiants du domaine électrotechnique intéressés par la conception et la fiabilité des machines électriques. Par son caractère didactique et son accessibilité aux élèves des écoles techniques, il sera également d'une grande utilité pour un large public professionnel allant du technicien à l'in...

  3. Étude par la méthode de Monte Carlo de la phase plastique de la quinuclidine à différentes températures

    Jumeau, Daniel; André, Daniel

    La phase plastique (c.f.c.) de la quinuclidine est étudiée à différentes températures par la méthode de Monte Carlo utilisant la technique des matrices de compatibilité. Afin de ne pas modifier la symétrie moyenne du réseau, les centres de masse de molécules sont supposés fixes. Les orientations moléculaires sont choisies de façon aléatoire parmi les 48 orientations équivalentes et discernables du groupe c.f.c. Cela permet une mémorisation préalable des énergies d'interaction entre molécules voisines et un gain de temps de calcul considérable. Nous observons alors un blocage des réorientations moléculaires à basse température, tandis que la symétrie cristalline devient monoclinique. Ceci est interprété en termes de transition de phase dont la température (215 K) et la variation d'énergie (5 kJ mol-1) sont très proches des valeurs expérimentales.

  4. Étude des liens entre les caractéristiques instrumentales et les différents types de motivations des participants dans un MOOC

    Jean Heutte


    Full Text Available Dans les MOOC, le paradoxe entre l’engouement massif et la chute tout aussi massive de la participation renouvelle la problématique de la persistance du fait de l’importance de l’abandon. En vue d’éclairer les déterminants de cette persistance, cette contribution rend compte d’outils mobilisés dans le cadre d’une étude exploratoire réalisée auprès des participants (N = 10 700 inscrits dans un MOOC francophone. Cette étude est l’occasion d’utiliser deux nouveaux outils de mesure : l’échelle de perception instrumentale des communautés (PIC et l’échelle de motivation en formation d’adultes (EMFA. Conformément aux attentes, les résultats de cette étude mettent en évidence les liens entre les perceptions instrumentales et les différents types de motivations : les liens les plus élevés s’observent au niveau de la régulation intégrée de la motivation extrinsèque. Il ressort aussi de cette étude que les deux nouveaux outils (PIC et EMFA complètent utilement l’outillage conceptuel et méthodologique du monitorage en temps réel des MOOC.

  5. Evaluation Research on the Influence Factors of the Rents of Business Office Building Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process%基于AHP法的商务写字楼租金影响因素评价研究



    本文主要研究了商务写字楼租金影响因素,并应用AHP法确定了各项最终指标,然后依据指标权重从写字楼资产运营的角度提出如何提升存量写字楼的租金的资产运营建议。%This paper mainly studies the influence factors of the rents of business office building and determines the final indexes by analytic hierarchy process. Then according to the index weight, it puts forward the suggestions of assets operation to improve the office rents stock from the perspective of office assets operation.

  6. 食品安全问题中的政府监管失灵研究--以寻租为例%Research on the Government Regulation Failure of Food Safety Problems---Example of Rent-seeking



    It has found that there has been low efficiency and government failure in government regulation after the research of government regulation of China's food safety problems. Then it takes rent-seeking as an example to build the game model and makes the analysis to find that,as long as the rent-seeking cost is less than the penalty cost,food producers are likely to seek rent from regulators. Therefore,government regulation behavior itself must be supervised by publics to solve problems of food safety better.%对我国食品安全问题的政府监管进行研究,认为政府监管也存在效率不高和政府失灵的问题,然后以寻租为例建立博弈模型进行分析,发现只要寻租成本低于处罚成本,食品生产者就有可能向监管者寻租,因此政府监管行为本身也要受到社会监督,才能更好地解决食品安全问题。

  7. 货币性私有收益与避税寻租%Monetary Private Benefits and Rent-seeking through Tax Avoidance



    复杂不透明的避税交易为公司高管的自利行为提供了机会。国企高管薪酬激励扭曲程度较大,所握权力缺乏监督,当他们从显性薪酬契约中获得的货币性私有收益较低时,可以通过避税交易寻租,此时国有上市公司避税程度较大;国有上市公司与子公司、受同一母公司控制的其他公司发生的异常关联交易、以及对异常经营活动现金流的操纵是国企高管避税寻租的实现途径。但是,“四大”审计并不能对高管避税寻租产生治理作用。%Complex and opaque tax avoidance transactions provide opportunities for high-rank-ing managers'opportunistic behaviors.The incentive distortion degree of State-owned enterprises 'high-ranking managers is higher than those of Non-SOEs because their compensation are regula-ted.High-ranking managers of SOEs like to seek hidden benefits and the companies'tax avoid-ance degree is high when they gain low monetary benefits from remuneration contracts.Abnor-mal related party transactions and real earnings managements through abnormal operating cash flow aggravate the relation between monetary benefits and tax avoidance.But,the"Big 4"audi-tors do not inhibit the rent-seeking through tax avoidance.

  8. RENT Gross Rent for Renter Occupied Units NMHD 2000

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  9. RENT Gross Rent for Renter Occupied Units NMSD 2000

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  10. RENT Aggregate and Mean and Median Gross Rent NMSD 2000

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  11. RENT Aggregate and Mean and Median Gross Rent NMHD 2000

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  12. Uued sindlikatused Sindis / Nele Rent

    Rent, Nele


    Sindi linna ehituspärand annab ilmeka ülevaate 1832. aastal rajatud vabriku juurde ehitatud tööstusasulast. Pärnule isloomuliku hoone ehitas oma perekonnale Jüri Soontalu. Hoonekompleksi järjepidevast hooldusest mitme põlvkonna poolt


    Atilla Ahmet UĞUR


    Full Text Available Financial crises have some common features even if they come into being in different areas and countries with different income level. Especially due to the financial liberalization and entegration of world economies, they affect many countries with a domino effect. Internationalization of capital stregthens particularly financial markets in developed countries and leads to speculative opportunities and possibilities of very high profit rates. Ambition for higher profit, from time to time, gives rise to fictitious structures, eliminating rational market behaviors. Problems of higher indebtedness and current account deficit in large economies such as the US lead to speculative bubles supported by financial derivatives, making nonproductive short term portfolio investments profitable. Before crisis, it is observed that this type of financial structures become common and real estate prices rise. And following crisis it is observed that public finance discipline deteriorate.

  14. Derivation Path and Inhibition of Rent-seeking Behaviors in Alternation of Chartered Real Right%特许物权变动中寻租行为的衍生路径及抑制

    谭术魁; 张孜仪; 杨择郡


    特许物权是自然资源用益物权.特许物权变动是指特许物权的设立、变更和终止行为.自然资源的稀缺性特征是为其变动过程被政府管制的重要原因,我国法律即采取特许物权变动行政许可制度,是国家为减少自然资源开发中的外部性问题而对私人权益实施的强制性干预.特许物权变动行政许可制度弱化特许物权人的最大化收益,产生了价格不菲的经济租.部分特许物权人为了谋求自身利益的最大化,会做出各种努力旨在影响特许物权变动中行政许可的向度与强度.一旦寻租行为得逞,自然资源的法定变动路径将备受扭曲,社会总体福利下降.寻租行为在特许物权变动中的发生类型呈现出独占型寻租和竞争型寻租两种,但其有着共同的衍生路径.追踪寻租行为的发生脉路,可以洞察到自然资源特许物权变动中寻租衍生的特殊动因.可以通过合理化特许物权结构、规范特许物权变动秩序和强化行政许可权力制衡力度等措施来对寻租的动因加以有效抑制.%Chartered real right refers to the usufructuary right of natural resources while the alternation of chartered real right refers to the establishment, modification and termination of the chartered real right. The important reason why the alternation process of chartered real right is regulated by the government is mainly the scarcity of natural resources. The administrative license system for alteration of chartered real right is adopted by Chinese laws and it is a compulsory intervention imposed on the private rights by the government so as to reduce the externality in developing of natural resources. Administrative license system for the alternation of chartered real right has weakened the maximized benefits of the chartered holders of the right in rent and resulted in high economic rent as well. For the sake of maximum benefits, some chartered holders of the right in rent would

  15. Consorciação taro e crotalária manejada com corte rente ao solo e poda na altura do dossel

    Mário Puiatti


    Full Text Available A associação de culturas com leguminosas de adubação verde visa à manutenção ou melhorias da fertilidade do solo. Com o objetivo de avaliar a consorciação do taro 'Japonês' com crotalária, foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em Viçosa, MG, no período de 10/09/2010 a 10/06/2011. No Experimento I, as plantas de crotalária foram cortadas rente ao solo e, no Experimento II, podadas à altura do dossel do taro; em ambos, os tratamentos consistiram em seis épocas de corte ou poda da crotalária (75; 105; 135; 165; 195 e 225 dias após a semeadura da crotalária - DAS, mais a monocultura do taro. As partes cortadas ou podadas foram depositadas sobre o solo e determinaram-se as quantidades de fitomassa e de nutrientes da crotalária. Na colheita do taro, avaliaram-se a produção de classes de rizomas e as alterações químicas do solo. Os cortes realizados após 105 DAS proporcionaram menor produção em massa de rizomas-mães e, em número, por planta, de rizomas-filhos grandes e comerciais, em comparação com os do controle. Comportamento semelhante foi observado para experimento com poda à altura do dossel. Os cortes ou podas realizados aos 135 e 165 DAS foram os que apresentaram maiores quantidades de fitomassas fresca e seca de crotalária, de carbono orgânico e de nutrientes. Aos 165 DAS, o aporte de N ao solo pela crotalária cortada chegou a 308 Kg ha-1 e, pela crotalária podada, a 202 kg ha-1. A associação entre crotalária e taro é viável, sendo indicada a manutenção da consorciação até aos 105 DAS da crotalária.

  16. “租税替代”、财政收入与政府的房地产政策%Rent-Tax Substitution, Fiscal Revenue and Government Real Estate Development Strategy

    黄少安; 陈斌开; 刘姿彤


    本文从理论和实证两方面研究了房地产发展与政府财政收入之间的关系,揭示了“租税替代”原理。理论研究表明:在静态框架下,政府财政收入满足“租税等价”原理,即政府通过土地租金融资和通过企业税收融资是等价的,其总收入水平只取决于土地资源总量,与融资方式无关。在动态框架下,政府财政收入在长期内满足“租税等价”,在短期内存在“租税替代”关系,即政府来自于房地产的租金收入越高,来自于其它行业的税收收入越低。文章基于1998-2008年工业企业调查数据对“租税替代”机制进行了实证检验。研究发现,住房价格上涨将导致企业税收(增值税、所得税、主营业务税金及附加)和企业利润的全面下降,很好地支持了“租税替代”理论。本文还进一步考察了地方政府热衷于发展房地产的原因以及房地产片面发展对实体经济的不良影响,发现现行财政体制、政府官员短期行为以及官员政绩考核体系不合理是其背后最重要的原因。%This paper studies the relationship between real estate development and government fiscal revenue both theoretically and empirically. The theoretical model shows that the government's total revenue is determined by the amount of land in long run, while financing through land rents or corporate tax does not matter. In the short run, the Rent-Taxsubstitution mechanism characterizes the relationship of government revenue from land rents and corporate tax; the higher the land rent is, the lower the corporate tax will be. Based on 1998-2008 industrial enterprises survey data, this paper tests the “ Rent-Tax Substitution” mechanism empirieally, The results reveal that housing prices will result in a decline of eorporate tax (value added tax, income tax and business tax) and eorporate profits, whieh strongly supports the Rent-Tax substitution

  17. 基于生态地租的生态环境补偿理论建构及应用%Theory Construction and Its Application to Ecological Environment Compensation Based on Ecological Land Rent

    龙开胜; 陈利根


    生态环境补偿是自然资源和生态管理领域亟待解决的问题。以“资源稀缺-生态地租-生态环境补偿”为逻辑主线,通过阐述生态地租Ⅰ和生态地租Ⅱ的形成过程,并以生态地租分配为依据,相应地将生态环境补偿分为反映生态资源消耗的生态环境补偿Ⅰ和反映生产效率改善的生态环境补偿Ⅱ两部分,从而构建基于生态地租的生态环境补偿理论框架,提出生态环境补偿的新思路。结合生态足迹数据及投入产出表,测算得到中国1997--2007年每年经济生产中应支付的生态环境补偿Ⅰ的总额由2781×108元增加到9900×108元,生态环境补偿Ⅱ的总额由26318×108元增加到68262×108元。今后,我国只有支付足额的生态环境补偿费用用于生态环境治理和激励生态环境保护贡献者,才能确保生态资源可持续利用。在此基础上,分析了实现生态环境补偿Ⅰ和生态环境补偿Ⅱ的相关途径。%Ecological environment compensation is an urgent problem need to be resolved in the field of natural resource and ecological management. As a new idea, ecological land rent has en- riched the methodology and theory of ecological environment compensation. Essentially, ecologi- cal land rent is excessive profits generated from scarcity of ecological resources, and the profits be used to pay for ecological environment compensation wouldn' t decrease the necessary income of social producers. So, it is a feasible way to perfect the theory and practice of ecological environ- ment compensation based on ecological land rent. Taking "resource scarcity- ecological land rent ecological environment compensation" as logic route, discussing the formation process of ecological land rent Ⅰ and ecological land rent Ⅱ , and according to allocation of ecological land rent, this paper distinguished ecological environment compensation Ⅰ related to ecological resource consumption from

  18. 储备土地临时利用基准租金研究--以武汉市为例%A Study on Benchmark Rent of Temporary Using Reserve Land--take Wuhan as an example

    肖辉; 潘世炳; 李昌盛; 雷小军; 周丽晓


    The temporary using of reserve land has the characteristics of short service life and can’t be used to build permanent construction.Taking Wuhan as an example,the author used the methods of average land rental income and establish a price level and function level mathematical relationship between the total value of value modelsto calculate the benchmark rent of temporary using reserve land. The methods of correcting benchmark land price and comparing the market are employed,and the author compared and analyzed the grade differential of rent standard for temporarily using reserve land.The author not only discussed assessment method of rent standard for temporarily using reserve land,but also proposed the connection system of the rent standard for different ways of using land.This thesis may be helpful for enhancing the level of intensive utilization of land,perfecting the management of territorial resources.%  储备土地临时利用具有使用年期短、不能建设永久性建筑等特点,导致其租金难确定。本文通过分析武汉市市区土地租赁市场样点,采用样点平均土地租金收入及建立级别内的样点均价与级别作用总分值均值之间的数学关系模型两种方法来测算储备土地临时利用基准租金。运用基准地价修正法、市场比较法,并比较分析储备土地临时利用租金标准级差进行验证,不仅探讨了储备土地临时租金标准评估方法,还构建了不同土地用途租金标准的衔接体系,对提高土地集约利用水平、完善国土资源管理具有一定的借鉴意义。

  19. Smith租差理论与中产阶层化动态演绎%Smith's rent gap theory and evolution of gentrification

    葛莹; 陆凤; 吴野


    Numerous literature shows that gentrification can not only improve the living en- vironment, but also cause some social problems. In the background of consumer utility and developer income, this paper uses the Smith's rent gap theory combined with Nash e- quilibrium to construct a multi-agent system, and simulates the evolution of gentrification. The results show, firstly, in the assumption of utility maximization, the increase of real income would reduce the probability of gentrification occurrence, leading to narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor. Secondly, in the assumption of profit maximization, the evolution of gentrification depends on the amount of capital invested by developers. However, if it exceeds a threshold value, the extent of gentrification would stop increas- ing. Thirdly, the evolution of gentrification is associated with the developers" entrance threshold. The higher threshold of developers" entrance implies that developers can make higher returns in the inner-city housing market. As a result, it may raise the sale price of inner-city land to a certain degree and the frequency of gentrification and degentrification.%从居民效用与开发商收益视角下,以Smith租差理论为基础,构建多智能体模型,并结合纳什均衡解决居民修缮决策博弈,模拟中产阶层化进程。研究表明:在效用最大时,增加居民收入将降低中产阶层化发生频率。而在利润最大时,开发商资本的投入与中产阶层化发生频率正相关。资本投入越大,中产阶层化发生频率越高。但资本并非万能,当它的投入超出限值时,中产阶层化进程渐趋稳定。提高开发商投资门槛,将强化房地产业的垄断,开发商为获取巨额垄断利润,一方面,他们可能故意提高局部地区的资本化地租,这导致了中产阶层化更快、更多地发生;另一方面,他们在任意区位开发都能获取高额利润,这间接造

  20. SWOT Analysis on the Introduction of REITs to China's Low-rent Housing Construction%我国廉租房建设领域引入REITs的SWOT分析



    廉租房是我国住房保障体系的重要组成部分,但在资金的约束下发展缓慢.采用SWOT分析法对我国廉租房建设领域引入REITs融资模式的优势、劣势,面临的机会和威胁进行系统分析,借鉴国外将REITs用于廉租房建设领域的成功经验,结合我国法律背景和市场情况,提出合理化建议.%Low-rent housing is an important component of the housing security system in China, but is developed slowly because of the capital constraints. According to the SWOT analysis, this paper systematically analyzes the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats of the REITs mode in the construction field of low-rent housing, and proposes the rational advices combined with the characteristics of domestic legal background, market constitution and the foreign successful experience in this area.

  1. 我国廉租房法律制度的缺失及其修正%The Lack of Institution and Amendment of China's Legal System of Low - Rent Housing



    保障性住房是房地产市场不可逾越的鸿沟,而廉租房是衔接保障性住房与房地产市场化之间的纽带。现阶段必须从保障公民居住权出发,完善廉租房相关法律制度,从资金来源、住房分配、退出机制等多方面入手,建立完整的廉租房法律制度体系。%The ensuring housing is an insurmountable gap in the real estate market. Low - cost housing is the bridge between ensuring housing and the real estate market. At present, in order to establish a complete legal system of low - rent housing, we must improve low - rent housing - related legal system with the base of protecting the right of dwelling, as well as other multi - pronged approach, such as funds sources, housing allocation, withdrawing mechanisms.

  2. Développement humain, développement durable et « pays en développement » : comment articuler et mesurer les différentes dimensions ?

    Bruno Boidin


    Full Text Available Cet article cherche à préciser la place qu’occupent les différentes dimensions du développement durable au sein de l’analyse économique du développement, et en particulier les dimensions humaine et sociale. Ceci nous amène à considérer les relations complexes entre les différents actifs (santé, éducation, capital social…, marquées par des effets d’irréversibilité qui peuvent remettre en cause la durabilité. Se pose alors la question de la mesure du développement durable prenant en compte ces articulations entre les dimensions. Une grille d’évaluation des mesures synthétiques du développement durable est proposée et appliquée à une sélection d’indicateurs.This article seeks to specify the place of various dimensions of sustainable development within development economics, in particular human and social dimensions. This leads us to consider the complex relations between the various assets (health, education, social capital…, characterized by irreversibility effects which can jeopardize sustainability. It is therefore necessary to find a measure of sustainable development, taking into account these interactions between dimensions. We propose criteria to evaluate synthetic measurements of sustainable development, and apply them to selected indicators.

  3. 邯郸市廉租房建设中存在的问题及对策%Study on the problems and countermeasures in the construction of the low-rent housing construction in Handan city

    张慧玲; 刘宇轩; 李紫玥


    As a basic system of government housing security project,low-rent housing is an important social security system to solve the housing difficulties of urban low-income groups.With the increasing levels of urbanization,the urban mobile population is growing;housing security for low-income population has become a widespread concern in various circles of the society.This paper analyzes the main problems and proposes feasible solutions based on the current situation of low-rent housing construction in Handan city.%廉租房作为政府保障性住房工程的一项基本体制,是解决城镇低收入群体住房困难的重要社会保障制度。随着城市化水平的不断提高,城镇流动人口不断增多,低收入人群的住房保障受到社会各界的广泛关注。文章结合邯郸市廉租房建设的现状,分析了邯郸市廉租房建设中存在的主要问题,并提出可行的解决方案。

  4. Integrating Data of Different Types and Different Supports into Reservoir Models Construction de modèles de réservoir contraints par des données de natures différentes et caractéristiques d’échelles différentes

    Le Ravalec M.


    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the joint integration of production and 4-D inverted seismic data into reservoir models. These data correspond to different types and different scales. Therefore, we developed two-scale simulation workflows making it possible to incorporate data at the right scale. This issue also emphasized the need for adapting traditional history-matching methodologies. For instance, the formulation of the objective function and the development of customized parameterization techniques turned out to be two key factors controlling the efficiency of the matching process. Two application examples are presented. The first one is a small-size synthetic field case. It aims to build a set of reservoir models respecting either production data only or both production and 4-D seismic-related data. It is shown that the incorporation of 4-D seismic-related data in addition to production data into reservoir models contributes to reduce the uncertainty in production forecasts. The second example is a field in the North Sea offshore Norway operated by Statoil. It stresses difficulties in conditioning reservoir models to both real production and 4-D inverted seismic data among the very large number of uncertain parameters to handle and the comparison of real noisy data with numerical responses. Cet article présente une méthodologie permettant d’élaborer des modèles de réservoir contraints à la fois par des données de production et des attributs sismiques 4-D. Ces données sont de natures très différentes et caractérisent des échelles tout aussi différentes. Leur intégration à l’échelle appropriée dans des modèles de réservoir a nécessité le développement d’une chaîne de simulation faisant intervenir deux échelles, ce qui nous a amené à adapter les techniques classiques de calage d’historique. Par exemple, il s’est avéré important de revoir la formulation de la fonction objectif pour mieux quantifier l

  5. Intérêt de différents réactifs d'extraction chimique pour l'évaluation de la biodisponibilité des métaux en traces du sol

    Lebourg, A; Sterckeman, T.; Ciesielski, H; Proix, N.


    L’évaluation de la biodisponibilité des métaux en traces du sol intéresse deux grands domaines d’application : d’une part, le diagnostic de fertilité chimique basé sur l’établissement de seuils de carence, employé depuis plusieurs décennies dans différents pays ; d’autre part, l’estimation du risque de phytotoxicité ou de contamination de la chaîne alimentaire qu’entraîne la pollution du sol par les éléments en traces. Dans ce cas, très peu de pays sont allés jusqu’à l’élaboration de référenc...

  6. La compétence culturelle de l'infirmière en milieu psychiatrique avec des patients d'une culture différente: Travail de Bachelor

    Atek, Yasmine; Guez, Nilay; Grégoire, Louise


    BUT : Acquisition de la compétence culturelle de l’infirmière en milieu psychiatrique dans la prise en charge d’un patient d’une culture différente. MÉTHODE : Stratégie de recherche : Utilisation de quatre bases de données : CINAHL, PubMed, Google Scholar, Journal of advanced nursing. Utilisation de critères d’inclusion et d’exclusion, afin de retenir sept articles pour l’élaboration de cette revue de littérature. Synthèse des données : A l’aide de la grille de Laval, sept articles ont été an...

  7. Du traitement différent de l’intertexte selon les genres convoqués dans les événements scientifiques à caractère politique

    Moirand, Sophie


    Dans le cadre de travaux portant sur l'analyse de moments discursifs tels que l'Affaire de la vache folle, la conférence de Kyoto sur l'effet de serre, les aliments transgéniques dans différents médias (presse, télévision, radio, forums Internet), analyses que l'on poursuit, que l'on vérifie, que l'on élargit actuellement aux problèmes de dioxine, d'amiante, de listériose, c'est-à-dire aux événements scientifiques ou technologiques à caractère politique, j’ai personnellement étudié les dimens...

  8. EVALUATION DE L’IMPACT ENVIRONNEMENTAL : Evaluation des impacts du flux de transgènes de tolérance à différents herbicides à large spectre

    Astoin Marie-Florence


    Full Text Available Ce texte est tiré du rapport « Introduction de variétés génétiquement modifiées de colza tolérantes à différents herbicides : évaluation des impacts agro-environnementaux et propositions de scénarios de gestion » établi par le Cetiom dans le cadre du moratoire sur les variétés génétiquement modifiées de colza. Les auteurs se réservent la possibilité d’ici publication définitive du rapport d’apporter des modifications à ce texte.

  9. PPP模式在贵阳市廉租房建设中的探索应用分析%The Exploration and Application of PPP Model in the Analysis of Low-rent Housing Construction in Guiyang City



    廉租房项目是由政府牵头的面向低收入人群的工程,但项目由于其投资量大,融资模式缺乏造成地方政府资金无法独立完成项目.本文试引入公私合作关系(PPP,public-private partnership)这种新兴融资模式解决廉租房融资困境,并用实物期权法与基于层次分析法下模糊评价法,对贵阳市廉租房项目在新融资模式下的财务可行性及风险进行估计,并所出现的问题进行探讨以寻求解决途径.%Low-rent housing construction is the key project that our government makes great efforts to carry on. This project is an urban housing system which aims to help the low-income groups. Lack of financing modes results the government in under-developed areas cannot carry out the project independently with only government funds. This thesis introduces the PPP (public-private partnership) mode, uses real option method and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation which based on analytic hierarchy process, tries to evaluate the financial viability and risk of Guiyang city low-rent housing project under ppp (public-private partnership) mode. At the end, discuss the problems emerging in the analytic process and find solutions.

  10. 成都市廉租房建设应用PPP融资模式的风险研究%Consideration on the Risks of Public Private Partnerships for Low-rent Housing in Chengdu

    刘亮; 朱双颖


    Nowadays financial problems exist in the construction of low-rent housing in Chengdu. Limitations upon the public funds available have led government to invite private sector entities to enter into long-term contractual agreement for the financing, construction and operation of projects. To the public sector, value-for-money is achieved and risks are shifted. To the private sector, the profit is got for investing and managing the risk. This paper studies the risks of one PPP project in Chengdu, and sets up a comprehensive evaluation method based on the fuzzy analysis, so to generate more low-rent housing resources.%当前成都市廉租房项目建设中存在融资难问题,探析廉租房建设中引入国外基础设施建设中常用的PPP融资模式。政府通过长期合同协议邀请私营部门参与项目融资、施工和运营。对于政府来说,投资更为经济,可以将一部分风险转移给私营部门。对于私营部门来说,通过投资和管理风险获取收益。文章采用模糊综合评价法对成都市廉租房采用PPP融资存在风险进行分析,为政府廉租房融资提供一条新的思路。

  11. A Review of Approaches for the Design of Li-Ion BMS Estimation Functions Revue de différentes approches pour l’estimation de l’état de charge de batteries Li-ion

    Di Domenico D.


    Full Text Available This paper aims at comparing different approaches for the estimation of the state of charge of lithium-ion batteries. The main advantages as well as the critical points of the considered techniques are analyzed, highlighting the impact of the cell model precision and complexity on the estimator performance. Among others, the electrical equivalent circuit based technique is selected for further development. The results of a complete procedure from the cell characterization to the online estimation are illustrated. The experimental tests based on the data collected on batteries testing facilities of IFP Energies nouvelles show that the proposed strategy allows a satisfying state of charge real time estimation. Cet article vise à comparer différentes approches pour l’estimation de l’état de charge pour les batteries Li-ion. Les principaux avantages ainsi que les points critiques des différentes techniques sont analysés, en soulignant l’impact de la complexité et de la précision du modèle sur les performances de l’estimateur. La procédure complète, allant de la caractérisation de la cellule jusqu’à l’estimation en ligne de l’état de charge, est présentée pour la modélisation par circuit électrique équivalent. Les tests expérimentaux sur la base des données acquises au laboratoire batteries d’IFP Energies nouvelles montrent que cette stratégie permet d’obtenir un estimateur en temps réel de l’état de charge présentant de bonnes performances.

  12. 北京市办公用地投标租金空间分异与影响因素%Spatial Heterogeneity and Locational Determinants of Bid-rent of Office Land in Beijing

    张晓平; 封强; 李媛芳


    Based on the bid-rent theory and spatial econometric models, this paper examined spatial dependency and spatial heterogeneity of bid-rent of office land in Beijing. By collecting the transaction dataset of office land from 1992 to 2012 in the downtown Beijing, we reported the kernel density estimation maps of the transacted office land. The maps show that office lands in Beijing, in general, have evident agglomeration characteristics. In general, the bid rent of office land in Beijing decreases gradually from city center to periphery. However, it also presents an evident spatial variation. The bid rent reaches the peak at CBD, financial street, Zhongguancun and Olympic Park area, etc. In the same period, the emergence of several hotspots of office space reflects the polycentric development trend of spatial structure in Beijing. By employing mono-centric and poly-centric regression models, and geographical weighted regression model, we evaluated the main determinants that have significantly affected the spatial pattern of office land rent in Beijing. It concluded that agglomeration economy is the most important factor for the explanation of urban spatial variation of office rent. There is significant spatial dependence and spatial cumulative effect in the distribution of office location, that is, the existing office clusters will affect the location of new office space. As China's urban land market develops mature and the impact of the market mechanism on land development mode is strengthened, it's important to study the relationship between land price and spatial location. It can help to enrich and improve the spatial structure theory of urban land use, and provide references for land use and planning practice as well.%基于投标租金理论,运用GIS空间分析和计量统计方法,以北京市1992-2012年城市办公用地交易数据为实证基础,重点分析北京市办公用地区位变动规律及投标租金空间不均衡

  13. 高管薪酬、避税寻租与会计信息披露%High-ranking Manager's Emolument, Rent-seeking through Tax Avoidance and Accounting Information Disclosure

    陈冬; 唐建新


    In recent years, both financial accounting and tax researchers focus increasingly on accounting for income taxes (AFIT), so much so that AFIT has become the most active area of accounting research in taxation which is one of the more complex areas of financial reporting. Graham et al. (2012) comprehensively reviews the Accounting for Income Taxes literature from top 3 journals (Accounting Review, Journal of Accounting and Economics and Journal of Accounting Research). Almost all of the studies have been empirical, primarily testing the incremental information content of the tax accounts and their role in earningsmanagement. The findings can be condensed into a broad generalizations. Managers use the tax accounts to manage earnings to meet or beat analysts' forecasts, but not for other objectives, such as to smooth earnings, increase a big bath, avoid losses, meet/beat prior earnings, or other opportunism incentives. The government (federal, state, and local) takes a greater than one-third share of a firms' pre-tax profits. Given the significance of this tax cost to the firms and shareholders, it might be expected that tax aggressiveness is desired by shareholders. However, this argument ignores potential non- tax costs that can accompany tax aggressiveness, especially those arising from agency problems. Tax is only regarded as one of the market frictions in previous literature. Agency relationship and agency conflict exist between shareholders and managers. The nature and extent of agency conflicts, such as the costs arising from hidden actions of managers can affect the level of tax aggressiveness. Desai and Dharmapala(2008 ), Desai et al. (2007) argue that the critical characteristics of tax aggressive activities are complexity and obfuscation. Such complexity could be used for managers to mask rent extraction, such as earnings management, related-partytransactions, and other perquisite consumption behavior. This agency perspective on

  14. A Game Analysis on Rent-seeking Behavior of Migrant Workers with Entrepreneurial Subsidies%创业补贴下农民工寻租行为的博弈分析

    杨锦秀; 吴燕丽


    closer ties through increased trade, new educational exchanges, new partnerships in science and technology. So, our government encourages returned rural migrant workers to start businesses in their hometowns and expands channels for seeking employment and starting businesses. Relevant domestic departments and research institutes have also carried out extensive studies and discussions. Faced with the subsidies from the governments, migrant workers who have the priority of the private information, whether or not obtain the subsidies through legal means? Do they will misstate their information or subsidize that are even belonging to them? At the same time, do the executive departments of the government, who have the power of the allocation of resources, will accept the rent-seeking from the migrant workers? In addition, what measures will the government regulatory agencies that are on the behalf of the fair take? Therefore, three game models are built and the authors fulfill a survey to perfect conclusions. Finally, this paper also gives some recommendations to standardize the order of distribution of subsidies. The main results of this paper are as following: ( 1 ) If there will be a number of subsidies from the government, migrant workers who are very rational must be thinking of comparing their cost and benefits, then they will lie or seek rents. If two independent of migrant workers play the game which is called First-Price-Sealed Bid Auction, both of them will subsidize. (2) We suppose that there are only two parties : the migrant workers and the executive departments of the government participate in the game. The conclusions are: no matter how many migrant workers subsidize, the executive departments of the government will be agreed. Especially the more migrant workers subsidize, the more benefits are gained by the executive departments of the government. (3) Lastly, there have been three parties are playing the game, which is called The

  15. Rent-seeking in the implementation of in Safety Policies in Coal mining%煤矿安全生产政策执行中权力寻租问题与对策

    李宁; 薛凯天


    The existing "power rent-seeking" influences the effective implementation of safety policies in coal mining. It seriously distorts the coal resource development and allocation, endangers the lives of miners and social fairness and hinders the sustainable development of environment and economy, and helps to expand the gap be- tween the rich and the poor. " Power Rent-seeking" generates the following problems: the coal resources' property rights relationship is not clear, coal mining legal system and supervision mechanism is not sound, public mine poli- cy defects and administrative supervision vacancy and dislocation. The government should perfect coal resources property rights , adjust different relations, set up regulations and promote marketing and related policies.%当前受到"权力寻租"的影响使得煤矿安全生产政策无法得到有效实施。"权力寻租"严重扭曲了煤炭资源的有效开发和配置,危害矿工的生命和社会公平,阻碍了环境与经济的可持续发展,扩大了贫富差距。"权力寻租"体现在煤矿资源产权关系不明确、煤矿法律体系和监督机制不健全、煤矿公共政策的自身缺陷及行政监督缺位和错位等四个方面。建议政府在以后的工作中应以做足健全煤炭资源产权关系和利益协调机制、健全煤矿法律体系和企业内部监督机制、建立和完善矿产资源市场和优化政策执行主体等四个方面的工作,以切实保证国家法律法规的有效贯彻实施。

  16. Construction du référent, textualité et genre discursif : les anaphores génériques dans les séquences encyclopédiques des récits de voyage

    Guérin Olivia


    Du point de vue de la description des mécanismes référentiels, cette étude sur corpus doit permettre de revenir sur les propositions faites par les études de linguistique textuelle sur les anaphores génériques. Elle fait le constat selon lequel les structures d’anaphores génériques exploitées dans le corpus ne correspondent que rarement aux cas typiques décrits dans la littérature, le plus souvent à partir d’exemples hors corpus. Dès lors, l’analyse permet de reformuler les contraintes habituellement évoquées dans les études de sémantique et de linguistique textuelle, et de dégager les différents types de déterminations pesant sur les reprises généralisantes, déterminations à la fois sémantiques, textuelles et discursives

  17. 制度要素的有机组合:寻租理论评价的一种新的视角以金融押运行业的制度变革为例%Dynamic Combination of Institutional Factors and the Rent Seeking Theory: A Case Study of the Institutional Reform in the Treasury Transportation Industry



    The rent-seeking theory has its unique explanatory power, but it is not spared with limitations. The author used a case in the treasury transportation industry to discuss the limitations of the rent-seeking theory and, on the basis of the capital asset combination theory as well as the neo-institutional economy, proposed dynamic combination of institutional factors as a new perspective. It was contended that, any institution being an important factor, such factors combined would impact the profit or risk outcomes of business activities. Therefore, enterprises would be motivated to apply the method of combining factors in production to the institutional sector, i.e., trying to dynamically combine institutional factors in order to enhance profits and reduce risks associated with their activities.

  18. 基于防控债务危机的重庆公租房供应可持续发展研究%Study on the Sustainable Development of Chongqing Public Low Rent Housing Supply Based on the Prevention and Control of Debt Crisis



    Currently, under the background of the aggravating of China ’ s local governmental debt, there is problem in debt payback sources because financial expenditure for public low rent housing construction is big and 82 because governmental debt is huge. Although it can temporarily solve the problem for Chongqing to hope to ensure debt payback sources by selling public low rent housing, it is not helpful to the sustainability of public low rent housing supply. The bottleneck of the sustainable development for the construction and management of Chongqing public low rent housing emanates from governmental independently holding huge financial pressure and potential debt risk pressure. In order to realize long-run sustainable development of Chongqing public low rent housing supply, Chongqing municipal government should need to adjust its role position and to effectively integrate social resources in public low rent housing construction, change the mode for municipal government to be only investment main body for public low rent housing, attract social agencies to participate in the housing construction, increase the capital source channels for the housing construction, reduce the capital investment in newly-building public low rent housing, and consolidate its management in order to realize the maximization of the housing exploitation.%目前,在我国地方债务风险加剧的背景下,公租房建设财政支出大、政府举债多,使其还款来源存在问题。重庆寄希望于通过出售公租房来保证还款来源的做法虽然能够解一时之急,但并不利于公租房供应的可持续性。重庆公租房建设与运营可持续发展的瓶颈在于政府独自承担巨大的财政压力和债务风险潜在压力。为了实现重庆公租房供应的长期可持续发展,政府需要调整其在公租房建设中的角色定位和有效整合社会资源,应改变政府为公租房唯一投资主体的模式,吸引社会机构参与

  19. Rational Thinking on the Chinese Professional Football Corruption---Based on public rights of rent-seeking perspective%中国职业足球腐败行为的理性审思--基于公共权利寻租的视角

    刘苏; 张林


    以公共权利寻租的视角审思中国职业足球,对中国职业足球腐败行为进行理性反思。通过对公共权利寻租、异化、潜规则盛行,产权主体虚泛化,代理人设租和寻租,公共权力过于集中、监督缺失等的分析,探究中国职业足球腐败行为产生的原因。提出了转变政府职能、打造有限政府,优化设计体制和程序,完善公共权力的制约和监督机制,发挥市场机制的惩治效应,完善与执行制度体系的治理之策。%In the perspective of public power rent -seeking ,to contemplate the chinese professional football and make the rational reflection to its corruption .Through the analysis of the public power of rent -seeking, the public power dissimilation , the hidden rules prevailing, property power blurring, agents set up rent and rent -seeking, the public power is too concentrated and lack of supervision and so on , to explore the causes of Chinese professional football corruption .Proposed the transformation government function , make limited government , the optimization design system and process , perfect the public power restriction and supervi-sion mechanism , and utilize the punishment effect of market mechanism , perfect and implementation system of governance .

  20. Variabilité des populations de salmonidés en eau courante : étude de la variance liée à différentes échelles spatiales ou temporelles et implications pour les modèles d'habitat

    MILNER N. J.


    Au niveau inter cours d'eau (2 et à plus large échelle, la variance temporelle de l'abondance des O+ est beaucoup plus faible que pour les poissons > O+. Certains des facteurs influençant la variabilité aux différentes échelles géographiques sont discutés brièvement.

  1. Study of Surplus Value and Labor Rent-Based on “Surplus Value”from Perspective of West-ern Economics%论剩余价值与劳动租金--基于西方经济学视角下的“剩余价值”∗

    王海鸿; 胥敏


    The surplus value theory has always been questioned and criticism.From the concepts such as e-conomic rent (including the vague labor rent concept),monopoly rent,producer surplus and economic sur-plus,in fact,they are surplus value in essence or cannot be put aside from the surplus value completely. The core idea of the theory of surplus value about “the capitalists exploit the surplus value of wage labour”by Marx is the irrefutable truth.%剩余价值理论不断遭受西方经济学主流学者的非难,通过他们所使用的经济租金(包括隐晦的劳动租金)、垄断租金、生产者剩余和经济剩余等概念,其本质或为剩余价值,或不能完全撇开剩余价值。因此,马克思阐述的“资本家剥削雇佣劳动的剩余价值”的核心思想是驳不倒的真理。

  2. L’archéologie médiévale dans et hors l’histoire : retour sur différents usages de la documentation archéologique

    Mathias Dupuis


    Full Text Available L’émergence de l’anthropologique historique a joué un rôle fondamental dans l’essor institutionnel de l’archéologie médiévale française au cours de la seconde moitié du xxe siècle. Cette nouvelle dimension accordée à la discipline archéologique a eu pour corollaire, sinon pour cause, la volonté de prendre en considération l’ensemble des témoignages matériels du passé. L’archéologie est donc entrée progressivement dans le champ de l’histoire médiévale, en produisant un nouveau type de documents historiques. Parallèlement, l’archéologie médiévale s’est également construite hors de l’histoire, à travers ses échanges avec l’histoire de l’art, les sciences naturelles ainsi que sur la base d’une stricte méthodologie. Le présent article revient sur les contradictions d’une discipline tiraillée entre sa position auxiliaire vis-à-vis de l’histoire et ses tentatives d’émancipation en tant que domaine autonome des sciences humaines. La question des différentes définitions et des différents usages de la « documentation archéologique » fera office de fil conducteur dans cette réflexion.The emergence of historical anthropology was a fundamental factor in the institutional development of French medieval archaeology during the second part of 20th century. The consequence, if not the reason, of this new dimension in the study of archeology is a willingness to take into consideration the totality of past material evidences. Archaeology gradually entered into the field of medieval history, producing a new kind of historical documentation. At the same time, medieval archeology itself developed out of history, through its exchange with the history of art or the natural sciences, as well as through the development of a strict methodology. This paper returns to the contradictions of a discipline torn between its secondary position in face of the study of history, and its attempts to define

  3. 结合物联网技术的租赁设备质量控制研究%Research on Quality Control of Medical Equipment for Renting Combined with IOT Technology

    苏秋玲; 洪范宗; 董少良


    Objective: Based on the good benefits of our medical equipment rental center at the moment, to optimize the management of equipment rental center in hospital and improve the safe of using the rented equipment through modern means by application of IOT . Methods: We summarized the current status of medical equipment quality control and the shortcomings, all common life flow of equipment in rental center, researched and explored medical equipment quality control program combined IOT, then analyzed quality status before and after the scheme with SPSS 13.0. Results: In accordance with all life flow of equipment in rental center, we divided the scheme into two parts of equipment in and out rental center, those of which take ventilator as example, and then constructed a model benefit for medical equipment quality control. Results showed that quality status of the rented equipment before and after the program had statistically significant (P <0.01). Conclusions: Through program combined IOT for rental equipment quality control management, management of medical equipment in hospital has been improved. Performance and safe use of medical devices has been assured, which effectively reducing the probability of occurrence in medical and providing a good reference for the modernizing hospitals in future.%目的:在现有医院医疗设备租赁中心平台效益基础上,实现医疗设备的集中式质量控制,并通过物联网技术的应用,优化医院租赁中心设备的管理,以现代化手段提高各租赁设备的使用安全.方法:总结医院卫生装备质量控制的现状及存在不足、设备在租赁中心的全寿命流程,研究并探讨结合物联网技术实行租赁设备的质量控制方案,并运用统计学软件SPSS 13.0分析方案实施前后设备质量的状况.结果:依据各医疗设备在租赁中心的寿命流程,分租赁中心内与院内其他科室两部分设立不同的质量控制方案并给出了呼吸机应用实例做

  4. Analyse numérique du problème de déplacement du noyau fondu en soudage par points de tôles à différentes épaisseurs

    Benkedda, Y.; Tahar Chaouch, K.; Ibrir, B.


    Le soudage par résistance par points est une technique d'assemblage très répandue, en particulier dans l'industrie automobile, parce qu'elle est rapide, fiable et bon marché. Pour cela, la réalisation d'un point de soudure de qualité reste encore une préoccupation de l'industrie, surtout lorsqu'il s'agit de souder des tôles à différentes épaisseurs. Les premiers modèles mathématiques et expérimentaux qui couvrent ces différents aspects, sont principalement dirigés vers les modèles de transfert de chaleur ou vers les phénomènes de surfaces (modèles de surfaces) ; ces derniers, sont un problème d'importance, puisqu'ils interviennent chaque fois qu'un transfert de chaleur s'effectue entre deux solides accolés. Les physiciens ont étudie expérimentalement la réponse de la région de contact de deux solides aux pulsations de courant. Ils ont montré que le contact possède une résistance de resserrement due aux aspérités de surface, et que la température moyenne à l'interface des deux solides sous un chargement uniforme produit un adoucissement local lequel fait augmenter la région de contact. Le but de ce travail est consacré à l'analyse de l'influence des épaisseurs de tôles sur la position du noyau fondu. Expérimentalement, il a été montré que lorsque le rapport des épaisseurs est compris entre 1/1 et 1/10, le noyau fondu se déplace vers la pièce la plus épaisse. Ce phénomène peut s'expliquer à partir d'une étude thermique. Nous proposons donc, de résoudre le problème de transfert thermique transitoire associé au processus de soudage par points moyennant une méthode numérique. Ce modèle est capable de prédire l'évolution du noyau fondu en fonction des paramètres du procédé à savoir l'intensité de soudage et temps de soudage, ainsi que la répartition thermique en chaque point de l'assemblage.

  5. Etude de la résistance aux antibiotiques de Pseudomonas aeruginosa au niveau de différents hôpitaux de l’ouest algérien



    Année Universitaire: 2014-2015 Etude de la résistance aux antibiotiques de Pseudomonas aeruginosa au niveau de différents hôpitaux de l’ouest algérien ملخّص عصيّات Pseudomonas aeruginosa هي ج ا رثيم ممرضة انتهازية مسؤولة أساسا عن الالتهابات المكتسبة وتُظهر هذه البكتيريا قدرة التكيّف تجاه المضادّات الحيويّة ممّا يؤدّي إلى مشاكل علاجيّة حادّة في كثير من الأحيان. مجموع 217 جرثوم من عصيّات P. aeruginosa تمّ عزلها ما بين يناير 9002 ونوفمبر 2012 ، في مختلف الوحدات من ثلاثة مستشفيا...

  6. Spatio-temporal Variation of Residential Land Bid-rent Curves in Transitional Beijing City%转型期北京住宅用地投标租金曲线的空间形态与演化

    武文杰; 张文忠; 董冠鹏; 刘睿


    Transitions in the socio-economic environment have significant influences on reshaping the cities.While the western countries are undergoing post-urbanization changes, the transforming in Chinese urban land market can better reflect the trend of urban spatial reconstruction. In fact, dramatic socio-economic reforms in China are affecting the most Chinese cities' urban form since 1978. After that, the new approaches to land marketization widely spread to most Chinese cities, and ever since the late 1980s, Beijing municipal government has attempted to rationalize the previously planned urban land use distribution system by the way of economic reform measures. As the market economy has been established, Beijing's residential land market has been booming during the periods with different land reform policy. While the Chinese urban land market reform has been the subject of much research in recent decades, recent literatures have paid attention to spatial features of land price in transitional Chinese cities, and in comparison to its counterparts in advanced market economies. Nonetheless,research on this issue has been limited by the lack of systematic data, especially spatial data, on land leasing parcels as well as other related data sources. This paper gives first attempt to add our understanding of the spatial variations of the residential land bid-rent function curve of the residential land market of a rapidly developing Chinese metropolis, Beijing--China' s capital city, based on the Beijing Land Leasing Parcel Database. By employing about 3 400 residential land leasing parcel data from 1992 to 2009 within the 6th ring road of Beijing metropolitan area, the period when the land leasing market has largely been established, a mono-centric city' s land bid-rent function model was established to quantitatively explore the spatio-temporal evolution of urban residential land development mode and its mechanism. Based on the empirical analysis, it can be observed that in

  7. Ruutel appeals for compromise on rent ceilings


    President Arnold Rüütel kohtus Kadriorus üüri piirmäärade alase avaliku diskussiooni osapooltega ning kutsus neid otsima kõiki rahuldavat varianti. Presidenti nõustava õigusekspertide komisjoni esindaja professor Arno Allmann tutvustas omandireformi eesmärke ja reformi reguleerivate seaduste koostoimet kehtivas õigusloomes

  8. Magasiaidad, rajatud vajadusest, hoitud toredusest / Nele Rent

    Rent, Nele


    Aitade rajamise ajaloost. Vändra magasiait rajati aastatel 1843-1844 C. A. E. Körberi eestvedamisel. Orajõe magasiait rajati 19. sajandi teisel poolel. Aitade uutest kasutusvõimalustest tänapäeval

  9. 24 CFR 882.410 - Rent adjustments.



  10. Ruutel appeals for compromise on rent ceilings


    President Arnold Rüütel kohtus Kadriorus üüri piirmäärade alase avaliku diskussiooni osapooltega ning kutsus neid otsima kõiki rahuldavat varianti. Presidenti nõustava õigusekspertide komisjoni esindaja professor Arno Allmann tutvustas omandireformi eesmärke ja reformi reguleerivate seaduste koostoimet kehtivas õigusloomes

  11. 国有企业改革中权力寻租行为分析及其防治%Analysis and Prevention of the Power Rent-seeking Action in the Reform of State-owned Enterprises



    当前,国有企业权力寻租在行为主体、覆盖范围和寻租手段上,显露出一些新特点。究其原因,主要是因为“一把手”权大位重,为权力寻租留下空间;管理体制不完善,给权力寻租留下可乘之机;惩罚力度疲软,降低了寻租行为的风险成本。防治国有企业改革中权力寻租行为应从几方面着手,即注重宣传教育,增强“免疫力”,自戴“紧箍咒”,使领导干部不想腐;注重制度建设,架起“高压线”,筑牢“防火墙”,使领导干部不能腐;注重监督查处,设置“警报器”,亮起“红灯区”,使领导干部不敢腐。%At present,power rent-seeking in state-owned enterprises shows some new characteristics,especially on the subject, coverage and means. The reason is that "head" is powerful,leaving space;Management system is imperfect,leaving chink;Weak penalties reduce the risking cost. Prevention and treatment include the following four aspects. That is,to pay attention to education in order to enhance "immunity" and wear magic formula to make the leaders unwilling to corruption;to pay attention to the system construction in order to set up the high tension line and build a "firewall" to make the leaders unable to corruption;to pay attention to supervision and investigation in order to set up the"alarm"and light up"the red light district"to make the leaders dare not corrupt.

  12. Design and Implementation of Central Control Gateway in Intelligent Vehicles Rent System Based on Internet of Things%物联网智能车辆租赁系统中控网关的设计与实现

    徐圆; 缪苏津; 胡静; 宋铁成


    目前,物联网得到越来越广泛的应用,与之相关的业务层出不穷。根据物联网智能车辆租赁系统的设计要求和总体方案,在ARM9嵌入式Linux系统平台上,提出了一种应用层协议,设计了中控网关的实现方案,完成了车辆租赁、软件升级和网络监控的功能。此方案不同于传统透传网关,在完成了CAN总线、Wifi和3 G互通的基础上,完善系统分层结构,控制管控终端设备,提高业务执行效率。系统联调和测试表明,研制的中控网关能够长时间稳定工作,并能快速可靠地完成相关业务。%Nowadays,the application of internet of things is getting more and more socialized and commercialized which is also the case of its services. In this paper,based on required design and plan,an application layer protocol is discussed on an embedded Linux system platform supported by ARM9. This paper also puts forward a practical central control gateway,which contains functions of car renting, software updating and web monitoring. Unlike traditional transparent transmission gateway,besides the convergence of CAN-bus, Wifi and 3G, it provides a layered structure, manipulates terminal devices and improves transaction efficiency. As a result,system integrated debug and tests show that the central control gateway is able to function stably for a long time and complete related business rapidly and reliably as well.

  13. Development and evaluation of a training workshop for lay health promoters to implement a community-based intervention program in a public low rent housing estate: The Learning Families Project in Hong Kong.

    Lai, Agnes Y; Stewart, Sunita M; Wan, Alice; Fok, Helen; Lai, Hebe Y W; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia S


    This paper presents the development and evaluation of the train-the-trainer (TTT) workshop for lay resident leaders to be lay health promoters. The TTT workshop aimed to prepare the trainees to implement and/or assist in conducting a series of community-based family well-being activities for the residents in a public low rent housing estate, entitled "Learning Families Project", under the FAMILY project. The four-hour TTT workshop was conducted for 32 trainees (72% women, 43% aged ≥ 60, 41% ≤ elementary school education). The workshop aimed to promote trainees' knowledge, self-efficacy, attitude and practice of incorporating the positive psychology themes into their community activities and engaging the residents to join these activities and learn with their family members. Post-training support was provided. The effectiveness of the TTT was examined by self-administered questionnaires about trainees' reactions to training content, changes in learning and practice at three time points (baseline, and immediately and one year after training), and the difference in residents' survey results before and after participating in the community activities delivered by the trainees. The trainees' learning about the general concepts of family well-being, learning family, leadership skills and planning skills increased significantly with medium to large effect sizes (Cohen's d: 0.5-1.4) immediately after the training. The effects of perceived knowledge and attitude towards practice were sustained to one year (Cohen's d: 0.4-0.6). The application of planning skills to implement community activities was higher at one year (Cohen's d: 0.4), compared with baseline. At one year, the residents' survey results showed significant increases in the practice of positive communication behaviours and better neighbour cohesions after joining the family well-being activities of LFP. Qualitative feedback supported the quantitative results. Our TTT workshop could serve as a practical

  14. Densité et microrépartition des différentes espèces de poissons dans la Basse-Nivelle, petit fleuve côtier des Pyrénées Atlantiques

    NEVEU A.


    Full Text Available La densité totale du peuplement en poissons de la Basse Nivelle est de 227,6 kg/ha ; l'anguille en est l'espèce dominante avec 108,3 kg/ha. Dans la zone d'étude les salmonides sont représentés par la truite comme (42 kg/ha, la truite arc-en-ciel (36,2 kg/ha et le saumon atlantique (6,7 kg/ha. Parmi les petites espèces le goujon est la plus abondante avec 23,8 kg/ha. La structure des populations est particulière : l'anguille est représentée par trois groupes principaux inégalement répartis suivant les tailles ; les juvénilles de truites sont absents. La population de saumon est constitué en majorité de 0+ (91 % ayant une bonne croissance, mais une densité assez faible (2,8 ind./100 m2. La microrépartition des différentes espèces est caractéristique. Les zones profondes à courant modéré sont les plus peuplées à l'inverse des zones caillouteuses à courant rapide et des zones de dépôts. Il existe une relation entre la vitesse du courant associée à la profondeur, la densité en salmonides et en anguilles. Après leur 1er été en eau douce ces dernières changent complètement de substrat en passant des zones rapides, caillouteuses, vers les zones profondes, plus lentes. Le rôle des abris est important pour l'anguille, la truite commune et la saumon. La dégradation du bassin versant semble être la cause principale de la régression générale de l'ichthyofaune au cours de la dernière décade.

  15. Studies of in Situ Pore Pressure Fluctuations At Various Scales Études des fluctuations in situ de la pression de pore à différentes échelles

    Kümpel H. J.


    Full Text Available Pore pressure fluctuations in fluid saturated geological formations, either of natural or anthropogenic origin, can be observed at different scales. Natural fluctuations, e. g. , due to tidal, barometric or seismogenic forcing, or man-made effects as through use of underground fluid reservoirs, or initial filling and cyclic loading of lake reservoirs may have wavelengths from meters to kilometers. In situ monitoring of processes, in which both rock deformation and pore pressure changes are significant, improves our knowledge on the mechanical behaviour and the role of pore pressure in porous rocks and sedimentary layers. Pressure transducers for continuous recording of fluid level variations in wells, reflecting pore pressure changes at depth, or borehole tiltmeters that are sensitive to ground deformation caused by gradients of pore pressure fluctuations are relatively simple means to trace the dynamics of such rock-fluid interactions. The obtained data series are usually interpreted in two ways: by application of analytical solutions-adopting homogeneous poroelastic conditions or single fracture models in a uniform, elastic medium-and by simulation through numerical calculations allowing for some heterogeneity in the model volume. Field cases presented in this article include tilt measurements in the vicinity of pumped wells (1 to 100 m scale, fluid level monitoring in wells (borehole scale, and studies of pore pressure effects induced by seismic events (1 to 100 km scale. Specific rock parameters that can be constrained are the Skempton ratio, the hydraulic diffusivity, and the type of the effective rheology. In cases of tiltmeter studies, anisotropy of pore fluid flow can also be detected. Keywords: fluids in rocks, pore pressure, poroelasticity, hydrology. Les fluctuations de la pression de pore dans les formations géologiques saturées en fluides, d'origine naturelle ou anthropogéniques, peuvent être observées à différentes

  16. Comparaison de différentes techniques de travail du sol en agriculture biologique : effet de la structure et de la localisation des résidus sur les microorganismes du sol et leurs activités de minéralisation du carbone et de l'azote

    Vian, Jean Francois


    Depuis quelques décennies, le labour, comme mode de travail du sol, tend à diminuer au profit de différents modes de préparation du sol, allant du travail du sol réduit sans retournement jusqu'au semis direct. De tels modes alternatifs de travail du sol méritent une étude approfondie avant leur diffusion en agriculture biologique (AB) car ils peuvent occasionner des problèmes de nutrition des cultures et une dégradation de la structure du sol au cours des premières années de leur application....

  17. Étude théorique et expérimentale de superpositions quantiques cohérentes et d'états intriqués non-gaussiens de la lumière

    Ourjoumtsev, A.

    avons ainsi préparé des impulsions lumineuses ultrabrèves dans des états "chat de Schrödinger" (superpositions quantiques d'états cohérents). Le champ électromagnétique de l'onde lumineuse n'est alors plus décrit par une distribution statistique classique, mais par une fonction de Wigner prenant des valeurs négatives. Grâce à une reconstruction par tomographie homodyne, nous avons réalisé la première observation expérimentale de cette négativité pour de petits "chatons de Schrödinger" en propagation libre. Nous avons ensuite développé et démontré expérimentalement un protocole permettant de préparer des "chats de Schrödinger" optiques de taille arbitraire et d'ouvrir la voie vers de multiples applications en information quantique. Nous avons également montré que la soustraction conditionnelle de photons permettait d'augmenter l'intrication d'états gaussiens. Avec cette approche, nous avons intriqué deux impulsions séparées et indépendantes, en utilisant un canal quantique de fortes pertes. On peut ainsi préparer, entre deux sites éloignés, des états fortement intriqués à fonction de Wigner négative, élément essentiel pour la distillation d'intrication et les communications quantiques à grande distance.

  18. Optimization of Gas Turbine Cogeneration Systemfor Various Heat Exchanger Configurations Optimisation des systèmes de turbine à combustion en cogénération pour différentes configurations des échangeurs de chaleur

    Costea M.


    Full Text Available The present paper investigates and compares the performance of three configurations of Gas Turbine systems allowing cogeneration of heat and electricity, on the basis of an irreversible regenerative Brayton-Joule cycle. The proposed model is developed for two different cycle constraints, namely, an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, or an imposed maximum cycle temperature. The model also includes the irreversibility due to the friction in the compressor and turbine, and due to the heat losses in the combustion chamber and heat exchangers. Energy efficiency for the system without and with cogeneration, and the exergetic efficiency are used in order to emphasize the cogeneration advantages, but also to help the designer to choose the best configuration of the Gas Turbine system that suits to his needs. Experimental data from a real operating microturbine were used to validate the model. The power output and the energy and exergetic efficiencies are optimized with respect to a set of operating parameters. The optimum values of the Gas Turbine engine parameters corresponding to maximum power output and respectively to maximum thermodynamic efficiency are discussed. The results show same optimal values of the compression ratio corresponding to almost all maximum performances for an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, excepting the maximum exergetic efficiency that requires higher optimal values of the compression ratio than the maximum exergy rate one. A performance comparison of the three configurations is done and future perspectives of the work are proposed. Cet article explore et compare les performances des trois configurations de systèmes de turbine à combustion permettant la production combinée de chaleur et d’électricité, sur la base du cycle irréversible régénératif de Brayton-Joule. Le modèle proposé est développé pour deux contraintes différentes sur le cycle, notamment le

  19. Ekphrasis : au lieu de décrire ce qu’ils voyaient, ils réalisèrent ce qui était décrit

    Ana Vanessa Lucena


    Full Text Available Cette contribution s’insère dans le domaine des recherches actuelles en didactique des arts visuels mettant en évidence les pratiques de la réception des œuvres. Elle rend compte d’un projet d’apprentissage artistique prenant comme matière la collection René et Madeleine Junod et pratiquée durant quatre mois de leçons hebdomadaires dans deux classes de 7e maturité d’une école publique de la ville de La Chaux-de-Fonds en Suisse. Le projet a été vécu en trois parties : un exercice d’ekphrasis et de reproduction par la méthode de la grille de copie en salle de classe, une série de « jeux de stimulation de l’observation » pendant une visite au musée, complétée par les activités de dessin et coloriage à la maison et en salle de classe. Cet article est centré sur le premier exercice de « l’ekphrasis » où il a été proposé aux élèves la description de quatre tableaux de styles, thèmes et artistes différents. Chaque descriptif posait des contraintes en termes de composition des images et d’interprétation d’un vocabulaire spécifique aux arts visuels. Ekphrasis: Instead of describing what they were seeing, they created what was described This contribution goes into the domain of current research in Visual Arts didactics putting in evidence the methods of the “réception d’œuvre”. It reports an artistic learning project based on René and Madeleine Junod’s collection and practiced during four month of weekly Visual Arts lessons in two 7th grade classes of a public school in the city of La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. The project was built in three parts: an “ekphrasis” activity, which implies describing by words a few paintings of the collection, then copying them using the “grille de copie” method; a few “games of observation skills stimulation” during the visit of a museum, then reinforced and completed by the “painting and drawing activities” at home and in the classroom. This

  20. RENT Percent Units by Gross Rent for Renter Occ Units NMSD 2000

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  1. RENT Percent Units by Gross Rent for Renter Occ Units NMHD 2000

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  2. Rags in the High Rent District: the Evolution of Quota Rents in Textiles and Clothing

    J.F. François (Joseph); J. Woerz


    textabstractWe develop a mixed complementarity programming (MCP) based estimating framework for non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to examine the evolution of market access conditions in the textile and clothing sectors, working with a panel of bilateral trade data on textile and clothing trade, underlying

  3. Rags in the High Rent District: the Evolution of Quota Rents in Textiles and Clothing

    J.F. François (Joseph); J. Woerz


    textabstractWe develop a mixed complementarity programming (MCP) based estimating framework for non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to examine the evolution of market access conditions in the textile and clothing sectors, working with a panel of bilateral trade data on textile and clothing trade, underlying

  4. 农地租值消散和农地所有权主体完善与农地发展权构建--农地征收中农民土地权益保护思考%Dissipation of Land Rent,Perfection of Rural Land Ownership and Establishment of Development Rights:Reflections on Protection of Peasants’ Land Rights and Interests in Expropriating Rural Land



    Rent dissipation resulting from imperfect property rights and price control has damaged the property owners ’ rights and interests in expropriating rural land ,and unclear definition of rural land property rights and the price control has led to the dissipation of rural land rent ,damaging the peasants’ land rights and interests .Therefore ,in expropriating rural land ,the rural land ownership should be perfected and the rural land development rights constructed ;meanwhile ,it is necessary to curb price control ,balance the distribution of land increment income between state ,collectivity and individuals ,decrease the rent dissipation ,protect peasants ’ land rights and interests , and promote development of urbanization scientifically and harmoniously .%产权不完善与价格管制下形成租值消散,损害产权主体权益。我国农地征收中存在农地产权不完善与价格管制导致农地租值消散,损害农民土地权益的问题。为此,在农地征收中,应完善农地所有权主体,构建农地发展权,遏制价格管制,兼顾好国家、集体、个人的土地增值收益分配,减少租值消散,保护好农民土地权益。

  5. 租售比、房价收入比与房地产市场调控——基于区际差异化市场比较的实证分析%Price-to-Rent Ratio, Housing Price-to-Income Ratio and Real Estate Market Regulation: An Empirical Analysis Based on the Comparison between Regional Market Differences

    吴福象; 姜凤珍


    It is of vital importance to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the. comparative ef- fects of China's regional real estate markets by making use of the two indexes: the price-to-rent ratio and the housing price-to-income ratio. The results of this study indicate that China's high housing price would force all the housing rental markets to increase rents. The deviated rent from the housing price makes the housing rental market difficult to support the real estate market effectively. At the same time, the price-to-income ratio varies in different cities, and there exists a paradox about the price-to-income ratio among the groups with different income levels, which becomes increasingly obvi- ous. Therefore, the government should control the speed of the rising price to cut off the channel of high housing price spreading to the second-hand housing rental markets in densely populated areas, perfect the three level housing mold (which is protected and supported by government and provided by market) and the income distribution mechanism, foster reasonable housing consumption concept a- mong the citizens, and cultivate a healthy housing rental market.%利用租售比、房价收入比指标综合评价我国各区域房地产市场的比价效应意义重大。研究发现:我国的高房价对住房租赁市场有倒逼作用和漫延趋势,租金相对于房价的偏离导致住房租赁市场难以有效支撑住房买卖市场;各线城市房价收入比存在差异,不同收入群体房价收入比存在着悖论并有加剧的趋势。因此,政府必须通过控制房价上涨以切断高房价向人口密集区二手房租赁市场漫延的通道,完善由政府保障、政府支持和市场提供构成的三级住房模式以及收入分配机制,引导市民合理的住房消费观,培植健康的住房租赁市场。

  6. Evoluția arboretelor retrocedate în baza Legii 18/1991 și estimarea rentei economice asociate, în condiții alternative de gestionare [ Evolution of restituted stands under the Law 18/1991 and estimation of associated economic rent, in different management approaches

    Scriban R


    Full Text Available Using an inter-disciplinary methodology, the paper aims to assess structural changes of the private forests restituted to their owners in early ‘90 in Romania (under the Law 18/1991, and to further estimate the economic rent resulted due to alternative management activities. The study area consists of restituted, private forests (799 ha in Forest District Vama (North of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians. The forest structure dynamics was assessed by comparing initial forest structural characteristics at restitution (1990, according to the forest management plan, with the structural characteristics derived from aerial images recorded in 2004. The harvested volume (of period 1990-2004, at compartment level, was considered the percentage of clear cut/overharvested stands (estimated by photointerpretation applied to the standing volume of 1990. The economic rent was calculated by comparing the economic value of the harvested timber under five management hypothesis: (i respecting the provisions in the management plan of 1990, (ii extracting a volume corresponding to the annual increment, (iii-v extracting the entire volume in 1994, 2004 or 2014, respectively. The provisions of the initial forest management plan (1990 were not economically viable for owners under a harvesting rate of 1.4 m3 year-1 ha-1, the used alternative being a minimum of 23 m3 year-1 ha-1 harvested between 1990 and 2004. In Romania, between 1994 and 2014, the timber price significantly increased in comparison with the capitalization rate. Under these circumstances, the harvesting of forests immediately after restitution conducted to a total economic loss of about 9 million USD (present value - 2014, compared with the alternative - maintaining the forest resources 20 years further. It is concluded that in Romania, the mismanagement of private forests restituted in ‘90s (Law 18/1991 resulted in direct economic losses for forest owners, of similar importance as the ecological

  7. 党性与乡土之间--抗战中后期减租减息运动中的山东农村基层党员%Between the Party Spirit and Provincialism---Shandong Rural Grass-root CPC Members in the Reduction of Rent and Interest Movement during the Middle and Late Period of the Anti-Japanese War



    抗战中后期,面对中共在抗日根据地开展的减租减息运动,农村不同阶级和个体根据时局变化和自身处境采取了相应的应对举措。具有中共党员与乡村社区居民双重身份的农村基层党员,既要履行党员义务和服从组织决议,又需考量身家利益并处理与亲友街坊间的关系。在运动中,他们一般扮演着三种角色:政党意志的执行者、乡村社区利益的维护者和身家利益的追逐者(捍卫者)。其中部分党员具有明确的角色定位和清晰的行为导向,部分党员则是各种角色兼而有之,部分党员所扮演的角色甚至变动不居。重塑农村社会秩序的减租减息运动引发了基层党员应具有的党性原则和农民固有的乡土原则之间的张力,纠结于党性和乡土之间的基层党员以不同的行为抉择来应对党组织在农村开展的减租减息运动。%Facing the Reduction of Rent and Interest Movement carried out by the Communist Party of China in the anti-Japanese base areas, different classes and individuals took corresponding measures according to changes of the political situation during the middle and late period of the Anti-Japanese War. The rural grass-roots Party members with dual identities of CPC membership and rural community residents should both fulfill the obligations of Party members and organizations and consider the relationship between self interest, relatives and neighbors. During the Movement, they usually played 3 roles, executors of the Party, maintainers of rural community interest and chasers or protectors of self-interest. Among them, some had defined clear role and behavior orientation, some had various roles and others were always changing. The Reduction of Rent and Interest Movement, which remodeled the rural social order, led to the tension between the Party spirit and farmer‘s intrinsic rural principles of the grass-root Party members, a tension between Party

  8. Kohärente Teilchenproduktion in Dreijetereignissen der $e^+e^--$Annihilation Eine Untersuchung der Multiplizität in Quark-Gluon-Ensembles und eine präzise Bestimmung von $C_A/C_F$ mit Daten des DELPHI-Experimentes

    Siebel, Martin


    Die kohärente Teilchenproduktion in hadronischen Z-Zerfällen mit drei Jets im Endzustand wird anhand von mit dem DELPHI-Experiment in den Jahren 1992-1995 aufgenommenen Daten untersucht. Die unter großem Winkel zur Ereignisebene gemessene Multiplizität ist in guter Übereinstimmung mit einer Vorhersage in führender Ordnung. Es wird gezeigt, dass zur Beschreibung der Daten ein negativer Interferenzterm notwendig ist. Ein Skalieren der Impulsverteilungen der unter großem Winkel produzierten Teilchen wird für Impulse unter ca. 1GeV beobachtet, wodurch die lokale Parton-Hadron Dualitätshypothese (LPHD) bestätigt wird. Es wird eine gute Beschreibung der in Dreijetereignissen gemessenen Gesamtmultiplizität durch eine MLLA-Vorhersage beobachtet. Eine Parameteranpassung der Vorhersage an die Daten ergibt das Farbfaktorverhältnis CA/CF = 2.261 ± 0.014(stat.) ± 0.036(syst.) ± 0.052(theor.) ± 0.041(clus.), welches die bislang präziseste Messung dieses Wertes darstellt. Das Verhältnis der Gluon- zur Quar...

  9. Caractérisation par différentes méthodes physico-chimiques de types de matière organique dans des sédiments du Crétacé d'Atlantique en mer profonde Using Different Physico-Chemical Methods to Characterize Organic-Matter Types in Cretaceous Sediments from the Deep Offshore Atlantic

    Roucaché J.


    Full Text Available Différentes techniques physico-chimiques ont été mises en oeuvre pour riser les types de matières organiques rencontrées dans les sédiments, 1 évolués, du Crétacé des marges continentales de l'Atlantique, recueillis des campagnes de forage du Deep Sea Drilling Project. C'est ainsi qu'on pu être utilisées l'information fournie par une méthode préliminaire rapide et globale, la pyrolyse de la roche brute, et les informations tirées d'analyses plus détaillées de la matière organique, à savoir sur la fraction extractible en milieu aqueux, sur la fraction extractible en milieu organique et sur la fraction insoluble dite résidu stable, ou kérogène. En considérant les populations d'échantillons, sélectionnées d'après les résultats de la pyrolyse, en fonction de l'analyse élémentaire de leur matière organique insoluble et de la teneur en carbone organique lié à leurs composés humiques, nous montrons qu'une matière organique homogène d'origine aquatique peut être identifiée dès l'étude par pyrolyse de la roche brute. II en est de même pour une matière organique d'origine continentale; le cas échéant, l'importance des composés humiques constituera un contrôle en ce qui concerne la matière organique continentale. Par contre, si le matériel organique du sédiment est un mélange de matières organiques d'origine différente, il est difficile, sinon impossible, d'en identifier les constituants si l'on ne procède pas aux analyses détaillées du protocole analytique recommandé. Different physico-chemicaltechniques were used to characterize the types of organic motter encountered in relatively unevolved Cretaceous sediments from the continental margins in the Atlantic that were collected during the drilling campaigns as part of the Deep Sec Drilling Project. Use was made of information provided by a quick and overall preliminary method, i. e. the pyrolysis of crude rock, and the information provided by more

  10. Face aux besoins et à la réalité des consommations, quelles sont les spécificités des différentes sources d’acides gras oméga 3 disponibles ?

    Combe Nicole


    Full Text Available Les données de consommation en acides gras oméga 3 de la population française montrent les déficits d’apports, en particulier en acide alpha-linolénique (ALA, compte tenu des ANC (apports nutritionnels conseillés. En regard de ces données et des sources actuellement utilisées, les spécificités des différents vecteurs alimentaires des oméga 3 sont décrites. L’étude Aquitaine a montré que les lipides d’origine animale contribuaient à 73 % de l’apport alimentaire en ALA. Augmenter le contenu de celui-ci dans les produits d’animaux d’élevage via leur alimentation dans laquelle on introduit des sources d’ALA (colza, lin ou de DHA (huiles de poissons représente une stratégie d’optimisation. À cet égard, les résultats sont plus intéressants avec les monogastriques comparés aux polygastriques. En dépit de son potentiel, le vecteur des huiles végétales est trop peu exploité, il n’apporte actuellement que 9 % de l’apport global d’ALA. Pour couvrir les besoins en ALA, sans modification des autres habitudes alimentaires, il faudrait que l’ALA représente 8 % des acides gras totaux consommés sous forme d’huile, contre 0,5-0,6 % actuellement. Les spécificités de trois huiles linoléniques sont comparées. Par rapport aux objectifs, l’huile de colza présente les caractéristiques les plus intéressantes.

  11. Ovogenèse chez l'Anguille (Anguilla anguilla L. : ultrastructure de l'ovaire à différents stades de développement et implication des lipoprotéines au cours de la vitellogenèse



    Full Text Available Dans les eaux douces, l'anguille est présente à deux stades de développement : le stade jaune où l'animal se nourrit et assure sa croissance et le stade argenté où il jeûne et se prépare à la migration de reproduction. Ce cycle est particulièrement intéressant pour l'étude des régulations hormonales de l'ovogénèse et en particulier celle de la vitellogenèse, étape pendant laquelle l'ovocyte incorpore la vitellogénine pour former le vitellus. Cet article décrit, d'une part, les différents critères de la vitellogenèse disponibles chez l'anguille (caractérisation des lipoprotéines, ultrastructure des ovocytes, teneurs plasmatiques des stéroïdes sexuels et de la vitellogénine, caractérisation des récepteurs hépatiques de l'oestradiol (RE2 et, d'autre part, l'effet de traitements gonadotropes ou stéroïdiens sur ces critères pour dégager la nature des contrôles endocriniens impliqués au cours de la vitellogenèse. Les lipoprotéines présentes dans le plasma de l'anguille jaune ou argentée sont les VLDL (lipoprotéine de très faible densité et les HDL (lipoprotéine de haute densité ; les LDL (lipoprotéine de faible densité ne sont pas trouvées. Des modifications des apolipoprotéines présentes dans les lipoprotéines de haute densité (HDL sont observées au cours de l'argenture. Par des traitements à l'oestradiol, les VLDL augmentent considérablement ; il apparaît aussi une classe nouvelle de lipoprotéines, les VHDL (lipoprotéine de très haute densité ou vitellogénine. L'analyse de l'ultrastructure ovocytaire montre que l'anguille jaune est prévitellogénique en raison de l'absence des structures ovocytaires spécifiques de l'endocytose ; elles sont présentes chez l'anguille argentée qui est donc vitellogénique. In vivo chez l'anguille jaune, après un mois de traitement gonadotrope, une augmentation de l'oestradiol (E2 plasmatique est observée sans apparition de vitellogénine circulante




    Robotlar, gerek otomasyon sistemlerinde gerekse de günlülk yaşantımızın çeşitli alanlarında güıı geçtikçe daha geniş bir şekilde kullanı lmaktadır. Ço k farklı alanlard� çeşitli işleınıeri gerçekleştirmek için kulJanılan robotlarda kontrol işlemi, mikroişlemciler veya nıikrodenetleyiciler ile gerçekleştir ilmektedir. Robot uygu lamal:arında, mikroişlemci ile birlikte çevre biriml erini içermesi nedeni ile nukrodenetl ey icilerin kullanıını tercih edilmektedir. Bu çalışınada, miikrodenetleyici...

  13. Rent-seeking and timber rights allocation in Ghana

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard


    documents that timber rights allocation is associated with both bureaucratic and political corruption. The latter comes in two forms. First, the findings suggest that well-established relationships exist between politicians and senior bureaucrats on the one side and large-scale timber firms on the other...

  14. Contracts with Rent amt and Utility Allowance amt

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  15. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis

    Roberto Briceño-León


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.

  16. Pärnu koolihoone apteek ja selle sisustus / Nele Rent

    Rent, Nele


    Aastatel 1864-1866 valmis Pärnus Saksa tütarlaste koolimaja. 1930. aastal otsustas Pärnu linnavalitsus avada hoone Hommiku tänava poolses osas linnaapteegi. Taasiseseisvuse perioodil jäid ideed rajada ruumidesse kas apteek-muuseum või turismiinfopunkt jäi realiseerimata.Ruumid kuulusid linnavalitsusele, mööbel AS Pharmac'ile. 2011. aastal rajati ruumidesse kohvik-puhvet A.P.T.E.K.

  17. 24 CFR 882.408 - Initial contract rents.



  18. Africa's Elites Ways of Commodifying Politics to Valorise Economic Rent

    Muchie, Mammo


    This paper starts with incredulity first. Whilst doing some research for this paper, I came across members of the top political elite from Zaire to Nigeria often taken as 'kleptocrat extraordinaire' to be also in the forefront in denoucing rennt-seeking and corruption with an equal extraordinaire...

  19. 41 CFR 102-85.120 - What is shell Rent?


    ... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN... for the building envelope and land. (See § 102-85.35 for the definition of building shell.)...

  20. 24 CFR 880.609 - Adjustment of contract rents.


    ... date of the contract in accordance with 24 CFR part 888. (b) Special additional adjustments. For all... CFR part 883 projects, by the Agency and HUD), to reflect increases in the actual and necessary... for assisted units and comparable unassisted units except to the extent that the differences...


    François GAUDIN


    Full Text Available Exoplanets, discovered by Mayor and Queloz, have changed our definition of the word planet. Nowadays, nobody can defin precisely this term. Study this exemple shows that the referential sense is neither in words, nor in the head, but in a linguistic use, socially shared and guaranteed by experts.




    Full Text Available Robotlar, gerek otomasyon sistemlerinde gerekse de günlülk yaşantımızın çeşitli alanlarında güıı geçtikçe daha geniş bir şekilde kullanı lmaktadır. Ço k farklı alanlard� çeşitli işleınıeri gerçekleştirmek için kulJanılan robotlarda kontrol işlemi, mikroişlemciler veya nıikrodenetleyiciler ile gerçekleştir ilmektedir. Robot uygu lamal:arında, mikroişlemci ile birlikte çevre biriml erini içermesi nedeni ile nukrodenetl ey icilerin kullanıını tercih edilmektedir. Bu çalışınada, miikrodenetleyici kontrollü yürüyen bir robotun tasarıımı ile ilgili detaylar verilmekte ve tasarlanan robotun gerçekleşmesi ile ilgili açıklan1alar ve rilrı:ıcktedir. • Iki step motor kullanılarak oluşturulan iki tekerlekli robot, PIC16F84 mikro denetleyicisi kullanılarak kontrol edi int ektedi r. Tasarlanan ve gerçekleşti rilen sistemde 3 temel devre bulunmaktadır. PIC16F84 kullanılarak oluşturulan kontrol devresi, :algılayıcı devresi ve PIC16F84 temelli step motor sürücü devresi. Uygulanıası yapılan robotta, yansıtıcı yüzeylere duyarlı algılayıc ılardan gelen bilgiler doğrultusunda robot yönünü ve hareketini belirlenıektcdir. Algıla yıcılardan gelen bilgiler, kontrol devre sindeki PIC16F84 mikrodenetleyici s i tarafından yorumlanmakta ve PIC16F84'de bulunan progran:ı yardımı ile step motorlar sürülerck motorun hareketi sa ğlanma ktadı r. Hareket edebilme kabiliyeti kazanan robot, labirentin duvarlarındaki yansıtıcı yüzeyleri dikkate alarak yönünü tayin edebilmekte ve robotun labirent içindeki h areket leri , kontrol devresindeki PIC16F84'e yüklenen programa göre gerçekleştirilmektedir.

  3. Have You Paid Your Rent? Servant Leadership in Correctional Education

    Alana Jeaniece Simmons


    Full Text Available This article makes the case for servant leadership as a model and as a philosophy to guide correctional educationalists on how to interact with their students. This article begins with an introduction to identify the gap in the literature with regards to the relationship between servant leadership and adult and correctional education. It continues with a summary of the 10 characteristics of servant leadership that parallel some of the characteristics that educators exhibit in the prison classroom, and explores how those characteristics impact the student population. We conclude by providing a framework by which further research should explore the link between servant leadership and correctional education in order to enhance classroom practices.

  4. 25 CFR 227.17 - Rates of rents and royalties.


    ... gasoline, and/or all other hydrocarbon substances produced and saved from the land leased, save and except... the Interior, be calculated on the basis of the highest price paid or offered (whether calculated on... same gravity, and gas, and/or natural gasoline, and/or all other hydrocarbon substances produced...

  5. Rent dissipation through electricity prices of publicly owned utilities

    Bernard, J-T.; Roland, M. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)


    Pricing policies of Canadian public utilities were examined. It was shown that under the existing set of rules the prices established are frequently below the marginal cost. This appears to be particularly true in the case of provinces that rely principally on hydroelectric resources. Study recommendations to bring electricity prices in line with marginal costs have had little success to date despite overwhelming evidence of large economic losses associated with the current institutional arrangements. This situation remains at the same time that governments apply high tax rates on incomes. By putting together two strands of economic literature, public choice and the theory of public utility pricing, this paper develops a simple model that explains why the median consumer prefers a low electricity price and a high tax rate. Hydro-Quebec survey data is used to confirm that these conditions are satisfied in Quebec. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  6. 26 CFR 1.856-4 - Rents from real property.


    ... similar class (such as luxury apartment buildings) are customarily provided with the service. The... many geographic marketing areas. Where it is customary, in a particular geographic marketing area,...

  7. Comparaisson entre les différents filtres dimages.



    L’image constitue l’un des moyens les plus importants utilisé dans le domaine de communication. Mais, pour que la communication soit facile l’image doit être nette afin de l’interpréter correctement. Afin d’obtenir une meilleure qualité des images, deux grand types de filtres sont utilisés : a) Les filtres linéaires Le filtre Moyenneur : c’est un filtre de convolution passe-bas, qui remplace chaque pixel par la moyenne des valeurs des pixels voisins et du pixel central. Le filtre ...

  8. Transformation in Practice:Study on Reduction in Loan Interest Policy during the Movement of Reduction of Rent for Land and of Interest on Loans within Anti -Japanese Base Area%实践中的转变:抗日根据地减租减息运动中的减息政策研究



    During the movement of reduction of rent for land and of interest on loans,Reduction of Interest on Loans Policy was influenced by multi factors,of which the restriction of loan interest rate was most significant factor.Because the regulated interest rate was unduly low,debit and credit in rural areas was stagnant,imposing negative effect on peasants’production and living,and loosing the restriction of loan interest was the only choice.Reduction of loan interest underwent the process of harsh restriction to completely open,which was the policy transformation based on practice.However,viewing from actual result,the loosing of restriction on loan interest failed to revive the debit and credit in rural areas as predicted and difficulty in loan re-mained as before.%在抗日根据地的减租减息运动中,减息政策的变化受多种因素的影响,但借贷利率的限制无疑是其中最重要的因素。由于规定的利率过低,造成农村金融借贷停滞,给农民的生产和生活造成很大困难,放开对借贷利率的限制成为唯一的选择。减息政策经历了从严格的利率限制到完全放开的转变,这是在实践中根据实际情况作出的政策改变,但从实际效果来看,放开对借贷利率的限制并没有起到预期的恢复农村借贷的效果,借贷困难的局面一直持续下去。

  9. A Study on the Standardization of Private Lending Behavior in China-Evidence from“e Rent Treasure Event”%我国民间借贷行为规范化问题研究--以“e租宝事件”为例

    王苏野; 潘理权


    By the end of 2015,the exposure of“e rent treasure event”caused a quite disturbance. For this matter,more atten⁃tion focused on illegal fund-raising crime or P2P network lending platform supervision. This paper tries to look for the other ways,taking this event as the starting point,focuses on discussions of private lending behavior problems and the crux of the problems at the present stage,and accurately define the concept,characteristics and social characteristics of private lending. And in light of these problems,the paper,combining with Chinese specific national conditions y and policy support,explores the countermeasures to strengthen supervision and regulation of private lending behavior from the reform of financial manage⁃ment system,the optimization of the social financing platform,the improvement of financial lending business access thresh⁃old and the innovation way of handling assets,etc.%2015年底,“e租宝事件”曝光引发轩然大波。针对此事,更多的目光聚焦在非法集资犯罪或者P2P网络贷款平台监管上。文章另辟蹊径,以此事件为切入点,着力探讨现阶段民间借贷行为出现的问题及其症结所在,准确界定民间借贷的概念、特点及社会性特征。并针对这些问题结合我国的具体国情以及政策支持,从改革金融管理体制、优化社会融资平台、提高金融借贷企业准入门槛、创新资产处理方式等方面探讨加强民间借贷行为监管和规范的对策。

  10. Multiphase Production. Representation of Thermodynamic Properties of Methanol by Different Equations of State Production polyphasique. Représentation des propriétés thermodynamiques du méthanol à partir de différentes équations d'état

    Peneloux A.


    éveloppement classiques ; - possibilité de mise en production des réservoirs situés par grandes profondeurs d'eau (avec ou sans pompage polyphasique. Ce concept de production polyphasique a été utilisé jusqu'à présent avec des conditions de transport relativement favorables et pour des effluents dont le comportement ne présentait pas de problème majeur. Son extension à des conditions (hydrauliques et thermiques de transport de plus en plus difficiles d'effluents de plus en plus complexes (émulsions, hydrates, paraffines, asphaltènes, sels, corrosion,. . . nécessite en particulier : - une meilleure compréhension et une bonne maîtrise du comportement thermodynamique de ces effluents c'est-à-dire de mélanges contenant essentiellement de l'eau et des hydrocarbures mais aussi divers sels (eaux de gisement et additifs (anti- hydrates/paraffines/corrosion,. . . ; - une meilleure appréciation de l'efficacité des divers additifs (et des mélanges de ces additifs indispensables à des opérations de production sûres, fiables et économiques. Un des principaux additifs utilisés pour inhiber la formation des hydrates est le méthanol, c'est lui que nous avons spécifiquement étudié ici en essayant de modéliser ses propriétés thermodynamiques. L'ajout de méthanol peut, en effet, dans certaines conditions, éviter la formation d'hydrates qui prennent naissance en présence d'eau à basses températures, et qui, en s'agglomérant sous différents états cristallins (I, II, H, peuvent arriver à boucher totalement les conduites de transport, interrompant la production. Ce risque n'est pas du tout théorique comme l'ont clairement démontré un certain nombre d'expériences récentes (en particulier en mer du Nord. Pour des effluents comportant des quantités importantes d'eau, du H2S et/ou des aromatiques et transportés à hautes pressions/basses températures, les quantités de méthanol à utiliser peuvent devenir très importantes et même, dans certains cas

  11. On Board Hydrogen Generation for Fuel Cell Powered Electric Cars. a Review of Various Available Techniques Production d'hydrogène embarquée pour véhicules électriques à piles. Aperçu de différentes techniques envisageables

    Prigent M.


    Full Text Available Various methods allowing onboard hydrogen generation for fuel cell powered electric cars are reviewed. The following primary fuels are considered : ammonia, methanol, ethanol, and hydrocarbons. The catalytic cracking of ammonia allows generation of a CO2-free mixture containing 75% hydrogen, which is consequently suitable without subsequent purification for the supply of alkaline fuel cells. The problems posed by this primary fuel are toxicity in the event of leaks and the risk of generating nitrogen oxides in the catalytic combustion of the cell effluent. Methanol, ethanol, and the liquid or gas hydrocarbons also allow the generation of hydrogen-rich mixes, either by catalytic steam reforming or by partial oxidation. The gas obtained in this way contains a large amount of CO2 and CO, however, and its use requires a prior purification treatment. Except for use in high-temperature cells, the CO concentration must be reduced to a very low level (a few ppm. The CO2, however, may be kept for the supply of acid electrolyte cells, although it must be eliminated for use with alkaline cells. All these methods are commonly used in industry, but the design of small fully automated facilities allowing fast frequent starting and stopping as well as continuous load variations without loss of performance or pollutant emissions is still a very delicate and uncertain matter. Différents procédés permettant la production embarquée d'hydrogène pour véhicules électriques à piles à combustible sont passés en revue. Les combustibles primaires suivants sont considérés : ammoniac, méthanol, éthanol et hydrocarbures. Le craquage catalytique de l'ammoniac permet l'obtention d'un mélange à 75 % d'hydrogène, exempt de CO2 et convenant donc sans purification ultérieure pour l'alimentation des piles alcalines. Avec ce combustible primaire, les problèmes sont la toxicité en cas de fuite et le risque de production d'oxydes d'azote lors de la combustion

  12. Vinyl Sulfonate/Vinyl Amide Copolymers and Different Surfactants As Suitable Systems in Eorat Higher Temperatures and Salinities Utilisation de mélanges de copolymères vinyl sulfonate/vinyl amide et de différents tensio-actifs en RAP dans des conditions de fortes salinités et de températures élevées

    Von Halasz S. P.


    propriétés des solutions de copolymères VS/VA/AM. Des solutions aqueuses de ces copolymères ont été ajoutées à des quantités variables de tensio-actifs non ioniques et anioniques dans différentes conditions de température et de salinité. Les résultats de tests de compatibilité, de pouvoir viscosifiant, de comportement en milieu poreux, d'injectivité, de dégradation mécanique, de stabilité thermique et de récupération d'huile de ces différents mélanges sont présentés et discutés. La présence de polymère influence peu les propriétés des solutions d'alkylphénols éthoxylates et/ou d'éthers sulfonates dans une large gamme de températures et de salinités. Par contre, des quantités relativement faibles de tensioactifs peuvent modifier sensiblement le comportement des solutions de polymères et améliorer leur efficacité en RAP (Récupération Assistée du Pétrole.

  13. Dynamic Space for Rent: Using Commercial Web Hosting to Develop a Web 2.0 Intranet

    Hodgins, Dave


    The explosion of Web 2.0 into libraries has left many smaller academic libraries (and other libraries with limited computing resources or support) to work in the cloud using free Web applications. The use of commercial Web hosting is an innovative approach to the problem of inadequate local resources. While the idea of insourcing IT will seem…

  14. Divisional power, intra-firm bargaining and rent-seeking behavior in multidivisional corporations

    Pietro Navarra; Ram Mudambi


    Increasing divisional operational responsibilities and the dispersal of knowledge creating activities within the firm have loosened the traditional hierarchical structure of multi-divisional firms. In this paper we argue that a similar mixture of competition and cooperation that is found in inter-firm relationships now characterizes intra-firm relationships. Our model describes a situation in which divisional managers have their own objectives that may diverge from those of the firm as a whol...

  15. Violence of the oil income. Algeria, Iraq, Libya; Violence de la rente petroliere. Algerie, Irak, Libye

    Martinez, L. [CERI-Sciences Po, 75006 - Paris (France)


    During the 1970's, thanks to oil exploitation income, Algeria, Iraq and Libya seemed to be engaged in an accelerated modernization process. Petroleum was the blessing that would allow these states to catch up on their economic gap. Algeria was introduced as a 'Mediterranean dragon', Libya as an 'emirate' and Iraq as the leading military power of the Arab world. On the political side, the progressive socialism made one think that deep social transformations were in progress. Several decades later, the disappointment is painful. The prosperity feeling has led these countries into political, economic and military impasses with disastrous consequences for their populations. This book analyses the reasons that have led to this political/economical/social situation. The questions are: how can these countries get rid of deep reforms without any risk of social explosion, and how can the European Union export its standards and values and protect its gas imports at the same time?

  16. La quinoa en Bolivie : une culture ancestrale devenue culture de rente

    Winkel T.


    Full Text Available Quinoa in Bolivia: an ancestral crop changed to a cash crop with " organic fair-trade " labeling. This paper presents a review of the litterature on the physiology and diversity of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.. Since about 15 years, this Andean crop experiences a great commercial success in the organic and fair-trade food networks. Selected and cultivated for thousands of years in the Andean highlands, quinoa shows a remarkable tolerance to environmental stresses, particularly to drought and cold. The present knowledges on quinoa physiology, though fragmentary, show a high cold resistance of the plants, and the capacity to recover high photosynthetic activity after drought. Under field conditions, the genetic diversity in local landraces and the crop practices also contribute notably to the adaptation of quinoa to climatic hazards.

  17. 24 CFR 882.409 - Contract rents at end of rehabilitation loan term.



  18. Adapter les pratiques agricoles aux différentes conditions pédoclimatiques

    Turpin, N.; Perret, E.; Berge, ten H.F.M.; Hose, D' T.; Evert, van F.K.


    Les pratiques agricoles qui réduisent la quantité de carbone dans le sol peuvent perturber son activité microbienne, modifier sa structure, et sa capacité à fournir eau et nutriments aux cultures. Elles peuvent aussi limiter la capacité des sols agricoles à lutter contre le changement climatique. Le

  19. Les différents scénarios du changement climatique

    Déqué Michel


    Full Text Available The assumption of a climate change along the 21st century is now widely accepted : the world population and consumption growth will lead to an increase in greenhouse effect. In order to explore possible evolutions in agreement with the laws of physics, numerical modeling is the most appropriate tool. ARPEGE-Climate is the atmospheric model of the French meteorological service. It has been run over the 21st century to simulate possible evolutions under three hypotheses of increase in greenhouse gas and aerosol concentration. This model covers the globe with a rather high resolution over southern Europe (50 km. The results show a larger warming in summer than in winter and a spatially variable response for precipitation.

  20. Existenzanalyse et Daseinsanalyse : deux perspectives différentes du Logos

    Vaou, Pascal Le


    Cet article prend sa source dans une réflexion entamée depuis plusieurs années sur la logothérapie de Victor Frankl, médecin psychiatre juif autrichien, qui a élaboré une approche de la psychothérapie inspirée par l’œuvre de Max Scheler et centrée sur la question du sens : la logothérapie. Il s’agit ici, dans la suite d’un premier travail de maîtrise consacré aux « Sources philosophiques de la logothérapie », d’aller plus avant dans les questionnements théoriques que pose l’analyse existentie...

  1. Rent-seeking and grandfathering: The case of GHG trade in the EU

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


    The EU Commission has recently proposed a new directive establishing a framework for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading within the European Union. The idea is to devalue the emission quotas in circulation by the year 2012 at latest, so that the EU will meet its Kyoto target level of an 8% GHG...


    Bellaaj, Moez


    International audience; Since the beginning of 1980s, the researchers studied the relation between information technology (IT) and organizational performance. The results of their jobs led to different conclusions. To identify better the contributions of IT, a synthesis of literature allowed us to identify six approaches that trace the path from IT investments to business value.; Dés le début des années 1980, les chercheurs ont étudié la relation entre les investissements en technologie de l'...

  3. Competition between social and market renting: a theoretical application of the structure-conduct-performance paradigm

    Lennartz, C.; Haffner, M.; Oxley, M.


    Housing policies in many countries have become more market orientated as the role of governments has shifted from the direct supply and funding of non-market housing towards the role of a regulator and facilitator. Central to this development is the notion that providers of social housing have to be

  4. Rent-seeking and grandfathering: The case of GHG trade in the EU

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard


    The EU Commission has recently proposed a new directive establishing a framework for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading within the European Union. The idea is to devalue the emission quotas in circulation by the year 2012 at latest, so that the EU will meet its Kyoto target level of an 8% GHG...

  5. Political Rents of European Farmers in the Sustainable Development Paradigm. International, national and regional perspective

    Czyżewski, Bazyli


    To make a summary of a book that contains so many different threads is no easy task. One should, on the one hand, refer to its conceptual contribution to the paradigm of sustainable agriculture, and on the other hand, consider the conclusions drawn from the studies conducted at international, national and regional level. It is clear that changing the paradigm of agricultural development from an industrial to a sustainable one will be neither easy nor quick. Agriculture must sat...

  6. 76 FR 59716 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Transformation Initiative: Rent...


    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Transformation... HUD's authority and administered under the Transformation Initiative Account. The purpose of the... selected through a competitive process, announced through a Notice of Funding Availability...

  7. Internal Control Over Financial Reporting and Managerial Rent Extraction: Evidence from the Profitability of Insider Trading

    Skaife, H.A.; Veenman, D.; Wangerin, D.


    This paper examines the association between ineffective internal control over financial reporting and the profitability of insider trading. We predict and find that the profitability of insider trading is significantly greater in firms disclosing material weaknesses in internal control relative to

  8. Using GeoRSS feeds to distribute house renting and selling information based on Google map

    Nong, Yu; Wang, Kun; Miao, Lei; Chen, Fei


    Geographically Encoded Objects RSS (GeoRSS) is a way to encode location in RSS feeds. RSS is a widely supported format for syndication of news and weblogs, and is extendable to publish any sort of itemized data. When Weblogs explode since RSS became new portals, Geo-tagged feed is necessary to show the location that story tells. Geographically Encoded Objects adopts the core of RSS framework, making itself the map annotations specified in the RSS XML format. The case studied illuminates that GeoRSS could be maximally concise in representation and conception, so it's simple to manipulate generation and then mashup GeoRSS feeds with Google Map through API to show the real estate information with other attribute in the information window. After subscribe to feeds of concerned subjects, users could easily check for new bulletin showing on map through syndication. The primary design goal of GeoRSS is to make spatial data creation as easy as regular Web content development. However, it does more for successfully bridging the gap between traditional GIS professionals and amateurs, Web map hackers, and numerous services that enable location-based content for its simplicity and effectiveness.

  9. The Rents Problem in the Tableau Economique: Revisiting the Phillips Model

    Steenge, Albert E.


    A number of efforts have been made so far to transcribe Francois Quesnay’s Tableau Economique into a modern input± output framework. However, the transcriptions available at present have not been generally accepted. A point of serious discussion has been the fixed coefficients assumption, which date

  10. The Affordability of Housing in the Netherlands: An Increasing Income Gap Between Renting and Owning?

    Haffner, M.E.A.; Boumeester, H.J.F.M.


    Housing became more expensive in the Netherlands between 2002 and 2006, a trend which has been demonstrated using various measures of affordability. The expenditure-to-income ratios calculated for households confirm that the average cost of housing rose for tenants and homeowners, as well as for mos

  11. Effet de la composition de différents substrats culturaux sur ...


    31 janv. 2014 ... Conclusion et application : L'apport de matière organique serait ... Mots clés : multiplication végétale, substrat cultural, paramètres de croissance, Gambeya lacourtiana, .... présentes dans les fruits drupacés ont été dépulpées,.

  12. Hedon spaa = Hedon spa / Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla ; kommenteerinud Nele Rent

    Vaikla, Tüüne-Kristin, 1961-


    Pärnu neoklassitsistlik mudaravila, arhitektid Olev Siinmaa, Erich von Wolffeldt, Aleksander Nürnberg. Hedon spaa Pärnu mudaravilas Ranna pst 1. Sisekujunduse autorid Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla (Vaikla Stuudio), Tuuli Trei, Margit Teikari; Allianss Arhitektid. Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemia 2014/2015 parima ühiskondliku ruumi eest. Lühidalt Vaikla Stuudiost

  13. Contractual Transaction: How Renting a Uterus Makes the Human Body a Commodity in Nepal

    Madhusudan Subedi


    Full Text Available The issue of surrogate motherhood has started public debates in Nepal. With surrogacy a child becomes the object of a legal transaction, while the surrogate mother is used, in effect as an incubator, and the hospital declares commissioned parents’ name of a newborn child. The poor women in low-income countries have been used as means to compensate for the reproductive deficiencies of high-income infertile parents. Do purchasing cheaper services, receiving surrogates easier, and having the possibility of gender selection, all in the poor countries, support ‘surrogacy tourism’ or is it a kind of exploitative relationship? Until today, Nepal’s laws do not have any specific provision to deal with surrogacy and, therefore, it is urgent to address the challenges with commercial surrogacy and establish a precise legal policy.

  14. 78 FR 4158 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request Rent Reform Demonstration (Task Order 1)


    ..., and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) Minimize the burden of the collection of... assignment will limit the extent to which selection bias drives observed results. The demonstration will... number of hours needed to prepare the information collection including number of respondents,...

  15. 25 CFR 213.24 - Rate of rents and royalties on oil and gas leases.


    ... all oil, gas and/or natural gasoline, and/or all other hydrocarbon substances produced and saved from... discretion of the Secretary of the Interior be calculated on the basis of the highest price paid or offered... of the oil of the same gravity, and gas, and/or natural gasoline, and/or all other...

  16. Hedon spaa = Hedon spa / Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla ; kommenteerinud Nele Rent

    Vaikla, Tüüne-Kristin, 1961-


    Pärnu neoklassitsistlik mudaravila, arhitektid Olev Siinmaa, Erich von Wolffeldt, Aleksander Nürnberg. Hedon spaa Pärnu mudaravilas Ranna pst 1. Sisekujunduse autorid Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla (Vaikla Stuudio), Tuuli Trei, Margit Teikari; Allianss Arhitektid. Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemia 2014/2015 parima ühiskondliku ruumi eest. Lühidalt Vaikla Stuudiost

  17. Internal Control Over Financial Reporting and Managerial Rent Extraction: Evidence from the Profitability of Insider Trading

    Skaife, H.A.; Veenman, D.; Wangerin, D.


    This paper examines the association between ineffective internal control over financial reporting and the profitability of insider trading. We predict and find that the profitability of insider trading is significantly greater in firms disclosing material weaknesses in internal control relative to f

  18. Internal control over financial reporting and managerial rent extraction: Evidence from the profitability of insider trading

    H.A. Skaife (Hollis); D. Veenman (David); D. Wangerin (Daniel)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the association between ineffective internal control over financial reporting and the profitability of insider trading. We predict and find that the profitability of insider trading is significantly greater in firms disclosing material weaknesses in

  19. The Potential Economic Rent In The United States From Co 2 Abatement Policies

    Wyatt HARPER


    Full Text Available Increasingly, climate change has come to the fore as an environmental issue with nearly universal agreement that the current trend is unsustainable and must be addressed. Of particular concern is the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, the primary contributor to climate change through the combustion of fossil fuels. In the United States alone, CO2 emissions account for approximately 85% of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, most of which come from fossil fuels (EPA, 2008. Reducing the risk of the damage caused by climate change requires the world to substantially reduce CO2 production. In the past five to ten years several proposals to address climate change have been suggested; most prominently cap-and-trade and carbon taxes. These market-based approaches differ from the traditional command-and-control policies, such as Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency (CAFÉ standards which mandate minimum fleet mileage standards for vehicles sold in the United States, by providing firms a cost-effective and flexible form of environmental regulation. Other benefits also exist, such as technological innovation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and potential revenue sources for governments; the more a firm emits CO2, the more they pay, either in taxes or through purchased emission permits.

  20. The Impact of Leased and Rented Assets on Industry Productivity Measurement

    Wang, Weimin; Moussaly, Karim


    Leasing is an important means of gaining access to assets, of obtaining finance, and of reducing a lessee?s exposure to the risks inherent to asset ownership. A lease can be either a financial lease (capital lease) or an operating lease (capital rental). A financial lease is one where the legal owner of an asset (lessor) passes the economic ownership to the user of the asset (lessee), who then accepts the operating risks and receives the economic benefits from using the asset in a productive ...

  1. Comparing Software Acquisition Models Against Each Other: The Build vs. Buy vs. Rent Trade Study


    quality of the technical processes used by this supplier (e.g., CMMI Level 3, ISO 9001 )? Has this supplier done other projects in this application domain...the PEO. In this position, he was the program manager for the Combat Systems and Training Systems for all U.S. Navy Surface Combatants, training ? If there are multiple versions/releases of the product, which ones will be supported and for how long? What are my options if I am

  2. HOME COST Pct Units by Rent as Pct of HH Income in 1999 NMHD 2000

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  3. HOME COST Units by Rent as Pct of HH Income in 1999 NMHD 2000

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  4. HOME COST Pct Units by Rent as Pct of HH Income in 1999 NMSD 2000

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  5. HOME COST Units by Rent as Pct of HH Income om 1999 NMSD 2000

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  6. Agglomeration Rents,Policy Rents and Agglomeration Mechanism:Study on Science and Technology Service Industries%集聚租、政策租与产业集聚:基于科技服务业的研究



    促进科技服务业集聚的机制可分解为市场机制和政策机制,前者为产业集群内的企业提供集聚租,后者提供政策租。集聚租和政策租都能显著地促进科技服务业的产业集聚,集聚租和政策租在产业集聚的不同过程中发挥着不同的作用,基于市场机制的集聚租能够对科技服务业的集聚产生长久效应,而基于政策机制以获得政策租是促进科技服务企业进驻集群的短期诱因。%Relying on the relevant theory of industry organization and space economics,this paper aims at explaining the motives for the growing self-reinforcement of industry spatial agglomeration. Based on this, the stimulus factors of S&T service industrial agglomeration can be divided into market mechanism and policy mechanism. Correspondingly,the objective of the agglomeration of S&T service industry is to obtain the“ag-glomeration rent”and“policy rent”provided by industry cluster. The results show that,the effect of“policy rent”and“agglomeration rent”on S&T service industrial agglomeration is obvious. In the long term,the effect of“agglomeration rent”on S&T service industrial agglomeration is greater than that of“policy rent”.

  7. Villes écologiques ou durables, exemples d'approches différentes en Asie en Europe

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)


    textabstractLes défis comme l'urbanisation et dégradation environnementale dans des villes historiques peuvent être résolus dans le cadre de la gestion urbaine. Van Dijk (2006) a défini la gestion urbaine comme résoudre les problèmes des communautés urbaines en diminuant en même temps les risques qu

  8. Impact de différents régimes hydriques sur la capacité de ...

    different water conditions affect the microbial functions of aerobic respiration and denitrification ... The potentials of denitrification and respiration were affected by the water conditions applied ...... ecosystem services, Ecological Modelling,. Vol.

  9. 75 FR 27808 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...


    ... many ZIP codes in metropolitan areas. However, the first publication of 5-year ACS data does not begin... the first 5 years of the American Community Survey (ACS) in 5-year aggregations for the areas with... geographic areas than is currently possible using ACS data at one-year or 3-year aggregations. HUD intends to...

  10. 76 FR 22122 - Section 8 Housing Choice Voucher Program-Demonstration Project of Small Area Fair Market Rents in...


    ... opportunity areas, which are where jobs, transportation, and educational opportunities exist, and will reduce... CBSA, as calculated using methods employed for past metropolitan area FMR estimates (for a description... Independent Public Accountant (IPA) audit for the PHA's HCV program, fraud or misconduct, or other...

  11. Ordonnancement des systèmes de production flexibles soumis à différents types de contraintes de blocage

    TRABELSI, Wajdi


    This thesis deals mainly with makespan minimization in Flow-Shop and hybrid Flow-Shop scheduling problems where mixed blocking constraints are considered. In Flow-Shop scheduling problem, a set of N jobs must be executed on a set of M machines. All jobs require the same operation order that must be executed according to the same manufacturing process. Each machine can only execute one job at any time. Pre-emptive operation is not authorized in presented work. In case of hybrid Flow-Shop, at a...

  12. Imputed rent and distributional effects of housing-related policies in Estonia, Italy and the United Kingdom / Virginia Maestri

    Maestri, Virginia


    Eluasemepoliitikast Eestis, Itaalias ja Suurbritannias. Kasutades mikrosimulatsioonimudelit Euromod jäljendatakse ja võrreldakse mainitud riikide eluasemepoliitikat, sh selle mõju ebavõrdsusele ja suhtelisele vaesusele

  13. Contribution à l'identification des différents Thymus dans le ër Parc National de Tlemcen

    Dib, Fatima Zohra née Benmahdi


    Ce travail contribue à l'appréciation de l'impact de l'homme et de son cheptel sur le cortège Q E floristique à Thymus ciliatus subsp coloratus qui appartient sur le plan phytosociologique à la classe: 4r !; Ononido-Rosmarinetea pour la quasi=totalité des matorrals. t~ 4~ Les analyses bioclimatiques, le cortège floristiques et le spectre écologique ont montré que les t` t quatre stations étudiées sont instables en raison de la dégradation progressive du couvert végétal. 4M 4...

  14. Family Inequality, School Inequalities, and Mathematics Achievement in 65 Countries: Microeconomic Mechanisms of Rent Seeking and Diminishing Marginal Returns

    Chiu, Ming Ming


    Background/Context: While many studies show that greater economic inequality widens the achievement gap between rich and poor students, recent studies indicate that countries with greater economic inequality have lower overall student achievement. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: This study explores whether family inequalities…

  15. Land Administration System structured Land rent residuals and China’s urban sprawl – A Case Study of Dashi, Guangzhou

    Liu Xuan


    Full Text Available Urban sprawl has been at the centre of current debate on urban structure. Compared to the rich literature on urban sprawl in Western cities, relatively little is known about the physical consequence and the causes of urban sprawl in China. In China, for peasant collective-owned land (COL, land use right cannot be sold, transferred or leased for non-agricultural construction’. COL could be developed until it is acquired and leased out by the government. Through the process of land acquisition, the peasants could only get the compensation for 30 years' average of annual agricultural production value in addition to compensation for attachments, crops and vegetables which sometimes could hardly support the life of peasants who lost their land. To compensation for the peasants’ loss, the government would leave 10-15% of the acquired land to peasant collectives as Collectively Owned Economic Development Land (COEDL, allowing it used for industrial or commercial purpose. However, development of COEDL manifested to have low development density, quality and output. With a property rights approach, this research evaluates the development process of COEDL in Guangzhou. It has been revealed that high cost to obtain the permit of land use change (nongzhuanyong zhibiao, and to provide infrastructure and public facilities reduce the incentives of peasants to use COEDL legally and more efficiently. Furthermore, as COEDL is forbidden to transfer or mortgage, the financing ability of peasant collectives is thus impaired severely, allowing them only low investment on development. Use of COEDL thus contributes to urban sprawl in China.

  16. Imputed rent and distributional effects of housing-related policies in Estonia, Italy and the United Kingdom / Virginia Maestri

    Maestri, Virginia


    Eluasemepoliitikast Eestis, Itaalias ja Suurbritannias. Kasutades mikrosimulatsioonimudelit Euromod jäljendatakse ja võrreldakse mainitud riikide eluasemepoliitikat, sh selle mõju ebavõrdsusele ja suhtelisele vaesusele

  17. Paying the rent: languaging particularity and novelty Pagando o aluguel: particularidade e originalidade no uso da linguagem

    Charles Bazerman


    Full Text Available Issues of plagiarism and originality have been revivified by the internet in two distinct ways. First, the internet has provided new resources for both school learning and school cheating - raising values of individual responsibility, academic integrity and institutional policing. Second, the internet has heightened the tension between intellectual property and the cultural commons - raising values of economic reward and ownership versus those of cultural heritage, communal creativity, and critical comment. A Bakhtinian way of sorting through these two important sets of issues, without conflating the distinct sets of concerns, is to recognize how deeply we are always embedded in the language of others, using and responding to utterances that proceeded ours, while also recognizing the supplement of originality, freshness, or situational specificity expected in particular tasks. When we analyze academic and other situations from this perspective we find that the expected reliance on the cultural commons and the expected supplement varies from task to task, and a procedure which is considered cheating or a failure of originality in one situation is expected and appropriate in another. In educational settings we would do well to identify with greater specificity how students should use the cultural commons in each task and the specific forms of fresh or novel work we also expect them to accomplish. We should then calibrate our identification of plagiaristic cheating in relation to the specific expected originality appropriate to the task.Problemas de plágio e originalidade têm sido reavivados pela internet de duas formas distintas. Primeiro, a internet tem proporcionado novos recursos tanto no âmbito da aprendizagem quanto no âmbito da fraude escolar _ trazendo à tona valores de responsabilidade individual, de integridade acadêmica e de políticas institucionais. Segundo, a internet tem aumentado a tensão entre a propriedade intelectual e cultural do que é comum _ elevando os valores da recompensa econômica e da propriedade contra os valores que se referem ao patrimônio cultural, à criatividade coletiva e ao comentário crítico. Uma maneira bakhtiniana de distinguir esses dois conjuntos importantes de questões, sem misturar seus interesses particulares, é o de reconhecer o quanto estamos incorporados na linguagem dos outros, usando e respondendo a ditos que procederam aos nossos, reconhecendo também que adicionamos a isso algum detalhe de originalidade, novidade, assim como a especificidade situacional esperada de tarefas particulares. Quando analisamos situações acadêmicas e outras particulares a partir dessa perspectiva, nós achamos que a dependência prevista do contexto cultural comum (de domínio público e do detalhe de originalidade ou novidade a ser adicionado varia de tarefa para tarefa, e um procedimento que é considerado como uma trapaça ou como desprovido de originalidade em uma dada situação é o que é esperado de outra, ou seja, é considerado adequado a outra situação. Em contextos educacionais, faríamos bem em identificar com mais especificidade como os alunos deveriam usar a cultura comum em cada tarefa dada, bem como as formas específicas de inovação ou originalidade que também esperamos que eles realizem em suas tarefas. Devemos então ajustar o que identificamos como plágio ou fraude escolar em relação às nossas expectativas quanto ao que esperamos de originalidade em uma tarefa.

  18. Locked out in Europe: A Comparative Analysis of Evictions Due to Rent Arrears in Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden

    dr Lia van Doorn; Sten-Åke Stenberg; Susanne Gerull


    Although evictions are a significant cause of homelessness they have received relatively little interest from social scientists. International data are scarce and there are few descriptions of the processes leading to evictions. This paper attempts to shed some light on this under-researched issue.

  19. Etude comparative de différents superalliages base Ni pour ressorts de systèmes de maintien

    Ter-Ovanessian, Benoît


    Les systèmes de maintien situés sur les structures assemblages-combustibles des réacteurs nucléaires à eau sous pression (REP) sont constitués d'un empilement de lames qui agissent à la fois, comme élément accommodant les incompatibilités thermiques résultant des différences de coefficients de dilatation Acier, alliages de zirconium et principalement, comme système permettant de limiter les effets hydrodynamiques induits par le passage du fluide caloporteur à travers les assemblages. Actuelle...

  20. Transport adiabatique et phases de Berry : application au contrôle quantique cohérent passif

    Viennot, D.


    L'étude de l'interaction d'atomes ou de molécules avec des champs électromagnétiques intenses, nécéssite le développement de nouveaux outils de modélisation rendant compte de la dynamique quantique de ces systèmes. Une approche purement perturbative étant impossible en champs forts, on s'est tourné vers une approche “adiabatique”. Afin de traiter correctement le cas des croisements de valeurs propres, on a généralisé les formules de transport adiabatique en faisant intervenir une généralisation de la phase de Berry non-abélienne.

  1. 24 CFR 100.60 - Unlawful refusal to sell or rent or to negotiate for the sale or rental.


    ... bona fide offer, because of race, color, religion, sex, familial status, or national origin or to... limited to: (1) Failing to accept or consider a bona fide offer because of race, color, religion, sex... for the sale or rental of a dwelling with, any person because of race, color, religion, sex,...

  2. Martine Monacelli et Michel Prum. Ces hommes qui épousèrent la cause des femmes

    Frédéric REGARD


    Full Text Available Cet ouvrage collectif compte dix chapitres, consacrés chacun à l’un des « pionniers » hommes du féminisme. Les militants ou sympathisants sont  pour certains très célèbres, mais pour d’autres pratiquement inconnus, William Godwin, John Stuart Mill, William Thompson et Edward Carpenter côtoyant William Johnson Fox, George Lansbury, Israel Zangwill, Frederick Pethic-Lawrence, Frederick Billington-Greig ou encore Victor Duval. Une bibliographie sélective complète l’ouvrage, malheureusement dépou...

  3. Locked out in Europe: A Comparative Analysis of Evictions Due to Rent Arrears in Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden

    Stenberg, Sten-Åke; Doorn, Lia van; Gerull, Susanne


    Although evictions are a significant cause of homelessness they have received relatively little interest from social scientists. International data are scarce and there are few descriptions of the processes leading to evictions. This paper attempts to shed some light on this under-researched issue.

  4. Testing and Applying a Theory of Utility; an attempt to decompose income in compensatory and scarcity rents

    J. Tinbergen (Jan); N. Bouma (Nienke); B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)


    textabstractData on income after tax, schooling completed, job held, age, and ‘level of satisfaction’ of 2663 members of the Dutch Consumer Union have been used to estimate regression equations of two types. Type I may be called a specification of a utility function, Type II an ‘earnings function’ (

  5. Family Background of Civil Servants, Entrepreneurship and Rent-seeking Motives%公务员家庭、创业与寻租动机

    李雪莲; 马双; 邓翔



  6. Evaluation isocinétique du genou: quelle est la compatibilité entre différents dynamomètres?

    Paulus, Julien; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis


    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the compatibility between dynamometer Biodex System 3 Pro, Con-Trex MJ PM-2 and Cybex Humac CSMI of knee extensors and flexors. Material & method Twenty-one subjects, moderately active, performed three isokinetic evaluation sessions with six to ten days of rest between each. Each of it, performed on a dynamometer in accordance with a different randomized order, included a concentric evaluation (60°.s-1 & 240°.s-1), eccentric (30°.s-1) an...

  7. Recherche comparée du corpus lexical des résidents de langue maternelle hongroise dans deux régions différents

    Molnár Zoltán Miklós


    Full Text Available A Szombathely, ville de Hongrie occidentale à la chaire de linguistique hongroise de l'École Normale Supérieure "Berzsenyi Dániel", on fait des recherches de géographie linguistique et sociolinguistiques depuis 1973 sous la conduite de Géza Szabó (Szabó, G. 1976. Moi, je me suis associé à ces recherches en 1978. Avant, jusqu' à 1984, j'ai  étudié l'usage de langue des normaliens  de Szombathely, done   des étudiants provenant en grande partie de Transdanubie Occidentale (Molnár 1980. Pendant ce temps, je me suis appliqué à connaître le plus minutieusement possible le terrain dialectal en question (Molnár 1990. En meme temps j' ai eu la possibilité de me faire une idée sur l'usage de langue des Hongrois vivant dans les pays voisins, surtout des Hongrois de Slovénie entre 1988 et 1993 en qualité de lecteur à Maribor  (Molnár 1986, 1991.

  8. Écologie des stomoxes (Diptera : Muscidae au Gabon. I – Premier inventaire dans différentes zones écologiques

    Mavoungou J.F.


    Full Text Available Les stomoxes (Stomoxys spp. sont des diptères hématophages, vecteurs potentiels de divers agents pathogènes. Comme ceux de la région afrotropicale en général, les stomoxes du Gabon demeurent mal connus. Pour ces raisons, une enquête entomologique a été conduite de façon transversale dans huit localités représentatives des diverses zones écologiques du Gabon. L’enquête est basée sur l’utilisation de pièges Vavoua. Divers facteurs environnementaux pouvant influer sur les captures ont été relevés et inclus dans une analyse canonique des correspondances. Au total, 15 966 stomoxes, appartenant à sept espèces ou sous-espèces, ont été capturés. Les densités apparentes (DAP, exprimées en nombre de stomoxes par piège et par jour, sont importantes dans les localités de Franceville (41, Bakoumba (40, Makokou (25 et Mouila (21. Les espèces les plus abondantes sont Stomoxys n. niger (33,4 % de l’ensemble des captures, S. transvittatus (33 % puis S. calcitrans (17 %. Les principaux facteurs qui expliquent la variabilité des captures sont le degré d’anthropisation du milieu, le faciès botanique (savane ou forêt, la présence de la faune sauvage et domestique et la nature de la couverture végétale du sol. S. calcitrans et S. n. niger sont abondants dans les zones où la présence humaine est manifeste. S. xanthomelas est inféodé aux zones forestières. S. transvittatus, S. omega, et S. inornatus sont des espèces ubiquistes. S. niger bilineatus se retrouve dans les zones de savane.

  9. Etat des lieux des flux céréaliers en Wallonie selon différentes filières d'utilisation

    Delcour, A.


    Full Text Available Survey on cereal resources in Wallonia according to their different uses. Survey on cereal resources in Wallonia according to their different uses. More than 60% of the arable cropped area in Wallonia is dedicated to cereals. Cereal chains were initially aimed at ensuring food security but are now progressively oriented towards new non-food uses. Walloon cereal chains are now having to face up to new global challenges: to ensure the competitiveness and sustainability of vegetal and animal chains, to match society's expectations and to meet the biomass needs for energy uses and bio-based products. Within this framework, this research aims to evaluate the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of future scenarios of current and potential food and non-food uses for Walloon cereals. This paper, the first in a series of two, presents the current picture of Walloon cereal crops and their uses. Various steps are analyzed: production, collection, wholesale and processing. Four main uses characterize cereal processing: the so-called "4Fs", representing Food (human food uses, Feed (animal feed uses, Fuel (energy uses and Fiber (material uses. Data collected from stakeholders in the Walloon cereal chain enabled us to assess cereal flows for the "4Fs", drawing a qualitative and a quantitative picture of Walloon cereal resources including the key elements of the cereal chains. This approach serves as a basis for a prospective exercise, described in a companion paper, which develops potential uses for Walloon cereal resources at the 2030 horizon.

  10. Rent-seeking and financial capital, reform and revolution : the differences of interpretation on the New Capitalism between Keynes and the marxist tradition of Bukharin, Hilferding and Lenin

    Leandro Ramos Pereira


    Resumo:Esta dissertação compara as interpretações sobre o "novo capitalismo" que emerge a partir do final do século XIX entre Keynes e a Tradição Marxista que relaciona o capital financeiro e o Imperialismo (Lênin, Hilferding e Bukhárin), e suas implicações no que se refere às características do Estado Nacional, a natureza da ordem internacional, e as relações políticas. Procuramos demonstrar que a interpretação de Keynes diverge qualitativamente do pensamento desta Tradição Marxista. Enquant...

  11. Distribution dans la mucoviscidose et écologie des différentes espèces du complexe Scedosporium apiospermum

    Rougeron, Amandine


    The Pseudallescheria boydii / Scedosporium apiospermum species complex ranks second among the filamentous fungi isolated from sputum samples of patients with cystic fibrosis, the most common genetic inherited disease in the Caucasian population and whose prognosis is closely related to respiratory functional deterioration. Distribution of the five different species of the complex was investigated in French patients with cystic fibrosis. Our results suggest that P. boydii is the predominant sp...

  12. Dosage rapide des différents alcaloïdes de Lupinus albus L. et de Lupinus mutabilis Sweet pour la sélection

    Pothier, J.; LENOBLE, M.; Pousset, J.L.


    La méthode de dosage des alcaloïdes décrite ici répond aux impératifs de la sélection : faible quantité de matériel, rapidité, précision suffisante. L’analyse est faite sur 1 g de poudre de graines dont les alcaloïdes ont été extraits par l’éther. Les extraits sont déposés sur plaque de gel de silice, élués avec un mélange séparant bien la lupanine et la spartéine des autres alcaloïdes, puis révélés au Dragendorff modifié. Le dosage est effectué avec un photomètre enregistreur en comparai...

  13. Interaction entre différentes souches de Rhizobium lupini et les espèces ou cultivars de lupin (Lupinus albus, Lupinus luteus et Lupinus mutabilis)

    LAGACHERIE, Bernard; Bours, Michele; Giraud, J Jacques; SOMMER, Georges


    L’efficacité fixatrice de souches de Rhizobium lupini a été mesurée en serre sur Lupinus albus, luteus et mutabilis. De fortes interactions se manifestent : 86 p. 100 des souches testées ont une bonne efficacité sur L. albus, 52 p. 100 sur L. mutabilis et 40 p. 100 sur L. luteus ; 22 p. 100 des souches ont une bonne efficacité fixatrice sur les trois espèces. Les interactions observées en serre se conservent au champ où les souches fixatrices augmentent le rendement en grain et la teneur ...

  14. Potentialités des lasers à fibre dans la génération de rayonnement cohérent UV

    Martel, G.; Hideur, A.; Ortaç, B.; Lecourt, J.-B.; Chédot, C.; Brunel, M.; Chéron, B.; Limpert, J.; Tunnermann, T.; Grelu, Ph.; Gicquel-Guézo, M.; Labbé, C.; Loualiche, S.; Roussignol, Ph.; Sanchez, F.; Leblond, H.


    Le premier laser à fibre dopé aux ions de terres rares fonctionna au tout début des années 60. Il fournissait quelques milliwatts autour de 1 μm. Les décades suivantes virent très peu d'améliorations tant du côté des laboratoires que du point de vue industriel. La dernière décennie (1995/2005) vit se concrétiser la seconde révolution des lasers à fibres. Déjà kilowatt en continu, ils atteignent désormais les 1013 watts/cm2 avec des impulsions de la centaine de femtoseconde. Lors de cette présentation nous passerons en revue les potentialités des lasers à fibre. Nous décrirons les verrous technologiques qui ont été levés ces dix dernières années pour les régimes CW mais aussi femtosecondes. Nous montrerons également comment la prochaine génération de fibres optiques actuellement en développement permettra d'offrir des sources stables et de très haute puissance pour l'avenir proche.

  15. Diffusion incohérente des neutrons : modèles analytiques pour la dynamique interne des protéines

    Bicout, D. J.


    La dynamique interne des protéines joue un rôle central dans la stabilité, la fonction et l'activité biologique de ces biomolécules. Il est maintenant établi que les fluctuations d'états conformationnels des protéines influencent fortement la plupart des réactions biochimiques et s'accompagnent d'une augmentation brutale des déplacements carrés moyens des atomes au dessus de la température de la transition dynamique. Dans cette contribution, nous présentons une revue critique de quelques modèles théoriques couramment utilisés dans la littérature pour l'analyse des mouvements internes des protéines et la description de la transition dynamique.

  16. Expression de différents écotypes de gombo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. au déficit hydrique intervenant pendant la boutonnisation et la floraison

    Sawadogo M., Zombre G., Balma D.


    Full Text Available Behaviour of different ecotypes of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. under water deficit during budding and flowering phases. Despite numerous uses and its well known nutritional value, okra is cultivated on very small surfaces, on surroundings of traditional houses and often in dumping ground. To this little interest are added drought, diseases and pests that generate an important reduction of yield, leading okra to play the last roles in agricultural research programs of the country and this, despite the existence of early maturing ecotypes or resistant to some abiotic constraints. The low rate of improved varieties is the proof that it is necessary to develop strategies for participatory breeding programs that take into account farmers selection criteria including genotypes tolerant or resistant to drastic conditions such as water deficit to periods where the plant is expressing its genetic potential. Six ecotypes obtained through participatory plant breeding process in five agricultural districts of the country have been assessed for the tolerance to the drought occurring during the budding and the flowering phases. Results show that water deficit during budding phase has disastrous consequences for okra plants. The yield declines, and also the length, the number and the weight of fruits. Two types of period of flowering phases of okra plant have been observed: the period which intervenes during the accelerated growth phase of the main stem (type 1 and the one which starts once the growth of main stem begins to decline (type 2; this last type is the most frequently met. Water deficit during the phase of budding causes earlier flowering of type 2 plants and leads to delayed flowering of the type 1 plants. The best variables for discriminating okra ecotypes during water deficit are the relative water content (RWC, the length and the number of fruits. Three ecotypes (V1, V3 and V4 are chosen to be used in breeding program of okra for resistance to water deficit.





  18. KUMHO RENT-A-CAR do business with a low-pitched attitude in China%李立全:锦湖低调行走中国



    @@ 赫兹已于2006年3月1日提前撤回了它的中国棋子,特许经营遭遇水土不服.比起赫兹,韩国的锦湖汽车租赁进入中国晚了将近三年,而锦湖汽车租赁(北京)公司(简称"锦湖")中方副总经理李立全在接受本刊记者采访时却说,他们目前很低调的原因并不是客户少,而是担心能否有足够的指标为其越来越多的客户提供服务……

  19. Acclimatation de vitroplants de bananier Musa sp. en culture hydroponique: impact de différentes concentrations en cuivre sur la croissance des vitroplants

    Mazinga, MK.


    Full Text Available Acclimatation of Banana's Vitroplants (Musa sp. in Hydroponic Culture: Effects of Different Concentrations Copper on Growth of Vitroplants. Constraints due to copper and consequences of its accumulation in acclimatized banana in vitroplants have been studied in hydroponic culture. 0-100- 500-1000 ppm copper was added to the nutrient medium in hydroponic culture. At 1000 ppm, copper was accumulated in the roots but not in the aerial parts. Surprisingly, biomass of shoots and roots was augmented significantly at this concentration (with leaves as an exception. Plant height was reduced strongly even at 100 ppm CuSO4, although the copper content in shoots and leaves was very low.

  20. Dynamic Renting Decision Based on Option Method%基于期权方法的动态租赁决策



    Many researches concentrated on the analysis of leasing decisions, which afford no flexibility to adjust the term of the leasing during its life. Since these analyses are based on Discounted Cash Flow, it is inadequate for valuing the various options written into many leasing contracts. In this paper, a leasing decision with several real options was analyzed. An option-based numerical analysis is used here with an exampite to value such. discrete-time type of real options.

  1. Composition et flore microbienne de lait de yak frais et fermenté du Tibet à différentes altitudes.

    Wu, Xiao-He; Luo, Zhang; Yu, Li; Ren, Fa-Zheng; Han, Bei-Zhong; Nout, M.J. Robert


    International audience; Yak milk is a type of milk that people are less familiar with due to its remote geographical location, the particular geographical environment and climatic conditions in Tibet, which may have significant effects on composition, microbiota and fermentation outcome. To investigate the chemical composition and microbiota of fresh and fermented yak milk, and to isolate and characterize the predominant microorganisms in the fermented milk, yak milk (24 fresh and 30 fermente...

  2. Microcavités non linéaires en régime d’excitation cohérente

    Oden, Jérémy


    High quality factor and small modal volume microcavities allow, thanks to a strong light confinement, an enhancement of light matter interactions and the realization of low energy consumption devices for optical signal processing.In this work, we study the coherent excitation of nonlinear photonic crystal resonators, which is achieved by controlling the pulse time-Frequency relation, enabling nonlinear interaction enhancement.A modeling of the intra-Cavity nonlinear dynamics is conducted usin...

  3. 进出口贸易中寻租行为的博弈分析%Gambling Analysis of Rent-seeking Activity in External Trade



    Smuggling behavior seriously damages national ecofiomy. From the economics point of view, the popper analyses smuggling behavior and corruption of Customs law enforcement officials by using rentseeking theory, points out its causes economically, analyses the act of offering and accepting bribes by using game model, and raises the countermeasure of supervision and renovation.

  4. Trente années qui ébranlèrent la physique histoire de la théorie quantique

    Gamow, George


    G. Gamow, dans cet ouvrage, déploie une fois encore ses qualités d'historien, de vulgarisateur et d'homme d'esprit. L'"histoire de la théorie quantique" raconte la naissance de la physique moderne au cours des trente premières années du siècle, en nous guidant ainsi à travers cette galerie de portraits où les grands noms de la physique sont présentés, par les textes, les photographies et les croquis, sous leur aspect le moins académique.

  5. Why the US Needs a Deep Domestic Research Facility: Owning rather than Renting the Education Benefits, Technology Advances, and Scientific Leadership of Underground Physics

    Lesko, Kevin T


    I summarize the status of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota and present connections to Energy and Intensity Frontier that benefit from the establishment of SURF and the staging of US-funded experiments in a domestic facility.

  6. Développement de nouveaux chromophores basés sur le groupement tricyanofurane pour différentes applications en biologie

    Ipuy, Martin


    Tricyanofuran is a strong electro-withdrawing group due to its three conjugated nitrile groups. This electronic characteristic was used to synthetize new fluorescent probes for biological imaging: small molecules owing a strong dipolar behavior that strongly shifts the fluorescence to the red. A first application of this kind of molecules is intracellular pH detection with a phenol moiety conjugated to the tricyanofuran. Thanks to a convenient retro-synthesis, a large family was developed dis...

  7. Bilan et apports de différentes Analyses Sociales du Cycle de Vie menées dans le secteur des agro-industries

    Delcour, A.


    Full Text Available Assessment and contributions of different Social Life Cycle Assessments performed in the agribusiness sector. Introduction. Consumers are attaching increasing importance to the sustainability of the products they purchase. The agribusiness sector is well aware of this trend and is making efforts to guarantee product sustainability. Literature. Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA is a widely used methodology (like others in this field, such as ISO 26000 and SA 8000 for evaluating the social impact of the activities involved in the life cycle of a product. The S-LCA guidelines were published in 2009 and therefore the framework for this methodology is not yet well established. Nevertheless, some S-LCA studies have been completed and have contributed to the development of the methodology. The objective of this paper is to give feedback to the agribusiness sector and researchers regarding prospects for future use of Social Life Cycle Assessment in the agribusiness sector. Papers selected for this literature review have been chosen on the basis of Scopus's query from 2000 to the present day. Scopus's query contains analyses of major international conferences. The case studies in the agribusiness sector that are reviewed in this paper highlight the usefulness of a social hotspots database, the need for stakeholder involvement in S-LCA implementation, the link between S-LCA and its regional context, and the benefits of developing causal links between indicators and impact categories, such as working conditions and governance. Conclusions. Further methodological investigation needs to be conducted in order to standardize this new methodology. Its ability to provide an overview of assessment of socioeconomic impacts makes it a good choice for evaluating the aspect of social impact as part of sustainability studies.

  8. 41 CFR 301-11.15 - What expenses may be considered part of the daily lodging cost when I rent on a long-term basis?


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What expenses may be... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL... the price of a hotel/motel room in the area concerned, the cost of special user fees (e.g., cable TV...

  9. Identification de lois de comportement représentatives des conditions d’usinage pour des alliages de titane à différentes teneurs alpha/beta

    Germain, Guénaël; Ayed, Yessine; BRAHAM-BOUCHNAK, Tarek; MOREL, Anne


    Determining a material constitutive law which is representative of the extreme conditions found in the cutting zone during machining operations is a very challenging problem. In this study, dynamic shear tests, which reproduce, as faithfully as possible, these conditions in terms of strain, strain rate and temperature, have been developed using hat-shaped specimens. The objective was to identify the parameters of a Johnson-Cook material behaviour model by an inverse method for three titanium ...

  10. Etude de la valeur nutritive de la caroube de différentes variétés Algériennes


    Le caroubier (Ceratonia siliqua L.) est originaire des pays méditerranéens, il est robuste et rustique. Le caroubier est cultivé pour ses gousses, abondantes et riches en sucre à maturité, Elles sont broyées avec leurs graines pour en faire une farine destinée à l’aliment de bétail. Les pulpes et les graines de caroube de trois régions d’Algérie ont fait l’objet de notre étude, dans le but de déterminer leur co mposition chimique pour un intérêt nutritionnel et thérapeutique. En e...

  11. Violence in Venezuela: oil rent and political crisis Violência na Venezuela: renda petroleira e crise política

    Roberto Briceño-León


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the changes in violence in Venezuela during the last forty years. It links the ups and downs of the oil revenues and the political crisis of the country to the changes in the homicide rates, which increased from 7 per 100 thousand inhabitants in 1970 to 12 in 1990, 19 in 1998 and 50 in 2003. The article characterizes Venezuela as a rentist society and shows its trajectory from rural violence to the beginning of urban violence, the guerilla movements of the 60s, the delinquent violence related to the abundance of oil revenues and the violence during the popular revolt and the sackings of 1989 in Caracas. After this, we analyze the coups d'état of 1992 and the influence the political violence exerted upon criminal violence. We describe the political and party changes in the country, their influence upon the stabilization of homicide rates since the mid-90s and their remarkable increase during the H. Chávez government. The article finishes with an analysis of the current situation, the official prohibition to publish statistics on homicides and with some thoughts about the perspective of greater violence in Venezuela.O presente artigo analisa as mudanças na violência ocorridas na Venezuela nos últimos quarenta anos, relacionadas com os altos e baixos da renda petroleira e com a crise política no país, fatos que contribuíram para um aumento nas taxas de homicídios: de 7 por cada cem mil habitantes em 1970 a 12 em 1990, 19 em 1998 e 50 no ano de 2003. O artigo caracteriza a Venezuela como sociedade rentista e, a partir daí, faz uma retrospecção cobrindo desde a violência rural até os inícios da violência urbana, o movimento guerrilheiro dos anos sessenta, a criminalidade resultando da abundância dos recursos petroleiros e a violência em decorrência da revolta popular e dos saques ocorridos em 1989 em Caracas. Em seguida são analisados os golpes de Estado de 1992 e o impacto que a violência política exerceu sobre a violência criminal. Descrevemos as mudanças políticas e partidárias no país e sua influência sobre a estabilização das taxas de homicídios em meados dos anos noventa, assim como, seu considerável aumento durante o governo Chávez. O artigo conclui com uma análise da situação atual, fala sobre a proibição de publicar dados estatísticos sobre homicídios e faz uma reflexão sobre a perspectiva de ainda mais violência na Venezuela.

  12. History background of the unity of the “pampeanas” agricultural groups. The formation of the Liaison Committee and the dispute over the rent (1970-1973

    Gonzalo Sebastián Sanz Cerbino


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to contribute to the understanding of the political intervention of the agrarian “pampeana” bourgeoisie, taking as observable the actions and the rural groups positions at a time of political crisis. Studies on the topic have tended to overestimate the differences between small producers ("landholders" and large ("oligarchs", which has overshadowed the study of the moments of confluence, which have at least 40 years of history in the Argentina. After discussing the dominant approach in the literature, we will address the creation, in 1970, of the Liaison Committee, where converged Agrarian Federation, CONINAGRO, Argentine Rural Confederations and Rural Society. Drawing on national newspapers and corporate institutional documents, we rebuild the agreements around this alliance was structured and her specific intervention

  13. Cryptographie quantique avec des états cohérents à longueur d'onde télécom

    Lodewyck, J.; Tualle-Brouri, R.; Debuisschert, T.; Grangier, P.


    Nous proposons un système de distribution quantique de clé avec des variables continues, implémenté avec des technologies télécom à 1550 nm. Le dispositif actuel nous a permis de transmettre une clé secrète brute au taux de 1 Mb/s sur une distance de quelques mètres. Une extension en cours de réalisation nous permettra de transmettre des clés sur des distances allant jusqu'à plusieurs dizaines dekilomètres.

  14. La compétence culturelle et ses différentes composantes dans la mise en oeuvre de la perspective actionnelle : une problèmatique didactique

    Christian Puren


    Full Text Available “Intercultural competence”, as it remains generally designed in language and cultures’ teaching, has been criticised, which we will briefly recall. It cannot, in particular, be opposed to the “cultural competence”, but must be considered one of its components; necessary in connection with two other components previously appeared in the discipline, trans and meta-cultural approaches. A model of cultural competence complex enough must now include two additional components: multicultural and co-cultural because they are required by the two new issues emerged in the Common European Framework of Reference, namely living and acting together in a multilingual and multicultural Europe. The paper illustrates these new cultural issues in language and cultures’ teaching by presenting the example of a FFL manual the cultural approach of which aims to all these cultural competence components work all together.

  15. Rent Seeking and the Smoke and Mirrors Game in the Creation of Forest Sector Carbon Credits: An Example from British Columbia

    Kooten, van G.C.; Bogle, T.; Vries, de F.P.


    From a cost standpoint and as demonstrated in this paper, it is beneficial to permit forest-sector carbon offsets in lieu of carbon dioxide emissions reduction. Such offsets play a role in voluntary markets and Europe’s Emission Trading System. However, problems related to additionality, leakages,

  16. Rent Spillovers or Knowledge Spillovers?--A Literature Review.%租金外溢还是知识外溢?--一个文献综述

    王林; 张增强


      构建权重矩阵来衡量研发外溢是最常用的衡量间接研发资本的方式,常用的是基于贸易额、专利信息和投入产出信息等来构建权重矩阵,但其中存在较多争议的是基于专利信息所构建的权重矩阵。通过对有关文献进行梳理,以及其所对应的衡量方式进行综述,发现以往对研发外溢的衡量主要侧重于宏观层面,如国家或行业层面,但对企业研发外溢的衡量较少,因此,对企业研发外溢的衡量是后续研究的主要侧重面。%Construction of weight matrix to measure R & D spillovers is the most commonly used measure of indirect development capital approach, is used to construct the weight matrix based on trade, patent information and input and output information, but the more controversial is the weight matrix construction based on Patent Information.. Through carries on the literature review, and measure the corresponding were reviewed, found in the past to measure R & D spillovers mainly focus on the macro level, such as the national level or industry to industry, but less on the measure of R & D spillovers, therefore, to measure the enterprise R & D spillovers is the follow-up research focuses mainly on the surface.

  17. La densité a-t-elle une influence sur les comportements sociaux ? Des échelles territoriales différentes

    Hervé Le Bras


    Full Text Available L'idée de densité a sans doute précédé celle de population. Pour Jean Bodin dont on cite sans vergogne le célèbre "Il n'est de richesses que d'hommes", la densité indiquait à la fois la cause et le critère du fonctionnement de l'État. Pour Montesquieu elle épousait le régime politique : les Républiques étaient densément peuplées ; dans les Monarchies, la population se groupait au centre du pouvoir et à la frontière, laissant l'espace intermédiaire presque vide, et dans les tyrannies, la densi...

  18. Limits to the introduction of market institutions in a sector of income; Les limites a l'introduction des institutions de marche dans un secteur de rente

    Locatelli, C.; Finon, D. [Laboratoire d' Economie de la Production et de l' Integration Internationale, Departement Energie et Politiques de l' Environnement (LEPII/EPE), UPMF, 38 - Grenoble (France)


    This article uses an empirical study to test the validity of the liberal approach of market transition. The example chosen is the reform (privatization) of the Russian hydrocarbons industry. This case has been chosen because it represents an extreme case of inadequateness of the measures preconized by the Washington consensus with respect to the institutional environment. It represents also a typical case of opportunistic adaptation of the behaviour of private and government actors to the rough enforcement of market institutions to a very specific institutional environment. The inadequateness of these institutions with the initial informal institutions has led to adaptations totally dependent of the institutional path with the necessity of preserving a minimum inter-industrial consistency. On the other hand, it seems that the uncertainty about the property rights in general is tightly correlated with the abundance of exploitable and exportable natural resources. (J.S.)

  19. La densité a-t-elle une influence sur les comportements sociaux ? Des échelles territoriales différentes

    Hervé Le Bras


    Full Text Available L'idée de densité a sans doute précédé celle de population. Pour Jean Bodin dont on cite sans vergogne le célèbre "Il n'est de richesses que d'hommes", la densité indiquait à la fois la cause et le critère du fonctionnement de l'État. Pour Montesquieu elle épousait le régime politique : les Républiques étaient densément peuplées ; dans les Monarchies, la population se groupait au centre du pouvoir et à la frontière, laissant l'espace intermédiaire presque vide, et dans les tyrannies, la densi...

  20. Application of REITs in the Construction of Low-renting Public Housing%REITs在我国公共租赁房建设中的应用

    刘方强; 李世蓉



  1. Increased auctioning in the EU ETS and trade in guarantees of origin for renewables: a comparison of the impact on power sector producer rents

    Ragwitz, Mario; Resch, Gustav; Schleich, Joachim


    The European Commission is currently reviewing two major policy instruments which will pose major economic challenges and opportunities for EU power producers. First, the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is likely to include a high percentage of auctioning. Second, support schemes for electricity from renewable energy sources may involve open private-actor trade of guarantees of origins (GO). This paper provides a first coarse comparison of the impacts of these policy changes on pow...

  2. Framework for consistent traffic and accident statistical data bases = Cadre pour des bases de données statistiques cohérentes sur la circulation et les accidents.

    OECD Scientific Expert Group T8


    The OECD Road Transport Research Scientific Expert Group T8 "Framework for Consistent Traffic and Accident Statistical Data Bases" was confronted with the old problem of the inconsistency of data between countries, and the lack of some data altogether, especially traffic data for use as a measure of

  3. Study on the Strategy of Providing Rents of Governments in Public Goods Technology Innovation%公共产品技术创新研发阶段政府提供租金的策略研究

    海江涛; 仲伟俊


    In the development stage of public goods technological innovation, the government will adopt different R&D contest to encourage enterprises to obtain the required technology and increase social welfare surplus. Taki-ng three participating enterprises for example, we compare completely biased single award competition, completely biased multi-award competition, incompletely biased single award competition and incompletely biased multi-award competition to comprehend the effect of the required technology. The conclusion has a certain theoretical and prac-tical significance to the understanding of public goods technology innovation.%在公共产品技术创新的研发阶段,政府部门会选用不同的竞争方式激励企业投入研发,以保证获取所需的技术,增加社会福利。以三个参与企业为研究对象,比较了完全偏袒条件下的单奖励竞赛、完全偏袒条件下的多奖励竞赛、不完全偏袒条件下的单奖励竞赛和不完全偏袒条件下的多奖励竞赛四种不同的竞赛方式对政府实际技术获取效果的影响,研究结论对认识公共产品技术创新有着一定的理论和现实意义。

  4. Les procédés métalinguistiques et la saisie du référent exotique. Le cas d’incompatibilité sémantico-référentielle

    Afsaneh Pourmazaheri


    Full Text Available Which metalinguistic processes are used in a travel narrati­ve, when the universe of reference (which serves as the referen­tial framework experienced by the author-traveler is fundamen­tally heterogeneous to the language of the author and to his readers? What does he do to name the referen­ts which have not received a name in that language? This is an importan­t question especially at the beginning of the nineteen­th cen­tury when Orien­talists began to take an interest in the East. The Western author feels a priori that his poten­tial reader is capable of grasping the represen­tations he transcribed of real referen­ts of exotic character. However, the estimate made is false, resulting in a break in understanding on the reader’s side. This occurs especially when the textual referen­t moves away from the “real” referen­t. The cogniti­ve and seman­tic-referen­tial difference or approximation are analyzed in the case of unexplained foreign words, using the strategies implemen­ted by the author that we will discuss. For us, it is a question of studying, from a seman­tico-discursive perspecti­ve, the differen­t processes that allow the writer to describe the exotic referen­t, starting from a limited corpus of texts of French travelers in Persia in the nineteen­th cen­tury.

  5. Framework for consistent traffic and accident statistical data bases = Cadre pour des bases de données statistiques cohérentes sur la circulation et les accidents.

    OECD Scientific Expert Group T8


    The OECD Road Transport Research Scientific Expert Group T8 "Framework for Consistent Traffic and Accident Statistical Data Bases" was confronted with the old problem of the inconsistency of data between countries, and the lack of some data altogether, especially traffic data for use as a measure of

  6. Étude de la longévité du pollen de colza soumis à différentes conditions de température et d'hygrométrie

    Pierre, Justine; RENARD, Michel


    Du pollen de colza a été soumis à 4 conditions de température et d'hygrométrie (conditions extérieures ; 20 °C et HR 60 % ; 20 °C et HR 40 % ; 3 à 5 °C. et HR variable de 40 à 95 %) pendant une durée de 0 à 15 jours. Sa viabilité a été mesurée par un test de coloration au TTC (Triphényl tétrazolium chloride). Les résultats montrent que la viabilité du pollen décroît très rapidement au bout de huit jours. C'est en conditions extérieures que la longévité est la plus courte (taux de viabilité de...

  7. Les différentes échelles de l’espace de la villégiature balnéaire : l’exemple de la côte d’Emeraude

    Isabelle Barbedor


    Full Text Available Figure 1Extrait de : France. Inventaire général des monuments et des richesses artistiques de la France. Service régional de Bretagne. La côte d’Emeraude. La villégiature balnéaire autour de Dinard et Saint-Malo. Réd. I. Barbedor, G. Delignon, V. Orain, J.-J. Rioult. Editions du patrimoine, 2001. (coll. Cahiers du Patrimoine, n° 60. Page de couverture. Dinard, villa Greystones, le porte-à-faux du grand salon. Michel Roux-Spitz architecte. 1938-1950Cliché Inventaire général, Guy Artur et Norb...

  8. L’inflammation postprandiale : les données récentes suggèrent un rôle préventif des protéines alimentaires et de leur nature

    Mariotti François


    Full Text Available It is now well known that a high-energy meal that is rich in saturated fat and sugars induces the transient appearance of some metabolic dysregulations and inflammatory-related phenomena in the postprandial state, in close association with the increase in plasma triglycerides and glucose. Documented features of postprandial inflammation include the increase in plasma inflammatory markers related to the systemic level (e.g. proinflammatory cytokines or the vascular endothelium (e.g. adhesion molecules, the activation of blood leucocytes, and different physiological markers of ‘‘endothelial dysfunction’’, which relates to the transition of the endothelium toward a pro-inflammatory atherogenic phenotype. The role of fat and carbohydrates in postprandial inflammation has been much studied, while the impact of dietary protein has been overlooked. The present review will focus on the few recent studies that have examined the effect of dietary protein, and different dietary protein sources, on postprandial inflammation and reported a favorable impact on endothelial function. The literature also showed that arginine and cysteine are important amino acids in mediating these effects. Some further studies in this setting are warranted to better characterize and analyze the potential benefit of different dietary protein sources for cardiovascular risk.

  9. A Formalism for the Consistent Description of Non-Linear Elasticity of Anisotropic Media Formalisme pour une description cohérente de l'élasticité non linéaire des milieux anisotropes

    Helbig K.


    Full Text Available The propagation of elastic waves is generally treated under four assumptions: - that the medium is isotropic,- that the medium is homogeneous, - that there is a one-to-one relationship between stress and strain, - that stresses are linearly related to strains (equivalently, that strains are linearly related to stresses. Real media generally violate at least some-and often all-of these assumptions. A valid theoretical description of wave propagation in real media thus depends on the qualitative and quantitative description of the relevant inhomogeneity, anisotropy, and non-linearity: one either has to assume (or show that the deviation from the assumption can - for the problem at hand - be neglected, or develop a theoretical description that is valid even under the deviation. While the effect of a single deviation from the ideal state is rather well understood, difficulties arise in the combination of several such deviations. Non-linear elasticity of anisotropic (triclinic rock samples has been reported, e. g. by P. Rasolofosaon and H. Yin at the 6th IWSA in Trondheim (Rasolofosaon and Yin, 1996. Non-linear anisotropic elasticity matters only for non-infinitesimalamplitudes, i. e. , at least in the vicinity of the source. How large this vicinity is depends on the accuracy of observation and interpretation one tries to maintain, on the source intensity, and on the level of non-linearity. This paper is concerned with the last aspect, i. e. , with the meaning of the numbers beyond the fact that they are the results of measurements. As a measure of the non-linearity of the material, one can use the strain level at which the effective stiffness tensor deviates significantly from the zero-strain stiffness tensor. Particularly useful for this evaluation is the eigensystem (six eigenstiffnesses and six eigenstrains of the stiffness tensor : the eigenstrains provide suitable strain typesfor the calculation of the effective stiffness tensor, and the deviation can be expressed by the relative change of the eigenstiffnesses and by the variation in the direction of the eigenstrains (expressed as vectors in six-dimensional strain space. The suggested procedure is applied to the two materials discussed by Rasolofosaon and Yin (1996. The results allow a heuristic evaluation of the meaning of the reference strain , the square root of the ratio of the norms of the fourth-rank and sixth-rank stiffness tensors. It is stressed that this is not a new theory of non-linearity, but only a different way of viewing the existing theory and results. La propagation des ondes élastiques est généralement traitée sous quatre hypothèses : - le milieu est isotrope, - le milieu est homogène, - il y a une relation biunivoque entre la tension et la déformation, - les tensions sont reliées d'une façon linéaire aux déformations (et de manière équivalente, les déformations sont reliées d'une façon linéaire aux tensions. En général au moins une de ces hypothèses - et souvent toutes - n'est pas vérifiée dans les milieux réels. Une description théorique valide de la propagation des ondes dans les milieux réels dépend ainsi de la description à la fois qualitative et quantitative de l'hétérogénéité, de l'anisotropie et de la non-linéarité : soit on doit supposer (ou montrer que l'écart par rapport à l'hypothèse de départ peut être - pour le problème considéré - négligé, soit on doit développer une description théorique, valide même en présence de ces écarts. Alors que l'effet d'un seul écart par rapport à un état idéal est relativement bien connu, les difficultés surviennent quand on veut combiner plusieurs de ces écarts. Les propriétés élastiques non linéaires d'échantillons de roche anisotropes (tricliniques ont été étudiées, par P. Rasolofosaon et H. Yin au 6e IWSA à Trondheim (Rasolofosaon et Yin, 1996. L'élasticité anisotrope non linéaire est importante seulement pour les amplitudes non infinitésimales , c'est-à-dire dans un certain voisinage de la source. L'étendue de ce voisinage dépend de la précision de l'observation et de l'interprétation que l'on tente de maintenir, de l'intensité de la source, et du degré de non-linéarité. Cet article traite du dernier aspect, c'est-à-dire de la signification des nombres au-delà du fait qu'ils sont le résultat de mesures. Pour la mesure de la non-linéarité des matériaux, on peut utiliser le seuil de déformation au niveau duquel le tenseur de rigidité effective s'écarte sensiblement du tenseur de rigidité à déformation nulle. Il est particulièrement utile de prendre en compte le système propre du tenseur de rigidité (six rigidités propres et six déformations propres : les déformations propres fournissent des types de déformationadaptés au calcul du tenseur de rigidité effective, et la perturbation peut être exprimée par le changement relatif des rigidités propres et par la variation des directions propres associées aux déformations propres (exprimées en tant que vecteurs dans un espace à six dimensions. La méthode suggérée est appliquée aux deux matériaux étudiés par Rasolofosaon et Yin (1996. Les résultats permettent une évaluation heuristique de la signification de la déformation de référence , définie comme la racine carrée du rapport des normes des tenseurs de rigidité du quatrième et du sixième rang. Il est à signaler qu'il ne s'agit pas d'une nouvelle théorie de la non-linéarité, mais d'une nouvelle approche de la théorie existante et des résultats.

  10. Evaluer et prioriser les technologies d’adaptation au changement climatique. Orientations pratiques pour une analyse multicritères et l’identification et évaluation de critères afférents

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim

    L'objectif de ce guide est de guider les consultants, les décideurs et les experts techniques sur la façon de faciliter les discussions pour prioriser les technologies d'adaptation, et de soutenir les parties prenantes dans l'identification des critères appropriés pour cette analyse....

  11. Observations sur l'effet de différentes méthodes de transformation de manioc sur les dégâts dus aux insectes sur les cossettes en stockage

    Tata-Hangy, K.


    Full Text Available Observation on the Effects of Different Methods of Processing Cassava Chips on Chips Damage Due to Insect Attacks during Storage. The influence of four traditionnal methods of processing cassava chips in the Republic Democratic of Congo has been evaluted regarding damages caused by insect attacks during storage. The methods tested were : chips from peeled, soaked and sun dried cassava, Bas-Congo type, chips from peeled and sun dried cassava, Kasai type, chips from peeled, soaked and smooked cassava, Haut-Congo/Ecuador type and chips from non-peeled, soaked and smooked cassava, Maindombe type. The more important pests are three coleopteras : Sitophilus sp., Tribolium sp. and Rhizoperta dominica. The chips of Kasai type were almost completely destroyed by insects within four months. Those of Bas-Congo type showed a weight loss of about 40 % after six months. Chips of Haut-Congo and Maindombe types are more suitable to storage, loss of 10 % but they have a dark aspect due to the smoke. They need a further effort to remove the dark colour before meal preparation. Chips of Bas-Congo type are preferred and would be suitable for storage if preventive measures are taken to prevent early infestations and if the duration of storage does not exceed three months.

  12. Des différents usages du terme « guerre » et de leur signification dans les représentations politiques américaines

    Etienne de Durand


    Full Text Available Lorsqu’il a déclaré engager son pays dans une « guerre contre le terrorisme », George W. Bush a tout d’abord suscité l’incompréhension et l’effroi de nombreux alliés des États‑Unis, qui craignaient soit d’être entraînés dans un conflit tous azimuts contre les nombreux États ayant pratiqué ou sponsorisé le terrorisme, soit ne prenaient pas tout à fait au sérieux cette guerre d’un type nouveau. Depuis le 7 octobre, en revanche, il semble que la première guerre du xxie siècle ait pris, au moins ...

  13. Caractérisation électrochimique des armatures dans les bétons : Etude du transfert de charges électriques dans différents ciments



    L'objectif de ce stage constitue une formation en électrochimie appliquée aux bétons armés. Il s'agit de se familiariser avec les mesures électrochimiques afin de rendre compte de l'état de passivation ou de corrosion des armatures du béton. Par la suite, cette compétence en électrochimie sera utilisée pour mieux appréhender l'efficacité des traitement électrochimiques (de déchloruration et de ré-alcalinisation par exemple) récemment proposés pour la réparation des ouvrages d'art en béton arm...

  14. Effet de l'acide oxalique dissout à différentes concentrations dans une solution d'eau distillée ou de sucrose sur le varroa et sur les abeilles.

    Toomemaa, Kalle; Martin, Ants-Johannes; Williams, Ingrid H.


    International audience; The toxicity of various concentrations of oxalic acid dihydrate (OA) in aqueous and sucrose solution to Varroa destructor and to honey bees (Apis mellifera) was assessed using submersion tests of caged bees and by spraying bees in colonies with and without brood. An aqueous solution of 0.5% OA gave effective control of the mite and was non-toxic to bees whereas higher concentrations of OA (1.0-2.0%) were highly toxic to bees. Submersion tests into solutions with 0.1% O...

  15. Hantian(旱田),Shoutian(熟田) and the Way of Collecting Land Rent in the Bamboo Slip literature of Sun Wu State%三国吴简"旱田""熟田"与田租征纳方式




  16. Présentation des phénomènes de corrosion et des différents moyens de lutte disponibles. Description of Corrosion Phenomena and Different Ways of Combating Them.

    Crolet J. L.


    Full Text Available Cet article donne une présentation générale des phénomènes de corrosion des matériaux métalliques. II s'attache à montrer comment les moyens de lutte contre la corrosion découlent très naturellement de la bonne compréhension de ces phénomènes.Les aspects électrochimiques, indispensables pour cette compréhension, sont présentés de manière aussi directe et brève que possible. Les divers modes de résistance à la corrosion sont décrits, qu'il s'agisse de modes a naturels » comme l'inertie chimique, la passivité, la pseudo-passivité ou les couches de patine, ou bien encore de modes a provoqués » comme le contrôle du milieu corrosif, l'inhibition, la protection cathodique ou la protection par revêtement.Enfin, les principales interactions entre effets mécaniques et corrosion sont abordées, et en particulier l'érosion-corrosion et la fragilisation par H.S. Des conjugaisons de phénomènes comme la corrosion galvanique, la corrosion inter-granulaire, la corrosion bactérienne sont également présentées. This article gives a general description of corrosion phenomena affecting metallic materials. It attempts ta show how corrosion control and prevention methods quite naturally require a good understanding of these phenomena.The electrochemical aspects indispensable for this understanding are described as directly and briefly as possible.Various types of corrosion resistance are described, whether concerning a natural » types such as chemical inertia, passivity, pseudo-passivity or patina loyers, or else c induced types » such as contrat of the corrosive medium, inhibition, cathodic protec-tion or protection by coating.The principal` interactions between mechanical effects and corrosion are taken up, and especially erosion corrosion and H2S embrittlement. Combinations of pheno-mena are also described, such as galvanic corrosion, intergranular corrosion and bacterial corrosion.

  17. Influence de différents traitements de prégermination des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. sur les performances germinatives et la tolérance au stress hydrique

    Boucelha, L.


    Full Text Available Influence of different pre-germination treatments of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds on germination performance and water stress tolerance. Description of the subject. Priming or hardening is a pregermination treatment. This treatment consists of incorporating an osmotic seed treatment (osmopriming or a hormonal (hormopriming and/or a redehydration (hydropriming treatment. The approach allows the elimination of dormancy, homogenization (synchronization of germination, better growth, earlier flowering and a tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity. In this kind of treatment, the seed is soaked and then dehydrated before radicle breakthrough, i.e. during the reversible phase of germination. Thus, the seed can return to its initial stage without any damage. Objectives. In this paper, we aimed to study the consequences of hydropriming and osmopriming (by PEG6000 at 10 and 30% on cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata, on germination performance and on the water stress tolerance of plants from these seeds. Method. Vigna unguiculata seeds were hydroprimed, hydroprimed twice or osmoprimed (with PEG6000 10 and 30%. For each treatment, germination performance (germination capacity, speed and the water stress tolerance of the plants were studied. Results. Results showed that increased hardness of the seed allowed a faster, more uniform germination and better growth of both the radicle and aerial parts. We also demonstrated that a double redehydration was more effective in improving these parameters. Conclusions. Application of these pretreatments, adapted according to the plant species, will has the capacity to improve seed germination and crop yield, as well as tolerance to water deficit.

  18. Résumés de texte en langue maternelle et en langue seconde : Différences dans l'application des macrorègles entre experts et étudiants de différents niveaux universitaires

    Giselle Corbeil


    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzes the differences between experts and university students of various academic levels in the application of the macrorules of deletion, generalization and construction on text summaries. Learners of French as a second language were required to write a summary of a French text in French, as well as an English text in English, their mother tongue, whereas professors of French and English were asked to do the same thing but only in their mother tongue. Analysis of the results showed that, with regard to the Deletion rule, there are significant differences between French learners and French experts as well as between English experts and the same students. As for the generalization rule, significant differences are also observed between learners of French and French experts, but none when these students are compared to English experts. Similar results are found for the construction rule. Level of proficiency in French has an influence on the application of some rules. Explanations follow and pedagogical suggestions are offered.

  19. Toujours si différente ? Les autorités françaises et le miracle économique espagnol des années 1960

    Sánchez, Esther M. Sánchez


    À partir de la fin des années 1950, l’économie espagnole s’engagea dans la voie de la libéralisation et de l’ouverture sur l’extérieur. Les origines de ce processus se trouvent, d’une part, dans l’approbation des réformes internes contenues dans le Plan de stabilisation de 1959 et, d’autre part, dans l’entrée de l’Espagne dans d’importants organismes internationaux, tels que l’Organisation européenne de coopération économique (OECE), le Fonds monétaire international (FMI) et la Banque mondial...


    Khaleghi, Hamidreza,; Morel, Pascal; Rampone, Thierry; Guegan, Mikael; Sharaiha, Ammar


    National audience; In this work, we study theoretically and by simulation the influence of SOA's nonlinearities on the amplification of optical signals in the context of OFDM transmission systems with coherent reception. We present the co-simulation environment developed for this study, for both transmission and reception. This platform also enables to study the amplification of several complex optical modulation formats of the optical carrier.

  1. Variations à différentes échelles spatiales de l'herbier à Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile ; effets sur les paramètres physico-chimiques du sédiment

    Gobert, S; Kyramarios, M.; Lepoint, G.; PERGENT-MARTINI, C; Bouquegneau, Jm


    Les paramètres biométriques (densité en pousses, longueur et largeur des feuilles, biomasses épiphyte et foliaire, surface foliaire) de l'herbier à Posidonia oceanica présentent une variabilité spatiale significative à mésoéchelle (100 m2). Tous les paramètres étudiés, sauf le nombre de feuilles, diminuent en fonction de la profondeur. Les variations horizontales (distributions centrifuge et centripète) sont maximales dans les zones moins profondes. L'analyse de la microstructures (m2) de l'h...

  2. Analysis on the Reasons of Shanghai Key Money of Rent after the Anti-Japanese War%抗战胜利后上海房租顶费及其成因



    抗战胜利以后,上海面临严重的房荒问题,顶费成为关心民生的重要问题,同时也是房东与房客纠纷的主要内容。房东房客地位不均等,这使顶费的争端一直是战后上海经济中特殊现象,房租顶费是不同利益主体间的博弈结果,顶费只有在房源增加、收入差距缩小后才能解决。%After the Anti-Japanese War, Shanghai shown serious problem of shortage of houses, and the key money became the key issue of people's life. On the same time, it was the main content of disputes between landlords and tenants. The status of them is very unequal, and that made the disputes be the special after the War. The paper draws the conclusions that the key money is the result of game among different parties, and the key money would be settled after houses increased and income gap narrowed.

  3. Caractéristiques de l’environnement bâti du quartier associées à différents types d’activité physique chez les adultes canadiens

    Gavin R. McCormack


    ... bâti d'un quartier et la marche comme moyen de transport (MT), la marche récréative (MR), l'activité physique à intensité modérée (APM) et l'activité physique à intensité élevée (APE) chez les adultes...

  4. Caractéristiques de l’environnement bâti du quartier associées à différents types d’activité physique chez les adultes canadiens

    Gavin R. McCormack


    Full Text Available Introduction : L'étude tente d'estimer les associations entre les caractéristiques du milieu bâti d'un quartier et la marche comme moyen de transport (MT, la marche récréative (MR, l'activité physique à intensité modérée (APM et l'activité physique à intensité élevée (APE chez les adultes, indépendamment des caractéristiques sociodémographiques et de l'autosélection du lieu de résidence (les raisons liées à l'activité physique associées au choix d'un quartier par quelqu'un. Méthodologie : En 2007 et 2008, 4 423 adultes de Calgary ont répondu à des entrevues au téléphone fixe portant sur l'activité physique, leurs caractéristiques sociodémographiques et les raisons de l'autosélection de leur résidence. À l'aide de données spatiales, nous avons estimé la densité de population, la proportion d'espaces verts, la longueur des sentiers et des pistes cyclables, la densité commerciale, la densité des arrêts d'autobus, la densité des arbres gérés par la ville, la longueur de trottoir, les divers types de parcs et l'offre de destinations récréatives dans un rayon de 1,6 km en fonction du code postal résidentiel géolocalisé des participants. Des modèles linéaires généralisés ont été utilisés pour estimer les associations entre les caractéristiques de l'environnement bâti du quartier et la participation à des activités physiques hebdomadaires dans le quartier (10 minutes/semaine ou plus, rapports de cotes [RC] et, parmi les personnes ayant déclaré une participation, la durée de l'activité (coefficients bêta [B] non normalisés. Résultats : L'échantillon comprenait davantage de femmes (59,7 % que d'hommes (40,3 % et l'âge moyen (écart-type était de 47,1 ans (15,6 ans. L'utilisation de la MT était associée à la densité des intersections (RC = 1,11; IC à 95% : 1,03 à 1,20 et des commerces (RC = 1,52; 129 à 1,78 et à la longueur des trottoirs (RC = 1,19; 1,09 à 1,29 alors que le nombre de minutes de MT était associé à la densité commerciale (B = 19,24 minutes/semaine; 11,28 à 27,20, à la densité d'arbres (B = 6,51; 2,29 à 10,72 minutes/semaine et à l'offre de destinations récréatives (B = -8,88 minutes/semaine, -12,49 à -5,28. L'utilisation de la MR était associée à la longueurdes sentiers ou pistes cyclables (RC = 1,17; 1,05 à 1,31. Avoir une APM était associé à l'offre de destinations récréatives (RC = 1,09; 1,01 à 1,17 et à la longueur de trottoir (RC = 1,10; 1,02 à 1,19, alors que le nombre de minutes d'APM était associé négativement à la densité de population (B = -8,65 minutes/semaine; -15,32 à -1,98. Avoir une APE était associé à la longueur de trottoir (RC = 1,11; 1,02 à 1,20, à la longueur des sentiers ou pistes cyclables (RC = 1,12; 1,02 à 1,24 et à la proportion d'espaces verts dans le quartier (RC = 0,89; 0,82 à 0,98. Le nombre de minutes d'APE était associé à la densité d'arbres (B = 7,28 minutes/semaine; 0,39 à 14,17. Conclusion : Certaines caractéristiques de l'environnement bâti du quartier semblent importantes pour favoriser la pratique d'activité physique, tandis que d'autres peuvent être plus propices à l'augmentation de la durée de l'activité physique. Les modifications augmentant la densité de destinations utilitaires et la quantité de trottoirs dans les quartiers seraient susceptibles d'augmenter les niveaux totaux d'activité physique dans les quartiers.

  5. Etude de la contribution des flux activants en soudage A-TIG : application de la silice au soudage de différents métaux et alliages

    RÜckert, Guillaume


    The TIG welding process (Tungsten Inert Gas), extensively used in industry, generates high quality welds by the creation of an electric arc in shielded atmosphere between a non fusible tungsten electrode and the workpiece.The output of this process is, however, low as the weld penetrations above 3mm become increasing problematic with usual welding parameters.This work deals with the application of an activating flux to improve the morphology of welded joints. The A-TIG welding (Activated-TIG)...

  6. Dispositif de distribution quantique de clé avec des
    états cohérents à longueur d'onde télécom

    Lodewyck, Jérôme


    Quantum key distribution enables two distant interlocutors to share a secret key. Laws of quantum physics warrant the unconditonal security of the transmitted message. Continuous variables recently applied to the field of quantum information, enable new key distribution protocols that only require standard, off-the-shelves telecom components. These components yield to the high transmission rates of fiber optics communications. We build a complete quantum key distribution system that encodes t...

  7. L'introduction d'espèces allochtones de grenouilles vertes en France, deux problèmes différents : celui de R. Catesbeiana et celui des taxons non présents du complexe Esculenta

    NEVEU A.


    Full Text Available Depuis quelques années, la grenouille taureau (Rana catesbeiana est signalée en France dans une zone limitée de gravières près de Bordeaux. Elle est aussi présente depuis peu aux Pays-Bas et, dans les deux cas, la reproduction est effective. Cette espèce existe déjà en Europe depuis les années 30, à la suite d'introductions volontaires en Italie, sans pour cela avoir été signalée dans la partie ouest. La grenouille taureau est la plus grande des espèces nord-américaines et est considérée comme un prédateur éclectique. De ce fait, elle peut présenter un danger pour d'autres animaux, en particulier les grenouilles autochtones. Mais aucune donnée ne permet d'estimer cet éventuel impact en France et les données de la littérature ont souvent surestimé ce dernier. Par précaution, des mesures pourraient être prises pour réduire les populations actuelles présentes dans une aire pour le moment limitée. Les importations de grenouilles vivantes pour la consommation humaine, surtout à partir des pays du sud de l'Europe, sont l'occasion d'introductions de nouveaux taxons. Mais ces grenouilles font partie du même complexe et sont proches sur le plan morphologique, biologique et écologique. Les risques potentiels pour les populations locales sont les introductions de gènes, mais en ce qui concerne un éventuel avantage compétitif aucune donnée ne permet de conclure.

  8. Etude de l'arrière-effet de l'enfouissement de différentes substances organiques en vue de l'amélioration de sols ferrugineux dégradés

    Mallouhi, N.


    Full Text Available Study of the backward effect of the burying of different organic substances with a view to the improvement of degraded ferruginous soils. With the help of a se ries of incubation in vitro, we have proved, the weak of a peat and the "starter" effect of poultry droppings mixed with this peat. Trials in the open fields allowed us to study the interaction between peat and other substances biologically more active namely poultry droppings, groundnut-tops and horse manure. The first year of the experimentation, the results showed the depressive action of the peat on account of the increase of the reorganization of nitrogen andphosphorous. Nevertheless, the results of the following rainy season (1987 (Study of backward effect show the disappearance of the depressive effect of the peat. As a matter of tact we have noticed no important difference between the treatments enriched by only falling substances (droppings and tops and those enriched by a mixture (peat x tops. The results of the 1988 rainy season put the stress on the lasting quality of the residual effect of the peat, because the yield of the treatment (B enriched only by peat is placed at the same level as the yield after the contribution of groundnut-tops and it is significantly superior at the 5 % level to that of poultry droppings.

  9. Etude comparative des composés phénoliques, du pouvoir antioxydant de différentes variétés de sorgho sénégalais et des enzymes amylolytiques de leur malt

    Thonart, P.


    Full Text Available Comparative study of phenolic compounds, antioxidant power of various Senegalese sorghum cultivars and amylolytic enzymes of their malt. The study involved seven cultivars of white sorghum selected to ISRA Bambey and consumed in many regions of Senegal. Several characters and biochemical compounds of the grains (presence of pigmented testa, total phenols, condensed tannins and antioxidant activity were determined in all cultivars. A three days malting was also carried out and amylolytic enzymes such as α-amylase, β-amylase and limit-dextrinase which are essential for a malt of good quality were proportioned. These enzymes are measured specifically with kits of Megazyme: Amylazyme (α-amylase, Betamyl (β-amylase and Limit-Dextrizyme (limit-dextrinase. Two cultivars, CE 180-33 and CE 145-66 proved to be tannin sorghums, have the highest levels in total phenols and the most important antioxidant activities (ABTS and DPPH. The results of enzymatic analysis and the index of Kolbach indicated the F-2-20 like cultivar presenting the best potentialities for malt production.

  10. The Research of How to Deal With the Fountain of Stray Cur rent%杂散电流“源处理”方法的研究与探讨



    为从源头上控制和减小杂散电流的产生,在介绍目前常用杂散电流 防护方法的同时 ,提出了采用带绝缘靴套及带整体玻璃钢(或其他绝缘材料)衬套的绝缘轨枕等有一定参考价 值的新型杂散电流“源控制”方法。%This article introduce the methods of how to deal with the fou ntain of stray current now used and lodges several new methods for people to reference.

  11. A utilização do Kaizen em áreas operacionais e administrativas de uma empresa de manutenção e rent-a-cargo

    Vaz, Ana Sofia Antunes de Pinho Simões


    Dado o atual elevado nível de competitividade empresarial, as organizações sentem cada vez mais a necessidade de se destacarem. Este destaque centra-se essencialmente na melhoria da qualidade dos produtos ou serviços, na capacidade de rapidez nas entregas e no apoio ao cliente. Por outro lado, os processos internos da organização devem ser muito eficientes, orientados para a criação de valor e consequente aumento do rendimento do capital. Para atingir estes objetivos, existem inúmeros méto...

  12. Caractérisation écophysiologique de différents génotypes de Medicago truncatula au cours des phases de germination et de croissance hétérotrophe

    Brunel, Sophie


    Les phases de germination et croissance hétérotrophe sont des étapes cruciales pour l’implantation d’une culture et dépendent fortement des conditions environnementales. Le cadre d’analyse fourni par le modèle de prévision des levées SIMPLE (SIMulation of PLant Emergence) a été utilisé pour la caractérisation de Medicago truncatula ( au cours de ces étapes précoces de son cycle, en réponse à des facteurs physiques du lit de semences ayant des effets majeurs sur les levées : température,...

  13. Caractérisation écophysiologique de différents génotypes de medicago truncatula au cours des phases de germination et de croissance hétérotrophe

    Brunel, Sophie


    Germination and growth of heterotrophic stages are crucial steps for crop establishment. They highly depend on environmental conditions. The analytical framework provided by the emergence model SIMPLE (SImulation of PLant Emergence) has been used for the characterization of Medicago truncatula ( during the early stages of its cycle in response to seedbeds physical factors with major impacts on emergence: temperature, water potential, mechanical obstacles. is a model species. It wa...

  14. 某公司租用土地开发香蕉项目综合效益分析%Analysis on Comprehensive Benefits of a Company Planting Banana on Rented Lands



    A comprehensive evaluation is made in this article on the eco-benefit, social benefit, and economic benefit from banana planting of a company in three planting bases in Xinping County. Before the banana is planted, the land is classified into sloppy land, woodland and arable land We carefully study the three types of land, analyze the various effects and benefits made by banana planting on these types of land, and make a comprehensive comment.

  15. L’organisation des curricula d’éducation technologique dans différents pays européens : approche comparative et impact du point de vue du genre



    Full Text Available Girls are moving to technology education and careers less than boys. This paper attempts to summarize the inputs provided on the question of the relationship between gender and cur-riculum and gender-class practices within the European project UPADTE (Understanding and Providing a Developmental Approach to Technology Education. It focuses on two as-pects: a description of the organization and content prescribed for different levels in different countries (Austria, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Romania, Slovakia, Scotland, Spain and a description of what emerges from the most significant elements contained in the case studies proposed to promote the development of education technology which encourages girls.

  16. 75 FR 6688 - Section 8 Housing Assistance Payments Program-Renewal Funding Annual Adjustment Factors, Fiscal...


    ... Adjustment Factors (AAFs). SUMMARY: The Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010 (Pub. L. 111-117), directs HUD... Survey (ACS) data on the ratio of utilities to rents.\\2\\ The CEX data used to decompose the contract rent...-rent ratio used in the formula comes from 2007 ACS median rent and utility costs. \\1\\ CPI indexes...

  17. Research on public housing based on the utilities of living

    王要武; 芦金锋; 翟凤勇


    This paper applies the residence utility principles to the study of public housing rent and regards that the average utility of a household determines the public housing rent level. It also suggests that the government use multi-level public housing rent to substitute for single-level in order to make the policies for public housing rent more just, equitable and effective.

  18. 24 CFR 574.320 - Additional standards for rental assistance.


    ... the private unassisted market and must not be in excess of rents currently being charged by the owner for comparable unassisted units. (b) With respect to shared housing arrangements, the rent charged...

  19. Eldercare at Home: Helping with Recovery from Illness

    ... can arrange for them to visit. Renting a Hospital Bed? If the older person will be spending a ... a long-term period of time, rent a hospital bed with electric controls and side rails. The hospital ...

  20. 24 CFR 954.306 - Rental housing: qualification as affordable housing and income targeting.


    ... affordable housing and income targeting. 954.306 Section 954.306 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Affordability § 954.306 Rental housing: qualification as affordable housing and income targeting. (a) Rent...: (1) Bears rents not greater than the lesser of— (i) The section 8 fair market rent for...

  1. Social housing in Portugal and Denmark

    Alves, Sonia; Andersen, Hans Thor

    The social housing sector has become increasingly residualized and segregated in Portugal and Denmark. Whilst there is a considerable difference between the systems in these two countries, as regards issues of management and governance, dominant rent regimes (cost rent, social rent) or eligibility...

  2. 从公共住房到租金优惠券——美国低收入阶层住房政策演化解析%From Public Housing to Rent Vouchers: The study of the evolvement of housing policies for low-income households in the United States




  3. 突出流动人口治安源头管理的有益尝试--对上塘派出所推行出租房屋等级管理星级评定的调查和思考%Trying to Control the Source of Floating Population in Keeping Security--Investigation of Renting Houses Management by Shangtang Police Substation

    赵一龙; 高世平



  4. Studies in Petroleum Composition Development of a Compositional Map for Various Feedstocks Études concernant la composition du pétrole. Mise au point d'une carte de types de constituants appliquée à différentes charges

    Long R. B.


    Full Text Available The composition of petroleum has been the subject of many studies leading to descriptions of petroleum composition in terms of broad generic fractions. The current work shows that petroleum can be described in terms of a mapthat is based upon specific boundaries of the constituent types. For example, an alternate method of describing petroleum composition is to use yields of properties of the various adsorption/elution fractions in the order of increasing polarity of the eluting solvent as a polarity scale. Such endeavors will ultimately lead to a more thorough understanding of composition and behavior as seen through the functional types within petroleum. La composition du pétrole a fait l'objet de nombreuses études permettant de la décrire au moyen de larges fractions génériques. La présente étude montre que la composition du pétrole peut être représentée par une cartebasée sur des frontières, spécifiques de types de constituants. Par exemple, une des méthodes pour décrire la composition du pétrole consiste à utiliser les rendements des propriétés de diverses fractions d'absorbtion/élution en fonction de leur polarité; l'échelle de polarité étant donnée par la polarité des solvants. De tels travaux conduiront finalement à une connaissance plus approfondie de la composition et du comportement du pétrole comme on l'a vu avec les diverses fonctions types dans le pétrole.

  5. Utilisation de produits organiques oxygénés comme carburants et combustibles dans les moteurs. Deuxième partie : Les différentes filières d'obtention des carburols. Analyse technico-économique Using Oxygenated Organic Products As Fuels in Engines. Part Two: Different Systems for Producing Alcohol Fuels. Technico-Economic Analysis

    Chauvel A.


    Full Text Available Parmi les produits à même d'être substitués aux hydrocarbures pour la constitution des carburants, les composés organiques oxygénés occupent une place prépondérante à cause de leurs caractéristiques favorables à la combustion dans les moteurs, qu'ils soient employés purs ou mélangés (seuls ou à plusieurs aux hydrocarbures, constituants des carburants classiques. Dans cet article, ces composés oxygénés sont désignés sous le nom de carburols. Alors que l'objet de la première partie de l'étude a été d'examiner les conséquences techniques de l'emploi de ces produits sur les circuits de distribution et le fonctionnement des véhicules, il s'agit dans la présente partie d'analyser les caractéristiques technico-économiques de leur fabrication. En particulier, on y aborde successivement les points suivants : - disponibilités en matières premières : ressources fossiles et végétales ; - analyse technique des divers modes d'obtention - analyse économique ; - programmes nationaux. Among products that can be substituted for hydrocarbons for producing fuels, oxygenated organic compounds occupy a preponderant position because of their favorable characteristics for combustion in engines whether they are used in a pure form or in mixtures (alone or severally with hydrocarbons which are used to make up conventional fuels. In this article these oxygenated compounds are given the name carburols (alcohol fuels. Whereas the aim of Part 1 was to examine the technical consequences of using such products in distribution circuits and for vehicle operating, Part 2 is an analysis of the technico-economic aspects of manufacturing them. In particular, the following points are taken up successively: (a availabilities of raw materials. fossil and vegetebal resources; (b technical analysis of various production methods; (c economic analysis; (d national programs. Depending on the amounts involved, a distinction is made among alternative products with regard to alcohol fuels, i. e. among methanol, ethanol and butanol acetone systems and the oxygenated additives most often used as cosolvents or octane boosters (ethers such as MTBE and TAME, or alcohols such as TBA, other butanols, etc. . Different variants are also examined such as the simultaneous production of methanol and cosolvents, and the manufacturing of synthetic fuels (Fischer-Tropsch and Mobil processes. An economic comparison of these different alternatives reveals the advantages for France to produce (i methanol ex coal and lignocellulosic materials and eventually ex petroleum residues or natural gas, and (ii butanol-acetone by fermentation of vegetal material.

  6. Etude de l'efficacité de la fonctionnalisation des acides aminés au MTBSTFA après hydrolyse acide et dans différentes matrices minérales analogues martiennes : application aux expériences Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) et Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA)

    Brault, Amaury


    Three main ways of study allow us to search for traces of life in the Universe: remote analysis, laboratory analysis of extraterrestrial material fallen or brought back to Earth, and in situ analysis. In association with chemical derivatization, Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is the method of predilection used for the separation and identification of organic compounds of astrobiological interest, whether on Earth or beyond. This work firstly deals with the impact of s...

  7. Comparative study on group cognitive behavioral therapy combined with sertralina in the treatment of recur-rent depression%团体认知行为治疗对复发性抑郁障碍患者自尊的影响

    张欣; 贺方; 史玲; 刘慧兰; 张香云


    Objective To explore the efficacy of group cognitive‐behavioral therapy (G‐CBT ) in improving self‐respect of patients with recurrent depression.Methods A total of 68 patients with recurrent depression were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of treatment with G‐CBT combined with sertralina (experimental group ,n=34) or with sertralina only (control group , n=34). Clinical efficacy was evaluated by self‐rating depression scale (SDS) ,the feeling of inadequacy scale (FIS) and treat‐ment emergent symptom scale (TESS) before and after treatment.Results Both two groups had improvement for depressed mood of patients after treatment ,experimental group was more remarkable ,the scores of SDS was showed significant differ‐ences(P<0.05). While both groups had improvement for self‐respect ,the results showed significant differences in the scores of FIS and in the scores increased on self‐respect ,social self‐confidence and learning ability of subscale(P<0.01).Conclusion G‐CBT combined with antidepressant can more effectively enhance the level of self‐respect of patients with recurrent depression and improve the symptom of depression.%目的:研究团体认知行为治疗对复发性抑郁障碍患者自尊水平的影响。方法将68例服用舍曲林的复发性抑郁障碍患者随机分为2组各34例,实验组并用为期8周的团体认知行为治疗。治疗前后分别使用抑郁自评量表(SDS )、缺陷感量表(FIS )和副反应量表(T ESS )进行评定。结果2组治疗结束后患者抑郁情绪均改善,但实验组改善更明显,SDS评分有显著差异(P<0.05);而自尊水平提高,实验组在缺陷感量表的总量表分值和分量表中自尊、社交自信和学习能力分值增加更为显著(P<0.01)。结论团体认知行为治疗合并抗抑郁药可更好提高复发性抑郁障碍患者的自尊水平,更有效改善患者的抑郁症状。

  8. Comment approfondir la coopération entre rive nord et rive sud de la Méditerranée : Un renouveau économique tenant compte des effets de la rente sur le Sud de la Méditerranée

    Elsenhans, Hartmut


    Une véritable coopération euro-méditerranéenne ne peut s’établir sans ouvrir au monde arabe l’accès au développement par l’industrialisation. Sans surplus agricoles, le monde arabe ne peut pas suivre la stratégie de l’Est asiatique de la dévaluation massive permettant de devenir compétitif en matière d’exportation de produits manufacturés. L’Union européenne pourrait remédier à ce manque de surplus agricoles en affectant ses propres surplus agricoles à la transformation économique du monde ar...

  9. 银行信贷资金变相流入民间借贷市场的影响效应——基于存在寻租行为的分析%The Impact of Bank Credit Funds Inflow on the Informal Credit Market in Disguised Form——based on an analysis on the existence of rent-seeking behavior

    李富有; 孙晨辉



  10. SWOT Theory Based Analysis on Development Strategies of Low Rent Public Housing Management Company——Take the new district of Liangjiang, Chongqing%基于SWOT理论的公租房管理公司发展战略分析——以重庆两江新区为例




  11. Relations entre diversité des habitats forestiers et communautés de chiroptères à différentes échelles spatiales en Europe : implications pour leur conservation et le maintien de leur fonction de prédation

    Charbonnier, Yohan


    Les chiroptères sont reconnus comme de potentiels régulateurs des populations d’insectes. Ce sont aussi les mammifères européens pour lesquels les enjeux de conservation sont les plus importants. Ils trouvent dans les forêts des habitats favorables qui sont cependant menacés par les changements climatiques et la fragmentation. Il convient donc de mieux comprendre lesrelations entre les communautés de chiroptères, leurs habitats et leurs proies en forêt. L'objectif de cette thèse est de quanti...

  12. 建筑周转材料租赁合同纠纷主体认定及责任承担——以拖欠租金引发的纠纷为视角%Subject Cognizance and Responsibility-taking of Lease Agreement Dispute about Construction Turnover Materials -- from the perspective of disputes caused by defaulting rent



    In the recent years, there have been more and more contract disputes in the field of construction turnover materials. The court judgment of different courts to these cases are quite different. The main reason of this is that there are different standards for them to judge the subject cognizance and responsibility-taking. This paper is to deeply analyze the subject cognizance and responsibility-taking under these conditions: a lease dispute caused by a lessee who is an artificial person branch; the lease dispute caused by a lessee who is a labor contractor; a lease dispute caused by the a lessee who is a labor contractor but a prime contractor or subcontractor of construction engineering made the official seal on the contract; and a dispute caused by using a false official seal on the contract by one party. The purpose of the paper is to promote each court to have a same understanding of the lease agreement dispute about construction turnover materials and to achieve the goal of reducing the judgment conflicts of the same kind of lease contract disputes.%建筑周转材料租赁行业近几年来的合同纠纷凸显,各地法院对该类案件审理后的判决结果差异较大,主要原因是认定主体和责任分担的标准不统一。对以法人分支机构为承租人的租赁纠纷、以包工头为承租人的租赁纠纷、以包工头为承租人但建筑工程总承包人或分包人在租赁合同上加盖公章的租赁纠纷、以一方主张租赁合同上加盖的公章为假公章而产生的纠纷等情形下的诉讼主体资格认定与责任承担问题进行深入剖析,促使实务界对于建筑周转材料租赁合同纠纷案件的认识统一,达到减少同类租赁合同纠纷案件判决差异的目标。

  13. Multiphase Production. Representation of Thermodynamic Properties of Methanol by Different Equations of State Production polyphasique. Représentation des propriétés thermodynamiques du méthanol à partir de différentes équations d'état

    Peneloux A.; Berro C.; Rauzy E.; Rebufa C.; Bernicot M.


    For oil and gas offshore production, any extension of the Multiphase Production Concept to more complex effluents under more difficult transport conditions, requests a better understanding and control of :(a) the thermodynamic behaviour of water-hydrocarbon mixtures,(b) the efficiency of various additives (or mixtures of additives), necessary for a safe, reliable and economical operation of the production and transport facilities. One of the main additives used for hydrate control being metha...

  14. Comparaison de différentes techniques de travail du sol en agriculture biologique: effet de la structure et de la localisation des résidus sur les microorganismes du sol et leurs activités de minéralisation du carbone et de l'azote

    Vian, Jean-François


    Over the last decades, the surface traditionally ploughed has tended to decrease and replaced by shallow working tillage techniques without soil inversion, i.e., no tillage or reduced tillage with tines or discs. These techniques were mostly developed in conventional farming systems but nowadays they are also developed in organic farming systems. Nevertheless, these tillage techniques could generate crop nutrients deficiencies and a deterioration of soil structure, especially during the first...

  15. Etude du risque allergique à différentes protéines alimentaires Mise au point de modèle de souris allergiques à l'arachide, à l'albumine, à la caséine et à la colle de poisson

    Lifrani, Awatif


    Allergic diseases are a common cause of illness in most industrialized countries. The prevalence of allergic disorders has been increasing in the past 10-15 years. Peanut, cow's milk, eggs and fish are strong allergens frequently found in many food products (flours, wines...). Therefore Codex Alimentarius called for the mandatory and comprehensive labelling of all products prepared with these proteins. Our purpose was to establish animal models producing specific immunoglobulin IgE and IgG1 t...

  16. 租差、绅士化与再开发:资本与权利驱动下的城市空间再生产%Rent Gap, Gentrification and Urban Redevelopment: the Reproduction of Urban Space Driven by Capital and Right

    洪世键; 张衔春



  17. Dynamique femtoseconde dans des atomes et molécules - précession de spin et dynamique de photoélectrons - transitoires cohérents - dynamique des états excités de l'acétylène

    Zamith, Sébastien


    This thesis is about the study of dynamics of atoms and molecules on the femtosecond time scale by the pump-probe technique. In a first part the oscillation of a wave packet created by a superposition of fine structure states in atomic potassium has been observed. This oscillation is interpreted as the precession of the spin momentum around the total angular momentum. This is followed by a theoretical study showing that this oscillation can be used to produce spin polarised electrons. Another...

  18. A Decision Model of the Corruption by Three Partners: An Analysis on the Actions of Principal, Agent, and Rent Seeking, as well as the Suggestion of Anti-Corruption Pollicy%腐败问题的三方决策模型--委托人、代理人与寻租者的行为分析及反腐败政策建议




  19. The Decision Mechanism Leading to the Official Corrupt Behavior--The Mathematical Analysis of Both Agent Corrupt and Finding-Rent Corrupt%政府官员腐败行为的决定机制--对寻租腐败与代理腐败的数理分析

    仉建涛; 王文剑



  20. Experimental Investigation of the Asphaltene Deposition Process during Different Production Schemes Étude expérimentale du processus de dépôt d’asphaltènes au cours de différents modes de production

    Bagheri M.B.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of asphaltene precipitation and deposition during lean gas injection, CO2 injection and natural depletion in reservoir conditions. In addition, the effect of variations in operating pressure, injection gas concentration and production rate on asphaltene precipitation and deposition were investigated. The severity of asphaltene deposition was found to be more pronounced in lean gas injection in comparison with CO2 injection and natural depletion. Increasing the flow rate in natural depletion experiments showed a considerable increase in asphaltene deposition, and consequently permeability reduction in the core matrix. Moreover, more asphaltene deposition was observed along the porous media in the gas injection experiments when the gas mol percent of the mixture was increased. Cet article présente les résultats d’une étude de la précipitation et du dépôt d’asphaltènes qui peuvent se produire lors d’une injection de gaz pauvre, d’une injection de CO2 ou d’une déplétion naturelle en conditions de réservoir. En outre, les effets de la pression de fonctionnement, de la concentration en gaz injecté et du débit de production sur la précipitation et le dépôt d’asphaltènes ont été étudiés. Il a été constaté que l’importance du dépôt d’asphaltènes est plus prononcée dans le cas d’une injection de gaz pauvre comparativement à une injection de CO2 ou à une déplétion naturelle. Une augmentation du débit au cours d’expériences de déplétion naturelle a montré un accroissement considérable du dépôt d’asphaltènes et, en conséquence, une réduction de perméabilité au sein de la matrice poreuse. Par ailleurs, un dépôt d’asphaltènes plus important a été observé au cours des expériences d’injection de gaz lorsque la concentration molaire gazeuse dans le mélange était augmentée.

  1. Relationship Between Chemical Structure and Effectiveness of Some Metallic Dialkyl and Diaryldithiophosphates in Different Lubricated Mechanisms Relations entre la structure chimique et l'efficacité de quelques dialkyles et dialkylaryldithiophosphates métalliques dans différents mécanismes lubrifiés

    Born M.


    Full Text Available The antiwear (AW and extreme-pressure (EP properties of some metallic dialkyl and diaryidithiophosphates (MDTP, including zinc, have been studied in different metal/metal contact conditions : four-ball and FZG rigs. We have noted :- With pure dialkyldithiophosphates of different divalent metals (Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, prepared from the same alcohol :(a On the four-ball rig, EP results, expressed in terms of load-wear index, show that the highest performances are obtained with ZnDTP, but statistically the higher the ionic radius of the metal, the better the performance. EP results, expressed in terms of weld load, do not show any difference between these MDTP. (b On the four-ball rig, AW results, expressed in terms of wear scar, show that the highest performances are obtaine with ZnDTP; beyond a certain value these performances with Zn and Pb are almost independent of the concentration. For the other metallic DTP, there is a very close relationship between performance and concentration. (c On the FZG gear rig, EP-AW results, expressed in terms of failure load stage and specific wear, show that statistically, the higher the ionic radius of the metal, the better the performance. - With ZnDTP :(a On the four-ball rig, EP results, expressed in terms of load wear index, do not depend on the chemical structure of the alcohol used for synthetized ZnDTP, but if results are expressed in terms of weld load, better performances are obtained with ZnDTP synthetized from secondary alcohols. AW results show that the effectiveness of ZnDTP from secondary alcohols is slightly higher when the alcohols used contain less than six carbon atoms. Beyond six carbon atoms in primary or secondary alcohol molecules, performances decrease. (b On the FZG gear rig, EP-AW results show that performances do not depend on the primary or secondary nature of the alcohols used, and that the smaller the hydrocarbon chain of these alcohols, the better the performances. The results of this work indicate that ZnDTP is the most effective of the MDTP we have studied. For ZnDTP prepared from different alcohols and alkylphenols the performances depend not only on the chemical structure of the additive, but also on contact conditions (kinematic, material types, etc. , and on the criteria considered (seizure load, weld load, wear, etc. Cet article apporte une contribution aux connaissances sur les performances antiusure et extrême-pression des dialkyldithiophosphates métalliques en général, et des dialkyldithiophosphates de zinc en particulier. Elle montre les différences de comportement antiusure et extrême-pression de ces composés dans des contacts métalliques lubrifiés caractéristiques tels que la classique machine 4 Billes et, ce qui constitue en soit une originalité, la machine à engrenages FZG. Elle souligne aussi que les performances enregistrées, sur une machine d'essais donnée, dépendent des critères d'appréciation choisis.

  2. dena refurbishment investigation. Pt. 1. Efficiency of energetic modernization in the inventory of rented apartments. Accompanying research according to the dena project: ''Existing low-energy house''; dena-Sanierungsstudie. T. 1. Wirtschaftlichkeit energetischer Modernisierung im Mietwohnungsbestand. Begleitforschung zum dena-Projekt ''Niedrigenergiehaus im Bestand''. Bericht 2010

    Discher, Henning [Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Hinz, Eberhard; Enseling, Andreas [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH (IWU), Darmstadt (Germany)


    Due to the world-wide increasing energy demand, the strongly varying energy prices and not at least due to the effects of the climate change, politics, economics and science face great challenges. Energy efficiency in the building sector plays an important role in the reduction of energy consumption. An energetic modernization of the existing buildings is crucial toward achieving the goals of climate protection. Nevertheless there still exist caveas toward energy-efficient building and refurbishment. For the future, market constraints must purposefully be reduced and the chances of energy-efficient refurbishments have to be used.

  3. Contribution des différentes fonctions chimiques dans les bandes d'absorption infrarouge des kérogènes situées à 1710, 1630 et 3430 cm -1 Contribution of Different Chemical Functions in the 1710, 1630 and 3430 Cm -1 Infrared Absoption Bands of Kerogens

    Robin P. L.


    Full Text Available Afin d'estimer la contribution de divers groupes fonctionnels dans certaines bandes d'absorption infrarouge des kérogènes, on a mesuré les variations de coefficient d'absorption que provoquent des traitements chimiques affectant spécifiquement les groupements concernés. Les traitements visant à transformer les hydroxyles, responsables de labande à 3 430 cm-I, se sont révélés peu efficaces; par contre l'étude portant sur deux autres bandes a été plus fructueuse. On peut déterminer la contribution des groupements carbonyles, acides et esters dans la bande à 1710 cm-1. On peut également estimer la contribution de l'eau moléculaire, des carbonyles quinoniques, des insaturations oléfiniques et des vibrations de noyaux aromatiques dans la bande à 1630 cm-1. On dispose ainsi d'une méthode de caractérisation des kérogènes qui peut être mise en oeuvre pour affiner leur analyse chimique et fournir une sorte d'analyse fonctionnelle. La méthode présentée ne consomme que peu de produit; elle est directe, assez rapide et se prête bien à une étude comparative de séries d'échantillons. In order to estimate the contribution of various functional groups to certain infrared absorption bands of kerogen, measurements were made of the absorption coefficient variations, resulting from chemical treatments that specifically affect the groups concerned. The treatments used for transforming the hydroxyl groups, responsible for the band at 3 430 cm-1, were not very effective; however the study of two other bands was more successful. The respective contribution of carbonyl groups, acids and esters to the band at 1 710 cm-1 can be determined. It is also possible to estimate the contribution of molecular water, quinone carbonyl groups, olefin type unsaturations and vibrations of aromatic rings to the band at 1 630 cm-1. Kerogens can thus be characterized by a method that is complementary to elemental analysis by providing a sort of functional analysis. The method described does not consume large amouts of material; it is straightforward, fairly quick and well suited for a comparative analysis of series of samples.

  4. A Textual Research to "The Report on the Reduction of Rent to Centre China Bureau and Central Committee by the Party Committee of E-Yu Border Area"%对《鄂豫边区党委关于减租情况致华中局、中央报告》一文的时间考证




  5. Représentations dissociatives de l’élevage caprin par les différents acteurs de l’arganeraie: des enseignements pour l’organisation d’un développement territorial basé sur la complémentarité de plusieurs activités

    Araba, Abdelilah; Casabianca, François; Chatibi, Said; Sorba, Jean; Linck, Thierry (ed.); Lacombe, Nicolas


    L’arganeraie est une vaste zone forestière endémique du sud ouest du Maroc où coexistent traditionnellement, élevage, agriculture, utilisation du bois, production de « noix d’argan ». Depuis quelques années, elle connait de profondes mutations avec l’explosion des marchés d’exportation de l’huile d’argane et l’émergence d’une nouvelle filière industrielle oléicole et cosmétique globalisée. Le chevreau de l’arganeraie fait aujourd’hui l’objet d’un projet de certification dont l’idée était déjà...

  6. Étude dans les états finals dileptoniques de différentes propriétés des paires top-antitop avec les détecteurs D0 et ATLAS; Study in the final states dileptoniques different properties of top-antitop pairs with D0 and ATLAS detectors

    Deterre, Cecile [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)


    Studies of different properties of the top-antitop pairs in dileptonique final state are presented in this thesis. Two analyzes were conducted in different experiments: one to D0 at the Tevatron, the other in ATLAS at LHC. Both colliders are different, the measures undertaken are complementary to the top of the properties of the study. The first analysis, conducted in the D0 experiment was to make simultaneous measurements of the cross section for production of pairs of top-antitop and branching ratio t -> Wb This was carried out in the channel with a dileptonique batch of data corresponding to a brightness of 5.4 fb⁻¹. It was then combined with the measurement made in the semileptonique channel to obtain an accuracy of 8% over the cross section, comparable to the accuracy of theoretical calculations. The second analysis presented, conducted in the ATLAS experiment was to measure the top quark charge asymmetry in dileptonique channel with the data set recorded by ATLAS in 2011, or 4.7 fb⁻¹. The results were then combined with the results of semileptonique channel obtained with 1 fb⁻¹. We measure: AC (ttbar) = 0.029 ± 0.018 (stat.) ± 0.014 (syst.), Which is compatible with the standard model prediction of 0.004 ±- 0.001.

  7. La agricultura en la Amazonia ribereña del río Ucayali: ¿una zona productiva pero poco rentable? A agricultura ribeirinha Amazônica do rio Ucayali: uma zona produtiva mas pouco rentável?

    Ricardo A. Labarta


    Full Text Available La riqueza de los suelos aluviales a lo largo de los ríos amazónicos permite altos rendimientos en los cultivos. En el Perú, esta característica ha sido sustento de propuestas que sugieren concentrar la agricultura amazónica en sus riberas. Sin embargo, la viabilidad económica de la agricultura ribereña sigue siendo desconocida. Este artículo usa un modelo agroeconómico y analiza la rentabilidad de la agricultura ribereña del río Ucayali en las cercanías de Pucallpa. Se da énfasis a la importancia de las distintas condiciones agronómicas y del mercadeo propias de la zona. Los resultados muestran que la rentabilidad de los sistemas agrícolas ribereños difiere con el tipo de tierra utilizado y con el carácter temporal o permanente de la actividad que realizan los agricultores. Además, la rentabilidad está condicionada a las variaciones propias de la agricultura ribereña, particularmente las inundaciones tempranas. Así los buenos rendimientos de sus suelos aluviales no garantizan la rentabilidad en todos sus cultivos y sistemas.A fertilidade dos solos aluviais ao longo dos rios da Amazônia resulta em altos rendimentos agrícolas. No Peru, esta característica tem levado à propostas de política que sugerem que se concentre a agricultura da Amazônia ao longo das costas dos rios. Contudo, a viabilidade econômica da agricultura ribeirinha é ainda desconhecida. O presente artigo usa um modelo agroeconômico para analisar a lucratividade deste tipo de agricultura no rio Ucayalinas proximidades de Pucallpa. Ênfase especial foi dada às condições de produção e comercialização na área. Os resultados mostram que a lucratividade dos sistemas de cultivo ribeirinhos variam de acordo com o tipo de solo em questão e a natureza temporal ou permanente das atividades dos agricultores. Ademais, esta lucratividade é condicionada pelas variações na agricultura ribeirinha, especialmente as enchentes prematuras dos rios. Deste modo, os bons rendimentos dos solos aluviais não garantem lucratividade para todas as culturas e sistemas de cultivo.

  8. Conventional Leasing vs Islamic Leasing

    Violeta ISAI


    Full Text Available Leasing developed in time, from the simple form of renting to the modern modality of financial from nowadays, as an alternative for loan. It is present in the entire world, being used both by the financial specialized companies and banks, and the clients are companies and population. The object of leasing contract can be assets and also services, which are rented by the financier (lessor, on definite period, to the client (lessee, in exchange for a leasing rate (rent. The registering in accounting and the fiscal implications in the companies financial administration are different, according to the leasing form which they are using. The capitalist system has in view to obtain profit from renting, but the Islamic System, based on Șaria, forbids renting “haram” assets and services, obtaining interest from renting and using the leasing contract for the transfer of the property.


    Sandy Kosasi


    Full Text Available The limited information of rented houses causes people tend not to have accurate relevant information; therefore, they do not know locations of rented houses with affordable cost, close work place, and educational institutions. The aim of research is to carry out a web-based geographic information system telling about the locations of rented houses in the District of North Pontianak. The information provided by Google Maps is to give convenience to the users in finding the locations of rented houses. The development of software engineering system method uses sequential or waterfall linear model. The creation of maps using online map is provided by Google Maps for free. The results of research shows the information about rented house locations and facilities used to change owners’ data. Through this website, visitors can search for information such as distance calculation they need to reach the rented houses, rental fees, public facilities, room size, number of occupants and other important information.

  10. An evaluation of a Breeam case study project

    Lowe, Jack; Watts, Norman


    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the traditional, upward-only rent review clauses in English commercial leases can be replaced by rent indexation. Analysis of the existing literature found widespread criticism of upward-only rent reviews. Most importantly, they represent a disadvantage for tenants and an advantage for landlords. Contrary to this, analysis of the qualitative data, gathered through semi-structured interviews with professionals, showed that property market fo...

  11. Cheyenne/Laramie County MX Impact Human Service System Refinements Project. Refinements Manual


    referrals made # of persons referred # of counseling sessionsS# of persons provided counseling # of volunteers/# hours/$ value of time Impact Measures % uncollected # of volunteers/# hours/$ value of time Impact Measures $ value savings to tenants over market rate rent Rent Supplements Performance...meals served # of participants # of volunteers/# hours/$ value of time $ spent on food Impact Measures $ value of meals served Home Delivered Meals

  12. The Evolving Private Military Sector: A Survey


    organizational rents; the second stage examines how much of that rent is appropriated by inside stakeholders—i.e., employees ( Coff , 1999). For an...these contracts don’t necessarily yield profits. According to Coff (1999), employees’ ability to appropriate rent depends on three factors that drive...countries such as Laos and Cambodia, Burma and North Korea, and several central Asian countries. These states have both low GDP (gross national

  13. Rental fees for using the non-residential funds of the municipal fisc and factors of its growth

    Raul’ R. Yarullin


    Full Text Available Objective to develop the theoretical bases of forming the rent fees for nonresidential funds which constitute the fisc of Ufa municipality and to identify the opportunities of revenues increase from its use. Methods abstractlogical dialectical comparative systematic and structural economic analysis and synthesis. Results the content is disclosed of the rental fees of nonresidential funds constituting the municipal fisc as a cash payment of compensatory and equivalent character for the use of the municipality fisc the necessity is grounded of increasing the budget effectiveness of the municipal nonresidential facilities rent which consists in the proper use of rental fees for maintenance investments in the renovation and construction of nonresidential facilities the availability of funds for their financing and the lack of growth in rents above the economically viable threshold the factors are analyzed which determine the budget revenues from rent affecting the fiscal efficiency of nonresidential facilities rent in Ufa city a number of problematic issues were identified of systemic character reduction of the number of rent contracts reduction of the rented space an excessive amount of the reduced rent arrears of tenants on rents insufficient quality of the information management system ways are propose to improve the budget efficiency and profitability of the nonresidential rent consisting in the transition of nonresidential buildings and premises which are in economic conducting or in operational administration or are unused unregistered into the rent regime with the establishment of feasible rental fees expanding the number of premises the rental fee for the use of which is determined by bidding reduction of benefits to commercial organizations for the rent payment providing full and timely transfer of the arrears from tenants to the budget acceleration of the formation of the automated system for mass valuation of real estate allowing to

  14. Ressourcerente – skattemodeller

    Lund, Lars


    Resource rents and models for taxation of these rents. Some references to the situation for Greenland. After a general introduction to the concept of rents the risk of distortion by double taxation of the normal capital income to investment is explained. Cash flow taxation or deduction in the tax...... base of investment times the risk free interest rate can be used to avoid this double taxation. Among other instruments to secure a part of rents for the public sector are direct participation and selling rights to exploit the resources by auction. The greater part of the paper is about taxation...

  15. The Use of Video in Knowledge Transfer of Teacher-Led Psychosocial Interventions: Feeling Competent to Adopt a Different Role in the Classroom (L'utilisation de la vidéo dans le transfert de connaissances dans les interventions psychosociales menées par les enseignants : sentir que l'on a la compétence d'adopter un rôle différent dans la salle de classe)

    Beauregard, Caroline; Rousseau, Cécile; Mustafa, Sally


    Because they propose a form of modeling, videos have been recognised to be useful to transfer knowledge about practices requiring teachers to adopt a different role. This paper describes the results of a satisfaction survey with 98 teachers, school administrators and professionals regarding their appreciation of training videos showing teacher-led…

  16. Urban Floating Population Management after the Abolishment of the Compulsory Custody and Repatriation System:with the Example of X District of Beijing in Demolishing Unauthorized Constructions and the Contract Management of Renting Houses%废除收容遣送制度之后的城市流动人口管理——以北京市X区"拆除违章建筑"和"出租房屋契约化管理"为例




  17. Adverse Selection Behaviour of Loaners and Risks of Commercial Banks——A Theoretical Model and Empirical Analysis of Effects of Refunding Loan by Rent on the Asset Risk of Housing Loans of Commercial Banks%贷款人逆向选择行为与商业银行的信贷风险--"以租养房"影响住房信贷资产风险的理论模型及其实证分析




  18. Culture d'une légumineuse et d'une céréale dans le système zaï avec différents amendements organo-minéraux -productivité et impact sur les propriétés biologiques d'un sol ferrugineux dégradé dénudé en Région nord soudanienne au Burkina Faso

    Some, D.


    Full Text Available Legume and Cereal Cropping in Zaï System with Different Organo-mineral Amendments - Productivity and Impact on Biological Properties of Degraded Bare Alfisol in North Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso. Zaï is an agricultural practice that allows the cultivation of abandoned degraded soils. An experiment was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in Burkina Faso to assess the impact of this practice on the production of sorghum and cowpea, as well as on the biological properties of soils. The experiment was set up according to a factorial experimental design in Fischer blocks. The crops were grown in the trial , received different types of organic (manure, compost and mineral (rock phosphate input. The results showed that the intake of simple manure and compost significantly increased the yield of the two crops. The addition of phosphate (2 t.ha-1 to compost (3 t.ha-1 and to manure (3 t.ha-1 increased the yields of cowpea and sorghum respectively by 70 to 80% and 88 to 160% compared to sole compost and manure applications. The biological activity of the soil was not influenced by the type of crop but rather by organo-mineral intakes. The combination of rock phosphate to manure had a particularly positive effect on soil biological activity. The natural phosphate intake associated with organic matter therefore appears essential to maintain crop production and soil properties.

  19. Teaching in different ethos of choise: a comparison of two countries (La enseñanza en diferentes tipos de instituciones: Comparación en dos países (L’enseignement dans différents types d’institutions: Comparaison entre deux pays (O ensino em diferentes tipos de instituições: comparação em dois países

    Nina K. Buchanan


    Full Text Available Current educational research often incorporates an unconscious cultural or national bias that starts from the questions which are asked and concludes with the implications which are drawn. We describe a three-month in situ study of ethos in Irish National Primary Schools and attempt to identify how US and Irish professional teaching practices reflect the political and educational ethoi (customs of their respective homes. In this paper, we focus on what is revealed about teacher practices and professional life: teacher views of school choice, the teachers’ role in the operation of schools, the national curriculum, and student assessment.

  20. Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV or Range Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV? —Deciding Between Different Alternative Drives Based on Measured Individual Operational Profiles Véhicule électrique à batteries (BEV ou véhicule électrique à prolongateur d’autonomie (REEV ? — Choisir entre différents entraînements alternatifs sur la base de profils opérationnels individuels mesurés

    Marker S.


    Full Text Available In recent years, a large number of concepts for drive train electrification and a corresponding broad variety of available drive train configurations were presented to the public. They all have their pros and cons for the customer. This paper discusses a tool enabling the customer to select the drive train which is best suited to his individual purposes. The presented approach focuses on BEV and REEV and is characterized by a three-step procedure: the customer’s individual driving behaviour is measured: individualized driving cycles and operational habits including the daily kilometrage are derived; numerical models of the alternative drive train concepts are run to simulate the energy consumption by applying these individualized cycles. The study reveals that battery sizing is the most important component. It would be more efficient to use a REEV with a smaller battery instead of a BEV: at a given range of 50 km the BEV covers 50% of the kilometers (corresponding to 90% of all daily distances while the REEV covers 100% of all daily distances, out of it 70% on electric driving. This leads to less CO2 emission compared to the combined use of BEV and conventional cars. The REEV with the smallest battery is amortized first referred to conventional cars. The influence of the individual usage pattern can be translated to operational costs. The REEV urban driver covers 85% by electric driving and has thus lower operational costs than the REEV inter-urban driver with 64% electric driving. Récemment, un grand nombre de concepts d’électrification des groupes motopropulseurs et une large variété correspondante de configurations disponibles ont été présentés au public. Tous possèdent des avantages et des inconvénients pour le client. Cet article traite d’un outil permettant au client de sélectionner le groupe motopropulseur le plus adapté à ses besoins individuels. L’approche présentée se focalise sur les véhicules BEV (Battery Electric Vehicle — véhicule électrique à batteries et REEV (Range Extended Electric Vehicle — véhicule électrique à prolongateur d’autonomie et est caractérisée par une procédure en trois étapes : le comportement individuel au volant du client est évalué ; les cycles de conduite individualisés et les habitudes opérationnelles comprenant le kilométrage journalier sont déterminés ; en appliquant ces cycles individualisés, des modèles numériques de concepts de groupe motopropulseur alternatif sont réalisés afin de simuler la consommation d’énergie. L’étude révèle que le dimensionnement de la batterie constitue l’élément le plus important. Un véhicule REEV possédant une batterie plus petite serait plus efficace qu’un véhicule BEV : pour une autonomie donnée de 50 km, le véhicule BEV parcourt 50 % des kilomètres totaux (correspondant à 90 Vo de l’ensemble des distances journalières alors que le véhicule REEV parcourt 100 % de l’ensemble des distances journalières, dont 70 % en mode électrique. Ceci amène à une plus faible émission de CO2 par rapport à l’utilisation associée des véhicules BEV et des véhicules conventionnels. Le véhicule REEV possédant une batterie plus petite est amorti plus tôt qu’un véhicule conventionnel. L’influence exercée par le type d’usage individuel peut être traduite en coûts d’exploitation. Le conducteur urbain d’un véhicule REEV parcourt 85 % des trajets en mode électrique et bénéficie de coûts d’exploitation plus faibles que le conducteur interurbain d’un véhicule REEV parcourant 64 % des trajets en mode électrique.

  1. Does the long-term interest rate predict future inflation?

    Engsted, Tom


    Fisher hypotesen indebærer, at spændet mellem den lange rente og inflationstakten er den optimale prediktor af fremtidige ændringer i inflationstakten. Denne hypotese undersøges med data fra 13 OECD lande. Resultaterne viser, at der er store forskelle mellem landene m.h.t. den lange rentes evne t...

  2. Influence de la Chine sur la culture francaise(1)



    I1 serait présomptueux de prétendre que la Chine a eu une influence déterminante sur certains aspects de la culture francaise, tant les civilisations des deux pays, s'avèrent différentes. Par ailleurs, au contraire de l'Europe oc-

  3. Essays on the political economy of trade and regulation: biotechnology and conservation

    Shao, Qianqian


    Economics and politics interact. Political and economic forces influence the choices of policy instruments, the distribution of economic rent, and the distribution of political power. Politicians balance the interaction of economic rents and political interests in the policy-making process. Some

  4. 24 CFR 982.515 - Family share: Family responsibility.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family share: Family responsibility... Assistance Payment § 982.515 Family share: Family responsibility. (a) The family share is calculated by subtracting the amount of the housing assistance payment from the gross rent. (b) The family rent to owner is...

  5. The Kiosk Gets Friendlier: Weary travelers hate waiting in line, so Hertz adopted new kiosk technology that allows customers to interact with a live, remote agent to complete their transactions

    Stacy Collett


      Weary travelers don't like waiting in line to rent a car. In 2011, Hertz became the first car rental agency to let customers at airports and neighborhood locations rent cars through a video kiosk featuring face-to-face chat. The project...

  6. Essays on the political economy of trade and regulation: biotechnology and conservation

    Shao, Qianqian


    Economics and politics interact. Political and economic forces influence the choices of policy instruments, the distribution of economic rent, and the distribution of political power. Politicians balance the interaction of economic rents and political interests in the policy-making process. Some pol

  7. Nails on the wall%墙上的铁钉


    He and she were sitting face to face. At this moment, the landlord came in and asked, "Are you sure you do not rent the house any more?" He kept silent and she only shook her head. They were going to divorce, so it was obvious that they would not continue renting the house any more.

  8. 77 FR 64822 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Rental Assistance Demonstration...


    ... Section 8 rental assistance contracts; and Rent Supplement (Rent Supp), Rental Assistance Payment (RAP... vouchers (TPVs) to project-based vouchers (PBVs). Participation in the initiative will be voluntary. Public... payments under that project. This requirement is for all applicants in the Public Housing, Mod Rehab,...

  9. 24 CFR 92.252 - Qualification as affordable housing: Rental housing.


    ... established by HUD under 24 CFR 888.111; or (2) A rent that does not exceed 30 percent of the adjusted income... certificate or voucher holder under 24 CFR part 982—Section 8 Tenant-Based Assistance: Unified Rule for Tenant... amount that exceeds the market rent for comparable, unassisted units in the neighborhood. (j) Fixed...

  10. 24 CFR 5.518 - Types of preservation assistance available to mixed families and other families.


    ... consolidated plan, as described in 24 CFR part 91 and if applicable to the covered program, indicates that the... in 24 CFR part 91), the responsible entity's own knowledge of the availability of affordable housing... from a rent level that reflects HUD assistance to a rent level that is unassisted; the term refers...



    Special Recommendations:China Central Place Rent:7-9 yuanasquaremetera day Address:Dawanglu Road,Chaoyang District,Beijing Oriental Plaza Rent:7-8 yuan a square meter a day Address:Wangfujing Street,Dongcheng District,Beijing

  12. 24 CFR 245.325 - Notification of action on request for increase.


    ... for increase. 245.325 Section 245.325 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Requesting Approval of an Increase in Maximum Permissible Rents § 245.325 Notification of action on request for increase. (a) When processing a request for an increase in maximum permissible rents, HUD shall...

  13. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome...

  14. Improving Property to the Benefit of Both Landlords and Tenants

    Juul-Sandberg, Jakob

    this has been the aim of changes to the Danish Rent Act over the latest years. In this context this paper explores regulation on the implementation of primarily energy saving measures in the scope of the Danish rent regulation regime. The aim is to determine if the system may fulfil its purposes under...

  15. Does the long-term interest rate predict future inflation?

    Engsted, Tom


    Fisher hypotesen indebærer, at spændet mellem den lange rente og inflationstakten er den optimale prediktor af fremtidige ændringer i inflationstakten. Denne hypotese undersøges med data fra 13 OECD lande. Resultaterne viser, at der er store forskelle mellem landene m.h.t. den lange rentes evne t...... at forudsige den fremtidige inflation....

  16. Social Housing in the Netherlands, Chapter 10

    Elsinga, M.; Wassenberg, F.


    Nowhere else in Europe does social housing dominate the housing market as it does in the Netherlands. Over one third of all households rent a social-sector dwelling. There are 2.4 million social rented dwellings, a number that has been stable during the last decade. Almost all social housing is owne

  17. The Cheapest Apartments in Town

    Ankele, Chad; Sommer, Robert


    Several surveys are reported of tenants in a low-rent apartment complex in a university town before and after renovation. The tenants were willing to trade off the lack of amenities and anomie in return for low rent and casual lease arrangements. (JP)

  18. "Democracy Deficit" in the Arab Middle East: Easy Money and Authoritarianism


    Liberalism, 6. 70 Ibid, 6. 71 Douglas A. Yates, The Rentier State in Africa: Oil Rent Dependency and Neocolonialism in the Republic of Gabon., 26. 72...Yates, Douglas A., The Rentier State in Africa: Oil Rent Dependency and Neocolonialism in the Republic of Gabon. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1996

  19. Leaving home and entering the housing market.

    Clark, W.A.V.; Mulder, C.H.


    We use a multinomial choice model of owning a home, owning a trailer, or renting to examine the housing-market entry of young adults in the USA after they have left the parental home. We also model the choice between renting independently and sharing with roommates. We show that the likelihood of be

  20. 26 CFR 1.467-3 - Disqualified leasebacks and long-term agreements.


    ... principal purpose for providing increasing or decreasing rent is the avoidance of Federal income tax (as... properties. (c) Tax avoidance as principal purpose for increasing or decreasing rent—(1) In general. In... which tax avoidance was a principal purpose for providing increasing or decreasing rent. (2) Tax...

  1. 77 FR 47430 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Section 8 Renewal Policy Guide


    ... participation in Mark-Up-To- Market. The case is that no renewal rents could exceed comparable market rents. If... Affordable Housing for Senior Citizens and Families Into the 21st Century Act of 1999 (Pub. L. 106-74... Contract as Security for Financing (HUD- 9649) Consent to Assignment of HAP Contract as Security for...

  2. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.


    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence vari

  3. 26 CFR 1.1055-2 - Determination of amount realized on the transfer of the right to hold real property subject to...


    ... of the right to hold real property subject to liabilities under a redeemable ground rent. 1.1055-2... of the right to hold real property subject to liabilities under a redeemable ground rent. In determining the amount realized from a transfer, occurring on or after April 11, 1963, of the right to...

  4. The Cheapest Apartments in Town

    Ankele, Chad; Sommer, Robert


    Several surveys are reported of tenants in a low-rent apartment complex in a university town before and after renovation. The tenants were willing to trade off the lack of amenities and anomie in return for low rent and casual lease arrangements. (JP)

  5. Union Citizenship and the Court of Justice: something new under the sun? Towards social citizenship

    Jacqueson, Catherine


    EU-borgerskab,  art. 12, 17 og 18 EFT- nationalitet - ikke økonomisk aktive personer - ret til sociale ydelser - opholdsret - rent interne forhold Udgivelsesdato: marts......EU-borgerskab,  art. 12, 17 og 18 EFT- nationalitet - ikke økonomisk aktive personer - ret til sociale ydelser - opholdsret - rent interne forhold Udgivelsesdato: marts...

  6. 1 Office Rental Determinants in WUSE Commercial District of Abuja ...


    May 7, 2015 ... Rent is the economic return to land resources. It is also the ... determinants that influence office property rents in the country. This paper ..... rate on real estate loans, interest rate on commerce, Monetary Policy Rate. (MPR) ...

  7. 7 CFR 1767.26 - Operating revenue.


    ... from furnishing water power for mechanical purposes when the investment in the property used in... 451Miscellaneous Service Revenues 453Sales of Water and Water Power 454Rent from Electric Property 455Interdepartmental Rents 456Other Electric Revenues 456.1Revenues from Transmission of Electricity of Others...


    Koetter, Michael; Kolari, James W.; Spierdijk, Laura


    The quiet life hypothesis posits that firms with market power incur inefficiencies rather than reap monopolistic rents. We propose a simple adjustment to Lerner indices to account for the possibility of forgone rents to test this hypothesis. For a large sample of U.S. commercial banks, we find that

  9. Application du système d’information géographique pour les réseaux GSM.


    Notre projet consiste à expliquer le fonctionnement du réseau GSM et de ses différents composants avec leurs différentes architectures on a parlé aussi du Drive Test ainsi que ses différents outils de mesures dans le but de trouve le chemin optimal autour de l’antenne BTS pour trouver le meilleur signal possible émis par l’antenne, ensuite on a parlé des systèmes d’informations géographiques qui ont une importance primordial dans la représen...

  10. Social Housing in Denmark

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J


    Social housing is a cornerstone in the Danish welfare society and is accessible for all households. By law, social housing must be rented at cost rents, which are based on historical costs; rents do not respond to market forces. Social housing aims to provide good standard, secure and affordable...... for the individual associations as well as each housing estate. In principle, each estate and the association it belongs to must balance its books. An important feature of the sector is the build-up of a funding system which makes it possible to support the financing of major renovations and energy measures as well...

  11. Les enseignements de la catastrophe

    Grünewald, François


    Avant le séisme, divers mécanismes de coordination internationale impliquant différentes parties prenantes (donateurs, ONG internationales et nationales, agences des Nations unies, acteurs multilatéraux, Gouvernement d’Haïti, etc.), détentrices de mandats différents avaient été mis sur pied. Même si le dialogue entre les groupes de la société civile haïtienne et les différents fora de coordination internationale ont souvent été difficiles, face à des risques naturels nombreux, des efforts ava...

  12. Corruption and optimal regulation under common agency

    Pedro Hemsley


    Full Text Available I show that it is optimal to separate non-benevolent regulators when regulated projects are large. Separation prevents regulators from coordinating to appropriate all of the agent's informational rent when they know the type of the latter; therefore, there is a trade-off between saving on informational rent and efficiency, since the game between the regulators induced by separation causes further distortions when compared to the allocation under one regulator. When the informational rent at stake is large due to the size of the project, separation is the optimal institutional answer.

  13. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published ... Be The Match: Bone marrow recipient meets woman who saved her life - Duration: 4:21. Baylor ...

  14. Raja tänava skulptuurigalerii aitab avardada kunstitudengite maailma / Rain Kooli

    Kooli, Rain


    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia skulptuuriosakonnas Tallinnas Raja 11a avatakse 29. veebruaril Galerii Raja. Avanäituse "Üürikorter/Apartment for Rent" kuraator ja juht on Berliinis töötav hollandi skulptor Anneke Eussen

  15. 78 FR 56625 - Housing Counseling Program: New Certification Requirements


    ... individuals seeking information about financing, maintaining, renting, or owning a home. The Dodd-Frank Wall... equity). Executive Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of...

  16. On the valuation of property for taxation

    Murrough O'brien


    .... In fact the definition of rateable value as "the rent which may reasonably be expected", cannot be truthfully applied to those hereditaments that are not usually let from year to year. O'Brien, Murrough...

  17. Owning and letting of second homes

    Skak, Morten; Bloze, Gintautas


    Second homes create welfare for the owner who uses the home for own recreational purposes and for tenants when the home is rented out. In addition, second homes typically generate positive externalities locally, such as seasonal job creation. The letting of second homes opens for a more intensive...... use of the homes and for their importance for a country’s tourism industry. This paper investigates the drivers of the decision to rent out private second homes, an area which is much less studied than second homeownership. The empirical analysis is carried out on survey data from 2386 randomly...... selected Danish households combined with data from administrative registers. The analysis reveals that the strongest drivers of the decision to rent out are the age of the owner of the second home and the equity of the home. Young households with low equity have a high propensity to rent out....

  18. Water SA - Vol 31, No 1 (2005)

    Water value, resource rent recovery and economic welfare cost of ... Optimisation of reaction conditions of particle aggregation in water purification – back to basics ... The effect of the heavy metals lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) on · EMAIL FREE ...

  19. Raja tänava skulptuurigalerii aitab avardada kunstitudengite maailma / Rain Kooli

    Kooli, Rain


    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia skulptuuriosakonnas Tallinnas Raja 11a avatakse 29. veebruaril Galerii Raja. Avanäituse "Üürikorter/Apartment for Rent" kuraator ja juht on Berliinis töötav hollandi skulptor Anneke Eussen

  20. 7 CFR 3560.406 - MFH ownership transfers or sales.


    ... sanitary housing to be provided in market areas where conventional rents are not sufficient to cover... substances or petroleum products is found on the property, the finding must be disclosed to the Agency...