WorldWideScience

Sample records for renovation majjasim iraq

  1. Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Attention in this discussion of Iraq is directed to the following: geography; people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Iraq. In 1986, Iraq's population was estimated to be 16 million with an annual growth rate of 3.3%. The infant mortality rate is 25/1000; life expectancy is 56.1 years. Iraq is bordered by Kuwait, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Almost 75% of the population live in the flat, alluvial plain stretching southeast toward Baghdad and Basra to the Persian Gulf. The 2 largest ethnic groups are Arabas and Kurds; other distinct groups are Assyrians, Turkomans, Iranians, Lurs, and Armenians. Iraq, once known as Mesopotamia, was the site of flourishing ancient civilizations. Muslims conquered Iraq in the 7th century A.D. In the 8th century, the Abassid caliphate established its capital at Baghdad, and by 1638 Baghdad had become a frontier outpost of the Ottoman Empire. At the end of World War I, Iraq became a British-mandated territory. When it was declared independent in 1932, the Hashemite family ruled as a constitutional monarchy. In 1945, Iraq joined the UN and became a founding member of the Arab League. The Ba'ath Party rules Iraq through the 9-member Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). The RCC's president (chief of state and supreme commander of the armed forces) is elected by a 2/3 majority of the RCC. A Council of Ministers, appointed by the RCC, has administrative and some legislative responsibilities. A 250-member National Assembly was elected on June 20, 1980, in the 1st elections since the end of the monarchy, with another National Assembly election held in October 1984. The Ba'ath Party controls the government. The Iraqi regime does not tolerate opposition. The economy of Iraq is characterized by a heavy dependence on oil exports and an emphasis on development through central planning. Economic performance deteriorated in 1986 because of the sharp

  2. Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alazard-Toux, N.; Mathieu, Y

    2003-07-01

    Although Iraq has been producing oil for many years, its turbulent history has prevented it from fully tapping the resources in place. Now in the forefront of the energy and geopolitical scene, Iraq appears to many observers to be a key element of the world oil market, now and in the future. (author)

  3. Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, N.; Mathieu, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Although Iraq has been producing oil for many years, its turbulent history has prevented it from fully tapping the resources in place. Now in the forefront of the energy and geopolitical scene, Iraq appears to many observers to be a key element of the world oil market, now and in the future. (author)

  4. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    The Integrated Renovation Process (IRP) is a user customized methodology based on judiciously selected constructivist and interactive multi-criteria decision making methods (Galiotto, Heiselberg, & Knudstrup, 2014 (expected)). When applied for home renovation, the Integrated Renovation Process...

  5. Iraq's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, S.

    1998-01-01

    The large oil reserves of Iraq make it an important player in the long-term political energy world. This article briefly reviews the oil industry''s development and current status in Iraq and discusses the planned oil and gas field development. Finally there is a political discussion regarding the future of Iraq in terms of religion, race and neighbouring countries. (UK)

  6. Solar renovation demonstration projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun Joergensen, O [ed.

    1998-10-01

    In the framework of the IEA SHC Programme, a Task on building renovation was initiated, `Task 20, Solar Energy in Building Renovation`. In a part of the task, Subtask C `Design of Solar Renovation Projects`, different solar renovation demonstration projects were developed. The objective of Subtask C was to demonstrate the application of advanced solar renovation concepts on real buildings. This report documents 16 different solar renovation demonstration projects including the design processes of the projects. The projects include the renovation of houses, schools, laboratories, and factories. Several solar techniques were used: building integrated solar collectors, glazed balconies, ventilated solar walls, transparent insulation, second skin facades, daylight elements and photovoltaic systems. These techniques are used in several simple as well as more complex system designs. (au)

  7. Existing Sustainable Renovation Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Gustavsson, Leif

    The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is......The Nordic single-family house renovation market is dominated by a craftsman based approach with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses...

  8. Mission Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This video summarizes the activities of the IAEA inspection teams, assisted by the UN Special Commission on Iraq, to uncover, neutralize and prevent the restart of Iraq's military nuclear programme. It documents the destruction or rendering harmless of various sites and equipment used for nuclear weapon development, sometimes under very difficult conditions, and points out the necessity of establishing a comprehensive and sustainable monitoring system for the future

  9. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2015-01-01

    the project stakeholders to overcome most informational barriers to sustainable home renovation such as lack of knowledge, lack of interest, lack of support, and lack of social and emotional understanding. The homeowners were able to perceive the new and numerous qualities they were getting in their newly......The potential for primary energy savings is greatest in the building sector. A very relevant way to save energy is to increase the rates and depths of building renovations. In order to reach such goals, building owners need to be convinced to invest in high-performance sustainable renovation...

  10. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    they get more time for the cost optimization and the qualitative analysis of the users’ needs and behaviours. In order to reach a fossil free energy building stock within an acceptable time frame, it is primordial that researchers, politicians and the building industry work hand in hand. Indeed, in order...... to overcome the financial barriers to energy renovation and bring a new type of building experts in the building renovation sector, cost optimization tools for building renovation have been and can be developed but new legislation and politico-economic supports are still much needed. We present in this report...... a new contribution from the research and industry sides and results reached with the newly developed methodology, but without a significant contribution from the politico-economic and legislation sides . The experiences met during application of the Integrated Renovation Process are described...

  11. Renovation of social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rask; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    consumption in the building sector. This planned transformation towards a more energy-efficient building mass involves changes in the building envelope and, as such, is likely to influence the experience of the built environment dramatically, both interior and exterior. Recent research shows, however...... in the renovation of social housing. Methodologically, this hypothesis is investigated by re-reading the task of energy renovation through the lens of tectonic architectural theory. Specifically, Eduard Sekler’s etymological distinction between structure, construction, and tectonics is developed as a framework...... for addressing the spatial implications and potentials of technical initiatives in contemporary energy renovations within the continuum described by Scott. The framework is applied in two case studies of recent energy renovations of social housing dwellings. Finally, the paper discusses whether the technical...

  12. Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2016-01-01

    renovation to be overcome. The homeowners were better integrated and their preferences and immaterial values were better taken into account. To keep the decision-making process economically viable and timely, the process as known today still needs to be improved, and new tools need to be developed....... This paper presents a new scheme: the integrated renovation process. One successful case study is introduced, and recommendations for future developments needed in the field are provided....

  13. The Integrated Renovation Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas

    and constructivist multiple criteria decision-making analysis method is selected for developing the work further. The method is introduced and applied to the renovation of a multi-residential historic building. Furthermore, a new scheme, the Integrated Renovation Process, is presented. Finally, the methodology...... is applied to two single-family homes. In practice, such a scheme allowed most informational barriers to sustainable home renovation to be overcome. The homeowners were better integrated and their preferences and immaterial values were better taken into account. They assimilated the multiple benefits...... to keep the decision making process economically viable and timely, the process still needs to be improved and new tools need to be developed....

  14. Iran's Influence in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Iran is building substantial influence in post-Saddam Iraq, in large part because the dominant parties in Iraq have long-standing ideological, political, and religious sectarian ties to Tehran. A key U.S...

  15. Overheating assessment of energy renovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Duer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    In many post-occupancy studies of renovated houses elevated temperatures have been documented. This article presents in which situations overheating need to be addressed and which renovation measures are causing this need. The analysis contains representative houses from central and north Europe...

  16. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Spata; Anthony Cuffe; Thomas Oren

    2005-01-01

    The Machine Control Center (MCC) at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) was constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facilities 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve on work-flow processes and ergonomic attributes. The renovation was performed in two phases during the summer of 2004, with one phase occurring during machine operations and the latter, more extensive phase, occurring during our semi-annual shutdown period. The new facility takes advantage of advances in display technology, analog and video signal management, server technology, ergonomic workspace design, lighting engineering, acoustic ceilings and raised flooring solutions to provide a marked improvement in the overall environment of machine operations

  17. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Spata; Thomas Oren

    2005-01-01

    The Machine Control Center (MCC) at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) was initially constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facility's 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve workflow processes and ergonomic attributes. This effort also sets the foundation for the redevelopment of the accelerator's control system to deliver high reliability performance with improvements in beam specifications management and information flow. The complete renovation was performed over a three-week maintenance period with no interruption to beam operations. We present the results of this effort

  18. CEBAF Control Room Renovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Spata; Thomas Oren

    2005-01-01

    The Machine Control Center at Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility was initially constructed in the early 1990s and based on proven technology of that era. Through our experience over the last 15 years and in our planning for the facilities 12 GeV upgrade we reevaluated the control room environment to capitalize on emerging visualization and display technologies and improve on workflow processes and ergonomic attributes. This effort also sets the foundation for the redevelopment of the accelerator's control system to deliver high reliability performance with improvements in beam specifications management and information flow. The complete renovation was performed over a three-week period with no interruption to beam operations. We present the results of this effort

  19. Iraq's Tourism Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Dabidian; Mohammed Wafaa Al-Ani; Christopher Hassaan Francke; Ahmed Redwan

    2013-01-01

    While it will require further political stability and security, tourism in Iraq stands to be a major growth sector. The Iraqi tourism sector is currently underdeveloped and in a state of neglect, due to decades of war, closed regimes and recurrent instability and insecurity. However, as Iraq continues to develop and stabilizes, it can begin to meet its tremendous potential as a global tour...

  20. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  1. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  2. The Optimal Time of Renovating a Mall

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. Wong; George Norman

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a maximization model determining the optimal time at which a mall should be renovated. The analysis is constructed on the assumption of a decreasing rental income over time as a mall ages. It is then shown that the optimal renovation period achieves a balance between the marginal cost and benefits of delaying renovation. We show how this balance is affected by changes in the discount rate, net rental incomes, and renovation costs. Numerical simulations are used to demonstr...

  3. Humanitarian situation in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne ten Veen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing violence is severely constraining the humanitarian space and making it next to impossible to deliver emergency relief to many vulnerable groups in the worst-affected areas of central Iraq.

  4. Iraq: A Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Jon C., Ed.

    Accused of harboring and supporting terrorists, Saddam Hussein's country of Iraq sits at the top of a short list of targets in United States war on terrorism. Iraq is a country about twice the size of the state of Idaho with a population of over 22 million. The country relies on oil for its economic well-being and controls what some estimate to be…

  5. The renovated Almaraz is profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehkanen, S.; Vaelisuo, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Almaraz power plant is situated in the Province of Extremadura in southwestern Spain. In the plant there are two pressurised water reactors that are delivered by Westinghouse and commissioned in the beginning of 1980's. In mid 1990's major renovations were made by Siemens. The plant is very profitable, says plant manager Araluce. The richness of the living nature in the area surrounding the power plant was emphasized in the oral and written presentations. (author)

  6. Renovation work at Restaurant 1

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Due to the age of the present kitchen and freeflow installations in Restaurant 1, essential renovation work is due to be carried out. The work is scheduled to last from September 2006 to May 2007. Work on the self-service area of the restaurant will commence in November. Every effort will be made to minimise the inconvenience caused to users of the restaurant and we thank you in advance for your co-operation during this period.

  7. Renovation works at Restaurant 1

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Due to the age of the present kitchen and freeflow installations in Restaurant 1, essential renovations are due to be carried out. The planned period for this project is September 2006 to May 2007. Work on the self-service area of the restaurant will commence in November. Every effort will be made to minimise the inconvenience caused to users of the restaurant and we thank you in advance for your co-operation during this period.

  8. Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanford, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    .... Iraq's industrial sector was created, in large part, as a result of government efforts to diversify the economy through economic development projects using the proceeds from Iraq's oil wealth and borrowed funds...

  9. Geopolitical hotspots : Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.

    2004-01-01

    The government of Iraq fell one month after the United States and its allies launched an invasion on the country in March, 2003. The problems that ensued included looting, sabotage and alienation of the occupying powers from the Iraqi people. The author states that despite these problems, progress has been made in Iraq in terms of an Iraqi governing council which will hand back power to Iraqis by the end of June 2004. The goal is to have an election of a constitutional assembly by the end of January 2005. Progress has also been made in terms of restoring pre-invasion oil production capacity, despite sabotage to pipelines and oilfields. The Iraqi Oil Ministry claimed to have raised oil production to 2.5 million barrels per day (mbpd) by mid-March 2004, and exports to the Turkish port of Ceyhan were restored. The future of Iraq's oil production remains uncertain. Although a transitional government could contract foreign companies to boost production from existing oilfields for the short-term, the author emphasized that a permanent government must be elected by the people of Iraq before any long-term contracts for new oilfield development can be negotiated. The government elected by the people of Iraq should determine the structure of its own oil industry and any future relationships with foreign oil companies. tabs., figs

  10. Geopolitical hotspots : Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. [Centre for Global Energy Studies, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The government of Iraq fell one month after the United States and its allies launched an invasion on the country in March, 2003. The problems that ensued included looting, sabotage and alienation of the occupying powers from the Iraqi people. The author states that despite these problems, progress has been made in Iraq in terms of an Iraqi governing council which will hand back power to Iraqis by the end of June 2004. The goal is to have an election of a constitutional assembly by the end of January 2005. Progress has also been made in terms of restoring pre-invasion oil production capacity, despite sabotage to pipelines and oilfields. The Iraqi Oil Ministry claimed to have raised oil production to 2.5 million barrels per day (mbpd) by mid-March 2004, and exports to the Turkish port of Ceyhan were restored. The future of Iraq's oil production remains uncertain. Although a transitional government could contract foreign companies to boost production from existing oilfields for the short-term, the author emphasized that a permanent government must be elected by the people of Iraq before any long-term contracts for new oilfield development can be negotiated. The government elected by the people of Iraq should determine the structure of its own oil industry and any future relationships with foreign oil companies. tabs., figs.

  11. Promotion of Sustainable Renovation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokaides, Paris A.; Kanarachos, Andreas; Kanarachos, Georgette

    2013-01-01

    pressing the energy renovation of buildings. Both the obstacles and the contribution of national regulations will be discussed, towards promotion of sustainable renovation in Europe today. This study is also expected to report on research initiatives currently being undertaken in Europe on the energy...

  12. Renovate Right: Prevent Lead Poisoning in Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Maria Doa, Director of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Program Chemicals Division, discusses EPA's new rule for renovations, repairs, and painting activities. The new rule includes information on lead-safe work practices when conducting renovations, repairs, and painting in pre-1978 homes and schools to prevent the spread of lead dust.

  13. Restaurant No. 1 fully renovated

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The Restaurant No. 1 team. After several months of patience and goodwill on the part of our clients, we are delighted to announce that the major renovation work which began in September 2006 has now been completed. From 21 May 2007 we look forward to welcoming you to a completely renovated restaurant area designed with you in mind. The restaurant team wishes to thank all its clients for their patience and loyalty. Particular attention has been paid in the new design to creating a spacious serving area and providing a wider choice of dishes. The new restaurant area has been designed as an open-plan space to enable you to view all the dishes before making your selection and to move around freely from one food access point to another. It comprises user-friendly areas that fully comply with hygiene standards. From now on you will be able to pick and choose to your heart's content. We invite you to try out wok cooking or some other speciality. Or select a pizza or a plate of pasta with a choice of two sauces fr...

  14. Building renovations in BIM systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smutný Marian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Renovation of buildings is a demanding challenge for computer systems. Nowadays, complex 3D models of historic buildings can be scanned and modelled, including sculptural filigrees and stucco decorations with possibility to generate different projections, cross-sections and elevations according to descriptive geometry rules. However, all of this falls within the field of “3D Modelling”. BIM systems work with elements that have to be classified according to their purpose, or according to the way they are realized. The system is then able to sort, filter or group them. Also, it is able to compute their bill of quantity and quality based on their attributes. Last but not least, it has to be able to schematically display civil engineering drawings on the basis of classification of the elements which differ considerably from the display of descriptive geometry. In regular constructions, repeatability and predictability of the links between the elements suit computer systems. Thus, the issue of building renovations in BIM systems is to find a balance between modelling irregular constructions and irregular space arrangements, while maintaining the ability to interact with other BIM elements.

  15. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2011-01-01

    the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased...

  16. Renovation of historic, protected buildings in Geneva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.; Haefeli, P.

    2009-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done within the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program's Task 37. The objective of SHC Task 37 is to develop a solid knowledge base on how to renovate housings to a very high energy standard and how to develop strategies that support the market penetration of such renovation methods. The report deals with four listed buildings of historical value in Geneva, Switzerland, and examines various aspects of the renovation. These aspects include a discussion of the techniques applied, including internal and external insulation. Simulation methods used and results obtained are discussed. The improvements made are evaluated.

  17. Energy renovation solutions - catalogue; Energirenoveringstiltag - katalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tommerup, H.

    2010-07-15

    The project's aim has been to develop methods and examples of extensive energy renovations to stimulate energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy in existing buildings. The current report represents an extensive technology catalogue of typical energy renovation measures in connection with the renovation of existing buildings. For every action the main aspects are explained concerning such issues as technology, use, barriers, indoor climate, energy conservation and prices. The report is mainly targeted at construction industry, but also many other stakeholders can benefit from the report. (ln)

  18. Health problems in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, E D

    1992-02-22

    Iraq is faced with large scale public health problems that have been caused by the destruction to their infrastructure during the Gulf war. Humanitarian aid is needed in order to avoid a large scale human disaster. In 1988 73% of Iraq's population lived in urban areas. The loss of electrical generating capacity has affected hospitals, water purification and sewage treatment. Iraq had made great strides int he health of their people with an infant mortality rate of 42/1000 in 1990 and 52./1000 for children under 5. The international study team's survey of over 9000 households revealed surprising evidence of widespread chronic malnutrition. Based on accepted mortality as a baseline, data suggests that mortality among Iraqi infants and children under 5 doubled in 1991. The current food ration provides only half of the energy requirement and with rapidly accelerating inflation, the cost of food while only make the situation worse. The UN Disaster Relief Office has received $1.059 billion from donor countries; but, only half of the requested $14 million has been funded through Unicef. This money is needed to meet basic requirements for water, sanitation, antibiotics, and vaccines. The UN Security Council approved resolutions 706 and 712 which would have allowed Iraq to sell $1.6 billion for foodstuffs, medicines, and materials and supplies necessary to civilian needs subject to monitoring and supervision to ensure equitable distribution. The Iraqi government has not met the requirements of 706 and 712 because of the monitoring conditions, so no money has been issued. More money is needed if humanitarian organizations are to do their work. Only $29 million of the $145 million needed for the 1st half of this year has been pledged.

  19. Analysis of promising sustainable renovation concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    This report focuses on analyses of the most promising existing sustainable renovation concepts, i.e. full-service concepts and technical concepts, for single-family houses. As a basis for the analyses a detailed building stock analysis was carried out. Furthermore, as a basis a general working...... method for proposals on package solutions for sustainable renovation was described. The method consists of four steps, going from investigation of the house to proposal for sustainable renovation, detailed planning and commissioning after renovation. It could be used by teams of consultants...... of the building envelope and the electricity required to run the system. Positive impact on the indoor environment can be expected. Thermal comfort will be improved by insulation and air-tightness measures that will increase surface temperatures and reduce draught from e.g. badly insulated windows. A ventilation...

  20. Collaboration opportunities in advanced housing renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mlecnik, Erwin; Kondratenko, Irena; Cré, Johan

    2012-01-01

    demand for integrated renovations has to be stimulated. A research and networking methodology was developed within the framework of the One Stop Shop project to identify and develop collaboration opportunities for advanced housing renovation in Belgium, Denmark, Finland and Norway. The research...... identified key supply-side needs through interviews and questionnaires, and analysed important elements for the development of a web-based portal that can connect supply and demand. The project further developed ideas and methods for collaboration and business model generation between different players...... on the renovation market. These different research results contributed to defining new business opportunities related to process innovation to unburden the homeowner and to achieve less fragmented renovation processes...

  1. Funding of Facility Repairs and Renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Harvey H.

    1984-01-01

    Compares the life cycle approach for campus building repair and renovation to the University of California's comprehensive building maintenance formula and advises that formulas be used cautiously as a method of determining appropriate budget levels. (MLF)

  2. Renovate Right: Prevent Lead Poisoning in Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Maria Doa, Director of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Program Chemicals Division, discusses EPA's new rule for renovations, repairs, and painting activities. The new rule includes information on lead-safe work practices when conducting renovations, repairs, and painting in pre-1978 homes and schools to prevent the spread of lead dust.  Created: 10/2/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 10/2/2008.

  3. Iraq's bomb: Blueprints and artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.; Hibbs, M.

    1992-01-01

    After more than half a year of investigating Iraq's clandestine nuclear program, UN and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors found the biggest remaining piece of the puzzle: details of Iraq's effort to design and develop a nuclear explosive device. On September 22, an inspection team - the seventh sent by the UN Special Commission to uncover Iraq's weapons of mass destruction - discovered the nuclear weapons program archives at program headquarters in Baghdad. Many of the documents found there recorded Iraq's plans and progress. Less than a week earlier, Rahim Al-Kital, Iraq's ambassador to the IAEA, informed the agency's 1991 conference in Vienna that Iraq had already 'told the United Nations everything,' and that inspectors were 'guessing' about a nuclear weapons program that did not exist. But the find put an end to any doubts that Iraq's secret effort to enrich uranium was for weapons purposes. The documents showed that since 1988 or 1989 Iraq had invested heavily in facilities to develop and make nuclear weapons. By mid 1990, Iraqi scientists had made some progress in understanding how a relatively crude nuclear explosive device with a core of highly enriched uranium would work, and they had done some experiments on parts of the technology. By that time, an experimental program was under way for using shaped conventional charges to activate a nuclear explosion by uniformly compressing a uranium sphere. But on the eve of the Kuwait invasion, Iraqi experts still had many theoretical and experimental questions to answer

  4. Astronomy in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabti, A. W.

    2006-08-01

    The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the Iraqi National Observatory at Mount Korek in Iraqi Kurdistan. The core facilities of the Observatory included 3.5-meter and 1.25-meter optical telescopes, and a 30-meter radio telescope for millimetre wavelength astronomy. The Iraqi Astronomical Society was founded and Iraq joined the IAU in 1976. During the regime of Saddam Hussain in the 1980's, the Observatory was attacked by Iranian artillery during the Iraq-Iran war, and then again during the second Gulf war by the US air force. Years of sanctions during the 1990's left Iraq cut off from the rest of the international scientific community. Subscriptions to astronomical journals were halted and travel to conferences abroad was virtually non-existent. Most senior astronomers left the country for one reason or another. Support from expatriate Iraqi astronomers existed (and still exists) however, this is not sufficient. Recent changes in Iraq, and the fall of Saddam's regime, has meant that scientific communication with the outside world has resumed to a limited degree. The Ministry of Higher Education in Baghdad, Baghdad University and the Iraqi National Academy of Science, have all played active roles in re-establishing Iraqi astronomy and re-building the damaged Observatory at Mount Korek. More importantly the University of Sallahudin in Erbil, capital of Iraqi Kurdistan, has taken particular interest in astronomy and the Observatory. Organized visits to the universities, and also to the Observatory, have given us a first-hand assessment of the scale of the damage to the Observatory, as well as the needs of astronomy teaching

  5. Distinctiveness of Initial Preform Properties in Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technologies of renovation form a special group of resource-and energy saving technological processes as they are, by definition, already aimed either at increasing resource of the objects satisfying needs of the society life support and practical activities in different spheres, or at extension of their life cycle including a reuse of material from which they are made. Renovation is used where there is a material object, which does not meet requirements of standard or technical documentation.A characteristic feature of the renovation technologies is lack of procedure for a choice of the preform as in all cases an initial preform is the renovation object itself. Thus each object, acting as an initial preform, has the exclusively individual properties, including technological ones.Distinctiveness of renovation object properties is correlated, first of all, with the personified conditions of formation and (or change of condition of their properties in time at all stages of life cycle (production – transportation – warehousing – operation starting with a preform material when manufacturing under all types of loadings (technological and operational. As a result each object forms its "history" of loading and damages and, therefore, its information base which has to consider the phenomenon of “heredity of life cycle”. The term "heredity of life cycle" characterizes information support of object at any moment under review, including both information of technological inheritance, and data of operational heredity.As a result at every moment of time we have a product with a set of new, uncertain properties caused by the phenomena of heredity of life cycle. These properties are individual for each object to be renovated, which changed its status for the status of initial preform for different types of renovation technologies. This is one of the most important distinctions of renovation technology from the technology used to manufacture a new

  6. Dwelling thermal renovation: which stakes, which solutions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delduc, Paul; Demeulenaere, Laurence; Verdure, Mathieu; Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Fuk Chun Wing, Dimitri; Kiefer, Noemie; Mauroux, Amelie; Charlier, Dorothee; Hini, Sihame; Pinto Silva, Kleber; Giraudet, Louis Gaetan; Nauleau, Marie-Laure; Daussin-Benichou, Jeanne-Marie; Teissier, Olivier; Finidori, Esther; Grandjean, Alain; Allibe, Benoit; Gadrat, Pierre; Couriol, Aude; Menard, Francois; Rouquette, Celine; Houriez, Guillaume; Francois, Dominique; Aubert, Celine; Canardon, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes three sets of contributions. The first one addresses context and stakes. The contributions propose: a literature review on household behaviour and investments in energy efficiency, a focus on the key role of dwellings in energy transition through a comparative study of the four pathways of the National Debate for Energy Transition, and a discussion about consensus and uncertainties regarding the determining factors of heating temperature in dwellings. The second set addresses public policies and their assessment: improvement of the technical-economical assessment of the benefit of dwelling energetic renovations, discussion of the organisation and results of a survey on dwelling, equipment, and energy needs and uses, an analysis of several measures aimed at reaching objectives of energy efficiency of dwellings, a discussion of renovation works quality, a discussion of the impact of the sustainable development tax credit on thermal renovation, the optimisation of energy renovation in co-properties by third party financing, some foreign examples of policies in favour of dwelling thermal renovation. The third set of contributions addresses the needed technical, organisational and market evolutions: how the building sector can face the challenges of energy transition, the possibilities to propose innovative solutions adapted to existing housing buildings, and a comparative analysis of material and building equipment costs and market structures in Europe. Other texts are proposed in appendix: the origin of the Phebus survey, a description of incentive arrangements, and a map of climate zones in France

  7. Kinds of initial billets in renovation technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, technologists in charge of repair, restoration, modernization, and utilization of engineering and other tangible objects widely use the concepts "renovation" and "renovation technologies" pioneered at BMSTU. In forming a new field of science these concepts, in the proper sense of the word, are of composite, generalized character. They concern all the activities and technologies aimed at increasing an object resource or its lifecycle extension, including object material recycling.In the cutting-edge renovation technologies an object (part, assembly, machine, etc. damaged in the operating process is considered to be an initial billet. In renovation, one of the most widespread kinds of initial billets is a damaged part.Such a part can be used again, if, for example, it has saved its material properties in full measure while only contact surfaces or parts of these surfaces have become damaged, and at a point of renovation they can be restored for recycling. If a part has lost its initial properties in full bulk of material, it may be reusable in the assemblies and machines with less rigid requirements for material properties.Or in case of properties loss below the permissible level a damaged part-billet is utilized. Thus, the part-billet state at the point of renovation defines the kind of renovation technology and the main (basic technological method to effect on the damaged part, as well as a set and a sequence of technological methods in general manufacturing process of renovation.However renovation technologies are used not only at the repair and restoration stages after operation-service. So, at the manufacturing stage of a new product to provide the quality to raise a resource are applied the same technological methods as renovation technologies for the objects damaged at the stage of operation. Besides, it is known that at the manufacturing stage a part quality depends not only on the last operation, but also on the features of

  8. Renovation of the Stockholm sewerage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandin, Paer

    1987-01-01

    Within a few years Stockholm will let all its treated wastewater into the Saltsjoen. The Saltsjoen is the inner part of the Stockholm Archipelago, which is one of the finest recreation areas in Sweden and where many Stockholmians spend a great deal of their leisure time. That is one reason why it is so important that all wastewater is treated before it reaches the recipient. A sewerage system in bad condition means that the risk of not allowed/unplanned overflows is increased. In order to prevent overflows we drafted 'Plan 83' which tells us how our sewerage system shall be constructed in the future and what measures has to be made in the system. Renovations of the existing pipes is one method to get a well functioning sewer system. Today we have made about 50 different objects at a total length of 6000 m. Why do we renovate sewers and why are we attempting to develop methods for pipe renovations?

  9. Energy Efficient Renovation of Social Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Grith; Christiansen, Michael

    In years to come the social housing sector (SH) must undergo renovation. The SH is out of step with modern requirements when it comes to plan arrangements, energy frame calcu-lation, flexible building services and social challenges. A way to solve such challenges in an environmentally, economically......, such as residents, housing administration, politicians, advi-sors, producers and contractors. Secondly we present follow up methods for developing an overall future energy renova-tion SH strategy. Our project contributes to the building sector by suggesting new methods for meeting challenges concerning energy......), (2) workshops and (3) seminars for qualifying (4) the definition of a common framework for (5) the development and (6) acceptance of the actual energy renovation strategy, which will then be transformed into action plans in the form of (7) ”common screening” of housing and housing areas as a basis...

  10. Bæredygtige systemleverancer ved renovering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipull Kauschen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    System (PSS). This thesis presents the hypothesis that system deliveries may be cast as Product-Service Systems, creating the pre-conditions for sustainable integrated product deliveries. Case Studies Renovation case studies have evinced partial use of system deliveries in recent years; however......-of-sales er dermed relevant for bæredygtige leverancer, der disse kræver at ansvaret forbliver hos systemejeren over leverancens hele livscyklus, fra produktion til bortskaffelsen. Denne type produkt kendes fra andre områder under navnet Product-Service-System (PSS). I afhandlingen opstilles derfor hypotesen...... om at systemleverancer kan udformes som Product-Service-Systems og at dermed skabes forudsætningerne for bæredygtige systemleverancer. Casestudier Casestudier om renovering har desuden vist, at der til dels anvendes systemleverancer til renovering i de sidste år, men at disse leverancer sjældent er...

  11. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, is increasingly exhibiting peaceful competition but continues to be riven by sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting...

  12. Fabulous Facilities: New Constructions and Renovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Libraries, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Renovation and construction projects in 18 public and academic libraries across the United States are showcased, with 23 photographs illustrating library interiors and exteriors. Discussion centers on architecture, costs, technology infrastructure and equipment, preservation of old facilities, furniture, and library functions. (AEF)

  13. Chances and barriers for passive house renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Opstelten, I.; Rovers, R.; Verdeyen, N.; Wagenaar, A.

    2016-01-01

    There is significant potential for carbon reduction and energy saving in residential buildings. Various market actors are looking for ways to increase the uptake of passive house renovation and its certification.
    This study aimed specifically to draw lessons from research projects towards the

  14. Renovation of the CERN Computer Centre

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The Computer Centre at CERN is seen after half of the equipment is the large ground floor room has been removed. A large-scale spring-cleaning operation took place before renovation work for the new CERN Grid system began. Fifteen kilometres of cables that were no longer needed were removed from the cavity floor for recycling.

  15. 75 FR 6383 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ..., Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied....C. 2682(c)(3), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with section... TSCA, and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with section 406(b) of TSCA...

  16. 76 FR 27044 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ..., Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with section 406(b) of TSCA, 15... renovation and remodeling activities of pre-1978 housing and child-occupied facilities in the State of...

  17. The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction...

  18. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... The initial section of the report, "Stability and Security in Iraq," describes trends and progress towards meeting goals for political stability, economic progress, and achieving a stable security environment in Iraq...

  19. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    ... of the report, "Stability and Security in Iraq," describes trends and progress towards meeting goals for political stability, strengthening economic activity, and achieving a stable security environment in Iraq...

  20. Veterinary medical education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international

  1. Negotiating a deal in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The legal and diplomatic environment surrounding oil production negotiations in Iraq was discussed with reference to the essential terms generally negotiated for upstream contracts between oil companies and the Iraqi Ministry of Oil. Legal considerations were discussed for the following upstream contracts: production sharing contracts, a risk service contract, a modified buy-back contract, a technical service contract, and a joint venture company. It was noted that negotiations in Iraq require a great amount of diplomacy as projects are very high profile and attract significant international attention. Information sharing is critical in gaining valuable government support. The main problem for interested investors in Iraq is predicting when the UN sanctions will be lifted. Once lifted, the Ministry of Oil's Development Plan is to increase oil production through the co-operative assistance of foreign oil companies. While the sanctions remain in place, Iraq is allowed to sell oil on a renewable basis every 6 months under the oil-for-food programme, which permits Iraq to spend US$600 million every 6 months for spare parts to upgrade its oil industry. 9 figs

  2. Renovating animal facilities to withstand disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jim; Contratto, Jim; Gould, Nathan; Freeman, William

    2013-10-01

    In the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy, new attention has been drawn to planning for and mitigating the effects of disasters on laboratory animal facilities. A number of design approaches and solutions can be easily incorporated into a new vivarium, enhancing its ability to withstand and recover from a disaster. Renovating a vivarium poses special challenges, however. Existing conditions in the project area may dictate which approaches or solutions are feasible, and retrofitting is often more complex and expensive than incorporating the same features into new construction. The authors explain how project design teams can evaluate the types of disasters that a renovated facility will need to address and develop a design strategy that responds to these disasters in the most effective way.

  3. Negotiating heritage in Danish public housing renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens Gudmand-Høyer, Sidse

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a significant problem when it comes to the challenging task of safeguarding recent past architectural heritage with reference to the democratization ideals propagated by the New Heritage paradigm. Based on controversy mapping relating to the renovation of a Danish 1950s high...... and the performance of interventions conveying heritage understandings can be addressed and given a binding form for this process and its partners....

  4. Rebuilding instead of renovation?; Neubauen statt Sanieren?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Seiler, B.; Kaufmann, Y. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Binz, A.; Moosmann, A. [Fachhochschule beider Basel, Muttenz (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study that examined the question of building renewal in Switzerland - should one rebuild or renovate? The report first examines the age-profile of Swiss buildings, defines renewal strategies and ideas, looks at renewal cycles and, in the light of future renewal demands, describes scenarios for replacement with new buildings instead of carrying out total renovations. The housing owners and their methods of management for multiple-apartment housing are described and the various factors involved in making decisions on how to renovate are discussed from the technical, legal and fiscal points of view. The report goes on to examine the ecological and energy aspects of renewal, presenting figures on energy consumption and material flows. Building renewal is also discussed from the social and regional planning points of view. The report is concluded with a discussion on rebuilding or renewal that takes current renewal deficits, costs and social aspects into account and makes recommendations for further action. An appendix presents renewal case studies.

  5. The Strategic-Renovation Banks’ Risks Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeremeychuk Raisa A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at developing approaches to implementation of the strategic-renovation risk management. Essence of risk theories was researched, the concept of «risk» in the bank’s management system were analyzed. On the basis of a theoretical generalization of scientific literature and the carried out analysis of existing risk management strategies to ensure the security of banking business, the strategy of renovation management has been selected. Because bank risks are part of the economic risk system, they are complex in their nature. However, given the importance of bank risks, the interpretation of their essence is still a debating matter. In a certain number of cases, their essence is replaced by the cause of occurrence, that is, all the different circumstances, factors that lead to the losses. So today, banks are considering risks, in particular, not only as a source of possible losses, but also as an opportunity to generate additional profits. An algorithm for taking a strategic-renovation decision on the banks’ risks management system has been proposed.

  6. Roof renovation of buildings 128 and 129

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The roof renovation of buildings 128 and 129 is scheduled to take place from 17 August to 15 October 2015.   During this period, access to the "raw material" workshop will be limited and controlled due to asbestos removal. Collecting your orders directly from the building will be difficult, or even impossible, and urgent requests will be difficult to carry out. We therefore ask you to create your requests via EDH, so that delivery may be carried out as soon as possible. Thank you for your understanding. GS Department

  7. Renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Due to the renovation of the CERN outdoor lighting, traffic will be limited to one way along “Route Gregory” from the E entrance (France) up to “Route Fermi” just before the water tower between 12th and 23rd July 2010. Disruption can also be expected in the car parks “Les Erables” and “Les Tilleuls” close to building 30 and also the car park in front of building 377, between 19th and 30th July 2010. Thanks for your understanding. SEM Group

  8. Extensions and renovations of reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmerichs, K.

    1985-01-01

    Increase of requirements by the authorities as to the design of reactor protection systems affected in the last years not only plans being under construction, but also resulted in partly spacious extensions and renovations. While working on the extensions and renovations a lot of problems arose: far-reaching performance of newest guidelines and rules in spite of old plant concepts; partly higher degree of redundancy requirements of the new systems in contrast to the present systems; use of present safeguard systems for new accident countermeasures; designation of priorities between present and new functions, especially in view of fault behaviour of present systems; adaptation of the new I and C equipment to the present signalisation-, operation- and information-arrangements under consideration of the present operational philosophy; spatial incorporation of new equipments; construction as to time without expanding of the planned refuelling phases. Because the KWU has planned and constructed such alterations in nearly 10 plants a lot of experience has been gathered. (author)

  9. Zero energy office building renovation; Energieneutrale kantoorrenovatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deguelle, D.; Krijnen, M. [DHV, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Heijnis, J. [cepezed, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    Building Brains has been set up by TNO as a cooperative and started September 21, 2009. The aim of the project was to answer the question how the energy consumption in the Netherlands can be reduced by 50% up to 2030 or how the built environment can be made energy-neutral. This issue of the magazine is dedicated to Building Brains project. Four different renovation concepts are compared: energy-neutral renovation that involves the exclusive use of sustainable generated energy;.the application of the passive construction principles; the use of Double Skin Facades; and decentralized facade-integrated installation techniques. Following the results of this study two optimized refurbishment approaches for a zero energy office are designed. [Dutch] Building Brains is een door TNO opgezet samenwerkingsproject dat op 21 september 2009 van start ging. Het doel van het project is antwoord te geven op de vraag hoe tot 2030 het energiegebruik in Nederland kan worden gehalveerd of hoe de gebouwde omgeving energieneutraal kan worden gemaakt. Deze aflevering van het tijdschrift TVVL is vrijwel geheel gewijd aan het Building Brains project. Er is onderzocht hoe verschillende renovatieconcepten scoren. Er zijn vier renovatieconcepten met elkaar vergeleken: energie neutraal renoveren door middel van duurzame energieopwekking, toepassen van het passiefhuisprincipe, toepassen van een tweedehuidfacade en toepassen van een decentrale, gevel-geintegreerde installatie. Uit de studie kwamen twee geoptimaliseerde concepten voor een energieneutrale kantoorrenovatie naar voren.

  10. Sewerage systems: Overflow problems and renovation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanttu, Unto [Plancenter Ltd. (Finland)

    1987-12-15

    Total investments in Finland (1984) spent on sewer systems were roughly FIM 590 million. A big share, about 14 % of this sum (FIM 82 million), was spent on rehabilitation of networks. But is this still enough? According to some evaluations the respective amount should be about FIM 500 million for rehabilitation only. So the question, how to keep the performance of sewer networks satisfactory in the future, is really important. The overflow problem is one of the most serious problems caused by old and improperly working sewer systems. Anyhow, several other aspects of a poor condition of sewers are to be seen: - excess hydraulic loading of treatment plants, - normal maintenance and operation (flushing, opening of clogs) increases, and is more expensive, - unexpected renovation works and interruptions in operation cause e.g. troubles in traffic, odour problems in the environment, hygienic hazards etc., - the performance of other underground networks (water pipes, district heating pipes etc.) may be threatened by earth crushings due to old sewers. In this paper a short description of these items is presented as well as a description of the sewer renovation methods used recently in Finland.

  11. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... assistance, the strengthening of Iraq's security forces, evident in the recent transfer of security responsibilities in Anbar and Babylon to Iraqi control, the incremental improvement in essential...

  12. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... The first section of the report, Stability and Security in Iraq, describes trends and progress towards meeting goals for political stability, strengthening economic activity, and achieving a stable...

  13. Renovation and uprating of seven hydropower plants in Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuessli, W.

    1991-01-01

    The Indonesian Power Authority is planning to renovate and uprate seven hydropower stations in Java to expand plant life expectancy, ensure operating safety and reliability, and increase power and generation within economical limits. The power plants were constructed in the early 1920s and extended between 1945 and 1950. Their capacities vary between 4 and 20 MW. For the renovation project, Colenco Power Consulting Ltd. is acting as a consultant to PLN. In February 1990, Colenco inspected all seven power plants. The results of the inspections served as the basis for the development of renovation plans for each of the seven hydropower plants. To determine the cost of the proposed renovation plans, appraisers had to determine a method for comparing the value of an existing plant to that of a renovated one. The two different evaluation methods used for these comparisons are the focus of this paper

  14. Existing sustainable renovation concepts for single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    In the Nordic Innovation Centre Project, SuccessFamilies, the main objective is to change the business environment in order to speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses – proposing new service concepts that will combine both the technical solutions, financing...... with individual solutions, traditional warehouses ”do-it-yourself-shops” and some actors marketing single products. To speed up the implementation of sustainable renovation of single-family houses there is a great need for full-service packages. Existing technical renovation concepts, typically focusing...... services as well as other promoting issues to overcome the behavioural, organizational, legal and social barriers that exist in sustainable renovation. A starting point for such a change has been to get an overview of the existing sustainable renovation concepts, i.e. full-service concepts and technical...

  15. Indoor Air Quality of Residential Building Before and After Renovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánka, Imrich; Földváry, Veronika

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the impact of energy renovation on the indoor air quality of an apartment building during the heating season. The study was performed in one residential building before and after its renovation. An evaluation of the indoor air quality was performed using objective measurements and a subjective survey. The concentration of CO2 was measured in the bedrooms, and a sampling of the total volatile compounds (TVOC) was performed in the living rooms of the selected apartments. Higher concentrations of CO2 and TVOC were observed in the residential building after its renovation. The concentrations of CO2, and TVOC in some of the cases exceeded the recommended maximum limits, especially after implementing energy-saving measures on the building. The average air exchange rate was visibly higher before the renovation of the building. The current study indicates that large-scale renovations may reduce the quality of an indoor environment in many apartments, especially in the winter season.

  16. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguzan, J.F.

    2004-09-01

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  17. 75 FR 39524 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ..., Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied... pre-renovation education program in accordance with section 406(b) of TSCA, 15 U.S.C. 2686(b). This... and child-occupied facilities in the State of Oregon. Individuals and firms falling under the North...

  18. Tips for cleanroom construction and renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixon, William; Huffman, Lanny

    2009-01-01

    The installation or renovation of a cleanroom is an increasing priority among compounders who, to offer sterile preparations, must comply with the most recent version of United States Pharmacopeia revised General Chapter 797 guidelines. To upgrade their pharmacy facilites, many compounders have worked successfully with a large-scale mechanical engineering firm or a specialized construction company dedicated to cleanroom installation. However, a qualified local mechanical contractor with design capability is a valuable and often overlooked resource for the construction of customized stae-of-the-art cleanrooms. In this report, we describe the installation of such a facility in a busy pharmacy and suggest ways in which compounding pharmacists can identify competent local contractors and control the cost of construction and upgrades. The addition of a cleanroom has enabled The Compounding Pharmacy in Hickory, North Carolina, to achieve accreditation from the Pharmacy Compounding Accreditation Board.

  19. Acoustic Properties of a Renovated Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Januševičius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the effects of partitions, ceilings and facades on noise insulation in the renovated different buildings. The conducted experiments were aimed at analyzing partitions of 120 mm brick mounted gypsum panels while other walls were 520 mm thick and plastered on both sides. Under natural conditions, sound insulation factors of facades were measured and compared according to comfort classes. The obtained results revealed that thick brick walls of 520 mm insulated the sound of 58 decibels (dB (class B. In contrast, 120 mm brick masonry partition reduced sound only to 48 dB which is class E and agrees with the lowest class of sound insulation. We also calculated the sound insulation factor applying three formulas considering the mass law of sound insulation and comparing it with other previous studies. The paper examines and discusses the findings of the performed calculations and measurements.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Status report on the GANIL renovation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyer, F.

    1995-01-01

    Three years ago, a renovation program was initiated to ensure GANIL a lifetime of at least 15 years in order to allow an efficient use of the two radioactive ion beam facilities, SISSI which has been operational since last year and SPIRAL which will be in use in 98. The status of this program is reported which mainly concerns the control system, the RF systems (voltage and phase control devices), the vacuum system (control and pumping devices), the power supplies (interfaces, current sensors, and internal electronics), the beam instrumentation (electronics and local control devices) and the system which survey the accelerator access. The improvements of the accelerator ECR sources are also described and the first results to produce refractor metallic ion beams like uranium are mentioned. (author)

  1. IAEA inspections and Iraq's nuclear capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1992-04-01

    It is reported that IAEA teams have been investigating Iraq's nuclear capabilities since May 1991 and following the Gulf War under terms of United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 directed at eliminating Iraq's weapons of mass destruction and means to produce and use them. A chronology of the events as well as the IAEA plan of further actions are described

  2. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Meshkab Water Treatment Plant ( WTP ) is June 2010. This WTP project, funded by $23.1 million Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF) and $46.9...Forces - Iraq USG U.S. Government VBIED Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Device WG Working Group WTO World Trade Organization WTP Water

  3. Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coipuram, Jr, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The war with Iraq, which began on March 19, 2003, has now moved into a new phase as a result of coalition forces controlling all of the major cites in Iraq and the demise of the Iraqi political and military leadership...

  4. Successful sustainable renovation; Succesvolle duurzame renovatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Doorn, A.Q.C.M.; De Ruyter, G.M. [Yacht, Randstad, Diemen (Netherlands); Kaper, A.A. [Ballast Nedam, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    Building Brains has been set up by TNO as a cooperative and started September 21, 2009. The aim of the project was to answer the question how the energy consumption in the Netherlands can be reduced by 50% up to 2030 or how the built environment can be made energy-neutral. This issue of the magazine is dedicated to Building Brains project. It is often said that Smart defined ambitions and strict process management are important ingredients for successful realization of building projects. Sustainable real estate developments can be considered as highly ambitious projects. To find out how and why sustainable renovation projects actually became sustainable, a group of professionals systematically evaluated 21 leading Dutch real estate renovation projects. For each project they interviewed the client, consultant, architect and contractor. Based on the results it was concluded that a pre-defined (sustainability) ambition is not a necessity to realize a project that can be considered sustainable in practice. [Dutch] Building Brains is een door TNO opgezet samenwerkingsproject dat op 21 september 2009 van start ging. Het doel van het project is antwoord te geven op de vraag hoe tot 2030 het energiegebruik in Nederland kan worden gehalveerd of hoe de gebouwde omgeving energieneutraal kan worden gemaakt. Deze aflevering van het tijdschrift TVVL is vrijwel geheel gewijd aan het Building Brains project. Een jaar lang zijn de succes- en faalfactoren van duurzame renovatieprojecten onderzocht. Voor 21 projecten zijn in totaal 73 actoren geinterviewd. Er werd een vragenlijst gebruikt, die vanuit vijf invalshoeken was opgesteld: ambitiestelling, duurzame maatregelen, actoren, beleidsomgeving en proces. Per project zijn opdrachtgevers, architecten, aannemers, adviseurs en gebruikers geinterviewd. Alle data is verwerkt in een database. De projecten voldoen aan het selectiecriterium Trias Energetica. Het accent lag op woningbouw, waar de grootste uitdaging ligt voor duurzame

  5. Strategic Effects of the Conflict with Iraq: Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manwaring, Max G

    2003-01-01

    .... military action against Iraq; the role of America in the region after the war with Iraq; the nature of security partnerships in the region after the war with Iraq; and the effect that war with Iraq will have on the war on terrorism in the region.

  6. About veterinary education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M

    2003-01-01

    The cons and pros of veterinary education in Iraq are described. Started as a small institution, with few students and with foreign staffs, then expanded to enroll more than hundred students each year, with all Iraqi staff. The graduates of the Veterinary College played an important role in monitoring animal health, supervising research projects involving animal welfare, some served as educators of various veterinary science specializations, others worked as private practitioners or recruited in the army. Veterinary education was very vital, as other sciences for progress of the country.

  7. Socioeconomic Renovation in Viet Nam: The Origin, Evolution, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Referred to as doi moi, this "renovation" has produced dramatic changes in ... In this book, Vietnamese scholars describe the origins and impacts of these changes. ... for two Colombian cities were discussed at ADAPTO's second international ...

  8. Prerequisites for Successful Strategic Partnerships for Sustainable Building Renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Thuesen, Christian

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the prerequisites for establishing successful strategic partnerships in relation to renovating buildings sustainably. Establishing strategic partnerships is in the paper seen as a potential way to make building renovation more sustainable in Denmark...... and analysis of strategic partnerships models as well as typical processes used in building renovation. Experiences from development of new strategic partnerships have particularly been found in the UK and Sweden. Based on two workshops with practitioners representing the whole value chain in the construction...... industry and analyses of two exemplary cases the paper suggests prerequisites for establishing successful strategic partnerships for sustainable building renovation. The results show that strategic partnerships are collaborations set up between two or more organizations that remain independent...

  9. Success and fail factors in sustainable real estate renovation projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, L.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability remains an important issue for the construction industry. Yet, sustainable real estate developments are still considered as highly ambitious projects. To find out how and why sustainable renovation projects actually became sustainable we systematically evaluated 21 leading Dutch real

  10. ECO-TECHNIQUE OF SEWER RENOVATION USING COMPOSITE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-31

    Dec 31, 2011 ... An eco-technical renovation of the sewage system is developed in this paper; this ... structural analysis of a typical shell unit with an ovoid form .... described by five fundamental equations, can be reduced to three equations.

  11. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  12. Iranian Tentacles into Iraq: The Basis and Extent of Iranian Influence into Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    www.iucc.ac.il/academia (accessed May 10, 2009), video . 2 Kenneth Katzman, “Iran’s Activities and Influence in Iraq,” (Washington, D.C...population at large. The Iranian ulama play a significant role in Iraq because Iranian religious men dominate the Shia clergy in Iraq. The majority of the...University Press, 2004. Banuazizi, Ali. Iranian Nationality and the Persian Language. Washington, D.C.: Mage Publishers, 1992. Bell, Gertrude. The

  13. 40 CFR 745.92 - Fees for the accreditation of renovation and dust sampling technician training and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... renovation and dust sampling technician training and the certification of renovation firms. 745.92 Section... Renovation § 745.92 Fees for the accreditation of renovation and dust sampling technician training and the... the following disciplines: Renovator, dust sampling technician. (ii) Exemption. No fee shall be...

  14. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    ..., %%Strategy for Victory," the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security and does not serve as a host for radical Islamic terrorists...

  15. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains violent and unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, as well as growing sectarian violence...

  16. Iran's Activities and Influences in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein's regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S...

  17. The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth; Prados, Alfred B

    2007-01-01

    .... However, there are concerns that the Kurds are using their political strength to serve their own interests at the expense of a unified Iraq, in the process inflaming long-standing Turkish concerns...

  18. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    .... At the same time, mounting U.S. casualties and financial costs stimulated debate within the United States over whether the initial goals of the intervention -- a stable, democratic Iraq that is a partner in the global war...

  19. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    This report to Congress, Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq, is submitted pursuant to Section 9010 of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act 2007, Public Law 109-289 as amended by Section...

  20. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ... 1308 of Public Law 110-28 and Section 1224 of Public Law 110-181.1 The report includes specific performance indicators and measures of progress toward political, economic, and security stability in Iraq, as directed in that legislation...

  1. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... 1308 of Public Law 110-28. The report includes specific performance indicators and measures of progress toward political, economic, and security stability in Iraq, as directed in that legislation...

  2. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The attached clarification by a spokesman of the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs is being circulated for the information of Member States pursuant to a request made by the Resident Representative of Iraq

  3. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom overthrew Saddam Hussein's regime, but during 2004-2007 much of Iraq was wracked by violence caused by Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, resulting Sunni-Shiite...

  4. The building stock from perspective of change - renovation roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, M., Email: miimu.airaksinen@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    By 2050, population, society and economic structures will have changed several times. The long and short-term goals and objectives concerning our built environment are mutually contradictory. Determining objectives or creating scenarios for the future built environment is fruitless. We should approach the development of the built environment from the perspective of change and improve the flexibility and adaptability of the built environment. For the users, a built environment meeting their basic needs is part of sustainable development. Identified short-range renovation needs include eliminating damp and mould problems, improving energy and eco-efficiency, removing obstacles to mobility and adapting buildings to accommodate the needs of the elderly. Vacated areas and buildings should be recycled and offered a new life supporting a sense of community and service production. Improved energy efficiency reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Instead of renovating individual buildings, renovation of the entire area is recommended. Sustainability in construction translates into favouring recycling and renewable materials and building-specific energy systems using renewable and/or low-emission resources. It is recommended that renovations to improve energy efficiency are scheduled to coincide with other maintenance/ renovations so as to reduce costs. In renovation construction, the role of service improvement is more important than products. Improved services help to identify a solution that fulfils several customer needs, meets financial limitations and can be implemented efficiently. Companies are advised to view renovation construction as an innovative market segment entitled to its own service portfolio. Truths about new building should be discarded and new services developed based on recent study results and new technologies. (orig.)

  5. Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-15

    devoting significant resources to that plan. On April 30, 2012, the COR enacted a law to facilitate elimination of trafficking in persons, both sexual ...human rights reports have noted continuing instances of harassment and intimidation of journalists who write about corruption and the lack of government...extradite him to the United States, but Iraq released him in November 2012 and he returned to Lebanon , despite U.S. efforts to persuade Iraq to keep

  6. Thi Qar Bee Farm Thi Qar, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    vegetation and fields where bees once gathered pollen and beekeepers face hardships from droughts and lack of financial assistance. 1...of equipment, and provided training to the bee farmers. General topography of the area was flat with vacant or agricultural land extending for a...OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION THI QAR BEE FARM THI QAR, IRAQ SIGIR PA--09--188

  7. Oil and power: Iraq at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enay, P.

    1995-11-01

    Oil and Power: Iraq at the Crossroads is the first analysis which specifically addresses the oil sector in Iraq. It provides a detailed account of the present Iraqi oil infrastructure and assesses the risks and opportunities facing those who seek to invest in its redevelopment. The report examines the implications for the world oil markets of Iraq's ambitious plans to expand production capacity to 6m barrels per day -almost twice its pre-war peak. It explains in clear, authoritative terms the profound problems confronting Iraq's oil sector and the prospects for rebuilding it. It analyses expertly and in detail the current regime's chances of survival and examines the alternative contenders for power -and their likely attitudes towards co-operation with foreign oil interests. The report examines and explains: Iraq's oil infrastructure, from fields under exploration to nominal administrative structure; the effect on oil prices of Iraq's eventual re-entry into the oil market; the facilities in need of repair and where the shortage of spares and human expertise are; the unofficial decision-making structure in the oil sector; the short- and medium-term impact of economic disintegration on oil development policy; the effects of UN sanctions and the motives of those supporting or opposing sanctions; the likely impact of prevailing economic constraints on Iraqi oil and the historical role of commissions in Iraqi oil contracts; the political impact of General Hussein Kamal Hassan's defection and the Kurdish and Shi'ite threats to Iraqi national unity. (author)

  8. Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J R; Danneels, J [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kenagy, W D [U.S. Department of State, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, Office of Nuclear Energy, Safety and Security, Washington, DC (United States); Phillips, C J; Chesser, R K [Center for Environmental Radiation Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex near Baghdad contains a significant number of nuclear facilities from Saddam Hussein's dictatorship. Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there is now an enormous radioactive waste problem at Al Tuwaitha. Al Tuwaitha contains uncharacterised radioactive wastes, yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, and contaminated metals. The current security situation in Iraq hampers all aspects of radioactive waste management. Further, Iraq has never had a radioactive waste disposal facility, which means that ever increasing quantities of radioactive waste and material must be held in guarded storage. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) has been initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials, while building human capacities so that the GOI can manage other environmental cleanups in their country. The DOS has funded the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to provide technical assistance to the GOI via a Technical Cooperation Project. Program coordination will be provided by the DOS, consistent with U.S. and GOI policies, and Sandia National Laboratories will be responsible for coordination of participants and for providing waste management support. Texas Tech University will continue to provide in-country assistance, including radioactive waste characterization and the stand-up of the Iraq Nuclear Services Company. The GOI owns the problems in Iraq and will be responsible for the vast majority of the implementation of the NDs Program. (authors)

  9. Actual heating energy savings in thermally renovated Dutch dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majcen, Daša; Itard, Laure; Visscher, Henk

    2016-01-01

    The register of the Dutch social housing stock was analysed, containing 300.000 dwellings, renovated between 2010 and 2013. The main objective was twofold: to evaluate the performance gap in these dwellings before and after the renovation and to establish what renovation measures achieve the highest reduction of consumption, particularly in practice (actual savings). The results showed large performance gaps in dwellings with low R and high U values, local heating systems, changes from a non-condensing into a condensing boiler and upgrades to a natural ventilation system. Regarding the actual effectiveness of renovation measures, replacement of old gas boilers with more efficient ones yields the highest energy reduction, followed by deep improvements of windows. Installing mechanical ventilation yields a small reduction compared to other measures, but still much larger than theoretically expected. The paper shows once more that the calculation method currently in use cannot be considered accurate if compared to actual consumption. The study demonstrated that unrealistic theoretical efficiencies of heating systems and insulation values are causing a part of the performance gap. Nowadays, large datasets of buildings thermal performance and actual consumption offer an opportunity to improve these misconceptions. - Highlights: • Performance gap is lower in more efficient buildings. • Replacements of gas boilers – the most energy reduction among renovation measures. • Replacing the ventilation system yields a much larger reduction than expected. • How well are the standard values of the calculation methods defined? • Provide large public building performance databases including actual use data.

  10. Evaluation of airborne particulates and fungi during hospital renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overberger, P A; Wadowsky, R M; Schaper, M M

    1995-07-01

    This study was conducted over 30 weeks on a hospital floor undergoing partial renovation. Some patients housed on the floor were immunosuppressed, including bone marrow transplant recipients. The construction zone was placed under negative pressure and was separated from patient rooms by existing hospital walls and via erection of a temporary barrier. Other control measures minimized patient exposure to airborne materials. Air sampling was done for 3 weeks prior to construction, 24 weeks during construction, and 3 weeks after renovation was completed. Airborne particulate concentrations, total spore counts, particle size, and fungal species were assessed. At the beginning of the renovation there were increases in airborne particulates (from 0.2 to 2.0 mg/m3) and fungal spores (from 3.5 to 350 colony forming units (CFU/m3), but only in the construction zone. Throughout the remainder of the renovation, particulate and fungal spore levels fluctuated inside the construction zone but remained close to baseline values in the patient area. When renovation was completed, particulates and spore counts inside the construction zone decreased to preconstruction levels. The primary fungus isolated from air samples was Penicillium. This study demonstrated that control measures were effective in reducing exposures of hospitalized patients to airborne particulates and spores and in reducing the increased risk of aspergillosis and other fungal infections associated with hospital construction projects. The data from this study may be useful in establishing exposure guidelines for other health care settings.

  11. Energy renovation practices in Danish homes. The influence of energy labels on home renovation practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten [Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Dr. Neergaards Vej 15, DK-2970 Hoersholm (Denmark); Adjei, Afi [Building Research Establishment Ltd. BRE, Bucknalls Lane, Garston, WD25 9XX Watford (United Kingdom); De Best-Waldhober, Marjolein [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    Heating of dwellings represents a major policy challenge for the transition to a low carbon society. In Denmark, heating of dwellings represents about 25% of the total Danish final energy consumption and about 13% of the total CO2 emission. The majority of this is related to heating of older dwellings, and as the rate of replacement is low, the main potential for energy saving is to improve the energy efficiency of the existing dwelling stock through energy renovation. This paper provides an analysis of Danish experiences with energy labels (also known as the Energy Performance Certificate, EPC), which indicate the energy efficiency of buildings and include recommendations for improvements. The aim of the EPC is to motivate homeowners to do energy improvements. In Denmark, energy audit schemes date back to the early 1980s and energy rating of houses (energy labelling) was introduced in 1997. The long history of energy audit schemes and energy labelling makes Denmark an interesting case for the study of the experiences with and impact of this kind of policy measure. With the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) from 2002, an energy labelling scheme similar to the Danish scheme introduced in 1997 is now in use in all EU member states. The focus of this paper is on the homeowners' experience and use of the EPC and the key research questions are: How do the homeowners understand and use the EPC? Does the EPC have an influence on home energy renovation practices? The analysis is based on results from a survey of Danish homeowners who have purchased a home with an EPC within recent years. The Danish survey is part of the European project IDEAL EPBD, which was funded by the European Commission under the Intelligent Energy Europe programme and run from 2008 to 2011. The results indicate a rather limited influence of the EPC on Danish homeowners' home energy renovation practices. Also, the results show that even though most homeowners find the label

  12. The Renovation and Future Capabilities of the Thacher Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Katie; Osuna, Natalie; Edwards, Nick; Klink, Douglas; Swift, Jonathan; Vyhnal, Chris; Meyer, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The Thacher School is in the process of renovating the campus observatory with a new meter class telescope and full automation capabilities for the purpose of scientific research and education. New equipment on site has provided a preliminary site characterization including seeing and V-band sky brightness measurements. These data, along with commissioning data from the MINERVA project (which uses comparable hardware) are used to estimate the capabilities of the observatory once renovation is complete. Our V-band limiting magnitude is expected to be better than 21.3 for a one minute integration time, and we estimate that milli-magnitude precision photometry will be possible for a V=14.5 point source over approximately 5 min timescales. The quick response, autonomous operation, and multi-band photometric capabilities of the renovated observatory will make it a powerful follow-up science facility for exoplanets, eclipsing binaries, near-Earth objects, stellar variability, and supernovae.

  13. Energy Renovation of Danish Single-Family Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    . The results show that despite the barriers the owners can in fact be motivated to perform private energy renovations. A sound project economy is all-important for this to happen and it should if possible be supported by improvements in both comfort, indoor environment and architecture to increase......The PhD project is based on requirements from the European Union to reduce the energy consumption and on current renovation needs of and a huge energy saving potential in the Danish single-family houses from the 1960’s and 1970’s. The project focuses on the barriers for energy renovations...... of these houses and on defining motivation factors for the homeowners. The barriers are many and variating in influence and studies show that both professionals and homeowners are affected. The barriers range from lack of interest and knowledge to uncertainties about among others economy and technical solutions...

  14. Prerequisites for Successful Strategic Partnerships for Sustainable Building Renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Thuesen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the prerequisites for establishing successful strategic partnerships in relation to renovating buildings sustainably. Establishing strategic partnerships is in the paper seen as a potential way to make building renovation more sustainable in Denmark...... industry and analyses of two exemplary cases the paper suggests prerequisites for establishing successful strategic partnerships for sustainable building renovation. The results show that strategic partnerships are collaborations set up between two or more organizations that remain independent...... particularly in terms of reducing energy consumption and use of resources and increase productivity. However, until now we have only had a limited number of such partnerships implemented and the few examples that do exist, mostly concern the construction of new buildings. The paper is based on an investigation...

  15. 40 CFR 745.90 - Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sampling technician certification. 745.90 Section 745.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... technician certification. (a) Renovator certification and dust sampling technician certification. (1) To become a certified renovator or certified dust sampling technician, an individual must successfully...

  16. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Michuda Y.P.; Ridha F.

    2012-01-01

    Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA), and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a con...

  17. Development of Facilities Master Plan and Laboratory Renovation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Andrea D

    2011-10-03

    Funding from this grant has allowed Morehouse School of Medicine to complete its first professionally developed, comprehensive campus master plan that is in alignment with the recently completed strategic plan. In addition to master planning activities, funds were used for programming and designing research renovations, and also to supplement other research facility upgrades by providing lighting and equipment. The activities funded by this grant will provide the catalyst for substantial improvement in the School's overall facilities for biomedical education and research, and will also provide much of the information needed to conduct a successful campaign to raise funds for proposed buildings and renovations.

  18. The Patterns and Dynamics of Revolution: Insights into Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    197. 80 Rabasa, 56. 26 81 Ibid., 53. 82 Roger Cohen. 83 Crane and Terrill, 33. 84 Andrew Krepinevich, "Iraq and Vietnam: Deja vu all over Again?" 8...in Iraq." Christian Science Monitor, 20 September 2004, 1. Krepinevich, Andrew. "Iraq and Vietnam: Deja vu all over Again?" Center for Strategic and

  19. Early stage decision support for sustainable building renovation – A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Nørkjær; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Larsen, Tine Steen

    2016-01-01

    Decision support tools for building renovation are important as assistance to professional building owners when setting goals for sustainability, and for making sure that the objectives are met throughout the design process, both when renovating a single building or choosing renovation actions wi...

  20. 77 FR 74472 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-387] Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia... application. SUMMARY: Energia Renovable S.C., LLC (Energia Renovable) has applied for authority to transmit...)). On September 11, 2012, DOE received an application from Energia Renovable for authority to transmit...

  1. IEA SHC Task 37: advanced housing renovation - Final report; IEA SHC Task 37: advanced housing renovation - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, R.

    2010-01-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Solar Heating and Cooling program. The project addressed the energy consumption of residential buildings and their renovation. The report discusses the goals set for the project and reports on five projects that were initiated. These include the refurbishment of apartment buildings to meet the 'Passive House' standard, air-tightness, potential for the use of solar energy, solar facades and the renovation of historic listed buildings. Conclusions resulting from these projects are presented and discussed.

  2. 31 CFR 575.207 - Prohibited transactions relating to travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or Iraq; (b) Relating to travel and activities for the conduct of the official business of the United... travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq. 575.207 Section 575.207 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY IRAQI SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 575.207 Prohibited transactions relating to travel to...

  3. Renovating Interior Office Space: What a Manager Needs To Consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Evelyn R.

    When planning an office renovation, a manager should design an office layout that is efficient and should consider the psychological aspects of office design, including sound level, color harmony, and lighting. The manager must also have a good understanding of all phases of the project plan and the timing involved. There are basically five phases…

  4. Overheating risk barriers to energy renovations of single family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Duer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Energy renovations of houses in moderate climates increase overheating risk. •Critical measures are the floor insulation and the improvement of the airtightness. •Decrease of the g value of windows diminishes the intensity and the period of it. •Static method of assessment shows highe...

  5. Post Occupancy Evaluation of 23 Newly Renovated Apartments in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Afshari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The present article is based on the post occupancy occupants’ perception of indoor air quality of recently renovated 23 residential apartments in Copenhagen. The apartments are equipped with novel mechanical ventilation systems. The apartments can be categorised in four, according to the design o...

  6. Supply-side collaboration for energy-efficient renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.; Mlecnik, E.

    2015-01-01

    The supply side for nearly zero energy building (nZEB) renovation of owner-occupied single-family houses in Europe is suffering from a severe image problem of lack of knowledge and trust, inefficient construction processes, insufficient quality assurance and communication difficulties with

  7. Renovation techniques for fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.B.P.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents the research into renovation techniques for orthotropic steel bridge decks. These techniques are needed to solve fatigue problems in the decks of these bridges, as several fatigue cracks have been detected in the deck structure of these bridges the last decade. A

  8. Collaborative business model development for home energy renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Straub, A.; Haavik, T

    2018-01-01

    In the EU, housing retrofit rates have to increase to about 2.5–3% of the housing stock per year to achieve policy goals. The development of new business models and collaboration of SMEs in a fragmented market is expected to result in an increase in home renovations. This study presents a way to

  9. Maturity model for strategic collaboration in sustainable building renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Berg; Jensen, Per Anker; Thuesen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    To enable the construction industry to execute sustainable renovation projects which entails a reduction in use of resources, an increase in productivity and a more socially sustainable construction process, new tools are needed. A maturity model can be a simple and effective tool for a company...

  10. Sustainable (Re)Construction : The Potential of the Renovation Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Usanov, A.; Chivot, E.

    2013-01-01

    The Sustainable Urban (Re)Construction Briefing argues that renovation is going to play an increasingly important role in the overall construction market – for several reasons. One of them is the urgency of climate change mitigation. Europe has a large stock of buildings, which together contribute

  11. Renovation of the outside lighting - Bldg. 112 zone

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Due to the renovation of the outside lighting, the traffic will be disrupted along “Route Feynman”. From the water tower (Bldg. 227) to Restaurant Nr. 2 (Bldg. 504) between 18 and 30 August. We recommend great caution. Thank you for your understanding. SEM Group

  12. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michuda Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA, and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a control system by marketing activity of football clubs of Iraq is defined. Positive and negative factors which define management efficiency marketing of football clubs are revealed.

  13. Iraqi Civil Defense Headquarters Baghdad, Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Angelina; O'Connor, Kevin; Rawal, Yogin

    2007-01-01

    .... The assessment team included two engineers/inspectors and three auditors/inspectors. The overall objective of the project was to fully renovate the Civil Defense Headquarters and other buildings on the site to become a fully operational and usable facility.

  14. Value based building renovation - A tool for decision-making and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Maslesa, Esmir

    2015-01-01

    Research on the barriers for building renovation in Denmark has revealed that an important obstacle is a lack of simple and holistic tools that can assist stakeholders in prioritisation and decision-making during the early stages of building renovation projects. The purpose of this article...... is to present a tool - RENO-EVALUE, which can be used as decision support for sustainable renovation projects, and for evaluation, during and after building renovations. The tool is a result from the European Eracobuild project ACES - "A concept for promotion of sustainable retrofitting and renovation in early...... stages". This article presents the main result of a work package concerning benefits of renovation. RENO-EVALUE has been developed from four case studies on renovation projects in Denmark, tested and validated on the cases and in a Delphi study. The tool is value based by focusing on the different...

  15. Oasis in Iraq: Universities Flourish in Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Zvika

    2007-01-01

    The campus of Salahadin University--peaceful, bustling, and collegial-- is a rare sight in Iraq, where sectarian violence has brought the higher education system to the verge of collapse. Home to the country's historically repressed four million to five million ethnic Kurds, it is an oasis of stability and tranquility while much of the rest of…

  16. The Ayatollahs and Democracy in Contemporary Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, Juan R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Iraqi Shiism is undergoing profound changes, leading to new elaborations of the relationship between clerics and democratic principles in an Islamic state. The Najaf tradition of thinking about Shiite Islam and the modern state in Iraq, which first developed during the Iranian constitutional

  17. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ... by Section 1308 of Public Law 110-28 and Section 1224 of Public Law 110-181. The report includes specific performance indicators and measures of progress toward political, economic, and security stability in Iraq, as directed in that legislation...

  18. The Iraq war: official and unofficial history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Garcia Bonfin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the motivations and the soldiers who fought in the war in Iraq started in March 2003. The attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the foreign policy of the United States, the years of relative peace conquered at the end of the cold war is over, Americans now had a new enemy, political Islam. Soon after the attacks, the Bush Administration (2001-2009 tried to relate Islamic fighters belonging to Al-Qaeda with the regime of Saddam Hussein, in a clear attempt to justify an invasion on Iraq internally. Externally, the American Government, along with the Briton, claimed that the Iraqis had weapons of mass destruction, which inflicted the UN resolutions imposed on the Iraqi Government during the years 1990. However, neither the inspections and subsequently the invasion were able to find such weapons. What if you saw after the invasion was the huge profit obtained by private military and oil companies. In the research was analyzed as if formed the Middle East, the Empire of the United States on a global scale, the report of the Chief Inspector of UNMOVIC, the UN agency responsible for weapons inspections in Iraq, and the letters of soldiers who fought in Iraq. In historiography, as in what if notes is that there were three present interests in the war in Iraq, economic order first, with the possibility of profit of the private military companies and the opportunity to extract oil; second related to foreign policy, which had the interest in rearranging geopolitics of the region; and third of domestic politics, to which there was an increase in the popularity of the Bush administration, with the war on Terror.

  19. Energi- og miljøvurdering ved renovering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holleris Petersen, E.

    En afprøvning af pc-værktøjet BEAT 2000's viser, at BEAT 2000 er et velegnet værktøj, der umiddelbart kan anvendes til energi- og miljøvurdering af renoveringssager. BEAT 2000 er afprøvet dels på renovering med energibesparende foranstaltninger i form af solfangere, solvægge og ventilationsanlæg...... med varmegenvinding, dels på mere traditionel renovering af små, utidssvarende lejligheder. En udbygning af datagrundlaget, især for alternative energibesparende løsninger og de materialer, der indgår, vil kunne reducere tidsforbruget ved definition af de utraditionelle og usædvanlige bygningsdele...

  20. Renovation and Expansion of the Caspary Research Building. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassia, V. L.

    2004-02-07

    Critical to the Hospital's rebuilding efforts have been its public partners at the federal, state, and local government levels who have made a major financial commitment to renovating the Hospital's research infrastructure. To date, the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) has been awarded a total of nearly $8.5 million to create and equip new, state-of-the-art laboratories for scientific investigations. The modernization of the Hospital's research facilities was jump-started in 1998 with a $950,000 seed grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to renovate laboratories for immunology research in the Caspary Research Building. Coupled with a matching $5.5 million commitment from HSS, this infusion of NIH funding laid the groundwork for an overhaul of all of the Hospital's research space.

  1. Sustainable renovation concepts for single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    , the financial possibilities of the homeowner etc. Calculation of packages of energy efficient renovation solutions targeted the three segments of houses show that primary energy use and heating bill can be reduced with up to about 75% or a factor 4 corresponding to the level of a new house or better. It seems...... that the passive house level can not quite be reached with standard solutions. They require that more ambitious measures are applied. The total investment needed to reduce the heating bill by a factor 4 including replacement of e.g. roof and windows is up to EUR 100,000. It is generally difficult to obtain...... be seen as a possibility to make it easy for the homeowner to comply with possible future requirements to realize far-reaching energy savings in connection with extensive renovations, provided that the building sector offers the solutions. Homeowners need someone to take care of all relevant steps...

  2. Analysis and Comparison of Overheating Indices in Energy Renovated Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Duer, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The scientific literature offers a number of methods for assessing the likelihood of overheating in buildings. The paper calculates eight well-documented indices for four representative family houses, from moderate and temperate climates, under different renovation processes (66 variants), with t......The scientific literature offers a number of methods for assessing the likelihood of overheating in buildings. The paper calculates eight well-documented indices for four representative family houses, from moderate and temperate climates, under different renovation processes (66 variants......), with the use of multi-zone energy software. In two out of four cases, the calculation included passive cooling measures for optimization purposes (shading, ventilative cooling). The analysis shows strong correlations between different methods-indices originating from the same comfort model theory independently...

  3. PCB i bygninger - afhjælpning, renovering og nedrivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    SBi-anvisning 268 beskriver, hvordan PCB-forurening af indeluften afhjælpes, og hvordan PCB håndteres, når man renoverer eller nedriver bygninger med PCB. Uanset om der er tale om afhjælpning, renovering eller nedrivning, kan arbejdet generere PCB-holdigt affald. Anvisningen forklarer derfor......, hvordan affaldet skal håndteres, og hvordan man beskytter mennesker og miljø under arbejdet. Anvisningen er baseret på byggebranchens erfaringer og den aktuelle forskningsbaserede viden om PCB i bygninger. SBi-anvisning 268 afløser den snart fire år gamle SBi-anvisning 242 om renovering af bygninger med...... PCB, som ikke behandlede spørgsmålet om affaldshåndtering....

  4. How to motivate homeowners to invest in sustainable renovation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Heiselberg, Per; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2014-01-01

    important to integrate, aside the societal needs, the individual values which might motivate these decision-makers to undertake such a sustainable renovation. A critical review of decision-aid methods and tools, which are susceptible to be integrated in a process of home renovation, is presented...... in this paper. Methods have been primarily classified on the basis on whether or not they allow incorporating truthfully decision-makers’ individual values while still improving the process effectiveness. Reviewed tools have been classified as building analysis, optimization and decision making tools...... such as constructivist, interactive and iterative process, quantitative attributes and values based on qualitative judgments, simplicity and accuracy of the methods, time use and modularity are furthermore discussed. It is concluded that multi-criteria decision making approaches using interactive and constructivist...

  5. Environmental issues associated with R Reactor renovation and startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marter, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    This memorandum identifies the more significant environmental issues that would be associated with renovation and startup of R Reactor to meet future demands for nuclear weapon materials. Some key environmental issues identified are: potential occupational radiation exposures associated with repairing the leaks in the reactor nozzles and thermal shield tanks and with renovating the disassembly basin facilities; the impacts of constructing additional cooling water pumping capacity; the effect of increased pumping on impingement and entrainment at the pump houses; thermal effects on the R Canal-precooler pond-Par Pond ecosystem from increased discharge of cooling water; and effects of increased water flow in Lower Three Runs Creek on biota and on cesium-137 remobilization

  6. Effects of pasture renovation on hydrology, nutrient runoff, and forage yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koff, J P; Moore, P A; Formica, J; Van Eps, M; DeLaune, P B

    2011-01-01

    Proper pasture management is important in promoting optimal forage growth and reducing runoff and nutrient loss. Pasture renovation is a management tool that improves aeration by mechanically creating holes or pockets within the soil. Pasture renovation was performed before manure application (poultry litter or swine slurry) on different pasture soils and rainfall simulations were conducted to identify the effects of pasture renovation on nutrient runoff and forage growth. Renovation of small plots resulted in significant and beneficial hydrological changes. During the first rainfall simulation, runoff volumes were 45 to 74% lower for seven out of eight renovated treatments, and infiltration rates increased by 3 to 87% for all renovated treatments as compared with nonrenovated treatments. Renovation of pasture soils fertilized with poultry litter led to significant reductions in dissolved reactive P (DRP) (74-87%), total P (TP) (76-85%), and total nitrogen (TN) (72-80%) loads in two of the three soils studied during the first rainfall simulation. Renovation did not result in any significant differences in forage yields. Overall, beneficial impacts of renovation lasted up to 3 mo, the most critical period for nutrient runoff following manure application. Therefore, renovation could be an important best management practice in these areas.

  7. Women in Iraq: Background and Issues for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pina, Aaron D

    2006-01-01

    The issue of women's rights in Iraq has taken on new relevance, following the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, efforts to reconstruct Iraq, and recent elections for a Transitional National Assembly...

  8. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. Quarterly Report to the United States Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowen, Jr, Stuart W

    2007-01-01

    .... relief and reconstruction program in Iraq. Two notable developments frame this Report. First, total relief and reconstruction investment for Iraq from all sources the United States, Iraq, and other donors passed...

  9. Post-Transition Violence in Iraq (2004-2005): The Military Perspective of an Insider

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karam, Jabbar N

    2006-01-01

    .... Governing Iraq has been complicated by the violence Iraq is have since suffered. The nature of this violence in the regions north and west of Baghdad must be analyzed to provide a solution for a safe and secure Iraq...

  10. Energy Renovation of a Typical Danish Single-family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, new tighter energy performance requirements were introduced in Denmark for both new buildings and renovation, including a new classification system for low energy buildings. These demands are based on the directive on Energy Performance of Buildings, the EPBD (2002/91/EC). In general the...... available on the internet: http://www.rwsc.dk/EP_Villa_Projektrapport_RW_DK/main_report_villa.pdf....

  11. An integrated urban drainage system model for assessing renovation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X; Zeng, S; Chen, J; Zhao, D

    2012-01-01

    Due to sustained economic growth in China over the last three decades, urbanization has been on a rapidly expanding track. In recent years, regional industrial relocations were also accelerated across the country from the east coast to the west inland. These changes have led to a large-scale redesign of urban infrastructures, including the drainage system. To help the reconstructed infrastructures towards a better sustainability, a tool is required for assessing the efficiency and environmental performance of different renovation schemes. This paper developed an integrated dynamic modeling tool, which consisted of three models for describing the sewer, the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the receiving water body respectively. Three auxiliary modules were also incorporated to conceptualize the model, calibrate the simulations, and analyze the results. The developed integrated modeling tool was applied to a case study in Shenzhen City, which is one of the most dynamic cities and facing considerable challenges for environmental degradation. The renovation scheme proposed to improve the environmental performance of Shenzhen City's urban drainage system was modeled and evaluated. The simulation results supplied some suggestions for the further improvement of the renovation scheme.

  12. The renovation of the Main Building is approaching completion

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The renovation work under way in the CERN Main Building should be completed by June. From the floors to the ceilings, everything has been done to give this historic building a new lease of life.     Taken in the early 60s, this picture illustrates how light maintenance was a challenge for the auditorium in CERN’s main building.   Nobody who has recently had to shimmy between the cables, ladders and toolboxes deposited around the main hall of Building 500 to get to the post office, the bank or Restaurant 1 can be oblivious to the fact that the ground floor of the Main Building has been getting a face-lift. The renovation work, which started with the first-floor concourse in June 2010, should be finished over the next couple of months. The first-floor renovations, now almost complete, set the tone for the rest of the project. The floor and ceiling, both fitted with special acoustic materials for efficient noise damping, have been completely refurbished and the Building ...

  13. On the Testing of Renovations Inside Historical Opera Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausti, P.; Prodi, N.

    2002-11-01

    Due to the large number of historical opera houses in Italy, many theatres have been renovated in the past, but still more will undergo major restoration in the near future. Unfortunately in this context, the quality and protection of acoustics is rarely considered as an issue of its own. As a consequence, the renovations are hardly ever accompanied by proper scientific and technical support. In this paper, the acoustical impact of works inside the Teatro Municipale "R.Valli" in Reggio Emilia, including the restoration of the main hall and the construction of a new acoustic shell, will be dealt with. Surveys were held in the theatre before renovation and were repeated with identical procedure and instruments after its completion. By means of a comparative analysis of the architectural project and of acoustical data, the impact of major changes in the theatre can be predicted. It is shown that this approach can help in drafting an operational scheme for safeguarding the acoustics of historical opera houses.

  14. How to Successfully Renovate a Controls System? - Lessons Learned from the Renovation of the CERN Injectors’ Controls Software

    CERN Document Server

    Kruk, G; Kulikova, O; Lezhebokov, V; Pace, M; Pera Mira, P; Roux, E; Wozniak, J Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Renovation of the control system of the CERN LHC injectors was initiated in 2007 in the scope of the Injector Controls Architecture (InCA) project. One of its main objectives was to homogenize the controls software across CERN accelerators and reuse as much as possible the existing modern sub-systems, such as the settings management used for the LHC. The project team created a platform that would permit coexistence and intercommunication between old and new components via a dedicated gateway, allowing a progressive replacement of the former. Dealing with a heterogeneous environment, with many diverse and interconnected modules, implemented using different technologies and programming languages, the team had to introduce all the modifications in the smoothest possible way, without causing machine downtime. After a brief description of the system architecture, the paper discusses the technical and non-technical sides of the renovation process such as validation and deployment methodology, operational applicatio...

  15. Iraq: Usa and Great Britain hold up an agreement on limited sales of Iraq petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The negotiations United Nations/Iraq have been stopped because of objections coming from Usa and Great Britain. Three points were developed: The distribution of medicine and foods in three Kurdish countries, these countries are actually under the United nations control, Iraq wants to participate at the distribution but Usa and Great Britain think that it could be a way of pressure from Iraq on Kurdish countries and in this mind they refuse. The second point is about the sequestered banking account on which must be deposited the receipts of Iraqi petroleum sales which must be put under United Nation control in order to avoid, according to Washington and London, that Iraq uses it to get round the sanctions. The third point is that Usa and Great Britain consider that the resolution number 986 has only for object to relieve the pains of Iraqi people and its application must not be interpreted as a lightening of international sanctions against Iraq. The results of the suspension are a surge of petroleum prices on international market and a fall of Iraqi Dinar. (N.C.)

  16. Integrated project delivery methods for energy renovation of social housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeo Baldiri Salcedo Rahola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimised project delivery methods forsocial housing energy renovations European Social Housing Organisations (SHOs are currently facing challenging times. The ageing of their housing stock and the economic crisis, which has affected both their finances and the finances of their tenants, are testing their capacity to stick to their aim of providing decent and affordable housing. Housing renovation projects offer the possibility of upgrading the health and comfort levels of their old housing stock to current standards and improve energy efficiency, and this solution also addresses the fuel poverty problems suffered by some tenants. Unfortunately, the limited financial capacity of SHOs is hampering the scale of housing renovation projects and the energy savings achieved.  At the same time, the renovation of the existing housing stock is seen as one of the most promising alternative routes to achieving the ambitious CO2 emissions reduction targets set by European authorities – namely, to reduce EU CO2 emissions to 20% below their 1990 levels by 2020. The synergy between European targets and the aims of SHOs has been addressed by the energy policies of the member states, which focus on the potential energy savings achievable by renovating social housing. In fact, the European initiatives have prioritised energy savings in social housing renovations to such an extent that these are referred to as ‘energy renovations’. Energy renovation is therefore a renovation project with higher energy savings target than a regular renovation project. In total, European SHOs own 21.5 million dwellings representing around 9.4% of the total housing stock. Each SHO owns a large number of dwellings, which means there are fewer people to convince of the need to make energy savings through building renovations, maximising the potentially high impact of decisions. Moreover, SHOs are responsible for maintaining and upgrading their properties in order to continue

  17. U.S. Anticorruption Efforts in Iraq: Progress Made in Implementing Revised Management Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriel, Robert; Haigler, Dan; Hlinka, Joan

    2008-01-01

    .... anticorruption activities in Iraq. SIGIR instituted reviews of these programs in recognition of the significant detrimental effect corruption has on Iraq's economic, social, and political reconstruction...

  18. Tenants’ experiences and satisfaction with renovated and energy retrofitted social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Jensen, Ole Michael

    studied and verified. The objective of the present project was to evaluate tenants’ experiences and satisfaction with renovated and energy retrofitted social housing. A questionnaire was developed that included questions about perceived indoor climate, possible co-benefits, the renovation process, various....... The evaluations show that it is possible to implement a comprehensive renovation with focus on energy savings in older building stock and at the same time add value for tenants in the form of i.a. improved perceived indoor climate....

  19. Holistic Energy Renovation of Pre- and Postwar Apartment Blocks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Rode, Carsten; Bjarløv, Søren Peter

    of today. This paper presents the Danish research project Holistic Energy Renovation, which aims at performing a holistic energy renovation of two case buildings. As part of the project nine parameters for a holistic renovation have been defined, a method for developing and assessing a holistic building...... of the assessment method and an evaluation of how the holistic perspective has influenced the project process and product development....

  20. Renovation versus New Construction and Building Decision Tool for Educational Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Carrie; Marks, Eric; Back, Edward; Leopard, Tim; Love, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Renovation of an existing building is an accomplished stem of the construction industry because it supplies financial diversification for construction stakeholders. Although several construction planning tools and stakeholder alignment exercises have been developed, no tool exists to assist project owners to decide between renovating an existing building and new construction with a comprehensive decision criteria. The objective of this research is to create and test a renovation versus new bu...

  1. IAEA receives Iraq's nuclear-related declaration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Mohamed ElBaradei, announced that the IAEA received this evening, Sunday, 8 December 2002, at its Headquarters in Vienna, an approximately 2400 page declaration on Iraq's nuclear programme. The declaration consists of about 2100 pages in English and 300 pages in Arabic. The declaration was submitted by the Government of Iraq in response to paragraph 3 of Security Council resolution 1441 (8 November 2002), which requires Iraq to provide to UNMOVIC, the IAEA and to the Security Council, not later than 30 days of the date of that resolution, with 'currently accurate, full, and complete declaration of all aspects of its programmes to develop chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, ballistic missiles, and other delivery systems... as well as all other chemical, biological, and nuclear programmes, including any which it claims are for purposes not related to weapon production or material'. 'The IAEA will immediately begin to assess this important new document,' said Mr. ElBaradei, 'including the painstaking and systematic cross-checking of the information provided by Iraq against information which the IAEA already has, information that it expects to receive from other Member States, as contemplated in resolution 1441, and results of past and present Agency verification activities.' Complete assessment of the declaration will be time consuming, particularly in light of the need to translate the 300 pages of Arabic text into English. However, the IAEA expects to be able to provide a preliminary analysis of the document to the Security Council within the next ten days, with a fuller assessment to be provided when it reports to the Council at the end of January. (IAEA)

  2. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-20

    and half of whom would be elected by direct, lected medicine and milk for children and told the world secret balloting, about the killing of civilians...the continua- nomic siege on Iraq and banning milk from reaching the tion of campaigns of pressure and the blockade. Conser- children and elderly...organizations, which are characterized by ment. falsehood, falsification of facts, the shirking of responsi- bility, insistence on pushing for the

  3. Consequences of Iraq war on petroleum market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    2004-01-01

    The consequences of the last Iraq conflict on the petroleum market can be analyzed under two different aspects: one is the will of the USA to re-establish a political stability in a country which represents an important oil reserve for their future supplies, the other is a US-Russia cooperation/rivalry in a region of prime importance for both countries which are in competition for the exploitation of the Caspian sea hydrocarbon resources. (J.S.)

  4. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onur, Tuna [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gok, Rengin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abdulnaby, Wathiq [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shakir, Ammar M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mahdi, Hanan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Numan, Nazar M.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Shukri, Haydar [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chlaib, Hussein K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ameen, Taher H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abd, Najah A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments (PSHA) form the basis for most contemporary seismic provisions in building codes around the world. The current building code of Iraq was published in 1997. An update to this edition is in the process of being released. However, there are no national PSHA studies in Iraq for the new building code to refer to for seismic loading in terms of spectral accelerations. As an interim solution, the new draft building code was considering to refer to PSHA results produced in the late 1990s as part of the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP; Giardini et al., 1999). However these results are: a) more than 15 years outdated, b) PGA-based only, necessitating rough conversion factors to calculate spectral accelerations at 0.3s and 1.0s for seismic design, and c) at a probability level of 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years, not the 2% that the building code requires. Hence there is a pressing need for a new, updated PSHA for Iraq.

  5. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  6. Applications of the renewable energies; Aplicaciones de las energias renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Rocha, Luis Martin [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The solar energy manifests itself in different forms and its application has been fundamental for the humankind development. These forms are known as renewable energies, since they are energy forms that are renewed or remade with time or that are so abundant on Earth, that they will last for hundreds or thousands of years, either we use them or not. The main advantage of the utilization of the renewable energies in comparison with hydrocarbons is the one of having smaller impact on the environment, which brings about the conservation of nonrenewable resources, and to postpone its exhaustion. They allow the distributed generation, diminishing the power losses in the transmission and distribution systems, which increases the overall efficiency. In addition they can be the drive for regional development and generation of employment, because when having applications in remote zones and being a field still not completely developed in Mexico, the possibility exists of enabling professionals and technicians. From the point of view of the power sector, the renewable energies extend the supply and availability of energy, making more flexible and independent the operation and reliability of the national power system. [Spanish] La energia solar se manifiesta de diversas formas y su aplicacion ha sido fundamental para el desarrollo de la humanidad. A estas formas se les conoce como energias renovables, ya que son formas de energia que se van renovando o rehaciendo con el tiempo o que son tan abundantes en la tierra, que perduraran por cientos o miles de anos, las usemos o no. La principal ventaja del aprovechamiento de las energias renovables en comparacion con los hidrocarburos es la de tener menor impacto al medio ambiente, lo que trae consigo la conservacion de recursos no renovables, y posponer su termino. Permiten la generacion distribuida, disminuyendo las perdidas energeticas en los sistemas de transmision y distribucion, lo que incrementa la eficiencia general. Ademas

  7. Prerequisites for Successful Strategic Partnerships for Sustainable Building Renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Thuesen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    and analysis of strategic partnerships models as well as typical processes used in building renovation. Experiences from development of new strategic partnerships have particularly been found in the UK and Sweden. Based on two workshops with practitioners representing the whole value chain in the construction...... particularly in terms of reducing energy consumption and use of resources and increase productivity. However, until now we have only had a limited number of such partnerships implemented and the few examples that do exist, mostly concern the construction of new buildings. The paper is based on an investigation...

  8. Defining Sustainability in Relation to the Renovation of Modern Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    Summary This paper focuses on comparing practice-based and academic definitions and metrics of “sustainability” as they relate to the transformation of Modern housing in Denmark. Keywords:Sustainability, Renovation, Architecture, Denmark, Modern housing 1. Introduction to the Study Buildings...... define and understand what constitutes green design, but also to understand its premises for it would be counter productive for the designer to leap into green design without understanding and agreeing to such basic principles as connectedness”. In recent years, a new way of thinking about sustaina...

  9. Development of a method for holistic energy renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin

    recovery. The long-term performance of the renovation may be reduced due to mould growth behind the interior insulation or decay of the wooden beams. The energy saving potential in two multi-family buildings was investigated by parameter studies of existing energy saving measures for both the building....... Measurements of temperature and relative humidity showed that conditions for mould growth were present. However, no signs of mould growth were documented at dismantling of the interior insulation. A method was developed for the design of energy saving measures based on both Failure Mode and Effect Analysis...

  10. Disseny d'una microxarxa amb generació renovable

    OpenAIRE

    Durich Serra, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    El present projecte pretén abordar l’estudi dels costs de generació d’energia elèctrica renovable de la tecnologia solar-fotovoltaica per tal de formar part del disseny d’una microxarxa de generació d’energia elèctrica. Durant la realització del projecte s’ha realitzat una breu introducció a les microxarxes de distribució d’energia elèctrica i als seus reptes. Per estudiar el cost de generació d’energia fotovoltaica s’ha utilitzat la metodologia del Levelized Cost of Energy ...

  11. Contracting and building renovation - does it work together?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tritthart, Wibke; Bruner-Lienhart, Susanne [Inter-Univ. Research Centre for Technology, Work and Culture, Graz (Austria); Bleyl, Jan W.; Bucar, Gerhard [Graz Energy Agency (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The renovation or refurbishment is an important point in the life cycle of a building that makes it possible to achieve both environmental and climate protection goals and a higher quality of living of the inhabitants. However, lack of money often leads to a renovation that covers only the basic requirements, whereas measures that are valuable in a long term perspective like energy saving measures are not realised. Energy performance contracting (EPC) is widely used as an instrument to reduce long term operating costs significantly by guaranteed energy savings. An energy service company (ESCo) implements saving technologies, especially in the field of heating, HVAC, lighting and plug loads, and in particular in public buildings. It is the aim of this paper to investigate the possibilities to incorporate construction measures like building envelope insulation into standard energy performance contracting.For this purpose a qualitative survey is presented that was performed among experts and stakeholders in the business: ESCos, building owners and facility managers, representatives of construction companies and financing institutions were interviewed. The focus was on their experiences with such projects, on difficulties that arose or barriers that exist from their point of view and on the chances they perceived. This provides the basis for identifying restraints and supporting factors for the integration of contracting and constructional measures.Three pilot projects that have been renovated in Austria are outlined subsequently. They are evaluated with respect to the contractual network between the project partners, types of guarantees and financing issues. Special emphasis is put on the assignment of tasks and the cash flow between the project partners. Various constellations of trades acted as energy service provider: a general contractor, an energy supply company, a consortium of a builder and a plumber. The projects reveal some differences to the standard energy

  12. " La chatarra ferrosa, ¿desperdicio industrial o recurso renovable?"

    OpenAIRE

    Valadez Valenzuela, Jaime arturo

    2011-01-01

    Conforme el avance del tiempo, y el deterioro o consumismo de los recursos renovables por el paso desenfrenado de nuestra humanidad, enfrentando el reto de subsistencia en todos los ámbitos, se nos esta presentando la necesidad de aprovechar todo aquello que de una u otra forma pueda ser reutilizado, generando inclusive la forma de otorgar "trabajo", o una manera de crear fuentes económicas para toda una gama de personas, que de tal manera que dedicándose tanto a la recolección de lo que par...

  13. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Iraqi Institute of Strategic Studies to map the country's social science research capacity by means of field research and a survey in three ... Outputs. Journal articles. Problems of the national and the ethnic/sectarian in Iraq [Arabic language]. Download PDF. Reports. State of social sciences in Iraq ...

  14. Using a Virtual History Conference to Teach the Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In teaching the causes of the Iraq War, the use of "virtual history" can be employed in a conference setting in which different individuals are assigned to different plausible counterfactuals they use to construct virtual histories. The Iraq War lends itself to the virtual history approach because of the availability of many plausible…

  15. Iraq's shop-till-you-drop nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.; Hibbs, M.

    1992-01-01

    In a series of articles that began in March 1991, the authors have tried to separate fact from fiction about Iraq's ability to build nuclear weapons and to produce material to fuel them. After exposing Iraq's efforts to enrich uranium and design an atomic bomb, UN and IAEA experts zeroed in on how Iraq put its program together. The basic answer is that along with determination and persistence, Iraq had a great deal of foreign help. Iraq's 'Petrochemical Three,' the secret nuclear program conducted under the authority of its Atomic Energy Commission with links to the Defense Ministry and the Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization, received massive infusions of money and resources. Like the Manhattan Project that built the first atomic bombs in the United States, Iraq's program simultaneously pursued a number of different technical avenues to the bomb. Not knowing which efforts would succeed, Iraq poured billions of dollars into its multifaceted quest. Providing for these programs required the establishment of elaborate procurement networks in Europe, North America, and Asia. Like the technical quest, the procurement effort was carried out on many fronts at once. Diplomacy and secrecy were required, because few companies would knowingly supply a nuclear weapons program, or even a secret nuclear program that was ostensibly for civil purposes. Iraq showed great ingenuity in hiding its purchases behind such innocuous pursuits as automobile manufacturing, dairy production, and oil refining

  16. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7023 Section 252.225-7023 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(a), use the following provision: Requirement for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a) Definitions. Product from Iraq or Afghanistan...

  17. On Stakeholders and the Decision Making Process Concerning Sustainable Renovation and Refurbishment in Sweden, Denmark and Cyprus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohardani, Navid; Björk, Folke; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the decision making process related to sustainable renovation and refurbishment in buildings. The utilized methodology identifies three distinct phases in order to instigate an engagement in sustainable renovation, by means of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews...

  18. 40 CFR 745.326 - Renovation: State and Tribal program requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sampling technician training programs. (ii) Procedures and requirements for the certification of renovators and dust sampling technicians. (iii) Procedures and requirements for the certification of individuals..., 2010. For the convenience of the user, the added text is set forth as follows: § 745.326 Renovation...

  19. Opportunities and Barriers related to Supply Chain Collaboration for Delivering Integrated Single-Family Home Renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Kondratenko, I.; Haavik, T.

    2013-01-01

    Single-family home renovations often show deficiencies in project management. There might be a market addressing house owners who would prefer integrated renovation services and clear responsibilities. Companies that would respond to these client’s needs would have a clear market potential,

  20. Generation of components for software renovation factories from context-free grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den M.G.J.; Sellink, M.P.A.; Verhoef, C.

    2000-01-01

    We present an approach for the generation of components for a software renovation factory. These components are generated from a contex-free grammar definition that recognizes the code that has to be renovated. We generate analysis and transformation components that can be instantiated with a

  1. Sustainability Evaluation of Retrofitting and Renovation of Buildings in Early Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Maslesa, Esmir; Gohardani, Navid

    2013-01-01

    research results and ideas for the development of a tool, which can be used as decision support for renovation projects in early stages. The research is part of the Eracobuild project ACES – “A concept for promotion of sustainable retrofitting and renovation in early stages” with participants from Denmark...

  2. Historic Schools: Renovation vs. Replacement & the Role of a Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC.

    Weighing the pros and cons of renovating a historic neighborhood school or building a new one takes preservation "know-how," experience, and creativity. The potential for renovation is routinely dismissed without full consideration of the facts and long-term implications. Central to this decision-making process is the feasibility study,…

  3. Mobilization for energy renovation. Innovative tools for the uptake of deep renovation of the existing building stock based on behavioural insights

    OpenAIRE

    Taranu, Victoria; Verbeeck, Griet

    2015-01-01

    Mobilization for energy renovation. Innovative tools for the uptake of deep renovation of the existing building stock based on behavioural insights. In the context of climate change it is a priority to reduce the energy demand and make a shift towards renewable sources of energy. In Flanders almost half of the existing residential building stock was built before 1970 with low levels of insulation and inefficient installations. The vast majority of Fle...

  4. Iraq War mortality estimates: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyatt Gordon H

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. The subsequent number, rates, and causes of mortality in Iraq resulting from the war remain unclear, despite intense international attention. Understanding mortality estimates from modern warfare, where the majority of casualties are civilian, is of critical importance for public health and protection afforded under international humanitarian law. We aimed to review the studies, reports and counts on Iraqi deaths since the start of the war and assessed their methodological quality and results. Methods We performed a systematic search of 15 electronic databases from inception to January 2008. In addition, we conducted a non-structured search of 3 other databases, reviewed study reference lists and contacted subject matter experts. We included studies that provided estimates of Iraqi deaths based on primary research over a reported period of time since the invasion. We excluded studies that summarized mortality estimates and combined non-fatal injuries and also studies of specific sub-populations, e.g. under-5 mortality. We calculated crude and cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence and average deaths per day for each study, where not already provided. Results Thirteen studies met the eligibility criteria. The studies used a wide range of methodologies, varying from sentinel-data collection to population-based surveys. Studies assessed as the highest quality, those using population-based methods, yielded the highest estimates. Average deaths per day ranged from 48 to 759. The cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence ranged from 0.64 to 10.25 per 1,000 per year. Conclusion Our review indicates that, despite varying estimates, the mortality burden of the war and its sequelae on Iraq is large. The use of established epidemiological methods is rare. This review illustrates the pressing need to promote sound epidemiologic approaches to determining

  5. Have IAEA safety precautions failed in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruemm, H.

    1981-01-01

    Israel's air raid on the Tamuz-1 research reactor (Osirak) in Iraq has given new impetus to the discussion of the potential and limits of international control as carried out by the IAEA in the framework of the non-proliferation treaty. A lack of faith in the effectiveness of IAEA control must be assuemd to be one of the main reasons for this attack. Prof. Grimm, vice chairman of the nuclear safeguards department of the International Atomic Energy Agency, comments on the possibility of producing nuclear weapons with the aid of this reactor and on the efficiency of present and projected nuclear safeguards measures. (orig.) [de

  6. Republic of Iraq: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-16

    Saddam Hussein’s rise to power and his continued control of Iraq we see these Machiavell ian principles in operation. In February 1963, after calling the... managed to al ienate everyone of her neighbors, and cannot be counted on to promote anything but Saddam’s personal irterests. The economic sanctions...House; Nev. Dehli , 19 ’I1 45. Roe-,ert O,.=..r,, "The Kur dish Question in the Aftermatih of t i,- Gulf W.r"., Third World Quarterly, 1992, 47E5 -45? 24

  7. The contribution of housing renovation to children’s blood lead levels: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Routine renovation of older housing is a risk factor for childhood lead poisoning, but the contribution to children’s blood lead levels is poorly defined for children with lower exposure levels. Methods We examined a prospective cohort of 276 children followed from 6 to 24 months of age. We conducted surveys of renovation activities and residential lead hazards and obtained blood lead level (B-Pb) every six months. We analyzed B-Pb in a repeated measures design using a mixed effects linear model. Results Parent reported interior renovation ranged from 11 to 25% of housing units at the four, 6-month periods. In multivariable analysis, children whose housing underwent interior renovation had a 12% higher mean B-Pb by two years of age compared with children whose housing units were not renovated (p children in non-renovated housing, children whose housing units underwent renovation in the prior month had a 17% higher mean B-Pb at two years of age, whereas children whose housing renovation occurred in the prior 2–6 months had an 8% higher mean B-Pb. We also found an association between higher paint lead loading, measured using an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) based paint lead index, and child B-Pb (p = 0.02); for every 10 mg/cm2 increase in paint lead loading index there was a 7.5% higher mean childhood B-Pb. Conclusions In an analysis of data collected before the recent changes to Environmental Protection Agency’s Lead, Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule, routine interior housing renovation was associated with a modest increase in children’s B-Pb. These results are important for the provision of clinical advice, for housing and public health professionals, and for policymakers. PMID:23981571

  8. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  9. Renewable energy and technological development; Energia renovable y desarrollo tecnologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio [Fideicomiso para el ahorro de energia, (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    In this presentation is widely described the work carried out by the Trust Fund for Electrical Energy Savings (FIDE) with reference to renewable energy foster. In the first part, it is found the FIDE's mission, which is focused on achieving the efficient use of the energy. Then, there are quiet briefly described the processes -carried out by the FIDE- in favour of the groundbreaking technology that achieves to decrease the energy squandering. In addition, there are mentioned different means boosting the energy savings. Then, there are described the issues the energy system should change in order to improve the actual situation of many Mexicans. There are briefly mentioned not only the environmental but also the social benefits of the use of renewable energy; besides, there are given the necessary elements in order to make it possible. Then, there are explained why the use of renewable energy would be profitable. Finally, it is described the methodology that should be followed in case it is wanted to find sponsors up to 100% for a project related to improvement of the energy production. [Spanish] Esta presentacion describe ampliamente la labor que realiza el Fideicomiso para el ahorro de energia (FIDE) en relacion con el fomento de la energia renovable, asi como el desarrollo de tecnologias que refuercen el uso de este tipo de energia. En la primera parte, se encuentra la mision del FIDE, que se enfoca en lograr que el uso de la energia sea apropiado. Enseguida, de forma breve se describen los procesos que realiza el FIDE en favor de la tecnologia innovadora que haga decrecer el dispendio de energia. Luego, se explican las aspectos endebles del sistema energetico de Mexico. Se describen escuetamente los beneficios, no solo ambientales sino tambien sociales, del uso de energia renovable; ademas, se mencionan los elementos necesarios para que esto pueda lograrse. Mas adelante, se dan las razones por las que para Mexico seria rentable el uso de energia renovable

  10. Renewable energy and technological development; Energia renovable y desarrollo tecnologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covarrubias Ramos, Rogelio [Fideicomiso para el ahorro de energia, (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    In this presentation is widely described the work carried out by the Trust Fund for Electrical Energy Savings (FIDE) with reference to renewable energy foster. In the first part, it is found the FIDE's mission, which is focused on achieving the efficient use of the energy. Then, there are quiet briefly described the processes -carried out by the FIDE- in favour of the groundbreaking technology that achieves to decrease the energy squandering. In addition, there are mentioned different means boosting the energy savings. Then, there are described the issues the energy system should change in order to improve the actual situation of many Mexicans. There are briefly mentioned not only the environmental but also the social benefits of the use of renewable energy; besides, there are given the necessary elements in order to make it possible. Then, there are explained why the use of renewable energy would be profitable. Finally, it is described the methodology that should be followed in case it is wanted to find sponsors up to 100% for a project related to improvement of the energy production. [Spanish] Esta presentacion describe ampliamente la labor que realiza el Fideicomiso para el ahorro de energia (FIDE) en relacion con el fomento de la energia renovable, asi como el desarrollo de tecnologias que refuercen el uso de este tipo de energia. En la primera parte, se encuentra la mision del FIDE, que se enfoca en lograr que el uso de la energia sea apropiado. Enseguida, de forma breve se describen los procesos que realiza el FIDE en favor de la tecnologia innovadora que haga decrecer el dispendio de energia. Luego, se explican las aspectos endebles del sistema energetico de Mexico. Se describen escuetamente los beneficios, no solo ambientales sino tambien sociales, del uso de energia renovable; ademas, se mencionan los elementos necesarios para que esto pueda lograrse. Mas adelante, se dan las razones por las que para Mexico seria rentable el uso de energia renovable

  11. Design scenarios for renovation of sports complex: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nižetić, S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper elaborates design scenarios for a sports complex in Croatia from a technical and economic aspect. Different energy options are analysed and two are additionally addressed and discussed as the most viable ones. The possibilities of sports complex renovation are shown by properly choosing the appropriate energy concept and thus reducing the overall cost for produced thermal energy by around 33% and reducing the carbon dioxide emission by a factor of 1.8 in comparison with its present state. Finally, this study presents an example of good practice, where renewable energy solutions can be proposed and where it is possible to cover around 70-80% of overall yearly costs from achieved energy savings for the novel plant that is assumed to be financed through a bank loan.

  12. Defining Sustainability in Relation to the Renovation of Modern Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    Summary This paper focuses on comparing practice-based and academic definitions and metrics of “sustainability” as they relate to the transformation of Modern housing in Denmark. Keywords:Sustainability, Renovation, Architecture, Denmark, Modern housing 1. Introduction to the Study Buildings......”. 2. Background to the Study and Study Context Despite the increasing focus on low energy buildings and sustainability, the definitions of key terms in these areas are unclear. This paper focuses on architectural approaches to sustainable building, rather than engineering or other ways of approaching...... process, and how successfully they were used. Data collected includes definitions of sustainability from outside of the profession, as well as in architectural literature. Definitions used in the context of architectural practice were also studied. The definitions from selected key texts were compared...

  13. Indoor climate quality after renovation for improved energy efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Løck, Sebastian; Kolarik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The building sector is responsible for approximately 40 % of the Danish energy consumption. As every year less than 1 % of the building stock is rebuild after demolition of old buildings, improved energy efficiency of existing buildings are in focus. In the late seventies to mid-eighties unwise...... performance. The indoor quality classifications show minor improvements. By using design tools beyond the simple legal requirements, the rental dwelling marked is a far step ahead of most retrofitting of owner-occupied dwellings and houses. The fear of indoor climate degradation from retrofitted energy saving...... measures may be countered by the use of modern design tools and attention to inner moisture membranes and needs for renovation of ventilation systems....

  14. The Use of Reference Models in Business Process Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Pajk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise resource planning (ERP systems are often used by companies to automate and enhance their busi- ness processes. The capabilities of ERP systems can be described by best-practice reference models. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate the business process renovation approach with the use of reference models. Although the use of reference models brings many positive effects for business, they are still rarely used in Slovenian small and medium-sized compa- nies. The reasons for this may be found in the reference models themselves as well as in project implementation methodologies. In the article a reference model based on Microsoft Dynamics NAV is suggested. The reference model is designed using upgraded BPMN notation with additional business objects, which help to describe the models in more detail.

  15. Energy renovation of an old single-family house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, L.L.; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    After having identified a large potential for profitable energy renovation of the existing building stock, a demonstration project was carried out in practice. This paper deals with the methods and results from the demonstration project concerning a 161 m² poorly insulated single-family house built...... saving improvements carried out in the project are “easy to carry out” and cost-beneficial measures such as cavity wall insulation, loft insulation, insulation of walls under windows and a new second window-frame with energy-saving glass. The work was carried out by professional contractors at a total......). If a conservative way of financing the building work of 157,000 DKK is assumed, the first year’s cost equals DKK 8,500 and the house owner will gain a net saving the first year of DKK 7,500....

  16. CERN's PS Booster LLRF renovation : plans and initial beam tests

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, ME; Butterworth, A; Findlay, A; Leinonen, PM; Molendijk, JC; Pedersen, F; Sanchez-Quesada, J; Schokker, M

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 a project was started to renovate the CERN's PS Booster (PSB) low-level RF (LLRF). Required LLRF capabilities include frequency program, beam phase, radial and synchronization loops. The new LLRF will control the signals feeding the three RF cavities present in each ring; it will also shape the beam in a dual harmonic mode, operate a bunch splitting and create a longitudinal blow-up. The main benefits of this new LLRF are its full remote and cycle-to-cycle controllability, built-in observation capability and flexibility. The overall aim is to improve the robustness, maintainability and reliability of the PSB operation and to make it compatible with the injection from the future Linac4. This paper outlines the main characteristics of the software and hardware building blocks. Initial beam test results and hints on the main milestones and future work are also given.

  17. Energy savings from housing: Ineffective renovation subsidies vs efficient demolition and reconstruction incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Maarten; Allacker, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Energy savings in the housing sector are key to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. Policies to incentivize energy savings are however disparate between countries. Taking into account environmental aspects and consumer surplus, the paper uses a stylized economic model to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of three economic instruments: subsidies for renovation, subsidies for demolition and reconstruction projects and subsidies for building new houses on virgin land. The assessment also relates to differentiated value added taxes and other financial incentives such as green loans. In a counter-intuitive way, the model highlights that subsidies for renovations with minor energy gains worsen the overall energy consumption of housing due to the inducement of lock-ins with energy inefficient houses. Structural changes are needed in the use of policy instruments. First, commonly applied support schemes for renovations with minor energy savings should be abolished. Second, scarce public resources should incentivize deep renovation and demolition and reconstruction. Finally, taxes should apply on the use of virgin land to persuade households with a high willingness to pay for a new house, to invest in demolition and reconstruction. - Highlights: • Renovation subsidies worsen overall energy consumption of housing. • Renovation induces a lock-in with energy inefficient houses. • Renovation subsidies should be abolished or structurally reformed. • Policy should incentivize demolition and reconstruction projects. • Building on virgin land should be taxed.

  18. A hybrid decision support system for sustainable office building renovation and energy performance improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, Yi-Kai [Department of Architecture, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (NTUST) (China); Center for Sustainable Development and Global Competitiveness, Stanford University (United States); Gao, Peng [Department of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, Tongji University (China); Wang, Jie [Center for Sustainable Development and Global Competitiveness, Stanford University (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Energy consumption of buildings accounts for around 20-40% of all energy consumed in advanced countries. Over the last decade, more and more global organizations are investing significant resources to create sustainably built environments, emphasizing sustainable building renovation processes to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. This study develops an integrated decision support system to assess existing office building conditions and to recommend an optimal set of sustainable renovation actions, considering trade-offs between renovation cost, improved building quality, and environmental impacts. A hybrid approach that combines A* graph search algorithm with genetic algorithms (GA) is used to analyze all possible renovation actions and their trade-offs to develop the optimal solution. A two-stage system validation is performed to demonstrate the practical application of the hybrid approach: zero-one goal programming (ZOGP) and genetic algorithms are adopted to validate the effectiveness of the algorithm. A real-world renovation project is introduced to validate differences in energy performance projected for the renovation solution suggested by the system. The results reveal that the proposed hybrid system is more computationally effective than either ZOGP or GA alone. The system's suggested renovation actions would provide substantial energy performance improvements to the real project if implemented. (author)

  19. Income from oil could have made Iraq's economy flourish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenweisner, R.; Hirman, K.

    2003-01-01

    He whole economy of Iraq is based on oil industry. 95 percent of Iraq's foreign currency income is traditionally related to oil export. Another typical feature of its economy is a high level of government interference and dependence on food import. Though Iraq has the second largest proven oil reserves in the world and a reasonably good transport and export infrastructure it is struggling with economical problems. It was the wars that have had a major impact on the country's economy during the last two decades. In late seventies and early eighties Iraq's economic perspectives seemed very positive. Iraq was winning 3.5 million barrels of oil a day and the export incomes exceeded 27 billion USD. Tedious wars with the neighbouring Iran in the eighties cost Iraq according to American CIA's estimates about 100 billion USD. Before the wars started Iraq's foreign currency reserves reached 35 billion USD but the high cost of the war and all damage done to the oil facilities caused that before it ended Iraq was forced to take credits and later even restructure the related repayments. By the end of the conflict Iraq's foreign indebtedness grew to exceed 40 billion USD. After the war ended conditions became more favourable for increasing volumes of oil export, building of new pipelines and reconstruction of damaged facilities. But only two years later Saddam Hussain's regime invaded Kuwait and this lead to a military intervention by a coalition lead by the USA and the United Nations inflicted economical sanctions against Iraq. As a result the economic activity in the country decreased dramatically. The limited recourses the country had were used to finance military forces. Living conditions of Iraq's citizens slightly improved in second half of the nineties after United Nations allowed the country to export a limited amount of oil in exchange for food, medicines and some spare parts needed for reconstruction of the infrastructure. In 1999 the United Nations adopted changes to

  20. Learning From Iraq: A Final Report From the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    example, USAID planned on basic health services to be available to 25% of the entire population and 50% of mothers and children within 60 days of the...in the vaccination of millions of children against measles, mumps, and rubella. In addition, by 2011, the national infant-mortality rate had...the program, the United States Congress appeared to have a “laissez faire” attitude toward the expenditure of U.S. tax dollars in Iraq. The

  1. We forgot half of the population! The significance of gender in Danish energy renovation projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørring, Lise

    2016-01-01

    that the way people live their everyday lives plays a crucial role in understanding why they choose whether to perform an energy renovation. This study is based on an anthropological investigation of ten Danish families and their decision-making process while receiving free energy advice, which, in many cases......, ended as an energy renovation project in the home. During the study, gender emerged as a significant factor in two ways. First, energy renovations were perceived differently by men and women as a consequence of their different everyday practices. Second, there was a cultural norm about the division...... that contains different gender practices and cultural influences....

  2. Renovation of the sealing planes of WWER-400 reactors pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonicky, P.; Pilat, P.

    2007-01-01

    An article describes technical solution for renovation of the sealing planes of WWER-440 reactor's pressure vessel. Four nickel sealing rings placed in four concentric grooves are providing hermetic sealing between the vessel and the lid of this type of the reactor. Impeccable seal of the reactor's pressure vessel, where the fission reaction takes place, represents a basic security factor for safe electric energy production. Principle of renovation of the reactor's pressure vessel and lid sealing planes is based on mechanical enlargement of defective grooves and following cladding of the new material by TIG welding. Final step for renovation includes machining of new grooves according to geometrical and surface quality requirements (Authors)

  3. Energy Use and Indoor Climate in Two Schools Before and After Deep Energy Renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    2013-01-01

    . The 7 buildings are being energy renovated and monitored with support from the EU-CONCERTO initiative as part of the project “Cost-effective Low-energy Advanced Sustainable So1utions – Class1”. The buildings are very different and therefore the energy renovations to take place will also vary from...... insulation of piping and improved control (Building Energy Management Systems – BEMS). This paper presents preliminary results of analysis and monitoring of energy use and indoor climate in the two public schools before and after deep energy renovation....

  4. Effect of energy renovation on indoor air quality in multifamily residential buildings in Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Földváry, Veronika; Bekö, Gabriel; Langer, Sarka

    2017-01-01

    efficiency of these buildings rarely consider their impact on the indoor air quality (IAQ). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of simple energy renovation on IAQ, air exchange rates (AER) and occupant satisfaction in Slovak residential buildings. Three pairs of identical naturally...... of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and total and individual volatile organic compounds (VOC) were also measured. CO2 concentrations were significantly higher and AERs were lower in the renovated buildings. Formaldehyde concentrations increased after renovation and were positively correlated with CO2...

  5. Negotiation in the New Strategic Environment: Lessons From Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tressler, David M

    2007-01-01

    U.S. soldiers in Iraq from junior to senior leaders conduct thousands of negotiations with Iraqi leaders while pursuing tactical and operational objectives that affect the strategic import of the U.S...

  6. Mutual incomprehension: U.S.- German value gaps beyond Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Larres, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Differences over Iraq policy have revealed deep U.S.- German value gaps over multilateralism, nationalism, and the role of force in international relations. Cooperation in four areas of mutual importance can help compensate for them.

  7. Securing, Stabilizing, and Rebuilding Iraq: Key Issues for Congressional Oversight

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barton, Nanette; Borseth, Ann; Bruno, David; Byers, Donna; Cain, Dan; Christoff, Joseph A; Coffey, Carole; Cothern, Lynn; Cross, Tracey; D'Agostino, Davi

    2007-01-01

    ... I: More Comprehensive U.S. Strategy Needed to Achieve Goals and Address Challenges in Iraq; Enclosure II: U.S. Commitments Involve Significant Resources, but DoD Cost Reports and Budgets Limit Transparency...

  8. An overview of the IAEA action team activities in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, G.; Baute, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    Following Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights the lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  9. Iranian Strategy in Iraq: Politics and 'Other Means'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felter, Joseph H; Fishman, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Iran has a robust program to exert influence in Iraq to limit American power projection capability in the Middle East, ensure the Iraqi government does not pose a threat to Iran, and build a reliable...

  10. Contractors' Support of U.S. Operations in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frisk, Daniel; Trunkey, R. D; Talaber, Adam; Adedeji, Adebayo; Liu, Victoria; Dennis, Robert; Gullo, Theresa; Sammartino, Frank; Murphy, Robert; Elsea, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper, which covers the period from 2003 through 2007, provides an overview of the federal costs of employing contractors in Iraq and in nearby countries, the type of products and services...

  11. Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq: Effects and Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2005-01-01

    .... and coalition forces since the invasion of Iraq. The bombs have been hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with IEDs are becoming more numerous and deadly...

  12. Estimating the Costs of Military Operations in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilmore, J. M

    2007-01-01

    This testimony, given by J. Michael Gilmore, Assistant Director for National Security, before the Committee on the Budget, United States Senate, discusses the costs of operations in the Iraq theater and issues associated...

  13. The Survival of the Company Man in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Kyle S

    2008-01-01

    This thesis examines the decision-making processes used by company grade officers operating in combat roles in Iraq and seeks to determine if innovation largely originates among lower ranking officers...

  14. review article two perspectives on the recent war in iraq

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    Making a killing: The explosive story of a hired gun in Iraq is James ... information about armed conflict by reading the personal accounts of participants ... career as a law practitioner, but soon regretted his decision and started daydreaming.

  15. An overview of the IAEA action team activities in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, G.; Baute, J.

    2001-01-01

    Following Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights the lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  16. Renforcement de la recherche en sciences sociales en Iraq | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra à l'Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies d'établir les capacités de recherche en sciences sociales du pays en entreprenant une recherche sur le terrain et une enquête dans trois régions, soit Bagdad, le sud de l'Iraq et le Kurdistan. Il s'agira pour l'institut de cerner les forces et les faiblesses en la ...

  17. Renforcement de la recherche en sciences sociales en Iraq | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra à l'Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies d'établir les capacités de recherche en sciences sociales du pays en entreprenant une recherche sur le terrain et une enquête dans trois régions, soit Bagdad, le sud de l'Iraq et le Kurdistan. Il s'agira pour l'institut de cerner les forces et les faiblesses en la ...

  18. The Planning Policy of Bilingualism in Education in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Huri Yaseen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Iraq as a multicultural and multilingual country has different languages as Arabic, which is the dominant language, and it also has some other minority languages, such as Kurdish, Turkish, Syriac....etc. Over the last 80 years, Iraq which was involved in some political struggles, had faced many internal problems regarding the Arabic domination that occurred, and this was owing to the absence of clear language policy used. Children learning in the Iraqi system, for instance, speak and study all courses in Arabic, while speaking and using their own culture at home tend to be done in their first language. The minorities’ language usage in Iraq was ignored both inside the schools as well as in the curriculum construction. So this study focuses on the following issues: the first issue is, What is the strategy of language planning policy in Iraq? the study discusses the strategy and the planning educational system that Iraq applies now, the second issue is, What is the status of minority languages in Iraq? Iraq is a multicultural county and has many minorities communities with different languages, the third issue is, What are the challenges of language in Iraq? as long as there is different languages within one country the study also focuses on the challenges that been faced in the planning policy system, and the last issue is, Is there a homogenous relationship during the current policy? How? the study shows the homogenous relationship inside the current policy and the researches give many suggestions and recommendations regarding to the current policy and what is needed for improving the educational planning policy system.

  19. The Planning Policy of Bilingualism in Education in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Huri Yaseen; Hani Shakir; YM Hajah Tenku Mazuwana Bt. T. Mansor

    2016-01-01

    Iraq as a multicultural and multilingual country has different languages as Arabic, which is the dominant language, and it also has some other minority languages, such as Kurdish, Turkish, Syriac....etc. Over the last 80 years, Iraq which was involved in some political struggles, had faced many internal problems regarding the Arabic domination that occurred, and this was owing to the absence of clear language policy used. Children learning in the Iraqi system, for instance, speak and study al...

  20. Monitoring-based analysis of agriculture in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Tokareva, Olga Sergeevna; Pasko, Olga Anatolievna; Alshaibi, A.; Mochalov, M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with change in area and structure of Iraq agricultural lands. It revealed the main reasons for the change: crisis (war, sanctions, etc.); economic (swamp and lake drainage, melioration, etc.); weather condition. Land-use intensification as a reason for reduction of agricultural land areas was not proved. The area of cultivated lands proved to correlate significantly with the level of precipitation, wheat productivity -with the average temperature in Iraq.

  1. Chromite Enrichment in the Recent Fluviatile Sediments, North Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al Juboury, Ali I. [علي اسماعيل الجبوري; Ismail, Sabah A.; Ghazal, Mohsin M.

    1999-01-01

    The Recent sediments from North Iraq are characterized by a higher content of chromite. This paper deals with the mineralogy and geochemistry of chromite in the heavy mineral assemblages from Recent fluvial sediments in an attempt to elucidate its distribution and source rock. The heavy fraction is composed of iron oxides and chromite forming about 50% of the total heavies. Chromite forms up to 80% of the opaque minerals at some areas in North Iraq. The non-opaque heavy minerals are composed ...

  2. Decision-making in the Pre-design Stage of Sustainable Building Renovation Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anne Nørkjær; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Larsen, Tine Steen

    2017-01-01

    There is a great potential in renovating our existing building stock, in terms of improving environmental, economic and social qualities. Meeting the increasing performance requirements for sustainable construction entails an increasing level of complexity in the design process of both new...... buildings and renovation projects. Decision support tools are one solution that can help the building owner manage this complexity. This study investigates the current decision-making processes among Danish professional building owners, in order to propose a conceptual framework for future decision support...... tools for sustainable renovation. Design Science Research Methodology has been used as the main methodological framework. Current practices for setting goals for sustainability, determining the current state of the buildings and prioritizing which buildings to renovate within a building portfolio, have...

  3. 76 FR 47917 - Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... available, e.g., Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted... to window replacement to complete kitchen and bath renovations to building additions and everything...

  4. The University of Michigan, Kellogg Building Expansion & Renovation, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents design, construction, and cost data for the University of Michigan's Kellogg Building expansion and renovation project. A list of project manufacturers and suppliers is provided along with four photographs and four floor plans. (GR)

  5. Business models for full service energy renovation of single-family houses in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif; Haavik, Trond

    2013-01-01

    the similarities are on how the service is provided. Even though there is strong business potential for one-stop-shop energy renovation concept, still it has been somewhat difficult to start or run such a business. Various options to overcome the hindrances to promote energy efficient renovation of detached houses...... markets are dominated by handicraft-based individual solutions. In this paper we have analyzed the opportunities for implementation of one-stop-shop business models where an overall contractor offers full-service renovation packages including consulting, independent energy audit, renovation work, follow......-up (independent quality control and commissioning) and financing. A comparative assessment of emerging business models in the Nordic countries shows that different types of actors can provide such a service. Financing is included in some models. There are differences in how customers are contacted, while...

  6. Architects and Librarians under Pressure: Dialoguing about Renovation of a Library in a Constrained Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lohisse

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A librarian and an architect conduct the essential dialogue involved in renovating an academic library in Paris, comparing architectural concerns with the exigencies of public use, and juxtaposing technical requirements with the functional organisation of the library.

  7. Leveraging Limited Scope for Maximum Benefit in Occupied Renovation of Uninsulated Cold Climate Multifamily Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somer, MA (United States); Bergey, D. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somer, MA (United States); Osser, R. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somer, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This project examines a large-scale renovation project within a 500 unit, 1960's era subsidized urban housing community. This research focuses on the airflow control and window replacement measures implemented as part of the renovations to the low-rise apartment buildings. The window replacement reduced the nominal conductive loss of the apartment enclosure by approximately 15%; air sealing measures reduced measured air leakage by approximately 40% on average.

  8. Aspinall Courthouse: GSA's Historic Preservation and Net-Zero Renovation Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, R.; Hayter, S.; Hotchkiss, E.; Pless, S.; Sielcken, J.; Smith-Larney, C.

    2014-10-01

    The federal government is mandated with improving efficiency of buildings, incorporating renewable energy, and achieving net-zero energy operations where possible. These challenges led GSA to consider aligning historic preservation renovations with net-zero energy goals. The Wayne N. Aspinall Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse (Aspinall Courthouse), in Grand Junction, Colorado, is an example of a renovation project that aimed to accomplish both historic preservation and net-zero energy goals.

  9. Cost-optimal energy performance renovation measures of educational buildings in cold climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemelä, Tuomo; Kosonen, Risto; Jokisalo, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The proposed national nZEB target can be cost-effectively achieved in renovations. • Energy saving potential of HVAC systems is significant compared to the building envelope. • Modern renewable energy production technologies are cost-efficient and recommendable. • Improving the indoor climate conditions in deep renovations is recommendable. • Simulation-based optimization method is efficient in building performance analyzes. - Abstract: The paper discusses cost-efficient energy performance renovation measures for typical educational buildings built in the 1960s and 1970s in cold climate regions. The study analyzes the impact of different energy renovation measures on the energy efficiency and economic viability in a Finnish case study educational building located in Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) campus area. The main objective of the study was to determine the cost-optimal energy performance renovation measures to meet the proposed national nearly zero-energy building (nZEB) requirements, which are defined according to the primary energy consumption of buildings. The main research method of the study was simulation-based optimization (SBO) analysis, which was used to determine the cost-optimal renovation solutions. The results of the study indicate that the minimum national energy performance requirement of new educational buildings (E_p_r_i_m_a_r_y ⩽ 170 kWh/(m"2,a)) can be cost-effectively achieved in deep renovations of educational buildings. In addition, the proposed national nZEB-targets are also well achievable, while improving the indoor climate (thermal comfort and indoor air quality) conditions significantly at the same time. Cost-effective solutions included renovation of the original ventilation system, a ground source heat pump system with relatively small dimensioning power output, new energy efficient windows and a relatively large area of PV-panels for solar-based electricity production. The results and

  10. Business models for full service energy renovation of single-family houses in Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif; Haavik, Trond; Aabrekk, Synnøve; Svendsen, Svend; Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Paiho, Satu; Ala-Juusela, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In the Nordic countries there is significant primary energy saving potential in single-family houses from 1970s. ► There are several behavioral, economical and market related hindrances to adoption of energy efficiency measures. ► One-stop-shop business models to offer full service energy renovation packages are slowly emerging. ► Marketing strategies and policy measures are required to promote full service energy renovation of single-family house. - Abstract: In Nordic countries significant primary energy saving potential exists in houses built before 1980. These old houses need to be renovated, which provides an opportunity for implementation of energy efficiency measures. However, there are several economic and market hindrances and the renovation markets are dominated by handicraft-based individual solutions. In this paper we have analyzed the opportunities for implementation of one-stop-shop business models where an overall contractor offers full-service renovation packages including consulting, independent energy audit, renovation work, follow-up (independent quality control and commissioning) and financing. A comparative assessment of emerging business models in the Nordic countries shows that different types of actors can provide such a service. Financing is included in some models. There are differences in how customers are contacted, while the similarities are on how the service is provided. Even though there is strong business potential for one-stop-shop energy renovation concept, still it has been somewhat difficult to start or run such a business. Various options to overcome the hindrances to promote energy efficient renovation of detached houses are discussed

  11. The Use of UAV in Housing Renovation Identification: A Case Study at Taman Manis 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffa, A. A.; Hasmori, M. F.; Sarif, A. S.; Ahmad, N. F.; Zainun, N. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Housing industry in Malaysia is growing rapidly due to the increase in population and the arising of economic level of Malaysian people. Most residential houses are built according to the standard residential design that may lead to house renovation by the buyers after purchasing the house. A method of using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) monitoring was used to obtain information of the renovated houses directly on-site at Taman Manis 2, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat. Through comparison of image captured by the UAV with the original house plans, we found out that a total of 160 units out of 336 units of houses undergo a renovation process. Surprisingly, 41 units have been renovated illegally which has 40% to 96% of renovation rate. The acquired data were analyzed and can be concluded that the method of using UAVs to obtain information is highly recommended. The study is expected to help Municipal Council to detect improper & illegal renovation by the residents in a residential area.

  12. Wastewater renovation using constructed soil filter (CSF): a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemade, P D; Kadam, A M; Shankar, H S

    2009-10-30

    Constructed soil filter (CSF) also known as Soil Biotechnology (SBT) is a process for water renovation which makes use of formulated media with culture of soil macro- and microorganisms. CSF combines sedimentation, infiltration and biodegradation processes to remove oxidizable organics and inorganics of wastewater in a single facility. Operating experience shows hydraulic loading in the range of 0.05-0.25 m(3)/m(2) h and organic loading up to 200-680 g/m(2) d. The results show increase in dissolved oxygen levels, COD removal (from 352 mg/l to 20 mg/l); BOD removal (from 211 mg/l to 7.0 mg/l); suspended solids removal (from 293 mg/l to 16 mg/l); turbidity reduction (from 145 NTU to 5.3 NTU); iron (from 5 mg/l to 0.3 mg/l); arsenic (from 500 microg/l to 10 microg/l); total coliform and fecal coliform removal (from 145 x 10(5) to 55 CFU/100 mL and 150 x 10(8) to 110 CFU/100 mL respectively), with desired pathogen levels as per WHO standards, i.e. aeration and no odor, fish compatible water quality and evergreen ambience.

  13. A framework for sustainability science: a renovated IPAT identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, P E; Ausubel, J H

    2002-06-11

    Learning actors' leverage for change along the journey to sustainability requires quantifying the component forces of environmental impact and integrating them. Population, income, consumers' behavior, and producers' efficiency jointly force impact. Here, we renovate the "IPAT Identity" to identify actors with the forces. Forcing impact I are P for population, A for income as gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, C for intensity of use as a good per GDP, and T for efficiency ratios as impact per good. In the "ImPACT Identity," parents modify P, workers modify A, consumers modify C, and producers modify T. Because annual percentage changes in component forces add to a change in national impact, actors' leverage is reflected transparently in consistent units of annual percentage changes that can be compared from force to force. Examples from energy and food, farming and manufacturing, and steel and water show that declining C, called dematerialization, can temper the sustainability challenge of growth (P x A), and that innovation or efficient technology that lowers T can counter rising consumption (P x A x C). Income elasticity can accommodate connections between income and other forces. From rates of change of forces, the identity can forecast impacts. Alternatively, by identifying the necessary change in forces to cause a projected impact, ImPACT can assay the likelihood and practicability of environmental targets and timetables. An annual 2-3% progress in consumption and technology over many decades and sectors provides a benchmark for sustainability.

  14. Renovation of food-processing wastewater by a Riparian wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Priscilla W.

    1995-01-01

    Treated wastewater from a food-processing plant, together with intermittent outflow from a hypereutrophic pond, were discharged over a 20-year period to a cattail-dominated wetland and hence to a small stream. Organics and nutriet levels in the effluent were comparable to levels in domestic wastewater. Fifteen variables were monitored upstream and downstream from the plant over 18 months. Means for most variables were slightly higher downstream, but differences between stations were not statistically significant. Wetland processing of nitrogen was markedly affected by a change from drought to flood conditions. After accounting for dilution, the overall effect of the wetland on the effluent was to reduce biological oxygen demand 43.7%, ammonia N 46.3%, nitrate/nitrite N 17.4%, and conductivity 15.6%. However, total suspended solids were increased 41.4%, total organic nitrogen 28.8%, and total phosphorus 24.7%. It was concluded that the wetland effectively renovated the effluent but the removal efficiency would be improved if the effluent were pretreated to reduce phosphorus and dispersed to increase residence time in the wetland.

  15. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    .... Administrations had ruled out major U.S. military action to change Iraq's regime, believing such action would be risky and not necessarily justified by the level of Iraq's lack of compliance on WMD disarmament...

  16. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    .... Administrations had ruled out major U.S. military action to change Iraq's regime, believing such action would be risky and not necessarily justified by the level of Iraq's lack of compliance on WMD disarmament...

  17. On Conflict Transformation in Iraq: Democracy and its Effect on Stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    West, Aaron S

    2007-01-01

    .... The level of violence in Iraq gradually increased as Iraq progressed from the first national elections in January 2005 to a constitutional referendum and then subsequent elections in December 2005...

  18. Congressional Authority to Limit U.S. Military Operations in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer K; Garcia, Michael J; Nicola, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    .... The situation in Iraq has focused attention on whether Congress has the constitutional authority to legislate limits on the President's authority to conduct military operations in Iraq, even though...

  19. Special Report: Iraq and the Gulf States. The Balance of Fear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alterman, Jon B

    2007-01-01

    .... As part of the Institute's Iraq and Its Neighbors project, a group of leading specialists on the geopolitics of the region is assessing the interests and influence of the countries surrounding Iraq and the impact on U.S...

  20. Snapshot of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanad Mohsin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Iraq is specific in having its own most predominant lineage (SIT1144/T1 which is not found among neighboring countries. The 15-locus MIRU-VNTR can be useful in discriminating M. tuberculosis isolates in Iraq.

  1. Using a One-Stop-Shop Concept to Guide Decisions when Single-Family Houses are renovated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn Bjørneboe, Matilde; Svendsen, Svend; Heller, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    of renovation. The scope of the project was to carry out renovations on up to three houses. The project revealed that the concept on its own was not enough to motivate the house owners to engage in extensive renovation. However, interviews with the house owners indicated that the renovations that took place had...... was to determine how a one-stop-shop (OSS) or full-service concept could be used to guide the extensive energy renovation of single-family houses. The purpose was partly to identify the benefits and disadvantages of using the concept and partly to evaluate the potential of the OSS concept for increasing the degree...... probably been expanded and improved with the use of the concept and that the renovations in general benefitted from an independent adviser....

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition... to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a...

  3. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal Acquisition... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  4. Analysis of synoptic situation for dust storms in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Ibrahim, Morwa K. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Dust storms are considered major natural disasters that cause many damages to society and environment in Iraq and surrounded deserted regions. The aim of this research is to analyze and study the synoptic patterns leading to the formation of dust storms in Iraq. Analysis are based on satellite images, aerosols index and synoptic weather maps. Two severe dust storms occurred over Iraq on February 22, 2010, and on December 10, 2011 were analyzed. The results showed that dust storms form when a low-pressure system forms over Iran causing Shamal winds blow; they carry cool air from that region towards warmer regions like eastern Syria and Iraq. In some cases, this low-pressure system is followed by a high-pressure system brining more cold air to the region and pushing dust toward south. Dust storms are initiated from source regions near Iraq-Syria borders by the existence of negative vertical velocity, which causes dust particles to be lifted upwards, and the strong westerly wind drives dust to travel eastward.

  5. Lowell Observatory's 24-inch Clark Refractor: Its History and Renovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Kevin; Nye, Ralph; Rosenthal, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In 1895, Percival Lowell hired eminent telescope maker Alvan G. Clark to build a 24-inch refractor. Lowell intended the telescope intitally for observing Mars in support of his controversial theories about life on that planet. Clark finished the telescope within a year and at a cost of $20,000. Lowell and his staff of assistants and astronomers began observing through it on July 23, 1896, setting off a long and productive career for the telescope.While Lowell's Mars studies dominated early work with the Clark, V.M. Slipher by the 1910s was using it to observe planetary rotations and atmospheric compositions. He soon revolutionized spectroscopic studies, gathering excruciatingly long spectra - some in excess of 40 hours - of the so-called white nebula and determining startling radial velocities, evidence of an expanding universe. In the 1960s, scientists and artists teamed up on the Clark and created detailed lunar maps in support of the Apollo program.In recent decades, the Clark has played a central role in the education programs at Lowell, with general public audiences, students, and private groups all taking advantage of this unique resource.With this nearly 120 years of contant use, the Clark had been wearing down in recent years. The telescope was becoming more difficult to move, old electrical wiring in the dome was a fire hazard, and many of the telescope's parts needed to be repaired or replaced.In 2013, Lowell Observatory began a fundraising campaign, collecting $291,000 to cover the cost of dome and telescope renovation. Workers removed the entire telescope mount and tube assembly from the dome, examining every part from tube sections to individuals screws. They also stabilized the dome, adding a water vapor barrier and new outer wall while reinforcing the upper dome. The project lasted from January, 2014 through August, 2015. The facility reopened for daytime tours in September, 2015 and evening viewing the following month.

  6. Carbon balance of renovated grasslands: input- or output-driven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choncubhair, Órlaith Ní; Osborne, Bruce; Lanigan, Gary

    2015-04-01

    Temperate grasslands constitute over 30% of the Earth's naturally-occurring biomes and make an important contribution towards the partial mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by terrestrial ecosystems. In permanent temperate grasslands, biomass production and sward quality can deteriorate over time and periodic renovation activities, involving soil tillage and reseeding, are commonly carried out to halt this decline. Long-term cultivation of agricultural land has been associated with soil aggregate degradation and reduced soil carbon storage. However, the impact of these single tillage disturbances on C cycling in grasslands is less clear. This study evaluated gaseous and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) losses following a single tillage event by subjecting grassland lysimeters with contrasting soil drainage characteristics to simulated conventional inversion or minimum tillage. Field-scale CO2 emissions after conventional tillage were also quantified and empirically modelled over short- and medium-term timeframes to delineate the ecosystem response to environmental variables. Soil moisture was the limiting determinant of ecosystem carbon release following conventional tillage. Freshly-tilled soils were associated with reduced water retention and increased sensitivity to soil moisture, which was particularly pronounced following rewetting events. Significantly elevated but ephemeral CO2 effluxes were detected in the hours following inversion ploughing, however tillage disturbance did not generate significantly enhanced C emission rates in the medium term. Equally, DOC losses were not significantly amplified by conventional tillage compared with conservative minimum tillage and were predominantly controlled by soil drainage across tillage regimes. Our results suggest that a net ecosystem source of 120 to 210 g C m-2 over an approximately two-month period was most likely a consequence of reduced productivity and C input rather than enhanced soil CO2

  7. 75 FR 26938 - Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... business growth in Iraq and to strengthen trade and investment ties between the United States and Iraq... areas: --Factors that affect the growth of private sector business in Iraq, including disincentives to... regulations, to promote private sector business growth in Iraq; --Promotion of business opportunities in both...

  8. Oil Regime Change in Iraq. Possible Strategic Implications for OPEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boon Von Ochssee, T.A.

    2006-06-01

    The potential strategic impact of regime change in Iraq and Iran on OPEC in the long-run is explored. In the first part of the paper short overviews are given of the present international oil market; of US oil import issues and energy policy; of the strategic position of the US in the Persian Gulf and of geopolitical developments in the Persian Gulf at large. Also, attention is paid to the OPEC and the role of a 'new' Iraq. In the second part the game of 'boxed pigs' is used to explore the possible strategic impact of regime change in Iraq and possible regime change in Iran on OPEC. This exploration takes place within four possible futures for the Gulf

  9. Academic development for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Dirk J; Maghdid, Delshad M; Mohammed, Maqsood S; Sherwani, Govand H S

    2014-03-01

    Continuous education is mandatory for all urologists, and undertaking cooperative research is a very effective means for this. We describe the experience and possibilities for continuing education for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. We hope to provide a framework for stimulating urological education and research in other countries where urologists face the same obstacles. Data were obtained from the perspective of two academics who co-operate with urologists from Iraq, and from the perspective of two officials from the Ministry of Higher education of the Kurdistan Regional Government who are responsible for stimulating continuous education. Based on a co-operative and supportive attitude of both Government and Academics, urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq have brought the standards of education and cooperative research to an internationally competitive level. The authors hope that the examples given here can stimulate urologists from Arab countries to fully engage in new urological developments, despite the obstacles that they perceive.

  10. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  11. Estimation of clear sky hourly global solar radiation in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Al-Zuhairi, Munya F.; Mahdi, Zahraa S. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2012-07-01

    The availability of hourly solar radiation data is very important for applications utilizing solar energy and for climate and environmental aspects. The aim of this work is to use a simple model for estimating hourly global solar radiation under clear sky condition in Iraq. Calculations were compared with measurements obtained from local station in Baghdad city and from Meteosat satellite data for different locations in Iraq. The statistical test methods of the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and t-test were used to evaluate the performance of the model. Results indicated that a fairly good agreement exists between calculated and measured values for all locations in Iraq. Since the model is independent of any meteorological variable, it would be of a practical use for rural areas where no meteorological data are available.

  12. How to get residents/owners in housing cooperatives to agree on sustainable renovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappegard Hauge, A. [SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, P.O. Box 124, Blindern, 0314 Oslo (Norway); Thomsen, J. [SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, 7465 Trondheim (Norway); Loefstroem, E. [SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2013-05-15

    What factors increase the chance that residents/owners in housing cooperatives agree on sustainable energy efficient renovation? Based on 30 qualitative interviews with professional advisors in cooperative housing associations and chairman/board and residents in three chosen case studies, an analysis of opportunities and barriers for making a common decision on renovation is performed. Success criteria and barriers are found on the societal level as well as on the organizational/individual level. The barriers and success criteria identified on the societal level are: knowledge level on energy-efficient renovation among relevant actors, owner structure of the housing cooperative, and existing regulations and incentives. On the organizational and individual level, the following categories influencing renovation processes were identified: the time frame and organization of the process, understanding the residents' needs, economy, the information given, and the existence of available exemplary projects and role models. Based on the results of the study, ten guidelines that contribute to more successful decision making processes and increase the chances of sustainable energy efficient renovation in housing cooperatives are presented.

  13. IAEA calls for urgent action on nuclear situation in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, called on the United States and other Coalition authorities to allow IAEA experts to return to Iraq to address a possible radiological emergency there. 'I am deeply concerned by the almost daily reports of looting and destruction at nuclear sites and about the potential radiological safety and security implications of nuclear and radiological materials that may no longer be under control.' Such reports have described among other things yellow cake emptied on the ground from containers then taken for domestic use, and radioactive sources being stolen and removed from their shielding. 'We have a moral responsibility to establish the facts without delay and take urgent remedial action,' said Dr. ElBaradei. As hostilities in Iraq were coming to an end, Dr. ElBaradei wrote on 10 April to the US government bringing its attention to the need to secure the nuclear material stored at Tuwaitha - Iraq's nuclear research centre - and under IAEA seal since 1991. The IAEA also provided the United States with information about the nuclear material, radioactive sources, and nuclear waste in Iraq. The IAEA received oral assurances that physical protection of the site was in place; but following reports of looting there and at other sites, Dr. ElBaradei wrote again on 29 April, emphasizing the responsibility of the Coalition forces to maintain appropriate protection over the materials in question. This includes natural and low-enriched uranium, radioactive sources such as Cobalt 60 and Caesium 137, and nuclear waste. Dr. ElBaradei regrets that the IAEA has to date not received a response. He again urged that the Agency be allowed to send a safety and security team to Iraq so that a potentially serious humanitarian situation can be addressed without further delay. The IAEA has experienced international teams of radiation safety, nuclear security and emergency response specialists

  14. Ballistic trauma: lessons learned from iraq and afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Emily H; Sabino, Jennifer M; Nanos, George P; Valerio, Ian L

    2015-02-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan.

  15. IAEA inspectors complete verification of nuclear material in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Full text: At the request of the Government of Iraq and pursuant to the NPT Safeguards Agreement with Iraq, a team of IAEA safeguards inspectors has completed the annual Physical Inventory Verification of declared nuclear material in Iraq, and is returning to Vienna. The material - natural or low-enriched uranium - is not sensitive from a proliferation perspective and is consolidated at a storage facility near the Tuwaitha complex, south of Baghdad. This inspection was conducted with the logistical and security assistance of the Multinational Force and the Office of the UN Security Coordinator. Inspections such as this are required by safeguards agreements with every non-nuclear-weapon state party to the NPT that has declared holdings of nuclear material, to verify the correctness of the declaration, and that material has not been diverted to any undeclared activity. Such inspections have been performed in Iraq on a continuing basis. The most recent took place in June 2003, following reports of looting of nuclear material at the Tuwaitha complex; IAEA inspectors recovered, repackaged and resealed all but a minute amount of material. NPT safeguards inspections are limited in scope and coverage as compared to the verification activities carried out in 1991-98 and 2002-03 by the IAEA under Security Council resolution 687 and related resolutions. 'This week's mission was a good first step,' IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei said. 'Now we hope to be in a position to complete the mandate entrusted to us by the Security Council, to enable the Council over time to remove all sanctions and restrictions imposed on Iraq - so that Iraq's rights as a full-fledged member of the international community can be restored.' The removal of remaining sanctions is dependent on completion of the verification process by the IAEA and the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC). It should be noted that IAEA technical assistance to Iraq has been resumed over

  16. Epidemiology of organomercury poisoning in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mufti, A. W.; Copplestone, J. F.; Kazantzis, G.; Mahmoud, R. M.; Majid, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A survey was carried out in a defined area in rural Iraq where there had been many cases of organomercury poisoning following the consumption of bread contaminated by mercury, in order to determine the true incidence of the disorder. The results were compared with those obtained from a similar rural area from which few cases had been reported. A questionnaire was used to determine the amount of contaminated bread eaten and the frequency of symptoms; a simple clinical examination was performed and blood and hair samples were collected for estimation of total mercury concentration. Of 700 people over the age of 5 years in the high-exposure area, 66% admitted to having eaten contaminated bread, while none of the 864 persons in the low exposure area had done so. The mean period during which contaminated bread was eaten was 32 days, but some people had eaten it for as long as 3 months. A mean of 121 loaves was eaten, the maximum being 480 loaves. For the mean number of loaves the intake of methylmercury was likely to have been between 80 mg and 250 mg, but the people who had consumed the largest amount of contaminated bread may have ingested up to 1 000 mg of methylmercury over a 3-month period. Of those with signs of alkylmercury poisoning at the time of the survey, 80% had eaten more than 100 loaves, and 53 (71%) out of 75 persons who had eaten more than 200 loaves showed some evidence of poisoning. The incidence rate for poisoning was estimated at 271 per 1 000; this figure includes a mortality rate of 59 per 1 000, 32 per 1 000 cases with severe disability, 41 per 1 000 cases with mild or moderate disability and 138 per 1 000 cases with only subjective evidence of poisoning at the time of the study. PMID:1086164

  17. Curricular renovation in the phonoaudiology program of the University of Cauca: a proposal for educational quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana María Pérez-Tenorio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, the Superior Education is going through a transformation process. These changes must be in coherence with the formulation of flexible policies among the diverse components of the curriculum and with the need for new forms of working and producing knowledge. The curricular renovation must ref lect an educational quality compromise and contribute to generate human development with high social impact. This article presents a proposal for Curricular Renovation, elaborated by faculty and students of the Phonoaudiology Program of the University of Cauca. This document contains aspects related to the pedagogic model, didactics, faculty-student relation, systems of evaluation and plan of studies. Furthermore, in this document the bases for the Route of Curricular Renovation are presented, consisting of the following phases: background, diagnosis and operational plan. These should facilitate the academic integration for adjusting the curricular processes to the needs of the academic program in a local, national and international context.

  18. Method for planning extensive energy renovation of detached single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn Bjørneboe, Matilde

    , and 22% occurs in single-family houses, making this the largest single contributor to the total consumption after road transport (DEA, 2015a). There is a large potential for achieving energy savings in this sector, especially among the large number of single-family houses built in the 1960s and 1970s...... that the use of this approach produced a better renovation with a larger energy saving. The initial evaluation helped the house owners identify a maintenance backlog, and the use of an independent advisor helped ensure quality throughout the process. Renovations are too often carried out for just one purpose......: maintenance, to update functions or to reduce energy consumption. But a lot can be gained by combining these efforts, which can reduce expenses for planning and execution and avoid doing things twice. Research for this thesis demonstrated this approach by carrying out a renovation based on maintenance...

  19. Sustainable Renovation of Residential Buildings and the Landlord/Tenant Dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ástmarsson, Björn; Jensen, Per Anker; Maslesa, Esmir

    2013-01-01

    solutions can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma in relation to sustainable renovation of residential buildings, and how the general awareness of sustainable renovation can be increased. Particular focus is on whether tools like energy performance contracting and energy labeling can help solve......The landlord/tenant dilemma arises when the interests of landlords and tenants misalign and is one of the greatest barriers hindering the development of sustainable renovation of residential buildings in Europe. The aim of this research is to investigate how regulatory changes and contractual...... be overcome with a package solution. In the Danish national context the package solution must consist of legislative changes, financial incentives and better dissemination of information. Therefore, an array of different tools must be integrated and used in cooperation to overcome the dilemma....

  20. Full-service concept for energy efficient renovation of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    the solutions. Such one-stop-shops in the form of full-service providers of energy efficient renovation of single-family house are missing in the Nordic countries, although this service is vital to open up the market. As part of the Nordic research project `SuccesFamilies´ with the purpose to change...... houses. A one-stop-shop in the form of a full-service concept could be seen as a possibility to make it easy for the homeowner to comply with possible future requirements to realize far-reaching energy savings in connection with extensive renovations, provided that the building sector offers...... includes an ideal full-service concept and technical renovation solutions targeted to different types of single-family houses....

  1. Decision Support Model for Mosque Renovation and Rehabilitation (Case Study: Ten Mosques in Jakarta Barat, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, D. N.; Triana, Y. S.; Iqbal, M. M.; Iksal, M.; Fikri, I.; Dharmawan, T.

    2018-03-01

    Mosque, for Muslim, is not only a place for daily worshipping, however as a center of culture as well. It is an important and valuable building to be well managed. For a responsible department or institution (such as Religion or Plan Department in Indonesia), to practically manage a lot of mosques is not simple task to handle. The challenge is in relation to data number and characteristic problems tackled. Specifically for renovating and rehabilitating the damaged mosques, a decision to determine the first damaged mosque priority to be renovated and rehabilitated is problematic. Through two types of optimization method, simulated-annealing and hill-climbing, a decision support model for mosque renovation and rehabilitation was systematically constructed. The method fuzzy-logic was also operated to establish the priority of eleven selected parameters. The constructed model is able to simulate an efficiency comparison between two optimization methods used and suggest the most objective decision coming from 196 generated alternatives.

  2. Improved perceived indoor environment in renovated and energy-retrofitted social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose

    2017-01-01

    , noise from outside and too little daylight. The evaluation shows that it is possible to achieve a win-win situation, with both energy savings and improved perceived indoor environment. The evaluation also reveals that careful attention is needed to avoid introducing annoying noise from new technical......The purpose of the present study was, among other things, to evaluate how tenants perceived the indoor environment in renovated and energy-retrofitted social housing erected in the 1960s. Tenants answered a questionnaire to quantify problems and satisfaction with the indoor environment before...... and after the renovation work. A majority of tenants perceived the indoor environment improved for all parameters: temperature, draught, air quality, noise and daylight, after the renovation work. In particular, the tenants experienced fewer problems with too low temperature and draught during the winter...

  3. Migration from Iraq between the Gulf and the Iraq wars (1990-2003): historical and sociospacial dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelard, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Working Paper 09-68, COMPAS - Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (Oxford University). http://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/publications/working-papers/wp-09-68/#c221; This paper describes and analyses trends and patterns of migration from Iraq with a focus on the movement of those Iraqis who migrated from their country between the Gulf War in 1990-1991 and the Anglo-American invasion of Iraq in April 2003. The conceptual frame of migration orders is used however combined with approaches proposed b...

  4. La inversión en energías renovables en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Recalde, Marina

    2017-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza en qué medida los factores del entorno de la política energética de un país en desarrollo, tal como Argentina, determinan la evolución de la inversión en energías renovables. La baja calidad institucional del país ayuda a crear condiciones no propicias que contrarrestan el efecto de la política energética, reduciendo los incentivos para invertir en tecnologías renovables. Es necesario entonces mejorar las condiciones institucionales de los países en desarrollo para...

  5. Trusses Of Tensegrity Type In A Concept Of Train Station Renovation In Żary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lechocka Paulina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The first railway station in Żary was built in 1843 in Germany. After the Second World War and years of socialism in Poland the meaning of railway decreased and its technical condition deteriorated. Now the building needs renovation and change of function. Tensegrity structures may be useful in renovation of platforms shelter. They are strut and tie construction, in which there is self-stabilization between compressed and tensioned elements. Conception of new platform shelter is based on exemplary tensegrity module consist of three struts and nine cables (called „Simplex”. Tensegrity would make railway station more modern, but not cover its original elevation.

  6. Limitaciones para el desarrollo de energías renovables en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Yesica Recalde; Daniel Hugo Bouille; Leónidas Osvaldo Girardin

    2015-01-01

    En las últimas décadas las energías renovables han cobrado impulso a nivel mundial con un significativo impacto sobre el desarrollo sustentable de las naciones. Si bien diferentes trabajos analizan la eficiencia de políticas e instrumentos para la promoción de dichas fuentes, la mayoría de las veces se deja de lado el análisis de cómo el contexto en el cual las políticas son implementadas determina su performance. En este trabajo se analiza el desarrollo de las energías renovables en el merca...

  7. Method for Developing and Assessing Holistic Energy Renovation of Multi-Storey Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Rode, Carsten; Bjarløv, Søren Peter

    A large part of the Danish building stock is from the post-war era, and thus there is an immense need for renovation within a few years. Also there is a persistent focus on energy use in buildings as it corresponds to about 40% of the total energy use in Denmark. However to secure durable solutions....... The assessment method is tested on two case buildings, and the assessment involves all relevant stakeholders including building owner, users, and caretakers. An element of the project looks to the development of new products and solutions for renovation for buildings. As part of the method, user involvement...

  8. A multi-methodology and sustainability-supporting framework for implementation and assessment of a holistic building renovation: Implementation and assessment of a holistic sustainable building renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamari, Aliakbar

    . The research strategy employed in this thesis presents characteristics of two research types, namely the qualitative research approach, and the inter- or transdisciplinary research throughout mode 2. It therefore calls for an inductive research approach and involves an interpretive approach and comparative...... a deep building renovation and an ordinary one is a commitment to a holistic approach in which objectives/criteria are targeted early in the design stages and subsequently are considered for their interdependence throughout sustainability perspectives. A review of recent research has revealed...... is entitled RE-VALUE . The case study is Section 3 of Skovgårdsparken located in Brabrand, Denmark. It is a social housing complex (including nine blocks), and has been renovated by Brabrand Housing Association. The future of the research in this thesis concerns expanding of the TSBD framework for Building...

  9. High-rise build renovation - Colouring a high-rise building's facade; Renovation des Hochhauses Schoppi Spreitenbach. Farbigkeit einer Hochhausfassade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enkerli, W.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated article takes a look at the renovation of the 70-metres high, high-rise apartment building that forms an integral part of a large shopping centre in Spreitenbach, Switzerland. The buildings and their infrastructure, realised in 1970, were in need of renovation. The facade elements no longer met energy requirements and the shopping mall was to be extended to meet modern shopping needs. The article deals with the technical and aesthetic requirements placed on the facades. The colour concept for the venetian blinds integrated into the windows, which includes the use of 20 different shades of colour, is described. A total of 3,200 blinds are fitted. The removal of the old window elements and the fitting of the new facade elements is described and discussed.

  10. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Iraqi Institute of Strategic Studies to map the country's social science research capacity by means of field research and a survey in three regions: Baghdad, southern Iraq and Kurdistan. In doing so, the Institute will identify strengths and weaknesses, gaps in the literature, themes of current interest to ...

  11. Academic development for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Kok (Dirk); D.M. Maghdid (Delshad); M.S. Mohammed (Maqsood); G.H.S. Sherwani (Govand)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Continuous education is mandatory for all urologists, and undertaking cooperative research is a very effective means for this. We describe the experience and possibilities for continuing education for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. We hope to provide a framework

  12. The Gulf War on Computer: A Review of "Iraq Stack."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Dick

    1993-01-01

    Reviews a HyperCard stack designed for use in schools and at home. Describes the program as primarily a database of information on Iraq, Kuwait, and the Gulf War. Contends that the program is pedagogically weak and of marginal use in the classroom. (CFR)

  13. UNSCOM faces entirely new verification challenges in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevan, T.

    1993-01-01

    Starting with the very first declarations and inspections, it became evident that Iraq was not acting in good faith, would use every possible pretext to reinterpret UNSCOM's inspection rights, and occasionally would use harassment tactics to make inspections as difficult as possible. Topics considered in detail include; initial assumptions, outstanding issues, and UNSCOM's future attitude

  14. The Arab spring and online protests in Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Al-Rawi (Ahmed)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis article traces the influence of the Arab Spring on Iraq as activists staged fervent protests against the corruption, sectarianism, and favoritism of Nouri Maliki's government. A group of young Iraqi intellectuals, journalists, students, government employees, and unemployed youth

  15. Choosing War: The Decision to Invade Iraq and Its Aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Ballard, a recent Iraq veteran, all contributed greatly. From the Institute for National Strategic Studies, Dr. Christopher J. Lamb , Dr. James A. Schear...reforms of 1986 were stewing for many years and were only enacted after a series of disappointing opera- tions in which the obvious national failure was

  16. Identifying water mass depletion in northern Iraq observed by GRACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, G.; Olsthoorn, T.N.; Al-manmi, D.A.M.A.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Smidt, E.H.

    2015-01-01

    Observations acquired by Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission indicate a mass loss of 146 ± 6 mm equivalent water height (EWH) in northern Iraq between 2007 and 2009. These data are used as an independent validation of lake mass variations and a rainfall-runoff model, which is

  17. Eyeless in America: Hollywood and Indiewood's Iraq War on Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article examines 50 films produced and released between the years 2001 and 2012 that are concerned with the American wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using Jacques Ellul's theories set out in his book "Propaganda," the article argues that while the films have failed at the box office, they were intended to function as integration…

  18. Big questions cloud Iraq's future role in world oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippee, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Iraq raises questions for the world oil market beyond those frequently asked about when and under what circumstances it will resume exports. Two wars since 1981 have obscured encouraging results from a 20 year exploration program that were only beginning to come to light when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. Those results indicate the country might someday be able to produce much more than the 3.2 million b/d it was flowing before a United Nations embargo blocked exports. If exploratory potential is anywhere near what officials asserted in the late 1980s, and if Iraq eventually turns hospitable to international capital, the country could become a world class opportunity for oil companies as well as an exporter with productive capacity approaching that of Saudi Arabia. But political conditions can change quickly. Under a new, secular regime, Iraq might welcome non-Iraqi oil companies and capital as essential to economic recovery. It's a prospect that warrants a new industry look at what the country has revealed about its geology and exploration history

  19. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM INVESTMENT GAS INDUSTRY IN THE REPUBLIC OF IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Hayder Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern world. Economy of the biggest part of states based on the foreigninvestments, which are quite necessaryfor developing their economy and infrastructure. On the present stage of thedevelopment the Republic of Iraq the gassector problems could be solved onlythrough investments.

  20. Iraq cracks a few heads in the Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J.

    1990-08-20

    Last month Saddam Hussein charged that oil overproduction by his neighbors was costing Iraq dearly. When an OPEC meeting collapsed last week, he sent 100,000 troops to seize Kuwait, which he had accused of stealing oil. The US is scrambling to organize a Western boycott, but some analysts question just how effective such a more would be.

  1. The IAEA in Iraq: Past activities and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    This summary paper was first published in August 2002 along with papers of similar scope describing other aspects of Iraq's WMD programmes. Despite its inclusion in a compendium introducing the concept of 'coercive inspections', the author made it clear to the publisher the Carnegie Foundation for International Peace (CEIP) - that he did not support that concept which he considered to have the potential to result in a serious hazard to inspectors in the field. Since that time the UN Security Council has adopted resolution 1441 - not dissimilar in scope and objective to that contained in the author's paper to the CEIP workshop on Iraq in July 1991 - and inspectors have already resumed their activities in Iraq. Resolution 1441 contains little new but is extremely helpful in bringing to prominence and elaborating the extensive rights of the inspection authorities already embodied in their respective plans for on goings monitoring and verification. What is new is the inspectorates' right to transport Iraqi nationals and their family members outside Iraq in order to conduct unencumbered interviews. This new right seems to have been viewed with circumspection within the inspectorates and rightly so. Its implementation is fraught with difficulty. For example, if the Iraqi regime is true to the media model then it must be assumed that valued family members of critical interviewees have already been at least identified by the regime if, that is, they are not already 'enjoying the hospitality of the State'. Again, would the apparent refusal of family members, young and old, to accompany the interviewee be deemed to be non-co-operation? Does 1441 really give the inspectorates the right of extradition or does it mean that those interviewees willing to leave, along with their families, and released without serious objections by the Iraqi regime, are likely to have little to contribute to current knowledge? Despite the above reservation, resolution 1441 provides a firm basis for

  2. Interactive Configuration of High Performance Renovation of Apartment Buildings by the use of CSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vareilles, E.; Thuesen, Christian; Falcon, M.

    2013-01-01

    of mid-rise (up to seven stories) apartment buildings. The renovation is based on external rectangular panels, always comprising insulation and cladding, and sometimes including, in addition, doors, windows or solar modules. The panels can be fixed directly onto the walls or onto a metal structure around...

  3. Performance Evaluation and Improvement of a Newly-Renovated Danish School Building (Retro-commissioning)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Georgieva, Viktoriya Vasileva; Zabusova, Diana

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyse and evaluate the energy performance of a Danish school building 4 years after its renovation. The structure of the following paper follows four phases, which include Planning, Investigation, Implementation and Hand-off. In the Planning phase, the objectives of the retro...

  4. Effectiveness of energy renovations : a reassessment based on actual consumption savings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippidou, F.; Nieboer, N.E.T.; Visscher, H.J.

    2018-01-01

    Energy renovations offer unique opportunities to increase the energy efficiency of the built environment and for the existing housing stock; they are the most important solution. Usually, energy savings are based on modeling calculations. However, recent research has shown that the predicted

  5. [History of the renovation of the hôtel-Dieu of Bourges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitton, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    From the 16th to the 20th century "hôtel-Dieu" was the main hospital in the Berry capital. In the 30's the mayor decided to renovate the building but in 1994 the construction of a new hospital--"Centre Hospitalier Jacques-Coeur"--freed the ancient building which became a historical centre for culture et tourism in the region.

  6. Renovating process for Pressurized Water Reactor control rod assemblies and corresponding control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, S.; Ple, P.

    1989-01-01

    In the first PWRs the control rods are moving by the intermediary of electromagnetic mechanisms where the power fed to the electromagnets is selected by a hard wired logic circuit connected to the controldesh by another logic control. For renovating the control rod assemblies each power assembly is replaced by an electronic assembly containing an ordinator and power supply interfaces [fr

  7. Financing New Technologies, Equipment/Furniture Replacement, and Building Renovation: A Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, Gary M.

    1984-01-01

    Reports results of survey of methods used by 77 North American academic and public libraries to finance implementation of new technologies, replace equipment and furniture, and renovate buildings. Financing methods used, frequency of use, choice, and range of methods are discussed. Eight references and list of survey participants are appended.…

  8. Super-energy wrap-up model for renovation of standard wooden houses in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Vladyková, Petra

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on the developed theoretical practice of super-insulation solution for renovation of exiting standard wooden houses in Greenland built from 1950s until 2006, more than half the building stock in Arctic Greenland. From various perspectives, the wrap-up system is evaluated as a ...

  9. Effect of renovating an office building on occupants' comfort and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan; Brohus, H.; Hyldgaard, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    . Before the floor material was installed in the office building, a full-scale exposure experiment was performed in the laboratory. The new ventilation strategy and renovation of the HVAC system were selected on the basis of laboratory experiments on a full-scale mock-up of a cellular office. The severity...

  10. Renovating Alzheimer's: "Constructive" Reflections on the New Clinical and Research Diagnostic Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel R.; Qualls, Sara H.; Camp, Cameron J.; Whitehouse, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The development of disease concepts for conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an ongoing social process that evolves over time. The biomedical paradigm about AD that has informed our culture's understanding of brain aging for the past several decades is currently undergoing a major and timely renovation in the early 21st century. This…

  11. From demonstration projects to volume market : Market development for advanced housing renovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Prendergast, E.; Rodsjo, A.; Haavik, T.; Parker, P.

    2010-01-01

    How do we get from demonstration projects to a volume market for very low energy demand in advanced housing renovation? The contributors to this report have been working with this issue for many years. Some worked in both IEA SHC Task 28 Sustainable Housing (2000-2005) and in SHC Task 37 Advanced

  12. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  13. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah A.; Roberts, Beth; Pope, Brittany M.; Blake, Margaret R.; Leavelle, Stephen E.; Marshall, Jennifer J.; Smith, Andrew; Hadicke, Amanda; Falcone, Josephine F.; Knott, Katrina; Kouba, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Captive African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal) and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol) responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants’ behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position) were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans) compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans). There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants. Cortisol

  14. Assessment of Flooring Renovations on African Elephant (Loxodonta africana Behavior and Glucocorticoid Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Boyle

    Full Text Available Captive African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants can experience foot pathologies and arthritis. As a preventative measure against these pathologies and to alleviate the potential discomfort due to concrete substrates, some zoological institutions have renovated elephant housing to increase the amount of natural or shock-absorbent substrates. The objective of this study was to compare behavioral (diurnal and nocturnal and glucorticoid (e.g., serum cortisol responses of three female African elephants before, during, and after renovation to their indoor housing floor to assess whether renovations had short-term effects on the elephants' behavior and stress physiology. Behavioral data were collected using scan-sampling methods, and activity budgets were constructed for each of the three elephants. In addition, the duration of all lying rest activities were recorded. Weekly serum cortisol concentrations were determined with enzyme immunoassay (EIA. Overall, eating was the most prevalent behavior exhibited outdoors during the day, while resting (either in a lying or standing position were most common during the indoor, nocturnal periods. Although variation existed among the three elephants, all three females spent significantly more time walking and less time eating during the day after the completion of the renovations. The extent to which the three elephants exhibited nocturnal lying rest behavior varied among the elephants, with the oldest elephant exhibiting the least amount (an average of 13.2 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans compared to the two younger elephants (an average of 34.5 ± 2.1% and 56.6 ± 2.8% of the nightly behavioral scans. There was a significant increase in lying rest behavior for one elephant and standing rest for a second elephant following renovations. Baseline cortisol concentrations prior to renovations were 3.0 ± 0.4 ng/ml, 4.5 ± 0.5 ng/ml, and 4.9 ± 0.5 ng/ml for the three elephants

  15. Analysis of energy economic renovation for historic wooden apartment buildings in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumägi, Endrik; Kalamees, Targo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy saving potential in historic wooden apartment buildings is up to 63%. • In historic wooden apartment buildings an economically viable energy saving level is 50%. • The largest energy saving potential lies in heat source and building service systems. • Of the building structures, insulation of the external wall has the highest potential. • New heating and ventilation systems must be installed to fulfill regulations limits. - Abstract: Buildings represent the largest sector of primary energy consumption and play a major role in saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Our analysis of energy consumption and potential energy savings is based on field measurements, computer simulations and economic calculations. The average primary energy consumption (PE) of wooden apartment buildings was 331 kW h/(m 2 a) 83% higher than the limit 180 kW h/(m 2 a) set in national regulations for apartment buildings subject to major renovation. The studied buildings represent a high potential for energy savings. The renovation packages were compiled using different insulation measures, HVAC solutions and energy sources to achieve a 20–65% reduction of primary energy. For historic buildings, the renovation solutions that concentrate on the building envelope can be problematic due to the need to preserve cultural and architectural values. Our calculation results indicate that the cost optimal PE level is around 250 kW h/(m 2 a) and the point at which renovation packages recover expenses is around a PE level of 170 kW h/(m 2 a). In terms of the architectural appearance the point at which renovation packages recover expenses is around a PE level of 210 kW h/(m 2 a). We propose to set a different PE limit for historic wooden apartment buildings with an architectural appearance worth preserving

  16. Potential energy savings in renovation projects of residential and service buildings; Energiansaeaestoemahdollisuudet rakennuskannan korjaustoiminnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heljo, J.; Vihola, J.

    2012-11-01

    The study estimates the feasible energy savings potential in the 2010 building stock by 2050. The focus is on energy-saving measures related to renovation of residential and service buildings. The calculations were done by building types and age groups using the EKOREM calculation model. The calculations indicate the building types and structural elements where potential for savings exists. The study did not consider energy-saving measures related to changes in heating systems, electrical equipment, property maintenance or use habits. The study disproved the common belief that considerably more energy savings could be achieved faster by focussing on the existing building stock instead of new construction. That is mainly due the fact that it generally pays to implement structural energy-saving measures only when the targeted elements also require other significant repairs besides energy-efficiency improvements. Thus, energy renovations cannot be speeded up very much. The clearest exception are the extra insulations added to roof assemblies that are easy to implement. Attempts to save more energy in the building stock than can be achieved at a small additional cost in connection with needed renovations may multiply costs, and the saving in energy costs will not necessarily cover the additional investments. The efficiency of energy-saving measures can be affected by recommending or ordering use of more energy efficient windows, thicker extra insulations or more efficient ventilation heat recovery systems than the standard solution selected in connection with renovations. The goal of preserving the characteristics of buildings of cultural-historical or architectural value and the typical solutions and materials used in all buildings of a certain period limit the repair and renovation of structural elements. In the case of these buildings, improvement of energy efficiency can be considered in connection with the planning of renovations and the buildings' use and

  17. An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    MILITARY MEDICINE, 175,5:367,2010 An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq CPT Jeremy B. Fisher, SP USA *; CPT...Christopher E. Curtis, MC USAt 188143 ABSTRACT Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Cases have been...Turkey.3-S We report an unexpected case of Lyme disease from Iraq. CASE REPORT A 28-year-old active duty Army male, on a deployment to northern Iraq

  18. Method for a component-based economic optimisation in design of whole building renovation versus demolishing and rebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin; Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    2014-01-01

    investing in retrofit measures and buying renewable energy. The overall cost of the renovation considers the market value of the property, the investment in the renovation, the operational and maintenance costs. A multi-family building is used as an example to clearly illustrate the application...... of the method from macroeconomic and private financial perspectives. Conclusion: The example shows that the investment cost and future market value of the building are the dominant factors in deciding whether to renovate an existing building or to demolish it and thereafter erect a new building. Additionally...

  19. Head and neck trauma in Iraq and Afghanistan: different war, different surgery, lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    The objectives are to compare and contrast the head and neck trauma experience in Iraq and Afghanistan and to identify trauma lessons learned that are applicable to civilian practice. A retrospective review of one head and neck surgeon's operative experience in Iraq and Afghanistan was performed using operative logs and medical records. The surgeon's daily operative log book with patient demographic data and operative reports was reviewed. Also, patient medical records were examined to identify the preoperative and postoperative course of care. The head and neck trauma experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan were very different, with a higher percentage of emergent cases performed in Iraq. In Iraq, only 10% of patients were pretreated at a facility with surgical capabilities. In Afghanistan, 93% of patients were pretreated at such facilities. Emergent neck exploration for penetrating neck trauma and emergent airway surgery were more common in Iraq, which most likely accounted for the increased perioperative mortality also seen in Iraq (5.3% in Iraq vs. 1.3% in Afghanistan). Valuable lessons regarding soft tissue trauma repair, midface fracture repair, and mandible fracture repair were learned. The head and neck trauma experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan were very different, and the future training for mass casualty trauma events should reflect these differences. Furthermore, valuable head and neck trauma lessons learned in both war zones are applicable to the civilian practice of trauma. Level 4. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Differences in Services and Fees for Management and Administration of Iraq Reconstruction Contracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, David; Childress, David; Salvatierra, George; Thompson, Chuck; Williams, Roger M

    2008-01-01

    ...), a field operating agency of the Air Force Civil Engineer, are two primary organizations providing project management and contract administration services for major Iraq reconstruction projects...

  1. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2012: Iraq Energy Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Iraq is already the world’s third largest oil exporter. It has the resources and intention to increase its oil production vastly. Contracts are already in place. Will Iraq’s ambitions be realised? And what would the implications be for Iraq’s economy and for world oil markets? The obstacles are formidable: political, logistical, legal, regulatory, financial, lack of security and sufficient skilled labour. One example: in 2011 grid electricity could meet only 55% of demand. The International Energy Agency has studied these issues with the support and close cooperation of the government of Iraq and many other leading officials, commentators, industry representatives and international experts. This special report, in the World Energy Outlook series, presents the findings.

  2. Decommissioning plan for Tammuz-2 research reactor in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A. A.; Jasim, H. I.

    2012-12-01

    For nuclear facilities, decommissioning is the final phase in the life cycle after sitting, design, construction, commissioning and operation. It is a process involving operations such as decontamination, dismantling of plant equipment of result in materials. All these activities take into account health and safety requirements for operating personnel and the general public, and any implications for the environment. (1) In several projects to decommission various type of nuclear facilities, it has been shown that technical methods and equipment are available today to dismantle safely nuclear facilities, of whatever type or size. Much experience in the use of these techniques has the decommissioning of prototype, demonstration, and small power reactors or other nuclear facilities. In Iraq these activities will be done by the cooperation with (IAEA) International Atomic Energy Agency and the other national regulatory bodies such as (IRSRA) Iraqi Radioactive Sources Regulatory Authority, and (RPC/MoEn) Radiation Protection Center/ Ministry of Environment in Iraq. (Author)

  3. Casualties: narrative and images of the war on Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Seiji; Fawzi, Mary C Smith; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Farmer, Paul E

    2006-01-01

    The Iraqi people have endured an excess burden of morbidity and mortality during the past 15 years due to war and sanctions, with the March 2003 Anglo-American assault on and subsequent occupation of Iraq representing the most recent chapter. Children have been disproportionately affected; many have died from infectious disease, malnutrition, and lack of access to health care. There have been significant differences in the availability of narrative accounts and images of this suffering, reflective of the need of those who wage wars and impose sanctions to keep the public uninformed. This article suggests that public health and medical practitioners have a responsibility to seek out such accounts and images. The authors explore possible responses to narrative and images of this suffering, and outline the sorts of responses engendered by three perspectives-charity, development, and social justice. The suffering of the people of Iraq should spur a response from the health community to alleviate the situation and prevent unnecessary suffering.

  4. Violence of the oil income. Algeria, Iraq, Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, L.

    2010-01-01

    During the 1970's, thanks to oil exploitation income, Algeria, Iraq and Libya seemed to be engaged in an accelerated modernization process. Petroleum was the blessing that would allow these states to catch up on their economic gap. Algeria was introduced as a 'Mediterranean dragon', Libya as an 'emirate' and Iraq as the leading military power of the Arab world. On the political side, the progressive socialism made one think that deep social transformations were in progress. Several decades later, the disappointment is painful. The prosperity feeling has led these countries into political, economic and military impasses with disastrous consequences for their populations. This book analyses the reasons that have led to this political/economical/social situation. The questions are: how can these countries get rid of deep reforms without any risk of social explosion, and how can the European Union export its standards and values and protect its gas imports at the same time?

  5. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Iraq consists of a lowland trough lying between asymmetrical and very different upland massifs to the east, north and west and continuing southeastwards to the Persian Gulf. The region is one of crustal weakness and subsidence with relatively young plastic sedimentary rocks engulfed in downwarped, ancient, rigid and highly resistant blocks. Exploration in the 1954-55 period found some minor radioactive anomalies and very low uranium contents in limestones and phosphates. The results of an aerial radiometric survey in 1973-74 are not known to IAEA. Iraq has no reported uranium resources but there are several favourable formations which warrant a detailed survey. In view of the size of the country and the small amount of systematic exploration carried out up to the present time, the Speculative Potential is considered to lie in the 1,000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium category. (author)

  6. An assessment of schoolyard renovation strategies to encourage children's physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Emily

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children in poor and minority neighborhoods often lack adequate environmental support for healthy physical development and community interventions designed to improve physical activity resources serve as an important approach to addressing obesity. In Denver, the Learning Landscapes (LL program has constructed over 98 culturally-tailored schoolyard play spaces at elementary schools with the goal to encourage utilization of play spaces and physical activity. In spite of enthusiasm about such projects to improve urban environments, little work has evaluated their impact or success in achieving their stated objectives. This study evaluates the impacts of LL construction and recency of renovation on schoolyard utilization and the physical activity rates of children, both during and outside of school, using an observational study design. Methods This study employs a quantitative method for evaluating levels of physical activity of individuals and associated environmental characteristics in play and leisure environments. Schools were selected on the basis of their participation in the LL program, the recency of schoolyard renovation, the size of the school, and the social and demographic characteristics of the school population. Activity in the schoolyards was measured using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity (SOPLAY, a validated quantitative method for evaluating levels of physical activity of individuals in play and leisure environments. Trained observers collected measurements before school, during school recess, after school, and on weekends. Overall utilization (the total number of children observed on the grounds and the rate of activity (the percentage of children observed who were physically active were analyzed. Observations were compared using t-tests and the data were stratified by gender for further analysis. In order to assess the impacts of LL renovation, recently-constructed LL schoolyards were

  7. Negotiation in the New Strategic Environment: Lessons From Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Andrew Terrell , Reconstructing Iraq: Insights, Challenges, and Missions for Military Forces in a Post- Conflict Scenario, Carlisle Barracks, PA...Negotiation, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2000, pp. 271-273 (hereafter Zartman and Rubin, Symmetry and Assymmetry). 80. As discussed...122. See Mnookin, Beyond Winning, pp. 28-31. 123. See Anne L. Lytle, Jeanne M. Brett, and Debra L. Shapiro, “The Strategic Use of Interests, Rights

  8. First Collection and Identification of Wild Mushrooms in Western Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Nadhim Owaid; Mowafaq Mizban Muslat; Wee Cheat Tan

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are found everywhere and affect our lives every day from mushroom to industrially important product, plant helpers, plant pathogens and to human diseases. Therefore, we concentrated our attention on fungi that can be grown in our environment, while maintaining an interest in their performance in nature. About fifteen different species were collected and identified from different villages of Heet district, Anbar province, Iraq. Out of the fifteen, two species, naming Armillaria mellea an...

  9. After Saddam: Prewar Planning and the Occupation of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Bernard Kerik; Lieutenant Colonel Chris Kinnan, USAF; Lewis Lucke; William Luti; Roman Martinez; Dayton Maxwell; Michael McNerney; Frank Miller...Post, April 12, 2003; Rupert Cornwell , “U.S.-Backed Iraqis Launch Bid for 28 After Saddam: Prewar Planning and the Occupation of Iraq from a lack...Lori Latif Shak Bernard Hanish Khalid Hassan Foreign procurement DoD DoD – TBD Garabeet Ishaqian Military Industriali- zation Military production

  10. Odds ratio of dystocia in Holstein cows in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Samarai Firas Rashad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of some factors on dystocia in Holstein cows. The analysis consist of 19090 records of parturitions belonged to 3181 cows from 1990 to 2004 in the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station in Iraq. A logistic regression model was used to predict dystocia. The model included effects of year of birth, season (winter or other seasons), parity (first or later), birth weight (kg), and sex of calf. Results revealed that odds of dystocia decreas...

  11. Criminals, Militias, and Insurgents: Organized Crime in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    continuity with the Hussein regime. Although many of the players changed, the game remained much the same. As one smuggler commented, “We use the... Salon News, March 20, 2008, available at www.salon.com/news/ feature/2008/03/20/iraq_roundtable/, hereafter cited as “Robbing the Cradle.” 58...has not been accompanied by widespread acceptance of collective identity or shared rules of the political game . The structure of politics and

  12. Biomarkers for PTSD in female Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Fredrikson, M. Trauma exposure and post - traumatic stress disorder in the general population. Acta Psychiatr Scand 111, 291-299 (2005). 4 Kessler, R...1999). 10 Hoge, C., Clark, J. & Castro, C. Commentary: women in combat and the risk of post - traumatic stress disorder and depression. International...in Iraq and Afghanistan have Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). Women serving in the military have been shown to be twice as likely to develop PTSD

  13. Iraq Provincial Reconstruction Team Handbook: Observations, Insights, and Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    with Inma have included joint efforts in training, farmer association strengthening, and increased productivity involving two large fish farms, 10...beef and lamb feedlots, five forage sites, two packing sheds, six feed mills, an olive factory, 10 strawberry farms, 20 farmer associations, over 500...vegetables, and fodder. There are also a large number of orchards , and the province has 2.5 million palm 69 IRAQ PROVINCIAL RECONSTRUCTION TEAM trees

  14. Determinants of energy sector performance in Iraq, 2003 to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiedemann, K.H.

    2007-01-01

    Iraq's energy sector was rehabilitated from 2003 to 2005. The focus of rehabilitation was on restoring Iraq's electricity and oil infrastructure to pre-war production levels; delivering electricity and refined fuels for domestic consumption; and delivering electricity and oil security. This paper provided an analysis of the impact of Coalition efforts and insurgent activities on energy sector performance using time-series models. The paper presented a simple three-equation model consisting of an insurgent attack equation, an investment equation, and production function. The paper also discussed the phases of the insurgency in Iraq, with particular reference to the beginning of the insurgency; initial bombing campaign; escalation of the insurgency; and intra-Iraqi conflict. Key energy sector indicators and regression results were also presented for oil production; diesel production; gasoline production; oil exports; and production and consumption of electricity. It was concluded that expenditures by the United States on oil infrastructure appear to have been relatively efficiently spent. 16 refs., 9 tabs

  15. Methodical bases of selection and evaluation of the effectiveness of the projects of the urban territory renovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizova, Evgeniya; Zhutaeva, Evgeniya; Chugunov, Andrei

    2018-03-01

    The article highlights features of processes of urban territory renovation from the perspective of a commercial entity participating in the implementation of a project. The requirements of high-rise construction projects to the entities, that carry out them, are considered. The advantages of large enterprises as participants in renovation projects are systematized, contributing to their most efficient implementation. The factors, which influence the success of the renovation projects, are presented. A method for selecting projects for implementation based on criteria grouped by qualitative characteristics and contributing to the most complete and comprehensive evaluation of the project is suggested. Patterns to prioritize and harmonize renovation projects in terms of multi-project activity of the enterprise are considered.

  16. Delimitation and Classified Planning Management of Functional Renovation Zone: Experience of and Discussion on Shenzhen's Practice of Urban Renewal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wenxuan; Tong De; Liu Qing; Feng Changchun; Liu Jinxin

    2016-01-01

    Urban renewal is one of the important issues of urban development in China.Along with its development in the contemporary time,China has seen considerable achievements and problems as well in urban renewal.Taking into account that Shenzhen has carried out plenty of explorations on urban planning renewal,this paper takes it as an example to firstly analyze the plights of its urban renewal planning,the shortcomings of its urban renewal projects,and the advantages of functional renovation zones to manifest the necessity of the delimitation and classified planning management of functional renovation zone in urban renewal.It then summarizes the experience of its urban renewal unit planning in terms of the methods of zoning and implementation,and finally discusses the conceptual connotations of functional renovation zone,as well as the logic and characteristics of renovations of its delimitation and classified planning management,in hope of providing other Chinese cities with some references.

  17. Mobilization for energy renovation. Preliminary results of a survey on rational and heuristic thinking of the dwellers.

    OpenAIRE

    Taranu, Victoria; Verbeeck, Griet

    2016-01-01

    Mobilization for energy renovation. The commonly used policies to encourage the uptake of energy efficient measures in renovations are mostly based on monetary incentives and information provision. Both these approaches have the underlying assumption that dwellers act exclusively as rational homo economicus, who has unlimited intellectual capabilities to calculate long term ROI. However, recent findings show evidence that people have bounded rationality and bounded willpower. A survey was...

  18. Interior renovation of a general practitioner office leads to a perceptual bias on patient experience for over one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthey, Jérôme; Tièche, Raphaël; Streit, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Measuring patient experience is key when assessing quality of care but can be biased: A perceptual bias occurs when renovations of the interior design of a general practitioner (GP) office improves how patients assessed quality of care. The aim was to assess the length of perceptual bias and if it could be reproduced after a second renovation. A GP office with 2 GPs in Switzerland was renovated twice within 3 years. We assessed patient experience at baseline, 2 months and 14 months after the first and 3 months after the second renovation. Each time, we invited a sample of 180 consecutive patients that anonymously graded patient experience in 4 domains: appearance of the office; qualities of medical assistants and GPs; and general satisfaction. We compared crude mean scores per domain from baseline until follow-up. In a multivariate model, we adjusted for patient's age, gender and for how long patients had been their GP. At baseline, patients aged 60.9 (17.7) years, 52% females. After the first renovation, we found a regression to the baseline level of patient experience after 14 months except for appearance of the office (pInterior renovation of a GP office probably causes a perceptual bias for >1 year that improves how patients rate quality of care. This bias could be reproduced after a second renovation strengthening a possible causal relationship. These findings imply to appropriately time measurement of patient experience to at least one year after interior renovation of GP practices to avoid environmental changes influences the estimates when measuring patient experience.

  19. Method for a component-based economic optimisation in design of whole building renovation versus demolishing and rebuilding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morelli, Martin; Harrestrup, Maria; Svendsen, Svend

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This paper presents a two-fold evaluation method determining whether to renovate an existing building or to demolish it and thereafter erect a new building. Scope: The method determines a combination of energy saving measures that have been optimised in regards to the future cost for energy. Subsequently, the method evaluates the cost of undertaking the retrofit measures as compared to the cost of demolishing the existing building and thereafter erecting a new one. Several economically beneficial combinations of energy saving measures can be determined. All of them are a trade-off between investing in retrofit measures and buying renewable energy. The overall cost of the renovation considers the market value of the property, the investment in the renovation, the operational and maintenance costs. A multi-family building is used as an example to clearly illustrate the application of the method from macroeconomic and private financial perspectives. Conclusion: The example shows that the investment cost and future market value of the building are the dominant factors in deciding whether to renovate an existing building or to demolish it and thereafter erect a new building. Additionally, it is concluded in the example that multi-family buildings erected in the period 1850–1930 should be renovated. - highlights: • Development of a method for evaluation of renovation projects. • Determination of an economic optimal combination of various energy saving measures. • The method compared the renovation cost to those for demolishing and building new. • Decision was highly influence by the investment cost and buildings market value. • The results indicate that buildings should be renovated and not demolished

  20. CONVERGENCE AS A RENOVATION/CONSERVATION TOOL FOR JOURNALISM IN GALICIA: STRATEGIES AND UNCERTAINTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Toural Bran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a theoretical reflection on the concept of convergence in the Autonomous Community of Galicia, in Spain. In this geographic area, marked by its respect for journalistic tradition (especially referring to the press and its inertia, it is possible to distinguish two different attitudes (actually conflicting with regard to the convergence phenomenon. Conservation strategies coexist, therefore, (focusing mainly on the business aspect of the convergent phenomenon with renovation strategies (creation of new spaces on the web, great commitment to the possibilities offered by new technologies and social networks. We are presenting an analytical study of the coexistence of these two interpretations of convergence (marketing and technological, respectively in the communication ecosystem of Galicia. We can recognize the beginning of a dialectic tension between the discourses of renovation and conservation which at present coexist in harmony. It is assumed that the information industry in Galicia will eventually choose the path that guarantees the survival of its media.

  1. Convergence as a renovation/conservation tool for journalism in Galicia: strategies and uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xosé López García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a theoretical reflection on the concept of convergence in the Autonomous Community of Galicia, in Spain. In this geographic area, marked by its respect for journalistic tradition (especially referring to the press and its inertia, it is possible to distinguish two different attitudes (actually conflicting with regard to the convergence phenomenon. Conservation strategies coexist, therefore, (focusing mainly on the business aspect of the convergent phenomenon with renovation strategies (creation of new spaces on the web, great commitment to the possibilities offered by new technologies and social networks. We are presenting an analytical study of the coexistence of these two interpretations of convergence (marketing and technological, respectively in the communication ecosystem of Galicia. We can recognize the beginning of a dialectic tension between the discourses of renovation and conservation which at present coexist in harmony. It is assumed that the information industry in Galicia will eventually choose the path that guarantees the survival of its media.

  2. Energy renovation of Danish single-family houses Economy - barrier, motivation and limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Plenge, Mary-Ann Knudstrup

    a large percentage who have not heard about the offers compared to the other income groups. There have been many reflections about energy saving initiatives and many of the initiatives have already been performed. There is however still a high number missing and particularly the depth of the renovation...... needs to be increased for Denmark to approach the defined objectives. The positive is that the listed tasks are predominantly carried out or considered to save energy, indicating that the homeowners are aware of this benefit. On the wish list presented to the homeowners, five wishes were selected.......000 DKK and 310.000DKK) are fair compared to the outcome, but when the needed investment is at 550.000 DKK and above, the majority think it is too expensive despite the benefits. The investment limit for the private renovations is defined on the basis on the homeowners’ interest in performing similar...

  3. Build, renovate and invest economically - Efficiency and economic viability in harmony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, R.; Beck, M.; Previdoli, P.

    2002-01-01

    This book presents 13 papers that provide the latest know-how on energy economics in the building area. The authors show the importance of information and knowledge transfer when using new energy technologies. The topics covered include the role of the Swiss research programme on energy economy fundamentals, indicator systems for sustainability factors and energy characteristics of buildings. Also a discussion of the question 'rebuild or renovate', as well a series of articles about low-flow mechanical ventilation and the marketing of low-energy consumption building concepts are presented. Further articles cover the marketing of thermal solar systems as well as technology dissemination and monitoring. Also, the marginal costs of energy efficiency measures and the potential for energy savings and environmental management in trade and industry are discussed. Finally, two papers deal with the application of Swiss SIA building standards as well as technical developments and energy efficiency in the building and renovation areas

  4. Gaps in tools assessing the energy implications of renovation versus rebuilding decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Herbøl, Mads; Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate project level energy-related decisions than at larger scales. Information gaps identified within assessment tools lead to uncertainty for decision makers about which option improves energy efficiency. In the case of a number of large-scale EU building renovating/renewing projects these tools have......The state of building stocks changes over time. Owners and municipalities face the choice to renovate or rebuild buildings to improve energy efficiency. This review addresses how current sustainability assessment tools support these decisions. It finds that advanced tools are better tailored...... been scarcely used or merely suggested during planning. Recent advances in sustainability assessment tools can begin to close some of the existing knowledge gaps, while incentives and stricter legislation may improve their usage rates....

  5. Childcare outdoor renovation as a built environment health promotion strategy: evaluating the preventing obesity by design intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, Nilda G; Moore, Robin C; Smith, William R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Preventing Obesity by Design (POD), a childcare center outdoor renovation intervention. Pre-post intervention evaluation. North Carolina licensed childcare centers (N = 27). Preschool children. Outdoor renovation, teacher training. Behavior mapping, Preschool Outdoor Environment Measurement Scale (POEMS), center director interview. Descriptive statistics, ordinary least squares and logistic regressions calculated to assess levels of association between environmental change, children's physical activity (PA), social behaviors, and environmental quality. Qualitative interview data analyzed to help understand intervention impact. Behavior mapping showed that site layout attributes, such as the form (i.e., "single loop" and "double loop") of pathways (functioning as circulation routes and wheeled toy settings), are associated with higher levels of PA. Teacher interaction was associated with decreased children's PA. Absence of teacher or lack of child/child interaction was associated with increased PA. POEMS assessment of environmental quality was higher after renovation. POEMS domains (Physical Space and Teacher/Caregiver Roles) were positively associated with PA. After renovation, 68% of center directors reported positive changes in children's behavior and 40% mentioned edible plant installations as greatest success. Built environment renovation of childcare center outdoors, including looped pathways installation, coupled with teacher training, may support increased PA. Renovation, including food gardens, may be a key to success for preschool health promotion and support change in childcare policy.

  6. Techno-economic analysis of energy renovation measures for a district heated multi-family house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Marcus; Gustafsson, Moa Swing; Myhren, Jonn Are; Bales, Chris; Holmberg, Sture

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy saving measures can be cost-effective as part of a planned renovation. • Primary energy consumption, non-renewable energy consumption and CO_2 emissions are assessed for different electricity mixes. • EAHP can be a cost-effective and environmentally beneficial complement to district heating. • EAHP has lower LCC and significantly shorter payback time than ventilation with heat recovery. • Low-temperature ventilation radiators improve the COP of the heat pump. - Abstract: Renovation of existing buildings is important in the work toward increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. The present paper treats energy renovation measures for a Swedish district heated multi-family house, evaluated through dynamic simulation. Insulation of roof and façade, better insulating windows and flow-reducing water taps, in combination with different HVAC systems for recovery of heat from exhaust air, were assessed in terms of life cycle cost, discounted payback period, primary energy consumption, CO_2 emissions and non-renewable energy consumption. The HVAC systems were based on the existing district heating substation and included mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and different configurations of exhaust air heat pump. Compared to a renovation without energy saving measures, the combination of new windows, insulation, flow-reducing taps and an exhaust air a heat pump gave up to 24% lower life cycle cost. Adding insulation on roof and façade, the primary energy consumption was reduced by up to 58%, CO_2 emissions up to 65% and non-renewable energy consumption up to 56%. Ventilation with heat recovery also reduced the environmental impact but was not economically profitable in the studied cases. With a margin perspective on electricity consumption, the environmental impact of installing heat pumps or air heat recovery in district heated houses is increased. Low-temperature heating improved the seasonal performance factor of the

  7. Success for energy efficient renovation of dwellings—Learning from private homeowners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risholt, Birgit; Berker, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Large scale energy efficient renovation of buildings is one of the most important tools to realize the society's need of a more sustainable building stock. Most Norwegians own their own homes. Therefore private homeowners are a focus group for the government urging to accelerate the dwelling energy efficiency rates. Success factors were identified in the in-depth study of the decision process of eleven homeowners. Large differences in energy use due to the building's condition and the occupants' behavior was encountered in the sample. Only homeowners who were conscious consumers and did not trust expert advice or that had special knowledge due to their professions succeeded in realizing energy efficiency by renovation. Lack of knowledge, bad advice from craftsmen or priority to work that they can do themselves stopped other homeowners from implementing energy efficiency. Increased knowledge on all the gains from energy efficiency, the availability of attractive products and services as well as easy access to reliable advice on the better renovation solutions have a large potential to get more homeowners to make energy efficient choices in the process of renovation. Coordination of more of policy strategies including specific information and incentives are needed to facilitate this. - Highlights: • Private homeowners are a key group to increase the dwelling energy efficiency rates. • The annual energy use varies from 103 kW h/m 2 to 240 kW h/m 2 in similar dwellings. • Homeowners that are conscious consumers or have knowledge succeed in saving energy. • Access to relevant and reliable advice can get homeowners to realize energy savings. • Craftsmen could be mediators between available products and the specific building

  8. The socioeconomic impact of energy saving renovation measures in urban buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulić, Davor; Rašić Bakarić, Ivana; Slijepčević, Sunčana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate the role of measures oriented to energy savings in residential buildings in the economic development at the regional level. The aim of the paper is to estimate overall socio-economic impact of energy saving renovation measures in the Croatian urban areas. Impact assessment is based on input–output methodology which is able to quantify direct and indirect effects of investment in the energy saving projects on the economic activity and employment...

  9. Final Environmental Assessment to Renovate Fourth Cliff Recreational Area at Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-17

    Renovate Fourth Cliff Recreational Annex Grading and topography changes may be necessary to design an appropriate drainage system at the site...goals: 1) Increase safety for personnel and patrons at the site; 2) Provide protection of the exposed cliff face from rainwater runoff; 3) Provide...be followed. Drainage design must meet Massachusetts Stormwater Management Standards, as well as comply with the Federal Clean Water Act. Solid

  10. 78 FR 58589 - Final Listing of Audit and Other Reports Issued by SIGIR on Reconstruction Spending in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... 12-017 Final Forensic Audit Report of Iraq Reconstruction Funds 7/13/ 2012 12-016 Interim Review of.../2011 11-006 Forensic Audit Methodologies Used To Collect and Analyze Electronic Disbursement of Iraq Reconstruction Funds 10/28/2010 11-005 Iraq Reconstruction Funds: Forensic Audits Identifying Fraud, Waste, and...

  11. 78 FR 77426 - Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... a bilateral forum to facilitate private sector business growth in Iraq and to strengthen trade and... the following areas: --Factors that affect the growth of private sector business in Iraq, including... and regulations, to promote private sector business growth in Iraq; --Promotion of business...

  12. Multi-angled Façade System for Office Building Renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Lauring, Michael

    renovating office buildings. The architectural potential is presented with the help of AutoCAD software. The energy efficiency and indoor climate are investigated and evaluated by using correlational research and simulation research methods with the software IDA ICE. From a functional perspective, the multi......-angled façade increases the area of the office room and provides more space. There are many potential aesthetic benefits provided by multi-angled façades such as improved optical and visual quality from inside the office room and the possibility for daylight penetration and a view to outside from one part...... compared to a renovated flat façade varies between 4.9 and 6.5 kWh/(m2.year), depending on the orientation of the façade. The increase in the office room area, when renovated with a multi-angled façade, is by 19%, while the increase of the yearly primary energy consumption (not area weighted), is by 4...

  13. Aprovechamiento de recursos renovables en la obtención de nuevos materiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Liliana Gómez Ayala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available La producción de plásticos a nivel mundial presenta cifras abrumadoras debido a que tienen aplicaciones en diferentes campos, desde la medicina hasta la industria de empaques. Uno de los problemas radica en que la materia prima para preparar esos plásticos proviene de fuentes fósiles, los principales responsables de las emisiones de dióxido de carbono a la atmósfera y después de usar esos materiales se desechan y tardan varios años en descomponerse. Otro problema está enfocado hacia la agricultura e incluye los procesos que generan desechos orgánicos como la industria azucarera y del café, que pueden contaminar el medio ambiente sin tratamiento adecuado. Cada vez cobra más importancia reemplazar los plásticos convencionales por biomateriales cuyos sustratos de partida provengan de fuentes renovables, que sean biodegradables y que puedan tener aplicaciones similares a los materiales convencionales. Por ello, en este artículo se destacan los últimos avances en el área de los materiales a partir de recursos renovables, en especial de los polímeros biobasados, de su biodegradabilidad y sus aplicaciones, para generar curiosidad y propiciar la búsqueda de alternativas de aprovechamiento de las fuentes renovables en la obtención de nuevos biopolímeros.

  14. New potentional of high-speed water jet technology for renovating concrete structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnárová, L.; Sitek, L.; Hela, R.; Foldyna, J.

    2011-06-01

    The paper discusses the background and results of research focused on the action of a high-speed water jet on concrete with different qualities. The sufficient and careful removal of degraded concrete layers is very important for the renovation of concrete structures. High-speed water jet technology is one of the most common methods used for removing degraded concrete layers. Different types of high-speed water jets were tested in the experimental part. The classical technology of a single continuous water jet generated with one nozzle was tested as well as the technology of revolving water jets generated by multiple nozzles (used mainly for the renovation of larger areas). A continuous flat water jet and pulsating flat water jet were tested the first time, because the connection of a water jet with the acoustic generator of a pulsating jet offers new possibilities for the use of a water jet (see [1] and [2]). A water jet with such a modification is capable of efficient action and can even be used for cutting solid concrete with a relatively low consumption of energy. A flat pulsating water jet which can be newly used for renovation seems to be a promising technology.

  15. Perspectives on Near ZEB Renovation Projects for Residential Buildings: The Spanish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino Patiño-Cambeiro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available EU regulations are gradually moving towards policies that reduce energy consumption and its environmental impact. To reach this goal, improving energy efficiency in residential buildings is a key action line. The European Parliament adopted the Near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB as the energy efficiency paradigm through Directive 2010/31/EU, but a common technical and legislative framework for energy renovations is yet to be established. In this paper, the nZEB definition by COHERENO was adopted to evaluate several energy renovation packages in a given building, which is also representative of the Spanish building stock. Global costs are calculated for all of them following EPBD prescriptions. Two economic scenarios are analysed: with entirely private funding and with the current public financial incentives, respectively. The results show the divergence between optimum solutions in terms of costs and of minimum CO2 footprint and maximum energy saving. Moreover, in the absence of enough incentives, some inefficient renovations could achieve a global cost close to the optimal cost. The optimum solution both in terms of energy performance and global costs was carried out and described.

  16. A District Approach to Building Renovation for the Integral Energy Redevelopment of Existing Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Conci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Building energy renovation quotas are not currently being met due to unfavorable conditions such as complex building regulations, limited investment incentives, historical preservation priorities, and technical limitations. The traditional strategy has been to incrementally lower the energy consumption of the building stock, instead of raising the efficiency of the energy supply through a broader use of renewable sources. This strategy requires an integral redefinition of the approach to energy building renovations. The joint project SWIVT elaborates on a district redevelopment strategy that combines a reduction in the energy demand of existing buildings and their physical interconnection within a local micro-grid and heating network. The district is equipped with energy generation and distribution technologies as well as hybrid thermal and electrical energy storage systems, steered by an optimizing energy management controller. This strategy is explored through three scenarios designed for an existing residential area in Darmstadt, Germany, and benchmarked against measured data. Presented findings show that a total primary energy balance at least 30% lower than that of a standard building renovation can be achieved by a cluster of buildings with different thermal qualities and connected energy generation, conversion, and storage systems, with only minimal physical intervention to existing buildings.

  17. Economic efficiency of high-rise construction in the Moscow program of renovation of housing stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misailovov, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    The article considers a new initiative of the regional authorities of updating the housing stock designated as the renovation of housing. Its main aspects are analyzed, including the nature of program, economic efficiency of its implementation due to high-rise construction and the regulatory and legislative framework, the procedure for implementing the program, and the time frame for its implementation. The role of the program for regions in which high depreciation of the housing stock is combined with a limited number of sites for a new housing construction is disclosed. The high-rise construction in the renovation program is presented as a variant of a successful solution not only of the tasks of renovating the housing stock, but also of filling the regional budget. The social and economic orientation of the high-rise construction and the involvement of residents in the process of making town-planning decisions in the field of high-rise construction at all stages of implementing the program are shown.

  18. A two-factor method for appraising building renovation and energy efficiency improvement projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinaitis, Vytautas; Kazakevicius, Eduardas; Vitkauskas, Aloyzas

    2007-01-01

    The renovation of residential buildings usually involves a variety of measures aiming at reducing energy and building maintenance bills, increasing safety and market value, and improving comfort and aesthetics. A significant number of project appraisal methods in current use-such as calculations of payback time, net present value, internal rate of return or cost of conserved energy (CCE)-only quantify energy efficiency gains. These approaches are relatively easy to use, but offer a distorted view of complex modernization projects. On the other hand, various methods using multiple criteria take a much wider perspective but are usually time-consuming, based on sometimes uncertain assumptions and require sophisticated tools. A 'two-factor' appraisal method offers a compromise between these two approaches. The main idea of the method is to separate investments into those related to energy efficiency improvements, and those related to building renovation. Costs and benefits of complex measures, which both influence energy consumption and improve building constructions, are separated by using a building rehabilitation coefficient. The CCE is used for the appraisal of energy efficiency investments, while investments in building renovation are appraised using standard tools for the assessment of investments in maintenance, repair and rehabilitation

  19. KPI-Driven Methodology for Urban Renovation at District Level. Sustainable Strategic Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Criado

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable urban renovation is characterized by multiple factors (e.g., technical, socio-economic, environmental and ethical perspectives, different spatial scales and a number of administrative structures that should address the evaluation of alternative scenarios or solutions. This defines a complex decision problem that includes different stakeholders where several aspects need to be considered simultaneously. In spite of the knowledge and experiences during the recent years, there is a need of methods that lead the decision-making processes. In response, a methodology based on a KPI-driven approach for urban renovation at district level is proposed in the European Smart City project CITyFiED. The methodology is a procedure with the energy efficiency as main pillar and the local authorities as client. It is composed of seven phases that ensures an effective dialogue among all the stakeholders, aiming to understand the objectives and needs of the city to deliver a set of customized Strategies for Sustainable Urban Renovation. In order to provide guidance and quantitative criteria, three levels of indicators are integrated into the approach: City Level Indicators (L1 at city & district level, Project Level KPIs (L2, and Impact Assessment Indicators at city level (L3.

  20. Implicaciones ambientales de las tecnologías de energía renovable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mahirt-Smith

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las tecnologías de energía renovable como la eólica, la solar y la biomasa, hacen un uso del suelo más intenso que las de combustibles fósiles tradicionales y, geográficamente, sus implicaciones ambientales son más heterogéneas, por lo que presentan un gran desafío para las técnicas de evaluación de su ciclo de vida. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de una investigación bibliográfica alrededor de los siguientes temas: 1 cambios en el uso del suelo debido a la mayor producción de energía renovable; 2 impactos del uso de suelo; 3 variabilidad geográfica en el inventario de datos; y 4 efectos de la distribución de energía. Además, se revisa el grado de investigación que actualmente se aplica acerca de las tecnologías de energía renovable en campos como el eólico, el solar y la bioenergía y en la evaluación del ciclo de vida en general.

  1. Sustainable renovation of residential buildings and the landlord/tenant dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ástmarsson, Björn; Jensen, Per Anker; Maslesa, Esmir

    2013-01-01

    The landlord/tenant dilemma arises when the interests of landlords and tenants misalign and is one of the greatest barriers hindering the development of sustainable renovation of residential buildings in Europe. The aim of this research is to investigate how regulatory changes and contractual solutions can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma in relation to sustainable renovation of residential buildings, and how the general awareness of sustainable renovation can be increased. Particular focus is on whether tools like energy performance contracting and energy labeling can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma. The research was done in relation to the specific situation in Denmark, but theory, information and experiences from other countries were included. The results show that there are plenty of opportunities to overcome the landlord/tenant dilemma, but principal/agent problems can only be overcome with a package solution. In the Danish national context the package solution must consist of legislative changes, financial incentives and better dissemination of information. Therefore, an array of different tools must be integrated and used in cooperation to overcome the dilemma. - Highlights: • There are plenty of opportunities to overcome the landlord/tenant dilemma. • The principal/agent problems can only be overcome with a package solution. • An array of different tools must be integrated and used in cooperation. • Legislative changes, financial incentives and better dissemination of information

  2. "The Kurds and the Role of Kurdistan Region in Developing Iraq" Where are Iraq and the Iraqi Kurds heading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anonymous, Student Author

    Iraq remains one of the hot topics in world politics today and probably more so in the coming decades, with its Kurds as an ever-evolving puzzle of the country's domestic stability and regional conflict. In modern history, the Kurds' resistance to "occupiers" of their region became more evident with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, following which they were promised their independence. Due to reasons explained in Chapter One--with energy and oil being some of these reasons--this independence, however, led to nothing but fading ink on dusty paper. Since the Kurds were only partially assimilated into their host states, they were treated as though they had a status apart from the host state, yet the host state denied Kurdish efforts to achieve self-determination. In some cases, the host state denied the very existence of the Kurdish culture. This created an ambiguous situation in which Kurds variously saw themselves as nationals of their host states or as Kurds or as both. For the purpose of this thesis, attention will be given mainly to Iraqi Kurds and their struggle for the right to self-determination which they were finally able to achieve following the Gulf War in early 1990s, leading to the establishment of a regional Kurdish government in Northern Iraq (explained in Chapter Two). Chapter Three will focus on what some of the ways to mediate such disputes may be, including the introduction of renewable energy such as wind and solar energy. It will demonstrate how Iraq can take advantage of wind and solar energy as alternative means to oil, by which the country's economy can diversify, and the security situation and ecological conditions can improve. This thesis will further focus on some of the potential challenges in Iraq that may surface in the future, and whether the Kurds can play a role in stabilising the country by remaining part of it, and if so, what may be some of the responsibilities of the Arabs of Iraq in order to provide the required incentives to

  3. Brothers or Rivals? Iran and the Shi'a of Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunter, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the loyalty of the Shi a of Iraq. While some Sunni Arab leaders have recently accused the Shi a of Iraq of pledging loyalty to Iran, in fact the Iraqi Shi a are loyal to their own nation...

  4. 31 CFR 575.406 - Extensions of credits or loans to Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extensions of credits or loans to Iraq. 575.406 Section 575.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Interpretations § 575.406 Extensions of credits or loans to Iraq. (a) The prohibition in § 575.210 applies to the...

  5. Quality Assurance Strategies of Higher Education in Iraq and Kurdistan: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaghed, Nabeel; Dezaye, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on two different strategies that have been implemented in Iraq to improve quality assurance in the higher education sector in Iraq. One strategy has been developed by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Baghdad. It involved conducting a pilot study at the University of Babylon. This pilot included…

  6. Post-Saddam Iraq and the Challenges of Peace | Agbebaku | Lwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Iraq / United States (US) differences have lasted for quite some time. Iraq, having been branded as one of the three axis-of-evils, is considered a threat to international stability and global security. Within this context, its activities must be regulated to ensure stability and international peace. The irony is that efforts at ...

  7. 31 CFR 575.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iraq. 575.205 Section 575.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Iraq. Except as otherwise authorized, no goods, technology (including technical data or other information), or services may be exported from the United States, or, if subject to...

  8. Treating Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with PTSD Who Are at High Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Varra, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans diagnosed with psychiatric disorders commit suicide at a higher rate than the general population (Kang & Bullman, 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in veterans (Bullman & Kang, 1994) and is the most common mental disorder among Iraq and Afghanistan…

  9. University Interaction with National Development Plans: A Case Study from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naimi, Taha T.; Al-Nassri, Sabah A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of the University of Technology in Baghdad, Iraq, is discussed, illustrating how it has adjusted its work to national needs as expressed in national development plans. As industry in Iraq has broadened its scope, the curriculum in the university has widened. (Author/MLW)

  10. Role and Place of the Oil Industry in the Economic and Political Development in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Pashkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors consider economic and political aspects of restoration and development of the oil industry in Iraq and make a brief historical analysis of it. It’s emphasized the role of political factors in the history of the development of the oil sector in the country. The article deals with the current situation in the oil industry of Iraq, and also the prospects and forecasts of development of it. It’s emphasized the idea that the oil export is one of the most important directions of Iraq's oil policy, which has a high degree of flexibility. It is noted that currently, the speedy recovery of Iraq and its oil industry depends on international companies. However, it is emphasized that there are established a lot of state-owned oil companies in recent decades in Iraq, which are working successfully in the global market. Authors consider the activity of one of them, a marketing company SOMO.

  11. Composition of heavy metals and airborne fibers in the indoor environment of a building during renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Mohd Talib; Baharudin, Nor Hafizah; Velayutham, Puvaneswary; Awang, Normah; Hamdan, Harimah; Mohamad, Ruqyyah; Mokhtar, Mazlin B

    2011-10-01

    The renovation of a building will certainly affect the quality of air in the vicinity of where associated activities were undertaken, this includes the quality of air inside the building. Indoor air pollutants such as particulate matter, heavy metals, and fine fibers are likely to be emitted during renovation work. This study was conducted to determine the concentration of heavy metals, asbestos and suspended particulates in the Biology Building, at the Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia (UKM). Renovation activities were carried out widely in the laboratories which were located in this building. A low-volume sampler was used to collect suspended particulate matter of a diameter size less than 10 μm (PM₁₀) and an air sampling pump, fitted with a cellulose ester membrane filter, were used for asbestos sampling. Dust was collected using a small brush and scope. The concentration of heavy metals was determined through the use of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy and the fibers were counted through a phase contrast microscope. The concentrations of PM₁₀ recorded in the building during renovation action (ranging from 166 to 542 μg m⁻³) were higher than the value set by the Department of Safety and Health for respirable dust (150 μg m⁻³). Additionally, they were higher than the value of PM₁₀ recorded in indoor environments from other studies. The composition of heavy metals in PM₁₀ and indoor dust were found to be dominated by Zn and results also showed that the concentration of heavy metals in indoor dust and PM₁₀ in this study was higher than levels recorded in other similar studies. The asbestos concentration was 0.0038 ± 0.0011 fibers/cc. This was lower than the value set by the Malaysian Department of Occupational, Safety and Health (DOSH) regulations of 0.1 fibers/cc, but higher than the background value usually recorded in indoor environments. This study strongly suggests that renovation issues need to be considered seriously

  12. Rebuilding Iraq: DoD and State Department Have Improved Oversight and Coordination of Private Security Contractors in Iraq, but Further Actions are Needed to Sustain Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    MNC-I Multi-National Corps-Iraq MNF-I Multi-National Force-Iraq PSC private security contractor RSO Regional Security Office TOC tactical...maritime and territorial jurisdiction’ to include a housing complex leased by the U.S. military on a military base in Germany where a sexual assault...and monitored by RSO personnel in the RSO TOC . Motorcade vehicles are equipped with video cameras that record and document motorcade movements and

  13. Ending the U.S. War in Iraq: The Final Transition, Operational Maneuver, and Disestablishment of United States Forces-Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    astonishing, beautiful scene— impossible, incomprehensible, only months ago.”202 In April 2008, MNF-I and the government of Iraq signed a memorandum... bloggers , August 3, 2011. 43 See the memorandum from JLOC in Appendix F. For more information, see National Association of State Agencies for Surplus...Reposturing and the Status of Government-Owned Equipment in Iraq,” roundtable with defense bloggers , August 3, 2011. As of August 6, 2012: http

  14. Regional Implications of Shi’a Revival in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    From the marshes of southern Iraq to the ghettoes of Karachi, the Shi‘a have been the underdogs —oppressed and marginalized by Sunni ruling regimes and...former with “true” Is- lam—and their governments as its defenders—and branding the latter as obscurantist extremism. They dismissed Khomeini as Shi‘a... branding his vitriol against the House of Saud in the 1980s as fitna (illegitimate rebellion and sowing of disunity) against the Muslim community.7

  15. The appeal of the green deal: Empirical evidence for the influence of energy efficiency policy on renovating homeowners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettifor, H.; Wilson, C.; Chryssochoidis, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Green Deal is a major new energy policy designed to support the diffusion of energy efficiency measures in UK homes. This paper provides one of the first empirical examinations of the Green Deal′s success in influencing homeowners’ renovation decisions. Using a repeated measures design in which households were questioned before and after the Green Deal′s launch in January 2013, we assess the policy′s success in raising awareness of energy efficiency. In particular, we test the effectiveness of the Green Deal′s positioning to overcome barriers to renovation among homeowners already interested in or considering energy efficiency measures. Using the innovation decision process (Rogers, 2003) as a conceptual framing of the renovation decision process, we examine whether new information on energy efficiency provided by the Green Deal strengthened intentions and its antecedents. We find that (1) energy efficiency is of potential appeal to all renovators regardless of their attitudes about energy efficiency, (2) energy efficiency opportunities need to be identified in the early stages of renovation when homeowners are thinking about ways to improve their home, and (3) homeowners’ intentions towards energy efficiency are weakened by uncertainty about financial benefits, helping to explain the relatively slow uptake of the Green Deal to-date. - Highlights: • Examines the impact of a major new energy policy, the Green Deal, on intentions towards energy efficiency. • 502 households questioned four months prior to, and seven months after the launch. • Renovating itself is mechanism through which households engage with the Green Deal. • Strengthening beliefs in energy savings accelerates intentions to renovate energy efficiently

  16. Indoor air quality in green-renovated vs. non-green low-income homes of children living in a temperate region of US (Ohio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, Kanistha C.; Chew, Ginger L.; Schaffer, Christopher; Ryan, Patrick H.; Brokamp, Cole; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Chillrud, Steve; Hedman, Curtis; Colton, Meryl; Ross, Jamie; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    Green eco-friendly housing includes approaches to reduce indoor air pollutant sources and to increase energy efficiency. Although sealing/tightening buildings can save energy and reduce the penetration of outdoor pollutants, an adverse outcome can be increased buildup of pollutants with indoor sources. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the indoor air quality (IAQ) between green and non-green homes in low-income housing complexes. In one housing complex, apartments were renovated using green principles (n = 28). Home visits were conducted immediately after the renovation, and subsequently at 6 months and at 12 months following the renovation. Of these homes, eight homes had pre-renovation home visits; this allowed pre- and post-renovation comparisons within the same homes. Parallel visits were conducted in non-green (control) apartments (n = 14) in a nearby low-income housing complex. The IAQ assessments included PM_2_._5, black carbon, ultrafine particles, sulfur, total volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, and air exchange rate. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. None of the indoor pollutant concentrations were significantly different between green and non-green homes. However, we found differences when comparing the concentrations before and after renovation. Measured immediately after renovation, indoor black carbon concentrations were significantly lower averaging 682 ng/m"3 in post-renovation vs. 2364 ng/m"3 in pre-renovation home visits (p = 0.01). In contrast, formaldehyde concentrations were significantly higher in post-renovated (0.03 ppm) than in pre-renovated homes (0.01 ppm) (p = 0.004). Questionnaire data showed that opening of windows occurred less frequently in homes immediately post-renovation compared to pre-renovation; this factor likely affected the levels of indoor black carbon (from outdoor sources) and formaldehyde (from indoor sources) more than the renovation status itself. To

  17. Indoor air quality in green-renovated vs. non-green low-income homes of children living in a temperate region of US (Ohio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, Kanistha C. [University of Cincinnati, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Chew, Ginger L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Environmental Health, Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Branch, 4770 Buford Hwy., N.E., MS-F60, Atlanta, GA (United States); Schaffer, Christopher [University of Cincinnati, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Ryan, Patrick H. [University of Cincinnati, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Brokamp, Cole; Grinshpun, Sergey A. [University of Cincinnati, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Adamkiewicz, Gary [Harvard University, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA (United States); Chillrud, Steve [Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Geochemistry Division, P.O. Box 8000, Palisades, New York (United States); Hedman, Curtis [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 465 Henry Mall, Madison, WI (United States); Colton, Meryl [Harvard University, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA (United States); Ross, Jamie [Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Geochemistry Division, P.O. Box 8000, Palisades, New York (United States); Reponen, Tiina [University of Cincinnati, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Green eco-friendly housing includes approaches to reduce indoor air pollutant sources and to increase energy efficiency. Although sealing/tightening buildings can save energy and reduce the penetration of outdoor pollutants, an adverse outcome can be increased buildup of pollutants with indoor sources. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the indoor air quality (IAQ) between green and non-green homes in low-income housing complexes. In one housing complex, apartments were renovated using green principles (n = 28). Home visits were conducted immediately after the renovation, and subsequently at 6 months and at 12 months following the renovation. Of these homes, eight homes had pre-renovation home visits; this allowed pre- and post-renovation comparisons within the same homes. Parallel visits were conducted in non-green (control) apartments (n = 14) in a nearby low-income housing complex. The IAQ assessments included PM{sub 2.5}, black carbon, ultrafine particles, sulfur, total volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, and air exchange rate. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. None of the indoor pollutant concentrations were significantly different between green and non-green homes. However, we found differences when comparing the concentrations before and after renovation. Measured immediately after renovation, indoor black carbon concentrations were significantly lower averaging 682 ng/m{sup 3} in post-renovation vs. 2364 ng/m{sup 3} in pre-renovation home visits (p = 0.01). In contrast, formaldehyde concentrations were significantly higher in post-renovated (0.03 ppm) than in pre-renovated homes (0.01 ppm) (p = 0.004). Questionnaire data showed that opening of windows occurred less frequently in homes immediately post-renovation compared to pre-renovation; this factor likely affected the levels of indoor black carbon (from outdoor sources) and formaldehyde (from indoor sources) more than the renovation status

  18. Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus in the North of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Salam Jumaah; Cavallero, Serena; Milardi, Giovanni Luigi; Gabrielli, Simona; D Amelio, Stefano; Al-Nasiri, Fatima Shihab

    2018-01-15

    Cystic echinococcosis/hydatidosis is an important cosmopolitan zoonotic disease that causes large economic losses and human suffering. The larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus are the etiological agents of cystic echinococcosis that showed different genotypes in different regions in the world. The present study was aimed at the detection of E. granulosus strains circulating in two cities from north of Iraq (Kirkuk and Sulaimania). A total of 47 specimens of hydatid cysts were collected from patients and from different domestic intermediate hosts including cattle, sheep, goat and buffalo from slaughterhouses. Molecular characterization was performed by direct sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes coding for the cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS). The results showed a high prevalence for the sheep strain (G1), an isolated finding of the buffalo strain (G3) and the presence of seven and three different microvariants for cox1 and rrnS, respectively. This is the first contribution on molecular genotyping of E. granulosus in Iraq with the observation of genotypes other than G1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Zinc deficiency among a healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Timimi, D.; Al-Najjar, F.; Al-Sharbatti, Shatha S.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the current zinc status among a sample selected from the healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq. We carried out a community-based study in Baghdad City, Iraq from November through June 2002. We selected a sample of 2090 healthy subjects (aged 1 month to 85 years). We used a pre-tested questionnaire, designed to obtain information on gender, birth dates, height, weight, residence, habitual food consumption patterns, and social status. We performed laboratory assessment of serum zinc level, dietary assessment of food frequency and usual zinc intake. We considered subjects with serum zinc concentration of /-7.7 to 12.3 umol/l mild to moderately zinc deficient. The prevalence of zinc deficiency among the studied sample was 2.7%. We found mild to moderate zinc deficiency among 55.7% of the study sample. Dietary zinc intake assessment showed that 74.8% of the studied sample consumed less than the recommended intake, and in 62.3%, the intakes were deficient and grossly deficient. Mean daily zinc ranged from 5.2 mg in children to 8.5 mg in adults. We observed a high prevalence of mild to moderate zinc deficiency, with inadequate dietary zinc intake among a considerable proportion of the studied sample. Zinc supplementation may be an effective public health intervention means to improve the zinc status of the population. (author)

  20. Patient satisfaction is biased by renovations to the interior of a primary care office: a pretest-posttest assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tièche, Raphaël; da Costa, Bruno R; Streit, Sven

    2016-08-11

    Measuring quality of care is essential to improve primary care. Quality of primary care for patients is usually assessed by patient satisfaction questionnaires. However, patients may not be able to judge quality of care without also reflecting their perception of the environment. We determined the effect that redesigning a primary care office had on patient satisfaction. We hypothesized that renovating the interior would make patients more satisfied with the quality of medical care. We performed a Pretest-Posttest analysis in a recently renovated single-practice primary care office in Grenchen, Switzerland. Before and after renovation, we distributed a questionnaire to assess patient satisfaction in four domains. We chose a Likert scale (1 = very poor to 6 = very good), and 12 quality indicators, and included two consecutive samples of patients presenting at the primary care office before (n = 153) and after (n = 153) interior design renovation. Response rate was high (overall 85 %). The sample was similar to the enlisted patient collective, but the sample population was older (60 years) than the collective (52 years). Patient satisfaction was higher for all domains after the office was renovated (p patient satisfaction, including satisfaction in domains otherwise unchanged. Physician skills and patient satisfaction sometimes depend on surrounding factors that may bias the ability of patients to assess the quality of medical care. These biases should be taken into account when quality assessment instruments are designed for patients.

  1. Renovation of a mechanical engineering senior design class to an industry-tied and team-oriented course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucheng

    2017-11-01

    In this work, an industry-based and team-oriented education model was established based on a traditional mechanical engineering (ME) senior design class in order to better prepare future engineers and leaders so as to meet the increasing demand for high-quality engineering graduates. In the renovated curriculum, industry-sponsored projects became the most important course component and critical assessment tool, from which problem-solving skills as well as employability skills of the ME students can be fully developed. Hands-on experiences in finite element analysis (FEA) modelling and simulation were also added into the renovated curriculum to promote the application of FEA on engineering design and assessment. Evaluation of the renovated course was conducted using two instruments and the results have shown that the course made the ME senior students more prepared for their future career and a win-win model was created between the industry partner and the ME programme through it. Impact of the renovated syllabus on Accreditation Board for Engineering Technology goals was discussed. Based on the current progress, a more substantial change is being planned to further improve the effectiveness and practicability of this design course. The renovated course was started to offer to the ME senior students at Mississippi State University.

  2. Evaluation of Water Quality Renovation by Advanced Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T.; Morales, I.; DeLuca, J.; Amador, J.

    2013-12-01

    25% of US households utilize onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) for wastewater management. Advanced technologies were designed to overcome the inadequate wastewater treatment by conventional OWTS in critical shallow water table areas, such as coastal zones, in order to protect ground water quality. In addition to the septic tank and soil drainfield that comprise a conventional OWTS, advanced systems claim improved water renovation with the addition of sand filtration, timed dosing controls, and shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. We determined water quality renovation functions under current water table and temperature conditions, in anticipation of an experiment to measure OWTS response to a climate change scenario of 30-cm increase in water table elevation and 4C temperature increase. Replicate (n=3) intact soil mesocosms were used to evaluate the effectiveness of drainfields with a conventional wastewater delivery (pipe-and-stone) compared to two types of pressurized, shallow narrow drainfield. Results under steady state conditions indicate complete removal of fecal coliform bacteria, phosphorus and BOD by all soil-based systems. By contrast, removal of total nitrogen inputs was 16% in conventional and 11% for both advanced drainfields. Effluent waters maintained a steady state pH between 3.2 - 3.7 for all technologies. Average DO readings were 2.9mg/L for conventional drainfield effluent and 4.6mg/L for advanced, showing the expected oxygen uptake with shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. The conventional OWTS is outperforming the advanced with respect to nitrogen removal, but renovating wastewater equivalently for all other contaminants of concern. The results of this study are expected to facilitate development of future OWTS regulation and planning guidelines, particularly in coastal zones and in the face of a changing climate.

  3. Soil and minespoil fill as media for renovation of nitrogen and phosphorus in domestic wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.E.; Reneau, R.B. Jr.; Hagedorn, C.

    1998-01-01

    Development of US Appalachian coal mining regions has been hampered by lack of domestic waste disposal technologies suited to fills. The suitability of on-site wastewater treatment and disposal systems (OSWTDS) in fill material is uncertain due to the effects of surface mining on soil physical properties. This research evaluated the potential for renovation of N and P present in domestic wastewater by fills from mining operations. N and P were chosen because of their potential adverse environmental impacts. Soil-fill (a mixture of Jefferson, fine-loamy, siliceous, mesic Typic Hapludult and Muskingom, fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Typic Dystrochrept soils) and minespoil (spoil)-fill (blasted rock material associated with the Taggart Marker and Low Splint Bench coal seams of the Upper Middle Wise Formation) were used. Septic tank effluent (STE) and sand filter effluent (SFE) were applied to spoil-fill columns at four loading rates and spoil-fill columns at one loading rate for a period of 20 wk. Renovation of wastewater was assessed by determining the concentration of N and P present in column leachate. Reduction of inorganic N(NO 3 - + NH 4 + ), based on N/Cl ratios ranged from 14.9 to 32.1% after the varying application rates of STE and SFE passed through the soil columns. However, leachate NO 3 - -N concentrations were still above the 10 mg -1 drinking water standard. The quantity of P emerging from the spoil-fill columns (3.0 mg PL -1 ) was higher than anticipated and may be related to the indigenous P present in the minespoil. Sorption of P in the spoil-fill column decreased with increased STE and SFE application (reduction ranged from 99.1 to 74.4%). Results from this study indicate that there is potential for renovating wastewater in OSWTDS in selected soil-fill areas in reclaimed minelands. 33 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Meeting report:Iraq oil ministry needs assessment workshop.3-5 Septemner 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2006-11-01

    Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and Sandia National Laboratories met with mid-level representatives from Iraq's oil and gas companies and with former employees and senior managers of Iraq's Ministry of Oil September 3-5 in Amman, Jordan. The goals of the workshop were to assess the needs of the Iraqi Oil Ministry and industry, to provide information about capabilities at DOE and the national laboratories relevant to Iraq, and to develop ideas for potential projects.

  5. On the eve of war: authoritarianism, social dominance, and American students' attitudes toward attacking Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Sam G

    2005-03-01

    In the week before the 2003 American attack on Iraq, the effects of authoritarianism and the social dominance orientation on support for the attack were examined. Based on prior research on the nature of these constructs, a structural model was developed and tested. As predicted, authoritarianism strengthened support for the attack by intensifying the perception that Iraq threatened America. Social dominance increased support by reducing concern for the likely human costs of the war. Both also increased blind patriotism, which in turn reduced concern for the war's human costs and was reciprocally related to the belief that Iraq threatened America.

  6. The Danger of Deja Vu: Why the Iraq Surge is Not a Lesson for Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    JAN 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-12-2009 to 00-01-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The danger of deja vu . Why the Iraq surge is not a lesson...of five brigade combat teams — eerily mim- icked the surge number for Iraq. And there was more déjà vu when our senior civilian and military leaders...Department. PERSPECTIVES The danger of déjà vu Why the Iraq surge is not a lesson for Afghanistan BY COL. CHARLES D. ALLEN (RET.) The thing we take hold of

  7. Barriers and Potential Solutions for Energy Renovation of Buildings in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Mathiesen, Brian vad; Hvelplund, Frede

    2014-01-01

    the supply and demand side for heat, electricity and transport. Implementing such Smart Energy Systems requires integrated strategic energy planning on the national and local level. With the fundamental changes in the energy supply technologies expected during the coming years, it is important to synchronize...... investments in energy conservation measures with investments in the supply side, in order to avoid overinvestment in supply systems and thus to minimize the total costs of the transformation to Smart Energy Systems. This paper highlights some of the most important barriers for renovation of existing buildings...

  8. Analysis of Solar Energy Use for Multi-Flat Buildings Renovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Valančius

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the energy and financial possibilities to install renewable energy sources (solar energy generating systems when renovating multi-flat buildings. The aim is to analyse solar energy system possibilities for modernization of multi-flat buildings (5-storey, 9-storey and 16-storey, providing detailed conclusions about the appropriateness of the energy systems and financial aspects. It is also intended to determine the optimal technological combinations and solutions to reach the maximum energy benefits. For the research computer simulation tools “EnergyPRO” and “PV*SOL Premium” are chosen. Also actual collected heat and electricity consumption data is used for the analysis.

  9. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jack C.P.; Ma, Lauren Y.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a waste estimation system leveraging the BIM technology. ► The system can calculate waste disposal charging fee and pick-up truck demand. ► We presented an example scenario demonstrating this system. ► Automatic, time-saving and wide applicability are the features of the system. - Abstract: Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C and D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D and R) works and the growing amount of D and R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D and R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results

  10. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jack C.P., E-mail: cejcheng@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Ma, Lauren Y.H., E-mail: yingzi@ust.hk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We developed a waste estimation system leveraging the BIM technology. ► The system can calculate waste disposal charging fee and pick-up truck demand. ► We presented an example scenario demonstrating this system. ► Automatic, time-saving and wide applicability are the features of the system. - Abstract: Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C and D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D and R) works and the growing amount of D and R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D and R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results

  11. Proyectos pilotos WHIX de energía renovable y seguridad ambiental en El Salvador.

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa Córdova, Carlos Roberto

    2008-01-01

    El Programa WHIX aporta proyectos de Energía y Medio Ambiente para abrir un diálogo entre los militares de la Región, organizaciones gubernamentales y no-gubernamentales y sus equivalentes en los EE.UU. Este programa cataliza proyectos de energía renovable y el medioambiente para demostrar y validar estas tecnologías en los países de la región. Al mismo tiempo provee un foro de intercambio internacional de las “Mejores Prácticas” y la oportunidad de trabajar en conjunto en promisorias investi...

  12. A BIM-based system for demolition and renovation waste estimation and planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack C P; Ma, Lauren Y H

    2013-06-01

    Due to the rising worldwide awareness of green environment, both government and contractors have to consider effective construction and demolition (C&D) waste management practices. The last two decades have witnessed the growing importance of demolition and renovation (D&R) works and the growing amount of D&R waste disposed to landfills every day, especially in developed cities like Hong Kong. Quantitative waste prediction is crucial for waste management. It can enable contractors to pinpoint critical waste generation processes and to plan waste control strategies. In addition, waste estimation could also facilitate some government waste management policies, such as the waste disposal charging scheme in Hong Kong. Currently, tools that can accurately and conveniently estimate the amount of waste from construction, renovation, and demolition projects are lacking. In the light of this research gap, this paper presents a building information modeling (BIM) based system that we have developed for estimation and planning of D&R waste. BIM allows multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one digital building model. Our system can extract material and volume information through the BIM model and integrate the information for detailed waste estimation and planning. Waste recycling and reuse are also considered in our system. Extracted material information can be provided to recyclers before demolition or renovation to make recycling stage more cooperative and more efficient. Pick-up truck requirements and waste disposal charging fee for different waste facilities will also be predicted through our system. The results could provide alerts to contractors ahead of time at project planning stage. This paper also presents an example scenario with a 47-floor residential building in Hong Kong to demonstrate our D&R waste estimation and planning system. As the BIM technology has been increasingly adopted in the architectural, engineering and construction industry

  13. Problemas institucionales de las energías renovables en México

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Brugger; Ma. Elena Nancy Dávila Moreno; Manuel Francisco Llamas Galván

    2011-01-01

    Este ensayo trata de explicar los problemas institucionales y jurídicos que han limitado el aprovechamiento de dichas energías alternativas. El trabajo presenta la situación actual de México; después analiza el potencial que tiene el país. De ahí se pasa al estudio de la problemática institucional y jurídica que no ha logrado fomentar la promoción de energías renovables en México.

  14. Problemas institucionales de las energías renovables en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Brugger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo trata de explicar los problemas institucionales y jurídicos que han limitado el aprovechamiento de dichas energías alternativas. El trabajo presenta la situación actual de México; después analiza el potencial que tiene el país. De ahí se pasa al estudio de la problemática institucional y jurídica que no ha logrado fomentar la promoción de energías renovables en México.

  15. The role of interfacial layers in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids: A renovated Hamilton-Crosser model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W; Choi, S.U.S.

    2004-01-01

    We previously developed a renovated Maxwell model for the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids and determined that the solid/liquid interfacial layers play an important role in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids. However, this renovated Maxwell model is limited to suspensions with spherical particles. Here, we extend the Hamilton--Crosser model for suspensions of nonspherical particles to include the effect of a solid/liquid interface. The solid/liquid interface is described as a confocal ellipsoid with a solid particle. The new model for the three-phase suspensions is mathematically expressed in terms of the equivalent thermal conductivity and equivalent volume fraction of anisotropic complex ellipsoids, as well as an empirical shape factor. With a generalized empirical shape factor, the renovated Hamilton--Crosser model correctly predicts the magnitude of the thermal conductivity of nanotube-in-oil nanofluids. At present, this new model is not able to predict the nonlinear behavior of the nanofluid thermal conductivity

  16. Analysis and Monitoring of Energy Consumption and Indoor Climate in a School Before and After Deep Energy Renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    kindergartens/institutions -- that will undergo deep energy renovation over the next fewyears.The seven buildings are being energy-renovated and monitored with support from the European Union- CONCERTO initiative as part of the project titled Cost-Effective Low-Energy Advanced Sustainable Solutions -- Class1...... ventilation systems with heat recovery, low-energy lighting, water-saving measures, improved insulation of piping, and improved control using building energy management systems. This paper presents preliminary results of the analysis and monitoring of energy consumption and indoor climate in one public school...

  17. Energy renovation of single-family houses in Denmark utilising long-term financing based on equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Rose, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present an economic overview of the opportunities for energy renovation of single-family houses in Denmark financed over the long term. The paper focuses on the economic difference between energy savings and the repayment of investment. Taking out the average remaining 20% equity...... in long-term property mortgage loans and utilising it for extensive energy renovation improves both the economy and the extent of included measures. Approximately 30% of energy consumption in Denmark is used for space heating. The existing 1 million single-family houses account for approximately half...

  18. Possible financing schemes for one-stop-shop service for sustainable renovation of single-family houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Gustavsson, Leif; Haavik, Trond

    energy use behaviour of the occupants and the difficulty to predict future energy prices. The options to finance energy efficiency renovations include homeowners’ own resources, mortgage refinancing, flex loan, personal loan, financing by service providers, preferential loan, subsidies/grants, credit...... for the homeowners, and banks will have a less risky asset in their portfolio. In situations where homeowners cannot avail additional mortgage financing, e.g. those who recently purchased a house and used the limit to such loans, banks may consider an energy efficient renovation plan prepared by an entrepreneur...

  19. Renovation of the 'old' NPP units as an economically effective way of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrodnikov, A.V.; Toshinsky, G.I.; Komlev, O.G.; Dragunov, Yu.G.; Stepanov, V.S.; Klimov, N.N.; Kopytov, I.I.; Krushelnitsky, V.N.

    2005-01-01

    In the process of nuclear power development there comes a phase when the old' power-units, which reactor installations have expired the designed and extended service lifetime are withdrawn from operating. At this phase in the case of the same annual investments into nuclear power, the increase of the total set up capacity of the nuclear power will be terminated because introduction of capacities due to construction of 'new' power-units only compensates for the reduction of capacities caused by withdrawing from operating the 'old' power-units. Along with this, taking into account a sizeable difference in the service lifetime of the nuclear steam supplying systems and the rest infrastructure of the nuclear power plants, it is an opportunity to find the solution to the problem of compensating for the withdrawn capacities without considerable increasing the annual investments. This opportunity is connected with use of the innovative nuclear power technology based on multipurpose small power modular fast reactors with lead-bismuth coolant for replacement of the withdrawn capacities (renovation of power-units). The features of the innovative nuclear power technology based on the SVBR-76/100 reactor installations, the results of the technical and economical investigations that demonstrate the high economical efficiency of use of the renovation technology using the SVBR-75/100 reactor modules are presented in the Paper. (author)

  20. The Phenomenon of Trust in Flat Owners’ Collective Renovation Strategies in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liis Ojamäe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobilising fl at owners into renovating residential blocks in post-socialist countries has been a complicated process. Evidence from Estonia shows that the success of collective renewal strategies depends not only on economic issues but also on ways investments are organised and, signifi cantly, the relationship of trust between diff erent actors. The paper aims at conceptualising the issue of institutional trust upon the experience of urban housing renewal in Estonia. It is contended that trust is crucial for the joint decision-making in a block as well as for facilitating negotiations between fl at owners’ associations, local municipalities and market actors. The paper draws on three qualitative studies conducted in Estonia during the 2000s, which allow asserting that trust towards new strategies of housing renewal can be achieved and maintained by ‘best practices’, which by concentrating expert knowledge also denote direct communication between experts and fl at owners. While it is important to raise the residents’ technical knowledgeability, it is indispensable to develop abilities to manage and communicate the renovation process between diff erent parties. The public sector is conceived to be a central actor in sustaining trust between actors who have no previous positive experience from collective residential strategies

  1. Energy and comfort performance evaluation after renovation of an office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renzi, V.; Burgun, F. [Inst. National de l' Energie Solaire, Le Bourget du Lac (France)

    2009-07-01

    Buildings constitute 42.5 per cent of the energy consumption in Europe. As such, the building sector represents a high potential for innovation in terms of reducing global energy consumption. Since existing buildings represent a large part of the built environment, refurbishment is an important issue to consider. However, efficient processes of renovation must be well defined. France's National Institute of Solar Energy has developed a methodology to reduce consumption of primary energy use and decrease greenhouse gas emissions in the built environment, while increasing user comfort. The methodology places much emphasis on the health and comfort of occupants from the very beginning of the process. The methodology was developed to make the building renovation process more efficient by elaborating generic guidelines and tools. In this study, an office building from the 1970s was refurbished and monitored for both energy performance and comfort. The objective was to better understand the technological and psychosocial aspects involved in refurbishing an old building. Measurements were compared with the perception of the occupants. The impacts of human interaction on the building behaviour was also evaluated. 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  2. Means for the regulation of renewable energies; Instrumentos de regulacion para renovables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peraza, Alejandro [Comision Reguladora de Energia, Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    It is basically described in this presentation, those means used by the Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) in order to control the distribution of the available renewable energies, as well as to show the modifications done to its contracts. Besides, there are described the most relevant information about the CRE's law. There are mentioned some of the changes done to some clauses of different contracts, among the contracts found here there can be: contract for the interconnection of renewable energies, contract for the interconnection for a small source of solar energy. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen primordialmente los instrumentos que la Comision Reguladora de Energia (CRE) utiliza con el fin de reglamentar la distribucion de las diversas energias renovables disponibles, asi como mostrar las modificaciones que se han realizado en sus contratos. Ademas, se describen los principales aspectos de la Ley de la CRE. Asimismo, se mencionan algunas de las modificaciones que se les ha hecho a diversos contratos: Contrato de interconexion de renovables, contrato de interconexion para fuente de energia solar en pequena escala.

  3. The CABRI fast neutron Hodoscope: Renovation, qualification program and first results following the experimental reactor restart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, V.; Mirotta, S.; Guillot, J.; Biard, B.

    2018-01-01

    The CABRI experimental pulse reactor, located at the Cadarache nuclear research center, southern France, is devoted to the study of Reactivity Initiated Accidents (RIA). For the purpose of the CABRI International Program (CIP), managed and funded by IRSN, in the framework of an OECD/NEA agreement, a huge renovation of the facility has been conducted since 2003. The Cabri Water Loop was then installed to ensure prototypical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) conditions for testing irradiated fuel rods. The hodoscope installed in the CABRI reactor is a unique online fuel motion monitoring system, operated by IRSN and dedicated to the measurement of the fast neutrons emitted by the tested rod during the power pulse. It is one of the distinctive features of the CABRI reactor facility, which is operated by CEA. The system is able to determine the fuel motion, if any, with a time resolution of 1 ms and a spatial resolution of 3 mm. The hodoscope equipment has been upgraded as well during the CABRI facility renovation. This paper presents the main outcomes achieved with the hodoscope since October 2015, date of the first criticality of the CABRI reactor in its new Cabri Water Loop configuration. Results obtained during reactor commissioning phase functioning, either in steady-state mode (at low and high power, up to 23 MW) or in transient mode (start-up, possibly beyond 20 GW), are discussed.

  4. EKF-GPR-Based Fingerprint Renovation for Subset-Based Indoor Localization with Adjusted Cosine Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junhua; Li, Yong; Cheng, Wei; Liu, Yang; Liu, Chenxi

    2018-01-22

    Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) localization using fingerprint has become a prevailing approach for indoor localization. However, the fingerprint-collecting work is repetitive and time-consuming. After the original fingerprint radio map is built, it is laborious to upgrade the radio map. In this paper, we describe a Fingerprint Renovation System (FRS) based on crowdsourcing, which avoids the use of manual labour to obtain the up-to-date fingerprint status. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) in FRS are combined to calculate the current state based on the original fingerprinting radio map. In this system, a method of subset acquisition also makes an immediate impression to reduce the huge computation caused by too many reference points (RPs). Meanwhile, adjusted cosine similarity (ACS) is employed in the online phase to solve the issue of outliers produced by cosine similarity. Both experiments and analytical simulation in a real Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) environment indicate the usefulness of our system to significant performance improvements. The results show that FRS improves the accuracy by 19.6% in the surveyed area compared to the radio map un-renovated. Moreover, the proposed subset algorithm can bring less computation.

  5. EKF–GPR-Based Fingerprint Renovation for Subset-Based Indoor Localization with Adjusted Cosine Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junhua; Li, Yong; Cheng, Wei; Liu, Yang; Liu, Chenxi

    2018-01-01

    Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) localization using fingerprint has become a prevailing approach for indoor localization. However, the fingerprint-collecting work is repetitive and time-consuming. After the original fingerprint radio map is built, it is laborious to upgrade the radio map. In this paper, we describe a Fingerprint Renovation System (FRS) based on crowdsourcing, which avoids the use of manual labour to obtain the up-to-date fingerprint status. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) in FRS are combined to calculate the current state based on the original fingerprinting radio map. In this system, a method of subset acquisition also makes an immediate impression to reduce the huge computation caused by too many reference points (RPs). Meanwhile, adjusted cosine similarity (ACS) is employed in the online phase to solve the issue of outliers produced by cosine similarity. Both experiments and analytical simulation in a real Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) environment indicate the usefulness of our system to significant performance improvements. The results show that FRS improves the accuracy by 19.6% in the surveyed area compared to the radio map un-renovated. Moreover, the proposed subset algorithm can bring less computation. PMID:29361805

  6. Nuclear verification in Iraq: Are we closing the file? 1 June 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of an essay on IAEA's nuclear verification in Iraq written by the Director General of the IAEA, and published in the Editorial Pages of the Washington Post on 1 June 1998

  7. An Iraq C-130 Aviation Advisor Mission and Lessons for the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauer, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    .... A review of lessons learned from the initial Iraq C-130 advisor mission provided insights into challenges stemming from differences in United States advisors and Iraqi airmen in language, culture...

  8. Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... qualify for VA health care . Diseases related to Gulf War, Iraq and Afghanistan service VA presumes that the ... Southwest Asia theater of military operations during the Gulf War August 2, 1990 to present and in Afghanistan ...

  9. Iran and Strategic Power Projection: The Iran-Iraq War as a Foundation of Understanding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knight, Darric M

    2007-01-01

    .... Using the Iran-Iraq War as a lens through which to examine Iran during a stressful conventional conflict, the research illustrates a number of characteristics and trends still representative of the regime today...

  10. 75 FR 26879 - Temporary Organization To Facilitate a Strategic Partnership With the Republic of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Teams; (c) support and create a sustainable Rule of Law mission in Iraq, including the Police... States Code, unless sooner terminated by the Secretary. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, May 7, 2010...

  11. Strategic Implications for U.S. Policy in IRAQ: What Now?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bender, William

    2002-01-01

    .... Despite these means, which include enforcing no-fly zones over Northern and Southern Iraq, diplomatic pressure backed up by occasional missile strikes, and an economic embargo, Saddam Hussein remains...

  12. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR): April 2006 Quarterly Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowen, Jr, Stuart W

    2006-01-01

    .... Section 2 of this Report updates SIGIR s previous reviews of Iraq s essential service sectors oil and gas, electricity, and water and provides initial reports on the following sectors: security...

  13. FY2005 Supplemental Appropriations for Iraq and Afghanistan, Tsunami Relief, and Other Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belasco, Amy; Nowels, Larry

    2005-01-01

    ... (subsequently amended to total $82.04 billion) to provide funds for ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the global war on terror, reconstruction in Afghanistan, Tsunami relief and rehabilitation, and other activities...

  14. Examining the Effectiveness of U.S. Elements of National Power in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McHugh, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    .... The United States' strategic objectives in Iraq have been clearly defined as providing for a stable, secure, prosperous, peaceful, and democratic nation that is a fully functioning member of the community of nations...

  15. Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer K; Schwartz, Moshe; Nakamura, Kennon H

    2008-01-01

    .... In Iraq, private firms known as Private Security Contractors (PSCs) serve to protect individuals, transport convoys, forward operating bases, buildings, and other economic infrastructure, and are training Iraqi police and military personnel...

  16. Strategic Effects of the Conflict with Iraq. The Middle East, North Africa, and Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terrill, W

    2003-01-01

    .... Radical Middle Eastern states are deeply concerned about a U.S. presence in Iraq but will probably be constrained from opposing it through subversion due to fear they may become a future target in the war on terrorism...

  17. Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2006-01-01

    .... IEDs are hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with these bombs are becoming more numerous and deadly in both Iraq and Afghanistan...

  18. U.S. Military Operations in Iraq: Planning, Combat, and Occupation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Kate; Lauth, Shane; Schenck, Erin

    2006-01-01

    On November 2, 2005, a colloquium entitled "U.S. Military Operations in Iraq: Planning, Combat and Occupation" was held in Washington, DC, at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS...

  19. Solving the Principal - Agent Problem in Iraq: Economic Incentives Create a New Model for Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Verlan R; Cramer, Jayson L; Hollingsworth, L. S

    2007-01-01

    .... Using the Alaska Permanent Fund dividend as a potential model for Iraq, two key criteria were formulated for comparison and contrast with other alternatives currently available to the Iraqi government...

  20. Estimated Costs of Continuing Operations in Iraq and Other Operations of the Global War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holtz-Eakin, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    At the request of Senator Conrad, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has estimated the costs of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan and other operations associated with the global war on terrorism (GWOT...

  1. A Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Application for Iraq War Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pair, Jarrell; Allen, Brian; Dautricourt, Matthieu; Treskunov, Anton; Liewer, Matt; Graap, Ken; Reger, Greg; Rizzo, Albert

    2006-01-01

    .... The aim of the current paper is to present the rationale, technical specifications, application features, and user-centered design process for the development of a Virtual Iraq PTSD VR therapy application...

  2. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR): Moving Beyond the IRRF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowen, Jr, Stuart W

    2007-01-01

    ...). During this quarter, I traveled to Iraq for the 15th time since my appointment three years ago to supervise the work of the 50 SIGIR auditors, inspectors, and investigators who provide the necessary...

  3. CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING: DOD, State, and USAID Contracts and Contractor Personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutton, John; Ayers, Johana R; Berkholtz, Jessica M; Brandon, E; Culley, Brendan S; James, Jr., Art; McMillen, Lisa A; McSween, Jean; Thornton, Karen

    2008-01-01

    DOD, State, and USAID reported that they obligated at least $33.9 billion during fiscal year 2007 and the first half of fiscal year 2008 on 56,925 contracts with performance in either Iraq or Afghanistan...

  4. Iraq 2003-4 and Mesopotamia 1914-18: A Comparative Analysis in Ends and Means

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scudieri, James

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a comparative analysis of the linkage between strategic ends with operational ways and means of the current operation in Iraq in 2003-4 and the British campaign in Mesopotamia in 1914-18...

  5. Indoor air quality in green-renovated vs. non-green low-income homes of children living in a temperate region of US (Ohio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Kanistha C; Chew, Ginger L; Schaffer, Christopher; Ryan, Patrick H; Brokamp, Cole; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Chillrud, Steve; Hedman, Curtis; Colton, Meryl; Ross, Jamie; Reponen, Tiina

    2016-06-01

    Green eco-friendly housing includes approaches to reduce indoor air pollutant sources and to increase energy efficiency. Although sealing/tightening buildings can save energy and reduce the penetration of outdoor pollutants, an adverse outcome can be increased buildup of pollutants with indoor sources. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in the indoor air quality (IAQ) between green and non-green homes in low-income housing complexes. In one housing complex, apartments were renovated using green principles (n=28). Home visits were conducted immediately after the renovation, and subsequently at 6 months and at 12 months following the renovation. Of these homes, eight homes had pre-renovation home visits; this allowed pre- and post-renovation comparisons within the same homes. Parallel visits were conducted in non-green (control) apartments (n=14) in a nearby low-income housing complex. The IAQ assessments included PM2.5, black carbon, ultrafine particles, sulfur, total volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, and air exchange rate. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. None of the indoor pollutant concentrations were significantly different between green and non-green homes. However, we found differences when comparing the concentrations before and after renovation. Measured immediately after renovation, indoor black carbon concentrations were significantly lower averaging 682 ng/m(3) in post-renovation vs. 2364 ng/m(3) in pre-renovation home visits (p=0.01). In contrast, formaldehyde concentrations were significantly higher in post-renovated (0.03 ppm) than in pre-renovated homes (0.01 ppm) (p=0.004). Questionnaire data showed that opening of windows occurred less frequently in homes immediately post-renovation compared to pre-renovation; this factor likely affected the levels of indoor black carbon (from outdoor sources) and formaldehyde (from indoor sources) more than the renovation status itself. To reduce IAQ

  6. Renovation of CPF (Chemical Processing Facility) for Development of Advanced Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinichi Aose; Takafumi Kitajima; Kouji Ogasawara; Kazunori Nomura; Shigehiko Miyachi; Yoshiaki Ichige; Tadahiro Shinozaki; Shinichi Ohuchi

    2008-01-01

    CPF (Chemical Processing Facility) was constructed at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) in 1980 as a basic research field where spent fuel pins from fast reactor (FR) and high level liquid waste can be dealt with. The renovation consists of remodeling of the CA-3 cell and the laboratory A, installation of globe boxes, hoods and analytical equipments to the laboratory C and the analytical laboratory. Also maintenance equipments in the CA-5 cell which had been out of order were repaired. The CA-3 cell is the main cell in which important equipments such as a dissolver, a clarifier and extractors are installed for carrying out the hot test using the irradiated FR fuel. Since the CPF had specialized originally in the research function for the Purex process, it was desired to execute the research and development of such new, various reprocessing processes. Formerly, equipments were arranged in wide space and connected with not only each other but also with utility supply system mainly by fixed stainless steel pipes. It caused shortage of operation space in flexibility for basic experimental study. Old equipments in the CA-3 cell including vessels and pipes were removed after successful decontamination, and new equipments were installed conformably to the new design. For the purpose of easy installation and rearranging the experimental equipments, equipments are basically connected by flexible pipes. Since dissolver is able to be easily replaced, various dissolution experiments is conducted. Insoluble residue generated by dissolution of spent fuel is clarified by centrifugal. This small apparatus is effective to space-saving. Mini mixer settlers or centrifugal contactors are put on to the prescribed limited space in front of the backside wall. Fresh reagents such as solvent, scrubbing and stripping solution are continuously fed from the laboratory A to the extractor by the reagent supply system with semi-automatic observation

  7. Initiatives for the energy renovation of single-family houses inDenmark evaluated on the basis of barriers and motivators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn Bjørneboe, Matilde; Svendsen, Svend; Heller, Alfred

    2018-01-01

    The renovation of single-family houses in Denmark is progressing only slowly. Changes in current pol-icy are needed if the political goal of a fossil-free building sector as part of a fossil-free society is to beachieved. Known barriers and motivators for energy renovation are identified, and arr......The renovation of single-family houses in Denmark is progressing only slowly. Changes in current pol-icy are needed if the political goal of a fossil-free building sector as part of a fossil-free society is to beachieved. Known barriers and motivators for energy renovation are identified......, suggestions are madefor improvement in four areas: (1) focus on non-energy benefits rather than investment, (2) enhance-ment of subsidy system, (3) including relevant renovation plans in the energy performance certificate(EPC), and (4) long-term regulation on the maximum allowed energy consumption of houses....

  8. Revision of documents guide to obtain the renovation of licence of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, Units I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvio C, G.; Fernandez S, G.

    2008-01-01

    Unquestionably the renovation of license of the nuclear power plants , it this converting in a promising option to be able to gather in sure, reliable form and economic those requests about future energy in the countries with facilities of this type. This work it analyzes four documents guide and their application for the determination of the renovation of it licenses in nuclear plants that will serve of base for their aplication in the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde Units I and 2. The four documents in question are: the one Inform Generic of Learned Lessons on the Aging (NUREG - 1801), the Standard Revision Plan for the Renovation of License (NUREG - 1800), the Regulatory Guide for Renovation of License (GR-1.188), and the NEI 95-10, developed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy that is an Industrial Guide to Implement the Requirements of the 1OCFR Part 54-the Rule of Renovation of It licenses. (Author)

  9. Financial Futures of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-27

    RAND Corporation, 2010. 8 Financial Futures of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ground memo sent to all workshop participants in advance ...been several credible reports, especially in the Financial Times and New York Times.23 The rest of this section draws from those accounts . The group... Financial Futures of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Findings from a RAND Corporation Workshop Colin P. Clarke, Kimberly Jackson, Patrick

  10. Re-Inventing Counterinsurgency Doctrine: Why The United States Failed in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Rochelle W. Hill Commander, United States Navy A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Joint Advanced Warfighting School in partial satisfaction of the...tribal leaders had become increasingly alienated by the lead Sunni insurgent group in Iraq, Al Qaeda in Iraq (AQI). AQI flouted local tribal customs ...reforms that earn the people’s loyalty .”10 Historical case studies suggest that this blended type of conflict (a combination of conventional and

  11. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The document includes three attachments: the letter of 3 May 1984 from the Director General of the IAEA to the Resident Representative of Iraq, the letter of 10 May 1984 to the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of Iraq and the summary record of discussion in the Board of Governors on 5 June 1984 at its 619th meeting concerning item 20 of the provisional agenda ''Military attack on Iran's Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant''

  12. The insurgency business: the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, 2010-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Pillot, Beau L.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Islamic State (IS)--also known as Islamic State of Iraq and the Syria (ISIS)--managed to seize large swaths of territory within the sovereign countries of Iraq and Syria from 2011 to 2016. Even though its caliphate has been reduced in size and scope in 2017, the IS's entrepreneurial capability to effectively manage money, manpower, and materiel has enabled it to develop its brand as the deadliest and most widely known terrorist org...

  13. Analysis of Internet Usage Intensity in Iraq: An Ordered Logit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Almas Heshmati; Firas H. Al-Hammadany; Ashraf Bany-Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Intensity of Internet use is significantly influenced by government policies, people’s levels of income, education, employment and general development and economic conditions. Iraq has very low Internet usage levels compared to the region and the world. This study uses an ordered logit model to analyse the intensity of Internet use in Iraq. The results showed that economic reasons (internet cost and income level) were key cause for low level usage intensity rates. About 68% of the population ...

  14. Efforts of the British Empire to Build a State in Iraq After the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Şahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study searches for the policies carried out by the British Empire in Mesopotamia where the British invaded during the First World War. However, it will be convenient to know the political, social and economic background of Iraq or Mesopotamia as a general outline to understand the period clearly. Therefore, we have primarily tried to explain the overview of pre-invasion in Iraq. The traditional social structure of the Iraqi population and their relationship with the administration and each other have been questioned in the context of national identity. Then the developments in Iraq after the invasion have been discussed.The strategies which the Britain used to rule Iraq and the public’s reaction to this strategy have been investigated. In this context, the facts and the events such as the Mandate, 1920 Arab Revolt, the Cairo Conference of 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq have been focused. It has been endeavored to per-form an analysis to understand the present problems in Iraq by discussing the cause and effect relations of the facts and the events. The research has been prepared by benefiting from a rich bibliography based on the scientific works of the experts for Iraq and the Middle East. As a result, this research has revealed the difficulties in ruling Iraq both internally and externally due to its sui generis political, social and economic conditions and found out that the mistakes made in the nation building process have caused the instability occured at the present time in the country.

  15. Detainee optometry at Camp Cropper, Iraq, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas M; Elledge, James B

    2012-06-01

    This article details the first in-depth analysis of an Optometry Service working with a large Middle Eastern detainee population composed entirely of Iraqi males. The mission of the Camp Cropper Optometry Service was to provide eye care services to the detainee population consistent with the standards of optometric care that would be provided to any U.S. military member in the same geographic area. This included providing detainees with eyeglasses, therapeutic treatment of eye disease, and referral for treatment of medical conditions and surgical care, if it was needed and available at the U.S. military facilities in the Iraq Theater. Diagnoses, services provided, and medications given to the detainees are listed in detail and demonstrate the complexity of pathology encountered in this population.

  16. Development of water resources management in Iraq and its obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq witnessed recently a considerable development in the field of water resources management to go along with developed countries. Latest technology has been introduced in hydrology monitoring. Many stations for water measuring and monitoring have been constructed beside many irrigation and drainage canals in order to reach an optimum irrigation system. A special emphasis has been put on the role of nuclear techniques in enhancing the water resources management development. These techniques will provide the perfect opportunity for investing water and drained quantities and determining pollution resources to insure the sustainability of the agricultural sector without threatening the development processes. This development encounters the lack of knowledge of technology applied in the field of the use of peaceful atomic energy and nuclear technologies, which are essential in sustaining the momentum in the management of water resources, despite the entry of the latest developed devices and technologies in measurements and monitoring. (author)

  17. Geotechnical Mapping of An-Najaf City, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadher Hassan Al-Baghdadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper submits a set geotechnical maps for the area of An-Najaf city, by using contour lines to represent the different geotechnical properties of the soil. The present research work is very important step toward preparing a geotechnical database for this region, to complete the geotechnical database over all the country, (Iraq. Using such a database is very important in geotechincal investigation, reconnaissance phase, of construction projects. Within this phase of site investigation, numbers, depths and locations of the boreholes needed, will be determined. A well known commercial software (SURFER 11, was used to produce the all the contour maps of geotechnical properties presented herein. A forty nine (49 contour maps were produced to cover the variations, within the geotechnical properties of the soil, to produce realistic description to these soil properties. Both Google maps and Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system (UTM have been used in the contour maps for easy use.

  18. Echocardiographic evaluation of thalassemia intermedia patients in Duhok, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Ameen Mosa

    2014-12-11

    Cardiac complications are among the most serious problems of thalassemia intermedia patients. The current study was initiated to address the latter issue through the study of the echocardiographic findings and correlate it with clinical characteristics of thalassemia intermedia patients in Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq. An echocardiographic assessment of 61 beta-thalassemia intermedia cases was performed. It included 30 males and 31 females, with a mean age 19.6 ± 7.5 years. The standard echostudy of two-dimension and M-mode measurements of cardiac chambers were done. The continuous doppler regurgitant jet of tricuspid and pulmonary valves were recorded. Left ventricle diastolic function was assessed by pulsed doppler of mitral valve inflow. To correlate the clinical with echocardiographic findings, patients were divided, according to tricuspid regurgitant velocity, into three groups (intermedia patients. Therapeutic trails targeting these complications are indicated, and echocardiographic assessment is necessary to be offered early for thalassemia intermedia.

  19. Prioritisation process for decommissioning of the Iraq former nuclear complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarjies, Adnan; Abbas, Mohammed; Fernandes, Horst M.; Coates, Roger

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of sites in Iraq which have been used for nuclear activities and which contain potentially significant amounts of radioactive waste. The principal nuclear site is Al-Tuwaitha, the former nuclear research centre. Many of these sites suffered substantial physical damage during the Gulf Wars and have been subjected to subsequent looting. All require decommissioning in order to ensure both radiological and non-radiological safety. However, it is not possible to undertake the decommissioning of all sites and facilities at the same time. Therefore, a prioritization methodology has been developed in order to aid the decision-making process. The methodology comprises three principal stages of assessment: 1) a quantitative surrogate risk assessment, 2) a range of sensitivity analyses and 3) the inclusion of qualitative modifying factors. A group of five Tuwaitha facilities presented the highest evaluated risk, followed by a middle ranking grouping of Tuwaitha facilities and some other sites, with a relatively large number of lower risk facilities and sites comprising a third group. This initial risk-based order of priority is changed when modifying factors are taken into account. It is necessary to take account of Iraq's isolation from the international nuclear community over the last two decades and the lack of experienced personnel. Therefore it is appropriate to initiate decommissioning operations on selected low risk facilities at Tuwaitha in order to build capacity/experience and prepare for work to be carried out in more complex and potentially high hazard facilities. In addition it is appropriate to initiate some prudent precautionary actions relating to some of the higher risk facilities. (author)

  20. Why People Apply to Medical School in Iraq?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hemiary, Nesif; Al-Nuaimi, Ahmed Sameer; Al-Saffar, Hilal; Randall, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The motivations behind why people choose to study medicine in Iraqi medical schools are unknown. Such information could help school pupils to make more informed career decisions and assist medical schools in enhancing the student selection process. To investigate why people choose to study medicine in Iraq. The first-year students admitted on the academic year 2015-2016 to Baghdad College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, were invited to complete a structured questionnaire, which was administered through the college electronic education portal. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21 software. A total of 152 (50% response rate) students responded. Women constituted 69.1% of respondents. Most students (61.8%) had made their choice by themselves without family pressure. The most frequent reasons that affected this choice were "humanitarian reasons and a wish to provide help to others" as well as "childhood dream," "positive community appraisal of doctors," and "ready availability of work for physicians." About three-quarters (73.6%) of the students made some inquiry about medical school before making their choice, and the people asked were most frequently a medical student or a doctor. Information provided by the consulted parties was regarded as satisfactory by 64.2% of the surveyed students, had a positive value in 47.2%, and affected their decision in 34.9%. The highest proportion (42.2%) of the study sample was thinking about studying medicine since primary school. In addition, students with personal preference made their choice at a significantly younger age. Reasons to apply for medical schools in Iraq are similar to those in many countries. Most of the students who inquired about studying medicine had not contacted the medical school itself.

  1. Why People Apply to Medical School in Iraq?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesif Al-Hemiary

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The motivations behind why people choose to study medicine in Iraqi medical schools are unknown. Such information could help school pupils to make more informed career decisions and assist medical schools in enhancing the student selection process. Aims: To investigate why people choose to study medicine in Iraq. Subjects and methods: The first-year students admitted on the academic year 2015-2016 to Baghdad College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, were invited to complete a structured questionnaire, which was administered through the college electronic education portal. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21 software. Results: A total of 152 (50% response rate students responded. Women constituted 69.1% of respondents. Most students (61.8% had made their choice by themselves without family pressure. The most frequent reasons that affected this choice were “humanitarian reasons and a wish to provide help to others” as well as “childhood dream,” “positive community appraisal of doctors,” and “ready availability of work for physicians.” About three-quarters (73.6% of the students made some inquiry about medical school before making their choice, and the people asked were most frequently a medical student or a doctor. Information provided by the consulted parties was regarded as satisfactory by 64.2% of the surveyed students, had a positive value in 47.2%, and affected their decision in 34.9%. The highest proportion (42.2% of the study sample was thinking about studying medicine since primary school. In addition, students with personal preference made their choice at a significantly younger age. Conclusions: Reasons to apply for medical schools in Iraq are similar to those in many countries. Most of the students who inquired about studying medicine had not contacted the medical school itself.

  2. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10-8 m3 kg-1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  3. HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among women in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals who are aware of the risk of infection and perceive themselves to be at risk of infection are more likely to take action to prevent HIV infection. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2000 Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey (MICS for Iraq was carried out to assess the extent of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among Iraqi women. Results The majority of the 22,997 respondents were age 15–24 years (44.3%, currently married (51.4%, and resided in urban areas (71.7%. About 1 in 4 (26.0% of the study participants had no formal education. Only 49.9% had heard of HIV/AIDS. Overall, 60.5% did not know that HIV can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Meanwhile, 98.5% of the respondents did not know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child through breast milk. Only 0.7% of the respondents reported that HIV cannot be transmitted through mosquito bites. The proportion of the respondents who had adequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS was 9.8%. Adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS was negatively associated with being married, poor, having low education, and residing in rural areas. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi is very limited and associated with marital status, education, wealth, and place of residence. This information may be of use in the design, targeting, monitoring and evaluation of programs aimed at improving HIV and AIDS related knowledge in Iraq.

  4. Approaches to realization of year cycle of Iraq football players’ sport training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek Drevel Khalaf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to substantiate ways of increase of Iraq football players’ training process effectiveness, depending on calendar of events. Material: analysis of technical-tactic actions was conducted by quantitative and qualitative characteristics of football players in every match. The analysis was presented by mean indicators of matches of the first (n=15 and second (n=15 rounds of championships of Iraq premier league 2011-2014. Results: we realized conception of periodization of Iraq elite football players’ sport training. Specific conditions of periodization of Iraq sportsmen’s training have been worked out and substantiated. Scientific-methodic basis of perfection of Iraq football players’ training process management has been formed. On the base of heuristic simulation we formulated algorithm of realization of Iraq premier league football players’ year cycle training. It is recommended to use higher and more significant loads with correlation 50% and 30% from total scope of training sessions. Conclusions: On principles of rational combination we built hierarchy of macro-cycles’ structural components, combined in single, formed year cycle during long term competition season.

  5. Respiratory symptoms necessitating spirometry among soldiers with Iraq/Afghanistan war lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szema, Anthony M; Salihi, Walid; Savary, Khalil; Chen, John J

    2011-09-01

    New-onset asthma rates are higher among US soldiers deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan than stateside, but overall respiratory symptom and spirometry rates among soldiers returning from Iraq/Afghanistan have not yet been addressed. We determined these rates in soldiers deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan versus troops stationed elsewhere. Retrospective review of active-duty soldiers (2004 to 2010) registered at Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northport, New York, with Long Island/New York City zip codes. Subjects were examined by physicians or physicians' assistants. We counted number of spirometries, which required respiratory symptoms, and the provider was required to submit a diagnosis as part of the request process. Twenty-five percent of 7151 troops went to Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 1816) and 75% went elsewhere (n = 5335), with more smokers in the Iraq/Afghanistan group (16.1% vs 3.3%). Rates of symptoms and spirometry were 14.5% and 1.8%, for Iraq/Afghanistan, versus troops deployed elsewhere, respectively (P Afghanistan war lung injury is common and rates of symptoms leading to a diagnosis requiring spirometry are high. (C)2011The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

  6. [Analysis of posttraumatic stress disorders in Polish soldiers who returned from stabilization mission in Iraq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotnicka, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the survey was to establish whether PTSD is present among Polish soldiers returning from a one-year deployment to Iraq and an analysis of its individual symptoms. Sixty soldiers were examined, including 30 who returned from the Iraqi mission and 30 who remained in Poland. Five analysing devices were used: (IPSA), (STAI), (BDI), a PTSD questionnaire and a socio-demographical form. A significant number of soldiers experienced a traumatic event during the mission in Iraq. Although the Iraq deployment did not change the level of depression and anxiety among the two groups of soldiers, disproportions were found in the range of anger level intensity, which was significantly higher among soldiers who returned from Iraq. Stabilisation mission and the experience of a traumatic event influenced the biological and psychological functioning patterns among soldiers who returned from Iraq. The manifestations of this were emotional and physiological reactions that the soldiers experienced (nightmares, excessive sweating, increased heartbeat rate, stressful reactions in situations similar to the traumatic occurrence and intensified responses to them). However, contrary to the assumptions, it was not concluded that soldiers who returned from Iraq are suffering from PTSD.

  7. Oil Federalism In Iraq: Resource Curse, Patronage Networks and Stability. Case Studies of Baghdad, Kurdistan and the Advent of ISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Bilal A.

    Petroleum wealth is the lifeblood of Iraq, with the potential to promote prosperity, or become a curse that destabilizes the country and interrupts its economic and political development. The management and sharing of petroleum wealth has been at the center of economic, political and security developments in Iraq since the country's invasion in 2003. This study analyzes Iraq's experiment with petrofederalism, the influence of different actors (e.g. international oil companies and ISIS), and the emergence of Iraqi Kurdistan as a petroregion. Using case study method, it demonstrates how patronage politics exacerbated resource curse in Iraq and resulted in instability.

  8. Comparison and statistical analysis of long-term overheating indices applied on energy renovated dwellings in temperate climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Duer, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    -running’ representative dwellings and characteristic climatic conditions of central Europe (Denmark, United Kingdom, Austria and France). Different renovation steps and passive cooling strategies were applied on these case studies creating 66 variants for comfort assessment. The analyses were conducted with the use...

  9. Renovation of a Mechanical Engineering Senior Design Class to an Industry-Tied and Team-Oriented Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucheng

    2017-01-01

    In this work, an industry-based and team-oriented education model was established based on a traditional mechanical engineering (ME) senior design class in order to better prepare future engineers and leaders so as to meet the increasing demand for high-quality engineering graduates. In the renovated curriculum, industry-sponsored projects became…

  10. Desarrollo e implantación de energías renovables: situación actual y tendencias

    OpenAIRE

    Picó Heras, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    En esta tesina se tratarán las posibilidades que ofrecen las energías renovables com base de una planificicación energética. El tema se enfocará tanto desde puntos de vista económicos, ambientales, técnicos, políticos, etc

  11. Sandia National Laboratories support of the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John Russell; Danneels, Jeffrey John

    2009-03-01

    Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there are now enormous radioactive waste problems in Iraq. These waste problems include destroyed nuclear facilities, uncharacterized radioactive wastes, liquid radioactive waste in underground tanks, wastes related to the production of yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, activated metals and contaminated metals that must be constantly guarded. Iraq currently lacks the trained personnel, regulatory and physical infrastructure to safely and securely manage these facilities and wastes. In 2005 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) agreed to organize an international cooperative program to assist Iraq with these issues. Soon after, the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) was initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to support the IAEA and assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials. The Iraq NDs Program is providing support for the IAEA plus training, consultation and limited equipment to the GOI. The GOI owns the problems and will be responsible for implementation of the Iraq NDs Program. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is a part of the DOS's team implementing the Iraq NDs Program. This report documents Sandia's support of the Iraq NDs Program, which has developed into three principal work streams: (1) training and technical consultation; (2) introducing Iraqis to modern decommissioning and waste management practices; and (3) supporting the IAEA, as they assist the GOI. Examples of each of these work streams include: (1) presentation of a three-day training workshop on 'Practical Concepts for Safe Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste in Arid Settings;' (2) leading GOI representatives on a tour of two operating low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the U.S.; and (3) supporting the IAEA's Technical Meeting with the GOI from April 21

  12. Oversimplifying Iraq's challenges: Bush's Fort Bragg speech and americans' declining support for the war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos L. Yordan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina el porqué el presidente George W. Bush no pudo recolectar la ayuda de la ciudadanía americana para su estrategia para la estabilización y la transformación de Iraq. De hecho, esta estrategia ha sido afectada por el desplegar de los acontecimientos que sucedieron en Iraq, pero el problema principal reside en las posiciones que el presidente utilizó para simplificar los desafíos que el ejército americano y la diplomacia tenían que hacer frente en Iraq, buscando la aprobación de las criticas periodisticas, de los expertos gubernamentales y de los juristas. En más de una perspectiva la falta de aprobación del gobierno Bush en Iraq es una consecuencia de la carencia de la confianza que la opinión pública tuvo por su presidente y sus consejeros para lograr sus objetivos en Iraq. Para constatar esta tesis, el artículo analiza el discurso del presidente a la nación, difundida en horario de punta el 28 de julio de 2005, que demuestra que los americanos no estaban demasiado convencidos de la estrategia de Bush._____________ABSTRACT:This article puts in context why President of the United States of America George W. Bush has been unable to rally American support for his strategy to stabilize and transform Iraq. Since the summer of 2003, when Iraqis started to challenge the authority of the Anglo-American occupation, the White House has been on the defensive, while American support for post-war efforts has dwindled. While developments in Iraq have affected the strategy’s execution, the main problem is the president’s inclination to oversimplify the challenges American troops and diplomats are facing in Iraq, inviting criticism from journalists, experts on nation-building and lawmakers. In many ways, declining approval of Bush’s handling of Iraq results in the public’s lack of confidence that the president and his advisors will be able to accomplish its goals in Iraq. To test this argument, the article analyzes

  13. LMHC/TWRS year 2000 equipment project renovation and contingency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    A program has been completed to assess, renovate and document tank farm field equipment year 2000 compliance. A communication plan has also been prepared (see section 8.0). The objective of the program was to assure that no adverse effects occur in tank farm operations as a result of equipment malfunction due to the advent of year 2000. The purposes of this document are to: describe the process used to assess field equipment; document items found to be compliant; document items found to be non-compliant including options for making the equipment year 2000 functional and/or tolerant; describe location and management of field equipment year 2000 documentation; assess overall vulnerability of TWRS field equipment with regard to year 2000 problems and describe plans to communicate year 2000 equipment review results and corrective actions

  14. Experiment research of slag renovation in the corner-fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Zhijun; Wu, Wenfei [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). School of Energy and Environment

    2013-07-01

    Aiming at serious slag on the water wall around the burner of corner-fired boiler with low-ash-fusion-point coal, cold experimental model has been established. In this experiment, particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been employed to accurately measure aerodynamic field of burner region, and the experimental research of furnace slag renovation has been conducted through changing the burner jet arrangement. The experiment results show that it has significantly effect on aerodynamic field in the furnace by changing burner jet deflection angle. A reasonable actual tangential circle diameter can be formed through adjusting the burner jet deflection angle, to prevent primary air attacking the wall, and further more, to effectively prevent serious slag on the water wall around the burner.

  15. French practice of the renovation of I and C systems in 900 MW NPP's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'agnol, A.

    1998-01-01

    From 1993 to 1995, EDF led I and C renovation studies. These studies aimed at identifying the I and C components which were not able to be kept in operation up to the 3 rd ten year outage and to propose adequate solutions in consequence. Both technical and economic aspects have been dealt with. An Observation Phase gave the necessary elements for decisions on obsolescence and ageing of equipment. Basis Preliminary Studies were intended to propose solutions for the replacement of equipment that would not fulfill the criterion. The project concluded that the major parts of I and C components were in good working order and a very few of them needed further studies. (author)

  16. Renovated Korean nuclear safety and security system: A review and suggestions to successful settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, D. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Dukjin-dong 150, Yusung-gu, Daejon, R.O., 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Go, D. Y. [Kyung Hee Univ., Kyung Hee daero 26, Dongdaemoon-gu, Seoul, R.O., 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Questions of whether past nuclear regulatory body of Korea is not a proper system to monitor and check the country's nuclear energy policy and utilization have been raised. Moreover, a feeling of insecurity regarding nuclear safety after the nuclear accident in Japan has spread across the public. This has stimulated a renovation of the nuclear safety regime in Korea. The Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) was launched on October 26, 2011 as a regulatory body directly under the President in charge of strengthening independence and nuclear safety. This was a meaningful event as the NSSC it is a much more independent regulatory system for Korea. However, the NSSC itself does not guarantee an enhanced public acceptance of the nuclear policy and stable use nuclear energy. This study introduces the new NSSC system and its details in terms of organization structure, appropriateness of specialty, budget stability, and management system. (authors)

  17. ECO-TECHNIQUE OF SEWER RENOVATION USING COMPOSITE SHELLS: STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Attaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An eco-technical renovation of the sewage system is developed in this paper; this technique involves incorporating into the existing sewer a series of jointed prefabricated sandwich or composite shells. The purpose of his study is to determine the structural shell deflection, the high displacement areas and to validate the non-failure criterion for each ply constituting the inner and outer laminate facings. The numerical results were obtained at low cost by using the finite element method. Studies have focused on structural analysis of a typical shell unit with an ovoid form (egg-shaped section when it is subjected, during annular space filling operation, to pressure forces generated by wet concrete. To ensure the safety of the composite shell structure, Tsai-Hill criterion function is applied and results are presented for the most stressed plies

  18. Administración regional de los recursos naturales renovables. Corporaciones autónomas regionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Manuel Lacouture Daníes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, los Recursos Naturales Renovables son propiedad de la Nación, y su administración corresponde en el nivel regional a las Autoridades Ambientales mediante acciones y procedimientos que van desde el otorgamiento de autorizaciones, concesiones, licencias y/o permisos hasta la imposición de sanciones por el incumplimiento de la normatividad ambiental. Este trabajo aporta herramientas para la comprensión del ejercicio misional de las Corporaciones Autónomas Regionales, a partir del licenciamiento ambiental, la concesión de aguas para su uso y aprovechamiento y el permiso de emisiones atmosféricas; así mismo, describe las funciones de control y seguimiento ambiental y el ejercicio de la facultad coercitiva de estas entidades

  19. Discussion on anti-flood renovation of operational nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jiangang; Chen Haiqiao; Zhang Lihan; Wang Sen; Liu Shifeng

    2014-01-01

    The design of nuclear power plants on anti-flood performance was only based on design basis condition in China. The Fukushima nuclear accident revealed the possibility of suffering flood under beyond design basis condition, which caused the continuously deterioration of Fukushima nuclear accident. After the accident, China national nuclear safety regulators proposed new requirements on performance of anti-flood of nuclear power plants. Then, Qinshan Phase II carried out research of anti-flood technology. This paper introduced the background, research and development of anti-flood renovation technology for important safety buildings of Qinshan Phase II, and discussed the necessary for improvement of anti-flood capacity of nuclear power plants and relative measures in China, which is helpful to improve anti-flood performance of operational nuclear power plants and nuclear power plants under construction. (authors)

  20. Identification of key parameters determining Danish homeowners' willingness and motivation for energy renovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2016-01-01

    that the average Danish single-family house owner can be motivated by improvements in comfort, indoor environment and architecture combined with a reasonable economy. The objective of this paper is, based on the motivation survey results, to determine if all homeowners can be assumed as one homogeneous group...... or if there are significant differences among the homeowners, what causes these differences and how does this affect the future motivation strategy. The key parameters for if and how the homeowner can be motivated are related to the homeowner’s position in life: age, children’s’ age, time of ownership, occupation and income....... Furthermore, the results conclude that the homeowners cannot be assumed as one group, but must be seen as individuals. Those who are most likely to be motivated to perform an energy renovation are the younger generation of homeowners. The older generation will be harder to motivate, but results nonetheless...

  1. Gordailu and pedagogic renovation in the Basque Country. Politics and education during the late francoism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ander DELGADO CENDAGORTAGALARZA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the educative and pedagogical renovation proposals situated in their social and economic context. Thus, it intends to obtain a wider vision of the problems or helps these proposals may have when it comes to their application in schools. It will be of major consideration to differentiate within these proposals the aspects related with classroom management from other approaches related with the goals to transform the society through a reformed education, that sometimes appear inside them, to understand better their social reception. This article is centred on the research of proposals based on the ideas Paulo Freire tried to introduce in the ikastola or Basque schools in the seventies of the last Century in the Basque Country and the problems they found when their application was intended.

  2. Reliability assessment of PARR-1 renovated I and C system startup channel-b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamar, M.A.; Habib, M.A.; Iqbal, M.

    1991-11-20

    The report covers the reliability assessment of the startup channel-B of the PARR-1 renovated instrumentation and Control. For startup channel-A, a separate report (DNSRP-10(7)/88) was prepared in 1988. As the modules are of different origins in both the channels, a separate calculation was necessary. In the report the overall unreliability of the startup channel has been calculated by considering 1 out of 2 operation mode. In the assessment, the reliability calculations for the channel has been performed using similar assumptions as used in the authors' report on startup channel-A. For the analysis the Component Count Method (CCM) was applied. Comparison of results for channel-A and channel-B were made.

  3. Development of energy renovation packages for Danish residential single family houses - parcel houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    Work presented in this technical report was developed as a port of Horizon 2020 EU project REFURB. The number of deep energy retrofits is falling behind the EU ambitious targets. The REFURB project aims at finding technical and nontechnical solutions that would match demand and supply side......-selected homeowner target groups was based on (I) selection of dwelling segment with high impact and energy saving potential. (II)Sequenced approach in creating package solutions. (III)Compelling offer to be proposed with specific timing. This report focuses mainly on the second listed component, namely, development...... of the residential building renovation market. Due to the multiple significant differences at the national level, compelling offers were developed specifically for each country participant. This report elaborates only on Danish approach, as stated in [1], the Danish approach to create compelling offers for pre...

  4. Performance Evaluation and Improvement of a Newly-Renovated Danish School Building (Retro-commissioning)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Georgieva, Viktoriya Vasileva; Zabusova, Diana

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyse and evaluate the energy performance of a Danish school building 4 years after its renovation. The structure of the following paper follows four phases, which include Planning, Investigation, Implementation and Hand-off. In the Planning phase, the objectives of the retro...... commissioning are set based on the Owner’s Project Requirements. The Investigation phase aims to analyze how the building and its systems are performing in terms of energy use and indoor environmental quality. The Implementation phase includes dynamic building simulations, which target to analyze different...... solutions and their impact on the energy consumption and indoor environmental quality in the building. Description of the final solution for optimization is included in the conclusion (Hand-off phase) of this paper....

  5. Indoor air quality in a multifamily apartment building before and after energy renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Földváry, Veronika; Langer, Sarka

    2016-01-01

    Buildings are responsible for a substantial portion of global energy consumption. Most of the multifamily residential buildings in central Europe built in the 20th century do not satisfy the current requirements on energy efficiency. Nationwide remedial measures are taken to improve the energy ef...... exchange rates and acceptable and healthy IAQ. Without these considerations, energy reconstruction can adversely affect the quality of the indoor environment....... efficiency of these buildings and reduce their energy consumption. Since the impact of these measures on the indoor air quality is rarely considered, they often compromise indoor air quality due to decreased ventilation and infiltration rate. We compared the indoor air quality in a multifamily apartment...... building in Slovakia before and after energy renovation, during two subsequent winters. Measurements of temperature, relative humidity, concentrations of CO2, formaldehyde, NO2, and volatile organic compounds were performed during one week in January 2015 in 20 apartments in one multifamily building...

  6. PRACTICING FACADE RENOVATION OF DANISH BUILDINGS BUILT BETWEEN 1960 AND 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Lauring, Gert Michael; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    Practising building facade renovation in Denmark, both from the technical and aesthetic points of view, raises many questions that are presented in this paper. These questions are answered and discussed through interviews conducted with seven architectural firms that are involved with façade...... the interviewees. These questions focused on technical, aesthetic, functional, economic and environmental aspects. The results of the interviews show that there are many problems facing these buildings, for example, energy efficiency, durability and indoor climate problems. The process of treating these problems...... on in the interviews. The interviews with the architectural firms were able to answer the questions regarding the building owners’ concerns and showed the way the architectural firms either reacted to these concerns to provide concepts and strategies like external re-insulation, or followed a specific process...

  7. Chemical exposures in recently renovated low-income housing: Influence of building materials and occupant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Robin E; Udesky, Julia O; Colton, Meryl D; McCauley, Martha; Camann, David E; Yau, Alice Y; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2017-12-01

    Health disparities in low-income communities may be linked to residential exposures to chemicals infiltrating from the outdoors and characteristics of and sources in the home. Indoor sources comprise those introduced by the occupant as well as releases from building materials. To examine the impact of renovation on indoor pollutants levels and to classify chemicals by predominant indoor sources, we collected indoor air and surface wipes from newly renovated "green" low-income housing units in Boston before and after occupancy. We targeted nearly 100 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including phthalates, flame retardants, fragrance chemicals, pesticides, antimicrobials, petroleum chemicals, chlorinated solvents, and formaldehyde, as well as particulate matter. All homes had indoor air concentrations that exceeded available risk-based screening levels for at least one chemical. We categorized chemicals as primarily influenced by the occupant or as having building-related sources. While building-related chemicals observed in this study may be specific to the particular housing development, occupant-related findings might be generalizable to similar communities. Among 58 detected chemicals, we distinguished 25 as primarily occupant-related, including fragrance chemicals 6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetralin (AHTN) and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran (HHCB). The pre- to post-occupancy patterns of the remaining chemicals suggested important contributions from building materials for some, including dibutyl phthalate and xylene, whereas others, such as diethyl phthalate and formaldehyde, appeared to have both building and occupant sources. Chemical classification by source informs multi-level exposure reduction strategies in low-income housing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Barriers and Potential Solutions for Energy Renovation of Buildings in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels I. Meyer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Buildings account for a substantial part of the total energy consumption. In Denmark this number is about 40 % and this is approximately the same in most industrial countries. On this background there is an urgent need to develop strategies for reducing the energy demand in the building sector. Renovation of existing buildings must have high priority as houses often last for 50 to 100 years, while the time perspective for the desired transformation to low-energy houses is less than 30 years in order to mitigate global warming and avoid irreversible tipping-points. The only sustainable energy supply in the perspective of centuries is renewable energy provided by the sun and exploited in the form of solar heat, solar electricity (PVs, wind power, hydropower, wave power, and some types of biomass etc. A future dominating role of intermittent renewable sources requires new integrated systems thinking on both the supply and demand side for heat, electricity and transport. Implementing such Smart Energy Systems requires integrated strategic energy planning on the national and local level. With the fundamental changes in the energy supply technologies expected during the coming years, it is important to synchronize investments in energy conservation measures with investments in the supply side, in order to avoid overinvestment in supply systems and thus to minimize the total costs of the transformation to Smart Energy Systems. This paper highlights some of the most important barriers for renovation of existing buildings in Denmark and points to policies for overcoming these barriers. Some of the policies have been presented in the reports of a recent Danish research project (CEESA

  9. Propriedades físicas e químicas de substratos renováveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagma Kratz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade premente de aumento no número de mudas plantadas anualmente, bem como a crescente diminuição na disponibilidade de matérias-primas tradicionais para composição de substratos, tem levado à necessidade do desenvolvimento de estudos que visam à avaliação e disponibilização de novos materiais para sua composição técnica e economicamente eficientes. Em vista disso, este estudo objetivou analisar as propriedades físicas e químicas de substratos formulados com base em materiais renováveis e de grande disponibilidade (fibra de coco, casca de arroz carbonizada em diferentes granulometrias, biossólido e casca de pinus semidecomposta, bem como suas intercorrelações. Para tanto, foram formulados 41 substratos, os quais tiveram suas propriedades físicas e químicas avaliadas. Com base nos resultados, pôde-se concluir que, pelas suas propriedades físicas e químicas, uma série de materiais renováveis e, ou, resíduos agroindustriais e humanos se adéquam para serem utilizados como componentes na formulação de substratos para produção de mudas florestais, embora os conteúdos de alguns nutrientes em determinados substratos devam ser ajustados via adubação de base. Em vista do fato de as propriedades físicas serem mais decisivas na escolha de determinada formulação de substrato, entre os componentes e misturas avaliadas se pode concluir que os substratos formulados à base de fibra de coco e casca de arroz carbonizada se mostraram mais adequados.

  10. Energy Efficiency and Universal Design in Home Renovations - A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapedani, Ermal; Herssens, Jasmien; Verbeeck, Griet

    2016-01-01

    Policy and societal objectives indicate a large need for housing renovations that both accommodate lifelong living and significantly increase energy efficiency. However, these two areas of research are not yet examined in conjunction and this paper hypothesizes this as a missed opportunity to create better renovation concepts. The paper outlines a comparative review on research in Energy Efficiency and Universal Design in order to find the similarities and differences in both depth and breadth of knowledge. Scientific literature in the two fields reveals a disparate depth of knowledge in areas of theory, research approach, and degree of implementation in society. Universal Design and Energy Efficiency are part of a trajectory of expanding scope towards greater sustainability and, although social urgency has been a driver of the research intensity and approach in both fields, in energy efficiency there is an engineering, problem solving approach while Universal Design has a more sociological, user-focused one. These different approaches are reflected in the way home owners in Energy Efficiency research are viewed as consumers and decision makers whose drivers are studied, while Universal Design treats home owners as informants in the design process and studies their needs. There is an inherent difficulty in directly merging Universal Design and Energy Efficiency at a conceptual level because Energy Efficiency is understood as a set of measures, i.e. a product, while Universal Design is part of a (design) process. The conceptual difference is apparent in their implementation as well. Internationally energy efficiency in housing has been largely imposed through legislation, while legislation directly mandating Universal Design is either non-existent or it has an explicit focus on accessibility. However, Energy Efficiency and Universal Design can be complementary concepts and, even though it is more complex than expected, the combination offers possibilities to advance

  11. Technical video documentation UN Security Council Resolution 687. 7. IAEA inspection in Iraq October 1991, IAEA inspection no. 8 Iraq November 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This video documents the 7th and 8th IAEA inspections to Iraq (A1 Tuwaitha, A1 Atheer, A1 Qa Qaa sites and A1 Hatteen High Explosive Test Site) and the destruction and removal of various equipment suitable for nuclear weapon development

  12. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 5, Structural/seismic investigation. Section B, Renovation calculations/supporting data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL's weapons research, development, and testing (WRD ampersand T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL's inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This report is organized according to the sections and subsections. It is organized into seven parts. This document, Part V, Section B - Structural/Seismic Information provides a description of the seismic and structural analyses performed on the NMSF and their results

  13. Gobernanza global y evolución de las energías renovables en el sur. Objetivos políticos y estructuras de gobernanza

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Hein; Daniela García Sánchez; Lars Holstenkamp

    2013-01-01

    El desarrollo de la gobernanza global de las energías renovables comparte similitudes y diferencias con otros sectores de la gobernanza global. La proliferación de organizaciones en el sector resalta el importante compromiso de varios actores con el fomento de energías renovables y, por otro lado, produce problemas de coordinación para alcanzar un efecto óptimo e influir sobre el avance de las energías renovables, particularmente en países en desarrollo.

  14. Gobernanza global y evolución de las energías renovables en el sur. Objetivos políticos y estructuras de gobernanza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de la gobernanza global de las energías renovables comparte similitudes y diferencias con otros sectores de la gobernanza global. La proliferación de organizaciones en el sector resalta el importante compromiso de varios actores con el fomento de energías renovables y, por otro lado, produce problemas de coordinación para alcanzar un efecto óptimo e influir sobre el avance de las energías renovables, particularmente en países en desarrollo.

  15. Recovery and reprocessing of legacy geophysical data from the archives of the State Company of Geology and Mining (GEOSURV) of Iraq and Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.V.; Drenth, B.R.; Fairhead, J.D.; Lei, K.; Dark, J.A.; Al-Bassam, K.

    2011-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data belonging to the State Company of Geology and Mining of Iraq (GEOSURV) have been recovered from magnetic tapes and early paper maps. In 1974 a national airborne survey was flown by the French firm Compagnie General de Geophysique (CGG). Following the survey the magnetic data were stored on magnetic tapes within an air conditioned archive run by GEOSURV. In 1990, the power supply to the archive was cut resulting in the present-day poor condition of the tapes. Frontier Processing Company and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have been able to recover over 99 percent of the original digital data from the CGG tapes. Preliminary reprocessing of the data yielded a total magnetic field anomaly map that reveals fine structures not evident in available published maps. Successful restoration of these comprehensive, high quality digital datasets obviates the need to resurvey the entire country, thereby saving considerable time and money. These data were delivered to GEOSURV in a standard format for further analysis and interpretation. A parallel effort by GETECH concentrated on recovering the legacy gravity data from the original field data sheets archived by IPC (Iraq Petroleum Company). These data have been compiled with more recent GEOSURV sponsored surveys thus allowing for the first time a comprehensive digital and unified national gravity database to be constructed with full principal facts. Figure 1 shows the final aeromagnetic and gravity data coverage of Iraq. The only part of Iraq lacking gravity and aeromagnetic data coverage is the mountainous areas of the Kurdish region of northeastern Iraq. Joint interpretation of the magnetic and gravity data will help guide future geophysical investigations by GEOSURV, whose ultimate aim is to discover economical mineral and energy resources. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Hepatitis C virus genotypes among multiply transfused hemoglobinopathy patients from Northern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil A Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Owing to the scarcity of data on hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes in Iraq and due to their epidemiological as well as therapy implications, this study was initiated aiming at determining these genotypes in Northern Iraq. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 HCV antibody positive multi transfused patients with hemoglobinopathies, who had detectable HCV ribonucleic acid, were recruited for genotyping using genotype-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Results: The most frequent genotype detected was genotype 4 (52.9% followed by 3a (17.1%, 1b (12.9% and 1a (1.4%, while mixed genotypes (4 with either 3a or 1b were detected in 7.1%. Conclusion: The predominance of genotype 4 is similar to other studies from surrounding Eastern Mediterranean Arab countries and to the only earlier study from central Iraq, however the significant high proportion of 3a and scarcity of 1a, are in contrast to the latter study and may be explainable by the differing population interactions in this part of Iraq. This study complements previous studies from Eastern Mediterranean region and demonstrates relative heterogeneity of HCV genotype distribution within Iraq and should trigger further studies in other parts of the country.

  17. Outcome, Cost, and Oversight of Iraq Reconstruction Contract W914NS-04-D-0006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-28

    Minerals HQs Building $7,928,993 2% 03 Modernize Maternity & Pediatric Hospital – Ibn Al Baladi $8,814,353 3% 04 Ministry of Health – Healthcare...Ministerial buildings 8,257,981 8,258,377 Completed Terminated for Convenience 3 Renovate Ibn Al Baladi Hospital 9,585,023 9,365,516 4 Design and...7,331,585 237,490 688,906 8,257,981 8,258,377 8,258,377 3 Renovate Ibn Al Baladi Hospital 8,251,610 320,820 1,012,593 9,585,023 9,585,023

  18. Water quality index for Al-Gharraf River, southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Hussein Ewaid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Water Quality Index has been developed mathematically to evaluate the water quality of Al-Gharraf River, the main branch of the Tigris River in the south of Iraq. Water samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations during 2015–2016, and 11 parameters were analyzed: biological oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, the concentration of hydrogen ions, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, phosphates, nitrates, chlorides, as well as turbidity, total hardness, electrical conductivity and alkalinity. The index classified the river water, without including turbidity as a parameter, as good for drinking at the first station, poor at stations 2, 3, 4 and very poor at station 5. When turbidity was included, the index classified the river water as unsuitable for drinking purposes in the entire river. The study highlights the importance of applying the water quality indices which indicate the total effect of the ecological factors on surface water quality and which give a simple interpretation of the monitoring data to help local people in improving water quality.

  19. First Collection and Identification of Wild Mushrooms in Western Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Nadhim Owaid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are found everywhere and affect our lives every day from mushroom to industrially important product, plant helpers, plant pathogens and to human diseases. Therefore, we concentrated our attention on fungi that can be grown in our environment, while maintaining an interest in their performance in nature. About fifteen different species were collected and identified from different villages of Heet district, Anbar province, Iraq. Out of the fifteen, two species, naming Armillaria mellea and Coprinus disseminates were identified as species level and others: Pleurotus spp., Agaricus spp., Calvatia sp., Telephora sp., Fomes sp., Lepiota sp. and Morchella sp. as genus level only. This study was aimed to collect and identify wild mushrooms that grow naturally in different orchards and gardens on 2009-2013 in Heet city. A total of 15 species in 9 genera, 9 families and 5 orders belong to woody and fleshy species were identified for the first time in Anbar province. The collected mushrooms were appearing from November to February of each year.

  20. Assessment of Natural radionuclides in Powdered milk Consumed in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Sahar A.; Al-ani, Rana R. [Environmental Research Center, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); AL-kafaje, Mohammed S.M. [Department of Laser Engineering and Electronic Optics, University of Technology (Iraq)

    2014-07-01

    The activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K radionuclides were measured for 10 brands of powdered milk samples consumed in Iraq, which are imported from different countries. The main detected activity corresponding to {sup 40}K with average activity of 290.661 BqKg{sup -1}, while the average activities of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th were below the detection level (B.D.L.). Results are compared with those of different countries worldwide. The total average annual effective doses due to intake of {sup 40}K from the ingestion of the powdered milk for children (2-7, 7-12, 12-17)y and adults (≥ 17 y) were estimated to be 82.21, 50.90, 29.75 and 22.55 μSvy{sup -1}, respectively. These results indicate no significant radiation dose to the public. The resulting data may serve as base-line levels of activity concentration in powdered milk in the area of study. (authors)

  1. [Epidemiology of war injuries, about two conflicts: Iraq and Afghanistan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, P; de Rudnicki, S; Donat, N; Auroy, Y; Merat, S

    2011-11-01

    Since March 2003, military operations in Iraq "Operation Iraqi Freedom" (OIF) and in Afghanistan "Operation Enduring Freedom" (OEF), have made many wounded and killed in action (KIA). This article proposes to highlight the specific epidemiology of combat casualties, met in these both non-conventional and asymmetric conflicts. Personal protective equipments, Kevlar helmet and body armor, proved their efficiency in changing features of war injuries. Health Force Services organized trauma care system in different levels, with three main objectives: immediate basic medical care in battalion aid station, forward surgery and early aeromedical evacuation. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR), a war injury registry, provides medical data, analyzed from the combat theater to the military hospital in United States. This analysis concluded that during modern conflicts, most injuries are caused by explosive devices; injuries are more severe and interestingly more specifically the head region and extremities than the trunk. Hemorrhage is the first cause of death, leading to the concept of avoidable death. Specific databases focused on mechanisms and severity of injuries, diagnostic and treatment difficulties, outcomes can guide research programs to improve war injuries prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Talking to Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans about tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widome, Rachel; Joseph, Anne M; Polusny, Melissa A; Chlebeck, Bernadette; Brock, Betsy; Gulden, Ashley; Fu, Steven S

    2011-07-01

    Our goal in this study was to examine beliefs and attitudes about tobacco use in the newest generation of combat veterans, those who served in Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom [OEF]) and Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom [OIF]). We held 5 focus groups (n = 17) with Minnesota Army National Guard soldiers who had recently returned from combat deployment in support of OEF/OIF. Sessions were audiorecorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. We found that it is common to use tobacco in the combat zone for stress and anger management and boredom relief. Tobacco was also a tool for staying alert, a way to socialize, and provided a chance to take breaks. Participants recognized the culture of tobacco use in the military. Stress, nicotine dependence, the tobacco environment at drill activities, and perceived inaccessibility of cessation tools perpetuated use at home and served as a barrier to cessation. Repeatedly, participants cited tobacco policies (such as increased taxes and smoke-free workspaces) as motivators for quitting. There are specific circumstances common to combat zones that promote tobacco use. Results suggest that environmental changes that address the prominence of tobacco in military culture, the acceptance of nonsmoking breaks, and cessation programs that address stress issues and make cessation aids available may be effective in reducing tobacco use.

  3. Generic medicines: Perceptions of Physicians in Basrah, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adheed Khalid Sharrad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of cheaper generic medicines is a strategy promotedin many countries to reduce rising health care costs. The aimof this study was to explore factors affecting generic medicineprescribing by physicians in Basrah, Iraq.MethodologyA purposive sample of ten physicians practicing in Basrahwas interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide.ResultsAnalysis of the interviews identified seven major themes:medicine prescribing practice, knowledge of therapeuticequivalency of generic medicine, patients’ acceptance ofgeneric medicine, counterfeit medicine, drug informationsource and effect of drug advertising on medicines choice,brand substitution practice by community pharmacists, and,finally strategies to improve generic medicine usefulness.Participants identified helpful strategies to increase genericprescribing including; physician and patient education ongeneric medicine; persuading physicians about the safety andefficacy of generic medicines; and finally educating seniormedical students on generic prescribing.ConclusionThe data suggest that participants were enthusiasticabout prescribing generic medicines. However physiciansinsist that pharmacists should not be allowed tosubstitute generic drugs without prior approval ofdoctors.

  4. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF SEDIMENT FLUSHING FROM MOSUL RESERVOIR, IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thair Mahmood Al-Taiee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Feasibility of sediment flushing  from Mosul reservoir located northern iraq was conducted. Many up to date world criteria and indices for checking the efficiency of sediment flushing from reservoir which have been got through analyzing large amount of  data from many flushed reservoirs  in the world which were depended tested and applied in the present case study (Mosul Reservoir. These criteria and indices depend mainly on the hydrological , hydraulic and  topographical properties of the reservoirs in-addition to the operation plan of the reservoirs. They gave a good indication for checking the efficiency of the sediment flushing  process in the reservoirs. It was concluded that approximately the main criteria for the successful flushing sediment was  verified  in  Mosul  reservoir  such as  Sediment Balance Ratio   (SBR and the Long Term Capacity Ratio (LTCR,the shape factor  of reservoir (W/L and the hydraulic condition such as the percentage of (Qf/Qin and (Vf/Vin. This gave an indication that the processes of flushing sediment in Mosul reservoir is probably feasible and may be applied  in the future to maintain the water storage in the reservoir.

  5. Homelessness and money mismanagement in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbogen, Eric B; Sullivan, Connor P; Wolfe, James; Wagner, Henry Ryan; Beckham, Jean C

    2013-12-01

    We examined the empirical link between money mismanagement and subsequent homelessness among veterans. We used a random sample of Iraq and Afghanistan War era veterans from the National Post-Deployment Adjustment Survey in 2009-2011. Veterans were randomly selected from a roster of all US military service members in Operation Iraqi Freedom or Operation Enduring Freedom who were separated from active duty or in the Reserves/National Guard. Veterans (n = 1090) from 50 states and all military branches completed 2 waves of data collection 1 year apart (79% retention rate). Thirty percent reported money mismanagement (e.g., bouncing or forging a check, going over one's credit limit, falling victim to a money scam in the past year). Multivariate analysis revealed money mismanagement (odds ratio [OR] = 4.09, 95% CI = 1.87, 8.94) was associated with homelessness in the next year, as were arrest history (OR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.33, 5.29), mental health diagnosis (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.26, 5.33), and income (OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.71). Money mismanagement, reported by a substantial number of veterans, was related to a higher rate of subsequent homelessness. The findings have implications for policymakers and clinicians, suggesting that financial education programs offered by the US Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs may be targeted to effectively address veteran homelessness.

  6. Determination trends and abnormal seasonal wind speed in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassoon, Ahmed F. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, AL- Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Monthly observed wind speed data at four weather stations (Baghdad, Mosul, Basra, Rutba) at 10m above surface were used to explore the temporal variations of the wind speed (1971-2000) in Iraq. There are different methods to analyze wind speed variation data, but the time series are one of the powerful analysis methods to diagnose the seasonal wind speed anomaly. The results show most high abnormal data is found in summer seasons in all the stations of study, where it concentrated at 1975, 1976, 1978,1996-1995, 2000. Rutba station is different where its high deviation about annual average at nearly all the seasons, in this station there are trends in seasonal wind towards decreases in all the seasons, for example in winter it reached to about 0.046m/s.a-1, while in other stations Mosul and Basra there increases in annual seasonal wind speed trends in seasons spring, summer, autumn where its reached higher value at summer in Basra about 0.0482m/s.a-1. The second method to determine abnormal annual seasonal wind speed is through comparison seasonal average wind speed, where the average wind speed at the seasons summer and spring in Baghdad and Basra station have very high averages at nearly all years, this cannot see in Mosul and Rutba, in Rutba the seasonal average is intersected with each other, summer and spring is not have greater seasonal average in this station.

  7. Female Academics' Research Capacities in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Socio-Cultural Issues, Personal Factors and Institutional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masika, Rachel; Wisker, Gina; Dabbagh, Lanja; Akreyi, Kawther Jameel; Golmohamad, Hediyeh; Bendixen, Lone; Crawford, Kirstin

    2014-01-01

    In October 2010, an interdisciplinary group of female academics from a university in the Kurdistan region of Iraq initiated a collaborative research project with a UK university to investigate opportunities and challenges for female academics' research leadership in universities in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The project aimed to develop female…

  8. 75 FR 57657 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Special Inspector General for Iraq...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction AGENCY: Special... Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR), with the concurrence of the Office of Government Ethics (OGE), is... of Ethical Conduct (Standards) issued by OGE. With certain exceptions, this supplemental regulation...

  9. Letter of 5 December 1991 to the Director General from the Resident Representative of Iraq to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The document reproduces a letter dated 5 December 1991 to the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of Iraq to the International Atomic Energy Agency concerning the presentation of a Distinguished Service Award to Mr. David Kay for his activity in the Safeguard inspections in Iraq (Attachment 1). The Director General's reply is reproduced in Attachment 2

  10. Communication of 7 December 1999 received from the Permanent Mission of Iraq to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the communication of 7 December 1999 received by the IAEA from the Permanent Mission of Iraq to the IAEA, including an attachment referring to the Non-implementation of the IAEA Technical Assistance Programs to Iraq for the years 1999/2000

  11. 48 CFR 225.401-71 - Products or services in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 225.401-71 Section 225.401-71 Federal Acquisition... Afghanistan. When acquiring products or services, other than small arms, in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan— (a) If using the procedure specified in 225.7703-1(a)(1), the purchase restriction at FAR 25.403...

  12. 77 FR 66180 - Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... to facilitate private sector business growth in Iraq and to strengthen trade and investment ties... discussions that address the following areas: --Factors that affect the growth of private sector business in..., enforcing, or repealing laws and regulations, to promote private sector business growth in Iraq; --Promotion...

  13. 78 FR 72640 - Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... to facilitate private sector business growth in Iraq and to strengthen trade and investment ties... discussions that address the following areas: --Factors that affect the growth of private sector business in..., enforcing, or repealing laws and regulations, to promote private sector business growth in Iraq; --Promotion...

  14. RENOVE: an organization net for the third sector promoting the development of the renewable sources in Brazil; RENOVE: uma rede de organizacoes do terceiro setor promovendo o desenvolvimento das fontes renovaveis no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Claudio Moises; Souza, Aurelio Andrade de [Winrock International Brasil, Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: cribeiro@winrock.org.br; Rosa, Fabio Luis de Oliveira [RENOVE - Rede Nacional das Organizacoes da Sociedade Civil para as Energias Renovaveis, Porto Alegre RS (Brazil). Secretaria Executiva]. E-mail: fabrosa@plug-in.com.br

    2002-07-01

    The National Network of Civil Society Organizations for Renewable Energy RENOVE was founded in Brazil on June 17th, 2000, to promote the use and application of renewable energy in production and integrated activities, especially in isolated rural areas, environmental protection areas and their surroundings. The network is formed of sixteen founding members. It promotes integration activities among the members, and is currently preparing to participate in the process of universalization of electricity services in Brazil. RENOVE is now implementing its Executive Secretary to optimize and carry out its actions. Cooperation between members has already lead to joint renewable energy application projects and training initiatives besides declarations in support of the development of a national renewable energy policy. (author)

  15. Congressional Request for Audit of Contract F04699-91-C-0094 for Building Renovation at McClellan Air Force Base, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steensma, David

    1993-01-01

    ...; that the Government did not properly disclose hazardous materials at a renovation site; and that the Government did not respond to requests for information related to this contract in accordance with the Freedom of In formation Act (FOIA...

  16. Delimitation and Classified Planning Management of Functional Renovation Zone: Experience of and Discussion on Shenzhen’s Practice of Urban Renewal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao; Wenxuan; Tong; De; Liu; Qing; Feng; Changchun

    2016-01-01

    Urban renewal is one of the important issues of urban development in China.Along with its development in the contemporary time,China has seen considerable achievements and problems as well in urban renewal.Taking into account that Shenzhen has carried out plenty of explorations on urban planning renewal,this paper takes it as an example to firstly analyze the plights of its urban renewal planning,the shortcomings of its urban renewal projects,and the advantages of functional renovation zones to manifest the necessity of the delimitation and classified planning management of functional renovation zone in urban renewal.It then summarizes the experience of its urban renewal unit planning in terms of the methods of zoning and implementation,and finally discusses the conceptual connotations of functional renovation zone,as well as the logic and characteristics of renovations of its delimitation and classified planning management,in hope of providing other Chinese cities with some references.

  17. Comparing post-deployment mental health services utilization in soldiers deployed to Balkan, Iraq and Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T; Sadowa Vedtofte, M; Nordentoft, M

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Insight on how different missions have impacted rates of mental health service (MHS) utilization is unexplored. We compared postdeployment MHS utilization in a national cohort of first-time deployed to missions in Balkan, Iraq, and Afghanistan respectively. METHODS: A prospective...... national cohort study of 13 246 first-time deployed in the period 1996 through 2012 to missions in Balkan area, Iraq, or Afghanistan respectively. Soldiers 'MHS utilization was also compared with a 5:1 sex-, age-, and calendar year-matched never-deployed background population. Postdeployment utilization...... of psychotropics. RESULTS: Utilizing of psychiatric outpatient services and psychotropics was significantly higher in first-time deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan compared with deployed to Balkan. However, the rate of postdeployment admission to psychiatric hospital did not differ between missions. Postdeployment...

  18. Análisis económico y financiero de las empresas cotizadas pertenecientes al sector de las energías renovables

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Regueiro, Luis Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Situados en este contexto, el objetivo de este Trabajo Fin de Master es ofrecer una visión del sector de las energías renovables, mediante el estudio de sus características y su funcionamiento, y analizar la situación económica y financiera que presentan las empresas cotizadas pertenecientes al sector de las energías renovables.

  19. Instalación eléctrica de una vivienda unifamiliar aislada mediante suministro de energías renovables

    OpenAIRE

    LOZANO VALLADOLID, FERNANDO

    2015-01-01

    [ES] Instalación eléctrica con grado de electrificación elevada de una vivienda unifamiliar aislada mediante suministro de energías renovables (solar, eólica, geotérmicas). Lozano Valladolid, F. (2015). Instalación eléctrica de una vivienda unifamiliar aislada mediante suministro de energías renovables. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/58751. TFGM

  20. Buildings move. The benefit of sustainable renovation of office buildings; Gebouwen bewegen. De winst van duurzame kantoorrenovatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Miert, M. [Bureau Van Miert, Breda (Netherlands); De Ruiter, P. [Architectenbureau Paul de Ruiter, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verburgt, P.

    2012-05-15

    Within the programme 'EnergieSprong' the development of the so-called Transition Formula was initiated that shows how existing offices can be renovated into energy efficient or even energy neutral buildings. A multidisciplinary view on the existing office buildings stock and users' demand has led to four renovation strategies which are described in this book [Dutch] EnergieSprong heeft het initiatief genomen dit boek te ontwikkelen waarin de Transitieformule laat zien hoe het vandaag de dag mogelijk is om bestaande kantoren heel energiezuinig of zelfs energieneutraal te renoveren. Een multidisciplinaire kijk op de bestaande kantorenvoorraad en de huidige vraag van gebruikers heeft geleid tot een viertal renovatiestrategieen die in dit boek beschreven worden.

  1. Renovating Charity Hospital or building a new hospital in post-Katrina New Orleans: economic rationale versus political will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leleu, Hervé; Moises, James; Valdmanis, Vivian Grace

    2013-02-01

    Since September 2005, Charity Hospital of New Orleans has been closed due to Hurricane Katrina. A debate following the closing arose about whether this public hospital should be renovated or a new medical center affiliated with the Louisiana State University should be built. Using academic literature, government statistics, and popular press reports, we describe the economic implications that support the view that Charity Hospital should have been renovated. We also address why this policy was not pursued by demonstrating the influence politics and individual stakeholders (specifically, Louisiana State University) had on the eventual policy pursued. In this commentary we also note the political identity movement away from public-sector provision of services to private-sector interests.

  2. Carmes Polytechnique, Housing in the Heart of Paris Energy renovation of a social housing estate in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Horn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The architecture offices Atelier de la Seine and Rethink have been commissioned with the engineers Pouget Consultants by the social landlord Paris Habitat for the extensive renovation of a social housing estate in the historic centre of Paris. The estate has been built in 1930 and integrates a part of the former college of the Lombard build in the 17th century. It belongs to the social housing typology 'Habitations à Bon Marché (HBM' constructed between1894 and 1949. This typology is generally characterized by its integration in its urban context and an apparent brick facade. The renovation project includes a focus on the reduction of the energy consumption. An important subject, as of the total number of 4.6 millions of social housing in France more than 50 % have been build before 1975 (before the first thermal regulation and many are still considered energy-intensive.

  3. Moving to Google Cloud: Renovation of Global Borehole Temperature Database for Climate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y.; Huang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Borehole temperature comprises an independent archive of information on climate change which is complementary to the instrumental and other proxy climate records. With support from the international geothermal community, a global database of borehole temperatures has been constructed for the specific purpose of the study on climate change. Although this database has become an important data source in climate research, there are certain limitations partially because the framework of the existing borehole temperature database was hand-coded some twenty years ago. A database renovation work is now underway to take the advantages of the contemporary online database technologies. The major intended improvements include 1) dynamically linking a borehole site to Google Earth to allow for inspection of site specific geographical information; 2) dynamically linking an original key reference of a given borehole site to Google Scholar to allow for a complete list of related publications; and 3) enabling site selection and data download based on country, coordinate range, and contributor. There appears to be a good match between the enhancement requirements for this database and the functionalities of the newly released Google Fusion Tables application. Google Fusion Tables is a cloud-based service for data management, integration, and visualization. This experimental application can consolidate related online resources such as Google Earth, Google Scholar, and Google Drive for sharing and enriching an online database. It is user friendly, allowing users to apply filters and to further explore the internet for additional information regarding the selected data. The users also have ways to map, to chart, and to calculate on the selected data, and to download just the subset needed. The figure below is a snapshot of the database currently under Google Fusion Tables renovation. We invite contribution and feedback from the geothermal and climate research community to make the

  4. International Law Studies. The War in Iraq: A Legal Analysis. Violume 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ment in the Security Council debates concerning Iraq on a "strict constructionist " approach to thejus ad bellum. That is, the strict limits on the use...discrimination solely on the ground of race, colour, sex, language, religion or social origin. 73. DlNSTEIN, supra note 41, at 72. 74. Thomas Buergenthal, To...Bacteriological Methods ofWarfare, June 17, 1925, 26 U.S.T. 571, T.I.A.S. 8061, reprinted in DOCUMENTS ON THE LAWS OF WAR, supra, at 158 (Iraq made statements

  5. The maladies of water and war: addressing poor water quality in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnikov, Tara Rava

    2013-06-01

    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions.

  6. Iraq uses nuclear technology to improve crop productivity and adapt to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Laura

    2016-01-01

    A new drought-tolerant wheat variety developed with the support of the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has increased yields fourfold in Iraq. This mutant variety now accounts for close to two thirds of all the wheat produced in the country. Iraq is increasingly making use of nuclear technology to improve its crop yields and cope with the consequences of a changing climate. Researchers in the country have developed new drought-tolerant plant varieties and improved water and soil management.

  7. Experiences of military nurses in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars: review of research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulsby, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Scannell-Desch and Doherty's (2010) research study findings are important to evidence-based nursing practice experiences of United States military nurses in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars to expand the research research findings identified common experiences and reoccurring stories and struggles of nurses pre, during, and postemployment in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. These findings can be used for the education of future deploying military nurses and set the groundwork for further in-depth research studies on military nursing. One suggestion for future research would be a more in-depth study on the challenges faced by military nurses postemployment and interventions to assist in overcoming these challenges.

  8. Did Iraq Cheat the United Nations? Underpricing, Bribes, and the Oil for Food Program

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Tai Hsieh; Enrico Moretti

    2005-01-01

    From 1997 through early 2003, the United Nations Oil for Food Program allowed Iraq to export oil in exchange for humanitarian supplies. We measure the extent to which this program was corrupted by Iraq's attempts to deliberately set the price of its oil below market prices in an effort to solicit bribes, both in the form of direct cash bribes and in the form of political favors, from the buyers of the underpriced oil. We infer the magnitude of the potential bribe by comparing the gap between ...

  9. Occupational therapists as dog handlers: the collective experience with animal-assisted therapy in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, Lorie; Najera, Cecilia; Dougherty, David

    2012-01-01

    The first pair of US Army animal-assisted therapy (AAT) dogs deployed to Iraq in December 2007 with the 85th Medical Detachment Combat and Operational Stress Control unit. As of this writing, 6 dogs have deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, offering Soldiers a small reminder of home. Army occupational therapists led the way in this endeavor as primary handlers; the path has been rocky but ultimately rewarding. This article depicts how occupational therapists used AAT and animal-assisted activities to help Soldiers cope with the stressors of living in a deployed environment. Challenges and lessons-learned, including anecdotal examples, are discussed.

  10. Involvement of Individuals in the Development of Technical Solutions and Rules of Management for Building Renovation Projects: A Case Study of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukite, I.; Grekis, A.; Geipele, I.; Zeltins, N.

    2017-08-01

    In March 2016, the Latvian government approved a new support program for increasing energy efficiency in residential apartment buildings. For the support of renovation of apartment buildings in the period from 2016 to 2023, 166 470 588 EUR will be available. Different persons, such as energy auditors, designers, architects, project managers and builders, will be involved in the process of planning, development and implementation of building renovation. At the development stage of the building renovation project, special attention should be devoted to the first stage - energy audit and technical project development. The problem arises due to the fact that each of these individuals, during the development of technical building documentation, does not work as a completely unified system. The implementation of construction project planning and organisational management system is one of the most important factors to guarantee that the quality of building renovation project is ensured in accordance with the laws and regulatory standards. The paper studies mutual cooperation, professionalism and the role of information feedback of personnel involved in the planning stage of building renovation, which is an essential prerequisite for the renovation process in order to achieve high quality of work and reduce the energy performance indicator. The present research includes the analysis of different technical solutions and their impact on energy efficiency. Mutual harmonisation of technical specifications is also investigated.

  11. Adoption of innovative energy systems in social housing: Lessons from eight large-scale renovation projects in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Thanks to new insights on the impacts that dwellings have throughout their life cycles, there has been increased attention to retrofitting innovative energy systems (IES) in existing housing. This paper uses an explorative case study design to gain more knowledge about the governance aspects of this under-researched topic. The central research question is: Which factors influence the adoption of innovative energy systems in social housing sites during renovation projects? To answer this question, eight large-scale renovation projects in The Netherlands were investigated. These case studies allowed the identification of barriers, enabling factors and perspectives from three main actors—housing associations, tenants and local authorities. It turns out that adopting IES encounters many barriers: lack of trust between project partners, delay in project progress, financial feasibility considerations, lack of support from tenants, lengthy legal permit procedures, over-ambitious project goals, poor experiences in previous projects, and IES ambitions that are not taken serious by key decision-makers. Furthermore, IES were only successfully fitted in three of the eight projects. Moreover, ambitions were lowered as the projects progressed in all the cases investigated. The study calls for further systematic, in-depth comparison of fitting IES in large-scale renovation projects in social housing. - Highlights: ► Attention to adoption of innovative energy systems in social housing. ► Several non-technical factors influence adoption. ► In-depth analysis of eight local-level renovation projects. ► Ambitions are lowered as projects progress. ► Barriers: financial feasibility, over-ambitious goals, delay, lack of trust.

  12. Overview of dual process behavioural models and their implications on decision-making of private dwellers regarding deep energy renovation

    OpenAIRE

    Taranu, Victoria; Verbeeck, Griet

    2016-01-01

    Understanding both rational and heuristic thinking is important for explaining proenvironmental behaviour. Theoretical findings regarding dual process models can be useful to explain and influence decisions of private owners in the context of energy renovation. The existing building stock has a big potential in contributing to the reduction of energy consumption. Even though surveys show that dwellers acknowledge the importance of energy efficient buildings and the technologies to achieve ...

  13. Renewable energy: Political momentum and technology for a sustainable Mexico; Energias Renovables: Impulso politico y tecnologico para un Mexico sustentable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Hernandez, Sergio; Romero Hernandez, Omar; Wood, Duncan [Instituto Tecnologico Autonomo de Mexico (ITAM) (Mexico)

    2011-04-15

    The renewable energy sector in Mexico, as shown in this book, is alive and in good condition, prospers and has great potential. In this regard, it is essential that Mexico sees itself as a country with an energy future beyond Cantarell, beyond Pemex and beyond oil. The future of renewable energy offers great hope for the country and the region, and the time is right for a consensus government, business and social more strongly boost the development of this sector. This book discusses the following topics: Renewable energy and sustainable economic development, the regulatory framework for the use of renewable energy, hydropower, bioenergy, Part I: biomass and biogas, bioenergy, Part II: Liquid biofuels; elements for promotion of wind energy in Mexico, geothermal energy, solar PV, solar thermal and micro. [Spanish] El sector de la energia renovable en Mexico, como se muestra en este libro, esta vivo y en buenas condiciones, prospera y tiene gran potencial. En ese sentido, resulta indispensable que Mexico se vea a si mismo como un pais con un futuro energetico mas alla de Cantarell, mas alla de PEMEX, mas alla del petroleo. El futuro de la energia renovable ofrece una gran esperanza para el pais y la region, y el tiempo es adecuado para que una concertacion gubernamental, empresarial y social impulse con mas fuerza el desarrollo de este sector. En este libro se analizan los siguientes temas: Energias renovables y desarrollo economico sustentable; el marco normativo de la utilizacion de las energias renovables; energia hidroelectrica; bioenergia, parte I: biomasa y biogas; bioenergia, parte II: biocombustibles liquidos; elementos para la promocion de la energia eolica en Mexico; energia geotermica; energia solar fotovoltaica; energia solar termica, y la microgeneracion.

  14. The influence of prefabricated pipe cement coatings and those made during pipe renovation on drinking water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Młyńska Anna; Zielina Michał

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, cement coatings are often used as an anticorrosion protection of the internal surfaces of manufactured ductile iron water pipes. The protective cement linings are also commonly used for old water pipe renovation. In both cases, the cement lining is an excellent anticorrosion protection of the pipelines, effectively separating the pipe wall from the flowing water. Moreover, cement linings protect the pipelines not only by a mechanical barrier, but also by a chemical barrier creating ...

  15. Salinity modeling by remote sensing in central and southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W.; Mhaimeed, A. S.; Platonov, A.; Al-Shafie, W. M.; Abbas, A. M.; Al-Musawi, H. H.; Khalaf, A.; Salim, K. A.; Chrsiten, E.; De Pauw, E.; Ziadat, F.

    2012-12-01

    Salinization, leading to a significant loss of cultivated land and crop production, is one of the most active land degradation phenomena in the Mesopotamian region in Iraq. The objectives of this study (under the auspices of ACIAR and Italian Government) are to investigate the possibility to use remote sensing technology to establish salinity-sensitive models which can be further applied to local and regional salinity mapping and assessment. Case studies were conducted in three pilot sites namely Musaib, Dujaila and West Garraf in the central and southern Iraq. Fourteen spring (February - April), seven June and four summer Landsat ETM+ images in the period 2009-2012, RapidEye data (April 2012), and 95 field EM38 measurements undertaken in this spring and summer, 16 relevant soil laboratory analysis result (Dujaila) were employed in this study. The procedure we followed includes: (1) Atmospheric correction using FLAASH model; (2) Multispectral transformation of a set of vegetation and non-vegetation indices such as GDVI (Generalized Difference Vegetation Index), NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index), SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index), SARVI (Soil Adjusted and Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index), NDII (Normalized Difference Infrared Index), Principal Components and surface temperature (T); (3) Derivation of the spring maximum (Musaib) and annual maximum (Dujaila and West Garraf) value in each pixel of each index of the observed period to avoid problems related to crop rotation (e.g. fallow) and the SLC-Off gaps in ETM+ images; (4) Extraction of the values of each vegetation and non-vegetation index corresponding to the field sampling locations (about 3 to 5 controversial samples very close to the roads or located in fallow were excluded); and (5) Coupling remote sensing indices with the available EM38 and soil electrical conductivity (EC) data using multiple linear least-square regression model at the confidence

  16. Hot cell renovation in the spent fuel conditioning process facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Seung Nam; Lee, Jong Kwang; Park, Byung Suk; Cho, Il Je; Kim, Ki Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The advanced spent fuel conditioning process facility (ACPF) of the irradiated materials examination facility (IMEF) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been renovated to implement a lab scale electrolytic reduction process for pyroprocessing. The interior and exterior structures of the ACPF hot cell have been modified under the current renovation project for the experimentation of the electrolytic reduction process using spent nuclear fuel. The most important aspect of this renovation was the installation of the argon compartment within the hot cell. For the design and system implementation of the argon compartment system, a full-scale mock-up test and a three-dimensional (3D) simulation test were conducted in advance. The remodeling and repairing of the process cell (M8a), the maintenance cell (M8b), the isolation room, and their utilities were also planned through this simulation to accommodate the designed argon compartment system. Based on the considered refurbishment workflow, previous equipment in the M8 cell, including vessels and pipes, were removed and disposed of successfully after a zoning smear survey and decontamination, and new equipment with advanced functions and specifications were installed in the hot cell. Finally, the operating area and isolation room were also refurbished to meet the requirements of the improved hot cell facility.

  17. Estimación del potencial de energías renovables en el estado de Sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Taddei Bringas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La etapa de uso de combustibles fósiles está llegando a su fin, debido principalmente a la escasez y problemas de contaminación que originan. En la actualidad existe una marcada tendencia en aprovechar las fuentes renovables de energía, por su bajo impacto ambiental y menor emisión de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI, lo cual contribuye a independizar las políticas energéticas locales de las del mercado global, basadas en la supremacía petrolera. Para obtener el mayor provecho de las energías renovables, es importante determinar el potencial de los distintos recursos energéticos existentes en una región. En este trabajo se presenta una relación del potencial para explotar energías renovables en el estado de Sonora, México, como un paso previo para establecer acciones y políticas que busquen su posible utilización a gran escala.

  18. Tourist Quarter “Chinese-Baroque” of Dao Way District in Harbin City: experience, problems and perspectives of renovation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levoshko Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes results of an unique experience of the Dao Wai historic district renovation project in Harbin of the 2010th. It includes an interpretation of the stylistic features of the Dao Wai building. Also, there was made a presumptive conclusion about the origins of the “Chinese Baroque”, which is now famous Dao Wai, combining European order architecture and far Eastern decorative tradition. Presumptive conclusion was based on the construction area observing in 2011-2016 and on the Chinese sources. As a result of renovation, there was formed a new public space with high tourism potential. Social value and status of the Dao Wai has significantly grown. The significant cost increase of real estate and provided services is an essential consequence of the gentrification method. There are were noted increased problems of the native people forced to move from the center to the outskirts of the city. Also, this article analyzes the current stage of the second phase design of Dao Wai renovation project and the perspectives for its implementation.

  19. Risky Driving Behaviours among Medical Students in Erbil, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar P. Shabila

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil, Iraq, and to explore the relationship between risky driving behaviours and perceptions of risky driving. Methods: This self-administered questionnaire-based survey was conducted from January to May 2014 among a random sample of 400 medical students at Hawler Medical University in Erbil. The questionnaire was designed to assess the frequency of engagement in 21 risky driving behaviours, the perceived risk of each behaviour and the preference for each behaviour as ranked on a 5-point scale. Results: A total of 386 students responded to the survey (response rate: 96.5%. Of these, 211 reported that they currently drove a vehicle (54.7%. Drivers most frequently engaged in the following behaviours: playing loud music (35.9%, speeding (30.4%, allowing front seat passengers to not wear seat belts (27.9% and using mobile phones (27.7%. Least frequent driving behaviours included not stopping at a red light (3.9%, driving while sleepy (4.4%, driving after a mild to moderate intake of alcohol (4.5% and drunk driving (6.4%. Mean risky driving behaviour scores were significantly higher among males (P 20-year-olds (P = 0.028. There was a significant positive relationship between the preference for risky behaviours and risky driving behaviours (beta = 0.44; P <0.001. Conclusion: Medical students in Erbil reported high frequencies of several serious risky driving behaviours. The preference for risky behaviours was found to be an important predictor of risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil.

  20. Warm fresh whole blood and thoracic traumain iraq and afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keneally, Ryan J; Parsons, Andrew M; Willett, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic trauma occurred in 10% of the patients seen at US military treatment facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan and 52% of those patients were transfused. Among those transfused, 281 patients received warm fresh whole blood. A previous report documented improved survival with warm fresh whole blood in patients injured in combat without stratification by injury pattern. A later report described an increase in acute lung injuries after its administration. Survivorship and warm fresh whole blood have never been analyzed in a subpopulation at highest risk for lung injuries, such as patients with thoracic trauma. There may be a heterogeneous relationship between whole blood and survival based on likelihood of a concomitant pulmonary injury. In this report, the relationship between warm fresh whole blood and survivorship was analyzed among patients at highest risk for concomitant pulmonary injuries. Patients with thoracic trauma who received a transfusion were identified in the Joint Theater Trauma Registry. Gross mortality rates were compared between whole blood recipients and patients transfused with component therapy only. The association between each blood component and mortality was determined in a regression model. The overall mortality risk was compared between warm fresh whole blood recipients and non-recipients. Patients transfused with warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy had a higher mortality rate than patients transfused only separated blood components (21.3% vs. 12.8%, P warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy was not associated with increased mortality risk compared with the transfusion of component therapy only (OR 1.247 [95% CI 0.760-2.048], P = 0.382). Patients with combat related thoracic trauma transfused with warm fresh whole blood were not at increased risk for mortality compared to those who received component therapy alone when controlling for covariates.