WorldWideScience

Sample records for renowned child psychiatrist

  1. Training child psychiatrists in rural public mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, T A; Benswanger, E G; Fialkov, M J; Sonis, M

    1987-04-01

    Lack of appropriate training in both public mental health service and rural mental health service is a major factor in the critical shortage of child psychiatrists in rural settings. The authors describe a residency training program in rural public mental health designed to help alleviate that shortage. The program familiarizes fourth-year residents in child psychiatry with the clinical, political, and social aspects of rural public mental health services through didactic and supervisory sessions as well as an eight-month practicum experience involving provision of inservice training and administrative and case-related consultation to staff of mental health agencies. An assessment of the program indicated that participants felt it was beneficial, but the program was only partly successful in increasing the number of child psychiatrists entering practice in rural areas. The authors urge that residency programs in child psychiatry give priority to training child psychiatrists for work in rural settings.

  2. The reliability of child psychiatric diagnosis. A comparison among Danish child psychiatrists of traditional diagnoses and a multiaxial diagnostic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, A M; Isager, T; Jørgensen, O S

    1988-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare an experimental multiaxial diagnostic system (MAS) with traditional multicategorical diagnoses in child psychiatric work. Sixteen written case histories were circulated to 21 child psychiatrists, who made diagnoses independently of one another, using two different...

  3. Attracting Child Psychiatrists to a Televideo Consultation Service: The TeleLink Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Identify aspects of psychiatry work that are rewarding, as well as those that are challenging, from the perspective of psychiatrists and residents participating in televideo consultation services. Method. A web-based survey was distributed to psychiatrists within the Division of Child Psychiatry at the University of Toronto. Also, semistructured interviews were conducted with six child psychiatrists providing services to a telepsychiatry program. Finally, a focus group interview was held with four psychiatry residents. Results. Child psychiatrists are very comfortable conducting assessments via televideo. Factors identified as being important in the decision to participate in telepsychiatry include assisting underserved communities, supportive administrative staff, enhanced rural provider capacity, financial incentives, and convenience. The study's qualitative phase identified four themes in the decision to participate in telepsychiatry: (1) organizational, (2) shared values, (3) innovation, and (4) the consultation model. Conclusion. The success of televideo consultation programs in attracting child psychiatrists to provide consultation services to underresourced communities makes an important contribution to psychiatric workforce shortages. Understanding what aspects of telepsychiatry are most appreciated by consulting psychiatrists and residents offers useful strategies to telepsychiatry administrators and medical school educators seeking to attract, train, and retain psychiatry practitioners.

  4. Attracting Child Psychiatrists to a Televideo Consultation Service: The TeleLink Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Volpe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Identify aspects of psychiatry work that are rewarding, as well as those that are challenging, from the perspective of psychiatrists and residents participating in televideo consultation services. Method. A web-based survey was distributed to psychiatrists within the Division of Child Psychiatry at the University of Toronto. Also, semistructured interviews were conducted with six child psychiatrists providing services to a telepsychiatry program. Finally, a focus group interview was held with four psychiatry residents. Results. Child psychiatrists are very comfortable conducting assessments via televideo. Factors identified as being important in the decision to participate in telepsychiatry include assisting underserved communities, supportive administrative staff, enhanced rural provider capacity, financial incentives, and convenience. The study’s qualitative phase identified four themes in the decision to participate in telepsychiatry: (1 organizational, (2 shared values, (3 innovation, and (4 the consultation model. Conclusion. The success of televideo consultation programs in attracting child psychiatrists to provide consultation services to underresourced communities makes an important contribution to psychiatric workforce shortages. Understanding what aspects of telepsychiatry are most appreciated by consulting psychiatrists and residents offers useful strategies to telepsychiatry administrators and medical school educators seeking to attract, train, and retain psychiatry practitioners.

  5. Referral for Occupational Therapy after Diagnosis of Developmental Disorder by German Child Psychiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Marcel; Drosselmeyer, Julia; Kostev, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to assess how many patients received occupational therapy after diagnosis of developmental disorder (DD) in child psychiatrist practices in Germany and which factors influenced the prescription of occupational therapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective database analysis in Germany utilising the Disease…

  6. Psychiatrist's Notebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifted Child Today (GCT), 1988

    1988-01-01

    A child psychiatrist offers a brief introduction to learning disabilities: their causes, common signals of learning disabilities, student assessment to clarify the existence of a learning disability, and treatment with special educational services or medication. (JDD)

  7. Management of Mental Health Crises Among Youths With and Without ASD: A National Survey of Child Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Luther G; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Mandell, David S; Olfson, Mark; Vasa, Roma A

    2017-10-01

    This study compared management by child psychiatrists of mental health crises among youths with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A custom online mental health crisis services survey was administered to members of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The survey probed three domains of crisis management: willingness to work with youths with a history of mental health crisis, comfort level in managing a mental health crisis, and availability of external resources during a crisis. Child psychiatrists reporting on management of youths with ASD (N=492) and without ASD (N=374) completed the survey. About 75% of psychiatrists in both groups were willing to accept a child with a history of a mental health crisis in their practice. During a crisis, psychiatrists caring for youths with ASD had less access to external consultation resources, such as a crisis evaluation center or other mental health professionals, compared with those caring for youths without ASD. Psychiatrists also expressed concerns about the ability of emergency department professionals and emergency responders to manage mental health crises among youths in a safe and developmentally appropriate manner, particularly among those with ASD. Child psychiatrists are in need of more external resources to manage youths with ASD who are experiencing a mental health crisis. There is also a need to develop best practice procedures for emergency responders who are working with youths experiencing a mental health crisis.

  8. The Medical Transition from Pediatric to Adult-Oriented Care: Considerations for Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura C; Maslow, Gary

    2018-01-01

    More adolescents and young adults are surviving previously fatal childhood illness and need support to transition from pediatric care to adult-oriented care. There are many barriers, but guidelines and tools assist providers with emphasis on gradually addressing transition with patients and families. Child and adolescent psychiatrists should be particularly attuned to the needs of adolescents with previously identified mental illness who are at high risk of falling out of regular care during transition. Providers are also uniquely suited to address the needs of adolescents and young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Why Psychiatry Needs 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: A Child Psychiatrist's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Ben

    2017-07-01

    Since the late 1980s the psychoactive drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has had a well-known history as the recreationally used drug ecstasy. What is less well known by the public is that MDMA started its life as a therapeutic agent and that in recent years an increasing amount of clinical research has been undertaken to revisit the drug's medical potential. MDMA has unique pharmacological properties that translate well to its proposed agent to assist trauma-focused psychotherapy. Psychological trauma-especially that which arises early in life from child abuse-underpins many chronic adult mental disorders, including addictions. Several studies of recent years have investigated the potential role of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder, with ongoing plans to see MDMA therapy licensed and approved within the next 5 years. Issues of safety and controversy frequently surround this research, owing to MDMA's often negative media-driven bias. However, accurate examination of the relative risks and benefits of clinical MDMA-in contrast to the recreational use of ecstasy-must be considered when assessing its potential benefits and the merits of future research. In this review, the author describes these potential benefits and explores the relatives risks of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the context of his experience as a child and adolescent psychiatrist, having seen the relative limitations of current pharmacotherapies and psychotherapies for treating complex post-traumatic stress disorder arising from child abuse.

  10. [The treatment needs of migrant children according to child and adolescent psychiatrists from medical clinics and in private practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefen, Georg; Kirkcaldy, Bruce; Adam, Hubertus; Schepker, Renate

    2015-03-01

    How does the German child and adolescent psychiatry system respond to the increasing number of migrant children and adolescents? Senior doctors from German child and adolescent psychiatric hospitals (Association of Medical Hospital Directors in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy in Germany, BAG) completed a specially constructed questionnaire about the treatment needs of migrant children, while a «random, representative» sample of child and adolescent psychiatrists in private practice (German Professional Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, BKJPP) was administered a slightly modified version. The 100 psychiatrists in private practice represented only about one-eighth of their group, whereas the 55 medical directors comprised a representative sample. One-third of the hospitals has treatments tailored to the specific needs of migrants. In both settings, however, competent interpreters were rarely found, despite the treatment problems arising from the understanding the illness by the parents, language problems, and the clinical knowledge of the patient. Cultural diversity is perceived as enriching. The migration background and the sex of child and adolescent psychiatrists influence the treatment of migrants. Facilitating the process of «cultural opening» in child and adolescent psychiatry involves enacting concrete steps, such as the funding of interpreter costs.

  11. Genetic Testing in Intellectual Disability Psychiatry: Opinions and Practices of UK Child and Intellectual Disability Psychiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kate; Stueber, Kerstin; McQuillin, Andrew; Jichi, Fatima; Patch, Christine; Flinter, Frances; Strydom, André; Bass, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of genetic causes of intellectual disabilities (ID) are identifiable by clinical genetic testing, offering the prospect of bespoke patient management. However, little is known about the practices of psychiatrists and their views on genetic testing. Method: We undertook an online survey of 215 psychiatrists, who…

  12. Survey of atypical antipsychotic prescribing by Canadian child psychiatrists and developmental pediatricians for patients aged under 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doey, Tamison; Handelman, Kenneth; Seabrook, Jamie A; Steele, Margaret

    2007-06-01

    To describe self-reported patterns of prescribing atypical antipsychotics (ATAs) and monitoring practices of child psychiatrists and developmental pediatricians in Canada. We surveyed members of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and members of the Developmental Paediatrics Section of the Canadian Paediatric Society regarding the types and frequencies of ATAs they prescribed, the ages and diagnoses of patients for whom they prescribed these medications, and the types and frequencies of monitoring used. Ninety-four percent of the child psychiatrists (95% CI, 90% to 97%) and 89% of the developmental pediatricians (95% CI, 75% to 96%) prescribed ATAs, most commonly risperidone (69%). Diagnoses included psychotic, mood, anxiety, externalizing, and pervasive developmental disorders. Prescribing for symptoms such as aggression, low frustration tolerance, and affect dysregulation was also common. Twelve percent of all prescriptions were for children under age 9 years. Most clinicians monitored patients, but there were wide variations in the type and frequency of tests performed. Despite the lack of formal indications, ATAs were prescribed by this group of clinicians for many off-label indications in youth under age 18 years, including very young children. Neither evidence-based guidelines nor a consensus on monitoring exist for this age group.

  13. Should psychiatrists self disclose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Edmund

    2011-12-01

    The extent to which psychiatrists disclose personal information about their feelings, their pasts, and themselves to their patients has always been an important ethical and clinical question. In the past, psychiatrists tended to believe they should not self disclose personal information to their patients, mainly to help patients by exploring their transference. More recent work has suggested that self disclosing by the psychiatrist may benefit some patients and cause harm to other patients. This article presents the author's present understanding of some of the core pros and cons of self disclosing by the psychiatrist, as well as some specific contexts in which self disclosure is indicated or should be avoided.

  14. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Africa, Canada, Europe, Middle East Armed Forces Americas Australian Capital Territory British Columbia California Canal Zone Colorado ... info@advsol.com My Profile Donate About AACAP Copyright © Advanced Solutions International . {1} ##LOC[OK]## {1} ##LOC[ ...

  15. [As a Child of a Parent with Schizophrenia, as a Patient, and as a Psychiatrist: A Message to All JSPN Members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsukari, Ikuko

    2015-01-01

    I previously published an article, entitled About "Regarding a person Who recovers". It documents the actual situation and recovery of a family member with schizophrenia, and it does not describe my recovery as a patient as a psychiatrist. At the time of publication, the main purpose was to disclose the real name of the family member. Since the disclosure, I have met many patients and families, and learned their true thoughts and strengths that I would have never known simply through consultation, and this totally changed my perceptions of them. Meanwhile, I also received many comments from medical professionals who were also family members of patients at the same time. I learned that they were struggling with conflicting emotions of being a family member as well as a professional, and I realized the isolations of families, and persistent stigma attached to psychiatric disorders. The disclosure broadened my perspectives as a psychiatrist. Now, more than 30 years after becoming a doctor, I still question myself: 'what have I done?', 'Have I listened to the voices of patients and their families?' I still have persisted, as a psychiatrist, until today. Psychiatry is a field that can be neglected if you do not question its contradictions. I think this is also why 'patient-centered recovery' has been neglected, and, as a result, psychiatry has been left behind. I often hear people asking: 'how can we increase numbers of psychiatrists?' I did not become a psychiatrist because of my own experience. I believe that, by providing medical care that the patients and their families can appreciate, from those families, some younger members will desire to become psychiatrists ; that is the way psychiatry should be developed. For that purpose, I believe it is necessary more than anything to approach each case with great care, valuing the 'real voices' of patients and their families, and respecting their strengths.

  16. Should psychiatrists write fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, Henry

    2018-04-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between fiction and psychiatry. Specifically, the idea of psychiatrists as fiction writers is explored, and reference is made to various fictional texts to illustrate the problems of stigma and negative imagery. These two main areas of focus are highlighted as ones that the practice of writing fiction might address, and some potential pitfalls are discussed. The paper suggests how psychiatrists might ameliorate the present problems by incorporating their unique clinical skills and knowledge into fictional narratives. Declaration of interest None.

  17. ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming.

  18. Successful ageing for psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisah, Carmelle

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to explore the concept and determinants of successful ageing as they apply to psychiatrists as a group, and as they can be applied specifically to individuals. Successful ageing is a heterogeneous, inclusive concept that is subjectively defined. No longer constrained by the notion of "super-ageing", successful ageing can still be achieved in the face of physical and/or mental illness. Accordingly, it remains within the reach of most of us. It can, and should be, person-specific and individually defined, specific to one's bio-psycho-social and occupational circumstances, and importantly, reserves. Successful professional ageing is predicated upon insight into signature strengths, with selection of realistic goal setting and substitution of new goals, given the dynamic nature of these constructs as we age. Other essential elements are generativity and self-care. Given that insight is key, taking a regular stock or inventory of our reserves across bio-psycho-social domains might be helpful. Importantly, for successful ageing, this needs to be suitably matched to the professional task and load. This lends itself to a renewable personal ageing plan, which should be systemically adopted with routine expectations of self-care and professional responsibility. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  19. Con Drury: philosopher and psychiatrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John

    2017-12-01

    Maurice O'Connor Drury (1907-76), an Irish psychiatrist, is best known for his accounts of his close friendship with the eminent twentieth-century philosopher, Ludwig Wittgenstein. His only book, The Danger of Words (1973), was well received by those who had an interest in the relationship between psychiatry, psychology and philosophy. This article concentrates on Drury's experiences, studies and writings in these fields.

  20. psychiatrists?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gave my statistics for interviewing serial killers per annum — the numbers were comparable to lifetime figures for others. There is a diversity of psychiatric fields, and unlimited opportunities to study within them. There is a needy patient population. There is the chance to make a difference by thinking creatively to solve prob-.

  1. Qualities of a good Singaporean psychiatrist: Qualitative differences between psychiatrists and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tor, Phern-Chern; Tan, Jacinta O A

    2015-06-01

    Pilot studies in Singapore established four themes (personal values, professional, relationship, academic-executive) relating to the qualities of a good psychiatrist, and suggested potential differences of opinion between patients and psychiatrists. We sought to explore differences between patients and psychiatrists regarding the qualities of a good psychiatrist. Qualitative analysis of interviews using a modified grounded theory approach with 21 voluntary psychiatric inpatients and 18 psychiatrists. One hundred thirty-one separate qualities emerged from the data. The qualities of a good psychiatrist were viewed in the context of motivations, functions, methods, and results obtained, mirroring the themes established in the pilot studies. Patients and psychiatrists mostly concurred on the qualities of a good psychiatrist, with 62.6% of the qualities emerging from both groups. However significant differences existed. Patient-specific qualities included proof of altruistic motives, diligence, clinical competence, and positive results. What the psychiatrist represented to patients in relation to gender, culture, and clinical prestige also mattered to patients. Psychiatrist-specific qualities related to societal (e.g. public protection) and professional concerns (e.g. boundary issues). The results of this study demonstrate that patients and psychiatrists have different views about the qualities of a good psychiatrist. Patients may expect proof of care, diligence, and competence from the psychiatrist, along with positive results. In addition, psychiatrists should be mindful of what they represent to patients and how that can impact the doctor-patient relationship. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Nuclear neuosis: a psychiatrist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecker, S.

    1980-01-01

    A psychiatrist with a private practice and also a public face as advisor and consultant to corporations and to governmental agencies on human stress control makes a statement on the psychological and psychiatric implications of current controversy over the commercial development and use of nuclear energy. His perceptions, which stem from the discipline of his profession, should be of interest to all who have felt concern of any kind about issues raised by the nuclear controversy, whether they have taken a pro or anti position or are still considering the options

  3. Should Psychiatrists Resurrect the Body?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Tony B

    2016-01-01

    The current article interrogates the mind-body dualism that characterizes modern psychiatry and contends that the dualism is manifested by the relative neglect by psychiatrists of the body, or soma. The article argues that the state of affairs has several consequences, including psychiatrists' underappreciation of the somatic manifestations of mental disorders and of the therapeutic potential of somatic or body-based therapies. Empirical data attest to the association of a range of mental illnesses with somatic pathologies, as does the fact that a range of somatic therapies, including yoga and t'ai chi, are increasingly being shown to be efficacious in the treatment of a range of mental illnesses. The current article contextualizes contemporary Western psychiatry's relative neglect of the body by drawing on some historical as well as cross-cultural perspectives. Although their overall effect has been minimal, various theoretical perspectives in Western psychiatry, including Jungian thought, psychoanalytical psychosomatics, Reichian and related schools, and the phenomenological tradition, have sought to overcome psychiatry's mind-body dualism. Neither has psychiatry incorporated the values of various non-Western schools of medicine that maintain a far more integrated conceptualization of the relationship between mind and body than is seen in modern Western psychiatry. The field of psychosomatics could potentially influence general psychiatry to reverse its bifurcated mind-body relationship, but that field's increasingly narrow mandate and organizational separation from general psychiatry conspire to militate against the latter's incorporation of psychosomatic medicine's conceptual advances or pragmatic insights in any convincing or enduring manner.

  4. Undergraduate students' perceptions of practicing psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W; Wantz, Richard A; Geib, Ellen F; Ray, Brigitte N

    2012-11-01

    This article reports research findings from a survey of 261 students regarding their perceptions of psychiatrists. Overall, students view psychiatrists as competent and prestigious. At the same time, however, only approximately half of respondents reported having a "positive view" of these professionals and around one-third were neutral. College students view psychiatrists as effective for treating relatively severe mental health problems, although depression was not considered to be a psychiatrist's relative strong suit (only half viewed them as being effective). Some confusion between psychiatrists and psychologists seemed apparent. Although students did not consider the media a highly reliable source of information, media sources nonetheless appeared to play a dominant role in determining how college students framed psychiatry roles. We discuss the results in the context of the need for further education by the specialty of psychiatry and the importance of reversing what appears to be some negative stereotyping.

  5. Changes in Characteristics and Practice Patterns of Ontario Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdyak, Paul; Zaheer, Juveria; Cheng, Joyce; Rudoler, David; Mulsant, Benoit H

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in demographic, geographic, and practice characteristics of all Ontario psychiatrists between 2003 and 2013 and their implication for access to psychiatrists. We included all psychiatrists who were clinically active in Ontario in any year from 2003 to 2013. For each psychiatrist, we reported age, sex, years since medical school graduation, geographic practice region, and practice characteristics such as total number of inpatients, outpatients, and outpatient visit frequencies. In 2013, there were 2070 psychiatrists, with nearly half (47%) more than 30 years since medical school graduation. Female psychiatrists comprised 41% of all psychiatrists in 2013 but 56% of all psychiatrists within 15 years of medical school graduation. Between 2003 and 2013, there was a 17% increase in the total number of psychiatrists, with the largest growth in psychiatrists occurring in the group more than 30 years from medical school graduation. Over these 11 years, the mean (SD) number of unique outpatients seen by a psychiatrist annually increased from 208 (228) to 249 (275) (19.5%; P = 0.001), with male psychiatrists, on average, seeing more outpatients annually than female psychiatrists. The number of outpatients seen by psychiatrists is slowly increasing. However, the large proportion of aging psychiatrists, the high concentration of psychiatrists in urban settings, and the increase in the number of female psychiatrists with smaller practices suggest that without radical changes to the way psychiatrists practice, access to psychiatrists will remain a challenge in Ontario.

  6. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  7. Happiness and Defense Styles in Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.

  8. The role of the psychiatrist: job satisfaction of medical directors and staff psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranz, J; Stueve, A; McQuistion, H L

    2001-12-01

    In a previous survey of Columbia University Public Psychiatry Fellowship alumni, medical directors reported experiencing higher job satisfaction compared to staff psychiatrists. To further this inquiry, the authors conducted an expanded survey among the membership of the American Association of Community Psychiatrists (AACP). We mailed a questionnaire to all AACP members. Respondents categorized their positions as staff psychiatrist, program medical director or agency medical director, and rated their overall job satisfaction. The form also included a number of demographic and job characteristic items. Of 479 questionnaires mailed, a total of 286 individuals returned questionnaires (61%-12 forms were undeliverable). As in our previous survey, medical directors experience significantly higher job satisfaction compared to staff psychiatrists. Program and agency medical directors do not differ significantly. In addition, job satisfaction is strongly and negatively correlated with age for staff psychiatrists but not for medical directors. This survey strengthens the previously reported advantage medical directors have over staff psychiatrists regarding job satisfaction. The finding that job satisfaction decreases with increasing age of staff psychiatrists but not medical directors is particularly interesting, suggesting that staff psychiatrist positions may come to be regarded as "dead-end" over time. Psychiatrists are advised to seek promotions to program medical director positions early in their careers, since these positions are far more available, and provide equal job satisfaction, compared to agency medical director positions.

  9. Obstacles to early career psychiatrists practicing psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A; Plakun, Eric M; Lazar, Susan G; Mellman, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Though psychiatric residents are expected to be competent psychotherapists on graduation, further growth in skill and versatility requires continued experience in their ongoing career. Maturity as a psychotherapist is essential because a psychiatrist is the only mental health provider who, as a physician, can assume full responsibility for biopsychosocial patient care and roles as supervisor, consultant, and team leader. Graduating residents face an environment in which surveys show a steady and alarming decline in practice of psychotherapy by psychiatrists, along with a decline in job satisfaction. High educational debts, practice structures, intrusive management, and reimbursement policies that devalue psychotherapy discourage early career psychiatrists from a practice style that enables providing it. For the early-career psychiatrist there is thus the serious risk of being unable to develop a critical mass of experience or a secure identity as a psychiatric psychotherapist. Implementation of parity laws and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will affect the situation in unpredictable ways that call for vigilance and active response. Additional service and administrative demands may result from the ACA, creating ethical dilemmas about meeting urgent patient needs versus biopsychosocial standards of care. The authors recommend 1) vigorous advocacy for better payment levels for psychotherapy and freedom from disruptive management; 2) aggressive action against violations of the parity act, 3) active preparation of psychiatric residents for dealing with career choices and the environment for providing psychotherapy in their practice, and 4) post-graduate training in psychotherapy through supervision/consultation, continuing education courses, computer instruction, and distance learning.

  10. Sex, lies and training programs: the ethics of consensual sexual relationships between psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, C J

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to chart the ethical territory surrounding the issue of consensual sexual relationships between psychiatrists and doctors training in psychiatry. The arguments for and against the prohibition of such relationships are critically examined both in general and in a number of specific circumstances. There should not be a general prohibition against such relationships, but a prohibition should apply in certain special circumstances. Such circumstances include occasions when the psychiatrist is currently supervising the trainee, when a particular psychiatrist has repeated sexual relationships with trainees and when a group of psychiatrists voluntarily pledge to abstain from such relationships. Institutions involved in psychiatric training should develop guidelines for dealing with such relationships, adopting a generally permissive attitude toward them with clear exceptions in special cases.

  11. Measuring the stigma of psychiatry and psychiatrists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zäske, Harald; Cleveland, Helen-Rose

    2011-01-01

    The stigma of mental illness is a severe burden for people suffering from mental illness both in private and public life, also affecting their relatives, their close social network, and the mental health care system in terms of disciplines, providers, and institutions. Interventions against...... the stigma of mental illness employ complementary strategies (e.g., protest, education, and contact) and address different target groups (e.g., school children and teachers, journalists, stakeholders). Within this framework, the World Psychiatric Association has adopted an Action Plan with the goal...... to improve the image of psychiatry and to reduce potential stigmatizing attitudes toward psychiatry and psychiatrists. To evaluate such interventions, a questionnaire has been developed that assesses opinions and attitudes toward psychiatrists and psychiatry in different samples of medical specialists...

  12. [Psychiatrist burnout or psychiatric assistance burnout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Vincenzo; Dicuonzo, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, mature industrial countries are rapidly changing from production economies to service economies. In this new socio-economic context, particular attention has been paid to mental health problems in the workplace. The risk of burnout is significantly higher for certain occupations, in particular for health workers. Doctors and psychiatrists, in particular, quite frequently have to make quick decisions by dealing with a huge amount of requests, which often require considerable assumptions of responsibility. In Italy, the process of corporateization and regionalization of the National Health Service has oriented clinical practice, in psychiatry, towards the rationalization and optimization of available resources, to ensure appropriateness and fairness of performances. The challenge that will soon be faced in health policy, with the progressive aging of the population, will be the growing burden of chronicity, in a context of limited resources, which will necessarily require a managerial approach in structuring and delivering services. The management of change in psychiatric assistance, today in Italy, can not be separated from a deep motivating involvement ( engagement) of professionals. In other words, it is desirable, in the effort to contain expenditure and rationalize welfare processes, to shift from burnout to the engagement of psychiatrists, investing economic and human resources in mental health services. In this review, through a selective search of the relevant literature 2010-2017 conducted on PubMed (key words: stress, burnout, psychiatry, mental health), the information from original articles, reviews and book chapters was analyzed and summarized. about the presence of burnout syndrome among psychiatrists. This article examines the concept of burnout, its causes and the most appropriate preventive and therapeutic interventions applicable to psychiatrists.

  13. Rafał Becker: psychiatrist, eugenist, Zionist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowski, Filip; Nasierowski, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    In the interwar period the eugenic ideas gained the status of a scientific theory and become attractive to a wide range of physicians. Among them were doctors of Jewish origin who perceived eugenics as a tool in the fight for biological rebirth of the Jewish nation. Polish-Jewish psychiatrist Raphael Becker (1891-1939?), the author of dozens of scientific papers, was the most famous eugenist among Jewish psychiatrists, not only in Poland but also in Europe. After graduation in medicine at the University in Zurich and training in the psychiatry clinic Burghölzli under the guidance of Eugen Bleuler, Rafał Becker became interested in the question of epidemiology of mental disorders among the Jews. In the interwar period, dealing with the statistics of mental disorders among Polish Jews, and directing a psychiatric hospital "Zofiówka" in Otwock, he significantly contributed to the development of medical care for the mentally ill Jews in Poland. Becker's scientific ideas were greatly influenced by the work of Alfred Adler and Ernst Kretschmer. The article presents the life and scientific achievements of Becker, with particular emphasis on his views on eugenics.

  14. A survey of psychiatrists' attitudes toward treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Daniel J; Goldman, Mona; Florence, Timothy; Milner, Karen K

    2004-04-01

    We developed a survey to look at psychiatrists' attitudes toward psychotropic prescribing guidelines, specifically the Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP) algorithms. The 22-page survey was distributed to 24 psychiatrists working in 4 CMHC's; 13 completed the survey. 90% agreed that guidelines should be general and flexible. The majority also agreed that guidelines should define how to measure response to a specific agent; fewer agreed guidelines should specify dosage, side effect management, or augmentation strategies. Psychiatrists were familiar with TMAP; none referred to it in their practice. In spite of this, psychiatrists' medication preferences were similar to those suggested by guidelines.

  15. How can psychiatrists offer psychotherapeutic leadership in the public sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammell, Paul; Amos, Jackie; Baigent, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the forms that psychotherapeutic leadership can take for psychiatrists attempting to optimise outcomes for individuals receiving treatment in the public mental health sector. It explores a range of roles and functions that psychiatrists can take on as psychotherapy leaders, and how these can be applied in clinical, administrative and research contexts. Psychiatrists need to play an increasing role in clinical, administrative and academic settings to advance service provision, resource allocation, training and research directed at psychotherapies in the public health sector. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  16. Ulysses directives in The Netherlands: opinions of psychiatrists and clients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varekamp, I.

    2004-01-01

    In this article we present a study on the opinions of Dutch psychiatrists and clients on Ulysses directives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 clients and 17 psychiatrists. Most respondents were proponents of Ulysses directives. The most frequently mentioned objective of these directives

  17. Does religious identification of South African psychiatrists matter in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. It is not known whether psychiatrists' approach to religious matters in clinical practice reflects their own identification or non-identification with religion or their being active in religious activities. Objective. This question was investigated among South African (SA) psychiatrists and psychiatry registrars, including ...

  18. Referral letters to the psychiatrist in Nigeria: is communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    history, may not be elements that non-psychiatrist phy- sicians routinely collect during their examinations and, therefore, one would not expect such information to be available to be included in referral letters. Conclusion. Deficits in communication or information transfer through referral letters to the psychiatrist are common.

  19. Gambling addiction in India: A survey of Indian psychiatrists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We surveyed 121 Indian psychiatrists to explore their understanding of gambling addiction, their exposure to patients with gambling addiction in their day to day clinical practice, and their perception about the feasibility of getting involved in managing these patients. 80.9% of psychiatrists who responded said they had seen ...

  20. Gymnastics between protestantism and libertinism from 1880 to 1940: A comparative analysis of two internationally renowned Danish gymnastics educators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze and compare two internationally renowned Danish Gymnastics teachers, Jørgen Peter Muller and Niels Bukh. Whereas Muller’s home gymnastics had a cosmopolitan agenda that appealed to everyone regardless of ethnic origin, including many Jews, Bukh’s gymnastics...... increasingly became embedded in a right-wing nationalist frame of reference. Muller created an individual system of home gymnastics with a focus on health by means of exercises and the cleansing of the body that included a cold shower. In contrast, Bukh’s system was a collective form of gymnastics...

  1. [Bogus contract between psychiatrists and patients with depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Why are patients with depression so disappointed with their psychiatric treatment? One of the causes of their disappointment is a 'bogus contract' (Smith, 2001) between patients and psychiatrists. Patients tend to idealize modern psychiatry as if it could solve many of their problems, including social ones. Psychiatrists, however, know that modern psychiatry has limited powers and that they cannot solve all problems, especially social ones. There is a huge mismatch between what psychiatrists are trained for and what they are required to do. In fact, the biological model of depression is inadequate to help depressive patients, particularly patients with psycho-social problems. It has long been believed that antidepressant medications represent the best established treatment for major depressive disorder. Recent meta-analyses (Kirsch et al., 2008; Fournier et al., 2010), however, found little evidence that anti-depressants have a specific pharmacological effect relative to a pill placebo for patients with mild or moderate symptoms. This may be owing partly to the fact that depression is associated with ineluctable life events like separation, interpersonal conflicts, unexpected adversities, etc., that are central to being human. Both patients and psychiatrists should be aware of the limitations of psychiatric treatment. A more realistic relationship is required between patients and psychiatrists. Psychiatrists should be open about their limitations. Patients cannot leave social problems to psychiatrists. However, some chronically depressed patients may be capable of managing their social problems. In such cases, respecting patients' autonomy promotes clinical practice and prevents them from entering a state of chronic patienthood.

  2. Firearm laws: a primer for psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Marilyn; Norris, Donna Marie

    2010-01-01

    Persons with mental illness or substance abuse have been perceived by the public to pose an increased risk of violence to themselves and others. As a result, federal and state laws have restricted the right of certain categories of persons with mental illness or substance abuse to possess, register, license, retain, or carry a firearm. Clinicians should be familiar with the specific firearm statutes of their own states, which describe the disqualifying mental health/substance abuse history and the role and responsibility of the psychiatrist in the process. State statutes vary widely in terms of the definitions of, and reporting requirements relating to, prohibited persons with mental illness or substance abuse. States also vary in the duration of the prohibition and in the timing of the appeals process. Some of the statutes have specific provisions for the removal of a firearm when a prohibited person is identified. States may maintain a mental health database that is used to determine firearm eligibility and may forward information to the National Instant Criminal Background Check System. The National Instant Criminal Background Check System Improvement Amendments Act of 2007 will likely increase the number of persons identified as belonging to the prohibited class.

  3. Personality disorder: still the patients psychiatrists dislike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartonas, Dimitrios; Kyratsous, Michalis; Dracass, Sarah; Lee, Tennyson; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2017-02-01

    Aims and method In 1988, Lewis and Appleby demonstrated that psychiatrists hold negative attitudes towards patients with personality disorder. We assessed the attitudes of psychiatry trainees towards patients with borderline personality disorder and depression, expecting an improvement. 166 trainees were block randomised to receive one of four case vignettes that varied by diagnosis and ethnic group. We used Lewis and Appleby's original questionnaire and the Attitudes to Personality Disorder Questionnaire (APDQ). Results We received 76 responses. Lewis and Appleby's questionnaire showed more negative attitudes towards personality disorder than depression, with no significant patient ethnic group effects, and the APDQ also showed a (weak) trend towards more negative attitudes to personality disorder. In subgroup analysis, only in the White British patient group were there significantly more negative attitudes to personality disorder. Factor analysis showed significantly less sense of purpose when working with personality disorder. Clinical implications The perceived greater lack of purpose in working with personality disorder should be the target of clinical training and intervention. Targeted interventions that include training in managing personality disorder, supervision and practice in non-specialist, general psychiatry settings are important.

  4. Ulysses directives in The Netherlands: opinions of psychiatrists and clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekamp, I

    2004-12-01

    In this article we present a study on the opinions of Dutch psychiatrists and clients on Ulysses directives. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 clients and 17 psychiatrists. Most respondents were proponents of Ulysses directives. The most frequently mentioned objective of these directives was to secure timely admission to hospital, although a large minority was mainly interested in giving patients influence on treatment decisions. Psychiatrists differed on how much autonomy they preferred with regard to decisions about the moment of admission and kind of treatment. Clients also differed in this respect. Pressure from others to execute a Ulysses directive, and premature admission to the hospital were mentioned as risks of Ulysses directives. Crisis cards were seen as an alternative by many psychiatrists and some clients. Recommendations are made for a good functioning of Ulysses directives, and the appropriateness of crisis cards as an alternative for a number of patients is discussed.

  5. Significance in the increase of women psychiatrists in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Kyoung; Kim, Soo In

    2008-01-01

    The number of female doctors has increased in Korea; 18.9% (13,083) of the total medical doctors registered (69,097) were women in 2006, compared to 13.6% (2,216) in 1975. The proportion of female doctors will jump up by 2010 considering that nearly 40% of the medical students are women as of today. This trend has had strong influence on the field of psychiatry; the percentage of women psychiatrists rose from 1.6 (6)% to 18% (453), from 1975 to 2006 and now women residents comprise 39% (206) of all. This is not only a reflection of a social phenomenon of the increase in professional women but also attributed to some specific characteristics of the psychiatry. Psychiatric practice may come more natural to women. While clinical activities of women psychiatrists are expanding, there are few women leaders and much less women are involving in academic activities in this field as yet. Though there is less sexual discrimination in the field of psychiatry, women psychiatrists are still having a lot of difficulties in balancing work and family matters. Many women psychiatrists also report they've ever felt an implied discrimination in their careers. In this study, we are to identify the characteristics of women psychiatrists and to explore the significance of the increase in women psychiatrists in Korea and the situation in which they are.

  6. Three Renowned Turkish Restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Taha Toros Arşivi, Dosya No: 112-Lokantalar İstanbul Kalkınma Ajansı (TR10/14/YEN/0033) İstanbul Development Agency (TR10/14/YEN/0033) Beyti Meat Restaurant, Divan Restaurant, Park Şamdan Beyti Meat Restaurant Divan Restaurant Park Şamdan

  7. Ghrelin; The Renown Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Murat Bilgin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin , a 28 amino acid gastric peptide, was found to be a potent releaser of GH and in addition, actively participate in controlling energy balance and the regulation of food intake. Specifically, plasma ghrelin originates in the oxyntic gland where A-like cells exist and is secreted into the bloodstream. Lower concentrations have also been reported at various regions in the body. It is well known that ghrelin participates in the regulation of many functions in the body.

  8. [What do psychiatrists know about the children of their patients?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Michael; Kettemann, Beate; Jäger, Karin; Hanewald, Bernd; Gallhofer, Bernd

    2012-07-01

    Psychiatry could be a good starting point for preventive work for children of mentally ill parents by detecting children who are potentially at risk and connecting affected families with preventive services. However, it is unclear how much attention clinical psychiatrists pay for children of their patients. Therefore, this study examines the knowledge of german psychiatrists about the children of their patients and their attitude towards the youth welfare and prevention system. Seven psychiatric hospitals of one federal state in Germany participated in a questionnaire survey. The majority of the psychiatrists know whether their patients have children or not, but they can not answer differentiate questions of the children's life circumstances or name preventive programs for children and their families. Furthermore, psychiatrists potentially could forestall preventive programs because of a lack of knowledge about the youth welfare. Psychiatrists need more information about the children of their patients and about the general possibilities of prevention as well as more knowledge of supportive offers of the youth welfare. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Continuing education for psychiatrists: report on Canadian Psychiatric Association questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M G; Toews, J; Lundgren, J M

    1981-08-01

    This report on the CPA Questionnaire on Continuing Education represents the answers of a sample of 485 of the 1,360 certified psychiatrists belonging to the Association. A total of 72.6% of the sample lived in urban centres with populations greater than 200,000; 28.9% worked in solo practice, but only 7.4% worked in settings where no other psychiatrists were present. The amount of time spent in continuing education activities was found to vary inversely with the distance that had to be travelled to major educational centres. Nevertheless, there were no psychiatrists that did not partake in some continuing education activities. Ninety-three percent read journals, 99% went to meetings, and 96% used consultation with other psychiatrists; 99% stated that these activities were useful. The favourite methods were reading and consultation. Eighty percent of the sample spent more than 41 hours per month in continuing education activities. Sixty-five percent stated that they would like a voluntary credit award system instituted. It is concluded that Canadian psychiatrists do spend a great deal of time in continuing education activities and believe that this is of value to their professional work.

  10. The erosion of psychiatrist-patient confidentiality by subpoenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, John; Galambos, Gary; Skarbek, Yvonne

    2014-08-01

    We explore the reasons for the prolific use of subpoenas to gain access to psychiatric records in Australia. We examine the applicable legal principles and practices at the New South Wales (NSW) and Commonwealth levels, aiming to develop recommendations for Australian Governments to curb the inappropriate and harmful use of subpoenas. Unfettered legal access to psychiatric records is inconsistent with professional ethical guidelines and risks undermining the provision of quality psychiatric care to the community. The existing legal provisions are failing to protect psychiatrist-patient confidentiality. In NSW, the onus is placed on the psychiatrist and/or patient to make a complicated application to the court, to direct that a subpoena be set aside on the grounds of "Professional Confidential Relationship Privilege." An absence of Commonwealth legislation to protect psychiatrist-patient confidentiality is used by some litigants in family law proceedings to disadvantage patients by stigmatising them, because they have consulted psychiatrists. We recommend that uniform legislation be implemented, giving effect to a primary rule of privilege with exceptions. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  11. Suicide and psychiatrist's liability in Italian law cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Claudio; Sartore, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze the factors that are most frequently associated with a verdict of guilty delivered to the psychiatrist in cases of a patient's suicide in Italian law. Twenty-six sentences (1975-2009) were analyzed according to the claim of malpractice, patient characteristics, circumstances of the suicide, and reasons for the court's judgment. The court held the psychiatrist guilty in 12 cases, considering that the act of suicide was predictable and could have been avoided. Predictability was mainly related to errors in surveillance (7 cases), therapy (1 case), or both (2 cases). An error in diagnosis was considered to be related to the patient's death in two cases. Analysis of medical behavior considered to be erroneous and associated with a verdict of guilty provides an opportunity to discuss the topics relevant not only to practicing psychiatrists but also to experts assessing medical liability in cases of patient suicide. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. The image of the psychiatrist in motion pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, A

    1995-01-01

    The psychiatrists who appear in commercial films can roughly be divided into 3 stereotyped categories: 1. The funny and foolish character who lacks all common sense. He often is more deranged than his patients, but in a harmless way. 2. The intelligent, attractive, modest, warm, etc. psychiatrist who devotes his time and life to the well-being of his patients. He is too perfect to be true and is usually a rather boring character. 3. The thoroughly evil psychiatrist, who abuses his power for his personal ambition or enrichment. He endangers the health and life of his patients with his outrageous treatments and experiments. He is a classical horror movie character. Some of the implications that these prejudiced representations in popular culture have on the doctor-patient relationship will be discussed.

  13. Employee assistance programs: an overview and suggested roles for psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, P; Herzberg, J; Speller, J L

    1985-07-01

    Although employee assistance programs are rapidly becoming the predominant vehicle for the delivery of mental health services in occupational settings, few programs employ a psychiatrist on either a part-time or a full-time basis. After providing an overview of the need for, cost-effectiveness of, and current status of employee assistance programs, the authors draw on their own experiences with employee assistance programs to present four broad categories of roles the psychiatrist can assume in such programs: clinician, supervisor and educator, administrator, and organizational consultant. Problems encountered in these roles are also discussed.

  14. ''What are you?'' A recurring question in a cross-cultural psychiatrist's life and career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei

    2011-04-01

    This article contributes to the Transcultural Psychiatry special issue of autobiographical articles on: ''The Personal and the Professional: Lives and Careers of Cultural Psychiatrists.'' The author describes influences and themes in her professional development as a cross-cultural psychiatrist and academic. Growing up as a part-Chinese, part-white child in rural Midwestern America resulted in frequently being asked: ''What are you?'' This abrupt, bald, but essential question eventually became a useful tool in the productive, repeated re-working of identity, values, and goals throughout her personal and professional life. Experiences of being an outsider, family histories, and early observations of racism are linked to later interests in cross-cultural psychiatry, ethics, and the protection of vulnerable populations. She describes her research on cross-cultural measurement, depression, suicidality, domestic violence and violence in war. Issues of career advancement and internal conflict are described for women academics who occupy three simultaneous, primary roles: academic, doctor and mother. The theme of ''crossing,'' as in ''cross-cultural,'' indicates the effort and intention required to move between races, cultures, classes, intellectual disciplines, personal and professional identities, clinical and academic roles, and social roles allocated to men and women.

  15. New Danish standardization of the Child Behaviour Checklist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jon Røikjær; Nielsen, Peter Fraas; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    In child mental health services, the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and related materials are internationally renowned psychometric questionnaires for assessment of children aged 6-16 years. The CBCL consists of three versions for different informants: the CBCL for parents, the Teacher's Report...... Form (TRF) and the Youth Self-Report (YSR) for 11-16-year-old children....

  16. A 4-year review of psychiatrists' participation in prosecutorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to evaluate the changing role of the psychiatrists in the workshops in order to identify areas in forensic psychiatry where prosecutors have a specific need for training, and to identify more suitable methods of training. Method. The workshop programmes, copies of presentations, the number of attending ...

  17. Referral letters to the psychiatrist in Nigeria: is communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: A majority (>80%) of the referral letters had no information on the current medication list, relevant psychosocial history, outline of management to date, results of investigations to date, and known allergies. Conclusion: Deficits in communication or information transfer through referral letters to the psychiatrist are ...

  18. Psychiatrists' and Psychiatry Residents' Attitudes Toward Transgender People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nareesa; Fleisher, William; Erickson, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Gender minority groups, such as transgender individuals, frequently encounter stigma, discrimination, and negative mental health outcomes, which can result in contact with mental health professionals. Recent studies suggest that negative attitudes toward transgender individuals are prevalent and measurable within the general population. The Genderism and Transphobia scale (GTS) measures anti-transgender feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. The purpose of this study was to use the GTS to conduct an investigation of psychiatrists' attitudes toward transgender individuals. A cross-sectional survey of n = 142 faculty members and residents from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Manitoba was conducted. Respondents completed an online survey consisting of demographic questions and the GTS. Responses were analyzed descriptively and compared to previously published data on the GTS. There was a trend for psychiatrists and psychiatry residents within this sample to endorse less negative attitudes toward transgender people compared to other published data using a sample of undergraduate students. Descriptive analyses suggest that psychiatrists' and psychiatry residents' GTS scores may be related to gender identity, political ideology, religiosity, and levels of both professional and personal contact. These data evoke optimism regarding psychiatrists' and psychiatry residents' attitudes toward transgender individuals. Additional larger-scale studies comparing this medical specialty group with other specialty groups will further elucidate factors that modify physician attitudes toward this patient population. These findings may contribute to the development of educational strategies to ensure that the transgender population receives medical treatment without stigma or attitudinal compromise.

  19. Psychiatrists' attitudes to multiple personality disorder: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, F M

    1995-04-01

    To assess the attitudes of a random sample of Canadian psychiatrists to Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) and assess the relative prevalence of the condition in three comparable cities in Ontario. A questionnaire was sent to all psychiatrists who were members of the Canadian Psychiatric Association and who were resident in Ottawa, Kingston and London. Questions were asked on the respondent's personal clinical experience of MPD and his/her attitude to this condition. Some personal and demographic questions were also included. 180 out of 294 questionnaires (61.2%) were returned. The existence of MPD was doubted by 27.8% of psychiatrists who responded to the questionnaire, with a significantly higher proportion in London than in Kingston or in Ottawa. A substantial majority in all three cities agreed that media publicity and the psychiatrist's own belief system affected the prevalence of MPD. These results confirm that there is a split in the profession regarding belief in the existence of MPD as a diagnosis.

  20. Referral and collaboration between South African psychiatrists and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Referral between psychiatrists and spiritual workers (e.g. Christian pastoral care workers, traditional healers, imams, rabbis and others) in the heterogeneous South African (SA) society is complicated and requires investigation to establish appropriate norms. Objective. To capture the views of some local ...

  1. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of World of Warcraft and Other MMORPGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Wood, Megan A; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Video game use, particularly massively-multiplayer online games (MMOs) and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs), has been a focus of considerable research in recent years. However, little is known regarding how mental health workers perceive patients and clients who report playing them. The present study examines whether psychiatrists play MMOs/MMORPGs and how they perceive those who play them. Psychiatrists (N = 48) at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing video games as well as whether they associate such use with psychopathology. Only 36.7 % believed there was an association between psychopathology and MMO/MMORPG use. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  2. Teaching Chinese psychiatrists to make reliable dissociative disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qing; Yu, Junhan; Ross, Colin A; Keyes, Benjamin B; Dai, Yunfei; Zhang, Tianhong; Wang, Lanlan; Xiao, Zeping

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the outcome of an educational effort by two North American experts in dissociative disorders to teach Chinese psychiatrists to make reliable dissociative disorder diagnoses. In the final phase of the educational effort, 569 patients at Shanghai Mental Health Center completed the Chinese version of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Patients were then randomly selected in different proportions according to their DES scores: 96 selected patients were then assessed with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) and clinical diagnostic interviews based on DSM-IV criteria. According to the clinical diagnostic interviews, 28 (4.9%) patients were diagnosed as having dissociative disorders. Agreement between the American experts and Chinese psychiatrists for presence or absence of a dissociative disorder was 0.75 using Cohen's kappa. Dissociative disorders can be diagnosed in China with good inter-rater reliability. The authors describe the steps taken to achieve this outcome.

  3. The Royal College of Psychiatrists and the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, John

    2004-01-01

    The Royal College of Psychiatrists recently issued a revised statement on its position concerning capital punishment. The College proposes to support psychiatrists who refuse to be involved in the capital process, but accepts that some may take up limited involvement in the manner set out in the document. The Royal College is the professional body for psychiatric practitioners in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Almost no public statements are issued from the College without first being deliberated on within at least two of its three major committees. The new document on capital punishment remains in the spirit of the previous ones. The topic of capital punishment is noncontroversial within the British medical profession. In all European countries, capital punishment is against the law, because there is an overarching directive from the Council of Europe (a wide group of nations, wider than the European Union) insisting that it be abolished.

  4. Gender Dysphoria in Adults: An Overview and Primer for Psychiatrists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byne, William; Karasic, Dan H.; Coleman, Eli; Eyler, A. Evan; Kidd, Jeremy D.; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F.L.; Pleak, Richard R.; Pula, Jack

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Regardless of their area of specialization, adult psychiatrists are likely to encounter gender-variant patients; however, medical school curricula and psychiatric residency training programs devote little attention to their care. This article aims to assist adult psychiatrists who are not gender specialists in the delivery of respectful, clinically competent, and culturally attuned care to gender-variant patients, including those who identify as transgender or transsexual or meet criteria for the diagnosis of Gender Dysphoria (GD) as defined by The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition). The article will also be helpful for other mental health professionals. The following areas are addressed: evolution of diagnostic nosology, epidemiology, gender development, and mental health assessment, differential diagnosis, treatment, and referral for gender-affirming somatic treatments of adults with GD. PMID:29756044

  5. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Facebook and Other Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Eric; Wood, Megan A; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, Twitter and other social media, but little is known regarding how mental health workers perceive patients and clients who report use of such technologies. The present study examines how psychiatrists perceive social media and whether they make use of it. Psychiatrists (N = 48) at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of using social networking sites (SNSs) such as Facebook and Google Plus and status update sites (SUSs) such as Twitter and Livejournal and whether they associate them with psychopathology. 38.5 % have used SNSs and 9.8 % have used SUSs. Only 37 % believed there was an association between psychopathology and SNSs while 33 % believed there was an association between psychopathology and SUSs. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  6. Appointment length, psychiatrists' communication behaviors, and medication management appointment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mario; Roter, Debra L; Cruz, Robyn F; Wieland, Melissa; Larson, Susan; Cooper, Lisa A; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-09-01

    The authors explored the relationship between critical elements of medication management appointments (appointment length, patient-centered talk, and positive nonverbal affect among providers) and patient appointment adherence. The authors used an exploratory, cross-sectional design employing quantitative analysis of 83 unique audio recordings of split treatment medication management appointments for 46 African-American and 37 white patients with 24 psychiatrists at four ambulatory mental health clinics. All patients had a diagnosis of depression. Data collected included demographic information; Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores for depression severity; psychiatrist verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors during medication management appointments, identified by the Roter Interaction Analysis System during analysis of audio recordings; and appointment adherence. Bivariate analyses were employed to identify covariates that might influence appointment adherence. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were employed to assess the relationship between appointment length, psychiatrist patient-centered talk, and positive voice tone ratings and patient appointment adherence, while adjusting for covariates and the clustering of observations within psychiatrists. Wald chi square analyses were used to test whether all or some variables significantly influenced appointment adherence. GEE revealed a significant relationship between positive voice tone ratings and appointment adherence (p=.03). Chi square analyses confirmed the hypothesis of a positive and significant relationship between appointment adherence and positive voice tone ratings (p=.03) but not longer visit length and more patient-centered communication. The nonverbal conveyance of positive affect was associated with greater adherence to medication management appointments by depressed patients. These findings potentially have important implications for communication skills training and adherence research.

  7. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, Abraham L; Halpern, John H; Doherty, Sean B

    2008-01-01

    Abstract After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very agg...

  8. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Abraham L; Halpern, John H; Doherty, Sean B

    2008-09-25

    After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946-1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter.

  9. "Enhanced" interrogation of detainees: do psychologists and psychiatrists participate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpern John H

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After revelations of participation by psychiatrists and psychologists in interrogation of prisoners at Guantánamo Bay and Central Intelligence Agency secret detention centers, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association adopted Position Statements absolutely prohibiting their members from participating in torture under any and all circumstances, and, to a limited degree, forbidding involvement in interrogations. Some interrogations utilize very aggressive techniques determined to be torture by many nations and organizations throughout the world. This paper explains why psychiatrists and psychologists involved in coercive interrogations violate the Geneva Conventions and the laws of the United States. Whether done with ignorance of professional ethical obligations or not, these psychiatrists and psychologists have crossed an ethical barrier that may best be averted from re-occurring by teaching medical students and residents in all medical specialties about the ethics principles stemming from the 1946–1947 Nuremberg trials and the Geneva Conventions, together with the Ethics Codes of the World Medical Association and the American Medical Association; and, with regard to psychiatric residents and psychological trainees, by the teaching about The Principles of Medical Ethics With Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry and the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, respectively. In this way, all physicians and psychologists will clearly understand that they have an absolute moral obligation to "First, do no harm" to the human beings they professionally encounter.

  10. Psychopathology and resilience in relation to abuse in childhood among youth first referred to the psychiatrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovancević, Milica Pejović; Tenjović, Lazar; Ispanović, Veronika; Mitković, Marija; Kirćanski, Jelena Radosavljev; Mincić, Teodora; Miletić, Vladimir; Gajić, Saveta Draganić; Tosevski, Dusica Lecić

    2014-06-01

    Child abuse may be related to adverse psychological outcomes in adult life. However, little is known about specific clinical, family and resilience profiles of adolescents that have experienced child abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical symptoms, family functioning and resilience characteristics of adolescents with the experience of abuse, first referred to psychiatrists. The study included 84 young participants (mean age 14.90 +/- 3.10, ranging from 11 to 18 years) as consecutive first referrals to the Clinic for Children and Youth of the Institute of Mental Health, Belgrade, Serbia. The sample consisted of two groups, based on the Child Abuse Matrices of Risks. The first group included adolescents with the experience of abuse in childhood (n = 38, 13 males, 25 females), whereas the second, control group, comprised of non-abused adolescents (n = 47, 20 males, 27 females). The presence of abuse was evaluated by the Child Abuse Matrices of Risks. The study used the following questionnaires: Youth Self-Report (YSR), Adolescent Resilience Attitudes Scale (ARAS), and Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI). Significant differences were found only among females. According to YSR, the abused girls had significantly higher scores on the Delinquent Behavior scale and marginally higher scores on Anxious/Depressed and Social Problems scales. Analyses of the SFI showed significantly lower family functioning among the girls with the child abuse history for all scales except for the Directive Leadership. The abused girls also showed significantly lower scores on the Insight scale, and marginally lower Initiative scores at the ARAS. These findings may have practical application in the creation of specific preventive and treatment strategies, particularly focused on delinquent tendencies, as well as on enhancing resilience through providing positive environments within families, schools and communities.

  11. Psychopathology and resilience in relation to abuse in childhood among youth first referred to the psychiatrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Child abuse may be related to adverse psychological outcomes in adult life. However, little is known about specific clinical, family and resilience profiles of adolescents that have experienced child abuse. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical symptoms, family functioning and resilience characteristics of adolescents with the experience of abuse, first referred to psychiatrists. Methods. The study included 84 young participants (mean age 14.90 ± 3.10, ranging from 11 to 18 years as consecutive first referrals to the Clinic for Children and Youth of the Institute of Mental Health, Belgrade, Serbia. The sample consisted of two groups, based on the Child Abuse Matrices of Risks. The first group included adolescents with the experience of abuse in childhood (n = 38, 13 males, 25 females, whereas the second, control group, comprised of non-abused adolescents (n = 47, 20 males, 27 females. The presence of abuse was evaluated by the Child Abuse Matrices of Risks. The study used the following questionnaires: Youth Self-Report (YSR, Adolescent Resilience Attitudes Scale (ARAS, and Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI. Results. Significant differences were found only among females. According to YSR, the abused girls had significantly higher scores on the Delinquent Behavior scale and marginally higher scores on Anxious/ Depressed and Social Problems scales. Analyses of the SFI showed significantly lower family functioning among the girls with the child abuse history for all scales except for the Directive Leadership. The abused girls also showed significantly lower scores on the Insight scale, and marginally lower Initiative scores at the ARAS. Conclusions. These findings may have practical application in the creation of specific preventive and treatment strategies, particularly focused on delinquent tendencies, as well as on enhancing resilience through providing positive environments within families, schools and communities.

  12. Defining the role of the consultant psychiatrist in a public mental health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, P; Tobin, M

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify elements of the role of a psychiatrist working in the public sector. The relevant literature was examined to help clarify some of the reasons psychiatrists have been leaving the public sector and to help define the key roles of a psychiatrist working in the public sector. Two principal roles for the consultant psychiatrist in the public sector are identified: the psychiatrist as a clinician and the psychiatrist as a manager. The management role is contrasted with the role as an administrator and important differences between these roles are identified. The management role includes planning, advocacy and managing human resources. The importance of professional development in the career path for the newly qualified psychiatrist is discussed. The role of the psychiatrist in public sector psychiatry is a challenging and exciting one. Psychiatrists will start to return to the public sector when they recognise this new role for the consultant psychiatrist. This will be to the advantage of public sector psychiatry in general and to the job satisfaction of psychiatrists. The key features of the clinical role are the demonstration of sophisticated clinical skills, providing clinical leadership via supervision, being accountable for patient care and providing consultant opinion on complex clinical problems.

  13. Pharmacotherapy for the treatment of aggression in pediatric and adolescent patients with autism spectrum disorder comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A questionnaire survey of 571 psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Tsujii, Noa; Ota, Toyosaku; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Iida, Junzo

    2017-08-01

    Both attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are frequently accompanied by serious aggression that requires psychiatric treatment. However, little is known about the experiences psychiatrists have had using pharmacotherapy to treat aggression in patients who have both ASD and ADHD (ASD/ADHD). The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of Japanese child and adolescent psychiatrists in prescribing medication for aggression in patients with ASD/ADHD. A prospective questionnaire was mailed to 2001 psychiatrists affiliated with the Japanese Society for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors predicting the outcome of pharmacotherapeutic treatment of aggression in pediatric and adolescent patients with ASD/ADHD. Of 2001 psychiatrists, 571 (28.5%) completed the full questionnaire (final sample). Of these, 488 (85.4%) prescribed psychotropic medication in treating pediatric and adolescent patients with ASD/ADHD, 299 (61.3%) of them doing so to treat aggression. Prescribers' duration of practice (odds ratio, 1.055; P = 0.038) and patient symptoms of residual impulsivity (odds ratio, 2.479; P = 0.039) increased the odds of prescribing psychotropic medications to treat aggression in these patients. The respondents reported a similar effect for patients with ADHD/ASD compared with those with ADHD only in treating aggression. Japanese psychiatrists tended to prescribe psychotropic medication for aggression in pediatric and adolescent patients with ASD/ADHD. Future studies examining aggression in pediatric and adolescent patients with ASD/ADHD should aim to accumulate evidence for the use of psychotropic medications, which could help clinicians make better decisions. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  14. Beyond Schweitzer and the psychiatrists: Jesus as fictive personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Capps

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Albert Schweitzer and the psychiatric studies of Jesus that he critiqued in 1913 shared the belief that Jesus identified himself as the coming Messiah. Unlike the psychiatrists, however, Schweitzer did not therefore judge Jesus to have been delusional. This article concurs with Schweitzer on the grounds that “ideas of reference” were a common feature of the religious milieu in which Jesus lived. It introduces the psychoanalytic concept of the “fictive personality” as relevant to Jesus’ identification of himself as the coming Messiah. In contrast to delusional theories, this concept emphasizes the positive uses of such identifications, especially as a means of self-empowerment.

  15. Public mental hospital work: pros and cons for psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R D

    1984-09-01

    The extensive literature concerning public mental hospitals has largely been written from the perspective of administrators and systems analysts; most of the reports emphasize the frustrations and problems of working in public mental hospitals and the continued exodus of psychiatrists from these facilities. The author addresses the pros and cons of such a career choice from the viewpoint of one who has been an "Indian" rather than a "chief" for a decade. He suggests that the current financial situation in both private practice and academia makes work in public mental hospitals increasingly attractive.

  16. Child and adolescent psychiatry leadership in public mental health, child welfare, and developmental disabilities agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachik, Albert A; Naylor, Michael W; Klaehn, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatrists are in a unique position to provide administrative and clinical leadership to public agencies. In mental health, services for children and adolescents in early childhood, school, child welfare, and juvenile justice settings, transition-aged youth programs, workforce development, family and youth leadership programs, and use of Medicaid waivers for home- and community-based service system development are described. In child welfare, collaboration between an academic child psychiatry department and a state child welfare department is described. In developmental disabilities, the role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist administrator is described providing administrative leadership, clinical consultation, quality review, and oversight of health and behavioral health plans for persons with developmental disabilities.

  17. [Stigmatization of a person visiting psychiatrist depends on observer's gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjiza, Ana; Stojiljković, Dragan J; Milekić, Bojana; Latković, Olgica; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava; Marić, Nada P

    2010-01-01

    The two types of stigmatization are social stigma, which includes discrimination, underestimation and distance in various social circumstances and personal stigma, which includes private relation i.e. a contact in person with stigmatized subject. Majority of recent publications has shown gender asymmetry in stigmatization (mostly indicating male predominance in stigmatizing processes), whereas the opposite data can be also found in some publications. The present study was aimed at exploring the relation of students' gender with their tendency to stigmatize subjects visiting a psychiatrist and at analyzing whether the gender influences the process of stigmatization. The survey included 523 students (227 on the second and 296 on the sixth year of School of Medicine, University of Belgrade). The instrument consisted of a vignette with questionnaire (14 items). Four versions of vignette were distributed: with/without "label" and male/female subject in the vignette. A more personal stigmatization was evident in the female students (p gender-differences existed in social stigmatization (p > 0.05). The stigmatization positively correlated with the intimacy of student's relation with the subject going to a psychiatrist. A higher rate of stigmatization was evident if the vignette was showing a person of the opposite gender. This is a unique study which analyzes separately the gender of a stigmatizing subject versus the subject being stigmatized and types of stigmatization. The data obtained should contribute to recognizing, understanding and controlling the widespread problem of stigma.

  18. Cross cultural variations in psychiatrists' perception of mental illness: A tool for teaching culture in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Jhilam; Gangadhar, B N; Keshavan, Matcheri

    2016-10-01

    A frequent debate in psychiatry is to what extent major psychiatric diagnoses are universal versus unique across cultures. We sought to identify cultural variations between psychiatrists' diagnostic practices of mental illness in Boston Massachusetts and Bangalore, India. We surveyed psychiatrists to identify differences in how frequently symptoms appear in major mental illness in two culturally and geographically different cities. Indian psychiatrists found somatic symptoms like pain, sleep and appetite to be significantly more important in depression and violent and aggressive behavior to be significantly more common in mania than did American psychiatrists. American psychiatrists found pessimism about the future to be more significant in depression and pressured speech and marked distractibility to be more significant in mania than among Indian psychiatrists. Both groups agreed the top four symptoms of psychosis were paranoia, lack of insight, delusions and auditory hallucinations and both groups agreed that visual hallucinations and motor peculiarities to be least significant. Despite a different set of resources, both groups noted similar barriers to mental health care access. However, American psychiatrists found substance abuse to be a significant barrier to care whereas Indian psychiatrists found embarrassing the family was a significant barrier to accessing care. Because psychiatrists see a large volume of individuals across different cultures, their collective perception of most common symptoms in psychiatric illness is a tool in finding cultural patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. What can psychiatrists do to better support victims of family violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Manjula; Cox, Joanne; Castle, David J

    2015-02-01

    This article aims to draw psychiatrists' attention to the problem of family violence and offer pragmatic guidance to detect and manage family violence in the psychiatric context. Selective narrative review. Family violence involves complex interactions between societal, cultural, family and individual factors. Awareness and understanding of family violence is important for psychiatrists as engagement can result in enhanced opportunities for early intervention and harm reduction. There are barriers facing psychiatrists regarding successful family violence intervention outcomes. Concerted action is required to improve services and support to victims and perpetrators. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  20. "The Dangerous Age of Childhood": Child Guidance and the "Normal" Child in Great Britain, 1920-1950

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John

    2011-01-01

    British child guidance was a form of psychiatric, preventive medicine for children and young people and centred, at least in principle, on specialist clinics led by psychiatrists. From small beginnings in the aftermath of the First World War, child guidance expanded steadily, in terms of both numbers of patients and numbers of clinics, and came to…

  1. The Breivik case and what psychiatrists can learn from it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melle, Ingrid

    2013-02-01

    In the afternoon of July 22, 2011, Norwegian Anders Behring Breivik killed 77 persons, many of them children and youths, in two separate events. On August 24, 2012, he was sentenced to 21 years in prison. Breivik went through two forensic evaluations: the first concluded that he had a psychotic disorder, thus being legally unaccountable, whereas the second concluded that he had a personality disorder, thus being legally accountable. This article first describes Breivik's background and his crimes. This is followed by an overview of the two forensic evaluations, their methods, contents and disagreements, and how these issues were handled by the court in the verdict. Finally, the article focuses on some lessons psychiatrists can take from the case. Copyright © 2013 World Psychiatric Association.

  2. The Psychiatrist as Leader-Teacher: Promoting Learning Beyond Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waits, Wendi; Brent, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    In today's fast-paced, data-saturated, zero-tolerance practice environment, psychiatrists and other health care providers are expected to maintain clinical, fiscal, and administrative competence. The authors present a unique type of psychiatric leader—the leader-teacher—who incorporates teaching of these elements into day-to-day practice, enhancing lifelong learning for credentialed staff and increasing their confidence in managing complex clinical and administrative issues. Particular emphasis is placed on leader-teachers working in military environments. The article discusses the primary characteristics of this type of leader, including their tendency to (1) seek clarification, (2) distill information, (3) communicate guidance, and (4) catalogue products. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of being a leader-teacher and present several illustrative cases.

  3. Psychiatrist-patient verbal and nonverbal communications during split-treatment appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mario; Roter, Debra; Cruz, Robyn Flaum; Wieland, Melissa; Cooper, Lisa A; Larson, Susan; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2011-11-01

    This study characterized psychiatrist and patient communication behaviors and affective voice tones during pharmacotherapy appointments with depressed patients at four community-based mental health clinics where psychiatrists provided medication management and other mental health professionals provided therapy ("split treatment"). Audiorecordings of 84 unique pairs of psychiatrists and patients with a depressive disorder were analyzed with the Roter Interaction Analysis System, which identifies 41 discrete speech categories that can be grouped into composites representing broad conceptual communication domains. Cluster analysis identified psychiatrist communication patterns. T test and chi square analyses compared the clusters for verbal dominance, affective voice tone, and characteristics of psychiatrist and patients. On average, 53% of psychiatrist talk was devoted to partnering and relationship building, and 67% of patient talk was about biomedical subjects, such as depression symptoms, and psychosocial information giving. Psychiatrist communication patterns were characterized by two clusters, a biomedical-centered cluster that emphasized biomedical questions (η²=.22, df=82, prelationship building while maintaining a focus on symptoms or psychosocial issues. However, patient behaviors did not reflect a similar level of partnering. Future studies should identify psychiatrist communication behaviors that activate collaborative patient communications or improve treatment outcomes.

  4. Comprehensive Treatment of Women with Postpartum Psychosis across Health Care Systems from Swedish Psychiatrists' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engqvist, Inger; Ahlin, Arne; Ferszt, Ginette; Nilsson, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Studies concerning the psychiatrist's experiences of treating women with postpartum psychosis (PPP) or how they react to these women are limited in the literature. In this study a qualitative design is used. Data collection includes semi-structured interviews with nine Swedish psychiatrists working in psychiatric hospitals. The audio-taped…

  5. Psychiatrists' Attitude and Use of Second-generation Antipsychotics for the Treatment of Schizophrenia in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C K; Su, H H; Sun, I W

    2017-09-01

    This survey aimed to understand the attitude of psychiatrists and their use of commonly prescribed second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) for the treatment of schizophrenia in Taiwan. It also attempted to identify the factors that might influence their preference for selecting SGAs. Psychiatrists were interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed various issues involved in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, including the reasons for selecting SGAs, psychiatrists' level of satisfaction with commonly prescribed SGAs, and their current use of SGAs in clinical practice. Gender and age of the psychiatrists, and practice setting were not related to SGA selection. The selection of a SGA might be influenced by characteristics of the psychiatrist, properties of the drugs, and the healthcare insurance system. Most psychiatrists agreed that the performance of brand-name drugs was superior to that of generic drugs. Better symptom control, improvement in cognition, and higher tolerability were among the major factors considered by psychiatrists in Taiwan when prescribing antipsychotics. Selection of a SGA in Taiwan is potentially influenced by the characteristics of the psychiatrist, properties of the drug, and the healthcare insurance system. Efficacy and tolerability were among the major determining factors when prescribing antipsychotics for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.

  6. [Prominence in the media, renown in the sciences: the construction of a paradigmatic feminist and a scientist at Rio de Janeiro's Museu Nacional].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Maria Margaret

    2008-06-01

    Bertha Lutz was one of the women of her generation who enjoyed indisputable political and scientific authority. She wrote much and even more was written about her, especially during her day. The newspaper chronicles by Lima Barreto, countless letters, scientific papers, and unpublished texts by Bertha herself that are surveyed in this article indicate how much her feminism--inseparable from other dimensions of her life--fostered her professional career. Her feminism earned her a carefully constructed renown and visibility that interlocked with her professional performance. Science lent her social prestige and guaranteed legitimacy for her causes. During a period when the scientific community itself was engaged in publicizing its own activities, Bertha's feminist prominence in the media helped her make a name in the sciences.

  7. WPA guidance on how to combat stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorius, Norman; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Cleveland, Helen-Rose

    2010-01-01

    and psychiatrists of the general public, of students of medicine, of health professionals other than psychiatrists and of persons with mental illness and their families. It also reviewed the evidence about the interventions that have been undertaken to combat stigma and consequent discrimination and made a series......In 2009 the WPA President established a Task Force that was to examine available evidence about the stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists and to make recommendations about action that national psychiatric societies and psychiatrists as professionals could do to reduce or prevent...... of recommendations to the national psychiatric societies and to individual psychiatrists. The Task Force laid emphasis on the formulation of best practices of psychiatry and their application in health services and on the revision of curricula for the training of health personnel. It also recommended that national...

  8. Things I wish I'd known: desiderata for early career psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lillian; Steane, Richard; Chacko, Emme; Scollay, Natalie

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to disseminate advice imparted to early career psychiatrists by a panel of senior colleagues at a Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists symposium, reflecting on things they wished they had known at the earlier stage in their careers. Key themes were extracted from notes taken at the symposium, where opinions were expressed by three senior psychiatrists. There are components in building a sustainable career as a psychiatrist, which include considering one's work environment and relationships with colleagues; self-care, mentorship and reflective practice; and seeking opportunities to teach and research for career progression. The mentorship and advice from senior colleagues can be highly influential. In order to sustain a career that has reward, meaning and longevity, psychiatrists would do well to pay attention to aspects of self-care, stay connected to their loved ones, seek an optimal work-life balance and take an interest in their long term career plans.

  9. "Very much evolving": a qualitative study of the views of psychiatrists about peer support workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rachael; Firth, Lucy; Shakespeare, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Mental health services continue to develop service user involvement, including a growth in employment of peer support workers (PSWs). Despite the importance of the views and attitudes expressed by psychiatrists, this topic has not previously been studied. To gain insight into the views and attitudes psychiatrists have about PSWs. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with 11 psychiatrists in the East of England. Psychiatrists were broadly positive and supportive of PSWs. Interviewees not only could anticipate a range of possible benefits of employing PSWs, but also had concerns regarding their implementation and management. There was a lack of clarity and consistency between interviewees about what the exact role of a PSW might involve. This study provides insights into how PSWs are perceived by psychiatrists. While broadly positive attitudes exist, the research highlights certain challenges, particularly role ambiguity.

  10. Choosing child and adolescent psychiatry: factors influencing medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    To examine the factors influencing medical students to choose child and adolescent psychiatry as a career specialty. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A web-based survey was distributed to child and adolescent psychiatrists at the University of Toronto. In-depth interviews were held with select child and adolescent psychiatrists as well as a focus group with psychiatry residents. Retrospective accounts of the factors that influenced their decision to choose psychiatry and/or child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty were collected. Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that recruitment of child psychiatrists in Canada is a problem. The recent decision by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons to recognize child and adolescent psychiatry as a subspecialty and introduce an extra year of training was identified as a further challenge to recruitment efforts. Other deterrents included lower salary than other subspecialties, lack of exposure during training, stigma, and lack of interest in treating children. Recruitment into psychiatry was enhanced by good role modeling, early exposure in medical school, an interest in brain research, and career and lifestyle issues. A rebranding of the role and perception of psychiatry is needed to attract future psychiatrists. Early exposure to innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry and positive role models are critical in attracting medical students. Recruitment should begin in the first year of medical school and include an enriched paediatric curriculum.

  11. Choosing Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Factors Influencing Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M.; Pignatiello, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors influencing medical students to choose child and adolescent psychiatry as a career specialty. Method: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. A web-based survey was distributed to child and adolescent psychiatrists at the University of Toronto. In-depth interviews were held with select child and adolescent psychiatrists as well as a focus group with psychiatry residents. Retrospective accounts of the factors that influenced their decision to choose psychiatry and/or child and adolescent psychiatry as a specialty were collected. Results: Ninety-two percent of participants indicated that recruitment of child psychiatrists in Canada is a problem. The recent decision by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons to recognize child and adolescent psychiatry as a subspecialty and introduce an extra year of training was identified as a further challenge to recruitment efforts. Other deterrents included lower salary than other subspecialties, lack of exposure during training, stigma, and lack of interest in treating children. Recruitment into psychiatry was enhanced by good role modeling, early exposure in medical school, an interest in brain research, and career and lifestyle issues. Conclusions: A rebranding of the role and perception of psychiatry is needed to attract future psychiatrists. Early exposure to innovations in child and adolescent psychiatry and positive role models are critical in attracting medical students. Recruitment should begin in the first year of medical school and include an enriched paediatric curriculum. PMID:24223044

  12. Psychiatrists' Comfort Using Computers and Other Electronic Devices in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Farifteh F; Fochtmann, Laura J; Clarke, Diana E; Barber, Keila; Hong, Seung-Hee; Yager, Joel; Mościcki, Eve K; Plovnick, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    This report highlights findings from the Study of Psychiatrists' Use of Informational Resources in Clinical Practice, a cross-sectional Web- and paper-based survey that examined psychiatrists' comfort using computers and other electronic devices in clinical practice. One-thousand psychiatrists were randomly selected from the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile and asked to complete the survey between May and August, 2012. A total of 152 eligible psychiatrists completed the questionnaire (response rate 22.2 %). The majority of psychiatrists reported comfort using computers for educational and personal purposes. However, 26 % of psychiatrists reported not using or not being comfortable using computers for clinical functions. Psychiatrists under age 50 were more likely to report comfort using computers for all purposes than their older counterparts. Clinical tasks for which computers were reportedly used comfortably, specifically by psychiatrists younger than 50, included documenting clinical encounters, prescribing, ordering laboratory tests, accessing read-only patient information (e.g., test results), conducting internet searches for general clinical information, accessing online patient educational materials, and communicating with patients or other clinicians. Psychiatrists generally reported comfort using computers for personal and educational purposes. However, use of computers in clinical care was less common, particularly among psychiatrists 50 and older. Information and educational resources need to be available in a variety of accessible, user-friendly, computer and non-computer-based formats, to support use across all ages. Moreover, ongoing training and technical assistance with use of electronic and mobile device technologies in clinical practice is needed. Research on barriers to clinical use of computers is warranted.

  13. Renowned European Laboratory turns 50

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A European Laboratory that was the birthplace of the World Wide Web and home of Nobel prize-winning developments in the quest to understand the makeup of matter wished itself a happy 50th birtheday on Tuesday

  14. Psychiatrists' attitudes toward and awareness about racial disparities in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Julie B; Lamberti, J Steven

    2010-02-01

    Psychiatrists may perpetuate racial-ethnic disparities in health care through racially biased, albeit unconscious, behaviors. Changing these behaviors requires that physicians accept that racial-ethnic disparities exist and accept their own contributions to disparities. The purposes of this study were to assess psychiatrists' awareness of racial disparities in mental health care, to evaluate the extent to which psychiatrists believe they contribute to disparities, and to determine psychiatrists' interest in participating in disparities-reduction programs. A random sample of psychiatrists, identified through the American Psychiatric Association's member directory, was invited to complete the online survey. The survey was also distributed to psychiatrists at a national professional conference. Of the 374 respondents, most said they were not familiar or only a little familiar with the literature on racial disparities. Respondents tended to believe that race has a moderate influence on quality of psychiatric care but that race is more influential in others' practices than in their own practices. One-fourth had participated in any type of disparities-reduction program within the past year, and approximately one-half were interested in participating in such a program. Psychiatrists may not recognize the pervasiveness of racial inequality in psychiatric care, and they may attribute racially biased thinking to others but not to themselves. Interventions to eliminate racial-ethnic disparities should focus on revealing and modifying unconscious biases. Lack of physician interest may be one barrier to such interventions.

  15. [Molecular Biology on the Mechanisms of Autism Spectrum Disorder for Clinical Psychiatrists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinodan, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    While, in general, a certain number of clinical psychiatrists might not be familiar with molecular biology, the mechanisms of mental illnesses have been uncovered by molecular biology for decades. Among mental illnesses, even biological psychiatrists and neuroscientists have paid less attention to the biological treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) than Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia since ASD has been regarded as a developmental disorder that was seemingly untreatable. However, multifaceted methods of molecular biology have revealed the mechanisms that would lead to the medication of ASD. In this article, how molecular biology dissects the pathobiology of ASD is described in order to announce the possibilities of biological treatment for clinical psychiatrists.

  16. Safety assessment in schools: beyond risk: the role of child psychiatrists and other mental health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Nancy; Pollack, William S; Flaherty, Lois T; Schwartz, Sarah E O; McMickens, Courtney

    2015-04-01

    This article presents an overview of a comprehensive school safety assessment approach for students whose behavior raises concern about their potential for targeted violence. Case vignettes highlight the features of 2 youngsters who exemplify those seen, the comprehensive nature of the assessment, and the kind of recommendations that enhance a student's safety, connection, well-being; engage families; and share responsibility of assessing safety with the school. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Survey of patients' view on functional split of consultant psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Millia; Brown, Keith; Pelosi, Anthony; Crabb, Jim; McTaggart, John; Mitchell, Caroline; Julyan, Everett; Donegan, Tony; Gotz, Michael

    2013-09-27

    The functional split model of consultant psychiatrist care for inpatients has been one of the major service redesign that has occurred in the NHS in the last decade. It is unclear if this new split model offers any advantages over the previous sectorised model of working. More recent evidence has suggested that patients, carers and professionals have varied views regarding the benefits of this model. This survey of patient's views on models of consultant working is the first in Scotland and we have attempted to include a large sample size. The results suggest that after providing sufficient information on both models, the majority of patients from various Scottish health boards have opted for the traditional sectorised model of working. During a four week period consecutive patients across 4 health boards attending the General Adult consultant outpatient clinics and those who were admitted to their inpatient ward were offered a structured questionnaire regarding their views on the functional split versus traditional sectorised model. Space was provided for additional comments. The study used descriptive statistical measures for analysis of its results. Ethical approval was confirmed as not being required for this survey of local services. We had a response rate of 67%. A significant majority (76%) of service users across the four different health boards indicated a preference for the same consultant to manage their care irrespective of whether they were an inpatient or in the community (Chi-squared = 65, df = 1, p survey suggests that most patients prefer the traditional model where they see a single consultant throughout their journey of care. The views of patients should be sought as much as possible and should be taken into account when considering the best way to organize psychiatric services.

  18. Physical Examination for the Academic Psychiatrist: Primer and Common Clinical Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Pierre N; Gopalan, Priya; Brown, Jennifer R; Aquino, Patrick R

    2016-04-01

    As clinical psychiatry has evolved to mirror the patient care model followed in other medical specialties, psychiatrists are called upon increasingly to utilize general medical skills in routine practice. Psychiatrists who practice in academic settings are often required to generate broad differential diagnoses that include medical and neurologic conditions and, as a result, benefit from incorporating physical examination into their psychiatric assessments. Physical examination allows psychiatrists to follow and to teach patient-informed clinical practices and comprehensive treatment approaches. In this commentary, the authors encourage routine use of a targeted physical examination and outline common scenarios in which physical examination would be useful for the academic psychiatrist: delirium, toxidromes, and unexplained medical conditions (e.g., somatic symptom disorders).

  19. [The need for psychiatrists in Chile. A projection for the year 2,000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, P

    1991-12-01

    In less than 15 year's time, the number of psychiatrists available should have increased twofold. It is thus calculated that about 500 psychiatrists would be working by 1990. An uneven regional distribution, however still survives with 80% of professionals congregated in the Chilean capital city area--less than 25% professionals working with the Health Services National System (SNSS) which is supposed to cover 75% of nationwide care. Besides, no psychiatric care is available as far as peripheral offices are concerned. By resorting to several parameters (vg. psychiatric needs according to prevalent pathologies, care demands, and ratio), as well as national data, and various author's opinion, it is estimated that about 650 psychiatrists will be needed in the year 2000. Hence, about 220 new psychiatrists should be trained during the 10 years ahead, if population's vegetative growth as well as replacements due to retirement, death, etc. are taken into account.

  20. Meet Dr Jekyll: a case of a psychiatrist with dissociative identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetani, Shuichi; Markwick, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a controversial psychiatric diagnosis. This case review presents a retired psychiatrist with a history of DID. This case is used to illustrate current thinking about the characteristics and aetiology of DID. It also argues for the importance of being aware of both our personal and professional biases in our own clinical practice. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  1. The role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder: a mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanaan RA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Richard A Kanaan,1,2 David Armstrong,3 Simon Wessely2 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Psychological Medicine, King’s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Weston Education Centre, Denmark Hill, 3Department of General Practice, King’s College London, Capital House, London, UK Objective: Since DSM-5 removed the requirement for a psychosocial formulation, neurologists have been able to make the diagnosis of conversion disorder without psychiatric input. We sought to examine whether neurologists and specialist psychiatrists concurred with this approach.Design: We used mixed methods, first surveying all the neurologists in the UK and then interviewing the neuropsychiatrists in a large UK region on the role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder.Results: Of the surveyed neurologists, 76% did not think that psychiatrists were essential for the diagnosis and 71% thought that psychiatrists did not even consider conversion disorder when referred a case. The neuropsychiatrists who were interviewed held complex models of conversion disorder. They believed all cases could be explained psychosocially in theory, but the nature of the diagnostic encounter often prevented it in practice; all felt that psychosocial formulation could be very helpful and some felt that it was essential to diagnosis.Conclusion: Although neurologists do not think psychiatrists are required for diagnosing conversion disorder, specialist psychiatrists disagree, at least in some cases. Keywords: functional neurological disorders, classification, qualitative research, survey, psychiatric formulation

  2. The more information, the more negative stigma towards schizophrenia: Brazilian general population and psychiatrists compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Alexandre Andrade; Hengartner, Michael Pascal; Guarniero, Francisco Bevilacqua; Lawson, Fabio Lorea; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Rössler, Wulf

    2013-02-28

    Findings on stigmatizing attitudes toward individuals with schizophrenia have been inconsistent in comparisons between mental health professionals and members of the general public. In this regard, it is important to obtain data from understudied sociocultural settings, and to examine how attitudes toward mental illness vary in such settings. Nationwide samples of 1015 general population individuals and 1414 psychiatrists from Brazil were recruited between 2009 and 2010. Respondents from the general population were asked to identify an unlabeled schizophrenia case vignette. Psychiatrists were instructed to consider "someone with stabilized schizophrenia". Stereotypes, perceived prejudice and social distance were assessed. For the general population, stigma determinants replicated findings from the literature. The level of the vignette's identification constituted an important correlate. For psychiatrists, determinants correlated in the opposite direction. When both samples were compared, psychiatrists showed the highest scores in stereotypes and perceived prejudice; for the general population, the better they recognized the vignette, the higher they scored in those dimensions. Psychiatrists reported the lowest social distance scores compared with members of the general population. Knowledge about schizophrenia thus constituted an important determinant of stigma; consequently, factors influencing stigma should be further investigated in the general population and in psychiatrists as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Richard A; Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Since DSM-5 removed the requirement for a psychosocial formulation, neurologists have been able to make the diagnosis of conversion disorder without psychiatric input. We sought to examine whether neurologists and specialist psychiatrists concurred with this approach. We used mixed methods, first surveying all the neurologists in the UK and then interviewing the neuropsychiatrists in a large UK region on the role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder. Of the surveyed neurologists, 76% did not think that psychiatrists were essential for the diagnosis and 71% thought that psychiatrists did not even consider conversion disorder when referred a case. The neuropsychiatrists who were interviewed held complex models of conversion disorder. They believed all cases could be explained psychosocially in theory, but the nature of the diagnostic encounter often prevented it in practice; all felt that psychosocial formulation could be very helpful and some felt that it was essential to diagnosis. Although neurologists do not think psychiatrists are required for diagnosing conversion disorder, specialist psychiatrists disagree, at least in some cases.

  4. Non-verbal communication in meetings of psychiatrists and patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, M; Dimic, S; Wildgrube, C; McCabe, R; Priebe, S

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence found that patients with schizophrenia display non-verbal behaviour designed to avoid social engagement during the opening moments of their meetings with psychiatrists. This study aimed to replicate, and build on, this finding, assessing the non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists during meetings, exploring changes over time and its association with patients' symptoms and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. 40-videotaped routine out-patient consultations, involving patients with schizophrenia, were analysed. Non-verbal behaviour of patients and psychiatrists was assessed during three fixed, 2-min intervals using a modified Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Symptoms, satisfaction with communication and the quality of the therapeutic relationship were also measured. Over time, patients' non-verbal behaviour remained stable, whilst psychiatrists' flight behaviour decreased. Patients formed two groups based on their non-verbal profiles, one group (n = 25) displaying pro-social behaviour, inviting interaction and a second (n = 15) displaying flight behaviour, avoiding interaction. Psychiatrists interacting with pro-social patients displayed more pro-social behaviours (P communication (P non-verbal behaviour during routine psychiatric consultations remains unchanged, and is linked to both their psychiatrist's non-verbal behaviour and the quality of the therapeutic relationship. © 2014 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Attitude of young psychiatrists toward coercive measures in psychiatry: a case vignette study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wake Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every psychiatrist must pay careful attention to avoid violating human rights when initiating coercive treatments such as seclusion and restraint. However, these interventions are indispensable in clinical psychiatry, and they are often used as strategies to treat agitated patients. In this study, we investigated young psychiatrists' attitudes toward psychiatric coercive measures. Methods A total of 183 young psychiatrists participated as subjects in our study. A questionnaire with a case vignette describing a patient with acute psychosis was sent to the study subjects via the Internet or by mail. This questionnaire included scoring the necessity for hospitalization, and the likelihood of prescribing seclusion and/or restraint, on a 9-point Likert scale (with 9 indicating strong agreement. Results There was general agreement among the study subjects that the case should be admitted to a hospital (8.91 ± 0.3 and secluded (8.43 ± 1.0. The estimated length of hospitalization was 13.53 ± 6.4 weeks. Regarding the likelihood of prescribing restraint, results showed great diversity (5.14 ± 2.5 on 9-point scale; psychiatrists working at general hospitals scored significantly higher (6.25 ± 2.5 than those working at university hospitals (5.02 ± 2.3 or psychiatric hospitals (4.15 ± 2.6. A two-group comparison of the length of inpatient care revealed a significant difference between those psychiatrists who scored 1-3 (n = 55, 14.22 ± 7.4 wks and those who scored 7-9 (n = 62, 12.22 ± 4.0 regarding the need to use restraint. Conclusion Our results may reflect the current dilemma in Japanese psychiatry wherein psychiatrists must initiate coercive measures to shorten hospitalization stays. This study prompted its subject psychiatrists to consider coercive psychiatric treatments.

  6. A survey of verbal and physical assaults towards psychiatrists in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinbaş, Kürşat; Altinbaş, Gülçin; Türkcan, Ahmet; Oral, E Timuçin; Walters, James

    2011-11-01

    Assaults on health professionals have been an area of burgeoning clinical and political interest in recent years. There is now a body of literature suggesting that violence towards psychiatrists is more common than to other doctors. Thus far the vast majority of research in this area has been conducted in Western European and North American clinical settings. For the first time, this study examines this issue in the context of Turkish psychiatric settings. (i) The study aims to detect the prevalence of verbal and physical assaults towards psychiatrists in Turkey. (ii) It aims to compare the experience of verbal and physical assaults according to the gender and training experience of psychiatrists. (iii) The paper intends to investigate how psychiatrists reacted to and appraised the experience of violence. A questionnaire was prepared to evaluate violence towards psychiatrists (adapted from the Overt Agression Scale). The questionaire was administered to psychiatric specialists and residents working in state hospitals, research and training hospitals, mental health hospitals and university psychiatry clinics. A response rate of 93% was achieved with 186 out of 200 psychiatrsits approached completing the study questionnaire. Of all the psychiatrists who responded, 71% reported having experienced verbal or physical assaults during their professional life (verbal assaults only (19.9%), physical assaults only (2.7%) and both (48.4%)). Of these, 26% suffered injury to at least a mild degree. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of gender and workplace. In spite of the extremely high rates of aggression and violence towards psychiatrists, roughly 50% perceived these acts a normal part of their job and only 5% formally reported the violent incident. The majority of psychiatrists described having been victims of verbal and physical assaults although half perceived aggression and violence as a normal part of their job. Levels of reporting of violence

  7. General practitioners' and psychiatrists' responses to emotional disclosures in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Fosgerau, Christina Fogtmann

    2014-04-01

    To investigate general practitioners' (GPs') and psychiatrists' responses to emotional disclosures in consultations with patients with depression. Thirteen patient consultations with GPs and 17 with psychiatrists were video-recorded and then analyzed using conversation analysis (CA). Psychiatrists responded to patients' emotional disclosures by attempting to clarify symptoms, by rational argumentation, or by offering an interpretation of the emotions from their own perspectives. GPs responded by claiming to understand the emotions or by formulating the patients' statements, but without further exploring the emotions. GPs displayed a greater engagement with patients' emotions than psychiatrists. Their approach could be described as empathic, corresponding to a mentalizing stance. The different approaches taken by psychiatrists could represent conceptual differences and might affect fruitful interdisciplinary work. Psychiatric nurses' responses to patients' emotions must also be studied to complete our knowledge from psychiatry. Experiences from training in mentalization could be used to develop physicians' empathic or mentalizing approach. As most patients with depression are treated in primary care, developing GPs' mentalizing capacity instead of offering didactic training could have a substantial effect in the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Attitudes of Chinese community members and psychiatrists towards forensic psychiatric assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoling, Zhong; Jun, Wang; Graham, Mellsop; Chen, Chen; Simei, Zhang; Qiguang, Li; Qun, Wang; Jiansong, Zhou; Xiaoping, Wang

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of Chinese community members and psychiatrists towards forensic psychiatric assessments. A questionnaire designed to record attitudes toward the current forensic psychiatric assessment procedures and the disposal of mentally ill offenders was developed and distributed via a mobile App. A total of 134 community members and 132 psychiatrists voluntarily completed the questionnaire. Most of responders agreed that the department of public-security has the right to apply for a forensic psychiatric assessment but should not be held solely by that department. Community members were less significantly confident in the validation of forensic psychiatric opinions than were the psychiatrists. A significantly higher proportion of community members than psychiatrists considered that offenders judged Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD) should be punished as would be sane people. In addition, only a minority of responders supported that NCRMD should not be held criminally responsible. Our results indicate that both groups have comments on the current distribution of right of startup of forensic psychiatric assessments. Compared to psychiatrists, community members have lower confidence in the validation of forensic psychiatric assessment and have stricter attitudes toward the disposal of offenders with psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Perspectives of Spanish psychiatrists on the management of dementias: the PsicoDem survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Carrasco, Manuel; Arranz, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Mental health services are not systematically involved in the care of dementias in Spain. Nevertheless, many patients with dementia attend these services. The perspective of psychiatrist as regards this situation has not been evaluated at the national level to date, and it may be of interest to determine their actual involvement and the strategies to foster it. A survey was conducted on 2,000 psychiatrists on a range of mental health care services. Respondents provided socio-demographic data and information about clinical aspects, together with their opinions regarding the management of dementia. Responses were described by their raw frequencies and measures of association for cross-tabulations resulting from selected pairs of questions. Inferences were made by calculating their 95% confidence intervals. Psychiatrist involvement in the management of dementias was limited, aside from those involved in psycho-geriatric units or nursing homes facilities. However, there were wide, regional differences. Nearly all respondents (81%) were ready to augment their knowledge and skills in the area of dementia. In particular, the insufficient medical education, together with other organizational factors, such as the difficulties in ordering diagnostic tests (i.e. neuroimaging), or prescribing anti-dementia drugs in some regions, were common barriers psychiatrists faced when approaching patients with dementia. Increasing psychiatrist involvement and boosting coordinated efforts with other specialists in a form of integrated care may advance the care of dementias in Spain to a more valuable level. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Surviving the Lunacy Act of 1890: English Psychiatrists and Professional Development during the Early Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, Akinobu

    2017-04-01

    In recent decades, historians of English psychiatry have shifted their major concerns away from asylums and psychiatrists in the nineteenth century. This is also seen in the studies of twentieth-century psychiatry where historians have debated the rise of psychology, eugenics and community care. This shift in interest, however, does not indicate that English psychiatrists became passive and unimportant actors in the last century. In fact, they promoted Lunacy Law reform for a less asylum-dependent mode of psychiatry, with a strong emphasis on professional development. This paper illustrates the historical dynamics around the professional development of English psychiatry by employing Andrew Abbott's concept of professional development. Abbott redefines professional development as arising from both abstraction of professional knowledge and competition regarding professional jurisdiction. A profession, he suggests, develops through continuous re-formation of its occupational structure, mode of practice and political language in competing with other professional and non-professional forces. In early twentieth-century England, psychiatrists promoted professional development by framing political discourse, conducting a daily trade and promoting new legislation to defend their professional jurisdiction. This professional development story began with the Lunacy Act of 1890, which caused a professional crisis in psychiatry and led to inter-professional competition with non-psychiatric medical service providers. To this end, psychiatrists devised a new political rhetoric, 'early treatment of mental disorder', in their professional interests and succeeded in enacting the Mental Treatment Act of 1930, which re-instated psychiatrists as masters of English psychiatry.

  11. Psychiatry and online social media: potential, pitfalls and ethical guidelines for psychiatrists and trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankish, Katherine; Ryan, Christopher; Harris, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes ethical guidelines for psychiatrists and psychiatry trainees when interacting with social media. A three-stage process was followed in the development of these guidelines. A literature review provided situations and possible broad rules as to how social media could be ethically engaged. A roundtable discussion by a panel of invited psychiatrists, psychiatry trainees, psychologists, e-health practitioners, lawyers and consumers was held to discuss the situations and to better formulate the ethical principles upon which psychiatrists could act. These vignettes and principles were then broadly discussed at a seminar held at the 2011 RANZCP Congress. Finally, this paper was circulated to the original invitees for final comment. A set of recommendations for working with social media were developed. The new social media provides important avenues for communication, education and treatment. These avenues pose ethical and practical dilemmas that can be resolved by the application of established ethical principles. Practical recommendations for navigating social media are proposed.

  12. How Do Psychiatrists Apply the Minimum Clinically Important Difference to Assess Patient Responses to Treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. McMichael BSc

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Symptom report scales are used in clinical practice to monitor patient outcomes. Using them permits the definition of a minimum clinically important difference (MCID beyond which a patient may be judged as having responded to treatment. Despite recommendations that clinicians routinely use MCIDs in clinical practice, statisticians disagree about how MCIDs should be used to evaluate individual patient outcomes and responses to treatment. To address this issue, we asked how clinicians actually use MCIDs to evaluate patient outcomes in response to treatment. Sixty-eight psychiatrists made judgments about whether hypothetical patients had responded to treatment based on their pre- and posttreatment change scores on the widely used Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Psychiatrists were provided with the scale’s MCID on which to base their judgments. Our secondary objective was to assess whether knowledge of the patient’s genotype influenced psychiatrists’ responder judgments. Thus, psychiatrists were also informed of whether patients possessed a genotype indicating hyperresponsiveness to treatment. While many psychiatrists appropriately used the MCID, others accepted a far lower posttreatment change as indicative of a response to treatment. When psychiatrists accepted a lower posttreatment change than the MCID, they were less confident in such judgments compared to when a patient’s posttreatment change exceeded the scale’s MCID. Psychiatrists were also less likely to identify patients as responders to treatment if they possessed a hyperresponsiveness genotype. Clinicians should recognize that when judging patient responses to treatment, they often tolerate lower response thresholds than warranted. At least some conflate their judgments with information, such as the patient’s genotype, that is irrelevant to a post hoc response-to-treatment assessment. Consequently, clinicians may be at risk of persisting with treatments that have failed

  13. Mental health of Japanese psychiatrists: the relationship among level of occupational stress, satisfaction and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreki, Akihiro; Nakagawa, Atsuo; Abe, Akiko; Ikeuchi, Hidetsugu; Okubo, Jo; Oguri, Atsushi; Orimo, Keisuke; Katayama, Nariko; Sato, Hiroyo; Shikimoto, Ryo; Nishiyama, Go; Nogami, Waka; Haki, Kazuma; Hayashi, Tetsuro; Fukagawa, Yuko; Funaki, Kei; Matsuzawa, Mia; Matsumoto, Ayako; Mimura, Masaru

    2015-03-26

    Psychiatrists in clinical practice face a number of stressors related to patient care, such as overwork. On the other hand, they gain satisfaction from their work. We quantified and assessed the potential relationship between levels of occupational stress, satisfaction, and depressive symptoms among Japanese clinical psychiatrists. We surveyed 206 psychiatrists with up to 15 years of clinical experience who primarily worked in patient care. Levels of occupational stress and occupational satisfaction were measured using the Visual Analogue Scale and the level of depressive symptoms was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Workplace stressors and satisfiers were also evaluated. Out of 206 psychiatrists, 154 (74.8%) responded to the survey. The respondents' mean (SD) age was 34.3 (5.2) years. The estimated prevalence of significant depressive symptoms was 34.4% (n = 53), and the experienced frequent violence was 14.9% (n = 23). The level of depressive symptoms was inversely correlated with the level of occupational satisfaction. In respondents who reported a moderate level of occupational stress, having fewer depressive symptoms was associated with higher occupational satisfaction, but this association was not significant in those who reported a high level of stress. In addition, high occupational satisfaction was associated with interest towards work content, ability to work at one's discretion, opportunities for growth and career development, and ease of communication with supervisors and colleagues. Nearly one-third of the psychiatrists screened positive for significant depressive symptoms. Having fewer depressive symptoms was associated with higher occupational satisfaction in those who reported a moderate level of stress. Implications from the present findings may be to enhance occupational satisfaction by discussing work interests with a supervisor, as well as increased opportunities for career development, which may

  14. Alleged child sexual abuse : The expert witness and the court

    OpenAIRE

    Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2001-01-01

    Background During the past decades, the evaluation of alleged sexual abuse has manifested itself as a major challenge for professionals working within the field of child maltreatment. A new role for psychologists and psychiatrists has been to give expert opinions regarding the credibility and reliability of child witnesses in legal proceedings. Although some aspects of evaluating suspected sexual abuse cases are close to traditional clinical work, other aspects necessitate ...

  15. Ethics and risk management in administrative child and adolescent psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondheimer, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This article examines ethics (the philosophic study of "doing the right thing") and risk management (the practice that seeks to manage the likelihood of "doing the wrong thing") and the relationship between them in the context of administrative child and adolescent psychiatry. Issues that affect child and adolescent psychiatrists who manage staff and business units and clinical practitioners who treat and manage individual patients are addressed. Malpractice, budgeting, credentialing, boundaries, assessment, documentation, treatment, research, dangerousness, and confidentiality are among the topics reviewed.

  16. [Psychiatrists' decision making and monitoring of antipsychotic prescription for elderly schizophrenia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalenques, I; Ortega, V; Legrand, G; Auclair, C

    2016-04-01

    Advancing age entails specific treatment modalities for patients with schizophrenia. The choice of appropriate antipsychotic therapy (AP) and the monitoring of treatment is a major challenge. However, little is known about the real-world prescribing practices of psychiatrists for elderly schizophrenia patients. The aim of this study was to assess prescribing practices and treatment monitoring in elderly schizophrenia patients and whether socio-professional psychiatrists' characteristics are related to their practices. We contacted by mail 190 psychiatrists to take part in an observational survey of their AP prescribing practices for elderly (aged over 65) schizophrenia patients. The response rate was 44.2%, and of the psychiatrists who replied 75% were treating elderly schizophrenia patients. A second-generation AP (SGAP) was prescribed as first-line of treatment by 87.7% of the psychiatrists. The most frequently used SGAPs were risperidone and olanzapine (respectively preferred by 54.4% and 19.3% of the psychiatrists taking part). At the beginning of treatment, 91.1% of the psychiatrists prescribed a lower dose than for middle-aged patients. Of the psychiatrists taking part, 64.9% prescribed monotherapy; and among these psychiatrists, 65% cited insufficient control of the disease as the reason for their choice, while 48.7% of those who elected not to prescribe combined AP did so in order to limit the side-effects. Of the psychiatrists taking part, 54.4% prescribed long-acting injectable AP (LAAP); better therapeutic compliance and alliance was the main argument in the choice of LAAP given by the psychiatrists taking part who prescribed the drug, whereas the absence of indications and problems of tolerance were arguments against for those who did not. "Personal experience" emerged as the governing factor in the choice of AP. The AP side-effect profile was the main criterion of choice of the AP agent for 3.5% of the psychiatrists taking part, and the most frequently

  17. Should psychiatrists be more cautious about the long-term prophylactic use of antipsychotics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Robin M; Quattrone, Diego; Natesan, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    over the cumulative effects of antipsychotics on physical health and brain structure. Although controversy remains concerning some of the data, the wise psychiatrist should regularly review the benefit to each patient of continuing prophylactic antipsychotics against the risk of side-effects and loss...... of effectiveness through the development of supersensitivity of the dopamine D2 receptor. Psychiatrists should work with their patients to slowly reduce the antipsychotic to the lowest dose that prevents the return of distressing symptoms. Up to 40% of those whose psychosis remits after a first episode should...

  18. [Women are human: Brief guide on international human rights law for psychiatrists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobredo, Laura D

    2017-07-01

    Violence against women has gained public awareness in Argentina over the last few years. As any other social phenomena, gender violence is present in the work of psychiatrists, especially in the way they approach to clinical practice. International human rights' law enshrines the right of every women to live free from violence and to be treated with dignity and respect. This legal framework might nourish the practice of psychiatrists as a proposal for seeking cultural and social common grounds. The paper tries to get readers attention on the potentiality of this legal framework which ultimately, might in?uence not only everyday life but clinical practice as well.

  19. [Evaluation of mimetic expression of schizophrenic and depressed patients by the psychiatrist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F; Mattes, R; Adam, B; Heimann, H

    1992-01-01

    Facial videos of schizophrenic and depressive patients and of healthy controls when watching both funny and horror films and during emotionally positive or negative interviews were rated by psychiatrists (experts) and students (novices). The observers' task was to rate joy, fear, sadness, and expressivity on a 7-point unipolar intensity scale. The soundless facial videos were presented to each observer for exactly 2.5 min. The observer groups did not differ significantly in their ratings except for sadness. Psychiatrists consistently rated expressed sadness as less intense than students. Facial expressivity and joy were rated as less intense in both patient groups in comparison with healthy controls. Depressives expressed significantly more sadness.

  20. Factors related to health-related quality of life among Chinese psychiatrists: occupational stress and psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Wang, Lie; Zhao, Qun

    2015-01-22

    Psychiatry has been considered as one of the most stressful medical specialities, and psychiatrists are likely to experience impaired health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, few studies are available in regard to related factors of HRQOL among psychiatrists in China. This study aims to evaluate the condition of HRQOL of psychiatrists and explore its predictive factors, especially the effects of occupational stress and psychological capital. A cross-sectional, multicenter survey was conducted among psychiatrists from different regions of Liaoning province, China, during August 2013-April 2014. Self-administrated questionnaires including the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Chinese version Psychological Capital Questionnaire, effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) scale and participants' basic characteristics were distributed to 500 psychiatrists from 10 psychiatric hospitals of 8 major cities in Liaoning province. Overall, 373 psychiatrists became our final research objects. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMR) was performed to explore the predictors of psychiatrists' HRQOL. The mean (SD) scores of PCS and MCS among psychiatrists were 79.78 (16.55) and 71.50 (19.24) respectively. The mean (SD) of ERR were 0.777 (0.493), and 89 (23.9%) had ERR scores above 1 (ERR > 1). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that, psychiatrists' basic characteristics that significant correlated with PCS and MCS were educational level, turnover intention, and exercise; age, weekly working hours were associated with MCS; psychiatrists' experienced occupational stress (both ERR and overcommitment), and PsyCap were significant predictors for PCS and MCS. Chinese psychiatrists experienced relatively good physical QOL but impaired mental QOL, and they experienced high level of occupational stress. For the sake of psychiatrists' HRQOL, the reduction of occupational stress should be implemented. The enhancement of PsyCap could be a new intervention

  1. Psychiatrist Availability, Social Disintegration, and Suicide Deaths in U.S. Counties, 1990-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kposowa, Augustine J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have found that primary care resources are associated with various health outcomes. The primary purpose of the study was to test for associations between psychiatrist availability, social disintegration and suicide rates. Data utilized were from the 2002 Area Resource File on U.S. counties (N=3080). Suicide rates were averaged…

  2. Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Supervision in Danish Psychiatry: Training the Next Generation of Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lasse M; Foli-Andersen, Nina J

    2017-02-01

    Psychotherapy training is mandatory for physicians to qualify as psychiatrists in Denmark. Evidence for the effectiveness of psychotherapy has increased, and psychotherapy is increasingly included in international treatment guidelines. The authors investigated how psychiatrists in training in Denmark evaluate the opportunities to practice psychotherapy in their training and the quality of the supervision they receive in psychotherapy training, particularly for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The authors conducted a survey regarding psychotherapy training and CBT supervision among psychiatrists in training at Danish psychiatric specialist training courses. They investigated respondents' interest and experience in psychotherapy and respondents' views on the relevance and feasibility of performing psychotherapy and receiving supervision in their psychiatry training. Eighty-eight percent of the psychiatrists in training found psychotherapy to be a relevant part of their training; however, 77 % found it difficult to find time to practice psychotherapy and 44 % felt that practicing psychotherapy was a strain on their employer. Thirty-six percent and 53 %, respectively, had difficulties securing psychodynamic and CBT supervision. In CBT supervision, more than 60 % reported supervision that appeared to be below the expected CBT supervision standard and often so much below it might not qualify as CBT supervision. There is a need to focus on how to better integrate psychotherapy and supervision in the Danish psychiatric training program. Good CBT supervision may be lacking, and a way to ensure high-quality supervision is required.

  3. Attitudes towards euthanasia and assisted suicide: a comparison between psychiatrists and other physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Tal Bergman; Azar, Shlomi; Huberfeld, Ronen; Siegel, Andrew M; Strous, Rael D

    2013-09-01

    Euthanasia and physician assisted-suicide are terms used to describe the process in which a doctor of a sick or disabled individual engages in an activity which directly or indirectly leads to their death. This behavior is engaged by the healthcare provider based on their humanistic desire to end suffering and pain. The psychiatrist's involvement may be requested in several distinct situations including evaluation of patient capacity when an appeal for euthanasia is requested on grounds of terminal somatic illness or when the patient is requesting euthanasia due to mental suffering. We compare attitudes of 49 psychiatrists towards euthanasia and assisted suicide with a group of 54 other physicians by means of a questionnaire describing different patients, who either requested physician-assisted suicide or in whom euthanasia as a treatment option was considered, followed by a set of questions relating to euthanasia implementation. When controlled for religious practice, psychiatrists expressed more conservative views regarding euthanasia than did physicians from other medical specialties. Similarly female physicians and orthodox physicians indicated more conservative views. Differences may be due to factors inherent in subspecialty education. We suggest that in light of the unique complexity and context of patient euthanasia requests, based on their training and professional expertise psychiatrists are well suited to take a prominent role in evaluating such requests to die and making a decision as to the relative importance of competing variables. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Psychiatric comorbidity of gender identity disorders: a survey among Dutch psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    à Campo, Joost; Nijman, Henk; Merckelbach, H; Evers, Catharine

    2003-07-01

    In the Netherlands, it is considered good medical practice to offer patients with gender identity disorder the option to undergo hormonal and surgical sex reassignment therapy. A liberalization of treatment guidelines now allows for such treatment to be started at puberty or prepuberty. The question arises as to what extent gender identity disorder can be reliably distinguished from a cross-gender identification that is secondary to other psychiatric disorders. The authors sent survey questionnaires to 382 board-certified Dutch psychiatrists regarding their experiences with diagnosing and treating patients with gender identity disorder. One hundred eighty-six psychiatrists responded to the survey. These respondents reported on 584 patients with cross-gender identification. In 225 patients (39%), gender identity disorder was regarded as the primary diagnosis. For the remaining 359 patients (61%), cross-gender identification was comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. In 270 (75%) of these 359 patients, cross-gender identification was interpreted as an epiphenomenon of other psychiatric illnesses, notably personality, mood, dissociative, and psychotic disorders. These data suggest that there is little consensus, at least among Dutch psychiatrists, about diagnostic features of gender identity disorder or about the minimum age at which sex reassignment therapy is a safe option. Therapy options proposed to patients with gender identity disorder appear to depend on personal preferences of psychiatrists. These results underline the need for more specific diagnostic rules in this area.

  5. Psychiatrists, criminals, and the law: forensic psychiatry in Switzerland 1850-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Urs

    2014-01-01

    Between 1880 and 1950, Swiss psychiatrists established themselves as experts in criminal courts. In this period, the judicial authorities required psychiatric testimonies in a rising number of cases. As a result, more offenders than ever before were declared mentally deficient and, eventually, sent to psychiatric asylums. Psychiatrists also enhanced their authority as experts at the political level. From the very beginning, they got involved in the preparatory works for a nationwide criminal code. In this article, I argue that these trends toward medicalization of crime were due to incremental processes, rather than spectacular institutional changes. In fact, Swiss psychiatrists gained recognition as experts due to their daily interactions with judges, public prosecutors, and legal counsels. At the same time, the spread of medical expertise had serious repercussions on psychiatric institutions. From 1942 onwards, asylums had to deal with a growing number of "criminal psychopaths," which affected ward discipline and put psychiatry's therapeutic efficiency into question. The defensive way in which Swiss psychiatrists reacted to this predicament was crucial to the further development of forensic psychiatry. For the most part, it accounts for the subdiscipline's remarkable lack of specialization until the 1990s. © 2013.

  6. Ethical considerations during times of conflict: challenges and pitfalls for the psychiatrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strous, Rael D

    2013-01-01

    Despite the advances of civilization, conflict remains in many areas around the world. Often psychiatry finds itself playing an essential role in dealing with the consequences of conflict or influencing the process. Along with this involvement comes great responsibility as well as many associated ethical dilemmas. Although bound by professional medical oaths, many physicians disregard fundamental medical ethical principles during times of conflict and situations of "dual loyalty." The phenomenon should be addressed so that ethical awareness and sensitivity to these issues are nurtured. Important factors for psychiatrists during times of conflict to consider include their "social contract" with the community, dangers of boundary violations, the ethics of media contact, involvement in governmental and political activities and confidentiality. In addition, their role in conflict resolution and unique ethical considerations in the military should be considered. While as regular citizens, psychiatrists in their individual capacity may involve themselves in political activism, at an organizational level it should be discouraged. A physician's skills should only be exploited to save lives and provide comfort as entrusted by society, and any other pursuit, even in the name of the state, should be proscribed. Rather than engage in political activism, psychiatrists can promote the rights of patients, especially if these rights are limited during conflict. Responsibility and ethically-driven commitment needs to be primary for the psychiatrist who involves himself either directly or indirectly with patients during times of conflict. Trauma and its effects during conflict should be addressed without any unbalanced attention to pathological responses.

  7. [Examination of factors for promoting cooperation using documents between occupational health physicians and psychiatrists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawara, Makoto; Kajiki, Shigeyuki; Kusumoto, Akira; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Shinkai, Takahiro; Morimoto, Hideki; Hino, Yoshiyuki; Yamashita, Satoshi; Hattori, Michihiro; Mori, Koji

    2018-02-01

    There is little specific information concerning the method and the efficacy of sharing information between occupational health physicians and psychiatrists regarding the employment status and medical history of their patients with mental illnesses. To promote cooperation between occupational health physicians and psychiatrists, we examined the points necessary to be included on medical information request forms exchanged between them. We conducted focused group discussion (FGD) to identify the points that need to be described on the request form and the concerns in cooperation between occupational health physicians and psychiatrists. We conducted FGDs twice, with two different groups of nine psychiatrists participating in each round. We extracted and organized FGD results and determined the necessary request form points. Next, we assumed two different cases of workers with mental illnesses and created three request form templates with differing item descriptions and lengths. We also conducted a questionnaire survey among clinical psychiatrists to determine their impression of the templates. We performed logistic regression analysis on the obtained results. On the basis of the FGD results we extracted the situation in the workplace, clarification of points to be confirmed, representation of the occupational health physician's position, and handling of information provided by the doctor as points required for the request form. On the basis of these results and the opinions of occupational health specialists, we created a new request form using these points. Additionally, the results from the questionnaire survey about the prescribed items revealed the proportion of favorable answers regarding sufficient information written on the request form and a feeling of security for information provision increased (p situation by providing their personal medical information and believe the clinical information required by the occupational health physicians is unclear. This

  8. Re-Audit of the Contents of GP Referral letters to General Adult Community Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odelola, Catherine; Jabbar, Farid

    2017-09-01

    The quality of information provided by referring general practitioners to secondary care mental health services are crucial elements in the effective management of patients. In order to establish effective communication, both primary and secondary care health professionals should contribute to planning and organising this process taking into account their different opinions and views. Anonymous questionnaire was designed to collect information on items that GPs and psychiatrist rated as most important items in GP referral letters to psychiatrists. The questionnaires were sent out electronically. Each item was scored using a rating scale where 0 was least important and 10 was most important. Items that scored 8 and above were agreed by all as the most important items. 76 GP letters were audited using a devised checklist of the identified most important items. Data was collected and analysed using a devised data collection tool. A re-audit was done 6months later. A response rate of 70% was obtained for both psychiatrists and GPs. Reasons for referral were described in almost all GP referral letters (95%). Only 24% referral letters had details about current physical health which improved to 59%. Concerns about risk were described in only 47% of letters and treatment provided by GP in 50% of letters. These improved in 79% and 71% of letters respectively in the re-audit. The involvement of professionals in devising a standardised approach for referral letters has improved communication in this re-audit between GPs and Psychiatrists. This is evident in the improvement in key aspects of the referral letters: past medical history, past psychiatric history, current physical health, treatment provided by GP. Efficient communication between GPs and psychiatrists improves the quality of health care for patients.

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry: legal considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael H; Natbony, Suzanne R; Abbott, Ryan B

    2013-07-01

    The rising popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in child and adolescent psychiatry raises unique ethical and legal concerns for psychiatrists and other conventional health care providers. This article explores these concerns and provides clinical advice for promoting patient health and safety while minimizing the psychiatrist's risk. Although any departure from the conventional standard of care is a potential risk, the risk of malpractice liability for practicing integrative medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry is low. CAM is most safely recommended from a legal standpoint when there is some published evidence of safety and efficacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Developing effective child psychiatry collaboration with primary care: leadership and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvet, Barry D; Wegner, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    By working in collaboration with pediatric primary care providers, child and adolescent psychiatrists have the opportunity to address significant levels of unmet need for the majority of children and teenagers with serious mental health problems who have been unable to gain access to care. Effective collaboration with primary care represents a significant change from practice-as-usual for many child and adolescent psychiatrists. Implementation of progressive levels of collaborative practice, from the improvement of provider communication through the development of comprehensive collaborative systems, may be possible with sustained management efforts and application of process improvement methodology.

  11. Roles and practices of general practitioners and psychiatrists in management of depression in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blin Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about depressed patients' profiles and how they are managed. The aim of the study is to compare GPs and psychiatrists for 1° sociodemographic and clinical profile of their patients considered as depressed 2° patterns of care provision. Methods The study design is an observational cross-sectional study on a random sample of GPs and psychiatrists working in France. Consecutive inclusion of patients seen in consultation considered as depressed by the physician. GPs enrolled 6,104 and psychiatrists 1,433 patients. Data collected: sociodemographics, psychiatric profile, environmental risk factors of depression and treatment. All clinical data were collected by participating physicians; there was no direct independent clinical assessment of patients to check the diagnosis of depressive disorder. Results Compared to patients identified as depressed by GPs, those identified by psychiatrists were younger, more often urban (10.5% v 5.4% – OR = 2.4, educated (42.4% v 25.4% – OR = 3.9, met DSM-IV criteria for depression (94.6% v 85.6% – OR = 2.9, had been hospitalized for depression (26.1% v 15.6% – OR = 2.0 and were younger at onset of depressive problems (all adjusted p Compared to GPs, psychiatrists more often prescribed tricyclics and very novel antidepressants (7.8% v 2.3% OR = 5.0 and 6.8% v 3.0% OR = 3.8 with longer duration of antidepressant treatment. GPs' patients received more "non-conventional" treatment (8.8% v 2.4% OR = 0.3 and less psychotherapy (72.2% v 89.1% OR = 3.1 (all adjusted p Conclusion Differences between patients mainly concerned educational level and area of residence with few differences regarding clinical profile. Differences between practices of GPs and psychiatrists appear to reflect more the organization of the French care system than the competence of providers.

  12. The Pocket Psychiatrist: Tools to enhance psychiatry education in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Deanna; Brandenburg, Dana; Danner, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Primary care is the setting where the majority of patients seek assistance for their mental health problems. To assist family medicine residents in providing effective care to patients for mental health problems during residency and after graduation, it is essential they receive training in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of common mental health conditions. While there is some limited education time with a psychiatrist in our department, residents need tools and resources that provide education during their continuity clinics even when the psychiatrist is not available. Information on two tools that were developed is provided. These tools include teaching residents a brief method for conducting a psychiatric interview as well as a means to access evidence-based information on diagnosis and treatment of mental health conditions through templates available within our electronic medical record. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Homicide committed by psychiatric patients: Psychiatrists' liability in Italian law cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, Claudio; Rocca, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Interest in psychiatrists' professional liability in Italy has increased in recent years because of the number of medical malpractice claims. Professional liability for failure to prevent violent behaviour by psychiatric patients is particularly debated. This study describes three Italian cases in which health professionals - physicians and nurses - were found guilty of manslaughter for murders committed by psychiatric patients. Examination of the cases focuses on claims of malpractice, patients' characteristics, the circumstances of the homicide and the reasons for the court's judgment. In particular, the predictability of violent behaviour and the concept of causal links are examined in detail. The cases provide an opportunity for a study of comparative jurisprudence. The topics discussed are relevant not only to practicing psychiatrists but also to experts assessing medical liability in cases of criminal acts committed by psychiatric patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. [Psyche and soma: what can the consultation-liaison psychiatrist contribute?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbacher, Albert

    2015-01-01

    In German speaking countries, during the last decades, we can see a growing, though albeit small, integration of psychiatry and psychosomatics into (somatic) medicine. This article outlines the importance of the growing number of elderly patients in medical care as a vantage point for c-l-psychiatrists to play a pro-active role in implementing adequate structures and processes for diagnostics and treatment of this patient group. It is argued that delirium (in dementia) can and should be regarded as a paradigm for a biopsychosocial disorder sui generis. In addition, aspects of the cl-psychiatrists role at two important interfaces of somatic and psychological medicine, i.e. primary care and emergency rooms, are highlighted. Finally, some information about the development of the professionalization of cl-psychiatry in Europe is given.

  15. Lies and coercion: why psychiatrists should not participate in police and intelligence interrogations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janofsky, Jeffrey S

    2006-01-01

    Police interrogators routinely use deceptive techniques to obtain confessions from criminal suspects. The United States Executive Branch has attempted to justify coercive interrogation techniques in which physical or mental pain and suffering may be used during intelligence interrogations of persons labeled unlawful combatants. It may be appropriate for law enforcement, military, or intelligence personnel who are not physicians to use such techniques. However, forensic psychiatry ethical practice requires honesty, striving for objectivity, and respect for persons. Deceptive and coercive interrogation techniques violate these moral values. When a psychiatrist directly uses, works with others who use, or trains others to use deceptive or coercive techniques to obtain information in police, military, or intelligence interrogations, the psychiatrist breaches basic principles of ethics.

  16. Psychiatrists and Their Role in an Integrative Approach to Sexual Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisi, Firoozeh; Yahyavi, Seyyed Taha

    2015-03-01

    Sexuality is a unit part of humans that has been evaluated as several fragmented particles for years. Although many biomedical and psychosocial approaches have been developed in the field of sex, these approaches usually have not been led to the complete satisfaction of the patients. It seems that for a comprehensive evaluation and management of the sexual problems, the unity of sex should be respected and the biopsychosocial multilayer aspects of the sex should be apprehended. Psychiatry is a unique point that both biomedical and psychosocial sciences reach each other. Therefore, psychiatrists should play a critical role as a modulator in the multidisciplinary team for management of the sexual problems. In this regard, comprehensive training of psychiatrists is highly recommended. One of the primary steps could be developing the psychosexual fellowship.

  17. Legitiming psychiatrists rather than curing patients. The shock therapy in Buenos Aires, Argentina (1930-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Golcman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to explain the theoretical and clinical use of shock therapies in Argentine psychiatric field, particularly in the province of Buenos Aires between 1930 and 1970. It is argued that it is necessary to study the theoretical and clinical psychiatric work, in order to learn how psychiatrists interpreted mental pathology. Thus two distinct scenarios are analyzed: first academia, emphasizing on medical texts expressing discussions held at congresses, conferences, university chairs, and secondly in hospital settings, represented by a population of chronic patients in a hospital on the outskirts of the Capital Federal, the Esteves Hospital of Lomas de Zamora. The use of shock therapy in the hands of psychiatrists, changed the way of understanding madness and transformed the daily course of hospitals. Therefore, the presence of such therapies was relevant to legitimize the discipline, regardless of the “effectiveness” with patients.

  18. Professional stress in general practitioners and psychiatrists: The level of psycologic distress and burnout risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vićentić Sreten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. So far, studies of stress have shown that physicians are at a high risk of sickness from psychic and somatic disorders related to professional stress, that can lead to important disturbance of personal, familiar and professional functionating. The aim of this study was to investigate the doctors exposition level to professional stress, to compare stress level in general practitioners (GP group with that in the group of psychiatrists and risk level for the apperance of burnout syndrome. Methods. This cross-section study included subjects recruited by a random sample method. Thirty General Practice doctors and 30 psychiatrists (totally 60 doctors filled the set of 3 questionnaires: Sociodemographics features, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ; Goldberg D, 1991, and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach C, 1996. Appropriate statistical procedures (Pearson test, t-test, variance analysis in interpretation of the results were used. Results. A total level of psychic distress measured with the GHQ test in both groups of physicians was very low implying their good mental health. A difference in Burnout risk based on MBI test between the groups was statistically significant (χ2 = 4,286; p < 0.05 only at subscale Personal Accomplishment (MBI-PA; it was a consequence of a higher number of GPs with medium burnout risk (13.3 : 0.0%. However, even 35 physicians from the sample were affected with a high burnout risk measured with subscales Emotional Ehausation (MBI-EE and MBI-DP, showing that both groups of physicians had risk for the appearance of burnout syndrome. Conclusion. The obtained results showed a high burnout risk level in both, GPs and psychiatrists, groups. In both groups there was no presence of psychic disorders (anxiety, depression, insomnia, while there was a high level of emotional ehausation and overtension by job, and also a lower total personal accomplishment. Level of exposition to professional stress is higher in GPs

  19. Two psychiatrists and their points of view imagery in psychiatry: fact and reverie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, J.

    1996-01-01

    For the point of view of the psychiatrist, new tools of cerebral imagery (NMR imaging, positron computed tomography, single photon emission computed tomography) represents a considerable interest. But the interpretation of the results is still insufficient. The scientific literature is full of articles with questionable or difficult interpretation conclusions. At the present time, an image does not allow to give a diagnosis nor to follow the history of a syndrome. But it will probably come in the future. (O.M.)

  20. A situation analysis of psychiatrists in South Africa’s rural primary healthcare settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H. De Kock

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: Because of a lack of MH nurses and medical officers dedicated to MH in PRPHC facilities, recommendations are made that the current task shifting strategy be revisited to include more cadres of MH professionals with specialised psychopharmacological training, as non-medical prescribers at PRPHC level. It is advised that visiting psychiatrists and family physicians be involved in the construction of training and supervision programmes for non-medical prescribers at the primary healthcare level.

  1. Nationwide Survey of Work Environment, Work-Life Balance and Burnout among Psychiatrists in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A.; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. AIMS: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. METHOD: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry depart...

  2. Developing a psychiatrist-patient relationship when both people are doctors: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Josephine; Randal, Patte

    2016-05-20

    To better understand the complexities of developing an effective psychiatrist-patient relationship when both people involved are doctors. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 doctors with experiences as patients of psychiatrists (DPs) and eight psychiatrists with experience of treating doctors (TPs). A thematic analysis was undertaken. The medical culture of unrealistically high standards with limited room for vulnerability and fallibility, vigilance for judgment and valuing clinical over personal knowledge affected both people in the relationship. DPs struggled with the contradictions involved in entering the patient role but tried hard to be good patients. They wanted guidance but found it hard to accept and seldom communicated dissatisfaction or disagreement to their TPs. They described widely varying responses to diagnosis and treatment within the biomedical model. TPs described enjoyment and satisfaction and extreme challenge in engaging with TPs. Despite focusing on providing ordinary care they described providing extra care in many ways. This study brings forward important issues when a psychiatrist is building a therapeutic relationship with another doctor. These are also likely to arise with other people and contribute to making truly patient-centred 'ordinary care' a hard ideal to fulfil. They include: (1) doctors' sense of ourselves as invincible, (2) TPs' sense of personal connection to, and identity with, DPs, (3) having extensive medical knowledge and (4) striving to be good patients. We need to make these issues explicit and enable the DP (or other patients) to tell their story and speak about their experience of the consultation so that any potential rupture in the therapeutic relationship can be addressed early. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Influence of ethical safeguards on research participation: comparison of perspectives of people with schizophrenia and psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura W; Hammond, Katherine A Green; Warner, Teddy D; Lewis, Rae

    2004-12-01

    Several safeguards have been developed to protect research volunteers, but little is known about how the people involved in this research-the stakeholders-view these efforts to assure participant rights and well-being. The authors' goal was to examine these perspectives. As part of a larger study, 60 people with schizophrenia and 69 psychiatrists rated the protectiveness and influence on patients' willingness to participate in research of five safeguards: informed consent, alternative decision makers, institutional review boards, data safety monitoring boards, and confidentiality measures. All safeguards were perceived by both the participants with schizophrenia and by the psychiatrists as protective: on a scale of 1-5 on which 1=not protective at all and 5=very much protects, the mean scores ranged from 3.54 to 4.07. Four of the five safeguards were perceived by both the people with schizophrenia and by the psychiatrists as positively influencing patients' participation decisions. On a scale of 1-5 on which 1=much less willing and 5=much more willing to participate, the mean scores for these four safeguards ranged from 3.86 to 4.30. The mean score for the safeguard of an alternative decision maker, however, was 3.09. The ratings of protectiveness made by both the people with schizophrenia and the psychiatrists were correlated with their ratings of patients' willingness to participate in studies. Ethical commitment to research volunteers is expressed in safeguards. These efforts appear to be viewed positively by key stakeholders and may influence research participation decision making.

  4. Child slavery and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    McKinney, Stephen J.; Hill, R.J.; Hania, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Child slavery and child labour deny children their God-given dignity and freedom, and their right to education. Catholic Social Teaching is unequivocal in resolute condemnation of child slavery and child labour, in all of their forms.

  5. 'Let the heart speak out'--interviewing practices by psychiatrists from two different traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Diana; Ribeiro, Branca Telles; Lopes Dantas, Maria Tereza

    2005-01-01

    In the present article, we investigate the extent to which professional theories that underlie, inform, and guide the interviewing practices of two psychiatrists (a neuropsychiatrist and a psychoanalyst) are discursively displayed in their ways of conducting a psychiatric interview. This study analyses excerpts from two audio-recorded psychiatric interviews held at the Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. It follows theoretical and methodological frameworks derived from interactional sociolinguistics. Ethnographic data and research interviews with both clinicians also ground our discussion. Using frame analysis as a central tool, we found that the psychiatrist who subscribes to a neuropsychiatric orientation displays a concern on assessing the patient's cognitive processes, and shifts topics away from the patient's delusions to (re)introduce the institutional frame of the psychiatric interview. By contrast, the psychiatrist who holds a psychoanalytic orientation towards interviewing not only listens attentively to very personal topics introduced by the patient, but also sustains and develops these topics. Most of all, she proposes and stays within conversational frames. In keeping a dual understanding about their practices in the interview situation, both doctors balance the need to follow the institutional agenda and the need to listen to the patient, despite their different theoretical orientations.

  6. The image ofan ideal psychiatrist inthe eyes of medical students, patients and doctors involved inpsychiatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Margulska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to determine differences in the image of ideal psychiatrist (IIP among patients, doctors involved in psychiatric care and medical students and also between individuals with different work experience (doctors vs. students. The psychiatrist’s personality seems an important factor in supporting therapeutic process; therefore it is worth searching for the patient’s needs. Materials and methods: Three groups participated in the study: patients of the psychiatric units, medical students of 6th year and psychiatrists. The Gough and Heilbrun ACL (Adjective Check List – based on Mur‑ ray’s theory of needs – was used to assess IIP. Results: Data analysis revealed statistically significant differences among patients, doctors and students involving five scales: Nurturance, Aggression, Change, Succorance and Deference. Patients had lower scores on Change scale than doctors and higher scores on the Nurturance, Succurance and Deference than stu‑ dents. Psychiatrists had higher scores on Nurturance and Deference scale and lower score on Aggression scale than students. Conclusions: The findings showed differences in the expectations of patients compared to those of students and doctors. The most significant difference that was observed involved the Change. It may indicate that patients prefer order, conventional approach and stability in psychiatrist’s personality traits more commonly than doctors. Study findings suggest that work experience has impact on IIP: with increasing work experience, opinion about IIP comes closer to patients’ expectations.

  7. Nationwide survey of work environment, work-life balance and burnout among psychiatrists in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), were used. Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0%) responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0%) experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout.

  8. A Doctor is in the House: Stakeholder Focus Groups About Expanded Scope of Practice of Community Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangurian, Christina; Modlin, Chelsea; Williams, Lindsey; Essock, Susan; Riano, Nicholas S; Shumway, Martha; Newcomer, John W; Dilley, James W; Schillinger, Dean

    2017-11-28

    We sought to understand stakeholder perspectives on barriers to metabolic screening for people with severe mental illness. We additionally assessed the feasibility of expanding psychiatrists' scope of practice to include treatment of cardiometabolic abnormalities. We conducted four focus groups among patients with severe mental illness, community psychiatrists, primary care providers, and public health administrators. Focus group transcripts were thematically analyzed. Three domains emerged: challenges with patient navigation of the complex health care system, problem list prioritization difficulties, and concern that treatment of cardiometabolic abnormalities were beyond the scope of practice of psychiatrists. Stakeholders agreed that navigating the health care system was challenging for this population and led to undertreatment of cardiometabolic risk factors. Expansion of psychiatrists' scope of practice within community mental health appears acceptable to patients and may be a mechanism to improve cardiometabolic care among people with severe mental illness.

  9. Exploring the role of Islam in perceptions of mental illness in a sample of Muslim psychiatrists based in Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Bulbulia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Western definitions of, and approaches to, mental illness have been critiqued for their lack of incorporation of cultural and spiritual elements. Objective. To explore perceptions of mental illness, particularly in terms of the role of Islam in the understanding of mental illness among South African Muslim psychiatrists practising in Johannesburg. Methods. Using a qualitative design, semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 7 Muslim psychiatrists in the Johannesburg area. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse the transcribed data. Results. Psychiatrists subscribe to a more biomedical model of illness. The findings of this study also suggest that psychiatrists attempt to remain objective and to refrain from imposing their religious and cultural beliefs on their patients. However, their conceptualisation of mental illness is influenced by their religion and culture. Furthermore, all participating psychiatrists indicated that they always draw on Islamic values when treating their patients. Issues of cultural competence were also highlighted. Psychiatrists indicated that they were open to collaboration with traditional healers and psychologists but that this was quite challenging. Conclusion. The necessity for formal bodies to develop routes for collaboration between healthcare professionals and traditional healers was brought to the fore. So, too, was the need to incorporate indigenous theory and knowledge into mainstream definitions and approaches to mental illness.

  10. Television's Child; The Impact of Television on Today's Children; What Parents Can Do About It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Norman S.

    Based on an extensive series of interviews with clinical psychiatrists and psychologists, educators, television executives, producers, performers, advertisers, parents, and children themselves, this book explores the effect of television on a child's values. It delves into the question of a relationship between violence on television and violent…

  11. Nationwide survey of work environment, work-life balance and burnout among psychiatrists in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakako Umene-Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by 'high-burnout'; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. AIMS: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. METHOD: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, were used. RESULTS: Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0% responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0% experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. CONCLUSIONS: A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout.

  12. Nationwide Survey of Work Environment, Work-Life Balance and Burnout among Psychiatrists in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Kato, Takahiro A.; Kikuchi, Saya; Tateno, Masaru; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychiatry has been consistently shown to be a profession characterised by ‘high-burnout’; however, no nationwide surveys on this topic have been conducted in Japan. Aims The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and to ascertain the relationship between work environment satisfaction, work-life balance satisfaction and burnout among psychiatrists working in medical schools in Japan. Method We mailed anonymous questionnaires to all 80 psychiatry departments in medical schools throughout Japan. Work-life satisfaction, work-environment satisfaction and social support assessments, as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), were used. Results Sixty psychiatric departments (75.0%) responded, and 704 psychiatrists provided answers to the assessments and MBI. Half of the respondents (n = 311, 46.0%) experienced difficulty with their work-life balance. Based on the responses to the MBI, 21.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 12.0% had a high level of depersonalisation, and 72.0% had a low level of personal accomplishment. Receiving little support, experiencing difficulty with work-life balance, and having less work-environment satisfaction were significantly associated with higher emotional exhaustion. A higher number of nights worked per month was significantly associated with higher depersonalisation. Conclusions A low level of personal accomplishment was quite prevalent among Japanese psychiatrists compared with the results of previous studies. Poor work-life balance was related to burnout, and social support was noted to mitigate the impact of burnout. PMID:23418435

  13. [ASO-TSO, emergency interventions: has anything changed? Old and new psychiatrist's professional responsibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabellese, Felice; Taratufolo, Rosa; Candelli, Chiara; Grattagliano, Ignazio; La Tegola, Donatella

    2012-01-01

    The Law 833 of 1978 on the subject of psychiatric emergency treatments in absence of consensus has contributed to grant mental patients equal guaranties and equal constitutional rights which, until that moment, they had been denied. This standpoint includes TSO in favor of mental patients. Ordered by the constitutional laws which guarantee a person's inviolable rights, TSO finds itself positioned between individual freedom and the freedom of treatment on the one hand, and the right to safeguard health on the other hand. The procedure of TSO is noticeable in its various phases so as to provide for the various levels of safeguarding a person who is temporarily deprived of the capacity to express valid consensus. On the other side it also has a certain amount of flexibility in its application, which guarantees adaptability of the norm in various contexts and various incidental situations. Nevertheless, the complexity of the law on TSO, as well as the interpretation margins of the procedure have contributed to the creation of an application frame which is not free of criticism. In this context, the recommendations of the Conference of Regions and Autonomous Provinces have particular importance. These recommendations deserve careful analysis, both for the presence of elements of novelty (in the very particular cases of TSO for children under 18 and TSO for decisionally impaired subjects) and for the reminder of the full application of "non-hospitalized TSO". The latter was provided for in Law 833/78 but has never been adequately and completely adopted because it has never been explained in its concrete applicability. Therefore, bearing in mind the already known responsibility of a psychiatrist in an emergency case, and with renewed interest in new medical performance a psychiatrist of public service has to guarantee, we are preparing to give our contribution on the subject of professional obligations at a historical moment in which known trials seem to assign the

  14. Ideology and ethics. The perversion of German psychiatrists' ethics by the ideology of national socialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, L

    1998-01-01

    As soon as Adolf Hitler came to into power in 1933, four laws on racial segregation and race protection were edicted between 1934 and 1935. Schizophrenia, manic-depressive psychoses, epilepsy and alcoholism were regarded as hereditary mental illnesses. These laws were responsible for the sterilisation of 350,000 individuals who were thought to be at the source of the propagation of hereditary illnesses which might endanger the health and the future of the Aryan Germans. On September 1, 1939, Action T4 was launched: it required that all the mentally ill be exterminated. This action, which was run by the highest level of the Reich's chancellery with the help of psychiatrists coming from all backgrounds including university professors, was supposed to grant a serene death to all the mentally ill considered as untreatable. The death sentences were carried out by the medical staff in psychiatric hospitals specially equipped with gas chambers. Following protests, Action T4 was officially stopped on August 24, 1941, but, in reality, continued until the end of the war. The death sentences were carried out using either lethal doses of medication or food deprivation. One hundred and fifty thousand individuals fell victim to that therapeutic extermination which played an economic role as important as the one deemed to social protection. Many German academics, researchers, psychiatrists, geneticians and anthropologists played and active part in these murders which were carried out in the name of Nazi ideology based upon the supremacy of the Northern Germanic race and the necessity to protect it from miscegenation, especially from Jews. In the final part of this paper, the author gives an explanation of the perversion of ethics carried out by German psychiatrists.

  15. How do psychiatrists in India construct their professional identity? A critical literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayetti, Clement; Jadhav, Sushrut; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric practice in India is marked by an increasing gulf between largely urban-based mental health professionals and a majority rural population. Based on the premise that any engagement is a mutually constructed humane process, an understanding of the culture of psychiatry including social process of local knowledge acquisition by trainee psychiatrists is critical. This paper reviews existing literature on training of psychiatrists in India, the cultural construction of their professional identities and autobiographical reflections. The results reveal a scarcity of research on how identities, knowledge, and values are constructed, contested, resisted, sustained, and operationalized through practice. This paper hypothesizes that psychiatric training and practice in India continues to operate chiefly in an instrumental fashion and bears a circular relationship between cultural, hierarchical training structures and patient–carer concerns. The absence of interpretative social science training generates a professional identity that predominantly focuses on the patient and his/her social world as the site of pathology. Infrequent and often superfluous critical cultural reflexivity gained through routine clinical practice further alienates professionals from patients, caregivers, and their own social landscapes. This results in a peculiar brand of theory and practice that is skewed toward a narrow understanding of what constitutes suffering. The authors argue that such omissions could be addressed through nuanced ethnographies on the professional development of psychiatrists during postgraduate training, including the political economies of their social institutions and local cultural landscapes. Further research will also help enhance culturally sensitive epistemology and shape locally responsive mental health training programs. This is critical for majority rural Indians who place their trust in State biomedical care. PMID:28529358

  16. The Americans With Disabilities Act Amendments Act of 2008: implications for the forensic psychiatrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles L

    2010-01-01

    The Americans With Disabilities Act Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA) significantly modifies the 1990 Americans With Disabilities Act. As a result of this legislation, more Americans are likely to qualify as disabled and to be further protected from discrimination under the ADA. The ADAAA also effectively overturns key rulings in the U.S. Supreme Court cases of Sutton v. United Air Lines, Inc. and Toyota Motor Manufacturing v. Williams. This article summarizes important changes resulting from the ADAAA legislation that psychiatrists and psychologists must understand when evaluating ADA disability claims.

  17. [Arthur Kronfeld (1886-1941)--a psychiatrist in the service of psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, C

    1986-07-01

    The psychotherapeutic life-work of psychiatrist Arthur Kronfeld has almost fallen into oblivion. Against the background of the 100th anniversary of his birth the author traces Kronfeld's psychotherapeutic career, pointing out his activity at the Berliner "Institute of Sexual Research" under Magnus Hirschfeld, and his psychotherapeutic concept--the psychagogic guidance of the patient--and its connection with the individual psychology of Alfred Adler. Kronfeld translated his theoretical positions into activities directed towards socialization and the teachability of psychotherapy which are still worthy of note by those engaged in the field.

  18. Blogging and Social Media for Mental Health Education and Advocacy: a Review for Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Holly S; Richards, Misty; Muir, Owen; Chan, Steven Richard; Caton, Michael; MacMillan, Carlene

    2015-11-01

    We live in a digital age where information can be found instantaneously via the Internet. Studies have shown that consumers search for much of their medical information on the Internet, particularly utilizing blogs and social media platforms. As the mental health field is riddled with misinformation and stigma, this offers a unique opportunity for psychiatrists and mental health professionals to reach a broad audience for mental health education and advocacy. In this review, we discuss the various methods and techniques for blogging and social media. We then review the current recommendations for ethics and professionalism as well as make recommendations to strengthen our guidance in this new and evolving field.

  19. Constance Pascal's Chagrins d'amour et psychoses (1935): a French psychiatrist's views on psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Felicia

    2015-03-01

    In 1935 Constance Pascal (1877-1937), France's first woman psychiatrist, published Chagrins d'amour et psychoses (The Sorrows of Love and Psychosis). My analysis of her monograph will consider: her major article leading up to Chagrins; Pascal's debts to her predecessors, particularly Morel and Kretschmer; her relationship to the French psychoanalytic movement; her co-option of psychoanalysis as a tool in her own therapeutic work with patients in the state psychiatric system; and her social/cultural interpretations of her woman patients. The literary and philosophic aspects of her work are emphasized as well as her contribution to French psychiatry. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. The development of a scale to measure concepts of schizophrenia: experience among Brazilian psychiatrists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Darci N.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Among psychiatric disorders schizophrenia is often said to be the condition with the most disputed definition.The Bleulerian and Schneiderian approaches have given rise to diagnostic formulations that have varied with time and place. Controversies over the concept of schizophrenia were examined within European/North American settings in the early 1970s but little has since been reported on the views of psychiatrists in developing countries. In Brazil both concepts are referred to in the literature. A scale was developed to measure adherence to Bleulerian and Schneiderian concepts among psychiatrists working in S. Paulo. METHODOLOGY: A self-reported questionnaire comprising seventeen visual analogue-scale statements related to Bleulerian and Schneiderian definitions of Shizophrenia, plus sociodemographic and training characteristics, was distributed to a non-randomised sample of 150 psychiatrists. The two sub-scales were assessed by psychometric methods for internal consistency, sub-scale structure and test-retest reliability. Items selected according to internal consistency were examined by a two-factor model exploratory factor analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficients described the stability of the scale. RESULTS: Replies were received from 117 psychiatrists (mean age 36 (SD 7.9, 74% of whom were made and 26% female. The Schneiderian scale showed better overall internal consistency than the Bleulerian scale. Intra-class correlation coefficients for test-retest comparisons were between 0.5 and 0.7 for Schneiderian items and 0.2 and 0.7 for Bleulerian items. There was no negative association between Bleulerian and Schneiderian scale scores, suggesting that respondents may hold both concepts. Place of training was significantly associated with the respondent's opinion; disagreement with a Bleulerian standpoint predominated for those trained at the University of S. Paulo. CONCLUSIONS: The less satisfactory reliability for the

  1. Do patients prefer optimistic or cautious psychiatrists? An experimental study with new and long-term patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Stefan; Ramjaun, Gonca; Strappelli, Nadia; Arcidiacono, Eleonora; Aguglia, Eugenio; Greenberg, Lauren

    2017-01-17

    Patients seeking treatment may be assumed to prefer a psychiatrist who suggests a new treatment with confidence and optimism. Yet, this might not apply uniformly to all patients. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that new patients prefer psychiatrists who present treatments optimistically, whilst patients with longer-term experience of mental health care may rather prefer more cautious psychiatrists. In an experimental study, we produced video-clips of four psychiatrists, each suggesting a pharmacological and a psychological treatment once with optimism and once with caution. 100 'new' patients with less than 3 months experience of mental health care and 100 'long-term' patients with more than one year of experience were shown a random selection of one video-clip from each psychiatrist, always including an optimistic and a cautious suggestion of each treatment. Patients rated their preferences for psychiatrists on Likert type scales. Differences in subgroups with different age (18-40 vs. 41-65 years), gender, school leaving age (≤16 vs. >16 years), and diagnosis (ICD 10 F2 vs. others) were explored. New patients preferred more optimistic treatment suggestions, whilst there was no preference among long-term patients. The interaction effect between preference for treatment presentations and experience of patients was significant (interaction p-value = 0.003). Findings in subgroups were similar. In line with the hypothesis, psychiatrists should suggest treatments with optimism to patients with little experience of mental health care. However, this rule does not apply to longer-term patients, who may have experienced treatment failures in the past.

  2. The South African Society of Psychiatrists/Psychiatry Management Group management guidelines for adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Schoeman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Disclaimer: These guidelines do not aim to provide a comprehensive review of all the pertinent literature comprising the evidence base and, as such, should be utilised in conjunction with other guidelines as well as the responsibility of practitioners to maintain a high level of personal knowledge and expertise. Despite the known efficacy of treatment and the substantial costs of untreated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, access to healthcare and treatment is not a given for many patients in South Africa (SA. In SA, there is poor identification and treatment of common mental disorders at primary healthcare level and limited access to specialist resources with a service delivery and treatment gap of up to 75%. Medication options are also often limited in emerging markets and in SA psychiatrists, and patients do not have access to the medication armamentarium available in established markets. Furthermore, the majority of South Africans currently utilise the public healthcare sector and may not have access to treatment options referred to in these guidelines. These guidelines should therefore not be seen as a policy document. The process: The South African Society of Psychiatrists’ Special Interest Group (SIG for adult ADHD was launched on 25 September 2015, with doctors Rykie Liebenberg and Renata Schoeman as convenor and co-convenor, respectively. The overall objective of the ADHD SIG is to improve the basket of care available to patients with ADHD. This is only possible through a combined and concerted effort of individuals with a special interest in and passion for ADHD to improve knowledge about and funding for the care of individuals with the disorder. One of the specific aims of the ADHD SIG was to develop South African guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD specifically and update guidelines for the treatment of child, adolescent and adult ADHD. Dr Schoeman has recently completed her MBA at the University

  3. [History lived, history told: Psychiatrists' perspectives on the development of the department of Psychiatry of the University of Montreal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younsi, Ouanessa

    2015-01-01

    We have interviewed psychiatrists from different generations at the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal to discern the history lived and told by those who have made (and still make) the history of the Department. The goal of this approach was to grasp the past in order to enlighten the future of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal. Thirteen psychiatrists of the department have been interviewed about their perspective on the history of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal. Interviews have identified an issue in the communication of history among the Department. Indeed, most of the younger psychiatrists were not aware of some of the main events and figures which were part of the development of the Department. The older psychiatrists mention Dr Camille Laurin as an important figure of the Department's early stages. Psychotherapy, education and clinical practice appear as key aspects of the Department's history. Many aspects of the Department's history appear unknown to the younger psychiatrists. A course on History of Psychiatry, including the Department's history, would be a great addition to the psychiatry residency program.

  4. [To become a psychiatrist in Quebec in the 50s to 60s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The author is the witness of a historic period of the psychiatry in the province of Quebec in Canada, widely francophone. He describes the context, the training in psychiatry, and the care. In Quebec, in the 1950s, the psychiatry did not exist as such as speciality. There was however a discipline: the neuropsychiatry. It was managed by the neurologists who agreed to take care of cases of psychiatry, which few doctors wanted to treat at this moment. The religious and rural society in Quebec of the 1950s got ready for the "Revolution tranquille". The latter finally burst after 1960. But the artistic environment was already in full excitement, and from 1948, it showed its opposition to the values which were current with the publication of the Refus global. Among the signatories of the latter, we find Bruno Cormier as medical student who will become, after 1950, a psychiatrist and a psychoanalyst. To become a psychiatrist, it was necessary to be trained as an intern in a residency program in the USA, UK or in France. The residency in the United States in the 1950s represented a great adventure for the young doctors of Quebec, especially for the French speakers. At the end of 1950s, the pharmacology emerged. However, he described his own experience as an observer or an actor with ECT, Sakel cure and about the lobotomy.

  5. Burnout, quality of life and emotional profile in general practitioners and psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentic, Sreten; Gasic, Miroslava Jasovic; Milovanovic, Aleksandar; Tosevski, Dusica Lecic; Nenadovic, Milutin; Damjanovic, Aleksandar; Kostic, Bojana Dunjic; Jovanovic, Aleksandar A

    2013-01-01

    Many studies confirm that psychological factors and burnout in physicians are interconnected. It is however not known, whether quality of life is another factor that plays a role in this connection.The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between quality of life and emotional profile with the level of burnout in physicians. 120 physicians participated in this study, i.e., sixty general practitioners (GPs) and sixty psychiatrists. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were used to measure the job stress. The Quality of Life (QOL) and the Emotions Profile Index (EPI) were used to determine quality of life and emotional profile. Data were analyzed using methods of single and multiple correlation and regression methods. The QOL was higher in psychiatrists as a direct consequence of questions about finances and friendship. Analysis by gender showed that the growth of the burnout risk level (MBI) correlated with the growth of number of women who had stress coping problems. This research suggests that quality of life and individual factors represent a very significant role in burnout among physicians. Further researches in a bigger sample are required in order to identify key factors of quality of life related to burnout reducing, as well as for improvement of supervision strategies, including more the relevance of psychological profile of physicians.

  6. Treatment of anxiety disorders by psychiatrists from the American Psychiatric Practice Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Sorsdahl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in the United States, and if untreated, result in a number of negative outcomes. This study aimed to investigate psychiatrists' current treatment practices for patients with anxiety disorders in the United States. Methods: Psychiatrist-reported data from the 1997 and 1999 American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education Practice Research Network (PRN Study of Psychiatric Patients and Treatments (SPPT were examined, focusing on patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Information related to diagnostic and clinical features and treatments provided were obtained. Results: Anxiety disorders remain underdiagnosed and undertreated, since only 11.4% of the sample received a principal diagnosis of an anxiety disorder in a real world setting. Posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with particularly high comorbidity and disability, and social anxiety disorder was relatively rarely diagnosed and treated. Although combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy was commonly used to treat anxiety disorders, anxiolytics were more commonly prescribed than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs. Conclusions: These data provide a picture of diagnosis and practice patterns across a range of psychiatric settings and suggest that anxiety disorders, despite being among the most prevalent of psychiatric disorders remain underdiagnosed and undertreated particularly in respect of the use of psychotherapeutic interventions.

  7. David Stafford-Clark (1916-1999): Seeing through a celebrity psychiatrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gavin

    2017-04-26

    This article uses the mass-media career of the British psychiatrist David Stafford-Clark (1916-1999) as a case study in the exercise of cultural authority by celebrity medical professionals in post-war Britain. Stafford-Clark rose to prominence in the mass media, particularly through his presenting work on medical and related topics for BBC TV and Radio, and was in the vanguard of psychiatrists and physicians who eroded professional edicts on anonymity. At the height of his career, he traded upon his celebrity status, and consequent cultural authority, to deliver mass media sermons on a variety of social, cultural, and political topics. Stafford-Clark tried to preserve his sense of personal and intellectual integrity by clinging to a belief that his authority in the public sphere was ultimately to be vindicated by his literary, intellectual, and spiritual significance. But as his credibility dwindled, he came to distrust the cultural intermediaries, such as broadcasters and publishers, who had supported him.

  8. [Internet presence of neurologists, psychiatrists and medical psychotherapists in private practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnigk, Olaf; Ramuschkat, Meike; Schreiner, Julia; Anger, Anina; Reimer, Jens

    2014-04-01

    The world wide web provides new options to physicians in terms practice marketing, information brokerage, and process optimization. This study explores prevalence and content of homepages of neurologists, psychiatrists and medical psychotherapists in private practice. Through the legal bodies of physicians in private practice in six northern German states neurologists, psychiatrists and medical psychotherapists were identified. According to a standardized and operationalized criteria catalogue, homepages were rated. 1804 physicians were identified, 352 (19.5 %) had operated a homepage. Higher frequencies of homepages found for male physicians (vs. female physicians), practice centres (vs. single practices) and urban practices (vs. rural practices). In average, practices reached 18.8 (± 5.3) of 42 points; contact data and accessibility information were generally available; information as to qualification and specialization was provided more infrequently. Legal specifications were not considered in more than every second homepage, interactive elements like online appointment of follow-up prescription were only rarely offered. Only every fifth neurological or psychiatric practice operates an own homepage, higher competition (urban area) and higher professionalization (practice centres) seem to act as promotors. The legal framework has to be focused, and patient needs should be taken into account. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Between resentment and aid: German and Austrian psychiatrist and neurologist refugees in Great Britain since 1933.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is a historiographical exploration of the experiences that German and Austrian émigré psychiatrists and neurologists made in Great Britain since 1933, after the Nazi Governments in Central Europe had ousted them from their positions. When placing these occurrences in a wider historiographical perspective, the in-depth analysis provided here also describes the living and working conditions of the refugee neuroscientists on the British Isles. In particular, it looks at the very elements and issues that influenced the international forced migration of physicians and psychiatrists during the 1930s and 1940s. Only a fraction of refugee neuroscientists had however been admitted to Britain. Those lucky ones were assisted by a number of charitable, local, and academic organizations. This article investigates the rather lethargic attitude of the British government and medical circles towards German-speaking Jewish refugee neuroscientists who wished to escape Nazi Germany. It will also analyze the help that those refugees received from the academic establishment and British Jewish organizations, while likewise examining the level and extent of the relationship between social and scientific resentments in Great Britain. A special consideration will be given to the aid programs that had already began in the first year after the Nazis had seized power in Germany, with the foundation of the British Assistance Council by Sir William Henry Beveridge (1879-1963) in 1933.

  10. Experience and views of academic psychiatrists on the role of spirituality in South African specialist psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janse Van Rensburg ABR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of having to consider the role of spirituality in health, mental health and psychiatry in South Africa has in particular been emphasized by recent legislation on African traditional health practice. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the views and experience of local psychiatrists regarding the role of spirituality in South African specialist psychiatric practice and training. METHOD: This study is an explorative, descriptive, contextual, phenomenological and theory-generating, qualitative investigation. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with individual academic psychiatrists affiliated to a local university were conducted as primary data source. Measures to ensure trustworthiness included credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. RESULTS: Awareness of spirituality, "mindfulness" and an open-minded approach about spirituality should, according to participants, be facilitated in psychiatric practice and training. Six themes were identified through open coding. DISCUSSION: All participants, disregarding of their own views on spirituality and religion, agreed, that under certain conditions, spirituality must be incorporated into the current bio-psycho-social approach in the local practice and training of specialist in psychiatry.

  11. [Patterns of utilization of external employee assistance program--analysis of employees who have their psychiatrists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, H; Fujii, K; Sasaki, Y

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify some patterns of utilization of an external employee assistance program (EAP) we have conducted for other public and private facilities in the Tokyo Kenbikyoin Foundation between April, 1986 and December, 1996. The subjects were 26 men and 12 women in 7 facilities under the following conditions: (1) Employees who have already had their own psychiatrists at the first interview of the external EAP; (2) Facilities utilize the EAP for two or more employees who met the first criterion. As a result, utilization patterns differed depending on medical staff's attitude toward the external EAP. There was a significant difference according to sex. The rate for men was 54% in worksites where medical staff understood this external program (worksite A1) and 93% in worksites where they did not (worksite A2-3, B). As to expectations for the program, there were more consultations for organizational measurements (63%) in worksite A1, while less organizational matters (27%) and more personal complains about their psychiatrists in the worksite A2-3, and B. These results suggest that the involvement of medical staff is the key to utilizing the external EAP effectively.

  12. Psychiatrists' awareness of partial and nonadherence to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia: results from an Asia-Pacific survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Jose Manuel; Thirunavukarasu, Manickam; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Zhang, Hong Yan; Zhang, Mingyuan; Zhang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Nonadherence is a well-known problem among schizophrenia patients, among whom relapse is fivefold more likely, adversely affecting health, employment, and social functioning. The Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) survey was developed to determine the scope and causes of medication nonadherence in schizophrenia. The 20-question ADHES survey was distributed to 19,370 psychiatrists in 13 Asia-Pacific countries in January-April 2012, to ascertain psychiatrists' perceptions of antipsychotic medication adherence levels among their schizophrenia patients, reasons for partial/nonadherence, their preferred methods of assessing adherence, and strategies to improve adherence. Responses are reported as mean and range across countries. Four thousand, six hundred sixty one psychiatrists (24% of recipients) completed the survey (highest contributors: People's Republic of China, 1854; India, 1616). Psychiatrists perceived that 56% (range, 30%-71%) of schizophrenia patients were non- or partially adherent to medication. Patients discontinue medication primarily due to lack of insight into their condition (mean, 37%; 1%-65%) and because patients consider medication unnecessary when feeling better (mean, 27%; 15%-68%). Over half of psychiatrists (mean, 55%; 42%-99%) assess medication adherence at every visit, almost exclusively (81%) by asking their patients, versus quantitative measures. One in three psychiatrists expressed their preference to switch to or add a long-acting antipsychotic to improve adherence (15%-82%). The substantial prevalence of partial/nonadherence to medication demonstrates that more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia is needed to improve adherence and thereby treatment outcomes. Registration of this study was not required.

  13. Knowledge and Attitude Towards Pharmacological Management of Acute Agitation: A Survey of Psychiatrists, Psychiatry Residents, and Psychiatric Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangu, KeumbÔh; Ifeanyi, Adaora; Velusamy, Mayurapriya; Dar, Sara; Shah, Nurun; Ezeobele, Ifeoma E; Okusaga, Olaoluwa O

    2017-06-01

    The authors compared the current knowledge and attitude of psychiatrists, psychiatry residents, and psychiatric nurses towards the pharmacological management of acute agitation. Questionnaires were electronically distributed to all attending psychiatrists, psychiatry residents, and psychiatric nurses who were either employed by the University Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences or were staff at a 250-bed affiliated Psychiatric Hospital. Where possible, Fisher's exact test was used to compare responses to questions based on designation. Of the 250 questionnaires distributed, 112 were returned (response rate of 44.8%), of which 64 (57.1%) were psychiatric nurses, 27 (24.1%) were attending psychiatrists, and 21 (18.8%) were psychiatry residents. A significantly higher percentage of attending psychiatrists and psychiatric nurses compared to psychiatry residents thought that newer second- generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are not as effective as older first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) for managing acute agitation (55.6, 48.4, and 9.5% respectively, p = 0.008). The combination of intramuscular haloperidol, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine was the most preferred option chosen by all designations for the psychopharmacological management of severe agitation. Furthermore, a larger percentage of the psychiatric nurses, in comparison to attending psychiatrists, also chose the combination of intramuscular chlorpromazine, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine as an option for managing severe agitation; no psychiatry resident chose this option. Knowledge of evidence-based psychopharmacological management of agitation differs among attending psychiatrists, psychiatry residents and psychiatric nurses. Although the management of agitation should be individualized and context specific, monotherapy should be considered first where applicable.

  14. Child health, child education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A R

    1989-06-01

    Although child survival programs may help to increase the life span of poor children in developing countries such as India, the quality of life will remain unchanged unless the value of involving children in health education efforts is recognized. The primary health care strategy seeks to involve children and communities in making decisions and taking actions to improve their health. Children can be engaged in the learning process through activities such as helping to care for younger siblings, educating children of their own age who are not attending school, and spreading preventive health messages to their homes and communities. Numerous studies have confirmed that children are easily motivated to play such roles and have the desire to transfer their knowledge to others; however, it is essential that health education messages are appropriate for the level of the child. Specific messages with tested effectiveness in child-to-child programs include accident prevention, dental hygiene, neighborhood hygiene, use of oral rehydration in cases of diarrhea, recognition of signs of major illness, care of sick children, use of play and mental stimulation to enhance children's development, and the making of toys and games to aid growth. Children can further be instructed to identify peers with sight and hearing problems as well as those with nutritional deficiencies. In the Malvani Project in Bombay, children are given responsibility for the health care of 3-4 families in their neighborhood. In the NCERT Project in New Delhi, children are organizing artistic exhibitions and plays to convey health messages to their peers who are not in school. Also in New Delhi, the VHAI Project has enlisted children in campaigns to prevent diarrhea and dehydration, smoking, and drug use.

  15. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Bassett, Darryl; Boyce, Philip; Bryant, Richard; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Fritz, Kristina; Hopwood, Malcolm; Lyndon, Bill; Mulder, Roger; Murray, Greg; Porter, Richard; Singh, Ajeet B

    2015-12-01

    To provide guidance for the management of mood disorders, based on scientific evidence supplemented by expert clinical consensus and formulate recommendations to maximise clinical salience and utility. Articles and information sourced from search engines including PubMed and EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Google Scholar were supplemented by literature known to the mood disorders committee (MDC) (e.g., books, book chapters and government reports) and from published depression and bipolar disorder guidelines. Information was reviewed and discussed by members of the MDC and findings were then formulated into consensus-based recommendations and clinical guidance. The guidelines were subjected to rigorous successive consultation and external review involving: expert and clinical advisors, the public, key stakeholders, professional bodies and specialist groups with interest in mood disorders. The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for mood disorders (Mood Disorders CPG) provide up-to-date guidance and advice regarding the management of mood disorders that is informed by evidence and clinical experience. The Mood Disorders CPG is intended for clinical use by psychiatrists, psychologists, physicians and others with an interest in mental health care. The Mood Disorder CPG is the first Clinical Practice Guideline to address both depressive and bipolar disorders. It provides up-to-date recommendations and guidance within an evidence-based framework, supplemented by expert clinical consensus. Professor Gin Malhi (Chair), Professor Darryl Bassett, Professor Philip Boyce, Professor Richard Bryant, Professor Paul Fitzgerald, Dr Kristina Fritz, Professor Malcolm Hopwood, Dr Bill Lyndon, Professor Roger Mulder, Professor Greg Murray, Professor Richard Porter and Associate Professor Ajeet Singh. Professor Carlo Altamura, Dr Francesco Colom, Professor Mark George, Professor Guy Goodwin, Professor Roger McIntyre, Dr Roger Ng

  16. Aspects of Sustainability: Cooperation, Job Satisfaction, and Burnout among Swiss Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, Johanna; Moock, Jörn; Rössler, Wulf; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Greater sustainability in mental health services is frequently demanded but seldom analyzed. Levels of cooperation, job satisfaction, and burnout are indicators of social sustainability in this field and are of particular importance to medical staff. Because registered psychiatrists play a central role, we assessed the status quo and interactions between these three factors among registered psychiatrists in Switzerland. A postal survey with three standardized questionnaires about cooperation, job satisfaction, and burnout was conducted among all registered psychiatrists in the German-speaking part of Switzerland (n = 1485). Addresses were provided by the Swiss Medical Association. Response rate was 23.7% (n = 352), yielding a largely male sample (62.8%; n = 218) aged 55.5 ± 8.7 years old. Quantity (47 ± 56.2 contacts over 3 months) and duration (91.1 ± 101.6 min per week) of cooperation was found to be diverse depending on the stakeholder. Quality of cooperation was greatest in general practitioners (81.5%) while it was worst in community mental health providers (54.9%). Overall job satisfaction was assessed rather high (3.7 ± 0.8), and burnout rates were below crucial values (Emotional Exhaustion, 2.9 ± 0.8; Depersonalization, 1.9 ± 0.5). Both were positively influenced by cooperation. The strongest correlation was found between job satisfaction and burnout, and both had significant inverse relationships in all dimensions. To foster sustainability in outpatient mental health care regarding cooperation, job satisfaction, and burnout, personal aspects such and age or years of registration, organizational aspects, such as networking and practice setting, as wells as supportive aspects such as psychotherapy, and self-help groups, must be considered. Quality of cooperation should be reinforced in particular. Because Integrated and Managed Care models cover several of these factors, the models should be more strongly

  17. Is psychiatry an art or a science? The views of psychiatrists and trainees.

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    Chur-Hansen, Anna; Parker, Damon

    2005-12-01

    It is generally considered by many practitioners that psychiatry is an art, that is, one of the humanities, as well as being a science. We systematically collected the views of practitioners and trainee psychiatrists regarding the question 'Is psychiatry an art or a science?' Eleven supervisors and nine trainees were interviewed and their responses analysed, using a qualitative method, the modified framework approach. Several themes emerged from the data: that 'art' and 'science' are different; psychiatry as a discipline is difficult to define; psychiatry demands a broader range of skills than other medical specialties; the relationship of psychology to psychiatry; supervisor cynicism to the 'science' of psychiatry; and the 'art' and 'science' of the assessment process. The tension that exists within the profession's identity as a discipline has important implications for teaching, learning, and clinical and research practices.

  18. Moving Out of the Office: Removing Barriers to Access to Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Joel; Goldbloom, David; Kurdyak, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Our paper offers a perspective on barriers to access to psychiatric care. Research shows that access depends not simply on the total number of trained specialists but also on their kind of practice. In some large cities, some practitioners follow a small number of patients in long-term psychotherapy, a practice supported by government insurance, which places no limits on the number of sessions or treatment duration. The problem is that long-term psychotherapy, despite a rich tradition in psychiatry, is not an evidence-based treatment. This review recommends a model in which psychiatrists spend more time in consultation with primary care professionals, in acute care for patients with severe mental illness, and in briefer, more cost-effective forms of psychotherapy.

  19. A taxonomy of psychology standards and training, and their relevance for psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Caroline; Hyde, Judy

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the article is to describe the current standards for psychology registration and pathways to training that operate in Australia today, to compare these with international requirements, and to discuss how they relate to the work and training of psychiatrists. The standards and training for practice in psychology involve multiple pathways that are not straightforward for the public or other health practitioners to understand. Most developed nations other than Australia require higher entry requirements into the profession. New national standards set by the Psychology Board of Australia, such as endorsed areas of practice, will lead to greater consistency in standards and make the task of referring to psychologists with the appropriate competencies more straightforward, allowing for greater collaboration between clinical psychology and psychiatry practitioners.

  20. Stalking of psychiatrists: psychopathological characteristics and gender differences in an Italian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronardi, Vincenzo M; Pomilla, Antonella; Ricci, Serafino; D'Argenio, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    Research has indicated that medical doctors and paramedics are at higher risk of being stalked than the general population. In particular, mental health care professionals alone represent one third of the victims of harassment. Because of the lack of studies in this specific sector, especially in Italy, in this study, we examined the stalking of psychiatrists by their patients, considering gender differences and the incidence of stalking in private practice and public mental health clinics in Rome. We found that the rate of stalking in private mental health settings is higher than that in public settings and that the perpetrators of stalking are mainly women who mostly target mental health professionals working in private practice. Implications of the findings are noted and discussed.

  1. Effects of oral versus long-acting antipsychotics on social functioning: A psychiatrists' survey in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundugurti, Prasad Rao; Nagpal, Rajesh; Sheth, Ashit; Narang, Prashant; Gawande, Sonal; Singh, Vikram

    2017-12-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with functional challenges for patients; relapses in schizophrenia may lead to increased treatment costs and poor quality of life. This SUSTAIN-I study was conducted to establish psychiatrists' perspective on impact of long-acting injectables (LAIs) antipsychotics on the socio-economic and functional burden of schizophrenia. This cross-sectional, survey-based study was conducted in 5 cities in India. Psychiatrists (≥5years of experience) working in clinics, psychiatric, government hospitals and rehabilitation centers were included and administered a specially designed questionnaire to elicit information on their clinical practice and prescription patterns. Perceived treatment costs for LAI versus oral antipsychotic treatments (OATs) and relapse rates were assessed. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize results. Total 31 physicians completed this survey. In acute phase, OAT prescription was higher whereas chronic patients were treated with either OATs or LAIs. Treatment with LAIs was the preferred treatment in 9% of chronic cases. Reduced relapse rates were observed with LAI treatment: 12% patients on LAIs relapsed as compared with 60% patients on OATs. Monthly medication cost for oral medications was lower ($8-$17) than short-acting injectables ($22-$50). For chronic cases, atypical antipsychotics cost (oral: $11.7-25, LAI: $150-167) was higher than typical antipsychotics (oral: $4-5, LAI: $5-25). Of the total expenses incurred, cost for hospital admissions was the largest component (78%). Despite enhanced treatment adherence and potential to lower risk of rehospitalizations from relapse, LAIs are not the preferred treatment choice for patients with schizophrenia in India, owing to their perceived high costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Patterns of Psychotropic Medication Prescriptions by Psychiatrists for Private Clinic Outpatients in Kerman Province, Iran

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    Abdolreza Sabahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern and utilisation of psychotropic drug prescriptions by psychiatrists in Kerman Province, Iran. Methods: The prescriptions of 27 psychiatrists were randomly selected from two Iranian public insurance organisations and were analysed for the mean number of drugs/prescriptions, drug category and the most frequently prescribed drug in each category as well as overall. Results: A total of 6,414 prescriptions were analysed. The mean number of drugs per prescription was 2.9. Antidepressants (61.0% were the most frequently prescribed category of psychotropic medications, followed by antipsychotics (29.5%, sedative/hypnotics or anti-anxiety drugs (27.5% and mood stabilisers (18.5%. The combination of antidepressants with antipsychotics was the most commonly prescribed combination (18.8%. Fluoxetine (16.5% and trifluoperazine (13.5% were among the most frequently prescribed antidepressants and antipsychotics, respectively. Clonazepam (10.5% was the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepine agent, followed by alprazolam (8.5%. In terms of total drug utilisation, sertraline (12.4% was the most commonly used psychotropic medication followed by fluoxetine (9.7%, trifluoperazine (6.6%, propranolol (4.5% and clonazepam (3.7%. Conclusion: A high proportion of psychotropic prescriptions in Kerman Province were for antidepressants, followed by antipsychotics and the benzodiazepines. Further research is needed to determine the underlying correlation between prescription practice and the diagnosis and patient characteristics, as well as to investigate the use of different psychotropic medications.

  3. [Acute schizophrenia concept and definition: investigation of a French psychiatrist population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylé, F J; Misdrahi, D; Llorca, P M; Lançon, C; Olivier, V; Quintin, P; Azorin, J M

    2005-01-01

    For schizophrenic disorders, the clinical conception of "acute state" is widely used in clinical settings to assess the effectiveness of therapeutic programs as well as epidemiological studies. Schizophrenic-specific symptomatology modification, need for hospitalization, significant change in care, disturbances in social behavior or suicide attempts were all used to define acute schizophrenic state. The decision to hospitalize is frequently used to define acute state but refers to multiple factors such as mood disorder, suicide attempts, drug abuse or social and environmental problems. Indeed, several and distinct definitions in a criteria basis form are available but no one has reached consensus. Because recognition of acute schizophrenic state remains based on the subjective clinician's advice, epidemiological and therapeutic studies fail in validity and reliability. The aim of the study was to evaluate how a population of French psychiatrists define criteria and therapeutic targets of acute schizophrenic state in their clinical practice. Psychiatrists filled out a self administered interview. At the time the interview was given, clinicians were notified that they were participating in a clinical consensus survey about schizophrenia. Six major indicators for acute state definition based on the literature data were proposed: general schizophrenic symptomatology modification (depression, anxiety, agitation, impulsivity/aggressiveness), specific schizophrenic symptomatology modification (positive symptoms, negative symptoms, disorganization), need for hospitalization, significant change in care, disturbance in social behavior and lastly, suicidal behavior. Minimal duration (1.2 or 4 weeks) of general and specific schizophrenic symptomatology modification required to define acute state were evaluated. The booklet included the 30 PANSS symptoms listed with their definitions. Among this symptom list, clinicians were instructed to select the ten criteria which they

  4. Gerald Caplan: A Tribute to the Originator of Mental Health Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erchul, William P.

    2009-01-01

    Gerald Caplan (1917-2008), world-renowned child and community psychiatrist, was the originator of the modern practice of mental health consultation. In addition to consultation, Caplan developed and refined many conceptual models and methods for practice for use in community mental health, psychology, and education. This tribute article focuses on…

  5. A LONGITUDINAL-STUDY OF INTERACTION PATTERNS OF A PSYCHIATRIST AND SEVERELY DEPRESSED-PATIENTS BASED ON OBSERVED BEHAVIOR - AN ETHOLOGICAL APPROACH OF INTERPERSONAL THEORIES OF DEPRESSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOUHUYS, AL; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    Observed behaviour of a psychiatrist interacting with severely depressed patients during an interview was related to the course of depression during hospitalization. The behavioural structure of such interaction could be described by 6 factors for the patients and 7 factors for the psychiatrist. The

  6. Attorney work product privilege trumps mandated child abuse reporting law: The case of Elijah W. v. Superior Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareau, Craig R

    2015-01-01

    Forensic psychologists and psychiatrists are licensed in their respective professions, but they perform most of their work with attorneys in the legal arena. Both attorneys and mental health professionals place high value on confidentiality of information, reflected in the ethics of their professions and codified into laws governing their work. In psychology and psychiatry, there are some well-known exceptions to confidentiality; two primary exceptions include the mandated reporting of suspected child abuse and various "Tarasoff" duty to warn or protect laws. Generally, however, the corresponding duty for attorneys to report suspected child abuse or to warn or protect intended victims of threatened harm is not as extensive. This difference in mandated reporting responsibilities can create significant difficulties when attorneys need to retain forensic psychologists and psychiatrists to evaluate their clients, especially in criminal contexts. If the retained psychologist or psychiatrist is required to report suspected abuse or threatened harm, the attorney may be harming his or her client's legal interests by using the forensic psychologist or psychiatrist to evaluate his or her client. This article will briefly review the development of mandated reporting laws for psychologists and psychiatrists and juxtapose those with the legal and ethical requirements of confidentiality for attorneys embodied in the attorney-client privilege and attorney work product privilege. The article will then discuss the California Court of Appeals case in Elijah W. v. Superior Court, where the court addressed the issue of whether retained mental health professionals must report suspected child abuse and threatened harm to others as required by law or if they do not need to report because they come under the umbrella of the attorney work product privilege. This California court ultimately concluded that retained psychologists and psychiatrists work under the attorney work product

  7. The murdered child and his killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplun, D; Reich, R

    1976-07-01

    The authors studied 112 cases of child homicide in New York City in 1968-1969 to identify contributing social and psychiatric factors and to determine the fate of the surviving siblings and the degree of involvement of the city's social agencies with the families. There was a pattern of long-term familial child maltreatment extending to the siblings and continuing after the murders. The victims were usually illegitimate preschoolers; the assailants, usually the mothers or their paramours, had backgrounds of assaultiveness and social deviance and killed in impulsive rage. Reports of sexual abuse of victims or of suicide or psychosis among assailants were rare. The authors present case illustrations and offer guidelines for improved prevention by psychiatrists and social workers.

  8. To admit or not to admit? The effect of framing on risk assessment decision making in psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies-Sewell, Kiri; Sharma, Shivani; Gale, Tim M; Hawley, Chris J; Georgiou, George J; Laws, Keith R

    2015-02-01

    The way that information is presented is well known to induce a range of biases in human decision tasks. Little research exists on framing effects in psychiatric decision making, but it is reasonable to assume that psychiatrists are not immune and, if so, there may be implications for the welfare of patients, staff and the general public. To investigate whether presentation of risk information in different formats (frequency, percentage and semantic) influences inpatient admission decisions by psychiatrists. Six-hundred seventy-eight general adult psychiatrists read a short clinical vignette presenting a case scenario of a patient presenting for inpatient admission. One of four condition questions followed the vignette, incorporating either numerical or percentage probabilities and the semantic labels "high" and "low" risk. In each condition, the actual risk was identical, but the way it was presented varied. The decision to admit the patient or not was recorded and compared across conditions. More individuals chose to admit the patient when risk information was presented in numerical form (X2 = 7.43, p = 0.006) and with the semantic label "high" (X2 = 7.27, p = 0.007). Presentation of risk information may influence decision making in psychiatrists. This has important implications for mental health clinical practice where clinicians are required to interpret probabilistic information within their daily work.

  9. Perceived competence and attitudes towards patients with suicidal behaviour: a survey of general practitioners, psychiatrists and internists

    OpenAIRE

    Grimholt, Tine K; Haavet, Ole R; Jacobsen, Dag; Sandvik, Leiv; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2014-01-01

    Background Competence and attitudes to suicidal behaviour among physicians are important to provide high-quality care for a large patient group. The aim was to study different physicians’ attitudes towards suicidal behaviour and their perceived competence to care for suicidal patients. Methods A random selection (n = 750) of all registered General Practitioners, Psychiatrists and Internists in Norway ...

  10. Roles of psychiatrists and other professionals in mental healthcare: Results of a formal group judgement method among mental health professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.; Tiemens, B.G.; Kaasenbrood, A.J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background Professional boundaries between psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are difficult to set. Empirical evidence for the distribution of diagnostic and treatment tasks among professionals is lacking. Aims This study examines the ‘collective sense of the profession’ about the

  11. Telepsychiatry clinical decision support system used by non-psychiatrists in remote areas: Validity & reliabilityof diagnostic module

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    Savita Malhotra

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Diagnostic tool showed acceptable to good validity and reliability when used by non-specialists at remote sites. Our findings show that diagnostic tool of the telepsychiatry application has potential to empower non-psychiatrist doctors and paramedics to diagnose psychiatric disorders accurately and reliably in remote sites.

  12. Editorial: Looking beyond the horizon--innovation in child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco Fearon, R M

    2016-03-01

    As readers will no doubt be well aware, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry dedicates an entire issue, once a year, to state-of-the-art authoritative reviews of research on some of the central issues in our field.(1) I like to think that in doing so we have been quietly undertaking a giant Pavlovian conditioning experiment: every year, as the spring flowers start to blossom (in the northern hemisphere at least), the nucleus accumbens of child psychologists and psychiatrists around the world begin to glow in anticipation of intellectual reward. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. All God's children: religion, divorce, and child custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldzband, M G

    2000-01-01

    Many young Americans, married and marriageable, are turning to more traditional or fundamentalist religions. Religiosity and ultra-strict morality often leads to attitudes that alter decision-making in marriage, divorce, and the disposition of the children of divorce. Judgmental pastoral counseling may affect these decisions even more. This paper discusses these issues, emphasizing the need for forensic psychiatrists involved in the custody arena to be aware of the religious, spiritual, irreligious, or even anti-religious feelings of the battling partners. It also presents detailed information about the four major American religions (Roman Catholicism, traditional Judaism, Mormonism, and Islam) that have specific doctrine, protocols, or customs affecting decisions in marriage, divorce, and child custody and visitation. This information is presented from the viewpoint of a child advocate. Mental health experts consulting in child custody must understand the backgrounds of the battling parents, including the religious pressures that well may adversely affect their interspousal disputes, particularly those over child custody. The experts must also recognize the attitudes of the religious communities in which the custodial parent may reside after divorce. Those attitudes may be rejecting of the children as well as of the divorced parent(s). Mental health experts may have a better chance to reach agreement between the battling parents if the experts reverse the historic reluctance of psychiatrists to evaluate and discuss the religious feelings and beliefs of their forensic evaluatees.

  14. 16th National Congress of the South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP

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    Christer Allgulander

    2010-10-01

    -traumatic stress disorder clinic A Parkinson 39. Is there a causal relationship between alcohol and HIV? Implications for policy, practice and future research Charles Parry 40. Global mental health - A new global health discipline comes of age Vikram Patel 41. Integrating mental health into primary health care: Lessons from pilot District demonstration sites in Uganda and South Africa Inge Petersen, Arvin Bhana, K Baillie and MhaPP Research Programme Consortium 42. Personality disorders -The orphan child in axis I - Axis II Dichotomy Willie Pienaar 43. Case Studies in Psychiatric Ethics Willie Pienaar 44. Coronary artery disease and depression: Insights into pathogenesis and clinical implications Janus Pretorius 45. Impact of the Mental Health Care Act No. 17 of 2002 on designated hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal: Triumphs and trials Suvira Ramlall, Jennifer Chipps 46. Biological basis of addication Solomon Rataemane 47. Genetics of Schizophrenia Louw Roos 48. Management of delirium - Recent advances Shaquir Salduker 49. Social neuroscience: Brain research on social issues Manfred Spitzer 50. Experiments on the unconscious Manfred Spitzer 51. The Psychology and neuroscience of music Manfred Spitzer 52. Mental disorders in DSM-V Dan Stein 53. Personality, trauma exposure, PTSD and depression in a cohort of SA Metro policemen: A longitudinal study Ugashvaree Subramaney 54. Eating disorders: An African perspective Christopher Szabo 55. An evaluation of the WHO African Regional strategy for mental health 2001-2010 Thandi van Heyningen, M Majavu, C Lund 56. A unitary model for the motor origin of bipolar mood disorders and schizophrenia Jacques J M van Hoof 57. The origin of mentalisation and the treatment of personality disorders Jacques J M Hoof 58. How to account practically for 'The Cause' in psychiatric diagnostic classification C W (Werdie van Staden POSTER PRESENTATIONS 59. Problem drinking and physical and sexual abuse at WSU Faculty of Health Sciences, Mthatha, 2009 Orlando Alonso

  15. Psychiatrists' awareness of partial and nonadherence to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia: results from an Asia–Pacific survey

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    Olivares JM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jose Manuel Olivares,1 Manickam Thirunavukarasu,2 Jayashri Kulkarni,3 Hong Yan Zhang,4 Mingyuan Zhang,5 Fan Zhang61Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Meixoeiro, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, Vigo, Spain; 2Department of Psychiatry, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Center, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Department of Psychiatry, Monash University and the Alfred Hospital, Prahran, Vic, Australia; 4Department of Psychiatry, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 5Department of Psychiatry, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 6Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Nonadherence is a well-known problem among schizophrenia patients, among whom relapse is fivefold more likely, adversely affecting health, employment, and social functioning. The Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES survey was developed to determine the scope and causes of medication nonadherence in schizophrenia.Methods: The 20-question ADHES survey was distributed to 19,370 psychiatrists in 13 Asia–Pacific countries in January–April 2012, to ascertain psychiatrists' perceptions of antipsychotic medication adherence levels among their schizophrenia patients, reasons for partial/nonadherence, their preferred methods of assessing adherence, and strategies to improve adherence. Responses are reported as mean and range across countries.Results: Four thousand, six hundred sixty one psychiatrists (24% of recipients completed the survey (highest contributors: People's Republic of China, 1854; India, 1616. Psychiatrists perceived that 56% (range, 30%-71% of schizophrenia patients were non- or partially adherent to medication. Patients discontinue medication primarily due to lack of insight into their condition (mean, 37%; 1%–65% and because patients consider medication unnecessary when feeling better (mean, 27%; 15%–68%. Over

  16. Race and psychiatric services in post-apartheid South Africa: a preliminary study of psychiatrists' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Robert; Szabo, Christopher P; Gordon, Alan; Allwood, Clifford W

    2004-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the perception of the quality of psychiatric services five years after apartheid, and specifically whether care for black patients had improved. A survey was distributed to South African psychiatrists during a national congress and by mail. The questionnaire focused on the quality of psychiatric care in general, for black and white patients, the racial composition of each respondent's psychiatric practice currently, and the racial composition of the psychiatric practice during apartheid. Psychiatric services in South Africa were viewed as deteriorating. The end of apartheid has done little to improve the quality of psychiatric care for both black and white patients. Although less pronounced, racial inequality in psychiatric care continues to exist. Psychiatric practices continue to be overrepresented with white patients. There remains a differential in quality of psychiatric care and further monitoring should continue. Continued efforts to improve racial equality and the need for greater awareness of cultural issues need to be addressed. Limitations of this study included possible social desirability bias, use of subjective rather than objective measures, and a survey that was limited in scope.

  17. The aging psychiatrist: lessons from our colleagues in surgery and anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Bruce Philip

    2016-04-01

    The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) has been innovative in developing core competencies, which provide a framework for assessing performance and a 'Code of Conduct', for the lifelong journey of all surgeons. The older surgeon may face significant challenges, having passed their peak, with a lower volume of cases, and potentially increased complications. They also face the challenges of retiring from active clinical practice with its logistical and psychological dilemmas. The RACS has, therefore, put in place several initiatives to deal with these dilemmas. The Senior Surgeons' Group, which conducts annual 'Building Towards Retirement' workshops, has been the driving force behind these initiatives. The group has a regular program in the RACS Annual Scientific Congress, including the multidisciplinary session 'The ageing specialist - challenges for regulators: hypothetical' which took place in 2014, and some of its members are part of a multidisciplinary team with an approach to adapting to ageing that encourages self-reflection and self-monitoring. It has also influenced the RACS Council to change the continuing professional development (CPD) regulations to include requirements for ageing surgeons regards health maintenance, peer reviews, and modified requirements to satisfy CPD completion. The RACS offers a variety of other opportunities for the ageing surgeon to remain active in college activities. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  18. Differentiation of Students in the Early Danish Welfare State: Professional Entanglements Between Educational Psychologists and Psychiatrists

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    Christian Ydesen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Historically, numerous contextual factors have influenced the practice of differentiating students. Scholars and practitioners consider it a context-sensitive practice subject to negotiations and entanglements among various agents, groups, interests, ideas, and values. Drawing on Foucault, this article pursues the practices, negotiations, and entanglements surrounding differentiation processes and IQ testing’s use in the early Danish welfare state. We argue that the differentiating practice of IQ testing in the Danish educational system resulted from various factors, including the increasing professionalisation of the educational system. This practice entailed an increased division of labour among professional groups; debates reflecting differing ideas about eugenics, heredity, and social equality; the schooling of psychologists and psychiatrists in Denmark; and the development of psychology and psychiatry as academic disciplines. In that sense, we will demonstrate that changes in society’s understanding of intelligence incorporating a greater use of environmental explanations can be said to reflect the emerging welfare society’s security mechanisms, and a willingness to cope with and address social inequality in an evolving and supposedly universalistic Danish welfare state.

  19. The diagnosis of psychopathy: Why psychiatrists and psychologists need to know ethical doctrines

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    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the problem of the nature of the most difficult nosologic psychopathological diagnosis - psychopathy in all its features, the neurological and psychological, the social and the political. The paper also analyzes the analogy: the character of the society vis-à vis the character of the individual. In the second part, this work develops the concept of psychopathy as a general 'picture of the world,' a period of time and the community, with special reference to the harsh financial Darwinism and the Serbian society today (2014. The conclusion of the paper is that it is impossible to diagnose any disease as psychopathy if the psychiatric and psychological analysis does not include an analysis of sociologists, pedagogues, and especially psychologists of morality and ethicists. Finally, the attitude of the author is that every psychiatrist and psychologist who meet with psychopathy and judge it absolutely needs to know the most important ethical doctrine (deontology and utilitarianism, their opposition, as well as their consequences.

  20. The Problem Child as Institutional Object: Child Psychiatry in Cuba, 1926-1945

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    Jennifer Lynn Lambe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of child psychiatry in 1920s Cuba mirrored the ascent of psychiatry as a discipline imbued with broader social relevance. The extension of psychiatric expertise was centrally concerned with the figure of the “problem child”, posited as a synecdoche for a maturing sovereign state. As reformers set out to rehabilitate mentally ill and “delinquent” children, however, they frequently found themselves running up against the problem of political corruption as it impacted the institutions in which they sought to intervene. Ultimately, psychiatrists and social crusaders who had identified the problem child as a potent site for political regeneration were forced to reverse the causal direction of their reformist logic: it was the state itself that would have to be rehabilitated in order to achieve their medical and social goals.

  1. [Single or double moral standards? Professional ethics of psychiatrists regarding self-determination, rights of third parties and involuntary treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmächer, T

    2015-09-01

    The current intensive discussion on the legal and moral aspects of involuntary treatment of psychiatric patients raises a number of ethical issues. Physicians are unambiguously obligated to protect patient welfare and autonomy; however, in psychiatric patients disease-related restrictions in the capacity of self-determination and behaviors endangering the rights of third parties can seriously challenge this unambiguity. Therefore, psychiatry is assumed to have a double function and is also obligated to third parties and to society in general. Acceptance of such a kind of double obligation carries the risk of double moral standards, placing the psychiatrist ethically outside the community of physicians and questioning the unrestricted obligation towards the patient. The present article formulates a moral position, which places the psychiatrist, like all other physicians, exclusively on the side of the patient in terms of professional ethics and discusses the practical problems arising from this moral position.

  2. Teaching evolution to psychiatrists in Venezuela: comparison with medical students and other medical specialists: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trino Baptista

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The teaching of evolution theory (ET in medical programs has received scant attention in the literature. In this report, we first describe the main applications of ET in medicine. Second, we present the evaluation of an interactive seminar on ET given to groups of medical students, psychiatrists, and other medical specialists. Methods: A two-hour, four-module, interactive seminar was conducted with separate groups of 27 psychiatrists, 15 family doctors, 18 neurologists, 13 physiatrists, 12 internists, and 24 sixth-year medical students without formal training in ET. Their knowledge of ET before and after the seminar was rated on a validated analogical scale (0-12. In addition, the perceived relevance of the information for the participants’ professional activity was assessed. Results: Score averages and medians before the seminar were below 6, suggesting low to moderate knowledge. The students' scores did not differ significantly from those of the physicians except on the Hominization item, where they scored lower than the physicians (p = 0.02. The psychiatrists’ scores did not differ from those of the other groups before the seminar, but after the seminar the increase in their scores on a number of items was significantly smaller than that of the other groups. While all groups scored 10 or more when assessing the relevance of the information, the psychiatrists had the lowest score (p = 0.024. Discussion: The results show the adequacy of short programs to enhance knowledge on ET. This may assist medical educators to develop comprehensive and compulsory courses. Future studies must explore whether psychiatrists are relatively reluctant or ambivalent to accept evolution concepts and proposals.

  3. Child's Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milshtein, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of child day centers on college campuses and what it takes to provide safe, successful, and fun places that support students, faculty, and staff needs. Areas addressed include safety and security, class and room size, inclusion of child-size toilets, and interior color schemes. (GR)

  4. Physician leadership and quality improvement in the acute child and adolescent psychiatric care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Erin; Butt, Shiraz; Sorter, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Inpatient child and adolescent psychiatry leadership roles are often multifaceted, necessitating strong clinical knowledge and skills, organizational and leadership abilities, and in the academic setting the desire and skill in teaching and research. Early career psychiatrists who do possess these attributes may find themselves unprepared for such challenges as dealing with complex administrative and economic issues, accreditation, legal matters, and multitasking. This article offers a primer addressing these basic issues and in managing change through quality improvement processes.

  5. Behavioral treatment of depression in a prepubertal child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, C; Matson, J L; Sonis, W A; Fialkov, M J; Kazdin, A E

    1982-09-01

    The present study evaluated behavioral treatment of symptoms of depression in a 10 yr-old boy. Diagnosis of the child's depression was made on the basis of DSM-III criteria. Information was obtained from separate interviews with the child and mother and from multiple assessment instruments. Ratings from several sources (mother, psychiatrist, psychologist and staff) confirmed the diagnosis. Four behaviors that characterized the child's depression were selected for intervention and included inappropriate body position, lact of eye contact, poor speech and bland affect. Treatment, evaluated in a multiple-baseline design across symptoms, consisted of the combination of instructions, modeling, role-playing and feedback. Results indicated that behaviors characteristic of childhood depression could be reliably identified and effectively treated by behavioral techniques. Treatment effects were maintained at 12-week follow-up assessment.

  6. Raising Black Children. Two Leading Psychiatrists Confront the Educational, Social, and Emotional Problems Facing Black Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, James P.; Poussaint, Alvin F.

    This book responds to nearly 1,000 commonly asked questions concerning a child's development from infancy to adolescence, as it applies to black children. Common parental concerns are discussed from sibling rivalry to setting a curfew, as well as advice for parents and teachers who must foster healthy self-esteem in black children living within a…

  7. 'What makes an excellent mental health doctor?' A response integrating the experiences and views of service users with critical reflections of psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekara, Imani; Patterson, Sue; Scott, James G

    2017-11-01

    While therapeutic relationships are appropriately recognised as the foundation of mental health service, service users commonly report suboptimal experiences. With shared understanding critical to improvement in practice, we explored service users' experiences and expectations of psychiatrists and consultations, engaging psychiatrists throughout the process. Using an iterative qualitative approach we co-produced a response to the question 'what makes an excellent mental health doctor?' Experiences and expectations of psychiatrists were explored in interviews with 22 service users. Data collection, analysis and interpretation were informed by consultation with peer workers. Findings were contextualised in formal consultations with psychiatrists. As 'masters of their craft', excellent mental health doctors engage authentically with service users as people (not diagnoses). They listen, validate experiences and empathise affectively and cognitively. They demonstrate phronesis, applying clinical knowledge compassionately. Psychiatrists share service users' aspiration of equitable partnership but competing demands and 'professional boundaries' constrain engagement. Consistent delivery of the person-centred, recovery-oriented care promoted by policy and sought by service users will require substantial revision of the structure and priorities of mental health services. The insights and experiences of service users must be integral to medical education, and systems must provide robust support to psychiatrists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Child labour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, L T; Savastano, L; Saracino, V; Del Vecchio, R

    2005-01-01

    The authors emphasize the violation of children's and adolescents' rights as a result of the exploitation of child labour. Besides the legal aspect, they pointed out the medical features related to the delicate growing process of the child in the phases of development and adaptation of the main organs to hard work. Currently the problem is being supervised by those states that recognize the right for minors to be protected against any kind of physical, mental, spiritual and moral risk.

  9. Communication skills in the training of psychiatrists: A systematic review of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Loughland, Carmel; Duvivier, Robbert; Kelly, Brian

    2017-07-01

    A range of communication skills training programmes have been developed targeting trainees in various medical specialties, predominantly in oncology but to a lesser extent in psychiatry. Effective communication is fundamental to the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, but there has been less attention to this in clinical practice for psychiatrists in training. This review examines the outcomes of communication skills training interventions in psychiatric specialty training. The published English-language literature was examined using multiple online databases, grey literature and hand searches. The review was conducted and reported using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Studies examining the efficacy of communication skills training were included. Randomised controlled trials, pseudo-randomised studies and quasi-experimental studies, as well as observational analytical studies and qualitative studies that met criteria, were selected and critically appraised. No limits were applied for date of publication up until 16 July 2016. Total search results yielded 2574 records. Of these, 12 studies were identified and reviewed. Two were randomised controlled trials and the remaining 10 were one-group pretest/posttest designs or posttest-only designs, including self-report evaluations of communication skills training and objective evaluations of trainee skills. There were no studies with outcomes related to behaviour change or patient outcomes. Two randomised controlled trials reported an improvement in clinician empathy and psychotherapeutic interviewing skills due to specific training protocols focused on those areas. Non-randomised studies showed varying levels of skills gains and self-reported trainee satisfaction ratings with programmes, with the intervention being some form of communication skills training. The heterogeneity of communication skills training is a barrier to evaluating the efficacy of

  10. Developmental overview of child and youth sports for the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofler, Ian R; Butterbaugh, Grant J

    2005-10-01

    This article presents an overview of sporting participation for children and adolescents from psychological, physical, social, developmental, and historical perspectives. The following areas are reviewed: (1) normal developmental readiness and sporting participation; (2) benefits and risks of athletic participation for the child and adolescent; (3) self concept and sporting participation; (4) adverse psychophysiological and somatoform effects of sports; (5) interactional and systemic contributions to adverse physical and psychological effects; (6) a historical/social perspective of sport in the United States; (7) the current and future role of psychiatrists in conjunction with sports medicine physicians; (8) the sports psychiatry interview of the child, family, and coach; and (9) summary and future challenges.

  11. History of psychosurgery at Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France, through translational interactions between psychiatrists and neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Marc; Pallud, Johan; Baup, Nicolas; Peeters, Sophie; Turak, Baris; Krebs, Marie Odile; Oppenheim, Catherine; Gaillard, Raphael; Devaux, Bertrand

    2017-09-01

    Sainte-Anne Hospital is the largest psychiatric hospital in Paris. Its long and fascinating history began in the 18th century. In 1952, it was at Sainte-Anne Hospital that Jean Delay and Pierre Deniker used the first neuroleptic, chlorpromazine, to cure psychiatric patients, putting an end to the expansion of psychosurgery. The Department of Neuro-psychosurgery was created in 1941. The works of successive heads of the Neurosurgery Department at Sainte-Anne Hospital summarized the history of psychosurgery in France. Pierre Puech defined psychosurgery as the necessary cooperation between neurosurgeons and psychiatrists to treat the conditions causing psychiatric symptoms, from brain tumors to mental health disorders. He reported the results of his series of 369 cases and underlined the necessity for proper follow-up and postoperative re-education, illustrating the relative caution of French neurosurgeons concerning psychosurgery. Marcel David and his assistants tried to follow their patients closely postoperatively; this resulted in numerous publications with significant follow-up and conclusions. As early as 1955, David reported intellectual degradation 2 years after prefrontal leucotomies. Jean Talairach, a psychiatrist who eventually trained as a neurosurgeon, was the first to describe anterior capsulotomy in 1949. He operated in several hospitals outside of Paris, including the Sarthe Psychiatric Hospital and the Public Institution of Mental Health in the Lille region. He developed stereotactic surgery, notably stereo-electroencephalography, for epilepsy surgery but also to treat psychiatric patients using stereotactic lesioning with radiofrequency ablation or radioactive seeds of yttrium-90. The evolution of functional neurosurgery has been marked by the development of deep brain stimulation, in particular for obsessive-compulsive disorder, replacing the former lesional stereotactic procedures. The history of Sainte-Anne Hospital's Neurosurgery Department sheds

  12. Do electronic health records affect the patient-psychiatrist relationship? A before & after study of psychiatric outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuyler Mark

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of literature shows that patients accept the use of computers in clinical care. Nonetheless, studies have shown that computers unequivocally change both verbal and non-verbal communication style and increase patients' concerns about the privacy of their records. We found no studies which evaluated the use of Electronic Health Records (EHRs specifically on psychiatric patient satisfaction, nor any that took place exclusively in a psychiatric treatment setting. Due to the special reliance on communication for psychiatric diagnosis and evaluation, and the emphasis on confidentiality of psychiatric records, the results of previous studies may not apply equally to psychiatric patients. Method We examined the association between EHR use and changes to the patient-psychiatrist relationship. A patient satisfaction survey was administered to psychiatric patient volunteers prior to and following implementation of an EHR. All subjects were adult outpatients with chronic mental illness. Results Survey responses were grouped into categories of "Overall," "Technical," "Interpersonal," "Communication & Education,," "Time," "Confidentiality," "Anxiety," and "Computer Use." Multiple, unpaired, two-tailed t-tests comparing pre- and post-implementation groups showed no significant differences (at the 0.05 level to any questionnaire category for all subjects combined or when subjects were stratified by primary diagnosis category. Conclusions While many barriers to the adoption of electronic health records do exist, concerns about disruption to the patient-psychiatrist relationship need not be a prominent focus. Attention to communication style, interpersonal manner, and computer proficiency may help maintain the quality of the patient-psychiatrist relationship following EHR implementation.

  13. Parents' mental health and psychiatric expertise in child welfare family rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, Kirsi

    2015-02-01

    Parents' mental health disorders are not well known within child welfare services. First, to assess the mental health disorders and treatment needs of parents participating in the child welfare-centred family rehabilitation; Second, to evaluate the work of psychiatric nurses and the effectiveness of consultations by psychiatrists in such cases. During 2010, a total of 141 parents participated in child welfare-centred family rehabilitation. The primary psychiatric disorders of parents not currently receiving psychiatric care were assessed, as was the appropriate treatment for them. The majority of parents in child welfare-centred family rehabilitation suffered from severe mental health disorders, often unrecognized and untreated. As much as 93% of parents were referred to mental health or substance abuse treatment, almost half of them to secondary care. The work of psychiatric nurses and consultations by psychiatrists were found to be useful. Most parents suffered from severe unrecognized and untreated mental health disorders. There is a high demand for adult-psychiatric expertise in child welfare.

  14. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  15. Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Udry, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  16. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  17. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  18. The 15th Biannual National Congress of the South African Society of Psychiatrists, 10-14 August 2008, Fancourt, George, W Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Allers

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. How can we maintain a sustainable private practice in the current political and economic climate? Eugene Allers 2. SASOP Clinical guidelines, protocols and algorithms: Development of treatment guidelines for bipolar mood disorder and major depression  Eugene Allers, Margaret Nair, Gerhard Grobler 3. The revolving door phenomenon in psychiatry: Comparing low-frequency and high-frequency users of psychiatric inpatient services in a developing country U A Botha, P Oosthuien, L Koen, J A Joska, J Parker, N Horn 4. Neurophysiology of emotion and senses - The interface between psyche and soma Eugene Allers 5. Suicide prevention: From and beyond the psychiatrist's hands O Alonso Betanourt, M Morales Herrera 6. Treatment of first-episod psychosis: Efficacy and toleabilty of a long-acting typical antipsychotic B Chiliza, R Schoeman, R Emsey, P Oosthuizen, L KOen, D Niehaus, S Hawkridge 7. Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in the young child Helen Clark 8. Holistic/ Alternative treatment in psychiatry: The value of indigenous knowledge systems in cllaboration with moral, ethical and religious approaches in the military services J Dill 9. Treating Schizophrenia: Have we got it wrong? Robin Emsley 10.Terminal questions in the elderly Mike Ewart Smith 11. Mental Health Policy development and implementation in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia Alan J Flisher, Crick Lund, Michelle Frank, Arvin Bhana, Victor Doku, Natalie Drew, Fred N Kigozi, Martin Knapp, Mayeh Omar, Inge Petersen, Andrew Green andthe MHaPP Research Programme Consortium 12. What indicators should be used to monitor progress in scaling uo services for people with mental disorders? Lancet Global Mental Health Group (Alan J Flisher, Dan Chisholm, Crick Lund, Vikram Patel, Shokhar Saxena, Graham Thornicroft, Mark Tomlinson 13. Does unipolar mania merit research in South Africa? A look at the literature Christoffel Grobler 14. Revisiting the Cartesian duality of mind

  19. Perceptions on efficacy and side effects of conventional depot antipsychotics (CDA) and atypical depot antipsychotics (ADA): Psychiatrists versus patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Hector W H; Fong, Mandy W M; Fung, Kelvin M T; Chung, Raymond C K

    2010-03-01

    Abstract Objectives. We compared the satisfaction level of psychiatrists and psychiatric patients towards conventional (CDA) and atypical (ADA) depot antipsychotics on symptom management, role functioning, and side effects. Method. Patients from an out-patient clinic of a public hospital and psychiatrists from public hospitals participated in the survey in 2007-2008. A total of 153 patients were interviewed by a tailor-made questionnaire and 72 psychiatrists self-administered a similar questionnaire. Results. Both groups shared similar attitudes towards clinical effectiveness and treatment efficacy of ADA and CDA. More patients were ambivalent towards relapse prevention of CDA than psychiatrists (30.7 vs. 16.7%, PADA are associated with less side effects. More than half of the patients showed negative attitudes towards the effectiveness of CDA on improving quality of life (52.40%), work (57.50%), and recreation (55.50%). Psychiatrists were more aware of the limitation of CDA and severity of side effects of CDA. They did not, however, seem to incorporate patients' opinions and research findings into their clinical practice. Conclusion. Evidence-based practice and shared decision-making model between clinicians and mental patients should be advocated. More investigations should be devoted to examine the efficacy of ADA as the alternative to CDA.

  20. [Pills for the Psyche. Neuro-enhancement among psychiatrists, trainees and other doctors in the Netherlands -- an explanatory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, S J; Glas, G

    2012-01-01

    Psychotropic drugs are being used increasingly for the purpose of neuroenhancement. A survey conducted by Nature revealed that neuro-enhancing drugs were also being used quite widely by non-medical academics. To investigate the extent to which psychiatrists and other doctors working in psychiatry in the Netherlands actually take neuro-enhancing drugs themselves, and to record their views on the use of such drug. The findings form a basis for an ethical debate about the use of neuro-enhancing drugs in the Netherlands. We transmitted an online questionnaire, based on the survey conducted by Nature, to as many as possible psychiatrists, trainees and other doctors working in psychiatry in the Netherlands. 11% of the respondents reported that they had occasionally taken neuro-enhancing medication without any medical reason in order to improve their own mental functioning. 66% of respondents felt that no-one should be allowed to take psychotropic drugs unless these have been prescribed for a strictly medical reason. Compared to those who responded to the Nature survey, respondents to the Dutch survey seemed to have considerably more reservations about the private use of neuroenhancing drugs and seemed to be more critical about their use in general.

  1. Parenting style and conduct problems in children: Case report of deliberate self poisoning in a Nigerian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M F Tunde-Ayinmode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between psychosocially unhealthy parenting styles and child psychopathology has been established. This case report describes how chronic harsh and overbearing paternal parenting style tipped a young boy into deliberate self poisoning with the aid of organo-phosphorous chemicals (rat poison. This report is purposed to increase the interest of physicians and psychiatrists in parenting style research and in how potentially its modification could be a therapeutic and preventive tool.

  2. Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... developmental conditions. More Child Development Basics Early Brain Development Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting Tips Infants (0-1 year) Toddlers (1-2 years) Toddlers (2-3 years) Preschoolers (3-5 years) Middle Childhood (6-8 years) Middle Childhood (9-11 years) ...

  3. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  4. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  5. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Children & Families Office of Child Care By Office Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, ... about the Child Care Rule > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  6. Utilisation of psychiatrists and psychologists in private practice among non-Western labour immigrants, immigrants from refugee-generating countries and ethnic Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Smith; Jensen, Natasja Koitzsch; Kreiner, Svend

    2015-01-01

    ), and immigrants from RGC (Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, and Somalia). Survey data was linked to healthcare utilisation registries. Using Poisson regression, contacts with private practising psychiatrists and psychologists were estimated. Analyses were adjusted for socioeconomic factors and mental health status. RESULTS......: Overall, 2.2 % among ethnic Danes, 1.4 % among labour immigrants and 6.5 % among immigrants from RGC consulted a psychiatrist or psychologist. In adjusted analyses, for psychiatrists, compared with ethnic Danes, labour-immigrant women (multiplicative effect = 1.78), and immigrant women from RGC...... (multiplicative effect = 2.49) had increased use, while labour-immigrant men had decreased use (multiplicative effect = 0.03). For psychologists, immigrant men from RGC had increased use (multiplicative effect = 2.96), while labour-immigrant women had decreased use (multiplicative effect = 0.27) compared...

  7. Psychiatrists' awareness of adherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia: results from a survey conducted across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, José Manuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Emsley, Robin; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Papageorgiou, George; Roca, Miquel; Thomas, Pierre; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schreiner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Nonadherence is common among patients with schizophrenia, although the rates vary according to means of assessment and patient population. Failure to adhere to medication can have a major impact on the course of illness and treatment outcomes, including increasing the risk of relapse and rehospitalization. Understanding psychiatrists' perception of the causes and consequences of nonadherence is crucial to addressing adherence problems effectively. The Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) survey was conducted by questionnaire during January-March 2010 among psychiatrists treating patients with schizophrenia in 36 countries. The survey comprised 20 questions. In addition to recording the demographic details of the 4722 respondents (~12% response rate), it canvassed their preferred methods of assessing adherence, their perceptions of adherence rates, reasons for nonadherence, and strategies to improve adherence. Psychiatrists estimated that 53% of their patients with schizophrenia were partially/nonadherent during the previous month. They estimated only one-third of patients who deteriorated after stopping medication were able to attribute this to nonadherence. Psychiatrists assessed adherence most often by patient interview. Lack of insight was viewed as the most important cause of medication discontinuation, followed by patients feeling better and thinking their medication unnecessary, and experiencing undesirable side effects. Considerably fewer psychiatrists viewed insufficient efficacy, cognitive impairment, or drug/alcohol abuse as the most important reasons for their patients stopping medication. Psychiatrists throughout EMEA recognize the impact of partial/nonadherence to medication, with patient enquiry being the most commonly used means of assessment. There remains a need for more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia, particularly in increasing patient insight of their illness

  8. [Multi-parent families as "normal" families--segregation and parent-child-alienation after separation and divorce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napp-Peters, Anneke

    2005-12-01

    Decisive for the question as to how children cope with their parents' divorce is whether or not the parents continue to perform their parental role together even after separation, or have at least made arrangements for the child to maintain a good relationship with each parent. These are the findings of a longitudinal study of 150 postdivorce families. The case of a multi-parent family after remarriage, which sees itself as a "normal" family and segregates the visiting parent, shows what consequences the breakdown of parent-child relationships has for the psychological health and the development of children. Alienation and long-term disruption of the contact between child and visiting parent is a phenomenon which the psychiatric and psychotherapeutic professions are increasingly confronted with. The American child psychiatrist R. A. Gardner has introduced the term "Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS)" to encompass this childhood disorder that arises almost exclusively in the context of child-custody disputes.

  9. Metabolic syndrome and psychiatrists' choice of follow-up interventions in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J. T.; Fagerquist, M.; Holdrup, M.

    2011-01-01

    rate of metabolic syndrome did not elicit much decisive action on the part of the treating psychiatrists; the most frequent action taken was dietary and exercise advice (in 75% of subjects), while in 54% and 19% of subjects a laboratory follow-up and blood pressure follow-up were advised respectively......Introduction: The aim of the present study was to obtain point prevalence estimates of the metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP III criteria in a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs in Denmark and Sweden, and to assess...... for at least 3 months with atypical antipsychotic drugs. Results: The metabolic syndrome as per medical history was present in 1% of 582 evaluable patients at baseline. After performing laboratory measurements and applying the NCEP III criteria, metabolic syndrome was confirmed in 43% of subjects. The high...

  10. Stigma related to bipolar disorder in the perception of psychiatrists from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Silva Clemente

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research sought to understand meanings and implications of the stigma related to bipolar disorder in relation to social processes and local cultural value systems. Seven semidirected individual interviews were performed with psychiatrists (from Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil and analyzed with referential from the Medical Anthropology. Some potential stigmatizing views about bipolar disorder patients were endorsed by respondents related to biomedical model of bipolar disorder. They claimed about the extreme trivialization of this diagnosis nowadays and observed that, in spite of the mitigation of stigma related to bipolar disorder over time, it remains an important issue, especially at labor fields and as a cause of refusal of treatment.

  11. Delivering an effective elearning program for psychiatrists in Ireland – a framework for other health professionals (presentation)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lawton, Aoife

    2010-11-18

    Up until September 2010 teaching was delivered in person by the College of Psychiatry in Ireland to its students. A move towards elearning was initiated and as part of this move, an online instruction module in “Health Information Literacy” based on the five steps of Evidence-Based-Medicine was developed. The Systems Librarian from the Health Service Executive wrote the content which was reviewed by a senior Psychiatrist in the college. The Librarian worked with the e-learning specialist at the College to develop the online e-tutorial. This consisted of seven lessons. Feedback to date has been positive. At the end of the module, participants received a certificate of achievement. The methodology used for this course could be expanded to other medical disciplines.

  12. Telepsychiatry clinical decision support system used by non-psychiatrists in remote areas: Validity & reliability of diagnostic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Sharma, Minali; Sharma, Kanu Priya; Malhotra, Akanksha; Upadhyaya, Suneet K.; Margoob, Mushtaq A.; Maqbool, Dar; Jassal, Gopal D.

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives: A knowledge-based, logically-linked online telepsychiatric decision support system for diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders was developed and validated. We evaluated diagnostic accuracy and reliability of the application at remote sites when used by non-psychiatrists who underwent a brief training in its use through video-conferencing. Methods: The study was conducted at a nodal telepsychiatry centre, and three geographically remote peripheral centres. The diagnostic tool of application had a screening followed by detailed criteria-wise diagnostic modules for 18 psychiatric disorders. A total of 100 consecutive consenting adult outpatients attending remote telepsychiatry centres were included. To assess inter-rater reliability, patients were interviewed face to face by non-specialists at remote sites using the application (active interviewer) and simultaneously on online application via video-conferencing by a passive assessor at nodal centre. Another interviewer at the nodal centre rated the patient using Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for diagnostic validation. Results: Screening sub-module had high sensitivity (80-100%), low positive predictive values (PPV) (0.10-0.71) but high negative predictive value (NPV) (0.97-1) for most disorders. For the diagnostic sub-modules, Cohen's kappa was >0.4 for all disorders, with kappa of 0.7-1.0 for most disorders. PPV and NPV were high for most disorders. Inter-rater agreement analysis revealed kappa >0.6 for all disorders. Interpretation & conclusions: Diagnostic tool showed acceptable to good validity and reliability when used by non-specialists at remote sites. Our findings show that diagnostic tool of the telepsychiatry application has potential to empower non-psychiatrist doctors and paramedics to diagnose psychiatric disorders accurately and reliably in remote sites. PMID:29265020

  13. Targets, attitudes, and goals of psychiatrists treating patients with schizophrenia: key outcome drivers, role of quality of life, and place of long-acting antipsychotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bartolomeis A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrea de Bartolomeis,1 Andrea Fagiolini,2 Marco Vaggi,3 Claudio Vampini4 1Section of Psychiatry and Treatment Resistant Psychosis, Department of Neuroscience, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy; 3Mental Health and Drug Addiction Department, Genovese, Genoa, Italy; 4Department of Mental Health, Ospedale Civile Maggiore and ULSS 20, Verona, Italy Purpose: This survey of Italian psychiatrists was conducted to better define drivers of schizophrenia treatment choice in real-life practice, particularly for use of long-acting injectable (LAI antipsychotics.Methods: Between October 15 and December 15, 2014, 1,000 surveys were sent to psychiatrists who treat schizophrenic patients; 709 completed questionnaires were analyzed (71% response rate.Results: The two most important factors determining therapy success were efficacy (75% of responses and tolerability (45% followed by global functioning (24% and quality of life (17%. LAI antipsychotics were most often used to facilitate regular treatment monitoring (49%, and 41% of psychiatrists thought that patients with low adherence who had failed oral therapy were well-suited for LAI antipsychotics. Only 4% of respondents saw LAI antipsychotics as appropriate for patients without other therapeutic options.Conclusion: Although efficacy and tolerability were the most common factors used to evaluate treatment success in schizophrenia, psychiatrists also consider QoL and global functioning to be important. Keywords: quality of life, long-acting injectable antipsychotics, schizophrenia, survey

  14. Community factors supporting child mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earls, F

    2001-10-01

    discussion. The first conclusion suggests that research in child development generally, and child mental health specifically, does not incorporate the social ecology of the child is seriously flawed. There is a broad recognition within most sectors of society that the quality of civic engagement is of critical importance to community efforts to improve the health and well-being of children. This is true for all communities and families, regardless of their levels of material wealth and educational achievement. It is also well understood that poverty undermines the well-being and life chances of children. For this reason, the third conclusion requires that intensive, sustained efforts be made to eradicate poverty and reverse the current economic trend toward growing economic disparity. The implications of this knowledge for the practice of child psychiatry are not new ones. In many ways, they advocate for a re-examination of the historical roots of the field as it defined approaches to juvenile justice, school counseling, and early intellectual enrichment for economically disadvantaged preschool children. All these efforts were sensitive to children's social environment, and child psychiatrists viewed their success in taking on the challenges of changing schools, courts, and community and family environments. These challenges hardly have been overcome. The requirements of understanding and evaluating community supports for children are a fundamental component in the training and practice of child psychiatry. To quote the U.S. Surgeon General in a preamble to the recent Report on Child Mental Health: One way to ensure that our health system meets children's mental health needs is to move toward a community based health system that balances health promotion, disease prevention, early detection and universal access.

  15. Psychodynamic Leadership Approach and Leader-Member Exchange (LMX): A Psychiatric Perspective on Two Leadership Theories and Implications for Training Future Psychiatrist Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakiotis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    An increased emphasis in recent years on psychiatrists as healthcare leaders has not only drawn attention to the skills they can bring to this role but has also raised questions about how to best train and prepare them to assume leadership responsibilities. Such training should not be conducted in isolation from, and oblivious to, the wide-ranging expertise in human behaviour and relationships that psychiatrists can bring to the leadership arena. The aim of this theoretical paper is to draw attention to how psychiatrists can use their existing knowledge and skill set to inform their understanding of leadership theory and practice. In particular, the Psychodynamic Leadership Approach and Leader-Member Exchange theory are compared and contrasted to illustrate this point. The former represents a less well-known approach to leadership theory and practice whereas the latter is a widely familiar, conventional theory that is regularly taught in leadership courses. Both are underpinned by their emphasis on leader-follower relationships-and human relationships more broadly-and are intuitively appealing to psychiatrists endeavouring to understand aspects of organisational behaviour in the healthcare settings in which they work and lead. The application of these theories to assist reflection on and understanding of professional and personal leadership behaviours through leadership-oriented Balint-style groups and 360-degree appraisal is proposed. It is hoped that this paper will serve to stimulate thought and discussion about how leadership training for future psychiatrists can be tailored to better harness their existing competencies, thereby developing richer formative learning experiences and, ultimately, achieving superior leadership outcomes.

  16. Spleen removal - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get your child treated for any bites, especially dog bites, right away. Let your child's doctor know ... Call your health care provider if: Your child's temperature is 101°F (38.3°C) or higher. ...

  17. 13th National Congress of the South African Society of Psychiatrists, 20-23 September 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Allers

    2004-10-01

    and Psychotic disorders A E Gangat 22. Vulnerability of individuals in a family system to develop a psychiatric disorder Gerhard Grundling and Eugene Allers 23. What does it Uberhaupt mean to "Integrate"? Jürgen Harms 24. Research issues in South African child and adolescent psychiatry S M Hawkridge 25. New religious movements and psychiatry: The Good News V H Hitzeroth 26. The pregnant heroin addict: Integrating theory and practice in the development and provision of a service for this client group V H Hitzeroth, L Kramer 27. Autism spectrum disorder Erick Hollander 28. Recent advances and management in treatment resistance Eric Hollander 29. Bipolar mixed states M. Leigh Janet 30. Profile of acute psychiatric inpatients tested for HIV - Helen Jospeh Hospital, Johannesburg A B R Janse van Rensburg 31. ADHD - Using the art of film-making as an education medium Shabeer Ahmed Jeeva 32. Treatment of adult ADHD co-morbidities Shabeer Ahmed Jeeva 33. Needs and services at ward one, Valkenberg Hospital Dr J. A. Joska, Prof. A.J. Flisher 34. Unanswered questions in the adequate treatment of depression Moderator: Dr Andre F Joubert Expert: Prof. Tony Hale 35. Unanswered questions in treatment resistant depression Moderator: Dr Andre F Joubert Expert: Prof. Sidney Kennedy 36. Are mentally ill people dangerous? Sen Z Kaliski 37. The child custody circus Sean Z. Kaliski 38. The appropriatenes of certification of patients to psychiatric hospitals V. N. Khanyile 39. HIV/Aids Psychosocial responses and ethical dilemmas Fred Kigozi 40. Sex and Psychiatry B Levinson 41. Violence and abuse in psychiatric in-patient institutions: A South African perspective Marilyn Lucas, John Weinkoove, Dean Stevenson 42. Public health sector expenditure for mental health - A baseline study for South Africa E N Madela-Mntla 43. HIV in South Africa: Depression and CD4 count M Y H Moosa, F Y Jeenah 44. Clinical strategies in dealing with treatment resistant schizophrenia Piet Oosthuizen, Dana Niehaus

  18. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Phillipa; Chinn, David; Forbes, David; Madden, Sloane; Newton, Richard; Sugenor, Lois; Touyz, Stephen; Ward, Warren

    2014-11-01

    This clinical practice guideline for treatment of DSM-5 feeding and eating disorders was conducted as part of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP) Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) Project 2013-2014. The CPG was developed in accordance with best practice according to the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia. Literature of evidence for treatments of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), other specified and unspecified eating disorders and avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) was sourced from the previous RANZCP CPG reviews (dated to 2009) and updated with a systematic review (dated 2008-2013). A multidisciplinary working group wrote the draft CPG, which then underwent expert, community and stakeholder consultation, during which process additional evidence was identified. In AN the CPG recommends treatment as an outpatient or day patient in most instances (i.e. in the least restrictive environment), with hospital admission for those at risk of medical and/or psychological compromise. A multi-axial and collaborative approach is recommended, including consideration of nutritional, medical and psychological aspects, the use of family based therapies in younger people and specialist therapist-led manualised based psychological therapies in all age groups and that include longer-term follow-up. A harm minimisation approach is recommended in chronic AN. In BN and BED the CPG recommends an individual psychological therapy for which the best evidence is for therapist-led cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). There is also a role for CBT adapted for internet delivery, or CBT in a non-specialist guided self-help form. Medications that may be helpful either as an adjunctive or alternative treatment option include an antidepressant, topiramate, or orlistat (the last for people with comorbid obesity). No specific treatment is recommended for ARFID as there are no trials to

  19. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the management of schizophrenia and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletly, Cherrie; Castle, David; Dark, Frances; Humberstone, Verity; Jablensky, Assen; Killackey, Eóin; Kulkarni, Jayashri; McGorry, Patrick; Nielssen, Olav; Tran, Nga

    2016-05-01

    This guideline provides recommendations for the clinical management of schizophrenia and related disorders for health professionals working in Australia and New Zealand. It aims to encourage all clinicians to adopt best practice principles. The recommendations represent the consensus of a group of Australian and New Zealand experts in the management of schizophrenia and related disorders. This guideline includes the management of ultra-high risk syndromes, first-episode psychoses and prolonged psychoses, including psychoses associated with substance use. It takes a holistic approach, addressing all aspects of the care of people with schizophrenia and related disorders, not only correct diagnosis and symptom relief but also optimal recovery of social function. The writing group planned the scope and individual members drafted sections according to their area of interest and expertise, with reference to existing systematic reviews and informal literature reviews undertaken for this guideline. In addition, experts in specific areas contributed to the relevant sections. All members of the writing group reviewed the entire document. The writing group also considered relevant international clinical practice guidelines. Evidence-based recommendations were formulated when the writing group judged that there was sufficient evidence on a topic. Where evidence was weak or lacking, consensus-based recommendations were formulated. Consensus-based recommendations are based on the consensus of a group of experts in the field and are informed by their agreement as a group, according to their collective clinical and research knowledge and experience. Key considerations were selected and reviewed by the writing group. To encourage wide community participation, the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists invited review by its committees and members, an expert advisory committee and key stakeholders including professional bodies and special interest groups. The

  20. Perceived competence and attitudes towards patients with suicidal behaviour: a survey of general practitioners, psychiatrists and internists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimholt, Tine K; Haavet, Ole R; Jacobsen, Dag; Sandvik, Leiv; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2014-05-08

    Competence and attitudes to suicidal behaviour among physicians are important to provide high-quality care for a large patient group. The aim was to study different physicians' attitudes towards suicidal behaviour and their perceived competence to care for suicidal patients. A random selection (n = 750) of all registered General Practitioners, Psychiatrists and Internists in Norway received a questionnaire. The response rate was 40%. The Understanding of Suicidal Patients Scale (USP; scores scales were used to measure self-perceived competence, level of commitment, empathy and irritation felt towards patients with somatic and psychiatric diagnoses. Questions about training were included. The physicians held positive attitudes towards suicide attempters (USP = 20.3, 95% CI: 19.6-20.9). Internists and males were significantly less positive. There were no significant differences in the physicians in their attitudes toward suicide in case of incurable illness according to specialty. The physicians were most irritated and less committed to substance misuse patients. Self perceived competence was relatively high. Forty-three percent had participated in courses about suicide assessment and treatment. The physicians reported positive attitudes and relatively high competence. They were least committed to treat patients with substance misuse. None of the professional groups thought that patients with incurable illness should be given help to commit suicide. Further customized education with focus on substance misuse might be useful.

  1. [Ernst Rüdin--a Swiss psychiatrist as the leader of Nazi psychiatry--the final solution as a goal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, U H

    1996-09-01

    The study of work and life of the Swiss-German psychiatrist Ernst Rüdin, honoured up to our time as "father of psychiatric genealogy", lead to different views. Rüdin early in his life became a racial fanatic, and as a propagandist for the purity of the "Germanic people" he constantly demanded preventive coercive measures against the reproduction of the mentally ill and other, in the racist's view, undesirable persons. With this objective in mind he started his psychiatric research. The results of Rüdin's monograph about the genetics of dementia precox do not withstand scientific criticism but confirmed his preexisting opinions. They served however as scientific reasoning for the forced sterilisation by the Nazis, for which Rüdin's comments were obligatory. The next step, to the holocaust of the mentally ill and the undesirable, was not only tacitly agreed with by Rüdin. Max Weber, Karl Jaspers and others realised at an early time the dangers arising from racial hygienics and voiced their warnings in a plain language. The surviving victims are still waiting for compensation.

  2. Food refusal in prisoners: a communication or a method of self-killing? The role of the psychiatrist and resulting ethical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, B

    1999-12-01

    Food refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. It may be used as a political tool, as a method of exercising control over others, at either the individual, family or societal level, or as a method of self-harm, and occasionally it indicates possible mental illness. This article examines the motivation behind hunger strikes in prisoners. It describes the psychiatrist's role in assessment and management of prisoners by referring to case examples. The paper discusses the assessment of an individual's competence to commit suicide by starvation, legal restraints to intervention, practical difficulties and associated ethical dilemmas. Anecdotal evidence suggests that most prisoners who refuse food are motivated by the desire to achieve an end rather than killing themselves, and that hunger-strike secondary to mental illness is uncommon. Although rarely required, the psychiatrist may have an important contribution to make in the management of practical and ethical difficulties.

  3. Labelling and illness in primary care: comparing factors influencing general practitioners' and psychiatrists' decisions regarding patient referral to mental illness services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A E; Griffiths, H

    1992-08-01

    GPs and psychiatrists from South Wales were asked to make decisions based on the information included in each of 16 vignettes describing depressed and anxious subjects. This information contained randomly assigned sex, psychiatric label, good and bad psychosocial context and age as well as eight different severity ratings of depression and anxiety symptoms. Our results showed that both GPs and psychiatrists were influenced in their decision making by the severity of the illness, but that GPs alone were also strongly influenced by the presence of male sex and by the presence of a psychiatric label. Good or bad psychosocial context had no influence on the GPs' referral decision, and previous experience in psychiatry or other vocational training had no detectable effect, but this may be because of the sample size.

  4. [Significance of cross-cultural experience for young psychiatrists--learning from "The Joint Workshop for Psychiatric Residents of Korea and Japan"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    kato, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    Korea and Japan are geographically very close, and a variety of cultural exchanges have taken place in recorded history. However, Korea and Japan have been enriched by the influence of Western cultures along with modernization, and mutual exchanges between the two countries have thus decreased in numerous fields including mental health and psychiatry. Prof. Masahisa Nishizono and Prof. Byun-Kun Min, who are leaders in the field of psychiatry in both Japan and Korea, have established "The Joint Workshop for Psychiatric Residents of Korea and Japan", which has been held alternately in Fukuoka or Seoul every summer since 2000. This Joint Workshop provides young psychiatrists with real experiences and many opportunities to learn about transcultural psychiatry regarding both countries. The participants are able to obtain a better mutual understanding of psychiatric epidemiology, recent developments in biological psychiatry while also learning about different concepts regarding the stigma of mental disorders. All participants could also increase their knowledge about the traditional culture and social changes related to the field of psychiatry in both countries. The workshop has helped to build friendship and mutual cooperation between both nations. Contemporary societies are continually becoming more and more diversified and complicated. For young psychiatrists who have to treat patients with modern difficulties and various complicated problems, such cross-cultural experiences may be useful for establishing potentially new and effective treatments for such patients. Psychiatrists and mental health experts have tried to reduce of stigma and discrimination against people with mental disorders, but even today such stigma and discrimination continues to strongly exist. The author thinks that such cross-cultural experiences by the psychiatrists themselves may help to reduce such notions. The author would like to explore the role of cross-cultural experiences in the field of

  5. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome and the Consulting Psychiatrist: A Case Study of Diagnosis and Treatment for an Emerging Disorder in Psychiatric Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Kristopher A; Gershengoren, Liliya

    2018-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of cannabis use in the United States requires awareness of cannabis-related disorders and familiarity with treatment options. We present a case of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome that required psychiatric consultation for diagnostic clarification and effective treatment with intravenous haloperidol. Literature from emergency medicine, toxicology, and gastroenterology is reviewed, including proposed diagnostic criteria for cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome and reported off-label treatment options, with a specific focus on clinical questions facing the practicing psychiatrist regarding this emerging disorder.

  6. [What Psychiatrists Should Know about the Medical Documentation They Issue: Admission for Medical Care and Protection, Medical Treatment for Persons with Disabilities, Mental Health Disability Certification, etc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatrists issue a wide variety of documentation, among which are torms such as Registration of Admission for Medical Care and Protection, Periodic Report of Condition, Certification of Medical Treatment for Persons with Disabilities, and Mental Health Disability Certification, which are required under laws such as the Act on Mental Health and Welfare for the Mentally Disabled. These documents are important in that they are related to protecting the human rights of people with mental disorders, as well as securing appropriate medical and welfare services for them. However, in the course of reviewing and evaluating documentation at our Mental Health and Welfare Center, we encounter forms which are incomplete, or which contain inappropriate content. In order to protect the human rights of people with mental disorders, and to ensure the provision of appropriate medical and welfare services for them, I call on psychiatrists to issue carefully written and appropriate documentation. In this talk I will focus primarily on what psychiatrists should know when filling in forms in the course of their day-to-day clinical work.

  7. Child Bride and Child Sex: Combating Child Marriages in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper considers the basis of child marriages in Northern Nigeria. It is an Islamic practice rooted in the interpretation of the Quran. Significantly, the caveat that copulation should be delayed until such girls are mature is often ignored as these child brides are engaged in sex. This paper analyzes the report of a Senator in ...

  8. Salvator Karabaić (1884-1956): the profile of an eyceptional Psychiatrist/Neuropsychiatrist with outstanding managing capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    Salvator Karabaić was born in Krk in 1884. In 1904, he finished a grammar school in Susak, and in 1910 graduated from the Vienna Medical School. From 1910 to 1919, he worked in Pula/Pola and Kovin. From 1919 to 1929 he worked at the Institute for Mental illnesses Stenjevec (today the Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce) where in 1921 he became the head physician (orig. primarius) at the age of 37 years only. Between 1929 and 1945, he worked in Sarajevo as a Head of the State Hospital's Neuropsychiatry Department. In 1948 he was appointed the director of the Hospital for Mental Illnesses in Sarajevo. The hospital was in fact a remodelled rope factory with a favourable position near a homestead. He managed this institution until 1956. He died on 24 September 1956 at a hospital surgery ward in Sarajevo. Judging by Dr Karabaić's ability to take care of 200 psychiatric patients alone, he was an outstanding figure with enormous experience. A lot of it he earned during the Vrapce hospital period between 1919 and 1929. He had the opportunity to work with the outstanding figures of Croatian psychiatry such as Dr Ivo Zirovcić, Dr Laza Stanojević, Dr Ivan Barbot, and Dr Aleksej KuljZenko The author suggests that a more systematic research is needed to understand the work and the life of Dr Salvator Karabaić, who was a talented and hardworking psychiatrist/ neuropsychiatrist with outstanding managing capabilities, and a person who above all cared for his patients.

  9. Reinventing classics: the hidden design strategies of renowned chefs

    OpenAIRE

    Agogué , Marine; Hatchuel , Armand

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Reinventing classics is a well-used yet complex design pattern. Indeed, a reinterpreted classic needs to relate to the original object while simultaneously challenging the initial model and providing a new and fresh look to the well established classic. However, this design strategy remains understudied, and we aimed to contribute to the literature by addressing the lack of theoretical models for reinventing classics. Reinterpreting tradition is a key process for chefs...

  10. ACADEMICIAN CONSTANTIN TURTA -RENOWNED, CONSISTENT, AMBITIOUS, NON-CONFORMIST SCIENTIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Duca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dear academician, professor Constantin Turta, on the occasion of Your 70 years anniversary and 50 years of fruitful scientific and teaching activity, on behalf of the scientific community of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, we address You our best wishes of prosperity, health, welfare, new advances in boinorganic chemistry, nanomaterials and advanced technologies.

  11. LEADERSHIP IMPACT ON A RENOWNED FIRM IN CARAS-SEVERIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREȘ SOLOMIA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical and practical contributions regarding the study theme chosen, after understanding that at the level of present modern organizations and of great companies, leadership became more important than any management instrument or technique, thus imposing the association of management to leadership in order to stimulate firms, the management of great changes and complex problems generated by this situation. Contributions are based on specific research method, on observation and analysis of financial indicators and of some non-financial indicators, relevant for the firm analyzed and which lead to realist and pertinent conclusions and to future research themes. As a general conclusion one can underline that many theoretical and practical aspects from this domain were also found in the leadership and management practices at the level of the firm analyzed. Thus the practice of the firm confirms scientific approaches and concepts and a scientific based leadership generates the maintaining of high performances at a global level for the firm analyzed

  12. The Namibian coast is renowned for its angling opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Coastal angling in Namibia is part of the marine line- fishery .... South African Journal of Marine Science 22. 2000 .... domestically or abroad, by the factors of production .... Namibian Tourism Policy, Planning and Management ..... ties might be difficult to find in that country. ... (University of Cape Town, South Africa), Mr B. Q..

  13. Critical Exposure of Successes of Neoliberal Reforms: The 'Renown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... context is such that 'Structural Adjustment- Lending-Programmes'- a lending ... the former 'fair' competition and equitable business shares and opportunities to ...

  14. [Plato psychiatrist, Foucault platonic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathov, Nicolás

    2016-05-01

    This work explores the links between the concepts of "soul", "law" and "word" in Plato's work, in order to highlight the importance and the centrality of the philosophical-therapeutic dimension in the Greek philosopher's thought. In that way, this work pretends to show that "contemporary" problems usually discussed within "Human Sciences" in general, and Psychiatry in particular, should confront their knowledge with Plato's work, mainly due to the profound influence his ideas have had in our Greco-Christian culture. In that sense, and with that objective, this work also explores Michel Foucault's lucid and controversial interpretation of Plato.

  15. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  16. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  17. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...

  18. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  19. Dental care - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002213.htm Dental care - child To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. Proper care of your child's teeth and gums includes brushing and rinsing daily. It ...

  20. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  1. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  2. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  3. Child Labour and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    D'Alessandro, Simone; Fioroni, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evolution of child labour, fertility and human capital in an economy characterized by two type of individuals, low and high skilled workers. This heterogeneity allows for an endogenous analysis of inequality generated by child labour. More specifically, according to empirical evidence, we oer an explanation for the emergence of a vicious cycle between child labour and inequality. The basic intuition behind this result is the interdependence between child labour and f...

  4. Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists is co-ordinating the development of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) in psychiatry, funded under the National Mental Health Strategy (Australia) and the New Zealand Health Funding Authority. This paper presents CPGs for schizophrenia and related disorders. Over the past decade schizophrenia has become more treatable than ever before. A new generation of drug therapies, a renaissance of psychological and psychosocial interventions and a first generation of reform within the specialist mental health system have combined to create an evidence-based climate of realistic optimism. Progressive neuroscientific advances hold out the strong possibility of more definitive biological treatments in the near future. However, this improved potential for better outcomes and quality of life for people with schizophrenia has not been translated into reality in Australia. The efficacy-effectiveness gap is wider for schizophrenia than any other serious medical disorder. Therapeutic nihilism, under-resourcing of services and a stalling of the service reform process, poor morale within specialist mental health services, a lack of broad-based recovery and life support programs, and a climate of tenacious stigma and consequent lack of concern for people with schizophrenia are the contributory causes for this failure to effectively treat. These guidelines therefore tackle only one element in the endeavour to reduce the impact of schizophrenia. They distil the current evidence-base and make recommendations based on the best available knowledge. A comprehensive literature review (1990-2003) was conducted, including all Cochrane schizophrenia reviews and all relevant meta-analyses, and a number of recent international clinical practice guidelines were consulted. A series of drafts were refined by the expert committee and enhanced through a bi-national consultation process. This guideline provides evidence-based recommendations

  5. The characteristics and activities of child and adolescent mental health services in Italy: a regional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Laura; Colasurdo, Giovanni; Costa, Stefano; Fabiani, Michela; Ferraresi, Linda; Franzoni, Emilio; Masina, Francesca; Moschen, Renato; Neviani, Vittoria; Palazzi, Stefano; Parisi, Roberto; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Preti, Antonio; Ricciutello, Cosimo; Rocchi, Marco Bl; Sisti, Davide; Squarcia, Antonio; Trebbi, Stefano; Turchetti, Donatella; Visconti, Paola; Tullini, Andrea; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2012-01-30

    To date, no studies have assessed in detail the characteristics, organisation, and functioning of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This information gap represents a major limitation for researchers and clinicians because most mental disorders have their onset in childhood or adolescence, and effective interventions can therefore represent a major factor in avoiding chronicity. Interventions and mental health care are delivered by and through services, and not by individual, private clinicians, and drawbacks or limitations of services generally translate in inappropriateness and ineffectiveness of treatments and interventions: therefore information about services is essential to improve the quality of care and ultimately the course and outcome of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence.The present paper reports the results of the first study aimed at providing detailed, updated and comprehensive data on CAMHS of a densely populated Italian region (over 4 million inhabitants) with a target population of 633,725 subjects aged 0-17 years. Unit Chiefs of all the CAMHS filled in a structured 'Facility Form', with activity data referring to 2008 (data for inpatient facilities referred to 2009), which were then analysed in detail. Eleven CAMHS were operative, including 110 outpatient units, with a ratio of approximately 20 child psychiatrists and 23 psychologists per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. All outpatient units were well equipped and organized and all granted free service access. In 2008, approximately 6% of the target population was in contact with outpatient CAMHS, showing substantial homogeneity across the eleven areas thereby. Most patients in contact in 2008 received a language disorder- or learning disability diagnosis (41%). First-ever contacts accounted for 30% of annual visits across all units. Hospital bed availability was 5 per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. The percentage of young people in contact with CAMHS for

  6. The characteristics and activities of child and adolescent mental health services in Italy: a regional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrini Laura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, no studies have assessed in detail the characteristics, organisation, and functioning of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS. This information gap represents a major limitation for researchers and clinicians because most mental disorders have their onset in childhood or adolescence, and effective interventions can therefore represent a major factor in avoiding chronicity. Interventions and mental health care are delivered by and through services, and not by individual, private clinicians, and drawbacks or limitations of services generally translate in inappropriateness and ineffectiveness of treatments and interventions: therefore information about services is essential to improve the quality of care and ultimately the course and outcome of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. The present paper reports the results of the first study aimed at providing detailed, updated and comprehensive data on CAMHS of a densely populated Italian region (over 4 million inhabitants with a target population of 633,725 subjects aged 0-17 years. Methods Unit Chiefs of all the CAMHS filled in a structured 'Facility Form', with activity data referring to 2008 (data for inpatient facilities referred to 2009, which were then analysed in detail. Results Eleven CAMHS were operative, including 110 outpatient units, with a ratio of approximately 20 child psychiatrists and 23 psychologists per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. All outpatient units were well equipped and organized and all granted free service access. In 2008, approximately 6% of the target population was in contact with outpatient CAMHS, showing substantial homogeneity across the eleven areas thereby. Most patients in contact in 2008 received a language disorder- or learning disability diagnosis (41%. First-ever contacts accounted for 30% of annual visits across all units. Hospital bed availability was 5 per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years

  7. Attitudes towards people with mental illness among psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, involved family members and the general population in a large city in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bin; Fan, Ni; Nie, Sha; Zhang, Minglin; Huang, Xini; He, Hongbo; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Stigma towards people with mental illness is believed to be widespread in low and middle income countries. This study assessed the attitudes towards people with mental illness among psychiatrists, psychiatric nurses, involved family members of patients in a psychiatric facility and the general public using a standard 43-item survey (N = 535). Exploratory factor analysis identified four distinctive attitudes which were then compared using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) among the four groups, all with ties to the largest psychiatric facility in Guangzhou, China, adjusting for sociodemographic differences. Four uncorrelated factors expressed preferences for 1) community-based treatment, social integration and a biopsychosocial model of causation, 2) direct personal relationships with people with mental illness, 3) a lack of fear and positive views of personal interactions with people with mental illness, 4) disbelief in superstitious explanations of mental illness. Statistically significant differences favored community-based treatment and biopsychosocial causation (factor 1) among professional groups (psychiatrists and nurses) as compared with family members and the general public (p problems of their relatives and support in their care.

  8. Shedding new light on an old mystery: Early photographs of the Taung Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Štrkalj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Although it was one of the most important events in the history of palaeoanthropology, many details of the Taung discovery and the events that followed it are still not completely elucidated. In this paper, we recount the events surrounding three early photographs (stored in the University of the Witwatersrand Archives showing the Taung Child skull being held in the hands of the renowned anthropologist Raymond Dart. Having, what seems to be, a mosaic of evidence both for and against, we deliberate upon whether the archival photographs presented here are among the first photographs of the fossil itself or are of the first plaster cast of the Taung Child which was prepared for the 1925 British Empire Exhibition held at Wembley, London. We interpreted the photographs and determined their provenance through analyses which included historical examination of published accounts of the Taung discovery and archival materials, as well as comparisons of the photographed material in question with both archival and current (digital, high quality photographs of the Taung fossil itself and Taung skull casts (as the skull underwent changes over time. We conclude that the early photographs presented here are of the original fossil itself and not of a cast. At the same time, these photographs represent some of the first pictorial depictions of the Taung Child skull.

  9. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  10. War Medicine and Surgery, Punishment and Torture at the time of the Regiments of Renown - Chirurgie de guerre, médecine militaire, punitions et torture à l’époque des compagnies de mercenaires - Medicina e Chirurgia da guerra, Punizioni e Tortura all’epoca delle Compagnie di Ventura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugaresi M.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the main surgical and medical issues related to the age of the Regiments of Renown. Analyzing the main causes of death of Condottieres and Captains in the period 1300-1580, the treatment of wounds and the development of skills involved in the surgery of war, the more frequent Italian epidemic diseases in that time, the punishments and torture in force in the Republic of Venice, are described.Cet article expose les aspects les plus importants en matière de médecine et de chirurgie à l'époque des compagnies de mercenaires. En analysant les principales causes de décès des condottières et des capitaines entre 1300 et 1580, l’autrice décrit le traitement des blessures et le développement des techniques chirurgicales de guerre, les épidémies les plus fréquentes en Italie à cette époque-là, les peines et les tortures en vigueur sous la République Sérénissime de Venise.Questo articolo illustra i principali aspetti medici e chirurgici connessi all’epoca delle Compagnie di Ventura. Analizzando le principali cause di decesso dei Condottieri e dei Capitani nel periodo 1300-1580, vengono descritte la cura delle ferite e lo sviluppo delle tecniche applicate nella chirurgia da guerra, le epidemie più frequenti che colpirono l’Italia in tale epoca, le pene e la tortura in vigore nella Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia.

  11. Proeminência na mídia, reputação em ciências: a construção de uma feminista paradigmática e cientista normal no Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro Prominence in the media, renown in the sciences: the construction of a paradigmatic feminist and a scientist at Rio de Janeiro's Museu Nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margaret Lopes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bertha Lutz foi uma das mulheres de sua geração que desfrutaram de incontestável autoridade política e científica. Escreveu muito, e mais ainda se escreveu sobre ela, especialmente em sua época. Notícias de jornais, crônicas de Lima Barreto, inúmeras cartas, artigos científicos e textos inéditos da própria Bertha, comentados neste artigo, nos permitem observar que seu feminismo emprestou-lhe notoriedade e visibilidade - cuidadosamente construídas -, que se articulariam com seu desempenho profissional, impulsionando-o. A ciência lhe conferia prestígio social e garantia legitimidade para suas causas. Nesse período em que a comunidade científica tomou para si a tarefa de tornar públicas as suas conquistas, a proeminência feminista de Bertha na mídia emprestou-lhe reputação em ciências.Bertha Lutz was one of the women of her generation who enjoyed indisputable political and scientific authority. She wrote much and even more was written about her, especially during her day. The newspaper chronicles by Lima Barreto, countless letters, scientific papers, and unpublished texts by Bertha herself that are surveyed in this article indicate how much her feminism - inseparable from other dimensions of her life - fostered her professional career. Her feminism earned her a carefully constructed renown and visibility that interlocked with her professional performance. Science lent her social prestige and guaranteed legitimacy for her causes. During a period when the scientific community itself was engaged in publicizing its own activities, Bertha's feminist prominence in the media helped her make a name in the sciences.

  12. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...... diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato...

  13. Child's Play: Therapist's Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma

    2014-01-01

    Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228

  14. Child labor : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Grootaert, Christiaan; Kanbur, Ravi

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1990, the first World Summit for Children promised to reduce child mortality and malnutrition. It set targets to be reached by the year 2000. Although it established no explicit goals on child labor, the targets included basic education for all children and the completion of primary education by at least 80 percent of children. Meeting these goals will reduce child labor, say the authors. The evidence they review shows that education intervention play a key role in reducing c...

  15. Well-child visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fluoride in diet Infant formulas Obesity in children Growth and development schedules: Infant -- newborn development Toddler development Preschooler development School-age child development Adolescent ...

  16. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bibliography Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind Printable ... Information About... Transforming Teaching Family and Community Engagement Early Learning Helping Your Child Our mission is to promote student achievement and ...

  17. Mother's time allocation, child care and child cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    BRILLI, Ylenia

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of maternal employment and non-parental child care on child cognitive development, taking into account the mother's time allocation between leisure and child-care time. I estimate a behavioral model, in which maternal labor supply, non-parental child care, goods expenditure and time allocation decisions are considered to be endogenous choices of the mother. The child cognitive development depends on maternal and non-parental child care and on the goods bought f...

  18. On Parsing CHILDES

    OpenAIRE

    Laakso, Aarre

    2005-01-01

    Research on child language acquisition would benefit from the availability of a large body of syntactically parsed utterances between parents and children. We consider the problem of generating such a ``treebank'' from the CHILDES corpus, which currently contains primarily orthographically transcribed speech tagged for lexical category.

  19. Every Child, Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

  20. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  1. Prevention of Child Abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    Gaia, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the determinants of child abandonment in the city of Bra ov. The research is based on a new dataset collected on the field on mothers and pregnant women at risk of abandoning their child.

  2. Ethical Child Welfare Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

    Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

  3. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  4. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piotrowski, J.T.; Vossen, H.G.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by

  5. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Human Trafficking Laws & Policies Service Array Statistics ... Home Topics Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children ...

  6. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poor weight gain Emotional issues such as low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety Extreme behavior such as acting ... child was abused The success of therapy and parenting classes Alternative Names Neglect - child; Emotional abuse - child ...

  7. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  8. The battered child syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorantin, E.; Lindbichler, F.

    2002-01-01

    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.) [de

  9. A developmental and psychoeducational approach to reducing conflict and abuse in little league and youth sports. The sport psychiatrist's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, R L

    1998-10-01

    To stress a point made earlier, whether backyard or Little League, the tone of the youth sports experience is greatly influenced by the player and team selection process. All possible steps should therefore be taken to ensure that the draft is held on high moral ground, and that the adult participants, even on the Major Little League level, behave cooperatively rather than competitively. If it is the community's hope that Little League will "build character, and not characters," it must embrace Shields and Bredemeier's work and flood the Draft Room with the four virtues of compassion, fairness, sportspersonship, and integrity. In one attempt to achieve fairness and balance, some leagues enter player evaluations into a data base and allow a properly programmed computer to project equal teams. It might be best, however, to borrow a page from backyard baseball, and make team selection a more cooperative venture. Wolff has proposed such a draft model. He recommends that each child's name be placed on a big blackboard at the beginning of the draft. All assembled give their assessment of each child's baseball ability, and a consensus skill-level number (one through five) is entered next to each player's name. If there are 72 names, and the league wishes to form six teams of 12 players each, dividing up the rated players so that the skill levels balance would assure everyone (coaches, parents, the league, and by extension, the community) that the teams were of relatively equal strength. No coach at this point would know to which team he or she was being assigned, so there would be no motive for "stacking" a given team. Each team would be designated by a letter of the alphabet, and the six letters would be thrown into a hat. The six coaches would then blindly pick a team from the hat. If a coach desired that his or her child play on his or her team, fair adjustments (trades) could be made subject to majority agreement. The three draft models can be summarized as follows

  10. Child labour in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáková, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Child labour in developing countries Abstract This bachelor thesis deals with the child labour and its occurence in developing countries. The main aim is to present the basic view of this problem. The term of child labour relies here on Convention on the Rights of the Child and conventions of International Labour Organization. There are several types of child labour, in which children appear most, including the worst forms of child labour. Every type includes description of activities perform...

  11. Teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students - A survey in German-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Reiner; Frank, Florian

    2010-07-24

    To conduct a survey about teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students in German-speaking countries. A questionnaire was sent to the 33 academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in Germany, Austria, and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. All departments responded. For teaching knowledge, the methods most commonly reported were lectures and case presentations. The most important skills to be taught were thought to be how to assess psychopathology in children and how to assess families. For elective courses, the departments reported using a wide range of teaching methods, many with active involvement of the students. An average of 34 hours per semester is currently allocated by the departments for teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to medical students. Required courses are often taught in cooperation with adult psychiatry and pediatrics. Achievement of educational objectives is usually assessed with written exams or multiple-choice tests. Only a minority of the departments test the achievement of skills. Two ways of improving education in child and adolescent psychiatry are the introduction of elective courses for students interested in the field and participation of child and adolescent psychiatrists in required courses and in longitudinal courses so as to reach all students. Cooperation within and across medical schools can enable departments of child and adolescent psychiatry, despite limited resources, to become more visible and this specialty to become more attractive to medical students. Compared to the findings in earlier surveys, this survey indicates a trend towards increased involvement of academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in training medical students.

  12. Bayard Holmes (1852-1924) and Henry Cotton (1869-1933): Surgeon-psychiatrists and their tragic quest to cure schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    Early 20th-century medicine was dominated by the infectious theory of disease. Some leading physicians believed that infection or the accumulation of toxic substances from bacterial stasis caused a wide range of diseases, including schizophrenia. In the case of schizophrenia, one theory held that intestinal stasis lead to the bacterial production of toxins that affected brain function, resulting in psychotic illness. This theory predicted that clearing the stasis by drainage or by removal of the offending organ would be curative. Bayard Holmes and Henry Cotton, surgeon-psychiatrists, achieved notoriety for their efforts to cure schizophrenia surgically. Their endeavours were not only a failure but resulted in tragedy to their families and to a wider population. Treatment of their own sons also represented a violation of the ethics of their time. This account describes the life and career of Holmes and Cotton and reappraises their work in the light of recent developments. © IMechE 2014.

  13. The development of a scale to measure concepts of schizophrenia: experience among Brazilian psychiatrists Desenvolvimento de escala para medir conceitos de esquizofrenia: experiência entre psiquiatras brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci N. Santos

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Among psychiatric disorders schizophrenia is often said to be the condition with the most disputed definition.The Bleulerian and Schneiderian approaches have given rise to diagnostic formulations that have varied with time and place. Controversies over the concept of schizophrenia were examined within European/North American settings in the early 1970s but little has since been reported on the views of psychiatrists in developing countries. In Brazil both concepts are referred to in the literature. A scale was developed to measure adherence to Bleulerian and Schneiderian concepts among psychiatrists working in S. Paulo. METHODOLOGY: A self-reported questionnaire comprising seventeen visual analogue-scale statements related to Bleulerian and Schneiderian definitions of Shizophrenia, plus sociodemographic and training characteristics, was distributed to a non-randomised sample of 150 psychiatrists. The two sub-scales were assessed by psychometric methods for internal consistency, sub-scale structure and test-retest reliability. Items selected according to internal consistency were examined by a two-factor model exploratory factor analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficients described the stability of the scale. RESULTS: Replies were received from 117 psychiatrists (mean age 36 (SD 7.9, 74% of whom were made and 26% female. The Schneiderian scale showed better overall internal consistency than the Bleulerian scale. Intra-class correlation coefficients for test-retest comparisons were between 0.5 and 0.7 for Schneiderian items and 0.2 and 0.7 for Bleulerian items. There was no negative association between Bleulerian and Schneiderian scale scores, suggesting that respondents may hold both concepts. Place of training was significantly associated with the respondent's opinion; disagreement with a Bleulerian standpoint predominated for those trained at the University of S. Paulo. CONCLUSIONS: The less satisfactory reliability for the

  14. [Three Essential Shared Capabilities for Young Psychiatrists: Brain, Real-world, and Life-course Principles toward Values-based Psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    The discipline of psychiatry promotes well-being and recovery based on a comprehensive understanding of the patient from the perspectives of the brain, real-world, and life-course. Pursuant to efforts toward addressing social issues at a regional and national level, it is assumed that the psychiatrist can assist individuals based on an understanding of these three perspectives. This tripartite relationship goes beyond the history of extreme reductionism in neuroscience and the aftermath resulting from the anti-psychiatry movement to provide a foundation for the development of psychiatry and a theoretical groundwork for such basic psychiatric issues as what role pharmacotherapy plays in psychiatric treatment, just why the lives of people living in the community are thought to be important to an individual's well-being, and just what constitutes recovery. Humans have come to possess highly developed brain and mental functions as a result of the adaptation to the social environment that takes place as part of the evolutionary process. While mental functions are thus dictated in large part by evolution of the brain, they also consist of important features that are not attributable to reductionist models of the brain. That is, human mental functioning forms a foundation for metacognition and sophisticated language functions, and through interactions with others and society, one's mental functioning allows for further brain transformation and development (self-regulation of mental functions). Humans develop their own brain and mental functions through mutual exchanges with others, and their dealings with other people and society form their individual modes of living in the real-world. The human brain and mental functions have evolved in such a way as to provide for a better mode of living. Accordingly, for the individual, the makeup of his or her mode of living in the real-world is the source of the well-being that serves to support that individual's values. The

  15. Violence by Parents Against Their Children: Reporting of Maltreatment Suspicions, Child Protection, and Risk in Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Miranda; Friedman, Susan Hatters

    2016-12-01

    Psychiatrists are mandated to report suspicions of child abuse in America. Potential for harm to children should be considered when one is treating parents who are at risk. Although it is the commonly held wisdom that mental illness itself is a major risk factor for child abuse, there are methodologic issues with studies purporting to demonstrate this. Rather, the risk from an individual parent must be considered. Substance abuse and personality disorder pose a separate risk than serious mental illness. Violence risk from mental illness is dynamic, rather than static. When severe mental illness is well-treated, the risk is decreased. However, these families are in need of social support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders.

  17. [Why child neuropsychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllnitz, G

    1978-05-01

    The author gives a brief survey of the development of Child-Neuropsychiatry in the G.D.R. and subsequently gives reasons for the decision in favor of the unity of neurology and psychiatry as applied to children and juveniles, which is in contrast to developments in other countries. In addition to hygienic, economic, organizational, and medical considerations, this decision was also determined by the fact that a Child-Neuropsychiatrist must, in his practical work as a subspecialist, be able to head a multiprofessional team and, thus, help assure optimum development of a child's personality.

  18. CHILD LABOR IN PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Ariyanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explains the effects of gender, parents’ education, parent’s income, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal kinship system on the probability of child labor in Palembang. This study, especially, investigates the probability of children age 7-15 years old to be a worker. It is found that factors that significantly affect child labor are gender, the number of siblings, childbirth order, the presence of parents and patriarchal system. However, parents’ education and income are found to be insignificant in affecting the probability of child labor in Palembang.

  19. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H.C.G.; Alink, Lenneke R.A.; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J.M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of

  20. Professionals' views on the development process of a structural collaboration between child and adolescent psychiatry and child welfare: an exploration through the lens of the life cycle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Steene, Helena; van West, Dirk; Peeraer, Griet; Glazemakers, Inge

    2018-03-23

    This study, as a part of a participatory action research project, reports the development process of an innovative collaboration between child and adolescent psychiatry and child welfare, for adolescent girls with multiple and complex needs. The findings emerge from a qualitative descriptive analysis of four focus groups with 30 professionals closely involved in this project, and describe the evolution of the collaborative efforts and outcomes through time. Participants describe large investments and negative consequences of rapid organizational change in the beginning of the collaboration project, while benefits of the intensive collaboration only appeared later. A shared person-centred vision and enhanced professionals' confidence were pointed out as important contributors in the evolution of the collaboration. Findings were compared to the literature and showed significant analogy with the life cycle model for shared service centres that describe the maturation of collaborations from a management perspective. These findings enrich the knowledge about the development process of collaboration in health and social care. In increasingly collaborative services, child and adolescent psychiatrists and policy makers should be aware that gains from a collaboration will possibly only be achieved in the longer term, and benefit from knowing which factors have an influence on the evolution of a collaboration project.

  1. When to use the emergency room - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergency room - child; Emergency department - child; Urgent care - child; ER - when to use ... How quickly does your child need care? If your child could die or be permanently disabled, it is an emergency. Call 911 to have the ...

  2. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shows how implicit racial biases are adversely affecting African American students--especially boys... read more Emphasis Areas ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three ...

  3. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Parents Kids Teens Long-Term Complications of Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Blood Test: Lipid Panel Figuring Out Food Labels Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Heart ...

  4. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Have Safe, Stable, Nurturing Relationships [PDF 255KB] Essentials for Childhood Connecting the Dots: An Overview of the Links Among Multiple Forms of Violence [PDF 2.51MB] Economic Cost of Child Abuse Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) ...

  5. Child Labor: Global Offensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Peter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "An Evil Unbearable to the Human Heart" (Sutcliffe); "Fighting Indifference and Inaction" (Fromont); "Concerted International Action for Children"; "New Shelter for Street Kids of Ankara" (Fromont); "IPEC's International Program for Elimination of Child Labor Challenge to Brazilian…

  6. Child Care Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits Program the proposed regulation changes, including the potential costs to private persons of complying with Heating Assistance Medicaid Senior Benefits Temporary Assistance Get Help Food Health Care Cash Child Care

  7. Scoliosis surgery - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from getting worse. But, when they no longer work, the child's health care provider will recommend surgery. There are several reasons to treat scoliosis: Appearance is a major concern. Scoliosis often causes back pain. If the curve is severe enough, ...

  8. Concussion - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child's provider about: Playing contact sports, such as football, hockey, and soccer Riding a bicycle, motorcycle, or ... herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any ...

  9. Your Child's Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficult for a small boy to make the football team, focusing on alternatives, such as soccer or ... examine your child, ask questions about your family history and, if necessary, order tests to see if ...

  10. Your Child Has Hydronephrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z Health Guide Your Child Has Hydronephrosis Print Email In recent years, better ultrasound machines ... or both kidneys, abnormal position of a kidney, hydronephrosis (swelling of a kidney), fluid-filled cysts and ...

  11. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Child's Development: Newborn Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: recién nacido From the moment ... when touched on the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a parent's voice ...

  12. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  13. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  14. Child Care Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ready! Learn more about the issues facing millennial parents as well as a nationwide examination of child care affordability. Learn More + Breaking News Statement: The Effects of Separation Policy are Devastating and Potentially Life-long Dr. ...

  15. Brushing Your Child's Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemotherapeutic home oral hygiene. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry of the Child and Adolescent . ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  16. Child public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Mitch

    2010-01-01

    .... It combined clinical and academic perspectives to explore the current state of health of our children, the historical roots of the speciality and the relationship between early infant and child...

  17. Child nutrition: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)

  18. Croup and Your Young Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has extreme difficulty swallowing saliva Treating Croup with Medicine If your child has viral croup, your child's doctor or the ... your child's doctor may recommend allergy or reflux medicines to help your child's breathing. Antibiotics , which treat bacteria, are not helpful ...

  19. [Pinocchio and the unattained identity: Jervis' contribution to child clinical psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacci, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis is mainly known as a psychiatrist, but he also worked on psychological methodology and tackled important issues in clinical psychology. This essay describes the concept of personal identity elaborated by Jervis and its importance in Child Clinical Psychology. The problems related to personal identity appear very early in Jervis' work, influenced by the ethnologist Ernesto De Martino. His first considerations are found in his Preface to The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi (1968), in which Jervis describes the unhappy upbringing, the anti-social behaviour, and the unattained identity of the wooden puppet. Subsequently, in Presenza e identith (1984), Fondamenti di Psicologia Dinamica (1993) and La conquista dell'identith (1997), Jervis dealt with the theme of identity from a Dynamic Psychology perspective, showing that the formation of personal identity is a basic aspect of the development of the individual that starts in early childhood.

  20. Lessons from psychiatry in the Arab world--a Lebanese trainee psychiatrist's qualitative views on the provision of mental healthcare services for Palestinian refugees in Lebanon and an interview with a consultant psychiatrist on the effects of the Arab spring on the mental health of Libyans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Ahmed; Sadiq, Asad

    2013-09-01

    In this manuscript, a Lebanese trainee psychiatrist qualitatively analyses and discusses the provision of mental healthcare services for Palestinian refugees in Lebanon. There are more than 250,000 Palestinian people sporadically dispersed in the refugee camps in Sidon, Beirut and other major cities in the Levant. Displacement, conflict, trauma, unemployment and poverty are but some of the myriad factors that influence Palestinian refugee mental health. This article traces the historical, political and socioeconomic determinants of health for Palestinians exiled in Lebanon and describes the pivotal role that the non-Govenmental Organisation Medical Aid for Palestinians is playing in helping to alleviate the psychiatric distress of Palestinian sufferers of mental illness. The latter half of the manuscript contains an interview with a consultant psychiatrist about his experiences volunteering in the war-torn lands of Libya post Arab Spring. He expounds on how he feels mental healthcare services in Libya are woefully inadequate and broaches on his perception of how the resilience and the 'family-centric' model of the Libyan people has conferred a certain degree of protection towards developing severe psychiatric illness.

  1. [Child behavior disorder : clinical reasoning in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacenelenbogen, N

    2017-01-01

    in Belgium 70 % of the children aged 0 - 14 years have at least one annual contact with their family doctor, while for the same period, only 6 - 12 % of them will see a neuropaediatrician and/or a child psychiatrist, despite the fact that a diagnostic of Externalizing behavior before the age of 6 to 7 years, such as various ways of aggressiveness, of anger or of stealing will very often alert the family, the staff of creches or nursery as well as the teachers. Other children are showing signs of Internalizing behavior, very often together with depression or other forms of anxiety. considering the role and the skills of the family doctor, the target is to propose a clinical approach adapted to the first line practitioner having to face the majority of complaints about the behaviour of a child younger than 10 years. bibliographic research. The research equations were used on the data base TRIP DATA BASE, Cochrane Library, PUBMED and Google Scholar (EN/FR), searching, bare exception, the literature of the last five years. Moreover, the sites of the Haute Autorité Française (HAS), Société Scientifique de Médecine Générale (SSMG), Centre d'Expertise en Soins de Santé (KCE), Institut Scientifique en Santé Publique (ISSP) and of the DSM V (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) were consulted too. the age of the child, his social and family environment will guide the family doctor and in the majority of cases, he will be able to reassure the family. Moreover, when in front of any problem within the family life it should be advisable to inquire about the health of the children in question, especially from a behavioural point of view. To the opposite, when a child is showing TEC or TIC, it is important to inquire about circumstances in his environment that might potentially be at the origin of (or contributing to) the troubles. the challenge the family doctor is facing is to be able in a consultation of 15-30 minutes to make the difference between

  2. The South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP and SASOP State Employed Special Interest Group (SESIG position statements on psychiatric care in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Janse van Rensburg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Executive summary. National mental health policy: SASOP extends its support for the process of formalising a national mental health policy as well as for the principles and content of the current draft policy. Psychiatry and mental health: psychiatrists should play a central role, along with the other mental health disciplines, in the strategic and operational planning of mental health services at local, provincial and national level. Infrastructure and human resources: it is essential that the state takes up its responsibility to provide adequate structures, systems and funds for the specified services and facilities on national, provincial and facility level, as a matter of urgency. Standard treatment guidelines (STGs and essential drug lists (EDLs: close collaboration and co-ordination should occur between the processes of establishing SASOP and national treatment guidelines, as well as the related decisions on EDLs for different levels. HIV/AIDS in children: national HIV programmes have to promote awareness of the neurocognitive problems and psychiatric morbidity associated with HIV in children. HIV/AIDS in adults: the need for routine screening of all HIV-positive individuals for mental health and cognitive impairments should also be emphasised as many adult patients have a mental illness, either before or as a consequence of HIV infection, constituting a ‘special needs’ group. Substance abuse and addiction: the adequate diagnosis and management of related substance abuse and addiction problems should fall within the domain of the health sector and, in particular, that of mental health and psychiatry. Community psychiatry and referral levels: the rendering of ambulatory specialist psychiatric services on a community-centred basis should be regarded as a key strategy to make these services more accessible to users closer to where they live. Recovery and re-integration: a recovery framework such that personal recovery outcomes, among

  3. The development of a model of training in child psychiatry for non-physician clinicians in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The lack of trained mental health professionals has been an important barrier to establishing mental health services in low income countries. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and implementation of child psychiatry training within a graduate program in mental health for non-physician clinicians in Ethiopia. Methods The existing needs for competent practitioners in child psychiatry were identified through discussions with psychiatrists working in Ethiopia as well as with relevant departments within the Federal Ministry of Health Ethiopia (FMOHE). As part of a curriculum for a two year Master of Science (MSC) in Mental Health program for non-physician clinicians, child psychiatry training was designed and implemented by Jimma University with the involvement of experts from Addis Ababa University (AAU), Ethiopia, and Ludwig-Maximillian’s University, (LMU), Germany. Graduates gave feedback after completing the course. The World Health Organization’s (WHO) Mental Health Gap Action Program (mhGAP) intervention guide (IG) adapted for Ethiopian context was used as the main training material. Results A two-week child psychiatry course and a four week child psychiatry clinical internship were successfully implemented during the first and the second years of the MSC program respectively. During the two week psychiatry course, trainees learned to observe the behavior and to assess the mental status of children at different ages who had a variety of mental health conditions. Assessment of the trainees’ clinical skills was done by the instructors at the end of the child psychiatry course as well as during the subsequent four week clinical internship. The trainees generally rated the course to be ‘very good’ to ‘excellent’. Many of the graduates have become faculty at the various universities in Ethiopia. Conclusion Child psychiatry training for non-physician mental health specialist trainees was developed and successfully

  4. The Odense Child Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhl, Henriette Boye; Jensen, Tina Kold; Barington, Torben

    2015-01-01

    , the Odense Childhood Cohort (OCC) study aims to provide new information about the environmental impact on child health by sequential follow-up to 18 years of age among children born between 2010 and 2012. METHODS: A total of 2874 of 6707 pregnancies (43%) were recruited between January 2010 and December 2012...... provides material for in-depth analysis of environmental and genetic factors that are important for child health and disease. Registry data from non-participating women and infants are available which ensures a high degree of comparable data....

  5. ''Battered child'' syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsner, K.; Merk, J.; Sokiranski, R.

    1997-01-01

    Synonyms for the 'battered child' syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as 'child abuse', or 'non-accidental injury'. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ) [de

  6. [From the Auschwitz Syndrome to a Psyche Model--Life and Work of the Polish Psychiatrist Antoni Kepinski (1918-1972)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schochow, Maximilian; Willer, Manuel; Steger, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Life and work of the Polish psychiatrist Antoni Kepinski (1918 - 1972) are barely known today, although his writings about the Auschwitz syndrome have had an impact all over the world. We present his biography and work. Compilation and evaluation of literature about Kepinski's work and historical-critical analysis of his key texts. Kepinski's work about the Auschwitz syndrome formed the basis for his understanding of the psyche and his theory on information metabolism. Kepinski posited that the mind processes outside stimuli based on its own set of values and that it determines the subject's actions. In doing so, it affects its environment. If these interactions are disrupted, pathological disorders might result. The therapist should consequently empower the patient to get in touch with his own value-system. Kepinskis work serves as a foundation for research on disease patterns that are known today as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). His theory on information metabolism is essential for the current treatment of patients. It is therefore important to further explore his work and adjust it to the requirements of medical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Encouraging dentists as agents of change in the fight against tobacco in Malaysia: An example of a dentist-psychiatrist collaborative effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Siddiq AN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentist has long been recognized as a formal health profession. Health professionals have an important role to play in the fight against tobacco. Smoking tobacco is dangerous because it related disease and also due to it being labeled as a gateway to illicit drug abuse. As individuals, the dentist can help educate the population, as community members they can support anti-smoking policies and at a societal level, they can influence national and global tobacco control efforts. The associations between tobacco use and diseases affecting the oral cavity, such as periodontal disease and cancer, are now well recognized. This has lead to proposals from some members of the profession that members of the dental team should provide smoking cessation services. Before exploring effective ways to help smokers quit, it is important to understand the nature of the addictive process and how it affects both nicotine use and cessation attempts. The potential influence of dentists as agents of change is clear from even a brief consideration of the nature and conditions of the dentist-patient relationship. The dental practice setting provides a unique opportunity to assist tobacco users in achieving tobacco abstinence. The role of psychiatrists to support the effort, therefore, becomes all the more important.

  8. The contest between psychiatrists and lawyers over involuntary detention: the effects of recent changes in mental health legislation in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, D; Doutney, C; Pollock, C

    1986-09-01

    New mental health legislation was enacted in New South Wales in 1983 and, although the reformed Act remains unproclaimed, some of the new procedures have already been introduced into psychiatric hospitals. The spirit of the Act is clearly aimed at protecting the rights of the mentally ill, who are often unable to act as their own advocates. To ensure this protection, it is now routine for solicitors to represent detained patients in their pleas for release. In this report we describe three recent cases that illustrate the difficulties that arise when solicitors and psychiatrists contest the legitimacy of detention orders. The atmosphere of judicial hearings is becoming increasingly adversarial and the public disclosure of sensitive information can provoke unnecessary distress in patients and their families. In the zeal to preserve civil rights, the special needs of psychiatric patients can be obscured, sacrificing the patients' rights to confidentiality, privacy and appropriate treatment. While the involuntary detention of patients is a matter of the utmost seriousness, current procedures, which seem to be modelled on those of the criminal legal system, are proving to be inappropriate to the needs of psychiatric patients.

  9. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, N.K. (Nhu K.); van Berkel, S.R. (Sheila R.); IJzendoorn, Rien; Alink, Lenneke R.A.

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and the occurrence of multiple types of child maltreatment. Cross-sectional data of 1,851 secondary and high school students aged 12 to 17 years (47.3% boys) in four provinces of Northern Vietnam were ...

  10. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, N.K. (Nhu K.); van Berkel, S.R. (Sheila R.); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); L.R.A. Alink (Lenneke R.A.)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and

  11. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  12. Realising the child's best interests: lessons from the Child Justice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Act to refine the Schools Act with regard to serious matters of school discipline and to ensure its proper alignment with the constitutional imperatives regarding the best-interests-of-the-child right. Keywords: School discipline; child justice; the best interests of the child; children's rights; education law; restorative justice ...

  13. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  14. Kindergarten Child Care Experiences and Child Achievement and Socioemotional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Young children's experiences outside of both home and school are important for their development. As women have entered the labor force, child care has become an increasingly important context for child development. Child care experiences prior to school entry have been well-documented as important influences on children's academic and…

  15. [Supporting the Love, Marriage, and Child-Rearing of Persons with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Emi

    2015-01-01

    Persons with schizophrenia and their families have strong interests and hopes for love, marriage, pregnancy, and child-rearing. These experiences often lead to recovery from schizophrenia. There are many partners with schizophrenia who enjoy fruitful lives even with their disability. However, only some persons can enter into such lives in the real world in Japan and other countries. This leads persons with schizophrenia to develop a discouraged and disappointed attitude, and also causes professionals of mental health to develop indifference or pessimism about these issues. Schizophrenics are thought to have interests in love and sexual behavior just as strong as the general population. I discuss with my patients about these issues and working life early in the course of treatment. Because they lose their chance to learn adult behavior in social lives with peers due to the beginning of schizophrenia, they need an opportunity to participate in a social situation to learn knowledge and skills of dating and related behaviors, and systematic education such as psycho-education and social skills training should be provided. Continuing married life and child-rearing require more support from experts with rich experience and knowledge. Psychiatrists are required to participate in shared decision-making about medication during pregnancy and breast-feeding, as well as provide knowledge on the benefits and risks of antipsychotics. Net-working with the family, professionals of child welfare, and the community is necessary to support child-rearing. Urakawa Bethel's House was introduced as a pioneering concept to support love, marriage, and child-rearing. Finally, professionals' negative or indifferent attitudes toward these issues are discussed in the setting of treatment. I hope that professionals of mental health will think about these issues from the standpoints of persons with schizophrenia and their families.

  16. Preparing Your Child for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their bodies. Give a child this age clear, rational information as well as assurances that the surgery ... facial expressions, gestures, and body language send powerful messages. If you appear fearful, your child is likely ...

  17. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  18. When Your Child Has Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You When Your Child Has Tinnitus When Your Child Has Tinnitus Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... and public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Tinnitus is a condition where the patient hears a ...

  19. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Spanish Facts for Families Guide Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises No. 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  20. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... at the FDA. Avoid Pollen, Mold and Other Allergy Triggers If your child has seasonal allergies, pay ...

  1. Helping Your Overweight Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Currently, at least one child in five is overweight. Although children have fewer health problems from weight than adults, overweight children are at high risk for many health problems including heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, and stroke. Several factors are cited as to why children become overweight. Genetics, lack of exercise, and…

  2. The Child Whisperer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dane L.

    2012-01-01

    Unquestionably, Maria Montessori's insights into child development were both innate and learned, derived from her many years of working with children. Her work, practices, philosophy, and passion have staying power that, so far, spans a century and are a testament to her dedication and abilities. In this article, the author explains why he sees…

  3. Disciplining Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow these steps to make a time-out work. Set The Rules Ahead of Time Decide which 2 or 3 behaviors will cause you to implement time-out and explain this to your child. You may have to repeat this often. Choose ...

  4. The Multiply Handicapped Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, James M., Ed.; Anderson, Robert M., Ed.

    Articles presented in the area of the medical and educational challenge of the multiply handicapped child are an overview of the problem, the increasing challenge, congenital malformations, children whose mothers had rubella, prematurity and deafness, the epidemiology of reproductive casualty, and new education for old problems. Discussions of…

  5. Child life services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jerriann M

    2006-10-01

    Child life programs have become standard in most large pediatric centers and even on some smaller pediatric inpatient units to address the psychosocial concerns that accompany hospitalization and other health care experiences. The child life specialist focuses on the strengths and sense of well-being of children while promoting their optimal development and minimizing the adverse effects of children's experiences in health care or other potentially stressful settings. Using play and psychological preparation as primary tools, child life interventions facilitate coping and adjustment at times and under circumstances that might prove overwhelming otherwise. Play and age-appropriate communication may be used to (1) promote optimal development, (2) present information, (3) plan and rehearse useful coping strategies for medical events or procedures, (4) work through feelings about past or impending experiences, and (5) establish therapeutic relationships with children and parents to support family involvement in each child's care, with continuity across the care continuum. The benefits of this collaborative work with the family and health care team are not limited to the health care setting; it may also optimize reintegration into schools and the community.

  6. The Child Justice Act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephan

    1995-06-16

    Jun 16, 1995 ... Gallinetti "Child Justice" 648; Le Roux-Kemp 2008 Annual Survey of South African Law 298 (the. Act contains a "separate, but parallel, ... The various aspects of section 68 are then evaluated. The greatest challenges lie in the ... See also, eg, Picardi Hotels v Thekwini. Properties 2009 1 SA 493 (SCA) para ...

  7. Child abuse in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, a large number of children are deprived of their basic human rights due to unacceptable health, nutrition, education as well as social conditions. In addition, children are exposed to severe forms of sexual, physical and mental abuses at home, in the work place, in institutions and other public places. The nature and extent of violence against children irrespective of age, sex and class has been increasing day by day. These include physical torture, rape, homicide and sometimes heinous attacks with acid. Children are also victims of child labor and trafficking, both of which are treated as the most severe form of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. This review article is aimed to focus on the present situation of various forms of child abuses in our country. Data collection is based on secondary sources of information from Dhaka Medical College Hospital, One Stop Crisis Center (OCC,UNICEF, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, several Dhaka based organizations and news paper clipping. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2015; 9(1: 18-21

  8. Becoming a school child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    for institutional transitions and exemplified with cases from an empirical material. The general tendency in the Danish - and international context - to regard the school transition as a problem for the child and the practice following from this, i.e. minimizing differences between day care and primary school...

  9. Maternal emotion regulation during child distress, child anxiety accommodation, and links between maternal and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; McLaughlin, Katie A; Comer, Jonathan S

    2017-08-01

    Environmental contributions are thought to play a primary role in the familial aggregation of anxiety, but parenting influences remain poorly understood. We examined dynamic relations between maternal anxiety, maternal emotion regulation (ER) during child distress, maternal accommodation of child distress, and child anxiety. Mothers (N=45) of youth ages 3-8 years (M=4.8) participated in an experimental task during which they listened to a standardized audio recording of a child in anxious distress pleading for parental intervention. Measures of maternal and child anxiety, mothers' affective states, mothers' ER strategies during the child distress, and maternal accommodation of child anxiety were collected. Mothers' resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during the recording was also acquired. Higher maternal negative affect and greater maternal ER switching (i.e., using multiple ER strategies in a short time without positive regulatory results) during child distress were associated with child anxiety. Sequential mediation modeling showed that maternal anxiety predicted ineffective maternal ER during child distress exposure, which in turn predicted greater maternal accommodation, which in turn predicted higher child anxiety. Findings support the mediating roles of maternal ER and accommodation in linking maternal and child anxiety, and suggest that ineffective maternal ER and subsequent attempts to accommodate child distress may act as mechanisms underlying the familial aggregation of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - child; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - child ... should I discuss with my child's teachers about epilepsy? Will my child need to take medicines during ...

  11. Asthma - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child taking asthma medicines the right way? What medicines should my child take every day (called controller drugs )? What should ... do if my child misses a day? Which medicines should my child take when they are short of breath (called ...

  12. The day of surgery for your child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do the surgery. Find out about any medicines your child takes. Tell them about any prescription, over the ... give your child pain medicine and any other medicine your child needs. The nurse will also encourage your child ...

  13. Concussion - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about concussion - child; Mild brain injury - what to ask your doctor - child ... What type of symptoms or problems will my child have? Will my child have problems thinking or ...

  14. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... take care of children should learn infant and child CPR if they have not already. See www. ...

  15. Child Development Program Evaluation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard J.

    The Child Development Program Evaluation Scale (CDPES) is actually two scales in one, a licensing scale and a quality scale. Licensing predictor items have been found to predict overall compliance of child day care centers with state regulations in four states. Quality scale items have been found to predict the overall quality of child day care…

  16. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? A child is brought into the emergency room with a fractured leg. The parents are unable to explain how ... the fractures is not child abuse. It is osteogenesis imperfecta , or OI. OI is a genetic disorder characterized ...

  17. Parent-Child Agreement on Parent-to-Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compier-de Block, Laura H C G; Alink, Lenneke R A; Linting, Mariëlle; van den Berg, Lisa J M; Elzinga, Bernet M; Voorthuis, Alexandra; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-01-01

    Parent-child agreement on child maltreatment was examined in a multigenerational study. Questionnaires on perpetrated and experienced child maltreatment were completed by 138 parent-child pairs. Multi-level analyses were conducted to explore whether parents and children agreed about levels of parent-to-child maltreatment (convergence), and to examine whether parents and children reported equal levels of child maltreatment (absolute differences). Direct and moderating effects of age and gender were examined as potential factors explaining differences between parent and child report. The associations between parent- and child-reported maltreatment were significant for all subtypes, but the strength of the associations was low to moderate. Moreover, children reported more parent-to-child neglect than parents did. Older participants reported more experienced maltreatment than younger participants, without evidence for differences in actual exposure. These findings support the value of multi-informant assessment of child maltreatment to improve accuracy, but also reveal the divergent perspectives of parents and children on child maltreatment.

  18. O psiquiatra na atenção psicossocial: entre o luto e a liberdade The psychiatrist in psychosocial care: between grief and liberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardônio Menezes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, vemos surgir, a partir da década de setenta, diversas propostas inovadoras no campo da atenção à saúde mental. A partir de então, multiplicam-se no país ambulatórios de psicologia e psiquiatria, hospitais-dia, residências terapêuticas e diversos núcleos/centros de atenção psicossocial. Transformados em política pública, os centros de atenção psicossocial espalham-se pelo país, preconizando um atendimento ambulatorial, interdisciplinar e de orientação territorial. Geralmente formado sob os auspícios de um grande hospital, o psiquiatra que se propõe a trabalhar, a partir da ótica psicossocial, imerso em uma pequena cidade, vê-se exposto às diversas contradições e ilogicidades do discurso psiquiátrico clássico. Os variados saberes locais são uma ameaça ao saber psiquiátrico medicamente constituído. Respostas, antes fáceis no interior do hospital, têm variadas implicações no território e adquirem uma complexidade para a qual o psiquiatra não se encontra preparado. Assim, este trabalho tenta demonstrar a dissonância entre essas duas espécies de psiquiatria: a clássica (afinada com a biologia, com a normatividade e com a instituição e a psicossocial (que se volta para respostas localmente construídas e que se afina com o homem, em uma dimensão muito além do seu corpo.Since the seventies Brazil has witnessed a diversity of new proposals in the field of mental health care. Since then, the psychology and psychiatry ambulatories, day-hospitals, therapeutical shelters and psychosocial care centers have multiplied. Transformed into a public policy, the psychosocial care centers are spread all over the country, offering outpatient care with interdisciplinary and territorial orientation. Generally established under the auspices of a great hospital, the psychiatrist who considers working from a psychosocial perspective in a small city, has to deal with the classic contradictions of the psychiatric

  19. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  20. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  1. Delayed child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of delayed child-bearing and to describe the implications for women and health care providers. Delayed child-bearing, which has increased greatly in recent decades, is associated with an increased risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcome. This guideline provides information that will optimize the counselling and care of Canadian women with respect to their reproductive choices. Maternal age is the most important determinant of fertility, and obstetric and perinatal risks increase with maternal age. Many women are unaware of the success rates or limitations of assisted reproductive technology and of the increased medical risks of delayed child-bearing, including multiple births, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and Caesarean section. This guideline provides a framework to address these issues. Studies published between 2000 and August 2010 were retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library using appropriate key words (delayed child-bearing, deferred pregnancy, maternal age, assisted reproductive technology, infertility, and multiple births) and MeSH terms (maternal age, reproductive behaviour, fertility). The Internet was also searched using similar key words, and national and international medical specialty societies were searched for clinical practice guidelines and position statements. Data were extracted based on the aims, sample, authors, year, and results. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Women who delay child-bearing are at increased risk of infertility. Prospective parents, especially women, should know that their fecundity and fertility begin to decline significantly after 32 years of age. Prospective parents should know that assisted reproductive technologies cannot guarantee a live birth or completely

  2. Meet the good child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Malene; Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    This article explores ‘childing’ pratices in relation to family supermarket shopping in Denmark. ‘Parenting’ practices have been explored for long but little attention has been given to how children strive to be ‘good’ children, who live up to certain standards and recognize what they perceive...... to be appropriate child and parental behavior. The study takes a practice theoretical perspective, building on previous research on family consumption, and draws empirically on 35 interviews with 5–6 year-olds and 13 family interviews. Findings show that the children recognize the position of ‘the good child......’ and most often prefer to take on this position, which is confirmed by their parents. The children can describe how ‘the good child’—in their eyes—should behave. They prefer consensus and not being embarrassing or embarrassed. The study concludes that the children are strongly immersed in social norms...

  3. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  4. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States-so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children's wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education-a key indicator of both economic and social resources-than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don't have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation's effects are tied to a child's age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family and the age of the

  5. Spoiled child syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, B J

    1989-01-01

    People often speak of children as being "spoiled" and many parents worry about the possibility of spoiling their infants and children. Many pediatricians, however, are uncomfortable with this term because it is a poorly defined and derogatory expression. Some would even deny that infants and children can be spoiled. Avoiding the use of the expression spoiled can create difficulties in communicating with parents concerned about their children's behavior. In this article, the spoiled child syndrome will be defined and those patterns of behavior that characterize it will be distinguished from other patterns of difficult behavior which may be confused with it. The spoiled child syndrome is characterized by excessive self-centered and immature behavior, resulting from the failure of parents to enforce consistent, age-appropriate limits. Many of the problem behaviors that cause parental concern are unrelated to spoiling as properly understood. Such behaviors are often age-related normal behaviors, reactions to family stresses, or patterns of behavior determined by factors inherent in the child. Pediatricians can provide counseling and reassurance for such behaviors and, by helping parents understand the etiology of true spoiling, can encourage the use of behavior modification techniques for its prevention and treatment.

  6. Expectations from the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Atabek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Transition from agricultural society to industry society, from industrial society to science society has taken place. In all these societies, expectations from children also vary. In the agricultural community, human labor is based on arm power. For this reason, expectation from children is to increase work power. Having more children is the basis for the expectations in this community to see that the boy is valuable because he has increased his work power. In the industrial society, the power of the arm changed its place with the machine power. The knowledgeable person is not a family grown-up but a foreman. Childhood was distinguished during this period. It has been investigated that the child has a separate development.  In the information society, communication and information has never been as fast as it is in this period.  The widespread use of the Internet, and the use of social networks such as Facebook and Twitter are in this period. In this society, families are panicked to prepare a future in their own heads for their children. Because the parents thought of their children, they decided about the child's life instead of the child making these decisions. This has had a negative impact on children's sense of autonomy and their ability to take responsibility. To change this, parents should train their children in auto control and develop children's impulse control skills. The children should be able to understand their emotions and make decisions by reasoning and reasoning.

  7. [Course and progression of children admitted before 4 years of age in a French child welfare center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguy, M; Rousseau, D; Roze, M; Duverger, P; Nguyen, S; Fanello, S

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the institutional trajectory and future of young children in child welfare. A catamnestic study - based on data from the child welfare office in Maine and Loire, France, from 1994 to 2001 - was conducted by a child psychiatrist and a psychologist. Medical, judicial, and educational data (development, health, pathways in child protection services) were collected and analyzed regarding the status of these children 15 years later, adding information gathered by interviewing the child welfare and foster family consultant. We included 128 children admitted to the child welfare office before 4 years of age. Admission to the child welfare system suffers from care delays (a mean of 13.1 months between the first child protection referral and placement) with an average entry age of 17 months and frequent cases of child abuse (e.g., seven Silverman syndrome cases). The physical and mental health status of these children was poor (poorly monitored pregnancies, prematurity, low birth weight). More than one third of the children had growth failure at admission, with catch-up in half of the cases. The average length of stay in the child welfare system was 13.2±4.6 years. At the end of the follow-up, there were specific measures to safeguard vulnerable adults: "young adult" (24 cases), "major protection" (eight cases) and "disabled living allowance" (nine cases). One hundred and sixteen children suffered from psychiatric disorders at entry and 98 at the end. The general functioning of children as assessed by the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) showed a statistically significant improvement. One out of two young adults showed problems integrating socially with chaotic pathways: many foster placements, unsuccessful return to the family, and academic failures. The clinical situations of children in the child welfare office and their long-term progression confirm the importance of this public health problem. Although the measures

  8. Training opportunities for overseas psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, P

    1975-08-01

    The literature relating to the training opportunities offered to overseas graduates in this country and the United States is reviewed. Although overseas trainees in psychiatry do not see themselves at a great disadvantage, the fact that the great majority are working in non-teaching hospitals means by implication that overall their training is not as good as that of home graduates.

  9. Recovery from a psychiatrist's viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Ronald J

    2006-09-01

    Recovery is not the same as cure. Recovery from mental illness is the process of having more to life than just illness. It is an ongoing process rather than simply a goal that can be achieved. Recovery from the stigma of mental illness may be as difficult as recovery from the illness itself. Several common, but incorrect, beliefs can interfere with the recovery process. Myths include the belief that the illness has an inherently downhill course, that rehabilitation is useful only after stabilization, and that people with schizophrenia can only work at low-level jobs. People who have schizophrenia have reported that their own process of recovery was helped by their determination to get better, an understanding of the illness, taking personal responsibility, having friends who accept them, an optimistic attitude, and spiritual beliefs that help them find meaning in life.

  10. Training psychiatrists in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of specialist training is perennial as disciplines constantly seek to ... offered, with the existing equivalence of the FCPsych II with the MMed Part II ... best answer approach. Hence the written ... within the context of service delivery.

  11. Euthanasia: a problem for psychiatrists

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-02-17

    Feb 17, 2004 ... ally permissible to seek a person's death intending that death to be for their sake. Kinds of euthanasia can be distinguished in a number of im- portant ways. There is, first, the distinction between active and passive euthanasia. Active euthanasia is the intentional killing of a person (for their sake). Passive ...

  12. [Clinical Implications of Changes in Child Psychiatry in the DSM-5. Strengths and Weaknesses of the Changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero-Franco, Diana; Palacio-Ortíz, Juan David; Arroyave-Sierra, Pilar; Piñeros-Ortíz, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and related health problems (ICD) integrate the diagnostic criteria commonly used in psychiatric practice, but the DSM-IV-TR was insufficient for current clinical work. The DSM-5 was first made public in May at the Congress of the American Psychiatric Association, and it includes changes to some aspects of Child Psychiatry, as many of the conditions that were at the beginning in chapter of infancy, childhood and adolescence disorders have been transferred to other chapters and there are new diagnostic criteria or new terms are added. It is therefore important to provide it to Psychiatrists who attend children in order to assess the changes they will be facing in the nomenclature and classification in pursuit of a better classification of the childhood psychopathology. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  13. V. M. BEKHTEREV IN RUSSIAN CHILD SCIENCE, 1900S-1920S: "OBJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY"/"REFLEXOLOGY" AS A SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byford, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In the early 20(th) century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev. The latter's name is associated with a distinctive program for transforming the human sciences in general and psychology in particular that he in the 1900s labelled "objective psychology" and from the 1910s renamed "reflexology." The article examines the equivocal place that Bekhterev's "objective psychology" and "reflexology" occupied in Russian/Soviet child science in the first three decades of the 20(th) century. While Bekhterev's prominence in this field is beyond doubt, analysis shows that "objective psychology" and "reflexology" had much less success in mobilizing support within it than certain other movements in this arena (for example, "experimental pedagogy" in the pre-revolutionary era); it also found it difficult to compete with the variety of rival programs that arose within Soviet "pedology" during the 1920s. However, this article also demonstrates that the study of child development played a pivotal role in Bekhterev's program for the transformation of the human sciences: it was especially important to his efforts to ground in empirical phenomena and in concrete research practices a new ontology of the psychological, which, the article argues, underpinned "objective psychology"/"reflexology" as a transformative scientific movement. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Girl child and social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  15. A Theory of Exploitative Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Ann Rogers; Kenneth A. Swinnerton

    2003-01-01

    Child labor laws should aim to protect children who work, instead of trying to remove children from work. In this paper, we identify an instance when the risk of exploitation lowers the expected bene…t of child labor to the child,and therefore suppresses child labor force participation. Targeted legal intervention that lowers or removes the risk of exploitation raises child participation in the labor market, child welfare, and overall societal welfare. Targeting on child labor more broadly ma...

  16. CHILD WELFARE IN CANADA : PART II

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 眞一; Shinichi, Matsumoto; 桃山学院大学社会学部

    2006-01-01

    This part study aims to research on the whole aspect of child protection in Canada. And so, this paper consists of five chapters as follows: (1)Canadian history of child protection, (2)definition of child abuse, (3)current situation of child protection in Canada, (4)outline of child protection and treatment, (5)triangular comparison of child protection and prevention in Canada, Australia and England. The first efforts at identifying and combating child abuse occurred in the latter part of the...

  17. Almost Psychiatry: The Impact of Teaching Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies to Undergraduate College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Ursula; Di Bartolo, Christina A; Badin, Emily; Shatkin, Jess P

    2017-10-01

    The Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies (CAMS) program is housed in a Liberal Arts undergraduate college of a large research university. Psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, and social workers at the university's medical center teach the courses. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to which CAMS encourages graduates of the program to pursue a career in child and adolescent mental health (CAMH). In 2015-2016, graduates of the CAMS program were invited to participate in a mixed methods study. In addition to statistical analyses, qualitative thematic analyses were performed to interpret free-text responses. Forty-five percent (314/702) of invited graduates completed the online survey. Interviews were conducted with 11% (34/314) of participants by study staff over the phone. Quantitative results suggested that 81% (149/185) of participants enrolled in educational programs after graduation due to an interest in CAMH. A significantly higher proportion of the total sample (t = 3.661, p graduation. Results of qualitative interviews with 34 participants uncovered five key themes unique to CAMS that may explain the program's influence on graduates' career choices and career development: practitioners-as-instructors, instructor mentorship, novel course content, experiential learning opportunities, and career training and skills. Quantitative and qualitative results indicated that teaching college undergraduate students about CAMH encourages them to set career goals within the field. These findings suggest the utility of implementing similar programs at other undergraduate colleges.

  18. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  19. [The career of the psychiatrist Dietfried Müller-Hegemann (1910-1989) : Example of a politically motivated rise and fall in the German Democratic Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, H

    2018-01-01

    Dietfried Müller-Hegemann was one of the prominent figures in East German psychiatry and psychotherapy of the 1950s and 1960s. Having been a communist prior to 1933, a resistance fighter during the National Socialist regime and having gone through political training during his exile in Soviet Russia, he proved to be a committed member of the new ruling SED socialist party in Eastern Germany. As such both governmental and party organs regarded him as a promising and reliable party member to be supported and implemented as executive staff within the new, socialist scientific system. Also, due to the fact that he supported the Pavlovian school of thought for modern psychiatry, Müller-Hegemann was installed as the new head of the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry at Leipzig University by the state secretary for higher education, notably against the clear opposition of the university medical faculty. Soon thereafter however Müller-Hegemann fell from favor due to the fact that he supported views that did not follow the strict ideological guidelines, e. g. with regard to the emergence of fascism. Moreover, he strongly opposed the separation of neurology from psychiatry as ruled by the ministry. An attempt in 1963 by junior party members and ministerial staff to remove him from office failed, but still managed to make Müller-Hegemann resign from his Leipzig post and take over that of director of the Griesinger hospital for the mentally ill in East Berlin. In May 1971, after new conflicts with party officials, he did not return from a business trip to Essen in West Germany. This study does not review the scientific and medical merits of Müller-Hegemann, but concentrates on how his career as a leading psychiatrist was manipulated, both supported and sabotaged, and ideologically controlled by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) system. His development is documented proof that party officials did not tolerate opposition, neither in ideological nor in

  20. CHILD PORNOGRAPHY ON THE INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Negredo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Downloading, exchanging and producing child pornography is a criminal behaviour of growing relevance. The cruel exploitation of minors and its link with child sexual abuse raise great social and academic concern. The current paper approaches the nature of the phenomenon, the characteristics of the materials labelled as “child pornography”, the psychological traits of the users and the existing treatment programs

  1. Child health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    . Overweight and obesity have tripled in 20 years and are a health threat as well as constituting negative health behaviour. Social ill health, socioeconomic inequity, and sociocultural changes also influence health but their consequences are not well investigated in children. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively high...... child mortality but the same morbidity pattern as in other Western societies was found. Negative health behaviour is frequent in schoolchildren. The influence of rapid cultural changes, and familial and societal factors related to social ill health, together with socioeconomic inequity, are of major...

  2. GPs' and child and adolescent psychiatry specialists' experiences of joint consultations in the GP's office: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seierstad, Tori Guldahl; Brekke, Mette; Toftemo, Ingun; Haavet, Ole Rikard

    2017-09-07

    The study is an exploration of a joint consultation model, a collaboration between general practitioners (GPs) and specialists from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in Lillehammer, Norway. A qualitative study based on two focus group interviews, one with participating GPs and one with participating specialists from the local CAMHS. Participants were five GPs, with work experience varying from 6 months to 20 years (four of them specialists in general medicine) and two CAMHS specialists-a psychiatrist and a psychologist-both with more than 20 years of experience. The focus group discussions revealed that both GPs and CAMHS specialists saw the joint consultations as a good teaching method for improving GPs' skills in child and adolescent psychiatry. Both groups believed that this low-threshold service benefits the patients and that the joint consultation is especially suited to sort problems and determine the level of help required. The GPs and CAMHS specialists shared the impression that the collaboration model is beneficial for both patients and health care providers. Close collaboration with primary health care is recommended in the guidelines for child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinics. We suggest that the joint consultation model could be a good way for GPs and CAMHS specialists to collaborate.

  3. Child labor in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, M N; Prabhu, S V; Mistry, H N

    1985-01-01

    Of the world's largest child labor force in India, Bombay has over 30,000 working children, most of them migrants. In a prospective study of 73 working children from a part of Dharavi, the biggest slum in Asia, 68% were working as hotel boys; 22% had started working before their 10th birthday, a large number doing so to increase the family income, but earning less than Rs. 100 ($11) per month. Forty percent worked more than 12 hours a day and only 16% continued schooling. Two-thirds depended entirely on their employers for food which was adequate and no child in the study was malnourished. Overall incidence of anemia and vitamin deficiency was 10% each. Only 7% had ailments related to their occupation. Because this was a cross-sectional study no conclusions can be drawn regarding long term and residual effects. Preventing children from working is likely to make worse their own as well as their families' problems unless substitute sources of income or welfare are available. Legal protection and other services near their working places are essential for those who have to work.

  4. Richard Arwed Pfeifer - a pioneer of 'medical pedagogy' and an opponent of Paul Schroder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Holger; Carius, Dirk; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2013-12-01

    Richard Arwed Pfeifer (1877-1957) was one of the initiators and foster fathers of the renowned child-psychiatric and special needs education workgroup at Leipzig University under Paul Schröder (1873-1941) in the 1920s and 1930s. This paper is an account of their dispute concerning the interrelations between child and adolescent psychiatry and special needs education, as well as their disagreement about whether adolescent psychopaths should be admitted to specialized child psychiatric wards or elsewhere. Moreover, Pfeifer questioned the practical relevance of the separation of constitutional and environmentally-based psychopathy and fought eugenic research, which he found incompatible with the ethics of his profession as a remedial teacher and child psychiatrist.

  5. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  6. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I ...

  7. Child mortality: preventing future child deaths and optimizing family support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeff-Gijzen, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide 6.1 million live-born children under the age of five died from natural and external causes in 2014. According to the Convention on the Rights of the Child appropriate measures should be taken by State Parties to ensure the survival and development of the child to a maximum extent and to

  8. Child Trafficking: A Hindrance to the Girl-Child Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibangbe, Mary O.

    2015-01-01

    Child trafficking continues to pose a major hindrance to the freedom and educational development of the girl-child in Nigeria. Most of the girls trafficked are forced into prostitution, forced labour and in some cases as human sacrifice. Some families support this trend because they see it as a means to break the yoke of economic hardship. The…

  9. The role of the father in child sleep disturbance: child, parent, and parent-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millikovsky-Ayalon, Maaian; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Meiri, Gal

    2015-01-01

    The majority of studies on child sleep problems focus primarily on mothers, neglecting paternal influences. Guided by the transactional framework, we explored how child temperament, paternal and maternal stress, and the parent-child interactions differ between families having children with sleep disturbances and a selected comparison group. The role of paternal involvement in child caregiving as a moderator of these differences was assessed. The sample consisted of 51 children (1-3 years old) and their mothers and fathers. Data were collected during home visits, when mothers and fathers completed questionnaires and were interviewed. In addition, mother-child and father-child interactions were videotaped. Results indicate that compared to the comparison group, fathers rated children with sleep disturbances as fussier, both their mothers and fathers experienced higher levels of stress, and reported using more bedtime interactions that interfere with child's sleep-wake self-regulation. In addition, their fathers were less sensitive during father-child interaction and less involved in child caregiving. Finally, paternal involvement moderated the group differences seen in maternal stress, suggesting that high paternal involvement acted as a buffer to protect parents of children with sleep disturbances from experiencing parental stress. The important role of fathers in families having children with sleep disturbances is discussed. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Child Labour Remains "Massive Problem."

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Despite significant progress in efforts to abolish child labor, an alarming number of children are engaged in its worst forms. Although 106 million are engaged in acceptable labor (light work for those above the minimum age for employment), 246 million are involved in child labor that should be abolished (under minimum age, hazardous work). (JOW)

  11. Child mortality in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, B.; Wang, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on infant and child mortality in rural areas of India. We construct a flexible duration model, which allows for frailty at multiple levels and interactions between the child's age and individual, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics. The model is estimated using the

  12. Child mortality in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Klaauw (Bas); L. Wang (Lihong)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on infant and child mortality in rural areas of India. We construct a flexible duration model, which allows for frailty at multiple levels and interactions between the child's age and individual, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics. The model is estimated

  13. Child Malnutrition and Antenatal Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Forero-Ramirez; L.F. Gamboa (Luis); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); R.A. Sparrow (Robert)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Objective. To examine the effect of prenatal care (PNC) on the level and distribution of child stunting in three Andean countries—Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru—where expanding access to such care has been an explicit policy intervention to tackle child malnutrition in

  14. Infant and Child Final Version

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract: This study uses data from the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey [2005. EDHS] conducted in 2005 to investigate the predictors of child [0-5 years] mortality in developing country like Ethiopia. The specific objectives of this study are to identify the factors which are affecting child mortality and to suggest viable.

  15. Identifying the Gifted Child Humorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Tami L.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…

  16. Prevention strategies in child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Philip V

    2010-10-01

    Child maltreatment remains a prevalent problem for which notable best practices such as home visitation can be effective; however, most eligible families do not receive these beneficial services. Additionally, there are other promising prevention interventions to effectively address child maltreatment. This review focuses on the recent advances and strategies for child maltreatment prevention. Although home visiting does not have a single clearly defined methodology of providing service to children and families, the general supportive framework to improve maternal, child, and family factors makes this intervention the most widely studied and accepted prevention strategy. However, there has been limited effectiveness for most models. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) has provided consistently positive results by targeting families with many risk factors by using highly trained professionals when implementing a research-based intervention. A promising public health approach to parent training (Triple P) may reduce maltreatment and out-of-home placement. Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), while a treatment model, is becoming an increasingly important approach to child maltreatment prevention. There may be an opportunity to reduce child maltreatment by enhancing care in the pediatric medical home setting. Effective child maltreatment prevention efforts exist; however, not all programs provide the same effectiveness, or target the same maltreatment issues. Pediatricians are in a key position to offer support to families in their own practice, as well as to direct families to the appropriate resources available.

  17. Modern-Day Child Slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Glind, Hans; Kooijmans, Joost

    2008-01-01

    Child slavery is a contemporary global problem existing since ancient times. The concept of slavery and practices similar to it are defined in a range of international instruments. Children are particularly vulnerable to slavery-like practices, and their special plight is addressed by the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC-in particular…

  18. Parent and Child Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Kim F.; And Others

    The Parent and Child Education Program (PACE) is a pilot program, developed in Kentucky, to provide adult, early childhood and parent education. PACE targets families that have one or both parents without a high school diploma or equivalency certificate and one child three or four years of age. Parents and children ride the bus to school together,…

  19. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael…

  20. The Child's Experience of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciberras, Emma; Efron, Daryl; Iser, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the agreement between parent- and child-reported quality of life (QoL) and the self-perceptions of children with ADHD. Method: A cross-sectional survey of school-aged children with ADHD and their parents was undertaken. Results: Parents reported their child's QoL as lower than the children rated…

  1. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  2. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  3. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  4. Safety for Your Child: 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Safety for Your Child: 10 Years Page Content Article ... out if your child's friends carry guns. Sports Safety At this age your child may be playing ...

  5. If You Think Your Child Is Stuttering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Employers Tweet If You Think Your Child Is Stuttering... Parents of Preschoolers Parents of School-Age Children ... Edward G. Conture, Vanderbilt University. Is Your Child Stuttering? If your child has difficulty speaking and tends ...

  6. Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supposed to take everyday If my child has asthma, diabetes, seizures, heart disease, or any other medical problems, do I need to do anything special before my child has anesthesia? Can my child take a tour of the ...

  7. Parents Who Have a Child with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tips to help your child cope with difficult emotions: Find ways to distract or entertain your child Playing video games or watching movies can help your child to relax. Integrative medicine practices such ...

  8. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español Caring for a Seriously Ill Child KidsHealth / For Parents / Caring for a Seriously Ill ... helping hand. Explaining Long-Term Illness to a Child Honest communication is vital to helping a child ...

  9. The "child size medicines" concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nsabagasani, Xavier; Okeng, Jasper Ogwal; Mbonye, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the ‘make medicines child size’ (MMCS) campaign by urging countries to prioritize procurement of medicines with appropriate strengths for children’s age and weight and, in child-friendly formulations of rectal and flexible oral solid...... of policy provisions for the MMCS recommendations. Results For most medicines for the selected diseases, appropriate strength for children’s age and weight was addressed especially in the EMHSLU 2012. However, policy documents neither referred to ‘child size medicines’ concept nor provided for flexible oral...... health policy documents reflected limited adherence to the MMCS recommendations. This and failure to use evidence based medicines may result into treatment failure and or death. A revision of the current policies and guidelines to better reflect ‘child size’, child appropriate and evidence based...

  10. Young child formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Young child formulae (YCF) are milk-based drinks or plant protein-based formulae intended to partially satisfy the nutritional requirements of young children ages 1 to 3 years. Although widely available on the market, their composition is, however, not strictly regulated and health effects have...... not been systematically studied. Therefore, the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition (CoN) performed a systematic review of the literature to review the composition of YCF and consider their role in the diet of young children...... for the routine use of YCF in children from 1 to 3 years of life, but they can be used as part of a strategy to increase the intake of iron, vitamin D, and n-3 PUFA and decrease the intake of protein compared with unfortified cow's milk. Follow-on formulae can be used for the same purpose. Other strategies...

  11. Child with Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rajalakshmi; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the common symptoms reported by children in urgent care clinics. While most children tend to have self-limiting conditions, the treating pediatrician should watch out for underlying serious causes like intestinal obstruction and perforation peritonitis, which require immediate referral to an emergency department (ED). Abdominal pain may be secondary to surgical or non-surgical causes, and will differ as per the age of the child. The common etiologies for abdominal pain presenting to an urgent care clinic are acute gastro-enteritis, constipation and functional abdominal pain; however, a variety of extra-abdominal conditions may also present as abdominal pain. Meticulous history taking and physical examination are the best tools for diagnosis, while investigations have a limited role in treating benign etiologies.

  12. A child with narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvério Macedo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Narcolepsy is a chronic disease characterized by sleep attacks, excessive daytime sleepiness and nocturnal sleep fragmentation. It can be associated cataplexy and other disturbance of REM sleep (sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations and hypnopompic. Case report: A 10-year old boy was referred to Pedopsychiatry because of behavioural disturbance, irritability, sleepiness and distraction, being interpreted as an “ill-mannered child.” After clinical evaluation and comprehensive laboratory studies we concluded that he presented narcolepsy with cataplexy. Discussion/conclusion: Patients with narcolepsy face several problems due to the disease which, if left untreated or ineffectively treated, cause embarrassing or distressing symptoms, affecting their quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to this problem since it is a rare condition and therefore seldom not recognized by the general public or even by health professionals.

  13. Child Labor in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds; Nina Pavcnik

    2005-01-01

    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  14. Child and Family Factors Associated With Child Maltreatment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhu K; van Berkel, Sheila R; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to explore possible risk factors for child maltreatment in Vietnam by investigating the association of child and family factors with different types of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and neglect) and the occurrence of multiple types of child maltreatment. Cross-sectional data of 1,851 secondary and high school students aged 12 to 17 years (47.3% boys) in four provinces of Northern Vietnam were obtained using self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that the likelihood of emotional abuse, witnessing parental conflict, and experiencing multiple types of child maltreatment during lifetime increased with age. Boys had a higher risk than girls on lifetime sexual abuse, and past year and lifetime physical abuse. Living in a single parent family was the risk factor related to most types of child maltreatment including lifetime sexual abuse, neglect, and multiple types of child maltreatment, and both past year and lifetime witnessing parental conflict. Interestingly, low socioeconomic status (SES) and parental unemployment were associated with a decreased risk on experiencing emotional abuse in the past year and during lifetime, respectively. "Tiger parenting," a parenting style observed frequently in East Asian parents, may be more common in families with high SES and might explain this finding. This study highlights the importance of prioritizing single parent families in parenting programs and implementing child maltreatment interventions early because of the risk on child maltreatment increased with age. More research on emotional abuse and "Tiger parenting" in Vietnam could clarify the association of emotional abuse with high SES and parental employment. Finally, the underlying mechanisms of the risk factors in Vietnam should be studied more to inform interventions.

  15. [Success Factors and Stumbling Blocks in the Cooperation with Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychotherapy from the Perspective of Social Pedagogues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Luzi, Seraina; Schmid, Marc

    2017-10-01

    Success Factors and Stumbling Blocks in the Cooperation with Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychotherapy from the Perspective of Social Pedagogues In numerous current studies, experts describe a need for improved cooperation between employees of youth welfare and child and adolescent psychiatry/-psychotherapy. The present study investigates how social pedagogues working in youth welfare institutions perceive psychiatrists or psychologists working in child and adolescent psychiatry. Benefits and difficulties of the cooperation are described and potential areas of improvement as perceived by youth welfare employees are identified. The study presents quantitative and qualitative data and pursues a mixed-method approach. The qualitative evaluation is based on the content structuring qualitative content analysis according to Kuckartz (2012) and is complemented by descriptive data. The results are based on the responses of 221 social pedagogues in Switzerland. While 97.7 % of respondents perceive interdisciplinary collaborations for children with high psychological stress as ideal, they also mention various barriers that hinder effective and efficient cooperation. Many social pedagogues wish for the field of child and adolescent psychiatry to show a greater interest in their job profile, as well as more appreciation for the demanding work that they perform. Clarification of roles and responsibilities, a better flow of information and a direct person of contact are also deemed important aspects to improve upon. The study suggests practical approaches for a more effective cooperation.

  16. Preschool Child Care and Child Well-being in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Micha; Bauer, Jan M.

    Because the value of preschool child care is under intensive debate among both policymakers and society in general, this paper analyzes the relation between preschool care and the well-being of children and adolescents in Germany. It also examines differences in outcomes based on child...... socioeconomic background by focusing on the heterogeneous effects for migrant children. Our findings, based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey of Children and Adolescents, suggest that children who have experienced child care have a slightly lower well-being overall. For migrant...

  17. Child and Adolescent Emergency and Urgent Mental Health Delivery Through Telepsychiatry: 12-Month Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nasreen; Hu, Tina; Axas, Nicholas; Repetti, Leanne

    2017-10-01

    The significant gap between children and adolescents presenting for emergency mental healthcare and the shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists constitutes a major barrier to timely access for psychiatric assessment for rural and remote areas. Unlike remote areas, urban emergency departments have in-house psychiatric consultation. Telepsychiatry may be a solution to ensure the same service for remote areas. However, there is a paucity of studies on the use of telepsychiatry for child and adolescent emergency consults. Thus, the aim of our study was to (1) assess patient satisfaction with telepsychiatry and (2) compare clinical characteristics and outcome of telepsychiatry with face-to-face emergency child and adolescent assessments. This is a prospective study of telepsychiatry emergency assessments of children and adolescents referred by emergency physicians. The comparison group was age- and gender-matched patients seen for face-to-face urgent assessments. Data were gathered on demographic and clinical variables. Telepsychiatry satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used to assess group differences for each variable. Logistic regression was used to assess impact of the variables on outcome after the consult. A p value <0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. Sixty (n = 60) assessments were conducted through telepsychiatry in 12 months. Among the telepsychiatry group, Aboriginal patients were over-represented (50% vs. 6.7%, p < 0.001), a higher proportion received a diagnosis of adjustment disorder (22% vs. 8.3%, p = 0.004) or no diagnosis (27% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.004) compared with controls. There was no statistically significant difference between groups on other clinical variables. Patients reported a high degree of satisfaction with telepsychiatry. Telepsychiatry is acceptable to patients and families for safe emergency assessment and follow-up, reducing unnecessary travel

  18. Child support and alimony: 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, R A

    1985-02-01

    This report presents information (including 13 tables) as of spring 1982 on payments made to mothers for child support by fathers not living in the same household, and information on support payments and property settlement awards for women involved in marital dissolution. As of spring 1982, 8.4 million mothers were living with a child under 21 years of age whose father was not living with them; 59% of these women were or would be awarded child support payments than black women (34%) or those of Spanish origin (44%). College educated women were more likely to be awarded and to receive child support payments than women with only a high school education. The average amount of child support received in 1981 was $2,110, a decrease of about 16% from the 1978 level of $2,510. Of the 2.6 million women below the poverty level with children present from an absent father, about 40% received child support. Among the poor, 806,000 women were due child support in 1981 but only 61% received some amount of payment. As of spring 1982, only about 15% of the 17 million divorced or separated women received alimony. In 1981 alimony averaged $3,000, a 25% decrease from the 1978 level of $3,980. In spring 1982, about 42% of the 14.2 million divorced women reported receiving some form of property settlement.

  19. The Cognitive Dissonance between Child Rescue and Child Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Cheney (Kristen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstract‘Saving orphans’ has become an industry that irrevocably harms children and undermines the development of child welfare systems. We must replace the drive to rescue with the desire to protect.

  20. Child Pornography. An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Sexual Exploitation of Children. New York: St Martins Press, 1986. Fields, Howa’-4 "Supreme Court, 6-3, Sans Possossiron of Child Porn ...Court, 6-3, Bans Possession of Child Porn ," Publishers Weekly 237, no.18 (May 4, 1990) 10. 27 See: O’Brien, 65-78; Seth L. Goldstein, "Investigating...15, (1973). 3 New York v. Ferber, 458 U.S. 757, (1982). 4 Howard Fields, "Supreme Court, 6-3, Bans Possession of Child Porn ,’" Publishers Weekly 237

  1. Adopted preschool child with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    STAŇKOVÁ, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor´s work was written based on personal experience and practice with a family in which a pre-school child with ADHD syndrom lives. The intended objective is to provide pieces of advice to many parents. This work could serve as a guide in searching effective strategies for a child with attention and hyperactivity deficit disorder. The second objective is to share experience and educational methods when dealing with an adopted child diagnosed with the ADHD syndrom at the age of three...

  2. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinman, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  3. Marketing child survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J P

    1984-01-01

    Growth monitoring charts, packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS), and vaccines, are inexpensive, life-saving, growth-protecting technologies which can enable parents to protect their children against the worst effects of poverty. Similarly, a matrix of current and easily understandable information about pregnancy, breast feeding, weaning, feeding during and immediately after illness, child spacing, and preparing and using home-made oral rehydration solutions, also could empower parents to protect the lives and the health of their children. The question arises as to how can these technologies and this information be put at the disposal of millions of families in the low-income world. The initial task of the Child Survival and Development Revolution is the communication of what is now possible, yet little is known about how to communicate information whose principal value is to the poor. There are 2 large-scale precedents: the Green Revolution, which in many instances succeeded in putting into the hands of thousands of small and large farmers the techniques and the knowledge which enabled them to double and treble the yields from their lands; and the campaign to put the knowledge and the means of family planning at the disposal of many millions of people. There are 2 lessons to be learned from these precedents: they have shown that the way to promote a people's technology and to put information at the disposal of the majority is by mobilizing all possible resources and working through all possible channels both to create the demand and to meet it; and neither the Green Revolution nor the family planning movement rally took off until they were viewed as political and economic priorities and given the full support of the nation's political leadership. Nowhere are these 2 lessons more clearly illustrated than in present-day Indonesia. Because the campaign for family planning was given high personal and political priority by the President, and because 85% of all family

  4. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect in Child Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    of failure * fear of desertion by caregiver • inappropriate dress for the weather * discomfort when sitting * excessive masturbation , especially when...abusive parents are repeating the child-rearing practices that they had been subjected to as children. In some cases, abused children who 10 become parents...them abreast of the center’s procedures for reporting, the state’s reporting laws, and the specific practices of the state child welfare agency

  5. Parent & Child Perceptions of Child Health after Sibling Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Rosa M; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M

    Understanding children's health after a sibling's death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children's and their parents' perceptions of children's health and identified relationships of children's age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling's cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. 64 children and 48 parents rated the child's health "now" and "now vs before" the sibling's death in an ICU or ER or at home shortly after withdrawal of life-prolonging technology. Children completed the Child Depression Inventory and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale. Sibling cause of death was collected from hospital records. At 2 and 4 months, 45% to 54% of mothers' and 53% to 84% of fathers' ratings of their child's health "now" were higher than their children's ratings. Child health ratings were lower for: children with greater depression; fathers whose children reported greater anxiety; mothers whose child died of a chronic condition. Children's ratings of their health "now vs before" their sibling's death did not differ significantly from mothers' or fathers' ratings at 2 or 4 months. Black fathers were more likely to rate the child's health better "now vs before" the death; there were no significant differences by child gender and cause of death in child's health "now vs before" the death. Children's responses to a sibling's death may not be visually apparent or become known by asking parents. Parents often perceive their children as healthier than children perceive themselves at 2 and 4 months after sibling death, so talking with children separately is important. Children's perceptions of their health may be influenced by depression, fathers' perceptions by children's anxiety, and mother's perceptions by the cause of sibling death.

  6. Early child health in Lahore, Pakistan: IV. Child care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, S; Jalil, F; Karlberg, J

    1993-08-01

    Child care practices and hygiene measures were studied at 6 months of age in a longitudinally followed cohort of 1476 infants born between September 1984 to March 1987 in four socio-economically different areas in and around Lahore, Pakistan. Although, 76-98% of the mothers looked after their infants during health and 96-98% during a diarrhoeal illness, child care practices and hygiene measures differed significantly between the four areas. During a diarrhoeal episode, the mothers from the upper middle class took timely medical help, fed ample food and Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) to the sick infants and provided uncontaminated food to them in clean surroundings. The mothers from the village and the periurban slum took their sick child, mostly after the second day of illness, to a doctor, but preferred home remedies. Fourteen percent of the mothers in the village and 6% in the periurban slum did not seek any medical help at all. One-third of the families, from these two areas, fed food to children 12 hours after cooking; the surroundings of the child were dirty with large numbers of flies present throughout the year, though the food was commonly kept covered with a lid. We constructed a simple measure of the surroundings of the child, rated as dirty, medium or clean; it was found to be associated to both parental illiteracy and child growth, but not with housing standard. The main conclusion is that any attempt to improve child-care practices and the hygienic environment for the child, should focus on maternal literacy and simple health messages.

  7. Voices from the field: how do child protection practitioners in the Northern Territory operationalise child neglect?

    OpenAIRE

    Flaherty, Annette Clare

    2017-01-01

    This study set out to understand how child protection practitioners in the Northern Territory operationalise child neglect. It did so firstly because child neglect is a major reason such concerns are referred to the child protection service in the Northern Territory. Child neglect cases comprise 28 per cent of all substantiated child maltreatment cases in Australia, and 50 per cent in the Northern Territory (AIHW 2011). Secondly, as outlined in the Literature Review, child negl...

  8. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Urquiza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT. PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships, there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

  9. Housing and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Michael; Baten, Ahmareen; Rosenthal, David G; Hoshino, Risa; Tohn, Ellen; Jacobs, David E

    2013-09-01

    The connection between housing and health is well established. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the child's home, such as cleanliness, moisture, pests, noise, accessibility, injury risks, and other forms of housing environmental quality, all have the potential to influence multiple aspects of the health and development of children. Basic sanitation, reduced household crowding, other improvements in housing and expanded, and improved housing regulations have led to advances in children's health. For example, lead poisoning prevention policies have profoundly reduced childhood lead exposure in the United States. This and many other successes highlight the health benefits for families, particularly children, by targeting interventions that reduce or eliminate harmful exposures in the home. Additionally, parental mental health problems, food insecurity, domestic violence, and the presence of guns in children's homes all are largely experienced by children in their homes, which are not as yet considered part of the Healthy Homes agenda. There is a large movement and now a regulatory structure being put in place for healthy housing, which is becoming closely wedded with environmental health, public health, and the practice of pediatrics. The importance of homes in children's lives, history of healthy homes, asthma, and exposures to lead, carbon monoxide, secondhand/thirdhand smoke, radon, allergy triggers is discussed, as well as how changes in ambient temperature, increased humidity, poor ventilation, water quality, infectious diseases, housing structure, guns, electronic media, family structure, and domestic violence all affect children's health. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  11. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  12. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruritus vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... Common causes of vaginal itching and discharge in young girls include: Chemicals such as perfumes and dyes in detergents, fabric softeners, creams, ointments, ...

  13. Child health and parental relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides...... in the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic illness do...... have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....

  14. Child Maltreatment: An Ecological Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Jay

    1980-01-01

    Draws from works by Bronfenbrenner, Tinbergen, and Burgess to conceptualize child maltreatment as a social-psychological phenomenon that is multiply determined by individual, family, community, and cultural forces. (Author/GC)

  15. [Child abuse: a disturbing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, E; Reyes-Rodrguez, R

    1993-08-01

    This current information on "battered child syndrome" (BCS) was obtained during 1990 from nine institutions in Tijuana, Baja California; 549 cases of BCS were studied, of which 338 were female, 203 male, eight of indeterminate sex due to loss documentation. Child abuse was manifested in all its forms: beatings, sexual abuse, neglect, and affective indifference. The victim's and perpetrator's characters were analyzed together with other factors which had to be taken into consideration in order to detect results which were similarly described in the literature. It is of utmost importance to alert all medical staff to this terrible social problem for the complete treatment of the affected child and the family environment. Community support, and legislation to adequately cover rights of minors and their protection are imperative to elimination of the battered child syndrome.

  16. Does Your Child Have Glaucoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate In This Section Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? email Send this article to a friend by ... a pediatric ophthalmologist. Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Glaucoma What to watch for in children under the ...

  17. Piaget's Theory of Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Robbie

    1972-01-01

    This article traces Piaget's theory of child development from its philosophic foundations in Kantian organization and then describes in sequence Piaget's four stages. (A follow-up article on Piaget and educational practice will appear in a later issue.) (JA)

  18. Your Child's Development: 2 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 2 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 2 meses Your baby develops ... pose) fists remain unclenched half of the time Social and Emotional Development comforts himself or herself, maybe ...

  19. Your Child's Development: 6 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 6 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 6 meses Notice your baby ... both ways (back to front, front to back) Social and Emotional Development recognizes and responds happily to ...

  20. Your Child's Development: 15 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 15 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 15 meses Toddlers this age ... stacks three blocks scribbles with crayon on paper Social and Emotional Development begins to show preference for ...

  1. Your Child's Development: 9 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child's Development: 9 Months Print en español El desarrollo de su hijo: 9 meses Nine-month-olds ... item in each hand at the same time Social and Emotional Development might be fearful of strangers ...

  2. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spirituality Affect Your Family's Health? Talking to Your Child's Doctor Medications: Using Them Safely Talking to the Pharmacist Complementary and Alternative Medicine View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial ...

  3. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    the association between maternal age and overall child morbidity according to main diagnosis groups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a national cohort study including 352 027 live firstborn singleton children. The children were born between Jan 1994 and Dec 2009 and followed to Dec 2012. Children were divided...... into groups according to maternal age: 15-24, 25-29, 30-34, and 35+ years. Poisson regression analyses calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of child morbidities according to main diagnoses groups A-Q of the International Classification of Disease 10 with adjustment for year of birth, body mass...... index, smoking, and mother's level of education. RESULTS: Average follow-up time was 11 years. Compared to children born to women 25-29 years, firstborn children to mothers aged 35+ had higher child morbidity in 8 of 19 main diagnosis groups and firstborn children to mothers 15-24 years had higher child...

  4. Trauma complexity and child abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2017-01-01

    and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information...

  5. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most recently...

  6. [Child maltreatment and new morbidity in pediatrics : Consequences for early child support and child protective interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Heinz

    2016-10-01

    The effects of child maltreatment on children's chronic health conditions have become more visible during recent years. This is true for mental health problems as well as some chronic physical conditions, both summarized as new morbidity within pediatrics. As several Bradford Hill criteria (criteria from epidemiology for the determination of the causal nature of a statistical association) are met, the likely causal nature of underlying associations is discussed. Early family support may have the potential to modify such associations, although empirical evidence is lacking. At least for attachment-based interventions with foster carerers after child maltreatment, positive effects on child HPA axis dysregulation have been demonstrated.

  7. Work, Welfare, and Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Paxson; Jane Waldfogel

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how child maltreatment is affected by the economic circumstances of parents. 'Child maltreatment' encompasses a wide range of behaviors that adversely affect children. It includes neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of abuse or neglect. Using state-level panel data on the numbers of reports and substantiated cases of maltreatment, we examine whether socioeconomic factors play different roles for these different types of maltreatment. A key finding is tha...

  8. Generational Reproduction of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    García Ampudia, Lupe; Orellana M., Oswaldo; Pomalaya V., Ricardo; Yanac Reynoso, Elisa; Malaver S., Carmela; Herrera F., Edgar; Sotelo L., Noemi; Campos C., Lilia; Sotelo L., Lidia; Orellana García, Daphne; Velasquez M., Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is the study of the abuse rising in two generations, of parents and children and establishing the relationship between background child’s abuse with the potential abuse. The sample is comprised of 441 students and 303 parents who agreed to answer the Memories of Abuse Questionnaire. The used instruments were the Child History Questionnaire adapted for the purpose of this research, the Inventory of Potential Child Abuse (Milner, J. 1977), adapted by De Paul, Arru...

  9. School Nurses Avoid Addressing Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh Kraft, Lisbet; Rahm, GullBritt; Eriksson, Ulla-Britt

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global public health problem with major consequences for the individual child and society. An earlier Swedish study showed that the school nurses did not initially talk about nor mention CSA as one form of child abuse. For the child to receive adequate support, the disclosure is a precondition and is dependent on an…

  10. Child Labour: The View from the North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Jim; Hobbs, Sandy

    1999-01-01

    Reports British research findings that challenge the bias that child labor is a problem of only economically underdeveloped countries. Argues that child employment is evident within developed countries, but is largely invisible. Addresses positive and negative effects, and challenges to child labor/child work dichotomy. Debates underlying causes…

  11. Child Labor, Learning Problems, and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In Africa, approximately 80 million children are working. Africa's 41% child labor rate is nearly twice as high as that in Asia. This study examined whether child labor is a direct result of poverty or of reading and math problems in school. The study analyzed reading and math scores of 62 child laborers and 62 non-child laborers from a farming…

  12. An Employer's Guide to Child Care Consultants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichman, Caroline

    This guide is designed to help employers hire a qualified child care consultant who will evaluate child care options in light of employees' needs and help develop and implement appropriate child care options. These options include: (1) establishment of a child care facility; (2) financial assistance; (3) a resource and referral service; (4)…

  13. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-07-01

    Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes.

  14. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  15. Alcohol and the young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, D E

    1984-01-01

    With the increasing availability of alcohol in modern times, the child neglect and abuse portrayed in Hogarth's engraving Gin Lane may once again be witnessed. Reports occur occasionally of alcohol being given deliberately to infants to quieten them, but alcohol poisoning in the slightly older child is not uncommon. The introduction of child-proof containers has altered poisoning figures recently. However, alcohol poisoning tends to occur at ages 3 and 4, that is, about 2 years after the peak of all poisonings in children. This difference may be an indication that alcohol is taken in imitation of parents' drinking, a suggestion which has some support from reported cases of mouthwash poisoning. Holidays and high days where children and alcohol mix, are potentially dangerous periods. Since alcohol poisoning can be fatal, yet if recognised is relatively easily managed, every child with the slightest degree of drowsiness should be suspect until proven or not by blood alcohol. The prevention of alcohol poisoning in the young child consists in protecting the alcohol by lock and key, not setting an example by drinking or gargling in front of children. Many substances such as mouthwash and perfume should also be under supervision. Once actual poisoning has occurred blood sugar is probably more important than the level of blood ethanol and blood sugar levels should be monitored frequently and the child treated with glucose, preferably intravenously.

  16. A Critical Review of Child Labour in Nigeria and The Case for Child Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Akpa AjaNwachuku

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria and the world over condemn forced or exploitative labour of a child, for the obvious reason of the adverse physical, psychological, mental and emotional effect of it on children. What is condemned is not child labour per se, but child forced or exploitative labour. This paper analyses the condemnable child forced or exploitative labour, distinguishes it from the accepted child labour and makes a case for the advancement from child labour to child entrepreneurship. It posits that the advancement to child entrepreneurship shall enable the Nigerian child to contribute their bit to the financial wellbeing of their family and the economic development of Nigeria.

  17. Child Maltreatment in Turkey: Comparison of Parent and Child Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuoğlu, Zeynep; Sarıyer, Görkem; Ataman, M Gökalp

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment, i.e. abuse and neglect, is a significant problem worldwide and can cause impaired physical and mental health throughout life. The true extent still remains unknown in all countries, including Turkey. The aim of this study was to apply the two versions of the International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN) Child Abuse Screening Tool of ICAST-C and ICAST-P, which are used to assess child and parent feedback and to compare reports given by children and those given by parents. This is the first study of its kind conducted in Turkey. First, ICAST was translated into Turkish by bilingual experts. Students and their parents were asked to complete ICAST-C and ICAST-P respectively, with the help of trained researchers. In total, data from 2,608 matched reports (2,608 children and 2,608 parents) was obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate demographical variables, and chi-square tests were employed to investigate the statistical significance of comparisons. The present study demonstrated that Turkish parents consider rebukes, insults and corporal punishment effective ways of disciplining children. According to parents' reports, the use of psychological abuse was most prevalent against boys aged 16, while the use of physical abuse was most prevalent against boys aged 13. A statistically significant relationship was found between parents' economic conditions and child abuse (p0.05). However, the relationship between paternal educational background and psychological abuse was observed to be significant (pchildren's and parents' reports shows that parents tended to under-report child maltreatment. The results show that there is a significant healthcare problem in Turkey, since child maltreatment is prevalent, but parents are not generally aware of its extent. Possible approaches to changing this situation include efforts to increase education levels, promoting public awareness, and strengthening political commitments

  18. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itismita Mohanty

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia's only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services.The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM, University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database.The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children's health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index.The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children's health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage.

  19. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright's coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of both parents in the household increased the odds of survival by 28%. After controlling for the endogeneity of child placement decisions in a multivariate model we found that lower biological relatedness of a child was associated with statistically significant reductions in child survival. The effects of biological relatedness on child survival tend to be stronger for both HIV- and HIV+ children of HIV+ mothers. Conclusions: Reductions in the numbers of close relatives caring for children of HIV+ mothers reduce child survival.

  20. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  1. V. M. BEKHTEREV IN RUSSIAN CHILD SCIENCE, 1900S–1920S: “OBJECTIVE PSYCHOLOGY”/“REFLEXOLOGY” AS A SCIENTIFIC MOVEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In the early 20th century the child population became a major focus of scientific, professional and public interest. This led to the crystallization of a dynamic field of child science, encompassing developmental and educational psychology, child psychiatry and special education, school hygiene and mental testing, juvenile criminology and the anthropology of childhood. This article discusses the role played in child science by the eminent Russian neurologist and psychiatrist Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev. The latter's name is associated with a distinctive program for transforming the human sciences in general and psychology in particular that he in the 1900s labelled “objective psychology” and from the 1910s renamed “reflexology.” The article examines the equivocal place that Bekhterev's “objective psychology” and “reflexology” occupied in Russian/Soviet child science in the first three decades of the 20th century. While Bekhterev's prominence in this field is beyond doubt, analysis shows that “objective psychology” and “reflexology” had much less success in mobilizing support within it than certain other movements in this arena (for example, “experimental pedagogy” in the pre‐revolutionary era); it also found it difficult to compete with the variety of rival programs that arose within Soviet “pedology” during the 1920s. However, this article also demonstrates that the study of child development played a pivotal role in Bekhterev's program for the transformation of the human sciences: it was especially important to his efforts to ground in empirical phenomena and in concrete research practices a new ontology of the psychological, which, the article argues, underpinned “objective psychology”/“reflexology” as a transformative scientific movement. PMID:26910603

  2. Description of a multi-university education and collaborative care child psychiatry access program: New York State's CAP PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, D L; Fornari, V; Scharf, M; Fremont, W; Zuckerbrot, R; Foley, C; Hargrave, T; Smith, B A; Wallace, J; Blakeslee, G; Petras, J; Sengupta, S; Singarayer, J; Cogswell, A; Bhatia, I; Jensen, P

    2017-09-01

    Although, child mental health problems are widespread, few get adequate treatment, and there is a severe shortage of child psychiatrists. To address this public health need many states have adopted collaborative care programs to assist primary care to better assess and manage pediatric mental health concerns. This report adds to the small literature on collaborative care programs and describes one large program that covers most of New York state. CAP PC, a component program of New York State's Office of Mental Health (OMH) Project TEACH, has provided education and consultation support to primary care providers covering most of New York state since 2010. The program is uniquely a five medical school collaboration with hubs at each that share one toll free number and work together to provide education and consultation support services to PCPs. The program developed a clinical communications record to track information about all consultations which forms the basis of much of this report. 2-week surveys following consultations, annual surveys, and pre- and post-educational program evaluations have also been used to measure the success of the program. CAP PC has grown over the 6years of the program and has provided 8013 phone consultations to over 1500 PCPs. The program synergistically provided 17,523 CME credits of educational programming to 1200 PCPs. PCP users of the program report very high levels of satisfaction and self reported growth in confidence. CAP PC demonstrates that large-scale collaborative consultation models for primary care are feasible to implement, popular with PCPs, and can be sustained. The program supports increased access to child mental health services in primary care and provides child psychiatric expertise for patients who would otherwise have none. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Edward Sage; Melanie Sage

    2016-01-01

    The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of socia...

  4. [Child abuse in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  5. Trends in Child Poverty in Sweden: Parental and Child Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mood, Carina; Jonsson, Jan O

    We use several family-based indicators of household poverty as well as child-reported economic resources and problems to unravel child poverty trends in Sweden. Our results show that absolute (bread-line) household income poverty, as well as economic deprivation, increased with the recession 1991-96, then reduced and has remained largely unchanged since 2006. Relative income poverty has however increased since the mid-1990s. When we measure child poverty by young people's own reports, we find few trends between 2000 and 2011. The material conditions appear to have improved and relative poverty has changed very little if at all, contrasting the development of household relative poverty. This contradictory pattern may be a consequence of poor parents distributing relatively more of the household income to their children in times of economic duress, but future studies should scrutinze potentially delayed negative consequences as poor children are lagging behind their non-poor peers. Our methodological conclusion is that although parental and child reports are partly substitutable, they are also complementary, and the simultaneous reporting of different measures is crucial to get a full understanding of trends in child poverty.

  6. The social nature of the mother's tie to her child: John Bowlby's theory of attachment in post-war America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo, Marga

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the development of British psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby's views and their scientific and social reception in the United States during the 1950s. In a 1951 report for the World Health Organization Bowlby contended that the mother is the child's psychic organizer, as observational studies of children worldwide showed that absence of mother love had disastrous consequences for children's emotional health. By the end of the decade Bowlby had moved from observational studies of children in hospitals to animal research in order to support his thesis that mother love is a biological need. I examine the development of Bowlby's views and their scientific and social reception in the United States during the 1950s, a central period in the evolution of his views and in debates about the social implications of his work. I argue that Bowlby's view that mother love was a biological need for children influenced discussions about the desirability of mothers working outside the home during the early Cold War. By claiming that the future of a child's mind is determined by her mother's heart, Bowlby's argument exerted an unusually strong emotional demand on mothers and had powerful implications for the moral valuation of maternal care and love.

  7. Maternal Concern for Child Undereating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callie L; Pesch, Megan H; Perrin, Eliana M; Appugliese, Danielle P; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine; Lumeng, Julie C

    To describe features of maternal concern for her child undereating; examine maternal and child correlates of maternal concern for undereating; and determine whether maternal concern for undereating is associated with feeding practices. This was a cross-sectional analysis of an observational study with 286 mother-child dyads (mean child age, 71 months). Maternal concern for undereating was assessed using a semistructured interview. Mothers completed questionnaires to assess picky eating, food neophobia, and feeding practices. Feeding practices were further assessed using videotaped mealtime observations. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of maternal and child characteristics with maternal concern for undereating. Regression was used to assess the association of maternal concern for undereating with feeding practices, controlling for covariates. Over a third of mothers (36.5%) expressed concern that their child does not eat enough. Correlates of concern for undereating included child body mass index z-score (BMIz; odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.77) and picky eating (OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.26-4.59). Maternal concern for undereating was associated with greater reported pressure to eat (relative risk [RR] = 1.97; 95% CI, 1.55-2.50), greater observed bribery (OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.50-4.60), and higher observed pressure (OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.08-3.36) during mealtimes. Mothers of children who are picky eaters and have a lower BMIz are more likely to be concerned that their children do not eat enough, and maternal concern for undereating is associated with pressuring and bribing children to eat. Pediatricians might address maternal concern for undereating by advising feeding practices that do not involve pressure and bribery, particularly among healthy weight children. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxic stress and child refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the phenomenon of toxic stress and its impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees. Almost two decades ago, researchers found that recurring adverse childhood events (ACEs; e.g., physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction such as substance abuse, mental illness, and criminal behavior) were associated with a significant increase in serious illnesses during adulthood. Illnesses include heart, lung, and liver disease, cancer, and bone fractures. The scientists reported that experiencing four or more ACEs during childhood significantly increases the risk for toxic stress. Toxic stress is defined as the exposure to extreme, frequent, and persistent adverse events without the presence of a supportive caretaker. There is a paucity of literature related to toxic stress and child refugees. However, it has been clearly established that the prolonged brutal and traumatizing war in Syria is having a profound impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees at a distressing rate. Prevention of toxic stress should be a primary goal of all pediatric healthcare professionals working with child refugees. While this seems daunting given the population, and the seemingly insurmountable stressors they experience, some basic interventions should be considered. Providing basic anticipatory guidance to parents and caregivers of child refugees, to encourage positive parenting and strengthening support networks, will be highly effective in developing the requisite buffers that mitigate the effects of stress and avoid toxic stress. Efforts should also be focused on addressing caregiver stress and improving their ability to provide safe, reliable, and nurturing care that will help to mitigate any stress response experienced by a child. It is critical that greater awareness be placed on the effects of toxic stress on child refugees who are exposed to significant adverse events early in life

  9. Child trafficking: ‘worst form’ of child labour, or worst approach to young migrants?

    OpenAIRE

    Huijsmans, Roy

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractChild trafficking is often used synonymously with child labour migration. This framing does a disservice to many child migrants, who change place for many reasons, and new thinking is necessary.

  10. An Analysis of the Child and Adult Care Food Programs in Child Care Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kapur, Kanika

    1999-01-01

    ...) that provides healthy meals and snacks in child and adult day care facilities. This report uses the Cost, Quality and Child Outcomes study to analyze the characteristics of three types of child care centers: (1...

  11. The two-child limit for Universal Credit and Child Tax Credit

    OpenAIRE

    MACHIN, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Richard Machin explores the background to, and likely impact of, the two-child limit on the child element in Universal Credit and the Child Tax Credit, which was introduced by the Welfare Reform and Work Act 2016

  12. [Child raising without violence--a right for every child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Marie; Lucas, Steven

    2014-11-18

    The view of children and child rearing has undergone a marked change in our country over the past 50 years. As the first country in the world, Sweden passed legislation 1979 on the prohibition of corporal punishment in the home. Many countries have followed suit, but at present, only 5,4% of the world's children have legal protection against violence and abuse. Children's rights are on the agenda, including work towards implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Child abuse is nevertheless a major public health problem with serious implications in both childhood and adulthood, and is tied into both economic and social disadvantage. The childhood adversity we see is only the tip of the iceberg and continued efforts are necessary to identify and reduce the vulnerability of children and protect children's rights. Health care professionals have an important role to play.

  13. Use and value of information sources by parents of child psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Adrienne; Kabashi, Arta; Guthrie, Hannah; Burket, Roger; Turner, Philip

    2011-06-01

    With Web 2.0, the variety of information sources for parents of paediatric psychiatric patients has increased dramatically. Information use theory suggests newer sources supplement rather than supplant traditional sources of health information. This study sought to determine the use and value of traditional and emerging sources of information and whether the subjects had access to highly valued sources of information. One hundred parents indicated the use and value of six sources of information on the child's symptoms, diagnoses and treatment. The data were analyzed to determine if significant relationships existed between type of source and the use and value of the information sources. Ninety-four percent of the subjects had access to the Internet and almost half of those reported using the Social Web. Eighty-five percent had at least one high-value information source. The psychiatrist in the clinic, the Internet and the primary care physician were the most highly used and valued sources. Use of digital information sources was greater than found in other studies of similar populations. This use appears to complement rather than supplant more traditional sources. Further studies are needed to see if the negative impact of lack of Internet access is replicated. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  14. The use of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale to identify postnatal depression symptoms at well child visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestri Maria

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives 1 to evaluate the role of the pediatrician in detecting postnatal depression (PD symptoms by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; 2 to detect factors increasing the risk of PD and, 3 to assess the importance of scores gained from fathers' questionnaire. Methods we surveyed 1122 mothers and 499 fathers who were assessed using the EPDS during the first well-child visit. After 5 weeks, high scoring parents, completed a second EPDS. High scoring parents were examined by a psychiatrist who had to confirm the PD diagnosis. Results 26.6% of mothers and 12.6% of fathers at the first visit, 19.0% of mothers and 9.1% of fathers at the second visit, gained scores signaling the risk of PD. Four mothers and two fathers had confirmed PD diagnosis. Younger maternal age, non-Italian nationality and low socio-economic condition were related to higher EPDS scores. Conclusion PD is common in the average population. Using a simple and standardized instrument, pediatricians are able to detect parents with higher risk of suffering from PD.

  15. Child and Adolescent Inpatient Unit in General Hospital “Tzaneio”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tseva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Inpatient Service offers comprehensive diagnostic evaluation and treatment of children and adolescents (typical age ranges from 3-16 years old with a variety of emotional and behavioral problems including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, severe disruptive behavior, and suicide attempts. Treatment Team. The inpatient treatment team includes psychiatrists, psychologists, registered nurses, special education teacher, social worker, speech and occupational therapists. In addition, pediatricians from a full range of medical subspecialties are available for consultations. The multi-disciplinary staff emphasizes a family-oriented approach and parents and care-givers are encouraged to be active participants in the treatment team throughout a child’s stay. Treatment Program. The program offers developmentally appropriate therapeutic activities in a closely supervised environment. Extensive opportunities for observation, assessment, and intervention are possible in this intensive setting. Specialized assessments including neuropsychological testing, speech and language testing, and occupational therapy assessments are all available. Treatment plans typically include a combination of individual psychotherapy, behavior management, family counseling and medications. Staff members develop an individualized treatment plan emphasizing safety for each patient during the hospital stay. The plan is closely coordinated with families, outpatient providers, and resource programs to coordinate aftercare plans and facilitate a smooth transition to home.

  16. Review of electroconvulsive therapy practice from a tertiary Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Preeti; Gogi, Prabhu Kiran Vishwanath; Srinath, Shoba; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Girimaji, Satish; Seshadri, Shekhar; Sagar, John Vijay

    2014-12-01

    The use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in children and adolescents is a controversial issue. This study was done to examine the pattern and practice as well as the outcome of electroconvulsive therapy administered to children and adolescents admitted to a tertiary care centre. A 10 year retrospective chart review of all children and adolescents (up to 16 years of age) admitted in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Centre, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) who had received at least 1 session of ECT was done. Information regarding diagnosis, reasons for prescribing electroconvulsive therapy, details regarding the procedure and outcome variables was collected from the records. Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale rating of the severity of illness and improvement seen were done by 2 trained psychiatrists independently. 22 children and adolescents received electroconvulsive therapy over 10 years. There were an equal number of boys and girls. All received modified ECT. Most patients who received electroconvulsive therapy were severely ill. Catatonic symptoms 54.5% (12) were the most common reason for prescribing electroconvulsive therapy. It was efficacious in 77.3% (17) of the patients. Electroconvulsive therapy was relatively safe, and most experienced no acute side effects. 68.2% (15) who were on follow up and did not experience any long term side effects due to the electroconvulsive therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy has a place in the acute management of severe childhood psychiatric disorders. Further long term prospective studies are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum infestation in a child during occlusion therapy for amblyopia: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biler, Elif Demirkilinc; Selver, Ozlem Barut; Palamar, Melis; Uner, Ahmet; Uretmen, Onder

    2016-01-01

    An 8-year-old mentally retarded boy is brought to the hospital because of itching and burning at his right eye for 10 days. He was on full time right eye occlusion therapy for left amblyopia. Slit lamp examination revealed nits and adult lice anchored to the eyelashes in his occluded eye. Eyelashes and all detected lice and nits were mechanically trimmed, and sent for parasitological examination, which confirmed the diagnosis. Upon familial evaluation for additional infestation, the father was also found to have genital phthiriasis pubis and received appropriate treatment. While phthiriasis palpebrarum in children may signify sexual abuse, a detailed investigation by a child psychiatrist was performed and revealed no sign of abuse. Since the infestation was at only on occluded eye, the most possible explanation for the transmission was evaluated as the misusage of the adhesive patch in our case. In conclusion, sexual abuse should be excluded in children with phthiriasis palpebrarum and parents of amblyopic children on occlusion therapy should be warned about the importance of the hygiene of the patching in order to avoid any kind of infection and infestation.

  18. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J R

    1996-01-01

    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  19. CHILD MAINTENANCE IN TURKISH LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Bilge Sarihan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alimony; the dictionary defines as, the whole of what is needed to make a living; as the legal sense is defined as connected with one month to one court decision that obliged to provide for. Family members of a moral rule, first of all to help each other. This moral without often any coercion parties in the framework adapts to this rule, but in this case the legislator for the processing always smoothly, has made it a statutory duty by going to road regulations to help each other for certain family members. Assistance in the form of alimony and child support maintenance can be divided into two main groups. Support resulting from family law, commonly referred to as maintenance support. Maintenance alimony; temporary alimony, child maintenance and poverty alimony. The care and upbringing of children in the marital union is entitled to custody of the mother and father in the framework. Mother and father use custody together. Custody of minors and adult children must sometimes restricted to persons, about paying attention to both the goods and to represent them as a whole of the rights and obligations of the law have been installed on the parents. Common life of the spouses or by court order issued at the end of separation has occurred judge may give custody to one of the spouses. side with custody of children have been left to him is obliged to look after and educate them. However, not given custody of his side, must participate in their child's care and education expenses amount to be determined by the judge according to financial strength. Associates alimony, separation or nullity or divorce, child custody as a result of which he had left his wife, child care and the financial strength to participate in the rate training expenses. Associates alimony, not a liability connected to custody, is a natural consequence of being parents. Because spouses are obliged to take care of children's care and upbringing. Child maintenance is

  20. CHILD LABOR ABUSE: LEGAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhoshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of child labor and ways of protection from child labor abuse. Child labor is a negative social phenomenon that is widespread throughout the world, and also in Republic of Macedonia. International and national institutions and organizations are making serious efforts to eradicate this negative phenomenon, through the adoption of numerous international legal instruments (conventions, recommendations, declarations, etc.. Child labor as a phenomenon refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability of education, and that is socially, mentally, physically, or morally dangerous and harmful. All international organizations define this practice as exploitative and destructive to the development of the whole society. With international legal instruments of the UN, ILO, Council of Europe and the EU child labor is strictly prohibited. There are some important differences which exist between the many kinds of work that is done by children. Some of them are demanding and difficult, others are hazardous and morally reprehensible. Children are doing a very wide range of activities and tasks when they work.

  1. Informant Discrepancies in Assessing Child Dysfunction Relate to Dysfunction Within Mother-Child Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined whether mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems relate to dysfunctional interactions between mother and child and stress in the mother. Participants included 239 children (6–16 years old; 58 girls, 181 boys) referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior, and their mothers. Mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems were related to mother-child conflict. Moreover, maternal stress mediated this relationship. The findings sug...

  2. Parent & Child Perceptions of Child Health after Sibling Death

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Rosa M.; Brooten, Dorothy; Youngblut, JoAnne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding children?s health after a sibling?s death and what factors may affect it is important for treatment and clinical care. This study compared children?s and their parents? perceptions of children?s health and identified relationships of children?s age, gender, race/ethnicity, anxiety, and depression and sibling?s cause of death to these perceptions at 2 and 4 months after sibling death. Methods 64 children and 48 parents rated the child?s health ?now? and ?now vs before?...

  3. Parental overprotection and its relation to perceived child vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1997-04-01

    A study of 280 parents with a child age 5-10 years examined the relation between and correlates of parental overprotection (less education, younger child age, being an only child) and parental perception of increased child vulnerability (history of life-threatening illness, child medical condition, first child). One-third of parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective.

  4. The political economy of child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Maffei, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of child labor is widespread in developing countries and emotionally discussed in the media and public. At present there is a well-developed and fast growing economic literature on child labor which covers the various aspects of child labor. In the first part of the thesis we give a survey about the facts, the institutions and the economic literature dealing with child labor. The economic theory of child labor can be roughly subdivided into the economic theory of child labor i...

  5. Parental leave and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhm, C J

    2000-11-01

    This study investigates whether rights to parental leave improve pediatric health. Aggregate data are used for 16 European countries over the 1969 through 1994 period. More generous paid leave is found to reduce deaths of infants and young children. The magnitudes of the estimated effects are substantial, especially where a causal effect of leave is most plausible. In particular, there is a much stronger negative relationship between leave durations and post-neonatal or child fatalities than for perinatal mortality, neonatal deaths, or low birth weight. The evidence further suggests that parental leave may be a cost-effective method of bettering child health.

  6. Parental Schooling and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    . By differencing within identical twin pair we are able to take heritable endowments transmitted from parent to child into account. For all outcomes OLS is found to be upward biased. Father schooling is found to have no causal effect on infant and early childhood health. Mother schooling increases birth weight...... and the probability of high school completion. For older cohorts, we are able to replicate the findings of Behrman & Rosenzweig (2002) that fathers’ schooling has a positive causal effect on child schooling but mothers’ does not. However, this is reversed for parents born after 1945, when mothers’ schooling has...

  7. Emergency Child Aid. Child Health and Safety Series (Module VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides a step by step review of what to do in common emergency situations. It is emphasized that the manual is not a substitute for the complete first aid course which every careperson should have. Initial sections of the manual focus on preparing for emergency conditions,…

  8. Child Psychotherapy, Child Analysis, and Medication: A Flexible, Integrative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    For children with moderate to severe emotional or behavioral problems, the current approach in child psychiatry is to make an assessment for the use of both psychotherapy and medication. This paper describes integration of antidepressants and stimulants with psychoanalytically oriented techniques.

  9. ``Battered child`` syndrome; Das ``Battered-Child``-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, K.; Merk, J.; Sokiranski, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie

    1997-10-01

    Synonyms for the `battered child` syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as `child abuse`, or `non-accidental injury`. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Als Synonym fuer das `Battered-Child`-Syndrom (BCS) stehen die Begriffe der koerperlichen-/physikalischen-Kindesmisshandlung, im angelsaechsischen Sprachraum die Begriffe `Child Abuse` und `Nonaccidental Injury`. Vom Syndrom abzugrenzen sind die seelische Misshandlung, die seelische und koerperliche Vernachlaessigung, und der sexuelle Missbrauch. Kombinationsformen sind nicht selten. Bei der Diagnostik des Syndroms spielt die Radiologie eine entscheidende Rolle. So hilft der Einsatz adaequater Untersuchungsmethoden, den Tatbestand der Misshandlung zu identifizieren und zu dokumentieren, aber auch einen Verdacht zu widerlegen. (orig./AJ)

  10. Dr Eugenia Rose Aylmer Cooper (1898-1991): Manchester's renowned female anatomist and neurohistologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreeve, David R

    2016-11-01

    Having excelled in histology, Dr Eugenia Cooper, following graduation in medicine in Manchester, embarked on a career spanning 44 years in anatomy and histology at Manchester University. Her inimitable character was readily remembered by those she had taught. She was the first female graduate to gain an MD with gold medal for her thesis on the histology of the endocrine organs. However, her main study was the development of the human brainstem from the early weeks of gestation, which remains the basis for anatomical understanding today. More controversial was her theory on circulation and absorption of the cerebrospinal fluid. On retiring as Reader in Histology, she expressed disappointment at not being appointed a professor, which she considered was due to her gender. Possibly to compensate for this, she had studied law as an additional interest. She continued in research for a further 10 years in reproductive pharmacology. After retirement she donated her medals to the University, three to be awarded in medicine and histology, which have now lapsed, but the medals in computer science and music continue to be important rewards. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The battered child syndrome; Die nicht unfallbedingte Verletzung (battered child)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorantin, E.; Lindbichler, F. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria). Abt. fuer Kinderradiologie

    2002-03-01

    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.) [German] Die Aufdeckung einer Kindesmisshandlung stellt eine grosse Herausforderung fuer alle in der Kinderbetreuung taetigen Berufsgruppen dar. Der Radiologie kommt eine besondere Rolle zu, da sie einerseits durch die Erkennung typischer Verletzungsmuster einen Verdacht bestaetigen, als auch bei ''Zufallsbefunden'' die moeglicherweise fatalen Folgen fuer die betroffenen Kinder verhindern kann. Der typische Verletzungsmechanismus im Rahmen einer Kindesmisshandlung stellt das sog. ''shakin baby syndrome'' dar. Dabei wird der Thorax mit beiden Haenden umfasst und das Kind geschuettelt. Durch dieses repetitive Akzelerations-Dezelerationstrauma entstehen typische Verletzungen mit paravertebralen Rippenfrakturen, ZNS- sowie Retinablutungen. Anschliessend wird das Kind weggeworfen mit entsprechend weiteren Verletzungen. Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, einen Ueberblick ueber die Radiologie der wichtigsten Verletzungen und deren Abklaerung im Rahmen einer Kindesmisshandlung zu geben sowie die Demonstration der Befunde

  12. Mother-Child Positivity and Negativity: Family-Wide and Child-Specific Main Effects and Interactions Predict Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Pike, Alison

    2018-01-01

    Links between positive and negative aspects of the parent-child relationship and child adjustment are undisputed. Scholars recognize the importance of parental differential treatment (PDT) of siblings, yet, less is known about PDT in the context of the shared (family-wide) parent-child relationship climate, or about the extent to which positivity…

  13. Knowledge transfer: a worldwide challenge in child mental health: a recommendation to the readership of CAPMH concerning the revised version of the IACAPAP Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Anna T; Brown, Rebecca C; Fegert, Joerg M

    2018-01-01

    Transfer of knowledge is an important issue throughout all scientific disciplines, especially in the medical and psycho-social field. The issue of worldwide knowledge transfer in child mental health is one of the aims and goals of the journal Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health (CAPMH). The demand for mental health training is high worldwide, and especially in low- to lower-middle income countries, where inadequate access to knowledge resources in the field of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) is prevalent. At the same time, many of these countries are showing an increased risk for mental health issues in children and adolescents. The International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions (IACAPAP) Textbook of Child and Adolescent Mental Health counters this problem. It is an open-access e-textbook aiming to provide an overview of current and established treatment and practical approaches for child and adolescent psychiatrists, psychotherapists and allied (mental health) professionals worldwide. First published in 2012, the updated and revised version was launched in 2015. The aim of this commentary is to review and disseminate the usefulness and practicability of content and further material included in the new version of the textbook. Overall, the textbook contains ten sections divided into 59 chapters, with a total of 1435 pages. The original version of the textbook was written in English. The revised version contains translations of 49 chapters into different languages (to date French, Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic, Portuguese, Russian, Norwegian and/or Japanese), with additional material for knowledge dissemination and self-directed learning (e.g. videos and quizzes) for several chapters. The textbook and the add-on materials for dissemination are of high quality and convey a great introduction to important topics concerning mental health. Apart from knowledge transfer, there is a pragmatic focus on clinical

  14. What Vaccinations Does My Child Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needed before your child can enter school or childcare. How do vaccines work? Vaccines help your child’s ... routine vaccines is covered by your health insurance company. How do I know when my child should ...

  15. When your child's treatment stops working

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a child. This may mean watching TV, playing games, or sending texts. Encourage your child to stay ... and Oski's Hematology and Oncology of Infancy and Childhood . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  16. 77 FR 895 - Tribal Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... note that for title IV-E funding purposes, criminal record and child abuse and neglect registry checks... Administration for Children and Families 45 CFR Parts 1355 and 1356 Tribal Child Welfare; Interim Final Rule #0... 896

  17. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... English Español Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth / For Parents / Can the Weather Affect My ... Asthma? Print Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? Yes. Weather conditions can bring on asthma symptoms. ...

  18. Measuring Child Development and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Abbie

    2017-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal's "Education 2030" agenda includes an explicit focus on early childhood development. Target 4.2 states that all children are "developmentally on track" at the start of school. What does it mean for a child to be developmentally on track, and how should it be measured, especially in an…

  19. CHILD DEVELOPMENT BIBLIOGRAPHY. SUPPLEMENT I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY SUPPLEMENT LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT. APPROXIMATELY 90 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1956 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE BEHAVIOR TESTS, CONDITIONING, MATERNAL REACTIONS, GRADE PREDICTABILITY, EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES,…

  20. Missed opportunities in child healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jonker

    2014-08-01

    Objectives: This article describes the experiences of mothers that utilised comprehensive child health services in the Cape Metropolitan area of South Africa. Services included treatment for diseases; preventative interventions such as immunisation; and promotive interventions, such as improvement in nutrition and promotion of breastfeeding. Method: A qualitative, descriptive phenomenological approach was applied to explore the experiences and perceptions of mothers and/or carers utilising child healthcare services. Thirty percent of the clinics were selected purposively from the total population. A convenience purposive non-probability sampling method was applied to select 17 mothers who met the criteria and gave written consent. Interviews were conducted and recorded digitally using an interview guide. The data analysis was done using Tesch’s eight step model. Results: Findings of the study indicated varied experiences. Not all mothers received information about the Road to Health book or card. According to the mothers, integrated child healthcare services were not practised. The consequences were missed opportunities in immunisation, provision of vitamin A, absence of growth monitoring, feeding assessment and provision of nutritional advice. Conclusion: There is a need for simple interventions such as oral rehydration, early recognition and treatment of diseases, immunisation, growth monitoring and appropriate nutrition advice. These services were not offered diligently. Such interventions could contribute to reducing the incidence of child morbidity and mortality.