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Sample records for renewables 18th world

  1. 18th world hydrogen energy conference 2010. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains lectures, power points slides and posters presented on the 18th World Hydrogen Energy Conference. The topics of the conference are: (A). Fuel Cell Basics: 1. Electrochemistry of PEM Fuell Cells; 2. PEM/HT-PEM Fuel Cells: Electrolytes, Stack Components; 3. Direct Fuel Cells; 4. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 5. Advanced Modelling (B). Existing and Emerging Markets: 1. Off-Grid Power Supply and Premium Power Generation; 2. Space and Aeronautic Applications; 3. APUs for LDV, Trucks, Ships and Airplanes; 4. Portable Applications and Light Traction. (C). Stationary Applications: 1. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 2. Fuell Cells for Buildings. (D). Transportation Applications: 1. Fuel-Cell Power Trains; 3. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines; 4. Systems Analysis and Well-to-Wheel Studies; 5. Demonstration Projects, Costs and Market Introduction; 6 Electrification in Transportation Systems. (E). Fuel Infrastructures: 1. Hydrogen Distribution Technologies; 2. Hydrogen Deployment; 3. Fuel Provision for Early Market Applications. (G). Hydrogen Production Technologies: 1a. Photobiological Hydrogen Production; 1b. Fermentative Hydrogen Production; 1c. The HYVOLUTION Project. (H). Thermochemical Cycles: 3a. Hydrogen from Renewable Electricity; 3b. High-Temperature Electrolysis; 3c Alcaline Electrolysis; 3d PEM Electrolysis; 4a Reforming and Gasification-Fossil Energy Carriers; 4b Reforming and Gasification-Biomass; 5. Hydrogen-Separation Membranes; 6. Hydrogen Systems Assessment;.7. Photocatalysis (I). Storages: 1. Physical Hydrogen Storage; 2a. Metal Hydrides; 2b. Complex Hydrides; 3. Adsorption Technologies; (J). Strategic Analyses: 1. Research + Development Target and Priorities; 2. Life-Cycle Assessment and Economic Impact; 3. Socio-Economic Studies; 4. Education and Public Awareness; 5. Market Introduction; 7. Regional Activities; 8. The Zero Regio Project. (K). Safety Issues: 1. Vehicle and Infrastructural Safety; 2. Regulations, Codes, Standards and Test

  2. 18th world hydrogen energy conference 2010. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This CD-ROM contains lectures, power points slides and posters presented on the 18th World Hydrogen Energy Conference. The topics of the conference are: (A). Fuel Cell Basics: 1. Electrochemistry of PEM Fuell Cells; 2. PEM/HT-PEM Fuel Cells: Electrolytes, Stack Components; 3. Direct Fuel Cells; 4. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 5. Advanced Modelling (B). Existing and Emerging Markets: 1. Off-Grid Power Supply and Premium Power Generation; 2. Space and Aeronautic Applications; 3. APUs for LDV, Trucks, Ships and Airplanes; 4. Portable Applications and Light Traction. (C). Stationary Applications: 1. High-Temperature Fuel Cells; 2. Fuell Cells for Buildings. (D). Transportation Applications: 1. Fuel-Cell Power Trains; 3. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engines; 4. Systems Analysis and Well-to-Wheel Studies; 5. Demonstration Projects, Costs and Market Introduction; 6 Electrification in Transportation Systems. (E). Fuel Infrastructures: 1. Hydrogen Distribution Technologies; 2. Hydrogen Deployment; 3. Fuel Provision for Early Market Applications. (G). Hydrogen Production Technologies: 1a. Photobiological Hydrogen Production; 1b. Fermentative Hydrogen Production; 1c. The HYVOLUTION Project. (H). Thermochemical Cycles: 3a. Hydrogen from Renewable Electricity; 3b. High-Temperature Electrolysis; 3c Alcaline Electrolysis; 3d PEM Electrolysis; 4a Reforming and Gasification-Fossil Energy Carriers; 4b Reforming and Gasification-Biomass; 5. Hydrogen-Separation Membranes; 6. Hydrogen Systems Assessment;.7. Photocatalysis (I). Storages: 1. Physical Hydrogen Storage; 2a. Metal Hydrides; 2b. Complex Hydrides; 3. Adsorption Technologies; (J). Strategic Analyses: 1. Research + Development Target and Priorities; 2. Life-Cycle Assessment and Economic Impact; 3. Socio-Economic Studies; 4. Education and Public Awareness; 5. Market Introduction; 7. Regional Activities; 8. The Zero Regio Project. (K). Safety Issues: 1. Vehicle and Infrastructural Safety; 2. Regulations, Codes, Standards and Test

  3. His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    His Majesty Carl XVI Gustav, King of Sweden, Honorary President of the World Scout Foundation, and about 80 fellows, on the occasion of the 48th World Baden-Powell Fellowship Event on Saturday, 18th September 2004

  4. World potential of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, B; Devin, B; Pharabod, F

    1991-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis, region by region, of the actually accessible renewable energies at a given horizon, is presented. The same methodology as the one employed to derive ``proven fossil energy reserves`` from ``energy resources`` is adopted, in which resources are defined by quantitative information on physical potential, while reserves take into account technical and economical accessibility. As renewable resources are fluctuating with time and are diluted in space and not readily transportable or storeable, it is necessary to consider the presence of populations or activities near enough to be able to profit by these diluted and volatile energies.

  5. 18th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, José; Capuz-Rizo, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    This volume features papers from the 18th International Congress on Project Management and Engineering, held by the University of Zaragoza in collaboration with the Spanish Association of Project Management and Engineering (AEIPRO). It illustrates the state of the art in this emerging area. Readers will discover ways to increase the effectiveness of project engineering as well as the efficiency of project management. The papers, written by international researchers and professionals, cover civil engineering and urban planning, product and process engineering, environmental engineering, energy efficiency and renewable energies, rural development, safety, labor risks and ergonomics, and training in project engineering. Overall, this book contributes to the improvement of project engineering research and enhances the transfer of results to the job of project engineers and project managers around the world. It will appeal to all professionals in the field as well as researchers and teachers involved in the traini...

  6. Eesti autobiograafilise kirjutuse kujunemisest 18. sajandist Teise maailmasõjani. The Development of Estonian Autobiographical Writing from the 18th Century to the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutt Hinrikus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the development of Estonian autobiographical writing from its first manifestations to published memoirs, and the development of life writing and its diversification. The beginnings of life writing can be traced back to Estonian folk song and Estonian incidental poetry. The Moravian Brethren movement in Estonia in the 18th century promoted the spread of canonical autobiography. The Moravian Brethren offered alternative opportunities for self-realisation for Estonians who were serfs, and were therefore popular with the people. The practice of the Moravian Brethren made use of retelling and writing about the life of the congregation members, which sometimes became suitable biographies in print, especially stories of awakening. Several manuscript biographies have survived from the Brethren times, such as the biographies of Mäletu Jaan and Mihkel Sarapuu. In addition to the history of the Moravian Brethren movement, these biographies give information about the educational situation and living conditions of the people of the time. The Estonian life writing tradition emerged within the reigning Baltic German cultural space thanks to the Estophiles among the Baltic Germans (J. H. Rosenplänter and the first Estonian men of letters; from the early 19th century we have the diary by Rosenplänter, an estophile pastor from Pärnu, and the diary by the Estonian poet, the then-student Kristjan Jaak Peterson, both in the Estonian language. Johann Voldemar Jannsen, the founder of Estonian-language journalism, kept a diary in the German language for a longer period of time; it was usual that the first Estonian intellectuals (Lilli Suburg, and others in the late 19th century wrote in German. Admittedly, the first Estonian-language life history was written by a forward-looking 19th century peasant named Märt Mitt (1833-1912, who was conscious of himself as a historical subject and gave his memoirs, begun in the 1880s, a memorable title

  7. 18th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2014-01-01

    Cryocoolers 18 Cryocoolers 18 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 18th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Syracuse, New York, on June 9-12, 2014. The program of this conference lead to the 76 peer-reviewed papers that are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  8. Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress '99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Mohd Yusof Othman; Baharuddin Yatim

    2000-01-01

    The congress discussed the following subjects, 1. The role of renewable energy in the next millenium; 2. Challenges in the commercialization of renewable energy; 3. The role and agenda for renewable energy towards sustainable development. Topics covered in the technical session were biomass conversion; solar thermal technologies and systems; solar photovoltaic s; renewable energy economics, financing and policy; renewable energy education; climate and the environment; energy and architecture; energy management; wind and hydro technologies and systems; hydrogen and fuel cell

  9. Benjamin Banneker's 18th Century Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sethanne

    2018-01-01

    Benjamin Banneker is considered to be the first African-American man of science (1731-1806), a contempory of George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. He was a self taught clock maker, mathematician, and astronomer. He owned land in Baltimore County near Ellicott City, Maryland where he farmed tobacco. He is especially known for his work on the Boundary Survey of our new Capital. Surveyors place boundary stones along the boundary of the nascent Capital. Banneker was part of the team who measured the latitutde and longitude for each stone. Using 18th century surveying techniques Banneker became part of the early history of Washington DC. He also published popular almanacs.

  10. World Bank support for renewable energy - the ASTAE experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, L.

    1999-01-01

    Historically, the World Bank has helped finance the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as improvements in supply-side energy efficiency. The World Bank's ability to mainstream renewable energy technologies in developing countries is enhanced by the Global Energy Facility (GEF), the World Bank Solar Initiative (and the nascent Solar Development Corporation), the International Finance Corporation and the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE). (orig./RHM)

  11. World Bank support for renewable energy - the ASTAE experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, L. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States). Asia Alternative Energy Unit

    1999-07-01

    Historically, the World Bank has helped finance the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as improvements in supply-side energy efficiency. The World Bank's ability to mainstream renewable energy technologies in developing countries is enhanced by the Global Energy Facility (GEF), the World Bank Solar Initiative (and the nascent Solar Development Corporation), the International Finance Corporation and the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE). (orig./RHM)

  12. Renewable energy outlook in Iran and World's energy structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarm, D.; Adl, M.

    2001-01-01

    Limited fossil fuel resources and environmental impact of energy production technologies causing Global Warming have encouraged wide spread used of renewable energies. This article reviews the characteristics of renewable energy sources as well as their status within IR of Iran and pro-countries. According to the mentioned Information and Status, currently 22% of world electricity is produced through conversion of various renewable energies and expected to grow even further. This trend has been a main factor in reduction of end-used renewable energy prices. Consideration of social and environmental costs of fossil fuel use will help to reveal compatibility of renewable energies. Utilization of renewable energy potentials apart from proven environmental advantages and job creation effects may conserve country's conventional fossil fuel resources. In general, growth of renewable energy in a country is direct result of existing energy policies with respect to increasing the share of clean energies in the energy basket. Nevertheless in Iran yearly demand hikes for energy and considering the fact the fossil fuel reservoirs are limited, utilization of renewable energy potentials is inevitable

  13. 18th International Conference on Electronic Publishing

    CERN Document Server

    Dobreva, Milena

    2014-01-01

    The ways in which research data is used and handled continue to capture public attention and are the focus of increasing interest. Electronic publishing is intrinsic to digital data management, and relevant to the fields of data mining, digital publishing and social networks, with their implications for scholarly communication, information services, e-learning, e-business and the cultural heritage sector. This book presents the proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Electronic Publishing (ELPUB), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, in June 2014. The conference brings together researchers and practitioners to discuss the many aspects of electronic publishing, and the theme this year is 'Let's put data to use: digital scholarship for the next generation'. As well as examining the role of cultural heritage and service organisations in the creation, accessibility, duration and long-term preservation of data, it provides a discussion forum for the appraisal, citation and licensing of research data and the n...

  14. 18th International Laser Radar Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Neuber, Roland; Rairoux, Patrick; Wandinger, Ulla

    1997-01-01

    Lidar or laser radar, the depth-resolved remote measurement of atmospheric parameters with optical means, has become an important tool in the field of atmospheric and environmental remote sensing. In this volume the latest progress in the development of lidar methods, experiments, and applications is described. The content is based on selected and thoroughly refereed papers presented at the 18th International Laser Radar Conference, Berlin, 22-26 July 1996. The book is divided into six parts which cover the topics of tropospheric aerosols and clouds, lidar in space, wind, water vapor, troposheric trace gases and plumes, and stratospheric and mesospheric profiling. As a supplement to fundamental lidar textbooks this volume may serve as a guide for scientists, engineers, and graduate students through the blossoming field of modern lidar techniques and their contribution to atmospheric and environmental research.

  15. 18th STAB/DGLR Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Gerd; Krämer, Ewald; Kreplin, Hans-Peter; Nitsche, Wolfgang; Rist, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    This book presents contributions to the 18th biannual symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB). The individual chapters reflect ongoing research conducted by the STAB members in the field of numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for (but not limited to) aerospace applications, and cover both nationally and EC-funded projects. By addressing a number of essential research subjects, together with their related physical and mathematics fundamentals, the book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the current research work in the field, as well as its main challenges and new directions. Current work on e.g. high aspect-ratio and low aspect-ratio wings, bluff bodies, laminar flow control and transition, active flow control, hypersonic flows, aeroelasticity, aeroacoustics and biofluid mechanics is exhaustively discussed here.  .

  16. White paper on renewable energies. Renewable energies: to be in line with World momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Jean-Louis; Apolit, Robin; Audigane, Nicolas; Billerey, Elodie; Bortolotti, Celine; Burie, Ony; Carabot, Cyril; Conan, Stephanie; Duclos, Paul; Fuseliez, Sabrina; Gaulmyn, Louis De; Gondolo, Mathieu; Jouet, Francoise; Kiersnowski, Marlene; Le Guen, Claire; Lequatre, Delphine; Lettry, Marion; Mathieu, Mathilde; Mathon, Damien; Molton, Catherine; Poubeau, Romain; Richard, Axel; Chartier, Philippe; Guignard, Eric

    2017-01-01

    After an introduction on the recent evolutions of the context for renewable energies in France and in the World (an economic revolution, simplification of the legal and regulatory framework, the more active role of consumers), and a graphical presentation of the present status and perspectives of renewable energies in France, this publication first discusses the main strategic orientations for the development of renewable energies: visibility of sectors, clear and balanced economic framework, a new industrial and territorial dynamics. It discusses various operational measures for different sectors: ground-based wind energy, renewable marine energies, hydroelectricity, photovoltaic solar energy, thermodynamic solar energy, thermal solar energy, valorisation of biomass potentials, bio-fuels, biogas, wastes, emerging sectors, domestic wood heating, low and high temperature geothermal energy. The next part proposes and comments transverse operational measures regarding electric grids, overseas territories, Corsica, the housing sector, and international trade

  17. World Renewable Energy Congress - To Be Held In Denver In 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    ) announced today that they will host the World Renewable Energy Congress IV in Denver from June 15-21, 1996 to be held outside of the United Kingdom. The World Renewable Energy Congress, which meets every two include world leaders in renewable energy, banking and business. The Congress' objectives are to support

  18. 5. world inventory of the electric power produced by renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This fifth edition of the electric power production in the world by renewable energies sources, has been realized by the renewable energies observatory for ''Electricite de France''. It proposes an evaluation of the situation, providing data and analysis for each renewable energy sources, hydro electric power, wind energy, biomass, geothermal energy, photovoltaic and the green energy. (A.L.B.)

  19. Research on 18th Century Music in Poland. An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paczkowski Szymon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on 18th-century music has been one of the key areas of interest for musicologists ever since the beginnings of musicological studies in Poland. It initially developed along two distinct lines: general music history (with publications mostly in foreign languages and local history (mostly in Polish. In the last three decades the dominant tendency among Polish researchers has been, however, to relate problems of 18th-century Polish musical culture to the political history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and more generally – to the political history of Central Europe at large. The most important subjects taken up in research on 18th-century music include: the musical cultures of the royal court in 18th-century Warsaw (primarily in the works of Alina Żórawska-Witkowska as well as Polish aristocratic residences (e.g. studies by Szymon Paczkowski and Irena Bieńkowska, the ecclesiastical and monastic circles (publications by Alina Mądry, Paweł Podejko, Remigiusz Pośpiech and Tomasz Jeż; problems of musical style (texts by Szymon Paczkowski; research on sources containing music by European composers (e.g. by Johann Adolf Hasse; the musical culture of cities (of Gdańsk, first and foremost; studies concerning the transfer of music and music-related materials, the musical centres and peripheries, etc.

  20. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding of devel......The 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED11, was held August 15-18th 2011 at The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen. The Conference is the flagship event of the Design Society, a society dedicated to contributing to a broad and established understanding...... of development and design. The ICED series of conferences has a long tradition, which started in 1981 with the first ICED in Rome. A total of 419 papers were presented at ICED11, each double-blind reviewed by multiple reviewers. The papers included research papers and case studies on a variety of topics...... concerned with design thinking, theory, and practice, with a premium placed on evidence-based research. The papers are published in a total of ten volumes of Proceedings, in addition to electronic publication. This volume is the first of two concerned with Design Methods and Tools, and contains 45 papers...

  1. The power of mathematics education in the 18th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, J.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the Dutch Republic in the 18th century mathematics was considered very important for many professions. However there were hardly any national or regional educational institutes which provided mathematics education. Three orphanages in different towns received a large inheritance under condition

  2. [Astrologic and medical manuscript of the 18th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugener, Henri

    2010-01-01

    We present a manuscript from the 18th century, an extract taken from the "Great and the Little Albert" attributed to Albertus Magnus. The linguistic variety in the paper is typical for a text composed in Luxembourg. Added to this text are two incantations and a short cartomancy paper.

  3. 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibuchi, Hisao; Ong, Yew-Soon; Tan, Kay-Chen

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a collection of the papers accepted in the 18th Asia Pacific Symposium on Intelligent and Evolutionary Systems (IES 2014), which was held in Singapore from 10-12th November 2014. The papers contained in this book demonstrate notable intelligent systems with good analytical and/or empirical results.

  4. The 18th Annual Conference on Finance and Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLÇELEBİ, Gül

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. In this paper, the evaluation of the 18th Annual Conference on Finance and Accounting held on 26 May 2017 in Prague, Czech Republic will be mentioned.Keywords. Accounting, Finance, Czech Republic.JEL. M40, G10.

  5. National Renewable Energy Policy in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Minji

    Increasing trade of renewable energy products has significantly contributed to reducing the costs of renewable energy sources, but at the same time, it has generated protectionist policies, which may negatively affect the trend of the cost reduction. Although a few recent studies examined the rise of renewable energy protectionism and trade disputes, they are limited in addressing the conflict between the original goal of traditional renewable energy policies and the new protectionist policies under the globalized renewable energy industry. To fill this gap, this dissertation explores how the globalized renewable energy industry has changed national renewable energy policies. Through three analyses, three aspects of the globalized renewable energy industry are examined: the rise of multinational corporations, international interactions among actors, and the changes of the global and domestic market conditions. First analysis investigates how multinational renewable energy corporations have affected national policies. A content analysis of the annual reports of 15 solar photovoltaic multinational corporation shows that solar multinationals have been influenced by national policies and have adapted to the changes rather than having attempted to change national policies. Second analysis examines how diverse actors have framed renewable energy trade issues through a network analysis of the Chinese solar panel issue in the United States. The result shows that the Chinese solar panel issue was framed differently from the traditional environmental frame of renewable energy, being dominated by multinational corporations headquartered in other countries. Third analysis explores what has caused the increasing diversity in national renewable energy policies through the case studies of the U.S. and South Korea. The result reveals that the globalization of solar industry has affected the diversification of solar policies in two countries by generating both challenges, which

  6. Preface: 18th Aps-Sccm and 24th Airapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gilbert; Moore, David S.; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Buttler, William; Furlanetto, Michael; Evans, William

    2014-05-01

    The 18th Biennial International Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter in conjunction with the 24th Biennial International Conference of the International Association for the Advancement of High Pressure Science & Technology (AIRAPT) was held at the Westin Hotel in Seattle, Washington from 7-12 July, 2013. This is only the second time that these two organizations have held a Joint Conference — the first was 20 years previous (1993) in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Seattle was chosen for this joint conference because of its central location for the world-wide attendees as well as its metropolitan vibrancy. The scientific program consisted of 858 scheduled presentations organized into 23 topical areas and included contributed (537), invited (95), and plenary (6) lectures, as well as two poster sessions with 110 posters each. The scientific focus of the Joint Conference was on fundamental and applied research topics related to the static or dynamic compression of condensed matter. This multidisciplinary field of research encompasses areas of physics, chemistry, materials science, mechanics, geophysics and planetary physics, and applied mathematics. Experimental, computational and theoretical studies all play important roles. The organizers endeavored to intertwine static and dynamic experimental alongside computational and theoretical studies of similar materials in the organization of the sessions. This goal was aided by the addition of three special focus sessions on deep carbon budget, high energy density materials, and dynamic response of materials. 722 scientists and engineers from 25 countries registered at the conference, including 132 students from 12 countries. The attendee countries represented included: Argentina (2), Australia (2), Brazil (3), Canada (25), China (22), Czech Republic (2), France (35), Germany (19), India (6), Israel (21), Italy (10), Japan (49), Netherlands (1), Poland (1), Portugal (2), Russia (26

  7. Second world renewable energy assembly (WREA) 2007; 2. Weltversammlung fuer Erneuerbare Energien (WREA) 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the Second World Renewable Energy Assembly at 19th to 21st November, 2007, in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) How to motivate common people, scientists, companies and policy makers for renewable energy (Volker Thomsen); (2) Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (Eric Martinot); (3) Renewable Energy in Africa (Ibrahim Togola); (4) Legislation, the great challenge for renewable energies in Latin America (Mauro Passos); (5) Building Strategic North American Alliances to Maximize the Implementation of Renewable Energy (Jose Etcheverry); (6) Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development (Shi DingHuan); (7) Renewable Energies in EU27 (Wolfgang Palz); (8) The health costs of conventional energies (Susanne Weber-Mosdorf); (9) The need for a EU-wide Moratorium on Incentives for Agrofuels and Imports of Agrofuels (Sergio Oceransky); (10) The nuclear power is no solution (Eike Schwarz); (11) Carbon Trading - a critical conversation on climate change, privatisation and power (Jutta Kil); (12) The culminating energy insecurity (Joerg Schindler); (13) 100 % Renewables Scenarios an Overview (Harry Lehmann); (14) ICLEI's Local Renewables Initiative What local governments can do to promote the generation and use of renewable energy (Monika Zimmermann); (15) 100 % Projects for cities, countries and regions - an overview (Michael Stoehr); (16) Conceptualizing RE Strategies (Heinz-Wolfgang Boehnke); (17) Negawatts and Micropower: The Coming Electrical Revolution (Amory Lovins); (18) Renewable Energies, Sustainability and World Trade - Overcoming the double standard (Doerte Fouquet); (19) Financing strategies for Renewable Energies in Latin America and The Caribbean (Pablo Rosenthal); (20) Overcoming the Double-Standards: Subsidies for Nuclear and Fossil Energy (Doug Koplow); (21) The prepossession of international institutions for energy (Hans-Josef Fell); (22) The bias of the international energy institutions: The case of IAEO (Wolfgang

  8. Second world renewable energy assembly (WREA) 2007; 2. Weltversammlung fuer Erneuerbare Energien (WREA) 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Within the Second World Renewable Energy Assembly at 19th to 21st November, 2007, in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) How to motivate common people, scientists, companies and policy makers for renewable energy (Volker Thomsen); (2) Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (Eric Martinot); (3) Renewable Energy in Africa (Ibrahim Togola); (4) Legislation, the great challenge for renewable energies in Latin America (Mauro Passos); (5) Building Strategic North American Alliances to Maximize the Implementation of Renewable Energy (Jose Etcheverry); (6) Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development (Shi DingHuan); (7) Renewable Energies in EU27 (Wolfgang Palz); (8) The health costs of conventional energies (Susanne Weber-Mosdorf); (9) The need for a EU-wide Moratorium on Incentives for Agrofuels and Imports of Agrofuels (Sergio Oceransky); (10) The nuclear power is no solution (Eike Schwarz); (11) Carbon Trading - a critical conversation on climate change, privatisation and power (Jutta Kil); (12) The culminating energy insecurity (Joerg Schindler); (13) 100 % Renewables Scenarios an Overview (Harry Lehmann); (14) ICLEI's Local Renewables Initiative What local governments can do to promote the generation and use of renewable energy (Monika Zimmermann); (15) 100 % Projects for cities, countries and regions - an overview (Michael Stoehr); (16) Conceptualizing RE Strategies (Heinz-Wolfgang Boehnke); (17) Negawatts and Micropower: The Coming Electrical Revolution (Amory Lovins); (18) Renewable Energies, Sustainability and World Trade - Overcoming the double standard (Doerte Fouquet); (19) Financing strategies for Renewable Energies in Latin America and The Caribbean (Pablo Rosenthal); (20) Overcoming the Double-Standards: Subsidies for Nuclear and Fossil Energy (Doug Koplow); (21) The prepossession of international institutions for energy (Hans-Josef Fell); (22) The bias of the international energy institutions: The case of IAEO

  9. [Dental aspects of general symptoms in the 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrai, Judit

    2009-05-24

    In the 18th century, numerous diseases with symptoms of oral cavity were cured by chirurgien-dentist, barber-surgeons, or tooth drawer. The so called "dentitio difficilis" was blamed for the high children mortality, therefore gum cut or use of leeches was advised as a treatment. Both acute and chronic type of gum inflammation was called scurvy. It seems that the mechanical removal of plaque was enough to cure the scurvy as it was written in advertisements from that time. Syphilis was present in the everyday life throughout centuries, and assumed to cause different stigmas in the oral cavity. Today we consider theses stigmas as the toxic signs of mercury treatment.

  10. 18th Middle Atlantic Regional Meeting, American Chemical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 18th Middle Atlantic Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society held May 21-23, 1984, include information about the meeting, e.g. area map and list of exhibitors, and abstracts for most of the 397 papers. A few papers are only title listed. The papers are arranged into sections dealing with analytical chemistry, biochemistry, chemical education, environmental chemistry, fuel chemistry, history of chemistry, industrial and engineering chemistry, inorganic chemistry, photochemistry, physical chemistry, polymer chemistry, and polymeric materials. Sections are also included to highlight undergraduate research and papers by chemical technicians and younger chemists. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 36 papers

  11. World potential of renewable energies actually accessible in the nineties and environmental impacts analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Devin, B.; Pharabod, F.

    1992-01-01

    The role that renewable energies could play in the world's regional and global energy balances gives rise to varied and often quite different evaluations including almost unbounded ones. Reliable information is still available on the different technologies and their economic costs. But, as the commercial development of these renewables is generally very weak, the arguments for postponing their real possible world and regional impact are frequently confused with short term market type considerations. To overcome that difficulty it is proposed to achieve a comprehensive analysis, region by region, of the actually accessible renewable energies at a given horizon. Then we adopt a methodology as the one employed to derive proven renewable energy reserves from energy renewable resources in which resources are defined by quantitative information on physical potential, when reserves take into account technical and economical accessibility

  12. PREFACE: 18th Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials Conference (MSM XVIII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, T.; Hutchison, John L.

    2013-11-01

    YRM logo This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 18th international conference on 'Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials' held at St Catherine's College, University of Oxford, on 7-11 April 2013. The meeting was organised under the auspices of the Royal Microscopical Society and supported by the Institute of Physics as well as the Materials Research Society of the USA. This conference series deals with recent advances in semiconductor studies carried out by all forms of microscopy, with an emphasis on electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy with high spatial resolution. This time the meeting was attended by 109 delegates from 17 countries world-wide. We were welcomed by Professor Sir Peter Hirsch, who noted that this was the first of these conferences where Professor Tony Cullis was unable to attend, owing to ill-health. During the meeting a card containing greetings from many of Tony's friends and colleagues was signed, and duly sent to Tony afterwards. As semiconductor devices shrink further new routes for device processing and characterisation need to be developed, and, for the latter, methods that offer sub-nanometre spatial resolution are particularly valuable. The various forms of imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy available in modern microscopes are powerful tools for studying the microstructure, electronic structure, chemistry and also electric fields in semiconducting materials. Recent advances in instrumentation, from lens aberration correction in both TEM and STEM instruments, to the development of a wide range of scanning probe techniques, as well as new methods of signal quantification have been presented at this conference. Two topics that have at this meeting again highlighted the interesting contributions of aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy were: contrast quantification of annular dark-field STEM images in terms of chemical composition (Z-contrast), sample thickness and strain, and the study of

  13. Proceedings of 18th international conference on structural mechanics in reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The 18th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology was held on August 7-12, 2005 in Beijing, China, and Sponsored by International Association for Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology, Chinese Nuclear Society, Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and Tsinghua University. 486 abstracts are Collected. The contents includes: opening, plenary and keynote presentations; computational mechanics; fuel and core structures; aging, life extension, and license renewal; design methods and rules for components; fracture mechanics; concrete material, containment and other structures; analysis and design for dynamic and extreme loads; seismic analysis, design and qualification; structural reliability and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA); operation, inspection and maintenance; severe accident management and structural evaluation; advanced reactors and generation IV reactors; decommissioning of nuclear facilities and waste management.

  14. Valladolid, a Festival Town (17th-18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes AMIGO VÁZQUEZ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The festival was a great sociocultural event whose dimensions reached their maximum evolution in Early Modern Spain, especially in the 17th and 18th centuries and in its urban centres. This was the «festive society» par excellence, because of the frequency of the celebrations and the multiplicity of meanings, implications and consequences. Society and power, ultimately, were represented at the festival. In this context, the specific case of Valladolid demonstrates both its character as a germane model, applicable to any other town, and its uniqueness. Significantly, in the early 17th century it was once again the seat of the Court and yet even after being abandoned by Philip III in 1606, it continued to be one of the most important towns of Castile, the seat of the Royal Chancellery.

  15. 18th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, Jim; Elaydi, Saber; Pinto, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications cover a number of different aspects of difference equations and discrete dynamical systems, as well as the interplay between difference equations and dynamical systems. The conference was organized by the Department of Mathematics at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) under the auspices of the International Society of Difference Equations (ISDE) and held in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) in July 2012. Its purpose was to bring together experts and novices in these fields to discuss the latest developments. The book gathers contributions in the field of combinatorial and topological dynamics, complex dynamics, applications of difference equations to biology, chaotic linear dynamics, economic dynamics and control and asymptotic behavior, and periodicity of difference equations. As such it is of interest to researchers and scientists engaged in the theory and applications of difference equations and discrete dy...

  16. JANNAF 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 18 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 18th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 36th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 24th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS) meetings. The meeting was held 18-21 October 1999 at NASA Kennedy Space Center and The DoubleTree Oceanfront Hotel, Cocoa Beach, Florida. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: shaped charge jet and kinetic energy penetrator impact vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction; detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact stimuli; and hazard classification, insensitive munitions, and propulsion systems safety.

  17. 18th and 19th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Bez, Wolfgang; Focht, Erich; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Patel, Nisarg

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. It covers trends in hardware and software development in general and the future of high-performance systems and heterogeneous architectures in particular. The application-related contributions cover computational fluid dynamics, material science, medical applications and climate research; innovative fields such as coupled multi-physics and multi-scale simulations are highlighted. All papers were chosen from presentations given at the 18th Workshop on Sustained Simulation Performance held at the HLRS, University of Stuttgart, Germany in October 2013 and subsequent Workshop of the same name held at Tohoku University in March 2014.  

  18. EDITORIAL: The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics The 18th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Man'ko, Margarita A.

    2012-02-01

    to the proceedings of the 15th CEWQO (Physica Scripta 2009 T135 011005). The 18th edition of CEWQO (CEWQO11) was held in Madrid in 2011. There were about 250 participants, from practically every European country. Many colleagues from other continents also joined the event, including well-established researchers in the field. This is a clear demonstration that these meetings provide an excellent chance to hear about the latest results and new directions of research. The organization of CEWQO11 was carried out by a committee consisting of members active in this topic in Madrid. From Universidad Complutense, Alberto Galindo and Luis L Sánchez-Soto from Universidad Autónoma, Jose Calleja and Carlos Tejedor; from Universidad Politécnica, Enrique Calleja; from Universidad Carlos III, Alberto Ibort; and from the National Research Council (CSIC), Juan León and Juan J García-Ripoll. Special thanks go to the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation, Universidad Complutense and the Quitemad Consortium for financial support. The proceedings of the 16th CEWQO held at the University of Turku, Finland and the 17th CEWQO held at the University of St Andrews, Scotland, UK are also available (Physica Scripta 2010 T140 and Physica Scripta 2011 T143). The present Topical Issue is a collection of papers presented in Madrid; they represent an illustrative sample of the major achievements and trends in this area. In turn, they reflect the wide range of interests in this rapidly evolving field. Some collaborators from different scientific centres who could not, due to different reasons, come to Madrid, but participated in previous CEWQOs and plan to participate in future CEWQOs, also contributed to this issue. The papers are arranged alphabetically by the name of the first author. Special thanks goes to Roger Wäppling, the Managing Editor of Physica Scripta, and Graeme Watt, the Publisher, for the opportunity to publish CEWQO11. From a Physica Scripta Editorial Board meeting it was

  19. World renewable energy and environmental conference: abstract book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The energy is a wrap of the life and the main source of it is sources. The protection continuity of the energy is important cause of the scientific research development which we observe it on our energy every day life. But instead of the importance of the oil a main energy source which all the world depend on, there are many notes from the scientist, researchers and the environment institutions about the risks of the dependence on the traditional energy sources, and stressed on the study of it is negative effect on the environment human life and global community, also the call for looking for another substitutions about more safe sources and suitable for the environment. This comes on the interest frame which the university of Sebha and Libya in general gives it is special concern and reflect it is care of the scientific research and technical development to ascent our higher education institutions level in Libya, and it is contribution in the investigation and study of scientific issues which serve the aims of the society and it is anticipation and to be a good event for the meeting between the specialists and researchers from all over the world. (author)

  20. Scientific Psychology in the 18th Century: A Historical Rediscovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Katharina A; Pfister, Roland

    2016-05-01

    As early as 1783, the almost forgotten philosopher, metaphysicist, and psychologist Ferdinand Ueberwasser (1752-1812) designated himself "Professor für empirische Psychologie und Logik" (professor of empirical psychology and logic) at the University of Münster, Germany. His position was initiated and supported by the minister and educational reformer Franz von Fürstenberg (1729-1810), who considered psychology a core scientific discipline that should be taught at each school and university. At the end of the 18th century, then, psychology seems to have been on the verge of becoming an independent academic discipline, about 100 years before Wilhelm Wundt founded the discipline's first official laboratory. It seems surprising that Ueberwasser's writings-including a seminal textbook on empirical psychology-have been almost entirely overlooked in most historical accounts. We focus on this important founding moment of psychological science and on the circumstances that eventually brought this seminal development to a halt. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. 18th Stage of the 2004 Tour de France

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Hosts States Service

    2004-01-01

    Haute-Savoie / Pays de Gex 23 July 2004 On Friday 23 July 2004, the 18th stage of the Tour de France cycle race will be departing from Annemasse (Haute-Savoie) and heading for Lons-le-Saunier (Jura), passing through Archamps, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Collonges, Farges, Saint-Jean-de-Gonville, Thoiry, Sergy, Saint-Genis-Pouilly, Chevry, Gex et Mijoux, inter alia (a detailed itinerary with approximate passage times can be found on http://www.letour.fr/2004/us/index.html). This event is likely to cause numerous disruptions to local traffic, as the roads used by the race will be closed to all vehicles except those bearing the official race insignia: 90 minutes before the first rider comes through; up to 15 minutes after the police vehicle bearing the ' fin de course ' sign has driven through. Furthermore, there will be no access to the centre of Saint-Genis-Pouilly from about 12.30 p.m. to 2.30 p.m. As a result, you are strongly advised to take these difficulties into account when making any car journeys ...

  2. A population-induced renewable energy timeline in nine world regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Kevin J.; Jones, Glenn A.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 1.1 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity. The World Bank's Sustainable Energy for All initiative seeks to provide universal access to energy by the year 2030. The current world population of 7.3 billion is projected to reach 8.5 billion by 2030 and 11.2 billion by 2100. Population growth and increasing energy access are incongruous with forecasts of declining non-renewable energy production and climate change concerns. Previous studies have examined these issues at global or at individual regional or national levels. Here we use a nine region model of the world with two per capita energy consumption scenarios to find that significant restructuring of the current energy mix will be necessary in order to support population projections. Modelled interaction between the regions highlights the importance of examining energy and population concerns in a systemic manner, as each of the nine regions faces unique energy-population challenges in the coming decades. As non-renewable energy reserves decline globally, the transition to a renewable energy infrastructure will develop at different times in each region. - Highlights: • A 9-region model of energy, population, and development through 2100 is presented. • Developing >50% renewable energy is required in 8 regions, though not concurrently. • Population growth and development will compound energy scarcity issues. • Early and significant renewable energy investment is key to realizing development. • Each region will face unique, though interlacing, challenges this century.

  3. Batteries: An Important Piece in the Puzzle of Renewable Energies for a Better World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younesi, Reza, E-mail: reyo@dtu.dk [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-04-14

    Along with the rapid growth in the world population, the concerns regarding the production and consumption of energy originating from fossil fuels have been increasing in recent years. Therefore, there is higher demand to develop “clean” renewable energies to reduce the use of fossil fuel.

  4. Batteries: an important piece in the puzzle of renewable energies for a better world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Younesi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Along with the rapid growth in the world population, the concerns regarding the production and consumption of energy originating from fossil fuels have been increasing in recent years. Therefore, there is higher demand to develop “clean” renewable energies to reduce the use of fossil fuel....

  5. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2014-12-01

    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its

  6. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milanković on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  7. A population-induced renewable energy timeline in nine world regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kevin; Jones, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    Population growth and increasing energy access are incongruous with forecasts of declining non-renewable energy production and climate change concerns. The current world population of 7.3 billion is projected to reach 8.4 billion by 2030 and 11.2 billion by 2100. Currently, 1.2 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity. The World Bank's Sustainable Energy for All initiative seeks to provide universal global access to energy by the year 2030. Though universal energy access is desirable, a significant reduction in fossil fuel usage is required before mid-century if global warming is to be limited to 50% renewable energy needs to occur by 2028 in a energy demand in 2100 will be more than double that of today; of this demand, 82% will need to be derived from renewable sources. More renewable energy production will be required in 2100 than the 2014 total global energy production. Given the required rate and magnitude of this transition to renewable energy, it is unlikely that the energy demand and to limit warming to 2.5-3°C by 2100.

  8. Mingantu, 18th-Century Mongol Astronomer and Radioheliograph Namesake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    The 18th-century Mongol astronomer Mingantu (1692-1765) has been honored with a city named after him and a nearby solar telescope array. During the IAU/Beijing, my wife and I went to the new Chinese solar radioheliograph, the Mingantu Observing Station, in Inner Mongolia, ~400 km northwest of Beijing, a project of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It currently contains 40 dishes each 4.5 m across, with a correlator from Beijing. Within a year, 60 2-m dishes will be added. We passed by the 12-century ruins of Xanadu (about 20 km north of Zhangbei) about halfway. The radioheliograph is in a plane about 1 km across, forming a three-armed spiral for interferometric solar mapping, something colleagues and I had carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array, taking advantage of the lunar occultation before annularity at the 20 May 2012 solar eclipse. In the central square of Mingantu city, a statue ~10-m high of the Mongol astronomer Mingantu appears. Its base bears a plaque ~1-m high of IAU Minor Planet Circular MPC 45750 announcing the naming in 2002 of asteroid 28242 Mingantu, discovered at a Chinese observatory in 1999. Mingantu carried out orbital calculations, mapping, mathematical work on infinite series, and other scientific research. He is honored by a modern museum behind the statue. The museum's first 40% describes Mingantu and his work, and is followed by some artifacts of the region from thousands of years ago. The final, large room contains a two-meter-square scale model of the radioheliograph, flat-screen televisions running Solar Dynamics Observatory and other contemporary visualizations, orreries and other objects, and large transparencies of NASA and other astronomical imagery. See my post at http://www.skyandtelescope.com/community/skyblog/newsblog/ specfically Astro-Sightseeing_in_Inner_Mongolia-167712965.html. We thank Yihua Yan for arranging the visit and Wang Wei (both NAOC) for accompanying us. My solar research

  9. Subjective Proportions: 18th-Century Interpretations of Paestum’s ‘Disproportion’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid de Jong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When 18th-century travellers saw the Doric temples of Paestum in Southern Italy with their own eyes, they observed for the first time true examples of the proportions of archaic Greek architecture. Contrary to the Roman proportional systems, the Greek ones had been largely unavailable to architects until then. With the rediscovery of Paestum, conveniently located south of Naples and not in far away Greece, the secret of Greek proportions was no more. Architects were able to precisely measure the temples and wrote many accounts about their primitive forms and proportions. But what did architects mean exactly when describing the proportions as primitive? What kinds of reflections did these proportions provoke? This article treats proportions as aesthetics, or as visible proportions, not as a numerical system. The discourse on proportions changed in this period, giving more weight to their cultural and historical meaning. The writings by such architects as Soane, Wilkins, and Labrouste demonstrate how Paestum functioned as a laboratory to unveil the secret of primitive proportions, and how, with the different meanings architects attached to them, it enlarged and renewed the debate on proportions.

  10. Renewable energy sources for the world's poor: a review of current international development assistance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J. H.

    1979-10-01

    Foreign assistance funding of the creation, testing, and use of renewable energy sources concerning worldwide efforts to provide energy for Third World development is examined. Donor agencies and developing nations give serious attention to technologies that have been considered exotic and marginal: small-scale hydroelectric generation, solar water heating and distillation, biomass conversion to methane gas and alcohol, wind power, photovoltaic-powered small-scale irrigation, and village-level solar-powered absorption refrigeration. An initial effort to assist in the international coordination of donor activity and in the sharing of information generated by foreign-assistance projects that use renewable energy sources is reported. The report mainly provides information about specific development projects. It contains only a few of the projects that have been approved and funded by 1 June 1979. (MCW)

  11. Renewable energies: to be in line with World momentum. Synthesis of the white paper on renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    This synthesis of the white paper on renewable energies published in January 2017, has been enriched with the most recent works carried out by the French syndicate of renewable energies since the beginning of the year. Thus, this document presents 88 measures to accelerate the deployment of renewable energy sources in order to reach carbon neutrality by 2050. They concern the Energy multi-annual Programming trajectories by 2020 (the revision of which being provided by the law), the support means (including renewable energies in accommodations), the innovations and networks, the simplifying measures and the international support

  12. Oath Ceremonies in Spain and New Spain in the 18th century: A Comparative Study of Rituals and Iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Rodríguez Moya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on a comparative study of the royal oath ceremonies in Spain and New Spain starting with the 16th century, when the ritual was established, to later consider some examples from the 18th century. A process of consolidating a Latin American and Hispanic identity began in the 17th century and was reflected in religious and political festivals everywhere. The royal oath ceremony was a renewal of vows of loyalty to the Crown, which was especially important in a monarchy composed a variety of different kingdoms. This ritual was very important in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, where a king ruled from afar over subjects scattered throughout a vast territory that was ethnically and culturally very diverse. The ceremony was therefore used in the 18th century to assert matters of identity through ritual gestures and the images that adorned the ephemeral architecture created for it. Accounts of festivities and prints depicting the event as it took place in places like Lisbon, Barcelona, Valencia, Majorca, Mexico and Lima will be studied from a comparative point of view.

  13. American Telemedicine Association: 18th Annual International Meeting & Tradeshow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Forstag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For 18 years, the American Telemedicine Association (ATA Annual International Meeting & Exposition has been the premier forum for professionals in the telemedicine, telehealth and mHealth space -- one of the fastest growing meetings in the country. ATA 2013 is on course to be the largest ATA meeting ever, with over 6,000 projected attendees.  The program will include 500 educational sessions and posters, highlighting the latest innovations, applications and research in telemedicine. The 2013 exhibit hall will feature nearly 300 of the leading vendors in remote healthcare technologies. With over 6000 projected attendees, from all around the world, there's no better place to meet and network with your peers and thought leaders in the field. Detailed program information--including courses, sessions and CME information--will be available January 2013 at:http://www.americantelemed.org.

  14. 18th European Conference on Mathematics for Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Capasso, Vincenzo; Nicosia, Giuseppe; Romano, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of papers emphasizing applications of mathematical models and methods to real-world problems of relevance for industry, life science, environment, finance, and so on. The biannual Conference of ECMI (the European Consortium of Mathematics in Industry) held in 2014 focused on various aspects of industrial and applied mathematics. The five main topics addressed at the conference were mathematical models in life science, material science and semiconductors, mathematical methods in the environment, design automation and industrial applications, and computational finance. Several other topics have been treated, such as, among others, optimization and inverse problems, education, numerical methods for stiff pdes, model reduction, imaging processing, multi physics simulation, mathematical models in textile industry. The conference, which brought together applied mathematicians and experts from industry, provided a unique opportunity to exchange ideas, problems and methodologies...

  15. An 18th Century Jesuit “Refutation of Metempsychosis” in Sanskrit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Colas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Punarjanmākṣepa, a work in Sanskrit from the 17th–18th century Jesuit milieu, aims at refuting the notion of reincarnation as believed by the Hindus in India. It discloses an interesting historical perspective of missionary comprehension and criticism of the belief. This paper briefly examines the context, purpose and the rhetorical strategies of the work and incidentally situates the subject of reincarnation in the 18th century European intellectual ideologies.

  16. Australian pyrolysis technology leads the world in demonstrating renewable energy production and biosequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downie, Adriana; Crosky, Alan; Munroe, Paul; Zwieten, Lukas Van; Cowie, Annette; Chan, Yin; Kimber, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Australian-developed slow pyrolysis technology is leading the world in carbon negative (removing C02 from the atmosphere) renewable energy production. The collaborative research, development and commercialisation program between BEST Energies and the NSW Department of Primary Industries (DPI) was awarded the United Nations Association of Australia 2007 World Environment Day Awards top honour for 'Meeting the Greenhouse Challenge'. 'BEST Energies' Australian developed pyrolysis technology is a genuinely innovative project with huge potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions' according to the UN World Environment Day Awards Judging Panel. The technology has been recognised as a vital tool for climate change mitigation because it not only produces a renewable energy to displace the use of fossil fuel, but it also produces a very stable form of solid carbon which can be beneficially sequestered over the long term in soils. The technology involves heating low grade biomass without oxygen to generate a gaseous biofuel and a very stable, carbon-rich, char product. BEST Energies has a fully integrated pilot plant which has demonstrated the viability of the technology and assisted the design of commercial scale units. It is accepted that immediate action is required to reverse the adverse impacts on atmospheric C02 levels resulting from industrial processes. The logical next step for this technology is immediate industry adoption and large-scale roll out. Preliminary life cycle assessments have demonstrated that pyrolysis technology will deliver significant reductions in atmospheric C02 at a global scale in a relatively short time frame. Prof. Johannes Lehmann from Cornell University estimates that by the end of this century, char schemes and pyrolysis programs could store up to 9.5 billion tons of carbon a year. Once the high carbon char product is added as an amendment to agricultural soils some of the most remarkable and promising benefits of this technology

  17. Cleaning up the world with renewable energy: from possibilities to practicalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, S.; Weightman, F.

    1994-01-01

    The increased exploitation of renewable energy sources is central to any move towards sustainable development. However, casting renewable energy thus carries with it an inherent commitment to other basic tenets of sustainability: openness; democraticization etc. The implications of this commitment for the developers of renewable energy projects are significant. Moreover, a failure to apply these broader principles to the development process, risks alienating the very public whose views will determine the political future of renewable energy. From recent experience of the development of wind power in the UK, it is clear that it is no longer enough just to know the future technical potential of renewable energy, or even the regulatory and/or fiscal framework that would enable that potential to be realised. Drawing on UK experience, guidelines can be established for renewable energy developers such that the principles of sustainable development are as central to exploitation renewable energy as renewable energy is to sustainability. (author)

  18. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022

  19. Visual Showcase: An Illustrative Data Graphic in an 18th-19th Century Style

    OpenAIRE

    Dragicevic, Pierre; Bach, Benjamin; Dufournaud, Nicole; Huron, Samuel; Isenberg, Petra; Jansen, Yvonne; Perin, Charles; Spritzer, André; Vuillemot, Romain; Willett, Wesley; Isenberg, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract and exhibition piece; International audience; We exhibit an data graphic poster that emulates the style of historic hand-made visualizations of the 18th -19th century. Our visualization uses real data and employs style elements such as an emulation of ink lines, hatching and cross-hatching, appropriate typesetting, and unique style of computer-assisted facial drawings.

  20. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (18th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 14-18, 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, Dan J. Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

    The Pacific Telecommunications Council's 18th annual conference is presented in two volumes. The PTC'96 gathering focused on seven streams: socio-economic issues; regulatory, legal and political issues; business and finance solutions; country studies; education, training, and human resources; convergence and networks; and technologies and…

  1. Hispanic Philippine historiography: a brief description of the structure of the Calepino Ylocano (18th C.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, R.; Reid, L.; Ridruejo Alonso, E.; Stolz, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a brief and general study of the macro- and micro-structure of an 18th century Hispano-Philippine vocabulary manuscript: the Calepino ylocano o vocabvlario de yloco en romance written and compiled by Spanish Augustinian missionaries. We will examine the historical and

  2. Medical semiotics in the 18th century: a theory of practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, V

    1998-06-01

    Medical semiotics in the 18th century was more than a premodern form of diagnosis. Its structure allowed for the combination of empirically proven rules of instruction with the theoretical knowledge of the new sciences, employing the relation between the sign and the signified.

  3. Reflection terahertz time-domain imaging for analysis of an 18th century neoclassical easel painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Filtenborg, Troels; Fukunaga, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) has been applied for imaging a hidden portrait and other subsurfacecomposition layers of an 18th century (18C) easel painting by Nicolai Abildgaard, the most important 18CDanish neoclassical painter of historical and mythological subjects. For the first time...

  4. Progresses in neuroproteomics of neurodegenerative diseases--18th HUPO BPP workshop: September 12, 2012, Boston, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröttrup, Bernd; May, Caroline; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T; Park, Young Mok

    2013-01-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 18(th) workshop in Boston, USA, September 12(th) 2012 during the HUPO 11th Annual Word Congress. The focus was on the progress on the Human Brain Proteome Atlas as well as ideas, strategies and methodological aspects. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  6. A Note on the 18th Party Congress of the CCP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2012-01-01

    The 18th Party Congress was more dramatic than anticipated due to the completely non-transparent process of selecting new leaders as well as a number of scandals involving leaders competing for the top posts. This contrasts with 2002 when Hu Jintao became secretary general in a comprehensive chan...

  7. John Stirling and the Classical Approach to Style in 18th Century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael G.

    Most 18th-century rhetoricians viewed style as the expression of a writer's individual character and thought, placing little emphasis on the lists of figures common in many 17th-century rhetorics. John Stirling and others, however, continued the 17th-century tradition that reduced rhetoric largely to style and emphasized classical figures of…

  8. Streets and stages: urban renewal and the arts after World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, Julia L

    2010-01-01

    Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in Manhattan and the revitalization of the Brooklyn Academy of Music in Brooklyn offer insights into the intersection of arts and urbanization after World War II. This intra-city comparison shows the aggrandizing pull of the international arena in the shaping of Lincoln Center and the arts it featured in contrast to the local focus and debate that transformed how BAM fit into its Brooklyn neighborhood. The performing arts, bound as they are to a moment fused in space and time, reveal the making of place within grandiose formal buildings as well as outside on the streets that surround them—and it is, perhaps, that tensile connection between stages and streets that informs the relevancy of both the institution and the arts it features. At a time when the suburbs pulled more and more people, the arts provided a counterforce in cities, as magnet and stimulus. The arts were used as compensation for the demolition and re-building of a neighborhood in urban renewal, but they also exposed the more complex social dynamics that underpinned the transformation of the mid-20th century American city from a segregated to a multi-faceted place.

  9. “CURING” PYRRHONIAN DOUBT: ANTI-SKEPTICAL RHETORIC IN THE EARLY 18TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton MATYTSIN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available By examining the analogies of sickness and disease used by severalopponents of philosophical skepticism (Pyrrhonism in the early 18th century, this articlewill shed light on the rhetorical strategies used in attempts to undermine the revival ofthis ancient school of philosophy. It will look at the ways in which anti-skeptics discussedthe repercussions of the spread of Pyrrhonism for society and describe how theyproposed to “cure” this so-called disease. A consideration of the strategies will bothreveal some of the assumptions commonly shared by authors of apologetic literature inthe first half of the 18th century and explain why they saw skepticism as such a dangerousphilosophical position.

  10. Personality Traits Characterized by Adjectives in a Famous Chinese Novel of the 18th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Junpeng Zhu; Wanzhen Chen; Hongying Fan; Bingren Zhang; Kebin Liao; Xiaolin Li; You Xu; Wei Wang

    2015-01-01

    The personality-descriptive adjectives used in a famous Chinese novel of the 18th century, A Dream of Red Mansions, which is thought to broadly reflect Chinese culture, might help depict personality structure. Four hundred ninety-three personality-descriptive adjectives from the first 80 chapters of the novel were administered to 732 Chinese university students. After factor analyses, the one- to seven-factor solutions...

  11. Prospects for tax reform in China following the 18th CPC National Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    After the 18th National Congress, the Chinese government should speed up tax reform and tax reduction. Tax structure should switch to direct tax. Consumption tax reform of lower tax burden could start within a short time. Replacing business tax by value-added tax should be quickly completed. Personal income tax reform should move toward comprehension. Uneven resource distribution should be taken into consideration in resource tax reform. Property tax should be included in the local financing ...

  12. 76 FR 25710 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Employment and Training (ET) Handbook 336, 18th...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... commitment to performance excellence and client-centered services. As part of UI Performs, a comprehensive...) Handbook 336, 18th Edition: ``Unemployment Insurance (UI) State Quality Service Plan Planning (SQSP) and... proposed extension to ET Handbook 336, 18th Edition: ``Unemployment Insurance (UI) State Quality Service...

  13. The coarse painter and his position in 17th- and 18th-century Dutch decorative painting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.; van Eikema Hommes, M.H.; Keune, K.; Evans, H.; Muir, K.

    2015-01-01

    In modern studies of Dutch art, the makers of decorative paintings in the 17th and 18th centuries are usually referred to as ‘decorative painters’ or ‘interior painters’, as if this was a profession in its own right. However, neither name existed at the time. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the

  14. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  15. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.

    2012-01-01

    The 18th International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 20-22 June, 2012 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; New materials and structures, nanostructures, thin films, their analysis and applications; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Contributions relevant of INIS interest (forty-eight contributions) has been inputted to INIS.

  16. ON THE FRAGMENTARY PERCEPTION OF FRENCH LITERATURE IN THE 18 TH CENTURY RUSSIA AND SWEDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Yu. Ljustrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines the problem of the fragmentary perception of European literature in the 18 th Century Russia. The author compares the body of 17 th Century French poetical works translated into Russian and Swedish languages and published in the Russian and Swedish editions in the middle of the 18 th Century. Regardless of many predicted coincidences, Russian and Swedish lists are not identical. Some 17 th Century French poets unknown in Russia were, however, extremely popular in the 18 th Century Sweden. The essay focuses on the work of E. Pavillon, a member of the French Academy and of the General R. de Bussy-Rabutin. The “Våra fӧrsӧk” edition released in Sweden in the 1750s, included numerous translations of the poems by these two authors as well as discussions about the specificity of their poetic gifts. Pavillon’s works are in the center of discussion by Swedish authors. In G. F. Gyllenborg’s “Satire öfver Sprätthökar,” E. Pavillon is compared with J.-B. Rousseau, in H. Ch. Nordenflycht’s “De svenska poeter” he is identified with a famous Swedish poet J. Frese. Swedish poems mentioning R. de Bussy are absent in the edition of “Våra fӧrsӧk”, however the French poet was familiar to Swedish authors, and the interest in his works drew on his role in the 17 th Century Franko-Swedish history. Swedish and French participation in the Thirty Years War and a visit of Christine, Queen of Sweden, to Paris were well known to Swedish authors. The paper argues that the lack of interest in the work of these authors in Russia is conspicuous if compared with their Swedish perception. This may be explained by cultural and historical circumstances and also by the lack of demand for some of the “species” of the 17 th Century French poetry in the Russian poetry of the 18 th Century.

  17. Flood-inundation maps for Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2018-02-27

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 1.9-mile reach of Cedar Creek at Auburn, Indiana (Ind.), from the First Street bridge, downstream to the streamgage at 18th Street, then ending approximately 1,100 feet (ft) downstream of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science web site at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. (station number 04179520). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, although forecasts of flood hydrographs are not available at this site (ABBI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. streamgage and the documented high-water marks from the flood of March 11, 2009. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute seven water-surface profiles for flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft, or near bankfull, to 13 ft, in 1-foot increments. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps, along with internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage at Cedar Creek

  18. William and Caroline Herschel pioneers in late 18th-century astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This beautifully structured book presents the essentials of William and Caroline Herschel's pioneering achievements in late 18th-century astronomy. Michael Hoskin shows that William Herschel was the first observational cosmologist and one of the first observers to attack the sidereal universe beyond the solar system:Herschel built instruments far better than any being used at the royal observatory. Aided by his sister Caroline, he commenced a great systematic survey that led to his discovery of Uranus in 1781.Unlike observers before him, whose telescopes did not reveal them as astronomical obj

  19. Debate on sublime in the end of 18th century: Burke, Kant, Schiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić-Molnar Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors are examining three positions within the 18th Century aesthetic discussion on the sublime - Edmund Burke's, Immanuel Kant's and Friedrich Schiller's. They are also trying to reconstruct the political backgrounds of each of this theoretical positions: old regime conservatism (Burke, republican liberalism (Schiller and romantic longing for the 'third way' (Kant. The most sophisticated and mature theory of sublime is found in Schiller's aesthetic works, especially in those following his disappointment in French Revolution, in which the relationship between sublime and paradoxes of historical violence is most thoroughly reflected.

  20. Joint-research project. The world of renewable energies: powerado. Final report. Part 2; Verbundforschungsprojekt. Erlebniswelt erneuerbare Energien: powerado. Endbericht. Bd. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharp, Michael (ed.)

    2009-02-15

    The objective of the research project 'The world of renewable energies: Powerado' was to improve communication aimed at conveying renewable energies to children. In order to achieve his aim, materials for different age groups and multipliers have been developed. These helped determining successful strategies for communicating renewable energies. There were several reasons for the need of such a project. It may be the case that renewable energies have been included into the syllabus of primary schools, but they still have no prominent role at schools. Additionally, the training of multipliers for renewable energies shows severe deficits. The project consisted of ten interconnected modules which explicitly are described. Overall, the powerado project was a huge success. 58,000 estimated multipliers, children, adolescents and persons generally being interested in renewable energies have been reached by the project and its modules. So the powerado project achieved its main objective improving communication of renewable energies.

  1. For a Green Stadium: Economic Feasibility of Sustainable Renewable Electricity Generation at the Jeju World Cup Venue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After the 2002 FIFA World Cup in South Korea and Japan, the local governments of South Korea were left in charge of several large-scale soccer stadiums. Although these governments have made significant efforts toward creating profits from the stadiums, it is proving to be too difficult for several administrations to cover their full operational, maintenance, and conservation costs. In order to overcome this problem, one of the governments, Seogwipo City, which owns Jeju World Cup Stadium (JWCS, is attempting to provide an independent renewable electricity generation system for the operation of the stadium. The current study therefore examines potential configurations of an independent renewable electricity generation system for JWCS, using HOMER software. The simulation results yield three optimal system configurations with a renewable fraction of 1.00 and relatively low values for the cost of energy ($0.405, $0.546, and $0.692 per kWh. Through the examination of these three possible optimal configurations, the implications and limitations of the current study are presented.

  2. Domenico Cirillo's collections. A recently rediscovered 18th-century Neapolitan herbarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Massimo; Castellano, Maria Laura

    2014-01-01

    The herbarium of the 19th-century Neapolitan botanists Vincenzo and Francesco Briganti was acquired by Orazio Comes in 1892 for the Royal Higher School of Agriculture in Naples. Based on a study of the handwriting on their labels, Comes concluded that some of the dried specimens were the sole remains of the herbarium of Domenico Cirillo, the distinguished 18th-century Neapolitan botanist, entomologist and physician. The current arrangement of the specimens not uniform and it is clear that they underwent extensive handling and rearrangement Some of the exsiccata are preserved in two packets, fixed on sheets bearing a printed label that reads "Herbarium D. Cyrilli". In an additional label Gaetano Nicodemi's handwriting and not Cirillo's as stated by Comes was identified. Other specimens, many of them mounted in a different manner from those in the first group, are arranged in another three packets. Certain characteristics of the herbarium may be explained by the vicissitudes of its history, including a hasty salvage operation. A study of the collection was conducted, including an analysis of the handwritten labels and notes, leading to conclusions that shed light on the significance of the Cirillo collection within the historical and scientific context of 18th-century Naples.

  3. [Venereal diseases in a "general practice" in the 17th and early 18th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, F; Winckelmann, H J

    2018-01-31

    The diary of the town physician Johannes Franc (1649-1725), handwritten in Latin, gives-among other diseases-an overview of sexually transmitted infections affecting citizens in Ulm such as syphilis and gonorrhea. Franc reported on his own experiences in the diary and also included many theoretical details on the causes of the diseases and the corresponding therapies, including ethical considerations. Even in ancient times, there are indications of venereal diseases. However, at the latest with the outbreak of syphilis around the year 1495, the treatment and control of the spread of venereal diseases became an important task of medicine. Before gonococci were detected by Neisser in 1879, sexually transmitted diseases were generally seen as a single disease. However, at the beginning of the 18 th century, there were several doctors who treated syphilis and gonorrhea as separate entities. Franc was one of them. Examining the milestones in the history of syphilis and gonorrhea, the present article reviews the existing theories that tried to explain the origins of these diseases. Franc's treatment patterns are illustrated. Franc's case reports indicate a fundamental change in the perception of STIs at the end of the 17 th /beginning of the 18 th century.

  4. Moulds and profiles of the building facades of St. Petersburg of the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voznyak Ekaterina Ryurikovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author underlines the importance of details (moulds and profiles for the architects of previous times. The architects of the 17th-19th centuries expressed their creative and filosofic position choosing some concrete example of the great theorists of the past when constructing moulds and orders. We should note that the negative attitude to Classicism theory reasoned in the lack of investigations of the architectural details of the buildings of the 18th-19th centuries, in particular the ones in Saint Petersburg. At the present moment the interest to studying the architectural theories and forms is reappearing both in Russia and in Europe. The article considers the architectural moulds of the eighteenth century buildings of St. Petersburg, examples of their construction in each stylistic period. The analysis shows the significant differences of the Russian moulds drawings from the recommendations of classical treatises of the Renaissance and educational counterparts. The author offers the basic analysis of the characteristic features and data elements for each stylistic period in the architecture of St. Petersburg of the 18th century, as well as a unique handwriting of the architects who worked in that era.

  5. Three points of a triangle: Italian, Latin and German oratorios and sepolcros in the early 18th century central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Freemanová, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 175-188 ISSN 1212-0391 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Italian oratorio * 18th century * Bohemian Lands Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  6. The 18-th century glassware from Naliboki and Urzecze glasshouses. Physico-chemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunicki-Goldfinger, J.J.; Kierzek, J.; Kasprzak, A.J.; Malozewska-Bucko, B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize some of the 18-th century glassware comming from the Naliboki and Urzecze glasshouses, basing on their chemical composition and selected physico-chemical properties. It was tried to find whether there exists a specific, characteristic for a given glasshouse, chemical composition and whether it is possible, basing on this composition, to identify the glass objects coming from particular, central European, 18-th century glasshouses. The studies were carried out at the National Museum Warsaw. Non-destructive procedures, i.e., without sample withdrawing and not affecting the glass surface procedures were used. Radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence, a ultraviolet excited optical fluorescence examination and visual examination were employed. For evaluation of the measurement data a multivariate analysis was used. More than 200 colourless glass tableware items, mostly engraved, manufactured in the above mentioned glassworks and a much smaller number of objects originating from other 18-th century glasshouses of central Europe were examined. Two groups of glassware, with respect to the composition, have been distinguished. One of them is characterized by an increased content of lead. However, the lead content is not a sufficient property for the differentiation. Other elements play also an important role. This composition was identified in part of the items from the glasshouses of Naliboki, Dresden and Potsdam/Zechlin where the glasses from different glasshouses are distinguishable. The PbO content in some glasses from Saxony (SPb) can be as high as 9% (by weight). Among the glasswere items belonging to the second composition group, probably not-containing an intentional addition of lead, the glassware group from Lubaczow was identified. The results of the ultraviolet fluorescence examination enabled to differentiate 2 groups of glasswares; those showing a blue fluorescence and those not-showing (mostly a green fluorescence

  7. Can present approach to renewable energy be really effective to counteract world climate changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.; Barra, L.

    1996-01-01

    The present strategical approach to diffusion of new renewable energy sources is mainly based upon a hypothesis of future massive applications of grid-tied PV and wind energy systems. This is considered as the most suitable model for producing large amount of clean energy. In accordance with this approach, direct grid connection (without any intermediate stage of energy storage) has to be assumed as the most convenient system configuration for its technical simplicity and economic convenience. Unfortunately, the straight connection of random intermittent power generators, (as our energy sources are), to a conventional grid can lead to a relevant worsening of system stability. This implies a technical limit for the amount of renewable power to be grid connected. (Author)

  8. Achieving climate stabilization in an insecure world: does renewable energy hold the key? Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katofsky, Ryan; Stanberry, Matt; Frantzis, Lisa

    2010-07-12

    This renewable energy in global scenarios project has the objective to define an RETD Scenario with a high uptake of renewable energies. Computer models of the global energy system were, for the most part, developed under assumptions of smooth demand growth met primarily with large, centralised infrastructure, and perform well under these conditions. However, these assumptions are being undermined by several changes that require a re-evaluation of modelling algorithms. In an effort to address these changes and better understand their impact, RETD has defined its own scenario and developed it in collaboration with the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) Implementing Agreement, making use of a techno-economic bottom-up methodology. The scenario was modelled using the ETSAP-TIAM model.

  9. 18th East European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems and Associated Satellite Events

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanovic, Mirjana; Kon-Popovska, Margita; Manolopoulos, Yannis; Palpanas, Themis; Trajcevski, Goce; Vakali, Athena

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains the papers of 3 workshops and the doctoral consortium, which are organized in the framework of the 18th East-European Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS’2014). The 3rd International Workshop on GPUs in Databases (GID’2014) is devoted to subjects related to utilization of Graphics Processing Units in database environments. The use of GPUs in databases has not yet received enough attention from the database community. The intention of the GID workshop is to provide a discussion on popularizing the GPUs and providing a forum for discussion with respect to the GID’s research ideas and their potential to achieve high speedups in many database applications. The 3rd International Workshop on Ontologies Meet Advanced Information Systems (OAIS’2014) has a twofold objective to present: new and challenging issues in the contribution of ontologies for designing high quality information systems, and new research and technological developments which use ontologie...

  10. Characterisation of 17th-18th centuries damask and gilt leathers by ATR-FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Falcão

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented the characterisation of tannins used in the vegetable tanning of two types of European historic and decorative leathers from Portuguese collections, damask leathers and gilt leathers, dated from the 17th and 18th centuries. Extracts prepared from collected leather fibres were analysed by attenuated total reflectance – Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Results were compared with data collected from different reference vegetable tanning materials which, according to historic and technical literature, were used in Europe during the Modern Age. This study allowed, in most cases, the characterisation of the tannins used to produce the studied decorative vegetable tanned leathers and, at the same time, the detection of chemical deterioration of leathers, particularly collagen hydrolysis, which was not visually perceived.

  11. Painting with gold: gilders in Northern Alentejo in the 17th and 18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alexandra Rodrigues Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article will demonstrate that the artistic context in the North Alentejo region, very dynamic in the 16th century and enriched by the presence of both national and international artists, evolved slowly during the late 17th and 18th centuries to a reality marked mainly by the activity of local painters, most of them unknown, which became increasingly versatile, working in oil painting, fresco and also gildings. To better characterize this reality, some examples will be presented of artists who worked in various techniques as proved by documentary evidences. The materials now presented were a relevant contribution for the project "Gilt Teller: an interdisciplinary multi-scale study of gilding techniques and materials in Portugal, 1500-1800".

  12. The Concept of Blood Purification in the Context of Scientific Racism in the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Federico Campos Rivas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the presence of the concept of blood cleansing in scientific racism, by drawing equivalences and analogies with the caste discourse that prevailed in 18th century Spanish America. With the study of this conjuncture it is intended to demonstrate the existence of a taxonomical dialogue and mutual influence between the fronts of the scientific racism and the traditional conception of caste in the colonial society. Through the study of the main authors and printed works of the scientific racism paradigm, it is intended to discover the genealogical conception of the posterity of mixed lineages, reviewing its compatibility with the main theories of monogenism and polygenism, and demonstrating the survival of traditional concepts about blood and temperament. This work contributes to explain how Spanish America was taken as a sort of social laboratory for the cause of scientific racism, providing its long-lived experience in the theme of miscegenation.

  13. The clocks and the perception of time in the 18th century society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Catherine

    The ownership of clocks and watches became widespread in 18th century society, particularly amongst the wealthy classes. They liked the decorative appearance, practical advantages, and social prestige which those objects conferred. The use of 'mechanized' time in the towns supplanted the age old reliance on time as dictated by nature and the Church. New temporal reference points gave the day its rhythm. Data from that era (correspondence, memoirs, newspapers, engravings, and paintings) make it possible to catch a glimpse of the influence of clocks on the perception of time. From the beginning of the 'mechanized time' era, efforts to improve the accuracy and the technical performance of mechanisms were made. The importance of such a precise time measurement in every day life is considered.

  14. PIXE analysis of Moroccan architectural glazed ceramics of 14th-18th centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Azzou, A.; El Amraoui, M.; Haddad, M.; Bejjit, L.; Ait Lyazidi, S.

    2009-01-01

    The PIXE analysis of glazes and ceramic bodies of a set of architectural glazed ceramics (mostly the zellige mosaics), sampled from seven Moroccan monuments from the 14th to the 18th century AD, has been performed. We have identified high lead glazes, opacified with tin-oxide, laid over a calciferous body to produce hard tiles easy to chisel as required by the zellige technique. The analysis has revealed significant differences between the monuments examined: in particular in the formulation of the base glass and in the use of stains to produce coloured glazes. We observed the peculiarity of materials used in Marrakech and we could distinguish, both in terms of glazes and ceramic bodies, the two almost contemporary Madersas dedicated to the sultan Bou Inan, one in Meknes the other in Fez. The PIXE measurements integrate a broad range of spectrometric investigations performed in the past few years. (author)

  15. The results of investigation in connection with the 18th Chinese nuclear test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Concerning the 18th nuclear explosion test of the People's Republic of China, the results of measurements of radioactivity, etc. in Japan are presented. (1) As for gross beta-radioactivity in upper air, the same level as normal was measured in middle and northern Japan. (2) At monitoring posts, the same level as normal was measured across the country. (3) As for gross beta-radioactivity in rain and dry fallout, 56 pCi/ml was detected in Hachijo Island. (4) As for gross beta-radioactivity in airborne dust, 6.0 pCi/m 3 was detected in Fukuoka. (5) As for gross beta-radioactivity in dry fallout the same level as normal was measured. (6) As for the Iodine-131 concentration in fresh milk, 113 pCi/l was detected in Ishikawa Prefecture. (7) Analysis of radionuclides. (8) Data concerning the radioactivity surveillance. (J.P.N.)

  16. Personality Traits Characterized by Adjectives in a Famous Chinese Novel of the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpeng Zhu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The personality-descriptive adjectives used in a famous Chinese novel of the 18th century, A Dream of Red Mansions, which is thought to broadly reflect Chinese culture, might help depict personality structure. Four hundred ninety-three personality-descriptive adjectives from the first 80 chapters of the novel were administered to 732 Chinese university students. After factor analyses, the one- to seven-factor solutions were extracted, and the five-factor one was relatively clearer. The five factors of personality titled Wicked, Intelligent, Amiable, Conscientious, and Frank, were intercorrelated. Men scored higher on Wicked and Conscientious but lower on Amiable compared with women. As a preliminary trial, our study demonstrates that personality-descriptive adjectives in a famous Chinese novel characterize the personality structure.

  17. Gilding Techniques in Religious Art Between East and West, 14th -18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C.A. Sandu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a short review on gilding techniques and materials from artifacts of religious heritage between 14th and 18th centuries, mainly gilt wood and gilded panel paintings. The study underlines the main aspects related to the use of certain materials and application techniques in different countries and époques, between Eastern and Western Europe, exemplifying with case studies of real gilded objects from Romanian, Greek, Russian and Portuguese ecclesiastic heritage. The contribution of some analytical techniques, such as optical, scanning electron and atomic force microscopies (OM, SEM, AFM, XRF and EDX spectroscopic analysis to the study of these objects is emphasized as well as the peculiarities of the obtained information.

  18. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Fossil Energy Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, RR

    2004-11-02

    The 18th Annual conference on Fossil Energy Materials was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on June 2 through June 4, 2004. The meeting was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy through the Advanced Research Materials Program (ARM). The objective of the ARM Program is to conduct research and development on materials for longer-term fossil energy applications, as well as for generic needs of various fossil fuel technologies. The management of the program has been decentralized to the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The research is performed by staff members at ORNL and by researchers at other national laboratories, universities, and in private industry. The work is divided into the following categories: (1) structural, ceramics, (2) new alloys and coatings, (3) functional materials, and (4) technology development and transfer.

  19. The participation of the Spanish soldiers in the 18th century press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel-Reyes GARCÍA HURTADO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The Spanish soldiers intervene in the 18th century, fundamentally in the second half, in a way determined in the Republic of Letters. With this study we attempt to suggest that authors from the army and the navy collaborated with 18th century publications in an assiduous or sporadic way, in particular since the last third of the century as well as to carry out an analysis of the themes that worried them and on which they wrote articles. We will obtain thus data about a direct intervention channel of the militia in a society that nothing has to do with the military phenomenon.

  20. Feed-In Tariff as a Mechanism of Promoting Renewable Energy in the World and Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livatyali, H.

    2011-01-01

    First included into the energy regulations of the USA in 1978, a feed-in tariff (FiT) is a policy mechanism designed to encourage the adoption of renewable energy sources and to help accelerate the move toward grid parity .FiTs typically include three key provisions including guaranteed grid access, long-term contracts for the electricity produced and purchase prices that are methodologically based on the cost of renewable energy generation and tend towards grid parity. Among other renewable energy subsidies, such as income tax deductions, property tax exemptions, tax credits, loans or loan guaranties, investment credit subsidies and depreciation allowances, well-adapted feed-in tariff regimes are generally considered as the most efficient and effective support schemes for promoting renewable electricity. Up to now, close to seventy countries including developed and developing ones have adapted FiT policies and more are expected to come in the near future. Turkey adapted her initial FiT law in 2005 covering wind, hydro and geothermal sectors. In that law, solar electric power was intentionally excluded claiming the rapid development of the technology and potential cost reductions and a future update in the law covering the missing technologies was foreseen in five years. Adoption of the recent amendment at the end of year 2010 took a sluggish parliamentary process of one and a half years and eventually solar (PV and CSP); biogas-bio-mass power technologies were included in the FiT system along with some improvements on the wind, geothermal and hydro-electric sectors. The recent amendment assumed solar power as dominantly photovoltaic in nature and the base tariff of 0.133 USD/kW-h was determined based on the lowest investment options available on the global photovoltaic market. To promote domestic technology and manufacture, additional bonuses are defined for the domestic content of modules, cells, inverters and controllers and mechanical infrastructure. To enable

  1. Renewable enthusiasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffin, Tony

    2000-01-01

    A reduction in energy consumption by the energy intensive sectors will be rewarded by a tax credit. The advantages of renewable sources of energy in terms of reducing emissions of carbon dioxide are extolled. The Government will reward the use of renewables through exemption from the Climate Change Levy. Many major companies are now committed to renewables and Shell predict that 50% of world energy will come from renewables by 2050. World-wide there is now 10,000 MW of installed wind power and the annual rate of growth is more than 20%. Other renewables such as biomass, energy from waste, solar power, hydropower, wind power and tidal power are discussed. The Government would like to see 10% of the UK's electricity coming from renewables by 2010. (UK)

  2. Engaging the banks: financing small-scale renewables in the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, E.; Touhami, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the UN Environment Programme's (UNEP's) work in supporting the banking and financing sector by creating clean energy finance markets in developing countries. Details are given of the shifting of cash markets to credit, financing solar home systems in India, solar thermal lending in Tunisia, the financing of hotel based solar water heating in Morocco, and the Green Village Credit initiatives in the Yunnan province of China. The importance of providing banks with information needed to gain awareness and experience of renewable energy systems is stressed. The fundamentals of a bank engagement programme, financial catalysts, structuring market oriented approaches, and linking bank lending to policy making are discussed along with the need to shift to credit enhancements to help banks set up their first loan portfolios

  3. Engaging the banks: financing small-scale renewables in the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usher, E.; Touhami, M.

    2006-05-15

    This article reports on the UN Environment Programme's (UNEP's) work in supporting the banking and financing sector by creating clean energy finance markets in developing countries. Details are given of the shifting of cash markets to credit, financing solar home systems in India, solar thermal lending in Tunisia, the financing of hotel based solar water heating in Morocco, and the Green Village Credit initiatives in the Yunnan province of China. The importance of providing banks with information needed to gain awareness and experience of renewable energy systems is stressed. The fundamentals of a bank engagement programme, financial catalysts, structuring market oriented approaches, and linking bank lending to policy making are discussed along with the need to shift to credit enhancements to help banks set up their first loan portfolios.

  4. The Science Behind Moravian Meteorological Observations for Late-18th Century Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Dianne; Lüdecke, Cornelia; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    From the time they established their first shelter among the Inuit population of the northern coast of Labrador in 1771, the brethren of the Moravian Church began producing series of daily instrumental and qualitative meteorological observations of significance to science networks of the day (Macpherson, 1987, Demarée & Ogilvie, 2008). Contrary to what is understood, missionaries did not make these observations for their own purposes. Rather, they responded to requests from scientists who commissioned the data. Scientists also equipped these undertakings. The enlightened observers provided handwritten copies that were publicized in England and continental Europe by individuals and their philosophical and scientific institutions. This pattern of producing reliable records specifically for scientists was true for the 15-year span of Moravian meteorological observations for all 3 Labrador stations in the late 18th century; the 40-year span of records for 10 Moravian stations in Labrador and Greenland in the mid-19th century; and the observations from 5 Labrador stations commissioned for the 1st international Polar Year, 1882, and continuing for several decades afterward, and longer in the case of Nain. When Nain data is combined with that from the Canadian meteorological service, we have a relatively straight run from 1882 to 2015. In this paper, we examine the late-18th century Moravian meteorological observations for qualitative information of interest to modern scientific research. The daily entries comprise not only measurements of temperature and air pressure, but also other weather observations, such as wind direction, estimated wind speed, cloudiness, information which has already allowed us to begin tracking polar lows travelling from Labrador to Greenland across the Labrador Sea. The annual missionary reports of Moravians provide critical supplementary data identifying recurring local phenological events in nature, which offer an integrated signal of weather

  5. Linguistic contact in the 18th Century in America: Spanish and Portuguese in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis RAMÍREZ LUENGO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Spanish and Portuguese coexist in several areas of America, almost all studies have focused on the contact situation in the North of Uruguay, and this contact has been hardly considered from a historical point of view. This work tries to mitigate this lack of knowledge in presenting several texts from Paraguay in the 18th century, which show a clear influence from Portuguese. A philological edition of such documents is provided here and a study of linguistic characteristics possibly due to Portuguese influence is made. Our aim is twofold: 1 to describe the linguistic variety used in these written texts in comparison with the synchronic and diachronic data which are already available regarding the Portuguese Dialects in Uruguay (DPU and some other areas; 2 to provide data which could be helpful to understand the idiosyncratic characteristics of the linguistic contact of these two Romance languages and the significance of Portuguese in the shaping (of some linguistic varieties of American Spanish.

  6. Don Cossack Army Charters of the Mid 18th Century Via the Category of Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mihaylovna Sheptukhina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the language means of modality in the texts of military charters of the mid 18th cent. from the "Mikhailovsky stanitza hetman" archive (State Achieve of Volgograd Region. Military charters used to be major documents of legislation within Don Cossack Host, as being at that time an administrative unit in the territory of Russian Empire. The results of the contextual analysis verify the following facts: the charter texts are mainly characterized by an imperative tone of regulation that is caused by coordination between dominant meanings of a propositional (situational modality of necessity and pragmatic modality of volition, that are thought to be interrelated in utterances. The modal meaning of necessity is marked by the verbal construction with an independent infinitive or the combinations of modal verbs (imet' / possess; nadlezhat' / be to, modal predicatives with a dependent infinitive (dolzhen, nadobno, etc. / must (have to. Modality of volition is presented with a set of lexical units that possess the meanings of ordering, permission, offers, verbal forms that are used as performatives, or point to the status of a subject, etc. The texts under study represent some other modal meanings: possibility (with the words moch' / be able to; mozhno / could / may combined with an infinitive, in subordinate clauses with a particle li (if / wether, etc. in an interrogative clauses. In complex sentences with subordination combinations of various modal meanings are observed.

  7. 18th international symposium on environmental pollution and its impact on life in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The 18th International Symposium on environmental pollution and its impact on life in the Mediterranean region was held on September 26-30, 2015 in Crete. Its main theme was sustainable resource use and impact on health and well-being. This is the theme of the current special issue, which is based on the scientific works of the Symposium. This overarching theme was further developed in thematic sessions focusing on the following: - Sustainable natural resource and waste management; - Environmental health and well-being; - Climate change mitigation and adaptation; - Indoor and outdoor air pollution; - Water and soil pollution and control; - Ecotoxicity and biodiversity; - Energy, environment and sustainability; - Environmental aspects of nutrition; - Environmental economics, policy and education. The quality of the presentations was high and several colleagues expressed their interest in publishing their work presented in the symposium into this Special Issue. After a thorough peer review process, where each manuscript was evaluated by two independent reviewers, 70 high quality manuscripts were finally selected for publication.

  8. Establishment of an absolute chronology for the 18th Egyptian Dynasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiles, A.

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of an absolute chronology for Ancient Egypt is an ambition which has concentrated efforts of many scholars since the beginning of Egyptology. Thanks to historical and archaeological documents, a relative chronology of the kings has been built. Only some astrophysical points and synchronisms listed in texts (Greek and Egyptian sources) have given some ankle points which have led to some propositions of absolute chronology. At first, we will see how we can re-calculate some ankle points by using Sothic dating and modelling lunar dates with a Bayesian approach. Then, radiocarbon measurements have been done at Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 (CEA Saclay) on Egyptian short life materials like plants or twigs. These objects come from the Louvre Museum and are attributed to a particular reign and a precise period. With a Bayesian approach, these analyses have been combined with the known succession and length of the reign. Besides, Sothic and lunar dates have been incorporated as a prior in the model. It has led to propose an absolute chronology for the 18th dynasty. Finally, we will discuss the agreement between our results and archaeological evidence and will see if this chronology can highlight points where Egyptologists disagree. (author)

  9. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  10. Reading, writing, drawing and making in the 18th-century instrument trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Florence Grant

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When George Adams assembled a large collection of philosophical instruments for King George III in the early 1760s, he drew on a variety of printed books as sources of experiments and instrument designs. Most important of these was Mathematical Elements of Natural Philosophy by the Dutch mathematician and philosopher Willem ’s Gravesande, whose own collection of instruments is now in the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden. Papers in the Science Museum archives reveal the specific practices through which Adams used books such as Mathematical Elements in the course of his business. These techniques included commonplacing, a widespread method for organising information in the early-modern period; and physically cutting and pasting fragments from engraved illustrations into new drawings, as part of the process of design. These practices connected mobile print with local networks of production. They fundamentally shaped the group of instruments Adams made for George III, and constitute a material link between two important collections of 18th-century instruments: those of ’s Gravesande in Leiden, and those of George III at the Science Museum in London.

  11. The Tatar Tsarevitches in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (15th–18th centuries »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Dumin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the genealogy of the three families of the Tatar tsarevitches (Soltans, settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 15th or early 16th century. The first of these (extinct until the mid 16th century descended from “tsarevitch Sihdohman from Perekop” (in all probability, from khan Sidi Ahmed. The second, tsarevitches Ostrynsky (extinct in the early 17th century, were descendants of the Crimean Giray dynasty. The third, ”tsarevitches Zavolzhsky”, called later “tsarevitches Punsky”, were the descendants of Halleck-Soltan, nephew of the last khan of the Great Horde Shah Ahmat (Sheikh Ahmed and they still existed in the first half of the 18th century. At the beginning of the 16th century these tsarevitches maintained their contacst with the Great Horde and Crimea and played some role in the diplomatic relations of the Grand Duchy and Tatar khanates. Later, they turned into ordinary military landowners, though they occupied the honored place in the Lithuanian Tatar aristocracy and retained their traditional title of tsarevitches (though often they also titled princes, like other noble Tatars.

  12. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INTRODUCTION OF MODERN SCIENCE TO PORTUGAL DURING THE 18th CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TERESA CASTELÃO-LAWLESS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the role played by members of the Society of Jesus, the Order of the Oratorians, and the Jewish community in the introduction of Modern science in Portugal during the 18th century. The record of their publications prove, contrary to common stereotypes on the permanent conflict between science and religion, that they all embraced Modern, anti-Aristotelian, natural philosophy fairly equally and unreservedly. The rhetoric they used in manuscript Dedications to prospective patrons also show that they were actively engaged in shifting Modern science from a context of private consumption to one of public circulation. I acknowledgethat the dissemination of Modern science in Portugal during the 1700’s was slow and protracted. This phenomenon, however, was not, as typically argued, caused by scientific conservatism on the part of the religious Orders, or the ill will of patrons of the sciences, but by the political motives of enlightened despots João V, José I and his Prime-Minister the Marquis of Pombal.

  13. The Saami drums and the religious encounter in the 17th and 18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Rydving

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available From the end of the 17th to the middle of the 18th century much of the confrontation between indigenous Saami religion and Christianity was focused on the drums. The Saamis of both Denmark—Norway and Sweden—Finland had been christianized for decade. The main problem for the Church authorities turned out to be that of making the Saamis abandon their indigenous religious customs. From the end of the 17th century, an intense period of propaganda and coercion began to make the Saamis abandon these non Christian elements in their religion. For the Saamis, the drums represented their threatened culture, the resistance against the Christian claim to exclusiveness, and a striving to preserve traditional values. The drums had a twofold role to play in the religious encounter. They were both foci of the confrontation and sources documenting and structuring it. The fight between old and new beliefs is to some extent possible to follow in the records from the district and county courts. These records give us access to Saami arguments and views of the importance of the drums in Saami society. The function of the drums as instruments for a Saami description of the encounter is, however, difficult to make out. The drum figures are difficult to interpret and there are a number of alternative ways of understanding their meaning.

  14. 18th international symposium on environmental pollution and its impact on life in the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-08-01

    The 18th International Symposium on environmental pollution and its impact on life in the Mediterranean region was held on September 26-30, 2015 in Crete. Its main theme was sustainable resource use and impact on health and well-being. This is the theme of the current special issue, which is based on the scientific works of the Symposium. This overarching theme was further developed in thematic sessions focusing on the following: - Sustainable natural resource and waste management; - Environmental health and well-being; - Climate change mitigation and adaptation; - Indoor and outdoor air pollution; - Water and soil pollution and control; - Ecotoxicity and biodiversity; - Energy, environment and sustainability; - Environmental aspects of nutrition; - Environmental economics, policy and education. The quality of the presentations was high and several colleagues expressed their interest in publishing their work presented in the symposium into this Special Issue. After a thorough peer review process, where each manuscript was evaluated by two independent reviewers, 70 high quality manuscripts were finally selected for publication.

  15. Renewed conception of nuclear sharing in solving the world power problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Orlov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    The necessity of measures for timely preparation of new technologies for replacement of chemical fuel is discussed in connection with forecasted triplication of the world electrical energy production in the middle of the century. Nuclear fission is considered practically as the only version for stabilization of the oil and gas resources consumption. Development of nuclear technologies is concentrated at their evolutionary improvement. The fast reactors are considered in forecasts and programs to be used basically for the burnup of plutonium and long-living nuclides, accumulated in the light-water reactors

  16. Investigation of a possible 18th century Dutch shipwreck on Christmas Island or the Cocos (Keeling) Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariese, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    The existence of an unidentified 18th century Dutch shipwreck emerges periodically in books, letters and conversations about Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. An investigation of these sources indicated that different ships may be responsible for these rumours, but it is equally

  17. The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

  18. Radiomorphometric indices of mandibular bones in an 18th century population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanišević Malčić, Ana; Matijević, Jurica; Vodanović, Marin; Knezović Zlatarić, Dubravka; Prpić Mehičić, Goranka; Jukić, Silvana

    2015-05-01

    To estimate four radiomorphometric indices of mandibular bones in an 18th century population sample, and possibly associate the findings with bone mass loss related to sex, age, nutritional habits and pathologies reflecting on the bone. Thirty-six sculls (31 males, 5 females), recovered from the crypt of Požega Cathedral in Croatia were analyzed. Age estimation was based on tooth wear, and Eichner class was determined according to the number of occlusal supporting zones. The parameters in recording analogue orthopantomographs were set to constant current of 16 mA, exposure time of 14.1s, and voltage between 62-78 kV. Films were processed in an automatic dark chamber processor for 12 min, and digitized at 8-bit, 300 dpi. The thickness of the mandibular cortex was assessed below the mental foramen (MI), at antegonion (AI), at gonion (GI). Qualitative mandibular cortical index (MCI) was assessed. Average values of MI, AI and GI were 3.97 ± 0.94 mm, 2.98 ± 0.56 mm, and 1.99 ± 0.55 mm, respectively. Statistically significant differences between males and females were found for AI right (p=0.014), GI left (p=0.010) and GI average (p=0.006), and were in all cases higher in males. There were no statistically significant differences between age groups for either index (p>0.05). Considering Eichner classification the differences were not significant for MI (p=0.422), AI (p=0.516), and GI (p=0.443), but in Eichner classes II, MCI was significantly higher (p=0.02). The obtained data does not suggest generalized malnutrition or calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D deprivation in the historic population studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  20. The world market of renewable energies. Trends on the long term for the solar, wind and hydraulic sectors - Which growth strategies for equipment manufacturers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This study first proposes an analysis of data related to the renewable energy market context. It aims at identifying the current and future impact of environmental factors on actors. It focuses on structural evolutions as opposed to cyclical factors. It also gives an overview of the evolution of World demand in the fields of conventional and renewable energies, and proposes a detailed analysis of three main segments: solar, wind, and hydraulic energy. The second part reports an analysis of the structure of the sector of electric equipment manufacturing for the production of energy by using clean or renewable sources, with a focus on solar, wind and hydraulic energies. Strategies are discussed, notably for the main operators (First Solar, Goldwind, Q-Cells, Suntech Power, Suzlon, and Vestas). The next part presents financial and economic data (and their evolution) for the world main equipment manufacturers (the above-mentioned ones and Alstom, Dongfang, General Electric, Siemens)

  1. 100% Clean, Renewable Wind, Water, and Solar Roadmaps for 139 Countries of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Significant prior research has focused on the health, climate, and other environmental and social impacts of gas and aerosol particle emissions from fossil fuel and biofuel combustion. Given the magnitude and costs of the impacts, large-scale conversions of these fuels to non-emitting sources of energy are warranted. This talk discusses technical and economic roadmaps to convert the energy infrastructures of each of 139 countries of the world to those powered by 100% non-emitting wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) for all purposes, namely electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, industry, and agriculture/forestry/fishing, after energy efficiency measures have been accounted for. These roadmaps are developed with a methodology similar to that recently derived for each of the 50 United States. Reliability of 100% WWS systems is crucial. To that end, results showing the ability of the United States to maintain a 100% reliable grid with a 100% WWS system are discussed as well. Please see http://web.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/WWS-50-USState-plans.html for more information.

  2. Renewal through Participation in Global Food Security Governance: Implementing the International Food Security and Nutrition Civil Society Mechanism to the Committee on World Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, J.A.B.; Barling, D.

    2012-01-01

    The food commodity price rises from 2006 to 2008 engendered a period
    of political renewal and reform in the governance of global food security. The
    Committee on World Food Security (CFS) was designated as the main international forum dealing with food security and nutrition in 2009 as part

  3. Some Notes About Medical Vocabulary in 18th Century New Spain: Technical and Colloquial Words for the Denomination of Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis RAMÍREZ LUENGO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the 18th Century medical vocabulary is something that has been studied during recent years in Spain, the situation is very different in Latin America, where papers on this subject are very limited. In this case, this paper aims to study the denominations for illnesses that were discovered in a 18th Century New Spain document corpus: to do so, the corpus will be described and then the vocabulary used in the documents will be analysed; the paper will pay special attention to questions such as neologisms, fluctuating words and the presence of colloquial vocabulary. Thus, the purposes of the paper are three: 1 to demonstrate the importance of official documents for the study of medical vocabulary; 2 to provide some data for writing the history of this vocabulary; and 3 to note some analyses that should be done in the future. 

  4. State Reforms in the Field of Education in Russia (Late 18th-Early 19th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya M. Rumyantseva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the state policy of Russia in the field of education during the late 18th - early 19th centuries. This period is characterized by a great democratization of education and the definition of new goals, objectives and content of education: the professional training of a young person becomes inseparable from the education of a citizen - a patriot of a state and a broadly enlightened personality in different sciences. The paper analyzed historical documents (orders of Russian emperors concerning public education, school and university statutes, historical references. In the chronological order, state reforms in the field of education in Russia were constructed and characterized at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries, the statistical data on the number of pupils, teachers and schools within the period under review were presented.

  5. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-05

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  6. Conference Report: 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD) 2016: MAXQDA User Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Galan-Diaz, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    During the first week of March 2016, 120 researchers from 12 different countries, including Syria, Japan, the USA and Turkey, met in Berlin (Germany) to learn more about their computer-assisted qualitative data analysis skills. The 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD) offered several workshops, a research methods poster session, and the opportunity to share and discuss best practice between attendees, trainers and speakers (informally and through the user foru...

  7. Homily of 18th - early 19th century as source of science about vital values of a Russian cleric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Альберт Иванович Есюков

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the value aspects of the gospels of the 18th century. It demonstrates the real importance of the heritage of the major Russian theologians for understanding of the basic value focus of the national culture. To achieve this, the article analyses the ideas of labour, wealth and poverty, «personal benefit» and «public welfare», the balance between theonomy and autonomy, «eternity» and everyday life.

  8. Shapes and geometries underlying the religious architecture in the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Giuliano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Eastern Sicily , the 18th century was deeply characterized by an artistic renovation linked to the rebuilding fervor following  the catastrophic events which hit the NOTO VALLEY at the end of the 17th century. It was also characterized by the new needs of the counterreformation spirit.As far as this period is concerned, the research work tends to develop a new methodology of critical review on the works that, both on small and big scales, have characterized the inner and outer spaces of religious buildings, their altars and their facades.These works testify the circulation of cultural shapes and models, in both regional and national areas, in a dimension which widely overflows the local area and all its limited elaborations.It is difficult to diachronically read these works which are apart from important cultural centres, because there are very few historical documents which can testify the architectural design.The research work is based on a double analysis which, taking into account the deeply symbolic elements of the religious architectural expression, traces, on one hand the possible references to the literature of that period in order to identify its models; on the other hand it tries to find out connections among the typical elements of the surveyed area through a geometrical investigation.The aim is to promote a more and more effective preserving and developing action  of a less famous religious heritage. Thanks to the collection of cultural information, it is possible to gather valuable elements, on both small and big scales, in less famous areas which are apart from the most popular tracks.For this reason the first part of this study focuses its attention on the development of an analysis system which makes it possible to read in a syncretic way, the inevitable contaminations with the literature dating back to the Renaissance, which can be found in the religious architecture of the Noto Valley during that peculiar, cultural period

  9. Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum: Early 18th century botanical drawings of medicinal plants from colonial Ceylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Andel, Tinde; Scholman, Ariane; Beumer, Mieke

    2018-04-27

    snakebites. Many plants are characterised by their humoral properties, of which 'warming' is the most prevalent. Plant species were mostly used for their roots (28%), bark (16%) or leaves (11%). More Tamil names (260) were documented than Sinhalese (208). More than half of the Tamil names and 36% of the Sinhalese names are still used today. The author was probably a VOC surgeon based in northern Sri Lanka, who travelled around the island to document medicinal plant use. Less than half of the species were previously documented from Ceylon by the famous VOC doctor and botanist Paul Hermann in the 1670s. Further archival research is needed to identify the maker of this manuscript. Although the maker of this early 18th century manuscript remains unknown, the detailed, 300-year-old information on medicinal plant use in the Icones Plantarum Malabaricarum represents an important ethnobotanical treasure for Sri Lanka, which offers ample opportunities to study changes and continuation of medicinal plant names and practices over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. THE RUSSIAN LITERATURE OF THE 18th CENTURY: BETWEEN THE RATIO OF ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE ORTHODOX TRADITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Andreevich Esaulov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the relationship between the rationalism, inherent in the Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century, and the Russian Orthodox traditon. The author raises the question whether it is true that in the Russian literature of the 18th century the Old Testament’s God (and, therefore, the Law prevails, as it was postulated by Y. Lotman and other researchers, or whether the Old Testament texts were seen by Russian writers through the perspective of New Testament’s Grace due to such dominant concepts of the Russian culture as sobornost, paskhalnost, and Christocentrism. Thus, in the Russian Orthodox tradition the Psalter does not represent the God of the Old Testament, rather it shows the Christianized understanding of the God in the New Testament. In the cultural unconscious mind of a Russian person, which had a strong influence on the individual creative work of our poets, the Psalter is an integral part of the very Orthodox Сhurch, the Orthodox divine service. When analyzing the versification of psalms by Russian poets of the 18th century, one should not ignore this situation. This article demonstrates the influence of the Orthodox tradition on the poetics of a fable as one of the most ancient genres. The author reconstructs the cultural context of the last decade of the 20th century and outlines new perspectives in the study of a transition period between the Russian Middle Ages and the early modern period.

  11. “NOBLE MORALITY”: THE 18TH ḤADĪTH OF IMAM AN-NAWAWI'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This paper proposes a strategy for change in Nigeria from an Islamic perspective. The .... the state and the populace as well as in the corporate world, it should be ..... This study discusses the idea of change by exploring the noble approach.

  12. A forgotten account: Anselm Eckart and the 18th Century Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Porro

    2011-01-01

    The almost unknown "Additional notes on the description of the lands of Brazil", by German Jesuit Anselm Eckart (1721-1809), deserves great interest for Amazonian studies. Eckart, who joined for five years (1753-1757) the Maranhão and Grão-Pará missions, published his own observations appended to another author's book on Amazonian natural and social world. The "Additional notes" chapters concerning Indian tribes' customs and situation under colonial rule are here translated by Thekla Hartmann...

  13. Changing Climates. The Role of Renewable Energy in a Carbon-Constrained World. A Paper Prepared for REN21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.; Denton, F.; Garg, A.; Kamel, S.; Pacudan, R.; Usher, E.

    2005-12-01

    The current paper on renewable energy and climate change is focused on the key characteristics of the climate change challenge, the intergovernmental action to address the challenge, and how current and future renewable energy projects can contribute to global carbon mitigation and adaptation efforts at the local level. The report presents the current and possible different future contributions that renewable energy can make. This is based on analysis of different authoritative global scenarios and their underlying assumptions, and is aimed at providing guidance on what would be required in terms of policy decisions and technological developments if renewable energy is going to significantly mitigate climate change. Although the focus is particularly on climate change and the opportunities for renewable energy, other issues are closely interlinked. Reducing GHG emissions by introducing more renewable energy, for example, will also have positive impacts on the security of energy supply, while potentially compounding the need for investment capital. The report begins with the current global energy demand and the contribution of renewable energy to meeting that demand. Next, different key internationally recognised energy development scenarios are presented from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Energy Agency (IEA), together with selected policy scenarios of very different specific options to mitigate climate change and stabilize CO2 levels in the range of 450-550 ppm. These scenarios are presented with both high and limited penetrations of renewable energy, along with discussions of underlying assumptions leading to these different results, including comparisons of projected technology costs. Existing policies worldwide to promote renewable energy are then analysed for their relative efficiency and results. Guidance is presented on the possible policy tools governments can use to move from the stipulated 'business

  14. Changing Climates. The Role of Renewable Energy in a Carbon-Constrained World. A Paper Prepared for REN21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, J.; Denton, F.; Garg, A.; Kamel, S.; Pacudan, R. [UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development URC, Roskilde (Denmark); Usher, E. [UNEP Energy Unit, Paris (France)

    2005-12-15

    The current paper on renewable energy and climate change is focused on the key characteristics of the climate change challenge, the intergovernmental action to address the challenge, and how current and future renewable energy projects can contribute to global carbon mitigation and adaptation efforts at the local level. The report presents the current and possible different future contributions that renewable energy can make. This is based on analysis of different authoritative global scenarios and their underlying assumptions, and is aimed at providing guidance on what would be required in terms of policy decisions and technological developments if renewable energy is going to significantly mitigate climate change. Although the focus is particularly on climate change and the opportunities for renewable energy, other issues are closely interlinked. Reducing GHG emissions by introducing more renewable energy, for example, will also have positive impacts on the security of energy supply, while potentially compounding the need for investment capital. The report begins with the current global energy demand and the contribution of renewable energy to meeting that demand. Next, different key internationally recognised energy development scenarios are presented from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the International Energy Agency (IEA), together with selected policy scenarios of very different specific options to mitigate climate change and stabilize CO2 levels in the range of 450-550 ppm. These scenarios are presented with both high and limited penetrations of renewable energy, along with discussions of underlying assumptions leading to these different results, including comparisons of projected technology costs. Existing policies worldwide to promote renewable energy are then analysed for their relative efficiency and results. Guidance is presented on the possible policy tools governments can use to move from the stipulated &apos

  15. Review on 18th Revision of 'Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jihye; Lee, Chansuh

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) has established a guideline and continued to revise it in accordance with ever-changing international situation and developing technology. The Part 1 of guideline, 'Guidelines of Nuclear Transfers' covers the Trigger List items which triggers safeguards as a condition of supply. Currently NSG has published the 12 th revised guideline (INFCIRC/254/Rev.12/Part1) in November 2013. Korean government fully reflected the guideline to its national legislation to implement in accordance with internationally agreed standard. The export control of nuclear strategic items in Korea is responsibility of Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), which entrusted the technical review of the work to Korea Institute of Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC). The specific guidelines for the technical review are stipulated in Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items with other strategic items usable to other Weapons of Mass Destruction. The Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy approved the 18 th revision of Notice on Export and Import of Strategic Items on 31 January 2014 as Notice no. 2014-15, which strictly follows the NSG guideline. The 18 th revision of the notice reflects the final proposals agreed from the last Dedicated Meeting of Technical Experts (DMTE) of NSG's Consultative Group (CG) in April 2013. The 3-year-DMTE offered the 'fundamental, holistic approach to the technical review' within the international framework of NSG, rather than sporadic endeavors by individual states in the past. The 18 th version itself has meaning in that the final products of the international technical review were reflected in the Korean national legislation of nuclear export control. It addressed various changes in control text in technical, contextual, and editorial aspects. The revision is analyzed herein concentrating only on technical and semantic changes in control text

  16. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  17. Management accounting and rationalisation in the Army: The case of Spanish Military Hospitals in the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Baños Sánchez-Matamoros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with one of the most neglected areas of research in accounting, that of the Army. In spite of the literature on industries related to the Army, not too much has been extended on the Army per se. For this reason, this paper analyses the process of rationalization developed in the 18th century in Spanish Army Hospitals, as a result of the bankruptcy of the Royal Finances. Due to this process, the Military Hospitals were the most developed in the country, and it led to the emergence of the Contralor (Controller within the hospital, and thus accounting was considered as an essential matter.

  18. A forgotten account: Anselm Eckart and the 18th Century Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Porro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The almost unknown "Additional notes on the description of the lands of Brazil", by German Jesuit Anselm Eckart (1721-1809, deserves great interest for Amazonian studies. Eckart, who joined for five years (1753-1757 the Maranhão and Grão-Pará missions, published his own observations appended to another author's book on Amazonian natural and social world. The "Additional notes" chapters concerning Indian tribes' customs and situation under colonial rule are here translated by Thekla Hartmann and are commented by the author.

  19. Tree rings reveal a major episode of forest mortality in the late 18th century on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ouya; Alfaro, René I.; Zhang, Qi-Bin

    2018-04-01

    There is a growing research interest on studying forest mortality in relation to ongoing climate warming, but little is known about such events in past history. The study of past forest mortality provides valuable information for determining baselines that establish the normal parameters of functioning in forest ecosystems. Here we report a major episode of previously undocumented forest mortality in the late 18th century on the northern Tibetan Plateau, China. The event was not spatially uniform, in which a more severe mortality happened in dryer sites. We used dendrochronology to compare radial growth trajectories of individual trees from 11 sites in the region, and found that many trees showed positive growth trend, or growth release, during 1796-1800 CE. Growth releases are a proxy indicator of stand thinning caused by tree mortality. The growth release was preceded by an almost two-decade long growth reduction. Long-term drought related to weakened North Atlantic Oscillation and frequent El Niño events are the likely factors causing the tree mortality in a large area of the plateau. Our findings suggest that, besides the effect of drought in the late 18th century, large-scale forest mortality may be an additional factor that further deteriorated the environment and increased the intensity of dust storms.

  20. The Teaching of Astronomy in Jesuit Colleges in the 18th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanovas, J.

    On the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the foundation of the astronomical observatory at the college and seminary of Nagyszombat in 1755, it may be of interest to say something about the colleges of the Society of Jesus. The presence of the Jesuits there was brief, only two decades, as under the pressure of various external forces, the Jesuit Order was suppressed by Pope Clement XIV with the bull Dominus ac Redemptor on 23 July 1773. All the colleges that the Society had been running successfully all over the world either were closed, taken over by the governments, or given to the local bishops. Shortly after the Jesuits left the college of Nagyszombat, the king transferred it to Buda, where it gave rise to modern institutions of higher education derived. When Pope Pius VII returned to Rome after the Napoleonic wars, one of the first things he did was to reestablish the Society of Jesus in 1814. Old Jesuits, survivors of so many disgraces, joined younger Jesuits from Russia and Poland where in fact the order had never been suppressed. The most important of the Jesuit colleges, the Collegium Romanum in Rome, was given back to the Society of Jesus in 1823. Many other colleges were lost forever, but new ones were founded to continue the Society's previous successful activity.

  1. THE RESPECT OF PHILOSOPHY FOR RELIGION AND THEOLOGY IN EUROPE DURING THE END OF THE 17TH CENTURY AND THE BEGINNING OF THE 18TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan N. ROŞCA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author argues that the philosophers from the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century, regardless if they were empiricist or rationalist, showed respect for religion, as well by their admittance of God, as by the adoption of religious morality. Ontologically, the thinkers from the above mentioned period have identified God with the supreme substance, which, by the attribute of scope and that of thought, as Spinoza considered, or, by the extended or omnipresent substance and thoughtful or omniscient substance, as the Deists stated, makes God intrinsic to the world of things and,respectively, to the human souls. Ethically, thev thinkers we consider here argued that, being created by God, human souls have enrooted in them the divine principles of moral conduct as well as the freedom of choice between good and evil. The philosophers of Enlightenment reaffirmed the above indicated correlations between philosophy and religion, merely criticizing the behavior of some of the members of clergy, but not exactly the Christian doctrine. The author argues that, at present, given the identified interferences between philosophy, on the one hand, and theology and religion, on the other hand, they could and should be cultivated as consistent and not conflicting forms, which would contribute to the affirmation of the unified and harmonious spirit of contemporary human being and to the revival or, even more, to the retrieval of her moral conduct.

  2. Venusians: the Planet Venus in the 18th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duner, David

    2013-05-01

    In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became possible to believe in the existence of life on other planets on scientific grounds. Once the Earth was no longer the center of the universe according to Copernicus, once Galileo had aimed his telescope at the Moon and found it a rough globe with mountains and seas, the assumption of life on other planets became much less far-fetched. In general there were no actual differences between Earth and Venus, since both planets orbited the Sun, were of similar size, and possessed mountains and an atmosphere. If there is life on Earth, one may ponder why it could not also exist on Venus. In the extraterrestrial life debate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Moon, our closest celestial body, was the prime candidate for life on other worlds, although a number of scientists and scholars also speculated about life on Venus and on other planets, both within our solar system and beyond its frontiers. This chapter discusses the arguments for life on Venus and those scientific findings that were used to support them, which were based in particular on assumptions and claims that both mountains and an atmosphere had been found on Venus. The transits of Venus in the 1760s became especially important for the notion that life could thrive on Venus. Here, I detect two significant cognitive processes that were at work in the search for life on Venus, i.e., analogical reasoning and epistemic perception, while analogies and interpretations of sensory impressions based on prior knowledge played an important role in astrobiological theories.

  3. Dietary habits in New France during the 17th and 18th centuries: An isotopic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeant, J; Ribot, I; Hélie, J-F

    2017-03-01

    Little attention has been given, so far, to the early colonial diet in New France from an isotopic perspective. Historical records that compare France to New France suggest a shift toward a more diverse diet, including a higher protein intake due to an improvement in living conditions in the New World, despite the retention of ancestral dietary habits. This hypothesis will be explored here. Stable carbon (organic and mineral) and nitrogen isotopes were measured on 43 individuals from Notre Dame cemetery (first Catholic parish church cemetery in Montreal, 1683-1803) as well as 13 French compatriots from La Rochelle, France (Protestant Hospital Cemetery, 1765-1792). Intragroup variation (age at death, sex, and/or burial location) was investigated and compared to compiled data from various northeastern North American sites (N = 99). The Notre Dame sample means are as follows: -19.6‰ versus VPDB for δ 13 C collagen , -12.22‰ versus VPDB for δ 13 C carbonate , and 11.5‰ versus AIR for δ 15 N. They are significantly lower than both La Rochelle (-18.4‰, -11.67‰, and 12.7‰, respectively, p ≤ .005) and the northeastern North American groups used for this comparison (p = .000). The isotopic values obtained from Notre Dame cemetery suggest that the diet was mainly based on C 3 resources with limited C 4 resources. Although different from all comparable contemporary sites, colonial Montreal's diet remains most similar to La Rochelle, France. This study agrees with historians who have suggested that French dietary traditions seem to have been retained among the early colonial inhabitants of Montreal. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Certainties, Uncertainties and Expectations Regarding the Salvation of the Soul. Eschatological beliefs in New Spain, 16th-18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela von Wobeser

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the prevailing collective imaginary in New Spain regarding the place and life of the dead in the afterlife, as well as the beliefs and expectations about the salvation or damnation of the souls, between the 16th and 18th centuries. The essay analyzes issues such as the idea of life’s frailty and the fear of death, and refers to the road of salvation offered by the Church, as well as to a number of practices leading to it, such as indulgences, good deeds and the donation of pious works. It also discusses the influence of these religious beliefs and practices on the customs, social relations, education, culture and economy of the people of New Spain.

  5. From the history of Săseni village of the Orhei County in 15th-18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Onilă

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a documentary research of the history of establishment of Săseni village in Orhei County, which was formed in the second stage of the population of Moldova, during 15th-18th centuries. According to the documents, the first owner of the village was mentioned in the charter of Stephen II of March 6, 1443 as “pan Ivan Boldur”, who sold this place to “God-loving pan Mihul the scribe”. In the 16th century the settlement came into the possession of State Treasurer Mire Călugărul, the progenitor of the family of Bulat and a ktitor of the Hîrjauca Monastery. This article also presents the place, the specifics of the village in the administrative apparatus of Ţara Moldovei, its demographics and socio-economic development.

  6. Conference Report: 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD 2016: MAXQDA User Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Galan-Diaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the first week of March 2016, 120 researchers from 12 different countries, including Syria, Japan, the USA and Turkey, met in Berlin (Germany to learn more about their computer-assisted qualitative data analysis skills. The 18th Conference on Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQD offered several workshops, a research methods poster session, and the opportunity to share and discuss best practice between attendees, trainers and speakers (informally and through the user forum. The conference also hosted three seminal keynote speakers in two presentations: John CRESWELL, and Udo KUCKARTZ and Stefan RÄDIKER, who shared, respectively, the state of the art of mixed methods and the ways that software can support these approaches. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs170146

  7. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de la Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos

    2017-11-14

    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  8. Early meteorological records from Latin-America and the Caribbean during the 18th and 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Castro, Fernando; Vaquero, José Manuel; Gallego, María Cruz; Farrona, Ana María Marín; Antuña-Marrero, Juan Carlos; Cevallos, Erika Elizabeth; Herrera, Ricardo García; de La Guía, Cristina; Mejía, Raúl David; Naranjo, José Manuel; Del Rosario Prieto, María; Ramos Guadalupe, Luis Enrique; Seiner, Lizardo; Trigo, Ricardo Machado; Villacís, Marcos

    2017-11-01

    This paper provides early instrumental data recovered for 20 countries of Latin-America and the Caribbean (Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, British Guiana, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, France (Martinique and Guadalupe), Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador and Suriname) during the 18th and 19th centuries. The main meteorological variables retrieved were air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and precipitation, but other variables, such as humidity, wind direction, and state of the sky were retrieved when possible. In total, more than 300,000 early instrumental data were rescued (96% with daily resolution). Especial effort was made to document all the available metadata in order to allow further post-processing. The compilation is far from being exhaustive, but the dataset will contribute to a better understanding of climate variability in the region, and to enlarging the period of overlap between instrumental data and natural/documentary proxies.

  9. Virtopsy shows a high status funerary treatment in an early 18th Dynasty non-royal individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loynes, Robert D; Charlier, Philippe; Froesch, Philippe; Houlton, Tobias M R; Lallo, Rudy; Di Vella, Giancarlo; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2017-09-01

    This work presents the multidisciplinary investigation of the head of Nebiri (Museo Egizio, Turin S_5109), Chief of Stables, a high status elite person from the 18th Dynasty involving MDCT, 3D brain surface and facial reconstructions accompanied by a consideration of previously presented chemical analysis of the embalming materials found in fragments of bandages used on the head and viscera (lung) found in one of the four canopic jars. Comparison of the techniques used for the cosmetic treatment of Nebiri with those used in other elite and high status non-royal persons confirms the validity of the use of the term "high status elite" in the case of Nebiri. This case highlights the importance of using modern forensic techniques both to enhance new technologies of retrospective diagnosis on altered human remains and to increase knowledge of past populations.

  10. Documents of judicial institutions in the 80-90's 18th century in the State Archives of Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posunko, O. M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the documents of the juridical instances of Yekaterinoslav vicegerency in the 80-90ies of the 18th century. The study is based on the materials of the State Archives of the Dnipropetrovsk region. It was considerer their information possibilities for region history. The data is interesting for historians from South and Left-bank Ukraine. In the fullness of time the part of the former land of Hetmanate was the part of the Yekaterinoslav province. Therefore many cases are showing real use of standards of Little Russian Law especially in the areas of the inheritance and matrimonial law. By the South Ukraine history analyzed documents give information about the development of trade; the formation of landed proprietorship in the region; the work of various government institutions. Also a lot of stories to the social history of the region which is very important in limited capacity of source base.

  11. Proceedings of the 18th Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop on Quantum Aspects of Beam Physics (QABP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin

    2002-01-01

    The 18th Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop on ''Quantum Aspects of Beam Physics'' was held from October 15 to 20, 2000, in Capri, Italy. This was the second workshop under the same title. The first one was held in Monterey, California, in January, 1998. Following the footstep of the first meeting, the second one in Capri was again a tremendous success, both scientifically and socially. About 70 colleagues from astrophysics, atomic physics, beam physics, condensed matter physics, particle physics, and general relativity gathered to update and further explore the topics covered in the Monterey workshop. Namely, the following topics were actively discussed: (1) Quantum Fluctuations in Beam Dynamics; (2) Photon-Electron Interaction in Beam handling; (3) Physics of Condensed Beams; (4) Beam Phenomena under Strong Fields; (5) Quantum Methodologies in Beam Physics. In addition, there was a newly introduced subject on Astro-Beam Physics and Laboratory Astrophysics

  12. Writings of St. Augustine as is the Case in Polemical Theology Middle of the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigor'ev Anton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of the relation to the works of St. Augustine and the views of the representatives of the conservative theological episcopal start community — the middle of the 18th century. Metropolitan Stefan (Yavorsky svyaschennomuchennika Metropolitan Arseny (Matseevich and Archbishop Theophylact (Lopatinskii. Analyzing quoting St. Augustine in the work of Russian scholars, we can understand how and for what purposes they are treated to the authority of the ancient saint in what consisted their difference from the progressive part of the so-called “Russian avgustinistov”. As research shows, these authors are actively turning to the works of St. Augustine and quoted many times in his various works, but it does not make them representatives of the so-called “Russian Augustinian”. They use the authority of St. Augustine, to neutralize the possibility of using its own theological and political opponents.It should also be noted that due to the insufficient level of study of the works of the traditionalists of the 18th century., most of which are not only studied, but have not been published, and some are only open for the study of the manuscript. For this reason, it is impossible to adequately assess the level of reception of the ideas of St. Augustine in the Russian theology of the early period of the Synod. It can be concluded that they have the choice was made in favor of the perception of Augustine as the interpreter of Sacred Scripture, whose poetic images fi ll their sermons poetic and theological content, leading to edify necessary for the preacher to the moral conclusion.

  13. Croatian Pilgrimages to Loreto from the 5000 Documents of the "Croatian Maritime Regesta" in the 18th Century - vol. I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Podhraški Čizmek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a small part of the pilgrimages undertaken by Croats during the 18th century across the Adriatic Sea to Loreto. The pilgrimages are described as a sui generis phenomenon of all human and religious societies. The history of the Catholic pilgrimage is analyzed through the perspective of common roots with Judaism and Islam, and the subsequent differentiation from other Christian confessions. Relations of the Croats with overseas territories since the 14th century are described, as well as their settlement in the hinterland of Ancona: Recanati and Loreto. The story of the Shrine of the Our Lady of Loreto is presented, the ties with the Croats settled there, and the foundation of a special seminary for Croats in 1580: the Illyrian College. During the review of the 4,890 documentary sources of volume I of the Croatian Maritime Regesta, a smaller segment of sources was found from the State Archive of Venice on the subject of pilgrimages. These sources list 44 pilgrimages from various locations on the Croatian coast. The types of ships they traveled on, the origin of the passengers, their number, organization in groups, the time of pilgrimage and the time of the year in which they occurred are analyzed. The most numerous pilgrims are from Lošinj (Lussino, followed by Cres (Cherso, Dugi Otok (Isola Lunga, Rovinj (Rovigno, Labin (Albona, Korčula (Curzola, Zadar (Zara and Vis (Lissa.This work is a contribution to the study of the links between the two sides of the Adriatic in the 18th century, which requires further publication and analysis of documentary sources.

  14. Geschlechtermodelle im spanischen Roman des 18. Jahrhunderts Constructions of Gender in the 18th Century Spanish Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gronemann

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Während Spanien lange Zeit als „Land ohne Aufklärung“ galt und das 18. Jahrhundert auch in der deutschen Hispanistik ein Randgebiet gegenüber der Masse an Studien etwa zum Siglo de Oro darstellte, wandelt sich diese Tendenz zunehmend. Beinahe zeitgleich erschienen jetzt zwei Dissertationen zum spanischen 18. Jahrhundert, die sich auf der Basis von Korpus und Fragestellung sehr gut vergleichen lassen. Wenn dieses Jahrhundert im Anschluss an die Brüder Goncourt (La femme au XVIIIe siècle, 1852 wiederholt als das der Frau apostrophiert wurde, scheint es kein Zufall, dass sich beide mit „Geschlechterentwürfen“ (Kilian bzw. dem „Bild der Frau“ (Hertel-Mesenhöller im spanischen Roman befassen. Spanien hat nicht nur Anteil an der europäischen Aufklärung, auch wenn sich diese als patriotische und christliche Ilustración „von oben“ erweist, sondern ebenso an einem übergreifenden Wandel der Geschlechterkonstellation, welcher unter dem Begriff der Naturalisierung des Geschlechtsunterschieds in die Gender Studies eingegangen ist. Beide Verfasserinnen untersuchen die diskursiven Manifestationen dieses Wandels im Roman und problematisieren, ob und inwiefern die jeweiligen Weiblichkeitsentwürfe einem spezifischen Aufklärungsprogramm entsprechen. Dabei greifen sie gegenwärtige Theorieentwicklungen ganz unterschiedlich auf.For the longest time, Spain used to be considered the “country without enlightenment”, and the 18th century was only assigned a marginal position in Hispanic Studies in Germany, compared to the large number of studies on the Siglo de Oro darstellte. However, this tendency has recently changed. Two dissertations on 18th century Spain have just been published; both works are comparable in terms of their corpus and the research questions they investigate. If, following the Goncourt brothers (La femme au XVIIIe siècle, 1852, the 18th century has repeatedly been called the century of the woman, it does not seem

  15. Initial letters on the pages of Ukrainian old printed books of the 17th-18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukhymets H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to such a complicated and little studied element of artistic decoration of Ukrainian printed books of the 17th-18th centuries as capital letters. The authors research old printed books from the collection of imprints of the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra’s typography. Various topics, iconography, compositional and artistic stylistic features of miniature illustrations of initial letters, their location on book pages, content correspondence or discrepancy with a text, usage of one clichй in various editions provide multiple new possibilities to researchers. Especially the authors accentuate iconography of gospel and life subjects, as well as the source studies analysis of initial letters, which in Ukrainian old printed editions of Baroque epoch impress with innovation of subject development and the ambition for original decisions of complex compositional tasks conditioned not only by the size and format of an initial, but also by the form and location of the letter itself in a certain decorative space.

  16. Evidence for tuberculosis in 18th/19th century slaves in Anse Sainte-Marguerite (Guadeloupe - French Western Indies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösch, Sandra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Dutour, Olivier; Courtaud, Patrice; Maixner, Frank; Romon, Thomas; Sola, Christophe; Zink, Albert

    2015-06-01

    During the American colonization in the 18th and 19th century, Africans were captured and shipped to America. Harsh living and working conditions often led to chronic diseases and high mortality rates. Slaves in the Caribbean were forced to work mainly on sugar plantations. They were buried in cemeteries like Anse Sainte-Marguerite on the isle of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) which was examined by archaeologists and physical anthropologists. Morphological studies on osseous remains of 148 individuals revealed 15 cases with signs for bone tuberculosis and a high frequency of periosteal reactions which indicates early stages of the disease. 11 bone samples from these cemeteries were analysed for ancient DNA. The samples were extracted with established procedures and examined for the cytoplasmic multicopy β-actin gene and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (IS 6110) by PCR. An amplification product for M. tuberculosis with the size of 123 bp was obtained. Sequencing confirmed the result. This study shows evidence of M. tuberculosis complex DNA in a Caribbean slave population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszałka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

  18. The Armory Chamber and Armed Forces of Russia in the Second Half of 17th - Early 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlenko Sergey P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the insufficiently studied aspect of the activities of the Armory chamber in the second half of 17th - beginning of 18th centuries – supplying the needs of the Russian armed forces. Political and military realities of the first half of the seventeenth century revealed the need for the modernization and transformation of the armed forces of Russia. Military reform required a massive amount of combat weapons and equipment made by Western European standard. The middle of the 17th century was the times of a search for an optimal algorithm which would provide the armed forces with weapons and equipment. The integration in this process of the court gunsmith and Armory was an effective solution. The content of the Inventory of the Armory Chamber in 1647 can be divided into two parts: 1 parade and ceremonial weapons and armor, designed for the sovereign and court 2 a huge number of combat weapons deposed in a different storages. The research is based on the complex of archival documents showing the role of the Armory chamber officials in organizing the purchase of combat weapons, its testing, preserving, repairing and transfer to the troops. The author also observed the changes in the activities of the institution in the last quarter of the century – when craftspeople of the court Armory workshop participated in the manufacturing of some special types of combat arms and service as a military gunsmith directly in troops and provincial armories.

  19. The emergence of the confessional theology in Russia (18th – first half of the 19th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Lyutko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at a text dealing with theology as a text dealing with the reality that stands behind this text. Based on examples of three Russian church hierarchs who tried to systematise theology in the 18th and 19th centuries — Archbishop Feofan (Prokopovich, St. Philaret (Drozdov, St. Innocent (Borisov — the paper reveals and interprets the following issues: gradual penetration of categories of history, administration and church service into the structure of theology; rejection of the socalled natural theology (theologia naturalis, which takes place at the beginning of the 19th century. Proceeding from Foucauld’s methodology, we come to a conclusion about the emergence of confession in the Russian Empire of the fi rst half of the 19th century. This was an integrated and distinct social body, the key category of which was theology. Theology unites the social space of the confession by means of three key narratives: the identity (a complex of historical disciplines, administration (the canon law, or “theologia rectrix”, and pastoral theology, participation practices (liturgics. At the end of the period in question, the category of “Church” emerges within the theological system. On the one hand, this fact refl ects the completion of the process of constructing the confession; on the other hand, it is a sign of the emergence of ecclesiology, the new practice of theological discourse that came to be dominant in the following period.

  20. NEDO business outline for fiscal 1997. 18th project report meeting; 1997 nendo gyomu gaiyo. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-22

    The projects of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) are stated as reported at the 18th project report meeting. Outlined are new energy-related projects involving technology development, resources exploitation, promotion of new energy introduction, promotion of international cooperation, gathering of information, and so on. Outlined in relation to the research and development of industrial technologies are projects on research and development, development of medical and welfare equipment, research and development of global environment-related industrial technology, development of international industrial technology, and improvement on platforms for researches. Concerning coal, subsidy-granted projects on domestic coal and projects on domestic coal mine improvement are outlined. Projects relating to compensation for environmental pollution resulting from coal mining and those relating to alcohol production are also outlined. NEDO's financial statement for fiscal 1997 is reported. Also reported are budgets for fiscal 1998 for projects relating to new energy, research and development of industrial technology, coal mining structure coordination, compensation for environmental pollution resulting from coal mining, and alcohol production. (NEDO)

  1. Prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae colonization in pregnant women from the 18th Health Region of Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini de Melo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of GBS colonization in pregnant women in a public health service. Methods A study of 496 pregnant women at 35-37 gestational weeks was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in 21 municipalities of the 18th Health Region of Paraná State. Vaginal and anorectal samples of each woman were plated on sheep blood agar, and in HPTH and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broths. Results Of the 496 pregnant women, 141 (28.4% were positive for GBS based on the combination of the three culture media with vaginal and anorectal samples. The prevalence was 23.7% for vaginal samples and 21.9% for anorectal ones. Among the variables analyzed in this study, only urinary infection was a significant factor (0.026 associated with GBS colonization in women. Conclusions Based on these results, health units should performs universal screening of pregnant women and hospitals should provide adequate prophylaxis, when indicated.

  2. NEDO business outline for fiscal 1997. 18th project report meeting; 1997 nendo gyomu gaiyo. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-22

    The projects of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) are stated as reported at the 18th project report meeting. Outlined are new energy-related projects involving technology development, resources exploitation, promotion of new energy introduction, promotion of international cooperation, gathering of information, and so on. Outlined in relation to the research and development of industrial technologies are projects on research and development, development of medical and welfare equipment, research and development of global environment-related industrial technology, development of international industrial technology, and improvement on platforms for researches. Concerning coal, subsidy-granted projects on domestic coal and projects on domestic coal mine improvement are outlined. Projects relating to compensation for environmental pollution resulting from coal mining and those relating to alcohol production are also outlined. NEDO's financial statement for fiscal 1997 is reported. Also reported are budgets for fiscal 1998 for projects relating to new energy, research and development of industrial technology, coal mining structure coordination, compensation for environmental pollution resulting from coal mining, and alcohol production. (NEDO)

  3. [The creation of hospitals by charities in Minas Gerais (Brazil) from 18th to 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rita de Cássia

    2011-01-01

    This article is the fruit of research into the cultural heritage of healthcare in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and explores the construction of hospitals supported by Catholic charities from the 18th to 20th century. Catholicism has always been strong in Minas Gerais, partly because the Portuguese Crown prohibited the free travel of priests, who were suspected of illegally trading in gold from the mines. A brotherhood was responsible for creating the first Santa Casa, in Vila Rica. Another very important religious group in Brazil, the Vincentians, was also devoted to charitable works and propagated the ideas on charity of Frederico Ozanan, based on the work of St. Vincent de Paul. This group comprised both a lay movement, supported by conferences organized by the St. Vincent de Paul Society, and a religious order, the Vincentian priests and nuns. Catholic physicians make up the third group studied here, organized in a professional association promoted by the Catholic Church. The brotherhoods, Vincentians, and associations, with their Santa Casas, represent a movement that is recognized worldwide. The enormous Catholic participation in these charitable works brought in the physicians, who would often make no charge and exerted efforts to create hospitals that served the population. Although the capital of Minas Gerais was the creation of republicans and positivists in the 20th century, with their ideas of modernity, it remained dependent on Christian charity for the treatment of the poor.

  4. The Phasing-Out of 18th-Century Patterns of German Migration to the United States after 1817

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen Grabbe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The years 1816 to 1819, at the beginning of the 19th century, saw the last wave of immigration into the United States that basically followed patterns of travel, finance, and trade established in the 1700s. Migrants from the German-speaking areas of Central Europe, in particular, reached British North America and later the United States under arrangements allowing them to book a passage on credit which they were to pay off by entering into a term of service for room and board which generally lasted from three to seven years. Their debt was redeemed this way, and such migrants were known as redemptioners. The contract agreement consisted of an original and a copy. When separating the two, the upper margins became indented—hence the term indentured servant. The reasons for the disappearance of this major 18th-century migration pattern, caused, above all, by the collapse of the redemptioner system, will be the focus of this article.

  5. The initial giant umbrella cloud of the May 18th, 1980, explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R.S.J.; Moore, J.G.; Rice, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The initial eruption column of May 18th, 1980 reached nearly 30 km altitude and released 1017 joules of thermal energy into the atmosphere in only a few minutes. Ascent of the cloud resulted in forced intrusion of a giant umbrella-shaped cloud between altitudes of 10 and 20 km at radial horizontal velocities initially in excess of 50 m/s. The mushroom cloud expanded 15 km upwind, forming a stagnation point where the radial expansion velocity and wind velocity were equal. The cloud was initiated when the pyroclastic blast flow became buoyant. The flow reduced its density as it moved away from the volcano by decompression, by sedimentation, and by mixing with and heating the surrounding air. Observations indicate that much of the flow, covering an area of 600 km2, became buoyant within 1.5 minutes and abruptly ascended to form the giant cloud. Calculations are presented for the amount of air that must have been entrained into the flow to make it buoyant. Assuming an initial temperature of 450??C and a magmatic origin for the explosion, these calculations indicate that the flow became buoyant when its temperature was approximately 150??C and the flow consisted of a mixture of 3.25 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 5.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. If sedimentation is considered, these figures reduce to 1.1 ?? 1011 kg of pyroclasts and 1.0 ?? 1011 kg of air. ?? 1986.

  6. Using 18th century storm-surge data from the Dutch Coast to improve the confidence in flood-risk estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, F.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Van Dongeren, A.; Den Heijer, C.; Van Heteren, S.; Smit, M.W.J.; Van Koningsveld, M.; Pool, A.

    2011-01-01

    For the design of cost-effective coastal defence a precise estimate is needed of the 1/10 000 per year storm surge. A more precise estimate requires more observations. Therefore, the three greatest storm surges that hit the northern part of the Holland Coast in the 18th century are reconstructed.

  7. a Webgis for the Knowledge and Conservation of the Historical Wall Structures of the 13TH-18TH Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, G.; Pili, D.; Fiorino, D. R.; Pintus, V.

    2017-05-01

    The presented work is part of the research project, titled "Tecniche murarie tradizionali: conoscenza per la conservazione ed il miglioramento prestazionale" (Traditional building techniques: from knowledge to conservation and performance improvement), with the purpose of studying the building techniques of the 13th-18th centuries in the Sardinia Region (Italy) for their knowledge, conservation, and promotion. The end purpose of the entire study is to improve the performance of the examined structures. In particular, the task of the authors within the research project was to build a WebGIS to manage the data collected during the examination and study phases. This infrastructure was entirely built using Open Source software. The work consisted of designing a database built in PostgreSQL and its spatial extension PostGIS, which allows to store and manage feature geometries and spatial data. The data input is performed via a form built in HTML and PHP. The HTML part is based on Bootstrap, an open tools library for websites and web applications. The implementation of this template used both PHP and Javascript code. The PHP code manages the reading and writing of data to the database, using embedded SQL queries. As of today, we surveyed and archived more than 300 buildings, belonging to three main macro categories: fortification architectures, religious architectures, residential architectures. The masonry samples investigated in relation to the construction techniques are more than 150. The database is published on the Internet as a WebGIS built using the Leaflet Javascript open libraries, which allows creating map sites with background maps and navigation, input and query tools. This too uses an interaction of HTML, Javascript, PHP and SQL code.

  8. Problems in the Study of the Crimean Court Registries of the 17th–18th centuries »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.D. Rustemov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first mention of the Crimean court registries – sijils – belong to the 1800s. At that time, translations of some texts were made, the content of these monuments was relatively minutely described and their historical and philological significance was evaluated. However, separate volumes of presented documents still have not been published. Neither comprehensive linguistic study nor description of terminology and style of these texts have not been made. Research objectives: study of the Crimean court registries of the 17th–18th centuries. One of the problems lying on the surface of this field of study of the Crimean Tatar language history and the right is the question about the compilers of these judicial materials. Whom we can consider the author or scribe of a court registry? How competent is an assertion that these books are kadiaskers books? Research materials: the court registries, kadylyk, kadiasker defters. The paper also raised the question of authenticity of the Crimean law and the two sources of the entire justice system of this Eastern European Turkic state: Sharia and actual Turkic law – Töre implemented subsequently in various legislative compilations, such as the Yasa of Chinggis Khan. Another issue of research of these monuments is the question of their content. Fedor Lashkov identified the Crimean records of Sharia courts as a sort of land records’ acts. Research results and novelty: As a result of a detailed study, the author found that its own jurisdiction and its own laws, which did not always coincide with the laws of the Ottoman Empire, functioned in the Crimean Khanate. Despite their historical and philological value as well as more than a century of study, Crimean court registries still contain many blank spots. This again points to the need for their early reading, translation into modern Turkish language and publication, which should be carried out in the Crimean Tatar and Russian languages.

  9. The construction of the country landscape in Veneto plains (North of Italy) during 18th-21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borin, Maurizio; Novello, Elisabetta

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on the transformation that has taken place in the last four centuries in Veneto's plain in northern Italy. The analysis of statistical data over a long period of time has made it possible to chronologically reconstruct the gradual transformation of wetlands into arable land, suitable for human settlement and for the development of industrial activities. Particularly relevant are the policies adopted by the Republic of Venice (14th-18th centuries) with regard to the management of waters, policies which were continued by the Italian State after its unification in 1861. The evolution of the concept of land reclamation gradually came to include draining, hygienic, agrarian and environmental factors, paying attention to the specific character of both mountain and lagoon areas. Over many centuries new country areas were created, 2/5 of them located below sea level, which can be cultivated due to complex systems of canalization and water pumping. Both the State and landowners invested capital in a project that was not only meant to sustain private interest but that also met public needs. Since 1882 (when the Baccarini law was passed) the subject of the 'sanitary reclamation' began to be discussed in Italy. This concerned 1/16 of the total surface of the country, 400,000 hectares of which in Veneto, where malaria was directly or indirectly responsible for the death of thousands of people. New livelihoods substituted those of the past: some economies based, for instance, on the harvesting of the marshes' products or on the common use of marginal lands disappeared. The recent process of industrialization in Veneto, often carried out with little consideration for the environment, has eventually opened up a new chapter in the history of the countryside of this region, that of environmental and landscape enhancement.

  10. A WEBGIS FOR THE KNOWLEDGE AND CONSERVATION OF THE HISTORICAL WALL STRUCTURES OF THE 13TH–18TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vacca

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The presented work is part of the research project, titled "Tecniche murarie tradizionali: conoscenza per la conservazione ed il miglioramento prestazionale" (Traditional building techniques: from knowledge to conservation and performance improvement, with the purpose of studying the building techniques of the 13th–18th centuries in the Sardinia Region (Italy for their knowledge, conservation, and promotion. The end purpose of the entire study is to improve the performance of the examined structures. In particular, the task of the authors within the research project was to build a WebGIS to manage the data collected during the examination and study phases. This infrastructure was entirely built using Open Source software. The work consisted of designing a database built in PostgreSQL and its spatial extension PostGIS, which allows to store and manage feature geometries and spatial data. The data input is performed via a form built in HTML and PHP. The HTML part is based on Bootstrap, an open tools library for websites and web applications. The implementation of this template used both PHP and Javascript code. The PHP code manages the reading and writing of data to the database, using embedded SQL queries. As of today, we surveyed and archived more than 300 buildings, belonging to three main macro categories: fortification architectures, religious architectures, residential architectures. The masonry samples investigated in relation to the construction techniques are more than 150. The database is published on the Internet as a WebGIS built using the Leaflet Javascript open libraries, which allows creating map sites with background maps and navigation, input and query tools. This too uses an interaction of HTML, Javascript, PHP and SQL code.

  11. Women's translations of scientific texts in the 18th century: a case study of Marie-Anne Lavoisier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    In the 18th century, many outstanding translations of scientific texts were done by women. These women were important mediators of science. However, I would like to raise the issue that the 'selection,' which is the process by which intellectual women chose to conduct translation works, and those 'selections' made by male translators, would not be made at the same level. For example, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749), the only French translator of Newton's "Principia," admitted her role as participating in important work, but, still, she was not perfectly satisfied with the position. For du Châtelet, the role as a translator was only an option under the current conditions that a female was denied the right to be a creator by society. In the case of Marie-Anne Lavoisier (1743-1794), like du Châtelet, we find an acute feeling in her mind that translation was not the work of creators. Because of her respect toward creative geniuses and her knowledge about the practical situation and concrete results of scientific studies, the translation works done by Marie-Anne Lavoisier were excellent. At the same time, the source of this excellence appears paradoxical at a glance: this excellence of translation was related closely with her low self-estimation in the field of science. Hence, we should not forget the gender problem that is behind such translations of scientific works done by women in that era. Such a possibility was a ray of light that was grasped by females, the sign of a gender that was eliminated from the center of scientific study due to social systems and norms and one of the few valuable opportunities to let people know of her own existence in the field of science.

  12. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  13. Book of Abstracts of 18th Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: Quo Vadis- Energy in Time of Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The 18th Forum of the Croatian Energy Society, titled Quo Vadis Energy in Times of Climate Change, is focused on analysis and thinking about energy sector development in the conditions of dramatically reducing the CO 2 and greenhouse gases emissions and in the eve of the Copenhagen Climate Summit. The commitments to radically down size CO 2 emissions will change the approach to planning and development of the energy sector. There is high probability that in the time frame of 20 to 30 years a new technology platform will have been introduced through the whole technological cycle, from generation to consumption of energy. It is expected that breakthroughs will be made towards clean and more efficient technologies, but with significantly higher price levels. The changes in the energy sector will affect everyone, from general public to energy buying companies, and most of all it will affect the companies in the energy sector. The changes in the energy sector, which are to contribute to climate preservation, are a realistic and achievable goal, but they come with a price. We can expect to see the doubling of the prices, not in the near future of course, but undoubtedly in the times of great changes in the energy sector. The realisation of these changes requires a great deal of political determination in the international context, as well as fair solutions which will enable the advancement of the underdeveloped and less developed nations. Also, a strong support to the technological development is needed. The climate preservation can be a powerful generator of the international cooperation, especially as a synergy in the technological development. Technological development can be the most important asset in solving the problems of climate preservation, with the condition, of course, that the resources for research are increased and that the developed countries join efforts in using the knowledge they have, and that a non-discriminatory transfer of knowledge to the

  14. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  15. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  16. Session summaries for workshop meeting on virtual reality applications in process industry maintenance training, outage planning, control room retrofits and design, 17th - 18th September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louka, Michael N.

    1998-09-01

    A well-attended workshop was held in Halden 17th - 18th September 1998 to discuss VR applications in the process industry. In particular, maintenance training, outage planning, decommissioning, control room retrofits, and design were discussed. It is clear that there is a great deal of interest in both current and potential use of VR technology. The workshop participants represented a diverse range of research disciplines, as well as utilities, vendors and regulators (author) (ml)

  17. Charles Richard de Beauregard and the treatment of blennorrhagic urethral stenosis in Madrid in the 18th century: Advertising, secrecy and deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómiz, J J; Galindo, I

    2015-12-01

    Describe the introduction of the treatment for blennorrhagic urethral stenosis in the city of Madrid in the 18th century by the French surgeon Charles de Beauregard, the formulations employed in the preparation of his personal «bougies», the advertising in the press, their marketing and distribution. Nonsystematic review of the Madrid newspaper Gaceta de Madrid y Diario curioso, erudito, económico y comercial (Madrid Gazette, curious, erudite, financial and commercial) between 1759 and 1790. Review of the medical literature of the 18th century preserved in the Fondo Antiguo of the Biblioteca Histórica of Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Historical Resource of the Historical Library of the Complutense University of Madrid). A Google search of «Charles Richard de Beauregard». Charles de Beauregard focused his professional work mainly on the treatment of the urethral sequela of blennorrhagia, phimosis and paraphimosis. He introduced to 18th century Spanish society (with purported originality and clear commercial interests) therapeutic methods based on lead acetate that had already been developed in France by Thomas Goulard. The urethral sequela of diseases such as blennorrhagic urethritis, stenotic phimosis and paraphimosis were highly prevalent in 18th century Madrid and required complex solutions for the practice of urology of that era. Charles de Beauregard introduced innovative but not original treatments that were invasive but not bloody and that provided him with fame and social prestige. He advertised his professional activity and marketed his therapeutic products through advertisements submitted to the daily press (Madrid Gazette, Gaceta de Madrid). Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells and Modules: Materials and Processes; Workshop Proceedings, 3-6 August 2008, Vail, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B. L.

    2008-09-01

    The National Center for Photovoltaics sponsored the 18th Workshop on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells & Modules: Materials and Processes, held in Vail, CO, August 3-6, 2008. This meeting provided a forum for an informal exchange of technical and scientific information between international researchers in the photovoltaic and relevant non-photovoltaic fields. The theme of this year's meeting was 'New Directions for Rapidly Growing Silicon Technologies.'

  19. Biodemographic characteristics of North-Western Italian population (Giaglione - Susa Valley between 18th and 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio De Iasio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For the study of genetic changes that occur over time in human communities (microevolution anthropologists and biodemographers have favored the use of renewable flow, in particular the registers of marriage. Indeed they allow to easily estimate several biodemographic parameters (endogamy and exogamy; repeated pairs; immigration, even for long periods of time, since it is quite common to have consecutive series of documents relating to the marriage of a population. However, the sources of flow do not always allow to study in depth the factors that have given continuity to the community because they provide only partial information on demographic structure, the mode of aggregation of its members and the processes of change within families. A good alternative to sources of flow may be the use of sources of state, civil (censuses or parish sources (the status animarum, which give a very detailed picture of the state of the population at a given time. The retrieval and analysis of census documentation assume therefore a primary role in order to obviate the intrinsic weaknesses of the sources of flow. In the perspective of biodemographic studies, the integration of the two types of sources is in actual fact the operating optimum. It must be remembered that it is quite difficult to find contemporary sources of flow and of state for the Italian populations of the past.

  20. Traditional costume as a migration phenomenon on the part of the Adriatic coast in the 17th and 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Dragana S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Migrations from Herzegovina and Montenegro to the Herceg Novi region, during the period from the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries, were the reasons for investigation (thanks to the preserved archive material of female "traditional costumes" involved in these migrations. Clothing retained the influence of Balkan, Slav, Oriental and Mediterranean cultures. The function of clothing (for work and ceremonial occasions was studied, as well as changes within the generation, regardless of whether the individual items were in constant use or only used on one occasion.

  1. Dr. Anna G. Jonasdottir: Acceptance Speech for Honorary Doctorate from Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland. Given 18th of June, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Anna G. Jónasdóttir

    2016-01-01

    On June 18th the Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, celebrated 100 years of women’s‘ voting rights in Iceland with a special conference, Power and democracy 100 years later. In association with the conference Dr. Anna Guðrún Jónasdóttir, Professor emerita at the University of Örebro, Sweden, was awarded an honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science. Anna Guðrún was the first Icelandic woman to complete a doctorate in political science, in 1991, and also the first...

  2. Essays on the history of brazilian dipterology: III. Three remarkable notices from the 18th century, mainly related to myiasis-producing flies (Cochliomyia and Dermatobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper registers reports about dipterans made by three Portuguese who lived in Brazil during the 18th century. Luiz Gomes Ferreira, in his book "Erário mineral" ["Mineral revenue"], wrote curious passages related with myiasis-causing flies of the genus Cochliomyia. José Rodrigues de Mello registered, in Latin verses, the folklore for curing myiases caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax in cattle. Luiz dos Santos Vilhena, in the last of his twenty letters dealing with several aspects of life in Brazil, made reference to horseflies, human bot flies and mosquitos.

  3. Renewable vs. fossil electricity systems. A cost comparison. Power world 2050. Analysis of renewable, coal and gas-based electricity systems; Erneuerbare vs. fossile Stromsysteme. Ein Kostenvergleich. Stromwelten 2050. Analyse von Erneuerbaren, kohle- und gasbasierten Elektrizitaetssystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graichen, Patrick; Kleiner, Mara Martha [Agora Energiewende, Berlin (Germany); Matthes, Felix Christian; Heinemann, Christoph [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    The decarbonisation of the energy and, above all, the power system is the core component of any consistent climate protection strategy. For the electricity sector, this means, in the final analysis, the transition from a power supply based on lignite, hard coal, natural gas and other fossil fuels to one (almost) completely based on renewable energies by 2050. The fundamental technical feasibility of such a system, more than 90 percent of which would generate electricity from renewable energies, is no longer disputable today. The explanation for this is the partly rapid technological advances made in recent years, particularly those involving wind (on- and offshore) and solar energy, as well as the foreseeable further developments of central flexibility options (including flexible demand, battery storage and power-to-gas technologies). However, the question of the costs of this new electricity system has not yet been fully resolved. These cost calculations need to take into account, on the one hand, the total costs of an electricity system based on renewable energies and, on the other hand, the comparison to a power system that remains based on fossil fuels. Against this background, the present study provides a numerical analysis of the following questions: What are the technical and cost structures for a power system when 90 percent or more of the electricity is generated from renewable energies in 2050? How do the costs for different storage strategies (batteries vs. power-to-gas) differ? What technical, cost and emission structures result for a hypothetical fossil-based power system in 2050 if the further construction of electricity production plants based on wind and solar energy is immediately abandoned? How do the costs for various fossil-based power systems differ (conventional mix of lignite/hard coal/natural gas power plants vs. an electricity system based purely on natural gas)? For this purpose, a large number of model calculations with different

  4. Tungsten/wolfram: A little-known connection between the 18th century Basque Country and SOFT 2014 in Donostia/San Sebastián

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Román, Pascual; Ascasíbar, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SOFT 2014 has taken place in Donostia/San Sebastián. • Tungsten/wolfram (W) is a strategic material for the development of fusion. • W was isolated very close to Donostia in the late 18th century as a result of a combination of fortunate circumstances. • This fact is largely unknown even to the fusion materials experts working with W. • We describe this story with some detail. - Abstract: This paper is intended as a preface of the special issue that Fusion Engineering and Design will devote to the best papers presented in the Symposium on Fusion Technology, 2014 (SOFT 2014) that took place in Donostia/San Sebastián. It is a historical note dwelling on the largely unknown story of the isolation of tungsten/wolfram in Spain, more precisely, in the Basque Country, very close to Donostia/San Sebastián, in the late 18th century. Given the current strategic importance of tungsten in the development of fusion as a viable energy source we think it is timely to recall the protagonists and the circumstances involved in the isolation of this metal.

  5. [Genealogy of the Books of Practica medicinae in Europe before the End of 18th Century: From the Origin to the Disappearance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2015-09-01

    The Practica medicinae represented the books written in Europe before the end of 18th century that dealt with individual deseases. In total, 100 Practica books, written by 95 authors, were collected and divided into four periods from the early 11th to the end of 18th century. The first Practica book was written at the Salernitan medical school on the basis of ancient medical books in the basic style, dealing with regional deseases arranged in "a capite ad calcem" manner, as well as with the fevers. The basic style comprised a majority in the first period and decreased gradually, becoming a minority in the 3rd and 4th periods. Sennert's practica was the largest and it elaborated with precise construction. The additional categories, such as female, children, and surgical deseases increased in the later periods. Those written in non-basic style based on pathogenesis or in alphabetical order also increased in the later periods. The practica books changed slightly and gradually, indicating the essential consistency of the concepts of diseases in these periods.

  6. State Policy of Russia in the Field of Science and Education (The end of 17th-early 18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veroniсa E. Matveenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of education and science intensive development in Russia at the end of the 17th - the beginning of the 18th centuries is completely related with the personality of Emperor Peter I (Great, who understood the grandiose importance of public education for Russia. The reforms of Peter I in the field of science and education became the most important foundation in the history of pedagogy and military affairs development in Russia, as well as in the history of the Russian state national security strengthening. The result of Peter I reforms in education was the creation of domestic regular Armed Forces of Russia and the provision of the Russian state with the experts of different profiles: military people, engineers, technicians and diplomats. The authors of the article carried out a comprehensive analysis of the materials available in Russia about the Peter schools in order to systematize and preserve these data for pedagogical science and history. The work studied the documents (decrees and letters of Peter the Great reflecting the reforms in the field of science and education of Russia at the end of the 17th - early 18th centuries. With the support of historical documents, the establishment chronology of the first schools in Russia, the conditions for schoolchildren teaching, the structure and the content of training programs were described, and the teaching aids used in Peter schools were listed.

  7. [Health care in Western Europe in the late 18th century, as reported in Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty's travel journal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rab, Irén

    2015-07-19

    Medical doctors working in Hungary and Transylvania were all trained abroad before the medical faculty of the University of Nagyszombat was founded in 1769. Most Roman Catholic medical students were trained in Vienna and Italy, whereas Protestants in Germany, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. In the 18th century a total of 500 Hungarian medical students studied at universities in Western Europe. Medical students' peregrination did not involve academic training only: whenever they had the possibility, students visited renowned hospitals, university clinics and famous doctors in order to gain experience and medical practice to complete their education. Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty studied in Pest and Göttingen, obtained his medical doctor's diploma in Vienna in 1790, and then spent a year and a half at various medical institutions in Germany, The Netherlands, and England. Cseh-Szombaty's so far unpublished travel journal and alba amicorum provide a wealth of information about the practical knowledge that could be learned during peregrination, characteristics of medical training, patients' treatment, quality of German hospitals of the late 18th century, where the most famous doctors worked. It is an exciting description, how a doctor from Hungary spent his time studying in Western Europe.

  8. The celebrated écorchés of Honoré Fragonard, part 1: The classical techniques of preparation of dry anatomical specimens in the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degueurce, Christophe; Adds, Philip

    2010-04-01

    The écorchés that Honoré Fragonard created between 1766 and 1771 have miraculously survived the ravages of time due to a technique of preparation which Fragonard never revealed. The present paper and a subsequent article aim to explain the classical methods used by anatomists of the 18th century (Part 1) and to throw light on the details of Fragonard's method (Part 2). Anatomists of the 18th century who wished to preserve their dissections used a method of mummification, which has now fallen into disuse: drying after immersion in alcohol. This article explains the stages of the classical method utilized by French anatomists of the Age of Enlightenment. The cadaver was selected with care before the vascular system was injected with a colored mixture of wax, animal fat, and plant resins. The body was then dehydrated by immersion in a bath of alcohol, after which it was removed and positioned by means of a wooden framework, which held the body in the desired pose while the alcohol evaporated. The vessels were painted, and finally the body was varnished. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  10. Renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte Egelund

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy projects are increasingly confronted by local opposition, which delays and sometimes even prevents their implementation. This reflects the frequent gap between support for the general idea of renewables as a strategy for reducing carbon emissions, and acceptance of renewable energy...

  11. 18th May 2011 - Chinese State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs (SAFEA) Deputy Director-General M. LU (State Council of China) in the ATLAS visitors centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford and Collaboration member Z. Ren.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    18th May 2011 - Chinese State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs (SAFEA) Deputy Director-General M. LU (State Council of China) in the ATLAS visitors centre with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson A. Lankford and Collaboration member Z. Ren.

  12. Laura Bassi and science in 18th century Europe the extraordinary life and role of Italy's pioneering female professor

    CERN Document Server

    Frize, Monique

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the extraordinary story of a Bolognese woman of the settecento. Laura Maria Caterina Bassi (1711-1778) defended 49 Theses at the University of Bologna on April 17, 1732 and was awarded a doctoral degree on May 12 of the same year. Three weeks before her defense, she was made a member of the Academy of Sciences in Bologna. On June 27 she defended 12 additional Theses. Several of the 61 Theses were on physics and other science topics. Laura was drawn by the philosophy of Newton at a time when most scientists in Europe were still focused on Descartes and Galen. This last set of Theses was to encourage the University of Bologna to provide a lectureship to Laura, which they did on October 29, 1732. Although quite famous in her day, Laura Bassi is unfortunately not remembered much today. This book presents Bassi within the context of the century when she lived and worked, an era where no women could attend university anywhere in the world, and even less become a professor or a member of an academ...

  13. Renewing governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.

  14. Composition of 12-18th century window glass in Belgium: Non-figurative windows in secular buildings and stained-glass windows in religious buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalm, Olivier; Janssens, Koen; Wouters, Hilde; Caluwe, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    A set of ca. 500 window glass fragments originating from different historical sites in Belgium and covering the period 12 th -18 th century was analyzed by means of electron probe microanalysis. Most samples are archaeological finds deriving from non-figurative windows in secular buildings. However, the analyzed set also contains glass sampled from still existing non-figurative windows in secular buildings and stained-glass windows in religious buildings. A sudden compositional change at the end of the 14 th century can be noticed among the series of glass compositions that were obtained. These changes could be related to the use of different glassmaker recipes and to the introduction of new raw materials for glass making

  15. Archaeological Textile Findings of 17th – 18th Centuries from the Quarter of the Novodevichy Convent in Moscow. Attribution and Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkina Irina I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the textile findings of 17th – 18th centuries obtained during archaeological studies conducted in 2014–2015 at the cemetery of St. John the Baptist Church in the quarter of Novodevichy Convent. The items were in an extremely unsatisfactory state of preservation. The study allowed to identify their purpose and partially reconstruct their appearance and decoration. Of most interest among the remaining items were the fragments of shirts, covers and a phaelonion shoulder. On the basis of the results of reconstruction conducted by the author, the phaelonion, representing an element of church attire, featured a high rigid trapezoid shoulder made of red velvet and decorated with gold ornamental embroidery imitating the appearance of Turkish textile. According to the author, similar shoulders in terms of the shape and manufacturing technique are characteristic of the discovered phaelonions of 16th – 17th cc.

  16. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  17. Portraits from the second half of the 18th century in Croatia – witnesses of clothing forms and fashion influences of rococo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Nina Simončić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available his paper will attempt to analyze the clothing from the rococo period and underline fashion as an important segment in the reconstruction of a specific style era. Based on conserved portraits from the second half of the 18th century, as well as rare artifacts of clothing from the period found in Croatia, a description of primarily women’s types of clothing, accessories and the terms used to describe them will be given. Influences had, primarily through cultural and trade routes, come from the fashion capital of the period – France, and fashion innovations and the intensity of their changes were under the influence of the personal style first of Madame de Pompadour and afterwards Marie Antoinette. Croatia, which had at the time been part of the Habsburg monarchy and under the Republic of Venice, tended toward French influences in fashion, which represents a considerable move from the prior influence of Italian and German style.

  18. 18th Meeting of the IFRC Subcommittee on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion. Summary Report of an IAEA Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.

    2013-12-01

    The 18th meeting of the Subcommittee on Atomic and Molecular Data of the International Fusion Research Council (IFRC) was held on 26-27 April 2012 at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria. Activities of the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit for the period 2010-2012 were reviewed and recommendations were made for continuig activitiees in 2012-2013 and for new projects in the 2014-2015 budget cycle. The proceedings, conclusions and recommendations of the Subcommittee meeting are briefly described in this report. Specific recommendations of the Subcommittee from this meeting, as well as the report on the activities of the IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit for the period May 2010 - April 2012, are also included. (author)

  19. On the Chemical Signature and Origin of Dicoppertrihydroxyformate (Cu2(OH)3HCOO) Formed on Copper Miniatures of 17th and 18th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Alfredina; Teixeira, Dora Martins; Candeias, António J; Mirão, José; Rodrigues, Paulo Simões; Teixeira, Jorge Ginja

    2016-10-01

    A corrosion product rarely reported in the literature has been found on the copper support of three miniature paintings of the 17th and 18th centuries. This product, which has been identified as dicoppertrihydroxyformate (Cu2(OH)3HCOO), is an unusual basic copper formate found on copper artifacts. The identification and characterization of dicoppertrihydroxyformate was carried out directly over the corroded surface of the objects, using a nondestructive approach, which combines the integrated use of various microanalytical techniques. Using this approach, it was possible to obtain a set of new reference data about the natural form of Cu2(OH)3HCOO, that will enable its unambiguous identification in other similar objects. In this work, the probable causes that may have contributed to its formation are also discussed.

  20. Using 18th century storm-surge data from the Dutch Coast to improve the confidence in flood-risk estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Baart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available For the design of cost-effective coastal defence a precise estimate is needed of the 1/10 000 per year storm surge. A more precise estimate requires more observations. Therefore, the three greatest storm surges that hit the northern part of the Holland Coast in the 18th century are reconstructed. The reconstructions are based on paintings, drawings, written records and shell deposits that have recently appeared. The storm-surge levels of these storms have been estimated using numerical modelling of the coastal processes. Here we show how these reconstructions can be used in combination with extreme value statistics to give a more confident estimate of low probability events.

  1. Composition of 12-18 th century window glass in Belgium: Non-figurative windows in secular buildings and stained-glass windows in religious buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalm, Olivier; Janssens, Koen; Wouters, Hilde; Caluwé, Danielle

    2007-07-01

    A set of ca. 500 window glass fragments originating from different historical sites in Belgium and covering the period 12 th-18 th century was analyzed by means of electron probe microanalysis. Most samples are archaeological finds deriving from non-figurative windows in secular buildings. However, the analyzed set also contains glass sampled from still existing non-figurative windows in secular buildings and stained-glass windows in religious buildings. A sudden compositional change at the end of the 14 th century can be noticed among the series of glass compositions that were obtained. These changes could be related to the use of different glassmaker recipes and to the introduction of new raw materials for glass making.

  2. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  3. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine

  4. Application of INAA to identify lead white in icons from the 15th-18th centuries from south-eastern Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panczyk, E.; Walis, L.; Giemza, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to analyse lead white from eighteen icons of the 15 th -18 th centuries, collected in the Orthodox Art Department at the Castle Museum in Lancut, using the neutron activation analysis (NAA) method. 1-3 samples from each object, with a mass from 0.1 to 1 mg were collected after removing the varnish, from the top lights, in order to ensure that they include pure lead white without other pigment additives. Samples were irradiated in the MARIA reactor in Swierk (Poland), in a channel with a 8·10 13 n/cm 2 s thermal neutron flux. 47 standards of determined elements, e.g. Na, K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga ,Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ru, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Au, Hg, Th and 238 U were simultaneously irradiated. Measurements of activity of the samples and standards were carried out using an HP germanium detector. Ultimately, 28 elements were selected for a multi-parameter statistical analysis aimed at identifying the degree of similarity of analysed icons. Results of the analysis permit for division into groups closely related to chronology of tested icons. Icons from the 15 th and 16 th centuries are much more alike than icons from the 17 th and 18 th centuries. Probably, the applied lead white was obtained from different sources that had changed over time

  5. Renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Cheon Seok

    2009-09-01

    This book tells of renewable energy giving description of environment problem, market of renewable energy and vision and economics of renewable energy. It also deals with solar light like solar cell, materials performance, system and merit of solar cell, solar thermal power such as solar cooker and solar collector, wind energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy like tidal power and ocean thermal energy conversion, fuel cell and biomass.

  6. License renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newberry, S.

    1993-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the process of license renewal for nuclear power plants. It explains what is meant by license renewal, the significance of license renewal, and goes over key elements involved in the process of license renewal. Those key elements are NRC requirements embodied in 10 CFR Part 54 (Reactor Safety) and 10 CFR Part 51 (Environmental Issues). In addition Industry Reports must be developed and reviewed. License renewal is essentially the process of applying for a 20 year extension to the original 40 year operating license granted for the plant. This is a very long term process, which involves a lot of preparation, and compliance with regulatory rules and guidelines. In general it is a process which is expected to begin when plants reach an operating lifetime of 20 years. It has provisions for allowing the public to become involved in the review process

  7. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  8. 18th International Seapower Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    brid war or complex irregular conflict: somewhat like you see going on right now potentially in Iraq and Afghanistan, where you’ll have combinations of...pable of operating in this complex irregular warfare that our vision folks see as the wave of the future. We are attempting to stay balanced with...think less about the challenges that it raises, which are quite small, and more about the opportunities it presents, which are im- mense . And I want

  9. Recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Hayal Ayca; Simsek, Nevzat

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the importance of renewable energy sources has increased significantly as climate change has become an important long term threat to global ecosystems and the world economy. In the face of increased concern about climate change and high fossil fuel costs together with a reduction in the primary energy sources such as oil, natural gas and coal, alternative energy sources (renewables) are increasingly needed to respond to the threat of climate change and growing energy demand in the world. Recent developments in Turkey, such as the liberalization of the electricity market and improvements in the renewable legislations, have accelerated the growth process and investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy. Turkey′s naturally endowed potential for renewables, such as solar, geothermal and wind, also accompanied these developments and attracted world attention to this market. In Turkey, renewable energy sources have gained great importance in the last decades due to growing energy demand and incentive policies which foster the utilization of renewable energy sources. This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey and discuss the government policies and economic aspects. - highlights: • Turkey′s potential for renewable energy has attracted world attention. • Turkey has specific energy objectives in promoting renewable energy. • This paper evaluates recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey. • Incentives in Turkey have led to more investment in renewable energy generation

  10. Viajando sobre hojas volanderas: representaciones del viaje en pliegos sueltos del siglo XVIII = Travelling on broadsides: representations of travels in 18th-century Spanish chapbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gomis Coloma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl tema que aborda este trabajo son las representaciones del viaje y de los viajeros en los romances del siglo XVIII. Los objetivos son, en primer lugar, dar a conocer una fuente “popular” en relación a un tema, el viaje, que para el siglo XVIII ha sido generalmente estudiado desde la perspectiva de la alta cultura, como ingrediente clave para la formación e instrucción de cualquier espíritu ilustrado. Rastreando los aspectos asociados al viaje que, numerosos, asoman en los pliegos sueltos, se muestran otras representaciones de viajes y viajeros, que contribuyan a enriquecer nuestra comprensión sobre la diversidad de concepciones que el tema pudo suscitar en la época. En segundo lugar, a partir de una muestra representativa de romances publicados en el siglo XVIII, se analizan distintos rasgos de los relatos de viajes: periplos, lugares de destino, tipos de viajes, identidad de los viajeros, causas para emprender el itinerario, descripción de espacios, éxito o fracaso de la empresa, etc. Finalmente, se seleccionan algunos textos representativos para indagar los valores asociados al viaje y al encuentro con “el otro”, con el fin de explorar los miedos e ilusiones que, según los relatos, llevaba aparejado aventurarse hacia lo desconocido.AbstractThis paper focuses on 18th century romances’ representations of travels and travellers. Its aims are: firstly, to shed light on a «popular» source about a topic like travels, which has been studied traditionally from the perspective of high culture, as an element linked to the education of enlightened people. Through the analysis of different features about travels which are found in «pliegos sueltos», another representations of travels and travellers are shown, which can enrich our understanding about this topic. Secondly, different features of travelling stories published as popular prints in the 18th century are analysed: journeys, destinations, travellers and their aims

  11. Renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghmans, J.

    1994-01-01

    Renewable energy sources have a small environmental impact and can be easily integrated within existing structures. Moreover, the use of renewable energy sources can contribute to achieve a zero emission of carbon dioxide by 2100, provided an efficient environmental policy during the next 40 years. This includes a correct pricing policy of renewable energy sources with respect to nuclear energy and fossil fuel. The latter energy sources have been favoured in the past. In addition, an open market policy, the restructuring or conversion of existing international energy institutes, and international treaties for the protection of the natural environment are needed in view of achieving the zero carbon dioxide emission objective. (A.S.)

  12. Proceedings of the 18th technical meeting on nuclear reactor and radiation for KURRI engineers and the 9th technical official group section 5 meeting in Kyoto University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    This report is a summary of 18th Technical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor and Radiation for KURRI Engineers in Kyoto University. This was also the 9th meeting for technical official group section 5 (nuclear and radiation) in Kyoto University. In the workshop, three special lectures held were: (1) 'On Border Between Subcritical and Supercritical', (2) 'Memories of Nuclear Power Plant Management for 40 Years', and (3) 'Introduction of Technical Office in Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University'. The technical presentations held were: (1) 'Radiation Background Study of Specialty Products in Senshu Region', (2) 'Introduction of Radioactivation Analysis at KUR', (3) 'Consideration of Critical Approach Method for KUR Low-Enrichment Fuel Reactor Core Using SRAC', (4) 'Evaluation of Temperature Coefficient of KUR Low-Enrichment Fuel Reactor Core Using SRAC'. As training for technical staffs in Technical Office, we visited the facility in Ashiu Research Forest. An introduction of this facility and the comments from the participants were included in this report. (S.K.)

  13. Structural and optical properties of wood and wood finishes studied using optical coherence tomography: application to an 18th century Italian violin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, Gaël; Echard, Jean-Philippe; Soulier, Balthazar; Emond, Isabelle; Vaiedelich, Stéphane; Elias, Mady

    2009-11-20

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is especially attractive for the study of cultural heritage artifacts because it is noninvasive and nondestructive. We have developed an original full-field time-domain OCT system dedicated to the investigation of varnished and painted artifacts: an interferometric Mirau objective allows one to perform the scan without moving the works of art. The axial and transverse high resolution (respectively, 1.5 and 1 microm) are well adapted to the detection of the investigated structures (pigment grains, wood fibers, etc.). The illumination spectrum is in the visible range (centered at 630 nm, 150 nm wide) to potentially allow us to perform spectroscopic OCT on pigment particles. The examination of wood samples coated with a traditional finish, demonstrates the ability of the system to detect particles, characterize layers thickness, and image the three-dimensional wood structures below the varnishes. OCT has finally been applied to study in situ the coated wood surface of an 18th century Italian violin and provides important information for its conservation treatment.

  14. Lutheran Clergy in an Orthodox Empire. The Apppointment of Pastors in the Russo-Swedish Borderland in the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Räihä Antti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of the parishioners’ right to participate in and influence the choice of local clergy in Sweden and Finland can be taken back as far as the late Medieval Times. The procedures for electing clergymen are described in historiography as a specifically Nordic feature and as creating the basis of local self-government. In this article the features of local self-government are studied in a context where the scope for action was being modified. The focus is on the parishioners’ possibilities and willingness to influence the appointment of pastors in the Lutheran parishes of the Russo-Swedish borderlands in the 18th century. At the same time, this article will offer the first comprehensive presentation of the procedures for electing pastors in the Consistory District of Fredrikshamn. The Treaty of Åbo, concluded between Sweden and Russia in 1743, ensured that the existing Swedish law, including the canon law of 1686, together with the old Swedish privileges and statutes, as well as the freedom to practise the Lutheran religion, remained in force in the area annexed into Russia. By analysing the actual process of appointing pastors, it is possible to discuss both the development of the local political culture and the interaction between the central power and the local society in the late Early Modern era.

  15. The Absolutist Reformism: Projects of Political Reforms in Russia (2nd half of 18th century – 1st quarter of 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin D. Bugrov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of absolutist reformism – a form of political culture that chronologically spans from the mid-18th century to 19th century, and is determined by both communicative context (genre, pragmatic purpose, and the social and political status of its participants, the members of court-administrative elite. The author argues that the principal reformers, who belonged to the court and administrative elite of Russian Empire, were competing with each other, and the reform proposals allowed the competitors to simultaneously improve their own positions within the structure of state governance and enact the absolute power of the monarch to bring the reform forth. However, that meant that the monarch was appearing in the reform proposals as an omnipotent arbiter capable of creating the social and political institutions by his will. Consequently, these reform proposals – starting from the early projects of the 1750es – 1760es, and finishing with the intense production of reform plans under Alexander I – were aimed at increasing the power of monarch, assuring its benevolent character, and protecting it from the potential usurpation from the inside of the bureaucratic apparatus. This logic of argumentation, which places the monarch against the bureaucracy, was to flourish later on in Russian 19th century.

  16. "Diarium patris ministri", a Jesuit view of social structures at the break of 18th century in south-west Bohemian town of Klatovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerný, Karel

    2009-01-01

    The Jesuit college in the Czech town of Klatovy was founded in 1636 and canceled in 1773. It had its own grammar school and numerous contacts with local nobility and church dignitaries. The college was the most important house of a catholic order in the area and baroque festivities organised by the jesuits were visited (or it would be better to say taken part in) by a wide spectrum of members of the local society. The Jesuits concerned not only on careful arrangement of their ecclesiastical celebrations, but also on presence of the important guests. They recorded numbers of the guests who visited the college and their social status in the college manuscripts. The records were then used for an internal need of the order. Till the present day three manuscripts related to the college in Klatovy have been preserved. The most interesting records of the guests are in the diary of father "minister" of the college. The article focuses on a reconstruction of a not very conventional view of social structure in an average Czech town in the beginnig of 18th century. I'm trying to describe the social situation from the jesuit point of view using internal records of the order.

  17. The Orchestras of the Príncipe and Cruz Coliseums in Madrid during the Second Half of the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina BARBA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There were no stable orchestras in Madrid’s public theatres during the first half of the Eighteenth Century, and a variable number of instrumentalists were used on each occasion. This paper discusses the development of the two town-owned theatres in the second half of the century, when the orchestra was considered an important element and a new way of hiring musicians developed, based on sources kept at the Archivo de Villa de Madrid, Sección de Secretaría.René Andioc and Mireille Coulon in their Cartelera teatral madrileña del siglo XVIII: (1708-1808 refer to the companies that worked in both theatres in the second half of the 18th Century, those of de Josef de Parra, María Hidalgo, José Martínez Gálvez, Juan Ángel, Águeda de la Calle, María Ladvenant, Nicolás de la Calle, Juan Ponce, Manuel Martínez, Eusebio Ribera, Joaquín Palomino, Luis Navarro and Francisco Ramo, although they do not study the orchestral musicians. The first study on this issue is that by José Máximo Leza «Las orquestas de ópera en Madrid entre los siglos XVIII-XIX», although it does not discuss the theatres of La Cruz and El Príncipe in the second half of the century. 

  18. Trusteeship and Cooperation in the Flemish merchants community in Cadiz: The brotherhood of “San Andrés de los Flamencos” (17th-18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr Ana Crespo Solana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available  This article presents information on the development, over the centuries, of a little known aspect of the communities of foreign Merchants who settled in Spanish cities during the Modern Age. Using previously unpublished documents, relating to the “Ilustre y Antigua Nación Flamenca” of Seville and Cádiz, the article aims to give a description of the charitable activities carried out by the colony of merchants in Seville and, especially, in Cádiz, who were natives of the Southern Low Countries and the Dutch Republic. This merchant community had assigned the administration of a “Patronato” to their brotherhood, which included the control of numerous items of furniture and properties of great value. The description of this religious and benevolent activity gives a no less interesting view, when compared with the purely economic one, of its importance on the integration of these communities into the Spanish society of the 17th and 18th centuries. This research has been made with historical documents from Spanish Archives (Cádiz, Madrid and Alcalá de Henares.

  19. Training of Russian Officers in Line Troops in the Second Half of the 17th – First Half of the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey N. Grebenkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the attempts of officer training directly in the troops of Russian army, which were undertook in the second half of the 17th –first half of the 18th centuries. The author gives the characteristic to the training of “commanding people” in reytar regiment of I. Fanbukoven in 1649-1653 and comes to conclusion that it was effective. The author thinks that the military educational activity of the “toy” army was focused on the training of soldiers, not officers. The attempt of Peter I to organize the military training of young courtiers abroad wasn’t successful because of their weak base preparation. The training of officers in guard regiments was more effective, but it quickly became sham because young noblemen only numbered in lists of military units. Besides, regiment schools which had been organized in the guard troops since 1721 didn’t give so much military knowledge as the technical one, moreover training was organized on a rather low level. The author comes to conclusion that difficulties which were connected with the organization of officer training directly in the troops (such as lack of qualified teachers, impossibility of regular conduct of classes, etc. made the government to pay close attention to the development of boarding military schools – cadet corpses.

  20. Dedicated Followers of Fashion? Bioarchaeological Perspectives on Socio-Economic Status, Inequality, and Health in Urban Children from the Industrial Revolution (18th-19th C), England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S L; Gowland, R L

    2017-01-01

    The 18th and 19th centuries in England were characterised by a period of increasing industrialisation of its urban centres. It was also one of widening social and health inequalities between the rich and the poor. Childhood is well-documented as being a stage in the life course during which the body is particularly sensitive to adverse socio-economic environments. This study therefore aims to examine the relationship between health and wealth through a comprehensive skeletal analysis of a sample of 403 children (0-17 years), of varying socio-economic status, from four cemetery sites in London (c.1712-1854). Measurements of long bone diaphyseal length, cortical thickness, vertebral neural canal size, and the prevalence of a range of pathological indicators of health stress were recorded from the Chelsea Old Church (high status), St Benet Sherehog (middle status), Bow Baptist (middle status), and Cross Bones (low status) skeletal collections. Children from the low status Cross Bones site demonstrated deficient growth values, as expected. However, those from the high status site of Chelsea Old Church also demonstrated poor growth values during infancy. Fashionable child-care practices (e.g. the use of artificial infant feeds and keeping children indoors) may have contributed to poor infant health amongst high status groups. However, differing health risks in the lower status group revealed the existence of substantial health inequality in London at this time. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Renewable Energy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery I. Salygin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available China is the most densely populated country in the world with high rate of economic growth resulting in higher demand for energy resources and in strive to guarantee stable supply of these resources. Chinese annual GDP growth in 2012 and 2013 was down to 7.7% comparing to 10% in 2000-2011 [7]. In 2012 and 2013 economic growth stumbled because of slowdown in manufacturing and exports, taking into account that Chinese government was eager to cut inflation and excessive investments in some segments of the market. Speaking about energy sector Chinese government is aimed at promotion of market-based pricing systems, activities for advanced energy efficiency and higher competition between energy companies, and increased investment in renewable energy resources. Considering renewables as one of many ways to diversify energy supplies, lower dependence on coal and improve environmental situation Chinese government actively supports and develops programs aimed at support of renewable energy industry in China. Chinese economic development is tightly attached to five-year plans. It seems important to mention the fact that main energy goals for current 12-th "five-year plan" are to achieve 15% renewables consumption and CO2 sequestration up to 40-45% by2020 in order to lower dependency on coal and improve environmental situation. As a result of Chinese state policy to develop renewables China achieved certain results in wind energy, helioenergetics, hydroenergetics and energy from waste recycling.

  2. Art : accessible, renewable technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of non-governmental organization (NGO) citizen groups in Ontario in the use and production of electricity. NGOs have the potential to act both directly on their own accord, and indirectly by pressuring government and others. Current demand for electricity is divided between industrial, commercial and residential users. Citizens have an important role to play in reducing energy demand. On the supply side, there is a revival of interest in renewable energy based on wind, photovoltaic and local-hydro technologies as a result of the escalating environmental and economic costs of coal and nuclear generation. However, citizen groups have greater interest and enthusiasm than technical expertise, creating a mismatch between technological solutions and human need or use of them. This paper discusses how this mismatch applies to renewable-energy technologies, many of which are not especially user-friendly, or accessible. While alternative technologies are increasingly welcomed by government, industry is developing a large and growing array of technological devices. In between this is the citizen, who, despite keen interest, can be overwhelmed by the complexity of the situation. This paper links the theoretical perspective to the real world with a discussion of the dynamics between people and renewable energy in citizen groups and makes particular reference to one group, Citizens for Renewable Energy, that has been making renewable energy technology more accessible to its members for over a decade

  3. Subsidies for renewable energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Grenaa Jensen, S.; Morthorst, P.E.; Olsen, O.J.

    2004-01-01

    Ambitious Danish and European energy and environment objectives make a point of using renewable energy sources in the electricity supply. Denmark has been leading country in successful development and commercialization of wind turbines and is as yet one of the leading manufacturers of the world. Danish governments have successfully invested a lot in this development. Other countries have spent more money without achieving a similar success. The questions are why things have gone so well in Denmark and if the Danish success can be repeated for other renewable energy technologies. The starting point of this book is that a political decision on subsidizing the developmental process of a specific technology not in itself guarantees that the technology will turn out reliable and efficient enough to compete successfully in a liberalized electricity market. An understanding of this development is necessary in order to affect a technological development. This book goes through the development of different renewable energy technologies and two theories used for discussing the technological development: experience curves and innovation theory. Based on the discussions and a description of causal relations, an analytical model for different phases of renewable energy technologies' developmental progress and technological life cycle is made. The model is used for evaluating the subsidies for chosen renewable technologies in Denmark. With wind energy as example an analysis of what went well or badly, what might be done and which actions might be efficient is made. (BA)

  4. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  5. The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozma Ahačič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Use of Slovenian in Education, the Church, and Early Theatre Performances in the 17th Century and the First Half of the 18th Century Summary The paper provides a sociolinguistic survey of the use of Slovenian in education, the church, and early theatre performances in the 17th century and the first half of the 18th century. The extant studies and primary sources serve to identify the occasions for, and forms of, its use. The practice of elementary education shows no significant changes between the 16th and 17th centuries; there are, however, some changes at the ideological level. There is no explicit request for elementary education in Slovenian, either in the period of the Catholic reformation or later, while the demand for the use of Slovenian in education is primarily limited to catechesis: in catechesis, however, the emphasis was not on reading texts but on listening and on spoken reproduction. Some sources do suggest the use of Slovenian in elementary education at certain “non-Slovenian” schools, but it was not systematic. The same applies to the Ljubljana Jesuit gymnasium, where the use of Slovenian is likely – especially at the early stages – but lacks immediate evidence. On the other hand, the presence of Slovenian can be proved for the theological seminary adjoining the Ljubljana Cathedral, as well as for the educational centre at Gornji Grad. Moreover, the great number of Jesuit gymnasia significantly improved the general language knowledge in their localities as compared to the previous periods. The use of Slovenian in church was concentrated in preaching. All Slovenian priests were encouraged by the bishops to preach, and there were ecclesiastical orders that particularly fostered this activity. Sources testify to the delivery of Slovenian sermons by the Capuchin Friars, Jesuits, and Franciscans, while the role of Slovenian in the sermons by the Dominicans, Augustinians and Cistercians has received less attention. Of

  6. The Register of Slovenian-Language Manuscripts from the 17th and 18th Centuries: Repository, Digital Library and Research Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Ogrin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT:The paper gives a thorough examination of the Register of Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries from different points of view: it is presented as a digital repository in humanities disciplines available for searching (digital library and as a methodological framework of further scholarly research and discoveries in the field. Manuscripts, especially the manuscripts of Slovenian literature, have not been sufficiently taken into consideration so far. They have always been given but a sketchy treatment serving merely to illustrate the general outlines of the nation’s literary and cultural development. They have rarely been dealt with in specialised studies or scientific publications. This is the reason why they have not been registered and recorded in archival and library collections. Different guides to manuscripts offer only basic and limited information from which it is often impossible to identify the language, the content, and the history of a manuscript. With regard to the state-of-the- art of Slovenian manuscript research in the field of Slavic studies, archival studies and codicology, it was indispensable to thoroughly record and research the preserved manuscripts by the use of a uniform, rational and consistent method. In reference to these premises a new research project has been started resulting in accurate, thorough and rigorously structured descriptions of manuscripts. The idea of Slovenian manuscript register was developed comprising manuscript descriptions complemented by digital images or facsimiles thus visually presenting the manuscripts and facilitating further research in the field.The 3-year work resulted in the portal: Unknown Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18 th centuries. The main project result was the register of Slovenian-language manuscripts from the 17th and 18th centuries. To date, it contains detailed descriptions of the first 100 manuscripts and over 7

  7. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on the 14th-18th days of gestation on postnatal growth and development in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-nine pregnant adult Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of three exposure groups: 0, 0.75, or 1.50 Gy X-radiation total exposure. Animals were exposed from the 14th to the 18th days of gestation at 0, 0.15, or 0.30 Gy per day. At term, 15 rats were killed and morphologic analyses were completed. Twenty-four rats were allowed to deliver their offspring. On the first day of postnatal life, litters were reduced to a maximum of eight pups per litter, with equal numbers of male and female offspring wherever possible. A total of 187 pups were observed for the age of acquisition of five reflexes (air righting, surface righting, visual placing, negative geotaxis, auditory startle) and the appearance of four physiologic markers (pinna detachment, eye opening, vaginal opening, testes descent). There was significant dose-related weight reduction in term fetuses and offspring throughout the 86-day postnatal period. Postnatal growth rate (g gained/day) was unaffected. Adult offspring brain and gonadal weight and organ weight:body weight ratios were reduced. Using the PAC50 methodology, dose-related alterations occurred in the acquisition of several reflexes. All physiologic markers exhibited a dose-related delay in appearance. These results indicate that fractionated exposure to X-radiation during the fetal period in the rat results in dose-dependent alterations in postnatal growth and physiologic development. These studies are important for our understanding of the long-range effects of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation late in gestation

  8. Adamantios Korais and the Greek Language Policy at the Turn of the 18th to the 19th Centuries (translated by Jerneja Kavčič

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Mutavdžić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study outlines and examines the attempts at a standardisation of the Modern Greek language made during the crucial period of national formation, which coincided with the Greek Enlightenment (Νεοελληνικός Διαφωτισμός. The turn of the 18th to the 19th centuries was the period when the Greek language question (το ελληνικό γλωσσικό ζήτημα first appeared in Greek society. Marked by the complicated diglossia situation, this question itself and the suggested solutions were strongly influenced by four different socio-political visions of an independent Greek society, as well as by the conflicting opinions on, and calls for, language codification and standardisation. Although several proposals for a language reform were put forward, none of them was found satisfactory or widely accepted, since they were unable to solve the diglossia and offer a good language basis for the education of the generations to come. In terms of language policy and language planning, the proposal of the first modern Greek linguist, Adamantios Korais, represented a so-called ‘middle way’ (μέση οδός. Korais neither fully accepted common vernacular Greek nor rejected Ancient Greek, which was impossible to neglect with its weight of ancient heritage. While his proposal initially seemed likely to solve the Greek diglossic situation, it unfortunately failed to do so and in fact exacerbated the situation.

  9. Dr. Anna G. Jonasdottir: Acceptance Speech for Honorary Doctorate from Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland. Given 18th of June, 2015

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    Anna G. Jónasdóttir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available On June 18th the Faculty of Political Science, University of Iceland, celebrated 100 years of women’s‘ voting rights in Iceland with a special conference, Power and democracy 100 years later. In association with the conference Dr. Anna Guðrún Jónasdóttir, Professor emerita at the University of Örebro, Sweden, was awarded an honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science. Anna Guðrún was the first Icelandic woman to complete a doctorate in political science, in 1991, and also the first to embark on an advanced academic career in political science and gender studies. It is therefore highly appropriate that Anna Guðrún should be awarded the first honorary doctorate at the Faculty of Political Science, where these disciplines are located. Her research covers a broad spectrum, including political science, sociology, economic history, psychology and gender studies. She was among the first to deal in a theoretical manner with gender, power and politics, which was considered rather provocative at the start of her academic career in the early 1970s. She is a pioneer in intertwining political research and gender studies and her most important research is in the field of power and personal gender relations. Anna Guðrún moved to Sweden at an early age but has kept in touch with the Icelandic research community. Below we publish her acceptance speech on the occasion when the honorary doctorate was awarded. It reflects clearly how her ideas have developed and her intimate sense for how personal and political factors bring politics and gender studies closer at the same time as she deepens and broadens both of their subjects.

  10. The Populations of Vinkovci and Vukovar during the Period of Their Moulding into Urban Entities: The End of the 18th Century and Beginning of the 19th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Lazanin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a comparison is drawn between the demographic characteristics of these two Slavonian-Srijem towns during the period of their moulding into urban entities at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th. The author applies the comparative approach and endeavours to establish the similarities and differences between Vinkovci and Vukovar in the demographic structure and forms of settlement of those two centres during their »initial urbanisation«. Starting out from the justification for comparison of these two towns – their spatial proximity, similar historical circumstances, the comparable eco-historical systems that gave rise to them, as well as their diverse status within the Hapsburg Monarchy – when comparing them, the author sees the great influence of the State and absolutist reforms on urban development in those border settlements in the Croatian and Hapsburg region. Apart from that, the demographic aspect and the role of migration, along with the organised settlement policy, was of great importance in their urban moulding. The needs of Vinkovci and Vukovar as urban centres with new inhabitants were largely covered by moving in people from other parts of the Monarchy, and also from the Croatian lands under other jurisdictions and other countries under Ottoman authority. Bringing in new inhabitants from various regions enabled the recovery and strengthening of those settlements after the Ottoman era. Despite the influx of new demographic elements, the entire region of Slavonia and Srijem – as was the case with Vinkovci and Vukovar – represented a poorly inhabited area in comparison with other parts of the Monarchy. An important role in the life of those towns was played by the largest ethnic and/or religious groups, the Roman Catholic and the Christian Orthodox believers.

  11. The Problem of Longitude in the 18th Century: Jorge Juan, Antonio de Ulloa and the Expedition of the Paris Academy of Sciences to the Kingdom of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Pérez

    2015-05-01

    Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, naval officers of the Spanish Navy in the Midshipmen's Royal Academy were appointed to take part in one of the most important scientific expeditions of the 18th century. The question of the shape of the Earth, of vital importance for navigation, was solved by the Paris Academy of Sciences by request of Louis XV of France in 1735. The aim was to determine the form of the ellipsoid that Newton had described in the 17th century for any spherical and homogeneous body in rotation about an axis. Two expeditions were prepared for the geodetic measures of meridian arc both in high latitudes (Lapland, Finland) and in the equatorial zone (the Kingdom of Peru); Pierre Louis Maupertuis took charge of the northern expedition whereas the second one was charged to La Condamine, along with Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. The results obtained by the Spaniards were gathered in a publication: Observaciones astronómicas y físicas hechas en los Reinos del Perú. In it, they dedicate a chapter to the determination of astronomic longitude with the only technology that was providing certain precision at the moment: the simultaneous observation of the same astronomic phenomenon in two different places. Specifically, they explain in detail in Book III: Las Observaciones de la Inmersiones y Emersiones de los satélites de Júpiter, como asimismo de los eclipses de Luna; de las cuales de deduce la Longitud de los Lugares, incluyendo las correcciones a efectuar por la variación de la declinación diaria del Sol.

  12. Towards the Description of “Philological Translation” in the 1930-s: Adrian A. Frankovsky as Translator of the 18 th Century English Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Malikova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the article describes the phenomenon of “philological translation” in the Soviet culture of the 1930s and, in particular, translations of the 18 th century English novels by Adrian A. Frankovsky. Within the Soviet culture with its dominating Marxist discourse, “idealistic” philosophical-aesthetic foundations of philological translation were absent from critical reviews or translators’ paratexts. However, these concepts were well familiar to translators from the university philosophical and philological habitus, to which Frankovsky also belonged, and were presented in a number of theoretical and historical works on translation authored by such university professors as Fyodor D. Batyushkov, Mikhail P. Alexeev, and Alexandеr M. Finkel’. Their brief overview allows to trace the ori gins of Frankovsky’s concept of translation. The second part of the article is based on the draft materials preserved in Frankovsky’s archive (Manuscript Department of Pushkin House, Fund 132. Their analysis allows to demonstrate Frankovsky’s individual orientation within the field of philological translation. Frankovsky was focused on literal reproduction of the foreign syntax in the Russian language and thus endeavored to construct a more intellectual, rational, “European” Russian language. There are also striking parallels between Frankovsky’s interest in humor as the dominant of the early English novel and his conveyance of indirect speech (as it was analyzed within German linguistic school of Carl Vossler with similar interests of Mikhail M. Bakhtin at the same time. This allows us to place Frankovsky’s translations within the cultural context that remained unnoticed by his contemporaries.

  13. Renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte Egelund

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy projects are increasingly confronted by local opposition, which delays and sometimes even prevents their implementation. This reflects the frequent gap between support for the general idea of renewables as a strategy for reducing carbon emissions, and acceptance of renewable energy...... installations in the local landscape. A number of countries have introduced financial incentives to promote community acceptance. The tool box of incentives is still limited but in recent years it has been expanded to address local concerns. Certain general characteristics can be identified, suggesting...... that there are at least three distinct categories of incentives: individual compensation, community benefits and ownership measures. Local opposition must be approached with caution, as financial incentives to promote local acceptance can be seen as buying consent or even ‘bribery’, stirring up further opposition....

  14. Renewables in Global Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  15. Renewables Information 2013 with 2012 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Renewables Information provides a comprehensive review of historical and current market trends in OECD countries, including 2012 preliminary data. An Introduction, notes, definitions and auxiliary information are provided in Part I. Part II of the publication provides an overview of the development of renewables and waste in the world over the 1990 to 2011 period. A greater focus is given to OECD countries with a review of electricity generation and capacity from renewable and waste energy sources. Part III of the publication provides a corresponding statistical overview of developments in the world and OECD renewable and waste market. Part IV provides, in tabular form, a more detailed and comprehensive picture of developments for renewable and waste energy sources for 34 OECD member countries, including 2012 preliminary data. It encompasses energy indicators, generating capacity, electricity and heat production from renewable and waste sources, as well as production and consumption of renewables and waste.

  16. Renewable Energy Education in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bajpai Shrish; Kidwai Naimur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    The issue of renewable energy sources that have great potential to give solutions to the longstanding energy problems of India has been considered. It has been stated that renewable energy sources are an important part of India’s plan to increase energy security and provide new generation with ample job opportunities. India’s plans to move towards green technology and address environmental concerns associated with the country and the world have been characterized. The peculiarities of the ren...

  17. China's Soft Diplomacy in an Emerging Multi-polar World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Keynote presentation for the conference"The Growing Prominence of China on the World Stage: Exploring the Political, Economic, and Cultural Relations of China and Global Stakeholders" International Conference, Berlin, September 15th - 18th, 2011 - Held Parallel to the "Berlin - Asia Pacific Weeks...... Conference 2011...

  18. Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkenburg, W.C.; Arent, D.; Bertani, R.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Hand, M.; Krewitt, W.; Larson, E.D.; Lund, J.; Mehos, M.; Merrigan, T.; Mitchell, C.; Moreira, J.R.; Sinke, W.C.; Sonntag-O'Brien, V.; Thresher, B.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Usher, E.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an in-depth examination of major renewable energy technologies, including their installed capacity and energy supply in 2009 , the current state of market and technology development, their economic and financial feasibility in 2009 and in the near future, as well as major

  19. Long-Term Hydrocarbon Trade Options for the Maghreb Region and Europe—Renewable Energy Based Synthetic Fuels for a Net Zero Emissions World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Fasihi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and increasing emission costs are drivers for new sources of fuels for Europe. Sustainable hydrocarbons can be produced synthetically by power-to-gas (PtG and power-to-liquids (PtL facilities, for sectors with low direct electrification such as aviation, heavy transportation and chemical industry. Hybrid PV–Wind power plants can harvest high solar and wind potentials of the Maghreb region to power these systems. This paper calculates the cost of these fuels for Europe, and presents a respective business case for the Maghreb region. Calculations are hourly resolved to find the least cost combination of technologies in a 0.45° × 0.45° spatial resolution. Results show that, for 7% weighted average cost of capital (WACC, renewable energy based synthetic natural gas (RE-SNG and RE-diesel can be produced in 2030 for a minimum cost of 76 €/MWhHHV (0.78 €/m3SNG and 88 €/MWhHHV (0.85 €/L, respectively. While in 2040, these production costs can drop to 66 €/MWhHHV (0.68 €/m3SNG and 83 €/MWhHHV (0.80 €/L, respectively. Considering access to a WACC of 5% in a de-risking project, oxygen sales and CO2 emissions costs, RE-diesel can reach fuel-parity at crude oil prices of 101 and 83 USD/bbl in 2030 and 2040, respectively. Thus, RE-synthetic fuels could be produced to answer fuel demand and remove environmental concerns in Europe at an affordable cost.

  20. Paleoclimate Reconstruction during the 17th to 18th Century Using Fossil Coral Tsunami Boulders from Ishigaki Island, the Ryukyus, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Seki, A.; Kawakubo, Y.; Araoka, D.; Suzuki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) to reconstruct paleo SST during LIA (Kawakubo et al., 2014). LA-HR-ICPMS enables us to measure the long coral core rapidly. Our result shows SST variation in 17th-18th century in this area and SST declined in around 1700. This result reveals the response of Little Ice Age in the northwestern Pacific.

  1. ITC18: 18th international Toki conference. Development of physics and technology of stellarators/heliotrons 'en route to DEMO'. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    18th International Toki Conference (ITC18) was held in Toki (Japan) December 9-12 2008 organized by the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). More than 150 experts in fusion research, especially in stellarator/heliotron research from Australia, Belgium, China, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Korea, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America gathered at the conference. The International Organizing Committee (IOC) chaired by O. Motojima, the International Program Committee (IPC) chaired by Y. Ogawa and the Local Organizing Committee (LOC) chaired by T. Mutoh have played the leading role in the elaboration of the scientific program of the conference. NIFS has organized the ITC as an annual meeting for fusion related sciences since its establishment in 1989. The IPC arranged 2 plenary talks, 1 review talk, 34 invited talks in addition to 109 contributed presentations including 6 oral talks. Recent developments in the experimental, theoretical and technical research show the clear route to the realization of a stellarator/heliotron type demo fusion reactor. ITC18 was devoted to review the recent developments and to discuss the next steps forward to the demo reactor realization of stellarator/heliotron type. In the conference, recent experimental results from both tokamak and stellarator/heliotron devices are reviewed and the experimental and theoretical physics of plasma confinement in toroidal devices are also discussed and confirmed that the physical base of the fusion reactor is well developed. The development of steady state operation, heating, fueling, divertors, plasma wall interaction and wall materials, advanced diagnostics for reactor relevant plasma, blanket materials as well as super conducting magnets are discussed as inevitable key physics and technologies for the DEMO reactor. Slides of all oral presentations as well as the proceedings are available at http://itc.nifs.ac.jp/. Extended papers of major

  2. Effects of slope on the formation of dunes in dilute, turbulent pyroclastic currents: May 18th, 1980 Mt. St. Helens eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendana, Sylvana; Brand, Brittany D.; Self, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    The flanks of Mt St Helens volcano (MSH) are draped with thin, cross-stratified and stratified pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits. These are known as the proximal bedded deposits produced during the May 18th, 1980 eruption of MSH. While the concentrated portions of the afternoon PDCs followed deep topographic drainages down the steep flanks of the volcano, the dilute overriding cloud partially decoupled to develop fully dilute, turbulent PDCs on the flanks of the volcano (Beeson, D.L. 1988. Proximal Flank Facies of the May 18, 1980 Ignimbrite: Mt. St. Helens, Washington.). The deposits along the flank thus vary greatly from those found in the pumice plain, which are generally thick, massive, poorly-sorted, block-rich deposits associated with the more concentrated portions of the flow (Brand et al, accepted. Dynamics of pyroclastic density currents: Conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization - Mount St Helens, Washington (USA). JVGR). We explore the influence of topography on the formation of these dilute currents and influence of slope on the currents transport and depositional mechanisms. The deposits on steeper slopes (>15°) are fines depleted relative to the proximal bedded deposits on shallower slopes (<15°). Bedform amplitude and wavelength increase with increasing slope, as does the occurrence of regressive dunes. Increasing slope causes an increase in flow velocity and thus an increase in flow turbulence. The fines depleted deposits suggest that fine ash elutriation is more efficient in flows with stronger turbulence. The longer wavelength and amplitudes suggest that bedform morphology is directly related to flow velocity, an important finding since the controls on bedform wavelength and amplitude in density stratified flows remains poorly constrained. The occurrence of regressive dunes, often interpreted as high flow-regime bedforms, on steeper slopes relative to progressive dunes on shallower slopes further attests to the

  3. Renewable energies - Situation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, Claude; Vaillant, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The world has to face increasing energy needs while it is today dependent of fossil fuels at 80%. Getting out of the fossil fuels dependence model requires an important effort to promote the energy saving and the carbon-free energies as well, and in particular the renewable energy sources. Taking all this information into account, the authors evaluate the global share that renewable energies could represent in the energy mix, in France and in the entire world. This share represents today only 10% of the energy consumed, but will it remain marginal or will it become important and eventually prominent? (J.S.)

  4. RENEWABLE ENERGY IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA MIHĂILĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports published by the International Energy Agency and U.S. Department of Energy, regarding the global energy outlook for the first three decades of the XXI century, warns of global trends on energy demand, increasing dependence on energy imports, coal use and volume emissions of greenhouse gases, torism industry being one of the biggest energy consumption industry. Uncertainties on different models of regional development and access of the world to traditional energy resources require a change of orientation towards long-term scenarios for assessing energy domain, increasing the share of energy from renewable resources beeing one of the solutions. Intourism the renewable energy is a solution for a positive impact on enviroment , reduced operational costs and even won an extra-profit.

  5. 18. YY.'da İstanbul Esnafının Sorunları The Problems Of The Merchants In The 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslıhan NAKİBOĞLU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Provisioning denotates feeding, nourishing, nursing. When theworld history is taken into account, providing food and raw material tothe cities has been a crucial problem for the states and pre-capitalistcommunities. The increase in the population in the cities had made theproblems of provisioning even worse which caused crises ofprovisioning.Provisioning of İstanbul has always been essential to the OttomanEmpire. The economic view of the Empire leaned on to three principlesÇProvisioning, traditionalism and fiscalism in which provisioning wasseen as the key among the others.Provisioning in Ottoman Empire was based on the consumer,therefore the Empire followed a economic policy which has protected theconsumer and the producer against prices. State intervened the marketfrom the production of the good until it hasreached the consumer. Thepurpose was to control the market. Fixed price system was alsoemerged because of the provisioning. The provisioning policy of theEmpire was to put export prohibition to the wheat, to monitor thedistribution of food to hte whosalers and merchants, to determine thethe fix price to prevent the price speculations and to ban the stockpilingİstanbul was very crucial to the Empire as the capital and theregulator of the social order. Therefore the empire had undertaken the provisioning of İstanbul. Since, provisioning was important economical and political stances, empire did not leave the market alone but intervene it which means, Empire had worked full force with its all units related to production and distrıbution to prevent its people from famine, poverty and expensiveness. This had continued untill the 18th century. In the 18th century, provisioning problems, smuggled good, hardships to control the fixed price policy and the disagreements between the merchants of İstanbul and its surrounding region had become the agendaIn this study, the problems related to the topics such as the commerce between the merchants of

  6. Lifting and transport by sea of great stone columns: evidence of traditional methods used in 18th and 19th century building programs as a clue to reconstructing Roman marble transport processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Barresi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to investigate the traditional technologies of lifting and sea transport of large stone blocks (time spent for sea transport, ways of charging and stewing large stone pieces, number of people engaged with evidence from 18th and 19th century Italy, as a key to understand ancient Roman practices. I shall use data from reconstruction of the 5th century Christian basilica of St. Paul at Rome, burnt in 1823, where new granite shafts, mainly from Italian quarries, replaced the Roman ones. Other documentary sources help to understand some details related to heavy transport, otherwise unknown for Roman period. It should be obviously dangerous to induce directly that the same technologies used for lifting and transport of columns in 18th or 19th century were in use also in Roman Imperial age, but the study of such processes can help us to put in the right view our reconstruction of ancient reality.

  7. Summary report of IAEA technical meeting on technical aspects of atomic and molecular data processing and exchange - 18th meeting of the A+M Data Centres and ALADDIN Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, D.

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA Technical Meeting on 'Technical Aspects of Atomic and Molecular Data Processing and Exchange - 18th Meeting of A+M Data Centres and ALADDIN Network' was held on 10-11 October 2005, in Vienna, Austria. The discussions and presentations focused on the priorities in A+M data compilation and evaluation, and are summarized in this report. Conclusions and recommendations on the technical aspects of data processing, exchange and distribution are also presented. (author)

  8. RENEWABLE ENERGY BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GROSU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present the evolution of renewable energy in the entire world, including Moldova and Romania as states that tend to reach their micro- and macro-economic objectives. One of the most important goal remains thedevelopment of renewable energy from agricultural waste and so the energy coming from natural sources such assolar, wind or water without air pollution. As a conclusion, the solution to obtain this renewable energy is to attractfinancial resources from EU or USA investors.

  9. Renewables 2013. Global Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawin, J. L. [and others

    2013-07-01

    Renewable energy markets, industries, and policy frameworks have evolved rapidly in recent years. The Renewables Global Status Report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It relies on the most recent data available, provided by many contributors and researchers from around the world, all of which is brought together by a multi-disciplinary authoring team. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecasts. This latest Renewables Global Status Report saw: a shift in investment patterns that led to a global decrease in clean energy investment; continuing growth in installed capacity due to significant technology cost reductions and increased investment in developing countries; renewables progressively supplementing established electricity systems, demonstrating that the implementation of suitable policies can enable the successful integration of higher shares of variable renewables; and the emergence of integrated policy approaches that link energy efficiency measures with the implementation of renewable energy technologies.

  10. Renewables 2010 - Global status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Martinot, Eric; Sonntag-O'Brien, Virginia; McCrone, Angus; Roussell, Jodie; Barnes, Douglas; Flavin, Christopher; Mastny, Lisa; Kraft, Diana; Wang, Shannon; Ellenbeck, Saskia; Ilieva, Lili; Griebenow, Christof; Adib, Rana; Lempp, Philippe; Welker, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    in early 2010-more than 100 countries had enacted some type of policy target and/or promotion policy related to renewable energy, up from 55 countries in early 2005. Many new targets enacted in the past three years call for shares of energy or electricity from renewables in the 15-25 percent range by 2020. Most countries have adopted more than one promotion policy, and there is a huge diversity of policies in place at national, state/provincial, and local levels. Many recent trends also reflect the increasing significance of developing countries in advancing renewable energy. Collectively, developing countries have more than half of global renewable power capacity. China now leads in several indicators of market growth. India is fifth worldwide in total existing wind power capacity and is rapidly expanding many forms of rural renewables such as biogas and solar PV. Brazil produces virtually all of the world's sugar-derived ethanol and has been adding new biomass and wind power plants. Many renewables markets are growing at rapid rates in countries such as Argentina, Costa Rica, Egypt, Indonesia, Kenya, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, and Uruguay, to name a few. Developing countries now make up over half of all countries with policy targets (45 out of 85 countries) and also make up half of all countries with some type of renewable energy promotion policy (42 out of 83 countries). The geography of renewable energy is changing in ways that suggest a new era of geographic diversity. For example, wind power existed in just a handful of countries in the 1990s but now exists in over 82 countries. Manufacturing leadership is shifting from Europe to Asia as countries like China, India, and South Korea continue to increase their commitments to renewable energy. In 2009, China produced 40 percent of the world's solar PV supply, 30 percent of the world's wind turbines (up from 10 percent in 2007), and 77 percent of the world's solar hot water collectors. Latin

  11. The renewable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses renewable energy sources as an alternative to a fossil fuel based economy. The topics discussed in the chapter include the historic aspects and current status of use of renewable energy, status of the renewable energy industry, market barriers to renewable energy, research and development and commercialization of renewable energy, the environmental and social costs associated with renewable energy, valuing future costs and benefits of energy use, and the potential market of renewable energy

  12. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  13. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  14. Renewables 2012. Global Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawin, J. L. [and others

    2012-08-15

    Renewable energy markets and policy frameworks have evolved rapidly in recent years. This report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It relies on the most recent data available, provided by a network of more than 400 contributors and researchers from around the world, all of which is brought together by a multi-disciplinary authoring team. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast the future.

  15. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitting country in the world. In this case...... system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy...... system. The conclusion is that China’s domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system...

  16. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

  17. Energy and durable development: the place of the renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The 29 may 2000, took place at the UNESCO, a colloquium on the place of the renewable energies facing the economic development. This document presents the opening presentation of A. Antolini and L. Jospin and the colloquium papers and debates in the following four domains: the energy challenges of the durable development, the renewable energies sources facing the european directive, the thermal renewable energies (solar, geothermics and biomass) and the greenhouse effect, the world market of the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  18. Renewable energy market overview 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, Nicholas

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses the findings of a recent survey on the renewable energy market carried out in 164 countries and across a wide range of sectors of industry. The survey found almost unanimous optimism regarding the growth of the renewable energy market over the coming year. Tables show (i) the survey sample (in terms of continents, database population and responses); (ii) subsidiaries and locations of parent companies; (iii) expectations of sales next year (by continent) and (iv) expectations of sales in the coming year by sector. Figures show (a) regional distribution of companies (by continent); (b) companies' activities and (c) index of expectations of sales, by continent. The survey is intended for inclusion in the World Directory of Renewable Energy Suppliers and Services

  19. Renewable energy market overview 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Nicholas

    2001-02-01

    The article discusses the findings of a recent survey on the renewable energy market carried out in 164 countries and across a wide range of sectors of industry. The survey found almost unanimous optimism regarding the growth of the renewable energy market over the coming year. Tables show (i) the survey sample (in terms of continents, database population and responses); (ii) subsidiaries and locations of parent companies; (iii) expectations of sales next year (by continent) and (iv) expectations of sales in the coming year by sector. Figures show (a) regional distribution of companies (by continent); (b) companies' activities and (c) index of expectations of sales, by continent. The survey is intended for inclusion in the World Directory of Renewable Energy Suppliers and Services.

  20. Renewable energies. Italy is mobilizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marante, W.

    2005-01-01

    About 3 quarter of the Italian electric power comes from fossil fuel power plants. The rest is generated from hydropower, few comes from biomass and wind energy and a very few from geothermal energy (2% of the national production). However, the situation is changing and geothermal energy, with only 5 TWh, makes Italy the European leader in this domain and the world number 4 behind USA, Philippines and Mexico. The renewable sources represent 18.5% of the total Italian energy production. During the last five years, the renewable energy sources have developed rapidly: +80% per year for the wind energy, +32% per year for biomass and about +3% per year for geothermal energy. Moreover, the Italian government is implementing incentives for the development of renewable energy sources. This article gives an overview of the situation. (J.S.)

  1. Report on Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Global Alliance for Medical Education, Barcelona, Spain, June 9–11, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Murray

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Participants representing various stakeholders, including medical schools, pharmaceutical companies, medical education companies, international regulatory bodies, and independent consultants from 17 countries, attended the annual meeting of the Global Alliance for Medical Education (GAME in Barcelona between 9 and 11 June 2013. The attendees took part in small-group exercises to explore the use of a 10-step empirical procedure as part of an instructional design model applied to the planning and implementation of educational activities in continuing medical education and continuing professional development (CME/CPD. The strategic focus of GAME was presented to highlight areas of interest in patient safety, inter-professional education, and adult learning theory in CME/CPD. These areas were also underlined during presentations of abstracts by representatives of the World Health Organization, academic institutions, and medical education companies. These presentations demonstrated the wide array of educational activities and formats being conducted around the world, with live links to Rwanda and Uruguay emphasizing the global reach of GAME.

  2. Richard Bradley: a unified, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants, animals, and humans in the first decades of the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Melvin

    2009-01-01

    During the years 1714 to 1721, Richard Bradley, who was later to become the first Professor of Botany at Cambridge University, proposed a unified, unique, living agent theory of the cause of infectious diseases of plants and animals and the plague of humans. Bradley's agents included microscopic organisms, revealed by the studies of Robert Hooke and Antony van Leeuwenhoek. His theory derived from his experimental studies of plants and their diseases and from microscopic observation of animalcules in different naturally occurring and artificial environments. He concluded that there was a microscopic world of "insects" that lived and reproduced under the appropriate conditions, and that infectious diseases of plants were caused by such "insects." Since there are structural and functional similarities between plants and animals, Bradley concluded that microscopic organisms caused human and animal infectious diseases as well. However, his living agent cause of infectious diseases was not accepted by the contemporary scientific society.

  3. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  4. Participatory urban renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Kos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of two parts. The first deals with the theoretical framework of urban rehabilitation. Literature provides the basis for a conclusion, which is that the key issue in rehabilitation projects is legitimate negotiation of various interests between participating individuals and institutions. In the second part this presentation and analyses of events that took place at the urban design workshop organised within the framework of the research project Renewal of housing estates in Ljubljana, provide experiential confirmation of the starting thesis. We established that the directly involved residents were willing to actively participate in rehabilitation procedures, however the process is never triggered, because of insufficient capacities in institutional frameworks. In conclusion several real proposals are shown, namely, how to surmount obstacles in urban rehabilitation and especially in larger housing estates built after World War 2.

  5. The Cultural and Religious Dimension of The Foreign Policy Of Russia At The Turn Of 17th and 18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey V. Skizhenok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article aims to examine the role and place of the Russian Orthodox Church in Russia's transition from the regional state of the Middle Ages to an absolutist state of Modern history. Transformations in states' domestic and foreign policies that took place in Modern history cannot be reduced to a simple set of changes in various spheres of life of states, nations and peoples. By studying the transition from one type of statehood to another one we are dealing with a fundamental transformation of the entire state organism, the state as a cultural phenomenon, with a change in the very notion of what a state is and what its goals, objectives and functions are. The process of transformations in statehood affected all countries of the world including our Motherland. In Russia these changes had their own cultural and historical specificity which was largely formed by religiosity of our people and was rooted in the Orthodox faith. Therefore, the author considered it necessary to raise the question of how the cultural, historical and religious identity of the Russian people could influence the course of reforms in the sphere of the Russian state system in Modern history. The author focuses on the foreign policy of the Russian state built on cultural and religious values in I7th-I8th centuries. This foreign policy is seen as an alternative paradigm of the modern Russia's foreign policy. The author believes that the modern Russian state does not shape its foreign policy on the basis of core values of the Russian world view arising from the religious consciousness of our people. This fact deprives Russia’s foreign policy of unity with cultural and historical tradition of our state and in many respects weakens it. The article provides a possible answer to the question why a tendency to the framing of a foreign policy on the basis of values and religious outlook inherent in the Russian people did not prevail in the foreign policy of the

  6. Fusion fuel and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entler, Slavomir

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that fusion fuel meets all aspects applied when defining renewables. A table of definitions of renewables is presented. The sections of the paper are as follows: An industrial renewable source; Nuclear fusion; Current situation in research; Definitions of renewable sources; Energy concept of nuclear fusion; Fusion fuel; Natural energy flow; Environmental impacts; Fusion fuel assessment; Sustainable power; and Energy mix from renewables. (P.A.)

  7. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Zhang, Xiliang

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO 2 emitting country in the world. In this case, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously. In this process, assessment of domestic renewable energy sources is the first step. Then appropriate methodologies are needed to perform energy system analyses involving the integration of more sustainable strategies. Denmark may serve as an example of how sustainable strategies can be implemented. The Danish system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy system. The conclusion is that China's domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system in China is not unreasonable. (author)

  8. NEDO hydrogen, alcohol, and biomass technology subcommittee. 18th project report meeting; NEDO suiso alcohol biomass gijutsu bunkakai. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A report is delivered by Morio Murase, a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) director, in which the general situation of hydrogen, alcohol, and biomass technology development is explained. Concerning the research and development of international clean energy system of hydrogen, the WE-NET (World Energy Network) project is described, in which a total system concept design and cryogenic structural materials that are the fruits of the 1st phase are mentioned. Concerning the 2nd phase, research and development to be conducted are discussed, and reports are delivered thereon. Reported concerning the development of high-efficiency refuse-fueled power generation technology are a demonstration test using a pilot plant and a superheater demonstration test. Concerning the research and development for the advanced clear energy vehicle project, a development program is reported for an energy-efficient, low-pollution vehicle which is a combination of a hybrid mechanism and clean energy. Reported also is the research and development of supercritical fluid utilization, in which the reaction of supercritical water upon addition of solvent, its oxidation and hydrogenation, and so forth, are explained. (NEDO)

  9. Treating people with intercurrent infection in HIV prevention trials. Report from a WHO/UNAIDS consultation, Geneva 17-18th July 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-21

    While broad agreement now exists among sponsors of HIV prevention trials that antiretroviral therapy (ART) and a clinical care package should be provided to those who become infected during the conduct of a trial, certain practical issues remain unresolved, including Who should pay for ART? How long should ART be provided for? Does treatment extend outside of ART? What else should be included in the standard of care package and who should pay for it? Who should provide treatment and care? This report summarizes the discussions from a consultation held in Geneva (17-18 July 2003) organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). The group discussed issues related to the various types of HIV prevention trials covered - vaccines, microbicides, behavioural - the ethics and legal rational for providing treatment and care as well as relevant economic issues and developments around scale-up of treatment and care in middle- and lower-income countries. Also discussed were policies of certain research agencies, countries and international funding agencies. The implementation of the conclusions which came out of these discussions on the treatment and care for people who become infected during HIV prevention trials requires the active participation of members of the research community, funders of research, local and national governments and industry as well as the individuals or communities participating in the trials.

  10. NEDO coal mining structure adjustment subcommittee. 18th project report meeting; NEDO sekitan kogyo kozo chosei bunkakai. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Concerning the subject matter, a NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) director Keishiro Kawamo reports on NEDO's projects designed to smoothly implement the 'new coal policy'. Nobuaki Terasaka, chief of the planning division, coal and new energy department, Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, takes up the current status of the coal policy and the tasks it faces, and discusses, predicting the development of the coal policy, the assurance of stable supply of coal from abroad, development of clean coal technologies that will rightly deal with the world-wide environmental problems, and the international diffusion of the clean coal technologies and the completion of the basement therefor. Concerning the 'development of zeolite-related commodities,' a report is delivered on the manufacture of a soil improving material and a deodorant for fish grill from zeolite found rich in coal layers of Pacific Coal Mine Co., Ltd. Concerning the 'polycrystalline diamond manufacturing project,' a polycrystalline diamond synthesizing method making use of the blasting technique employed at coal mines is reported. (NEDO)

  11. As metamorfoses do império e os problemas da monarquia portuguesa na primeira metade do século XVIII The empire’s metamorphoses and the problems of the Portuguese monarchy in the first half of 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante a primeira metade do século XVIII, em diversas dimensões do mundo português, operou-se um significativo processo de metamorfose, tanto no âmbito interno do reino quanto na própria configuração mais geral do Império. Lisboa, consolidada como caput regne, começou a viver significativa transformação. No pensamento de diversos personagens ligados à administração da monarquia havia a certeza de que o eixo do Império situava-se definitivamente no complexo atlântico, nas duas margens do oceano. Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir algumas questões relativas a esses fenômenos.During the first half of the 18th century, in various dimensions of the Portuguese world, operated a significant process of metamorphosis, both within the kingdom itself as the more general setting of the Empire. Lisbon, consolidated as caput regne, began to live a significant transformation. In the mind of several characters related to the administration of the monarchy was not certain that the axis of the Empire was located permanently in the complex Atlantic, on both sides of the ocean. This article aims to discuss some issues related to this phenomenon.

  12. Can renewable energy sources sustain affluent society?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainer, F.E.

    1995-01-01

    Figures commonly quoted on costs of generating energy from renewable sources can give the impression that it will be possible to switch to renewables as the foundation for the continuation of industrial societies with high material living standards. Although renewable energy must be the sole source in a sustainable society, major difficulties become evident when conversions, storage and supply for high latitudes are considered. It is concluded that renewable energy sources will not be able to sustain present rich world levels of energy use and that a sustainable world order must be based on acceptance of much lower per capita levels of energy use, much lower living standards and a zero growth economy. (Author)

  13. Socio-Political Motivation of Experiential Travel Education in the 18th, 19th and 20th Centuries: The Grand Tour, World's Fairs and Birthright Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porges, Edward

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate that travel as experiential education, though not always obvious, often has political or cultural intent or ramifications. Objectives such as promoting cosmopolitanism, nationalism and imperialism, and colonialism may then become obvious by examination of various experiential education travel programs,…

  14. ORIGIN AND EXPANSION IN THE LUSO WORLD OF THE OBSERVANCE OF RENNES: the mystic-militant of the Carmelite Turons or Reformed in the 17th and 18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cabral Honor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to analyze the development of the carmelite constitutions of Strict Observance in the Province of Turon in France as influenced by Saint Theresa's mystique and by the missionary ideal that moved the Tridentine Church. Vulgarly referred as Turonic Reform, the constitutions provided the calced carmelites with a new legislation that reconciled mystical experience and catechesis. The success of this enterprise divided the calced carmelites into two groups, those who followed the constitutions of the Ancient Observance (prior to the Reform and those who followed the Strict Observance (vulgarly called Turonic, which culminated in the creation of a new religious order called Discalced. Adopted in 1666 in the Portuguese America, the Turonic Reform instituted a mystique-militant strategy of action. The consolidation of the aforementioned constitutions in the territory overseas caused a great divide among the carmelites friars that summited in the edification of the Reformed Province of Pernambuco in 1725.

  15. Renewables for sustainable village power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, L.

    1997-03-01

    It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel gen-sets or partial electrification (local school or community center and several nearby houses). For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy (RE) technologies. The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. These four attributes foster sustainability; therefore, the program is entitled Renewables for Sustainable Village Power (RSVP). The RSVP program is a multi-technology, multi-application program composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel gen-sets, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. NREL's RSVP team is currently involved in rural electricity projects in thirteen countries, with U.S., foreign, and internationally based agencies and institutions. The integration of the technology developments, institutional experiences, and the financial solutions for the implementation of renewables in the main line rural electrification processes in both the developing world and remote regions of the developed world is the goal

  16. Renewable target in sight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Australia's renewable energy industry is expecting several billion dollars of investment over the next 10 years following passage in December last year of the Renewable Energy Electricity) Act 2000 through Federal Parliament. The Act requires an additional 9500GWh of Australia's electricity production to be sourced from renewables by the year 2010. It also establishes a market for the 'green' component of the energy separate from the electricity itself, through a Renewable Energy Certificate (REC), whereby an accredited generator of renewable energy is able to issue one REC for each megawatt-hour of renewable energy generated

  17. Renewable energy annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary

  18. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  19. Implementation of Renewable Energy Systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1997-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to a sustainable energy development. This has been substantiated by two official action plans from 1990 and 1996 with emphasis on energy efficiency and supply systems based on renewable energy. In year 2005, renewable energy...... sources are planned to cover 12-14% and in year 2030 about 35% of total Danish energy demand. This paper reviews the experiences with implementation of renewable energy in Denmark with a focus on wind power and biomass....

  20. Renewables 2013. Global status report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Chawla, Kanika; Riahi, Lily; Adib, Rana; Skeen, Jonathan; Chavez, Sandra; Skeen, Jonathan; Hinrichs-Rahlwes, Rainer; Macias Galan, Ernesto; McCrone, Angus; Musolino, Evan; Mastny, Lisa; Sims, Ralph; Sonntag-O'Brien, Virginia; Sverrisson, Freyr; Martinot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy markets, industries, and policy frameworks have evolved rapidly in recent years. The Renewables Global Status Report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It relies on the most recent data available, provided by a network of more than 500 contributors and researchers from around the world, all of which is brought together by a multi-disciplinary authoring team. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecasts

  1. Global revolution: a status report on renewable energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric

    2005-01-01

    With at least 48 countries around the world having some type of renewable energy promotion policy, and increasingly favourable economics, renewables are seeing strong growth and increasing significance. In 2004, global investment in renewables reached US$30 billion. More than 1.7 million people are directly employed by the industry and the 180 GW of installed renewables represents 4% of global capacity. The author discusses the state of renewables in 2005, based on the Just-released 'Renewables 2005 Global Status Report' which was sponsored by the REN21 Renewable Energy Policy Network and involved over 100 collaborators, under the headings: investment trends; industry and market trends; policies to promote renewable energy. (UK)

  2. Beyond denial and exclusion: The history of relations between Christians and Muslims in the Cape Colony during the 17th–18th centuries with lessons for a post-colonial theology of religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning from the past prepares one for being able to cope with the future. History is made up of strings of relationships. This article follows a historical line from colonialism, through apartheid to post-colonialism in order to illustrate inter-religious relations in South-Africa and how each context determines these relations. Social cohesion is enhanced by a post-colonial theology of religions based on the current context. By describing the relationship between Christians and Muslims during the 17th–18th centuries in the Cape Colony, lessons can be deduced to guide inter-religious relations in a post-colonial era in South Africa. One of the most prominent Muslim leaders during the 17th century in the Cape Colony was Sheik Yusuf al-Makassari. His influence determined the future face of Islam in the Cape Colony and here, during the 18th century, ethics started playing a crucial role in determining the relationship between Christians and Muslims. The ethical guidance of the Imams formed the Muslim communities whilst ethical decline was apparent amongst the Christian colonists during the same period. The place of ethics as determinative of future inter-religious dialogue is emphasised. Denial and exclusion characterised relationships between Christians and Muslims. According to a post-colonial understanding of inter-religious contact the equality and dignity of non-Christian religions are to be acknowledged. In the postcolonial and postapartheid struggle for equality, also of religions, prof Graham Duncan, to whom this article is dedicated, contributed to the process of acknowledging the plurality of the religious reality in South Africa.

  3. The formation of the urban network as a strategy to define the boundary between the captaincies of Minas Gerais and São Paulo in the second half of the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Salgado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The municipal institutions are essential instruments in the consolidation and defense of the territories of the Portuguese Crown in Brazil. In the 18th century, in face of the gold discoveries and occupation of the territory, the creation of towns in Minas Gerais is a strategy to affirm the Crown's power and administrative organization. When the Captaincy of São Paulo was restored in 1765, the strengthening of the Crown's power was structured by military actions and the inauguration of sugar production, which is associated with the creation of a network of villages, parishes and towns. The governors of São Paulo seek to improve structures that would guarantee the flows of people and goods in the territory, as well as consolidate territorial limits with Spain and with the confining captaincies. However, the occupation of the border areas between the captaincies of São Paulo and Minas Gerais was never consensual among the authorities, both metropolitan and colonial. A region of litigation in the18th century, the hinterland of the Rio das Mortes was marked by São Paulo’s establishments, stimulated by the government of this captaincy, and by attempts to organize the colonial authorities of Minas Gerais. This work analyzes the conflicts, practices, and discourses involved in the process of establishing the urban network in the border region between the captaincies of Minas Gerais and São Paulo in the end of the 18thcentury. The actions of the Crown indicate the importance of the region in the late eighteenth century. The role of civil and ecclesiastical authorities in the establishment of the urban centers in question is highlighted. The case studies elucidate regional differences in the same context and are based on the primary documentation that represents the instruments of control of the territory by the Crown: cartography and the oficial documents of the Municipal Chambers and the Governors.

  4. World energy outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Pursuant to Article 1 of the Convention signed in Paris on 14th December 1960, and which came into force on 30th September 1961, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) shall promote policies designed: - to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in Member countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy; -to contribute to sound economic expansion in Member as well as non-member countries in the process of economic development; and - to contribute to the expansion of world trade on a multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in accordance with international obligations. The original Member countries of the OECD are Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. The following countries became Members subsequently through accession at the dates indicated hereafter: Japan (28th April 1964), Finland (28th January 1969), Australia (7th June 1971), New Zealand (29th May 1973), Mexico (18th May 1994) and the Czech Republic (21st December 1995). The Commission of the European Communities takes part in the work of the OECD (Article 13 of the OECD Convention). (author)

  5. Future UK markets for stand-alone renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paish, O.

    1999-01-01

    A study to identify and quantify the market for stand-alone renewable energy supplies of power (photovoltaics, wind and micro-hydro electricity systems) was described. The study focused on small systems, generally less than a few kW installed capacity. It was suggested that in the UK, the emphasis on grid-connected renewable energy technologies (RETs) has blurred the fact that it is 'off-grid' renewable systems that can offer more immediate real commercial markets for the renewables business. With the likelihood of a significant increase in demand for renewables world wide over the next ten years, the UK needs to make a special effort to become involved

  6. Renewable energy resources: Opportunities and constraints 1990-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This study examined the prospects for new renewable energy resources, from a global perspective, over the next three decades and beyond. The study is intended to support the work of the World Energy Council (WEC) Commission on Energy for Tomorrow's World. The new renewable resources investigated were: Solar; wind; geothermal; modern biomass; ocean; small hydro. Each of these areas was thoroughly researched and was the subject of a separate section of the report. Recent information on large-scale hydroelectric and traditional biomass is included for added perspective on total use of renewable energy, but both fall outside the definition of new renewable energy used in this report

  7. RENEWABLE ENERGY INVESTMENTS DURING 2004-2015 PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brîndușa COVACI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents important considerations on the renewable energy investments from world and European level. The paper points out Europe's position in the current world context. Research is an exploratory one, being supported by statistical interpretations made by the author based on analysis of the "Global Trends in the renewable energy sector" report (2016, United Nations Environment Programme in collaboration with Bloomberg under the auspices of the School of Finance and Management in Frankfurt. Conceptually, the paper presents the most important points of the oscillation investments in the renewable energy sector worldwide. The level of investment in the renewable energy sector offers an accurate picture of the extent of decarbonisation.

  8. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.

  9. Online driver's license renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Kentucky Department of Vehicle Regulation is exploring the possibility of developing and implementing online : drivers license renewal. The objective of this project was to: 1) evaluate online drivers license and REAL ID renewal : programs ...

  10. Renewables 2012 - Global status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Bhattacharya, Sribas Chandra; Galan, Ernesto Macias; McCrone, Angus; Moomaw, William R.; Sims, Ralph; Sonntag-O'Brien, Virginia; Sverrisson, Freyr; Chawla, Kanika; Adib, Rana; Musolino, Evan; Mastny, Lisa; Skeen, Jonathan; Martinot, Eric; Hinrichs-Rahlwes, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy markets and policy frameworks have evolved rapidly in recent years. This report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It relies on the most recent data available, provided by a network of more than 400 contributors and researchers from around the world, all of which is brought together by a multi-disciplinary authoring team. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast the future. As such, this report and subsequent editions will serve as a benchmark for measuring global progress in the deployment of renewable energy, which is of particular interest in this International Year of Sustainable Energy for All. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has marked the occasion with a new global initiative, Sustainable Energy for All, which seeks to mobilise global action on three inter-linked objectives to be achieved by 2030: universal access to modern energy services, improved rates of energy efficiency, and expanded use of renewable energy sources

  11. Resilient Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [Unaffiliated

    2017-11-14

    This presentation for the Cable-Tec Expo 2017 offers information about how renewable microgrids can be used to increase resiliency. It includes information about why renewable energy battery diesel hybrids microgrids should be considered for backup power, how to estimate economic savings of microgrids, quantifying the resiliency gain of microgrids, and where renewable microgrids will be successful.

  12. Reimagining What's Possible: How NREL's Energy Analysis and Decision Support Capabilities are Guiding Energy Systems Transformation at Home and Around the World; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    This engaging brochure shows examples of how NREL enables energy system transformation through robust capabilities in energy analysis and decision support. By reimagining what's possible for renewable energy, NREL contributes to the Department of Energy mission to create energy systems that are cleaner, more reliable, and more secure.

  13. How adequate policies can push renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.; Coelho, S.T.; Lucon, Oswaldo

    2004-01-01

    The growing interest in the establishment of a minimum share of renewable sources in the world energy matrix, after the Johannesburg's World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD), has raised the question about the means for such new technologies to compete with the traditional ones. The Brazilian experience in the last 25 years with ethanol as a replacement for gasoline can illustrate this possibility. Moreover, recent policies introduced by the Federal government for a minimum share of new renewable sources - wind, modern biomass and small hydro - in the Brazilian electricity matrix reinforces the country's commitment to utilize adequate policies for achieving sustainable development

  14. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased

  15. Renewables 2016 Global Status Report. Key findings. A Record Breaking Year for Renewable Energy: New Installations, Policy Targets, Investment and Jobs. Mainstreaming renewables: guidance for policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Sverrisson, Freyr; Seyboth, Kristin; Adib, Rana; Murdock, Hannah E.; Lins, Christine; Brown, Adam; Di Domenico, Stefanie E.; Kielmanowicz, Daniele; Williamson, Laura E.; Jawahar, Rashmi; Appavou, Fabiani; Musolino, Evan; Petrichenko, Ksenia; Farrell, Timothy C.; Thorsch Krader, Thomas; Skeen, Jonathan; Epp, Baerbel; Anna Leidreiter; Tsakiris, Aristeidis; Sovacool, Benjamin; Saraph, Aarth; Mastny, Lisa; Martinot, Eric

    2016-01-01

    2015 was an extraordinary year for renewable energy. Renewables are now cost competitive with fossil fuels in many markets and are established around the world as mainstream sources of energy. Cities, communities and companies are leading the rapidly expanding '100% renewable' movement. Distributed renewable energy is advancing rapidly to close the energy access gap. The REN21 Renewables Global Status Report (GSR) provides an annual look at the tremendous advances in renewable energy markets, policy frameworks and industries globally. Each report uses formal and informal data to provide the most up-to-date information available. Reliable, timely and regularly updated data on renewables energy are essential as they are used for establishing baselines for decision makers; for demonstrating the increasing role that renewables play in the energy sector; and illustrating that the renewable energy transition is a reality. This year's GSR marks 11 years of REN21 reporting. Over the past decade the GSR has expanded in scope and depth with its thematic and regional coverage and the refinement of data collection. The GSR is the product of systematic data collection resulting in thousands of data points, the use of hundreds of documents, and personal communication with experts from around the world. It benefits from a multi-stakeholder community of over 700 experts. Country information for 148 countries were received and used as basis for GSR2016 preparation. The country data received is featured in the REN21 Renewables Interactive Map (www.ren21.net/map)

  16. Mapping of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, V.

    2013-01-01

    Germany is the champion of green energy in Europe: the contribution of renewable energies to electricity generation reached about 20% in 2011. This article describes the situation of renewable energies in Germany in 2011 with the help of 2 maps, the first one gives the installed electrical generation capacity for each region and for each renewable energy source (wind power, hydro-electricity, biomass, photovoltaic energy and biogas) and the second one details the total number of jobs (direct and indirect) for each renewable energy source and for each region. In 2011 about 372000 people worked in the renewable energy sector in Germany. (A.C.)

  17. Local censuses in the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C M

    1969-03-01

    Abstract Recent work on the population problems of the eighteenth century has been mainly based on the use of parish records. Another source, and one which, surprisingly, has received little attention is the local census. These are more numerous than is generally realised; and can be of great use in demographic studies. This paper examines 125 local censuses mainly taken in urban areas. They are discussed in terms of how they come to be taken, their reliability, extant manuscript material and their contents. Whilst most of the censuses confine themselves to the basic facts such as total population, number of houses and number of families, some give details of sex, age, marital status and occupation. Generally the information is given for the parish or local administrative unit, but in a few instances it is available by streets.

  18. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  19. 18th informal meeting on reactor noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dach, K.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings contain the texts of 24 papers all of which fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The main purpose of the meeting of more than 90 scientists and specialists from 18 countries was for them to get acquainted with the current state and prospective development of noise diagnostics application in nuclear reactor operation. (Z.M.)

  20. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  1. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  2. Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

  3. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Renewable Energy Professionals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  4. Renewable energy--traditional biomass vs. modern biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Teixeira Coelho, Suani

    2004-01-01

    Renewable energy is basic to reduce poverty and to allow sustainable development. However, the concept of renewable energy must be carefully established, particularly in the case of biomass. This paper analyses the sustainability of biomass, comparing the so-called 'traditional' and 'modern' biomass, and discusses the need for statistical information, which will allow the elaboration of scenarios relevant to renewable energy targets in the world

  5. Renewable resources and renewable energy a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasiero, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    As energy demands continue to surge worldwide, the need for efficient and environmentally neutral energy production becomes increasingly apparent. In its first edition, this book presented a well-rounded perspective on the development of bio-based feedstocks, biodegradable plastics, hydrogen energy, fuel cells, and other aspects related to renewable resources and sustainable energy production. The new second edition builds upon this foundation to explore new trends and technologies. The authors pay particular attention to hydrogen-based and fuel cell-based technologies and provide real-world c

  6. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Ravi; Campbell, Daniel; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm sh...

  7. Renewable energy systems the choice and modeling of 100% renewable solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    How can society quickly convert to renewable energy? Can worldwide energy needs ever be met through 100% renewable sources? The answers to these questions rest largely on the perception of choice in the energy arena. It is of pivotal importance that engineers, researchers and policymakers understand what choices are available, and reasonable, when considering the design and deployment of new energy systems. The mission of this new book, written by one of the world's foremost experts in renewable power, is to arm these professionals with the tools and methodologies necessary to make smart choic

  8. Renewable energy to the Indian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.K.

    2005-12-01

    Fossil fuel reserves are diminishing rapidly across the world. Greenhouse gas emissions, climatic changes and global warming have a direct impact on the environment. A secure and accessible supply of energy is very crucial for the sustainability of modern societies. There is an urgent need for a quicker switch over of energy systems from conventional to renewable that are sustainable and can meet the present and projected world energy demand. Renewable energy has a large potential to become the fuel of the future. The present study is aimed to explore such potential and achievements in India. India is expected to have high growth rate in energy demand over the coming years due to its huge population and rapid economic development. The renewable energy prospects/spectrums of India have been highlighted. (author)

  9. News from the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    News from the world in relation with nuclear power and fuel cycle are given: Dismantling of the research reactor of the Pasteur Institute, Areva gets the contract to replace the vessel caps for the nuclear power plant of Diablo Canyon, the United Kingdom chooses the renewal of the nuclear park and an increase in the use of renewable energy sources, The united states launches a call to projects for the building of new generation nuclear power plants, in Argentina the government develops its nuclear industry, the Russian federation proposes the creation of an international center for the fuel cycle are the principal points that are developed in this issue. (N.C.)

  10. Renewable energy: the potential opportunities and obligations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy is generally recognised as a positive step on the pathway to sustainable development, but biomass-based renewable energy is becoming a controversial issue. In agriculture, the lure of first-generation biofuels is already distorting world food markets, energy crops such as sugar cane and oil palm ...

  11. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  12. China's renewables law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Li

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses China's Renewable Energy Promotion Law which will come into force in January 2006. The law shows China's commitment to renewable energy sources. The target is to raise the country's energy consumption from renewables to 10% by 2020. Data for current capacity, and expected capacity by 2020, are given for wind power, solar power, biomass and hydroelectric power. The financial and technological hurdles which China must overcome are mentioned briefly

  13. The edition from the VNLU fonds, unknown in the bibliography, as a sourcefor the biography of the book owner in the 18th ct. (description of the edition and the copy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabolotna N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of small (with a small amount of pages editions is now very actual as such publications usually are not covered by most scientific catalogs. This complicates their attribution and primarily their dating because many of these books are undated. The activity of Pochayiv Assumption monastery printing house in the 18th ct., especially in 70’s - 80’s is an example of active publication of such kind of editions. The article is devoted to the copy of the book «Decretum quo Sanctissimus Dominus Noster Clemens Divina Providentiв PP. XIV. concedit Proto-Archmandritж Congregationis S. Basilii Magni Ruthenorum, nec non cжteris Archimadritis ejusdem Congregationis, eorumquи in perpetuum Successoribus, facuttalem impertendi Benedictionem cum Jndulgentia Plenaria in articulo mortis» [Pochayiv: Typography of Assumption Monastery, between 1772 and 1774], which is not described in the bibliography. The investigated copy is also a document of one of the owners, the Basilian monk Amvrosii Lukasevych. The article has appendices with scientific descriptions of the edition and the copy.

  14. Comparing two maps by Geographer Robert de Vaugondy that represent the Kingdom of Portugal in the 18th century (1751 with the current mapping of the country as regards its topography, hydrography, shoreline definition and settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pais Neves Dos Santos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In our paper “Estudo de dois Mapas do Geografo Robert de Vaugondy relativos ao Reino de Portugal do Século XVIII (1751” (Study on two maps by Geographer Robert de Vaugondy representing the Kingdom of Portugal in the 18th century, published in Revista Semina: Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Vol. 34, Issue No 1, 2013, we tried to give an explanation for the administrative divisions that appear in those maps. After having studied a number of texts dedicated to the period in question and other related documents, we came to the conclusion that the most logic explanation for those divisions is that they represent ecclesiastical divisions. In this paper, we go further in our analysis and compare these two maps with some current maps of Portugal, taking into account its topography, hydrography, shoreline definition and settlements. Although there are some errors in his maps, we can conclude that Robert de Vaugondy’s work, in terms of his knowledge and geographic representation of Portugal, was the best anyone could do at the time, and we restate the idea that the two maps represent ecclesiastical divisions.

  15. Situación económica y financiera del Monasterio de Oseira en el siglo XVIII = Financial and economic situation of the Monastery of Oseira in the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gallego Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la actividad económica y financiera de uno de los cenobios más representativos de la orden cisterciense en Galicia: El Monasterio de Oseira(Ourense. El periodo temporal analizado ha sido seleccionado en base a la documentación conocida de este monasterio, siendo la relativa al S.XVIII la más abundante y completa. Losresultados del trabajo ponen de manifiesto la época de gran esplendor económico que vive elmonasterio y que se manifiesta en las substanciales cantidades de productos y dinero recaudadas, que le permiten abordar importantes obras y realizar una gran labor social.The objective of this paper is to analyse the economic and financial activity of one of the most representative monasteries of the Cistercian Order in Galicia: the Monastery of Oseira(Ourense. The period analysed has been selected based on the documents which mention this monastery, being the 18th century the most bountiful and complete period. The results obtained in this paper state the great economic splendour the monastery lives during thiscentury as is shown in the substantial amount of products and money collected, which allowthem to confront important works and execute a great social labour.

  16. Territorialidad y reproducción social: Los tinogasta en Belén, Catamarca, durante el siglo XVIII Territoriality and social reproduction: The tinogasta in Belen, Catamarca. 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Ignacio Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone analizar las prácticas de territorialización desplegadas por los Tinogasta en Belén durante el siglo XVIII. Se analizaran los mecanismos jurídicos coloniales a partir de los cuales los Tinogasta buscaron "reterritorializar" su espacio, para recomponer sus condiciones de reproducción social. En este sentido, se observará cómo, frente a diversas prácticas de dominación, algunas poblaciones indígenas implementaron estrategias de resistencia, negociación y/o alianza para reinterpretar la realidad colonial y operar sobre ella. Así, lejos de ser meros espectadores pasivos de su dominio se transformaron en agentes de su reproducción social en un contexto de asimetría.This paper analyzes the practices of territorialization deployed by the Tinogasta in Belen through the 18th century. It will analyze how, through colonial legal mechanisms, the Tinogasta looked for "re-territorialize" their space in order to rebuild their conditions of social reproduction. We intend to observe how some Indian populations implemented multiple resistance, negotiation and/or alliance strategies against diverse domination practices in order to reinterpret -and operate on- the colonial reality. Then, far from being mere passive spectators of their dominance they became agents of their own social reproduction in an asymmetrical context.

  17. 2014 World Conference on Information Systems and Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, Ana; Tan, Felix; Stroetmann, Karl

    2014-01-01

    This book contains a selection of articles from The 2014 World Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (WorldCIST'14), held between the 15th and 18th of April in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, a global forum for researchers and practitioners to present and discuss recent results and innovations, current trends, professional experiences and challenges of modern Information Systems and Technologies research, technological development and applications. The main topics covered are: Information and Knowledge Management; Organizational Models and Information Systems; Intelligent and Decision Support Systems; Software Systems, Architectures, Applications and Tools; Computer Networks, Mobility and Pervasive Systems; Radar Technologies; Human-Computer Interaction; Health Informatics; and Information Technologies in Education.

  18. Renewable energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Twidell, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s

  19. The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Rass-Hansen, J.; Marsden, Charlotte Clare

    2008-01-01

    per kilogram of desired product to illustrate in which processes the use of renewable resources lead to the most substantial reduction of CO2 emissions. The steps towards a renewable chemicals industry will most likely involve intimate integration of biocatalytic and conventional catalytic processes......The possibilities for establishing a renewable chemicals industry featuring renewable resources as the dominant feedstock rather than fossil resources are discussed in this Concept. Such use of biomass can potentially be interesting from both an economical and ecological perspective. Simple...

  20. Renewables. The clean advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.

    2006-01-01

    Europe's big utilities are increasingly seeing renewable energy as a viable alternative to conventional forms of power generation which at present have disadvantages in terms of cost and/or environment. Europe's biggest 20 utilities aim to double their renewables capacity in the next five years and nearly 20 billion US dollars have been earmarked for such projects. This report by Emerging Energy Research discusses the likely trends for the next five years. The various sources of renewable energy and how they might be developed are discussed. The companies leading exploitation of renewables and their market share are named

  1. Competitive assessment of the US: Renewable energy equipment industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    This report is a competitive assessment of the U.S. renewable energy equipment industry. The contents include: Definition of technologies; Industry characteristics; Historical perspectives; Industry performance; Trends and projections; The world marketplace; and Issues and options.

  2. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  3. Renewable Energy Development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, K.M.

    2007-07-01

    India has done a significant progress in the power generation in the country. The installed generation capacity was 1300 megawatt (MW) at the time of Independence i.e. about 60 years back. The total generating capacity anticipated at the end of the Tenth Plan on 31-03-2007, is 1, 44,520 MW which includes the generation through various sectors like Hydro, Thermal and Nuclear. Emphasis is given to the renewable energy programme towards gradual commercialization. This programme is looked after by the Ministry of Non-Conventional Sources of energy. Since the availability of fossil fuel is on the decline therefore, in this backdrop the norms for conventional or renewable sources of energy (RSE) is given importance not only in India but has attracted the global attention. The main items under RSE are as follows: (i) Hydro Power (ii) Solar Power (iii) Wind Power (iv) Bio-mass Power (v) Energy from waste (vi) Ocean energy, and (vii) Alternative fuel for surface transportation. Evolution of power transformer technology in the country during the past five decades is quite impressive. There are manufacturers in the country with full access to the latest technology at the global level. Some of the manufacturers have impressive R&D set up to support the technology. Renewable energy is very much promoted by the Chinese Government. At the same time as the law was passed, the Chinese Government set a target for renewable energy to contribute 10% of the country's gross energy consumption by 2020, a huge increase from the current 1%. It has been felt that there is rising demand for energy, food and raw materials by a population of 2.5 billion Chinese and Indians. Both these countries have large coal dominated energy systems in the world and the use of fossil fuels such as coal and oil releases carbon dioxide (CO2) into the air which adds to the greenhouse gases which lead to global warming. (auth)

  4. Policy Enabling Environment for Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-09

    Interest in renewable energy (RE) procurement in new markets is on the rise. Corporations are increasing their commitments to procuring RE, motivated by an interest in using clean energy sources and reducing their energy expenses. Many large companies have facilities and supply chains in multiple countries, and are interested in procuring renewable energy in the grids where they use energy. The policy environment around the world plays a key role in shaping where and how corporations will invest in renewables. This fact sheet details findings from a recent 21st Century Power Partnership report, Policies to Enable Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing Internationally.

  5. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  6. Renewable Resources in SA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is derived form natural resources that are replenished at a faster rate than they are consumed, and thus cannot be depleted. Solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and some forms of biomass are common sources of renewable energy. Almost 90...

  7. Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  8. Renewable energy strategies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uttam Kumar Reddy, N. [Solar Energy Mfrs. Association of India (India)]|[Photon Energy Systems Ltd., Hyderabad (India)

    2001-07-01

    The twenty-first century has dawned; with it the third millennium. This is indeed a significant milestone in human history and an occasion for all of us for reflection and change. The model of development followed so far has relied excessively on consumption of fossil fuels, and this has endangered the biodiversity and the ecology of the earth. On this World Environment Day, I think it's our duty to resolve that we should leave the earth, if not in a better state that what we came into, then at least at the same state as we came in. It is against the backdrop of increasing environmental degradation where, around the world, there has been an increased emphasis on renewable energy. If the current interest in renewable energy products gets concretized, the twenty-first century can be expected to be as profoundly shaped by the move away from fossil fuels as the twentieth century was by the move towards them.

  9. Renewable energy export network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    A Renewable Energy Exporters Network (REEN) has recently been established, following a meeting of renewable energy exporters and government agencies on 30 October 2000. REEN will assist the Australian renewable energy industry to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the burgeoning global market for renewable energy goods and services. Recent estimates of the significant potential global growth is renewable energy demand have reinforced the industry and Government's view that, in the medium to long-term, growth in the Australian renewable energy industry will largely depend on capturing export market share. Expanding the export market was identified as a crucial component in the Renewable Energy Action Agenda, developed jointly by industry and Government and released in June 2000. It was estimated that, for the industry to achieve its vision of sales of $4 billion per year by 2010, exports would need to comprise approximately 50% of the forecast growth in sales. As such, the need for a specific export strategy for the Australian renewable energy industry was recognised in the Action Agenda, and the establishment of the REEN is one of the first initiatives undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy. The REEN comprises approximately 50 export-ready renewable energy companies, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, Austrade, and Stage Government agencies such as NSW's Sustainable Energy Development Authority. The Export Network will operate electronically, with face-to-face meetings held as appropriate. The Department of Industry, Science and Resources will facilitate the Export Network and has published a website at www.isr.gov.au/industry/reen. The site includes: a members directory; a discussion forum; information on opportunities to showcase Australian renewable; energy products and services; and Iinks to sites containing information that may be useful to renewable energy exporters. Other actions that are being undertaken as

  10. Nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, P.A.; Bhatt, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the next 10 years, nuclear plant license renewal is expected to become a significant issue. Recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies have shown license renewal to be technically and economically feasible. Filing an application for license renewal with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) entails verifying that the systems, structures, and components essential for safety will continue to perform their safety functions throughout the license renewal period. This paper discusses the current proposed requirements for this verification and the current industry knowledge regarding age-related degradation of structures. Elements of a license renewal program incorporating NRC requirements and industry knowledge including a schedule are presented. Degradation mechanisms for structural components, their significance to nuclear plant structures, and industry-suggested age-related degradation management options are also reviewed

  11. New renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewable s in the energy system of the future

  12. NRC's license renewal regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akstulewicz, Francis

    1991-01-01

    In order to provide for the continuity of the current generation of nuclear power plant operating licenses and at the same time ensure the health and safety of the public, and the quality of the environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a goal of developing and issuing regulations and regulatory guidance for license renewal in the early 1990s. This paper will discuss some of those activities underway to achieve this goal. More specifically, this paper will discuss the Commission's regulatory philosophy for license renewal and the two major license renewal rule makings currently underway. The first is the development of a new Part 54 to address procedural and technical requirements for license renewal; the second is a revision to existing Part 51 to exclude environmental issues and impacts from consideration during the license renewal process. (author)

  13. Renewable energy: an answer to our energy crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, renewables primarily biomass and hydropower currently supply about 20% of the world's energy. Biomass alone meets 35% of developing countries total energy needs, though often not in a manner that is renewable or sustainable in the long term. Steady advances have been made since the mid-seventies in an array of new energy technologies that will be needed if the world is to greatly increase its reliance on renewable resources. Indeed many of the machines and processes that could provide energy in a renewable energy based economy are now almost economically competitive with fossil fuels. Further cost reductions are expected in the next decade, as these technologies continue to improve through R and D efforts. After a period of neglected in the eighties, many governments are now supporting new energy technologies more effectively, which may signal the beginning of a renewable energy boom in the years ahead. (author). 8 refs

  14. A well-informed ‘model of administration’ for agrarian states. Or: how not to fall into the trap of ‘nostri cation’ when comparing colonial West African States with 18th century Prussia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Treiber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a noteworthy essay entitled “The Operation Called Vergleichen (Comparison” Joachim Matthes has drawn attention to the fact that studies which claim to compare particular phenomena from one’s own culture (such as law or administration, for example with those of an alien culture do not, strictly speaking, perform a real comparison.  Instead, what takes place is (in his words a “nostrification”, that is, “an appropriation of the other in one’s own terms” or conceptual assimilation.  Even the ideal-type constructions of Max Weber seem largely to confirm this proposition.  In principle, then, it ought to be quite hard to find studies which are not exposed to the charge of nostrification.  In what follows works by Gerd Spittler are examined in some detail from this particular perspective.  In the first instance Spittler investigated the specific problems encountered by the colonial administration in West African peasant states (1919-39, before examining if this problematic could be applied to the peasant state of Prussia in the 18th century.  So, for example, he asked himself how a bureaucratic administration reliant on written documents resolved the problem of raising taxes on a body of untruly peasants who to a large extent communicated orally amongst themselves.  Since in both cases Spittler relates the typical structures of an agrarian society to typical administrative structures, he attains a level of reflection where the ‘“One” can be translated into the “Other” and vice versa’ (Matthes, and in this way he escapes the particular danger of nostrification.

  15. A Multi-Analytical Approach for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Conservation-Restoration Treatment of Moroccan Historical Manuscripts Dating to the 16th, 17th, and 18th Centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajji, Latifa; Boukir, Abdellatif; Assouik, Jamal; Kerbal, Abdelali; Kajjout, Mohamed; Doumenq, Pierre; De Carvalho, Maria Luisa

    2015-08-01

    The most critical steps during the conservation-restoration treatment applied in Moroccan libraries are the deacidification using immersion in a saturated aqueous calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) solution and the consolidation of degraded manuscripts using Japanese paper. The present study aims to assess the efficiency of this restoration method using a multi-analytical approach. For this purpose, three ancient Arabic Moroccan manuscript papers dating back to the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries were investigated to characterize the paper support and make a comparative study between pre-restoration and post-restoration states. Three structural and molecular characterization techniques including solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on (13)C with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CP-MAS NMR), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to elucidate the cellulose main features, to identify the inorganic composition of the papers, and to study the crystallinity of the samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) allowed us to obtain a qualitative and quantitative characterization of the mineral fillers used in the manufacturing of the papers. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) ascertained the state of conservation of the different papers and helped us to study the elemental composition of the samples. After restoration, it was shown that the deacidification improved the stability of papers by providing an important alkaline buffer, as demonstrated using FT-IR and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) results. However, XRD and ICP-AES did not confirm the pertinence of the treatment for all samples because of the unequal distribution of Ca on the paper surface during the restoration. The consolidation process was studied using SEM analysis; its effectiveness in restoring

  16. Evaluation of the 2012 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference: six month impact on science, program, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Danielle E; Goodman, David A; Howlette, Travis; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Law, Mark; Phillips, Donna; Jones, Jessica; Brantley, Mary D; Fitzgerald, Maureen

    2014-09-01

    The 18th Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology and 22nd CityMatCH MCH Urban Leadership Conference took place in December 2012, covering MCH science, program, and policy issues. Assessing the impact of the Conference on attendees' work 6 months post-Conference provides information critical to understanding the impact and the use of new partnerships, knowledge, and skills gained during the Conference. Evaluation assessments, which included collection of quantitative and qualitative data, were administered at two time points: at Conference registration and 6 months post-Conference. The evaluation files were merged using computer IP address, linking responses from each assessment. Percentages of attendees reporting Conference impacts were calculated from quantitative data, and common themes and supporting examples were identified from qualitative data. Online registration was completed by 650 individuals. Of registrants, 30 % responded to the 6 month post-Conference assessment. Between registration and 6 month post-Conference evaluation, the distribution of respondents did not significantly differ by organizational affiliation. In the 6 months following the Conference, 65 % of respondents reported pursuing a networking interaction; 96 % shared knowledge from the Conference with co-workers and others in their agency; and 74 % utilized knowledge from the Conference to translate data into public health action. The Conference produced far-reaching impacts among Conference attendees. The Conference served as a platform for networking, knowledge sharing, and attaining skills that advance the work of attendees, with the potential of impacting organizational and workforce capacity. Increasing capacity could improve MCH programs, policies, and services, ultimately impacting the health of women, infants, and children.

  17. The trip as formation: examples from the European literature of the 18th century El viaje como formación: ejemplos de la literatura europea del siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás BAS MARTÍN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance that the literature of trips acquired in the 18th century is one of the reasons that they have led us to investigating in the instructive facet that these works had in the society of the moment. Adopting the premise of «travelling to know», the trip turned not only into an exercise of individual formation but into an instrument of formation and information of the first magnitude. Governments, institutions and individuals did of the trips some of his more important sources of information. Expeditions that were taken soon to the press, completing the pedagogic and didactic character of the same ones, on never having been accompanied of engravings places, men and customs till now known. This end, of learning to instruct, we cross some of the emblematic works of the literature of trips of the Enlightenment.La importancia que la literatura de viajes adquirió en el siglo XVIII es una de las razones que nos han llevado a indagar en la faceta instructiva que estas obras tuvieron en la sociedad del momento. Adoptando la premisa de «viajar para saber», el viaje se convirtió no sólo en un ejercicio de formación individual, sino en un instrumento de formación e información de primera magnitud. Gobiernos, instituciones e individuos hicieron de los viajes unas de sus fuentes de información más importantes. Expediciones que fueron llevadas pronto a la imprenta, completando el carácter pedagógico y didáctico de las mismas, al ir acompañadas de grabados de lugares, hombres y costumbres nunca hasta ahora conocidas. Con ese fin, de instruirse para instruir, recorremos algunas de las obras emblemáticas de la literatura de viajes de la Ilustración.

  18. History of individuals of the 18th/19th centuries stored in bones, teeth, and hair analyzed by LA-ICP-MS--a step in attempts to confirm the authenticity of Mozart's skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Christina; Reiter, Christian; Patzak, Beatrix; Stingeder, Gerhard; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    A cranium stored in the Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg/Austria which is believed to be that of Mozart, and skeletal remains of suspected relatives which have been excavated from the Mozart family grave in the cemetery in Salzburg, have been subjected to scientific investigations to determine whether or not the skull is authentic. A film project by the Austrian television ORF in collaboration with Interspot Film on this issue was broadcast at the beginning of the "Mozart year 2006". DNA analysis could not clarify relationships among the remains and, therefore, assignment of the samples was not really possible. In our work this skull and excavated skeletal remains have been quantified for Pb, Cr, Hg, As, and Sb content by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain information about the living conditions of these individuals. A small splinter of enamel (less than 1 mm(3)) from a tooth of the "Mozart cranium" was also available for investigation. Quantification was performed by using spiked hydroxyapatite standards. Single hair samples which are recorded to originate from Mozart have also been investigated by LA-ICP-MS and compared with hair samples of contemporary citizens stored in the Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum, Vienna. In general, Pb concentrations up to approximately 16 mug g(-1) were found in the bone samples of 18th century individuals (a factor of 7 to 8 higher than in recent samples) reflecting elevated Pb levels in food or beverages. Elevated Pb levels were also found in hair samples. The amount of Sb in the enamel sample of the "Mozart cranium" (approx. 3 mug g(-1)) was significantly higher than in all the other tooth samples investigated, indicating possible Sb ingestion in early childhood. Elevated concentrations of elements in single hair samples gave additional information about possible exposure of the individuals to heavy metals at a particular point in their life.

  19. La predicación dominicana del Rosario. El Rosario de la aurora de Zafra en el siglo XVIII (Dominican preaching of the rosary: The dawn rosary of Zafra in 18 th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Romero Mensaque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El Rosario, signo de identidad misional de la Orden de Predicadores, desborda los cauces conventuales ya desde el siglo XVI al universalizarse el rezo y devoción. Los dominicos predican el Rosario en sendas misiones y fundan numerosas hermandades adscritas a la Orden en parroquias e iglesias diocesanas, pero ya en el siglo XVII el rezo avemariano rebasa incluso los espacios sagrados para ser predicado en las calles. El proceso culmina en el siglo XVIII con un protagonismo del pueblo en la predicación del rosario, asumiendo en gran parte la responsabilidad de la misión que comenzaran los dominicos. En el extremo de la Provincia Bética, Zafra se convierte en escenario de esta Misión Popular con el Rosario de la Aurora y su hermandad, una corporación claramente misional y asistencial, que no duda en dar mayoría de edad a la mujer en su gobierno.Abstract: The rosary is an important sign of missionary identity for the Dominican Order, whose use has not been limited to the convent since the 16th century when preach and devotion became universal. Dominic monks preach the rosary in all their missions and found several brotherhoods affiliated with the Order in parishes and diocesans churches, but in the 17th century the Hail Mary can be found outside sacred places, it is preached even in the streets. This process end up in the 18th century when common people take a bigger responsibility and continue with the mission started by Dominic monks. Zafra, situated at the limit of the Baetica Province, becomes the stage of this Popular Mission thanks to the dawn rosary and its brotherhood, which clearly was a corporation dedicated to the mission and the assistant of people in need. This brotherhood does not hesitate before giving majority of age to the women in their government, even though they faced a strong social exclusion.

  20. Overcoming challenges to secure a renewable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Rob; Philpott, Angie; Bown, Charles W.; Thompson, Robert; Dunderdale, Kathy

    2010-09-15

    Newfoundland and Labrador is on the brink of two extraordinary energy achievements: 1) becoming one of the world's only jurisdictions thermal generation almost entirely; and 2) making a huge contribution of renewable energy to North America. These achievements require the development of the 3,000 MW Lower Churchill Hydroelectric Project; however, the Project will not be developed without a business case to support it. This paper will highlight how the province, through its Energy Plan, has set the path forward for the future development of its renewable resources, including how it plans to overcome some of the challenges ahead.

  1. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn; Nelson, Vaughn

    2009-01-01

    Due to the mounting demand for energy and increasing population of the world, switching from nonrenewable fossil fuels to other energy sources is not an option-it is a necessity. Focusing on a cost-effective option for the generation of electricity, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment covers all facets of wind energy and wind turbines. The book begins by outlining the history of wind energy, before providing reasons to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. After examining the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, and turbulence, it discusses the measur

  2. Life cycle emissions from renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.; Watkiss, P.; Thorpe, T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology used in the ETSU review, together with the detailed results for three of the technologies studied: wind turbines, photovoltaic systems and small, stand-alone solar thermal systems. These emissions are then compared with those calculated for both other renewables and fossil fuel technology on a similar life cycle basis. The life cycle emissions associated with renewable energy technology vary considerably. They are lowest for those technologies where the renewable resource has been concentrated in some way (e.g. over distance in the case of wind and hydro, or over time in the case of energy crops). Wind turbines have amongst the lowest emissions of all renewables and are lower than those for fossil fuel generation, often by over an order of magnitude. Photovoltaics and solar thermal systems have the highest life cycle emissions of all the renewable energy technologies under review. However, their emissions of most pollutants are also much lower than those associated with fossil fuel technologies. In addition, the emissions associated with PV are likely to fall further in the future as the conversion efficiency of PV cells increases and manufacturing technology switches to thin film technologies, which are less energy intensive. Combining the assessments of life cycle emissions of renewables with predictions made by the World Energy Council (WEC) of their future deployment has allowed estimates to be made of amount by which renewables could reduce the future global emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. It estimated that under the WEC's 'Ecologically Driven' scenario, renewables might lead to significant reductions of between 3650 and 8375 Mt in annual CO 2 emissions depending on the fossil fuel technology they are assumed to displace. (author)

  3. Final report : Alberta renewable diesel demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-02-15

    The Alberta renewable diesel demonstration (ARDD) was a demonstration project aimed at providing information and operating experience to stakeholders in the diesel fuel industry. The demonstration took renewable diesel from the lab to the road, providing hands-on experience at 2 and 5 per cent blends (B2 in winter and B5 in shoulder and summer seasons). The ARDD fleet consisted of 59 vehicles running on two types of renewable diesel, notably fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and hydrogenated-derived renewable diesel (HDRD). This report was a summary of the observations of the ARDD. The report provided a general account of the project scope, methods and observations employed in a multi-stakeholder, real-world demonstration of low-level renewable diesel fuels in challenging winter conditions. The purpose of the report was to provide feedback to stakeholders regarding the use of renewable diesel fuels in Canada's on-road diesel fuel market and to confirm the operability of low level renewable diesel blends under the specific conditions tested ensuring full and continuous compliance with CAN/CGSB 3.520. The report discussed Canada's fuel distribution system in western Canada; the blending facility; blending techniques; fuel retail locations; fuel properties; fuel handling; fuel selection; and fuel testing. It was concluded that the ARDD demonstrated that B2 blends of canola methyl ester and 2 per cent blends of hydrogenation derived renewable diesel were fully operable in winter conditions in the study area when cloud points were adjusted to meet CAN/CGSB requirements. 4 refs., 15 tabs., 20 figs., 2 appendices.

  4. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  5. A licence renewal approach for the NRU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Gumley, P.

    1991-01-01

    Licence Renewal is not only a subject that is being addressed for power reactors, but it is one of immediate interest for a number of research facilities, world-wide. In Canada, research reactors and power reactors are issued an operating licence for a limited term (typically two years), hence, licence renewal is done on a regular basis. Therefore, licence renewal in the Canadian context is different than in the context of this topical meeting. The NRU research reactor facility is being assessed for a licence renewal beyond its original design life. This paper describes the licence renewal approach, the assessments being performed to establish the condition of the facility, and the Safety Assessment Basis which defines the requirements for licence renewal. The current status of the assessments is also described. (author)

  6. Perspectives on Promoting Regional Renewable Energy Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresselhaus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent discussions at the Washington International Renewable Energy Conference (WIREC), hosted in March 2008 by the United States Government, with nearly 9000 participants including 103 ministers from 126 countries, concluded that a major acceleration in the adoption of renewable energy technologies was needed by mid-century. Because of different climatic conditions and societal preferences, regional cooperation is expected to play a major role in the efficient adoption of appropriate renewable energy technologies, and countries with special expertise in specific technologies seem eager to collaborate internationally to promote global goals in renewable energy. A review will be given of what we learned from this conference about renewable energy research and development strategies with a special focus given to using this basic knowledge base to promote the development of renewable energy technologies appropriate to specific regions of the world.(author)

  7. Achieving a 100% Renewable Grid: Operating Electric Power Systems with Extremely High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin; Johnson, Brian; Zhang, Yingchen; Gevorgian, Vahan; Denholm, Paul; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Hannegan, Bryan

    2017-03-01

    What does it mean to achieve a 100% renewable grid? Several countries already meet or come close to achieving this goal. Iceland, for example, supplies 100% of its electricity needs with either geothermal or hydropower. Other countries that have electric grids with high fractions of renewables based on hydropower include Norway (97%), Costa Rica (93%), Brazil (76%), and Canada (62%). Hydropower plants have been used for decades to create a relatively inexpensive, renewable form of energy, but these systems are limited by natural rainfall and geographic topology. Around the world, most good sites for large hydropower resources have already been developed. So how do other areas achieve 100% renewable grids? Variable renewable energy (VRE), such as wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, will be a major contributor, and with the reduction in costs for these technologies during the last five years, large-scale deployments are happening around the world.

  8. 2005: risks and opportunities for the renewable energies; 2005: risques et opportunites pour les energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    This press conference takes stock on the renewable energies in the world at the date of the first of february 2005. A first part presents the renewable energies activities in the world, and then more specially in France, the 2001 directive on the development of the electric power from renewable sources, the controversy around the public service charges due to the renewable energies and the fiscal advantages proposed. The second part details each renewable energies sources situation, cost, capacity: photovoltaic, wind energy, hydroelectricity, thermal solar energy, wood energy, biofuels and heat pumps. (A.L.B.)

  9. Renewables in the Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wager, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) has evaluated the potential for using renewable energy for electricity in the Midwest, and has been carrying out a multifaceted effort to expand the use of renewables in the region. The UCS study presents a strategy for developing renewable-electric technologies and resources in 12 midwestern states. UCS analysts used a geographic information system (GIS) to create data-bases of renewable resources, land uses, vegetation cover, terrain elevation and locations of utility transmission lines, and to analyze and present information on a .6 mi x .6 mi (1 km x 1 km) grid scale. In addition, UCS developed a model to calculate the net employment impact of renewable versus conventional electricity technologies on a state-by-state basis. In evaluating the costs and benefits of renewable energy sources, UCS analysts explored a cost assessment that accounted for the impact of pollution from fossil fuels on energy resource cost. Researchers also considered the risks associated with fuel-price volatility, environmental regulation, construction lead times and other uncertainties. Finally, UCS researchers suggested steps to remove the institutional, regulatory and legislative barriers that inhibit renewable energy development, and proposed policies to expand the use of the region's renewable resources. The UCS analysis showed that wind is currently the least expensive renewable resource. UCS also found numerous opportunities to expand biomass-electric generation in the near term, such as converting small coal-fired power plants to wood fuel, making greater use of logging residues and co-firing a small percentage of biomass with fossil fuel at large power plants

  10. Damn renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the author describes how renewable energies have been developed in a way he considers as scandalous, whereas they are a technical, financial and ecological dead end. He also explains how ecologists (notably the ADEME) manipulate figures to make believe that these energies could be an answer to the needs of France, of Europe and of humanity. In a first chapter, he criticises the influence of a so-called green ideology on the design of energy transition. In the second one, he denounces twelve tales about energy transition. In the next chapters, he denounces the sham of renewable energies, and finally tells some unfortunate renewable experiments

  11. Renewable energies - Alain Chardon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    In an interview, the chairman of Cleantechs and Decarbonate, Capgemini Consulting, comments the challenge of the struggle against global warming, discusses the role of gas on the way towards a de-carbonated economy, the cost of renewable energies compared to that of fossil and nuclear energies. He outlines other brakes upon the development of renewable energies, discusses the political issues and the challenge of meeting European objectives with respect with the share of renewable energies in the energy mix and the electricity mix by 2020

  12. WHY IS IT REASONABLE TO INVEST IN RENEWABLE ENERGY IN UKRAINE?

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliia Bashynska

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the current status of renewable energy development in Ukraine and to highlight the main advantages of investing in renewables in Ukraine. The purpose is also to reveal the biggest renewable energy installations in Ukraine. The paper displays the main financial initiatives of several international organizations and world economic leaders that have already announced plans to aid Ukraine’s transition to renewable energy. Methology. The survey is based on an...

  13. Synthesis: Renewable energies, January 2016 - January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deharbe, David; Gandet, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The authors propose an overview and a comment of evolutions of the legal context of renewable energies during 2016. Thus, they address French decrees related to installations which produce electric power from renewable energies or the recovery of mine gas or co-generation, related to the transfer of mandatory purchase contracts, and related to the control of renewable energy production installations. They review legal and administrative events (decrees or decisions) regarding wind energy (tariffs, bidding, installations, meteorological radars, technical and financial responsibilities), solar energy (tariffing, self-consumption, bidding, installation location in mountain and rural contexts for roof-based or ground-based installations), biogas (gas sector, tariffs, supply threshold for energetic crops), hydroelectricity (bidding for small installations), geothermal energy (definition of objectives, inauguration of the first world deep geothermal plant in Rittershoffen, tariffing, new technical decrees) and miscellaneous aspects

  14. Educational and technological approaches to renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal Filho, Walter; Gottwald, Julia (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    This book documents and disseminates a number of educational and technological approaches to renewable energy, with a special emphasis on European and Latin American experiences, but also presenting experiences from other parts of the world. It was prepared as part of the project JELARE (Joint European-Latin American Universities Renewable Energy Project), undertaken as part of the ALFA III Programme of the European Commission involving countries in Latin America (e.g. Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Guatemala) as well as in Europe (Germany and Latvia). Thanks to its approach and structure, this book will prove useful to all those dedicated to the development of the renewable energy sector, especially those concerned with the problems posed by lack of expertise and lack of training in this field.

  15. Promises and realities of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesenfeld, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    By focussing on electricity production, the author proposes an analysis of renewable energies (wind, solar, hydraulic, biomass, geothermal) as part of sustainable development, and tries to clarify their role within the energy mix. The first part addressed hydraulic energy: present hydroelectric installations, hydraulic energy in Europe, marine renewable energy projects concerning tidal, wave, sea current, thermal, or salinity gradient osmotic energy. The second part addresses wind energy: general presentation, first steps of development, operation description, status of development in Europe and in the world. The third part addresses solar energy: contribution of solar radiation on the Earth, photovoltaic solar electricity production, thermal solar power plant. The fourth part addresses biomass and geothermal energy. The last part discusses the role of renewable energies within the current context: with respect to sustainable development and to other primary energies (fossil and nuclear energy)

  16. Renewable energy technologies and the European industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteley, M.; Bess, M.

    2000-01-01

    The European renewable energy industry has the potential to be a world leader. This has been achieved within the European region for specific technologies, through a set of policy activities at a national and regional level, driven primarily by employment, energy self-sufficiency and industrial competitiveness. Using the experience gained in recent years, European industry has the opportunity to continue to expand its horizons on a worldwide level. Through the use of the SAFIRE rational energy model, an assessment has been made of the future penetration of renewable energy within Europe and the effects on these socio-economic factors. In conjunction with these outputs, assessments of the worldwide markets for wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal plant and biomass have been assessed. A case study of the Danish wind industry is used as a prime example of a success story from which the learning opportunities are replicated to other industries, so that the European renewable energy industry can achieve its potential. (orig.)

  17. Renewable energy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Wang, Eric; Tseng, Kuo-Tung

    2010-01-01

    With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 99% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower, etc. However, owing to the importance of conventional fossil energy in generating exceptionally cheap electricity, renewable energy has not yet fully developed in Taiwan, resulting from a lack of market competition. Consequently, numerous promotional and subsidy programs have recently been proclaimed by the Taiwanese government, focused on the development of various renewables. This study reviews the achievements, polices and future plans in this area. (author)

  18. The value of renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The article extols the virtues of renewable energy sources. Based largely on the outcome of an IAE meeting in May 2001, the author has outlined an approach for accelerating the development of renewables. The article quotes several statements made by the IAE with respect to the need for a secure supply of affordable energy, sustainable development, diversification, the value of renewables and challenges confronting developers of renewables. The article is presented under the sub-headings of: (i) harnessing energy market forces; (ii) understanding costs in the context of diversification; (iii) economic performance; (iv) environmental protection; (v) an IAE action plan and (vi) conclusions. The author was once the IAE's director for energy efficiency, technology and R and D

  19. Biotechnology for renewable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Jensen, Niels Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the industrial organic chemicals are derived from fossil sources. With the oil and gas resources becoming limiting, biotechnology offers a sustainable alternative for production ofchemicals from renewable feedstocks. Yeast is an attractive cell factory forsustainable production...

  20. Foundations for renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidlein, H.C. [German Agency Scherer Schnell Walser und Partner (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In Germany, 77 foundations promote renewable energy technology with around Euro 25 million annually. The most important internationally active foundations, however, can be found in the Anglo-Saxon countries. (orig.)

  1. Renewable resources - future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Martin H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy and Related Greenhouse Gas Abatement Technologies (ACRE), its technologies, commercial relationships and markets. The relevance of ACRE to developing country communities which lack reliable, adequate power supplies, is discussed. The opportunities for mutual collaboration between Australia and the developing countries in the application of renewable energy have never been stronger. Renewable energy promises real advantages to those who deploy it wisely, as well as significant job creation. Education at all level together with operational training, public awareness of what is possible and increased system reliability, are also vital ingredients for acceptance of these new technologies. They underpin successful commercialisation. The author concludes with the hope for a united international cooperative approach to the development of the renewable energy industry. (author)

  2. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.

    2004-06-01

    Technologies using renewable energy sources are receiving increasing interest from both public authorities and power producing companies, mainly because of the environmental advantages they procure in comparison with conventional energy sources. These technologies can be substitution for conventional energy sources and limit damage to the environment. Furthermore, several of the renewable energy technologies satisfy an increasing political goal of self-sufficiency within energy production. The subject of this thesis is promotion of renewable technologies. The primary goal is to increase understanding on how technological development takes place, and establish a theoretical framework that can assist in the construction of policy strategies including instruments for promotion of renewable energy technologies. Technological development is analysed by through quantitative and qualitative methods. (BA)

  3. Renewable Heating And Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable heating and cooling is a set of alternative resources and technologies that can be used in place of conventional heating and cooling technologies for common applications such as water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat.

  4. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  5. Renewable energy in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Wang, Eric; Tseng, Kuo-Tung [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China)

    2010-09-15

    With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 99% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower, etc. However, owing to the importance of conventional fossil energy in generating exceptionally cheap electricity, renewable energy has not yet fully developed in Taiwan, resulting from a lack of market competition. Consequently, numerous promotional and subsidy programs have recently been proclaimed by the Taiwanese government, focused on the development of various renewables. This study reviews the achievements, polices and future plans in this area. (author)

  6. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. ...

  7. License renewal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fable, D.; Prah, M.; Vrankic, K.; Lebegner, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about license renewal process, as defined by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Atomic Energy Act and NRC regulations limit commercial power reactor licenses to an initial 40 years but also permit such licenses to be renewed. This original 40-year term for reactor licenses was based on economic and antitrust considerations not on limitations of nuclear technology. Due to this selected time period; however, some structures and components may have been engineered on the basis of an expected 40-year service life. The NRC has established a timely license renewal process and clear requirements codified in 10 CFR Part 51 and 10 CFR Part 54, that are needed to assure safe plant operation for extended plant life. The timely renewal of licenses for an additional 20 years, where appropriate to renew them, may be important to ensuring an adequate energy supply during the first half of the 21st Century. License renewal rests on the determination that currently operating plants continue to maintain adequate levels of safety, and over the plant's life, this level has been enhanced through maintenance of the licensing bases, with appropriate adjustments to address new information from industry operating experience. Additionally, NRC activities have provided ongoing assurance that the licensing bases will continue to provide an acceptable level of safety. This paper provides additional discussion of license renewal costs, as one of key elements in evaluation of license renewal justifiability. Including structure of costs, approximately value and two different approaches, conservative and typical. Current status and position of Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, related to license renewal process, will be briefly presented in this paper. NPP Krsko is designed based on NRC Regulations, so requirements from 10 CFR 51, and 10 CFR 54, are applicable to NPP Krsko, as well. Finally, this paper will give an overview of current status of

  8. Processes of Strategic Renewal,

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Aadne, John; Mahnke, Volker

    2010-01-01

    We discuss strategic renewal from a competence perspective. We argue that the management of speed and timing in this process is viewed distinctively when perceived through a cognitive lens. Managers need more firmly grounded process-understanding. The key idea of this paper is to dynamically conceptualize key activities of strategic renewal, and possible sources of break-down as they relate to the managment of speed and timing. Based on a case from the media industry, we identi...

  9. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.J.; Skytte, K.

    2004-01-01

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies....

  10. World energy outlook 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The World Energy Outlook is the most complete and authoritative energy publication and has received several prestigious awards from government and industry in recognition of its analytical excellence. The new edition offers: - Analysis: Over 550 pages of detailed analysis with 150 graphs and tables. - Projections: Supply and demand projections to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections of energy related CO 2 emissions. -World Alternative Policy Scenario:A detailed assessment of the impact of possible climate change policies and energy efficient technologies. -Russia: An in-depth study of the 'most important energy country'. - Energy and Development: An analysis of energy's role in overcoming world poverty. - Reserves: A detailed analysis of world oil and gas reserves and of the problems involved in measuring them

  11. Renewable energy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshaies, M.

    2009-01-01

    Europe's increasing demand for energy and its environmental preoccupations are creating a favourable environment for the development of renewable energy sources. This article stated that although many European countries have adopted voluntary policies since the 1990s to increase the use of renewable energy sources, they have not been developed in an equal or consistent manner. A table was included to show the consumption of renewable energies by country; the percentage of renewable energies in 1995 as compared to 2006; and the consumption of primary energy resources. Combined, Germany, Spain and Denmark produce 75 per cent of wind energy in Europe, while 75 per cent of Europe's hydroelectricity is produced in Norway, Sweden, France, Italy, Austria and Switzerland. Germany has also made significant contributions in developing biomass energy. The article emphasized that the development of renewable energy sources is limited by the fact that it cannot keep up with growing energy demands. In addition, renewable energies cannot yet replace all fossil fuel consumption in Europe because of the variation in development from one country to another. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Energy [r]evolution. A sustainable world energy outlook. The three step approach: efficiency/renewables/structure. Energy [R]evolution 2010 at a glance - Key facts and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teske, Sven

    2010-01-01

    A global energy scenario paints a picture of our common future - the picture depicts how the future could unfold. Energy scenarios send important messages on alternative futures to decision makers in political, financial, industrial sectors as well as other stakeholders in the energy market. They paint a picture which can encourage and guide decision makers involved in shaping our energy future. This third edition of the Energy [R]evolution provides a more ambitious and visionary blueprint than the previous two. It demonstrates how the world can get from where we are now, to where we need to be in terms of phasing out fossil fuels, cutting CO 2 emissions while ensuring energy security. This phase-out of fossil fuels offers substantial benefits such as independence from world market fossil fuel prices as well as the creation of millions of new green jobs. It also means providing energy to the two billion people currently without reliable access to energy services

  13. ‘Living God, renew and transform us’ – 26th General Council of the World Communion of Reformed Churches, in Leipzig, Germany, 29 June to 07 July 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Moltmann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at exploring the theme ‘Living God, renew and transform us’ under the following headings: the living God and the gods of death, the desolation of atheism and the sun of righteousness, just law and the fullness of life. The author relates the ‘God of Life’ to a ‘theology embracing life’. He links the ‘gods of death’ to racism, capitalism and terrorism in which we ‘encounter a new religion of death’. He points out that Christianity is a religion of joy in God and sets out to illustrate this with selected biblical texts. In the section ‘The desolation of atheism’, the author argues that modern atheism offers a ‘reduced life’. To make his point, he refers to his own personal experience and the theological ‘protest atheism’ which arose in the 19th century. The author concludes by stating that atheism offers nothing positive. In the final section, ‘The sun of righteousness, just law and the fullness of life’, the author addresses issues of justice. In referring to the Reformation doctrine on justification, the author states that the justification of victims requires confessio oris, rising up from humiliation and forgiveness.

  14. Deploying Renewables - Best and Future Policy Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-23

    The global energy system faces urgent challenges. Concerns about energy security are growing, as highlighted by the recent political turmoil in Northern Africa and the nuclear incident in Fukushima. At the same time, the need to respond to climate change is more critical than ever. Against this background, many governments have increased efforts to promote deployment of renewable energy -- low-carbon sources that can strengthen energy security. This has stimulated unprecedented rise in deployment, and renewables are now the fastest growing sector of the energy mix. This 'coming of age' of renewable energy also brings challenges. Growth is focused on a few of the available technologies, and rapid deployment is confined to a relatively small number of countries. In more advanced markets, managing support costs and system integration of large shares of renewable energy in a time of economic weakness and budget austerity has sparked vigorous political debate. The IEA's new report, Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice: - Provides a comprehensive review and analysis of renewable energy policy and market trends; - Analyses in detail the dynamics of deployment and provides best-practice policy principles for different stages of market maturity; - Assesses the impact and cost-effectiveness of support policies using new methodological tools and indicators; - Investigates the strategic reasons underpinning the pursuit of RE deployment by different countries and the prospects for globalisation of RE. This new book builds on and extends a 2008 IEA publication, drawing on recent policy and deployment experience world-wide. It provides guidance for policy makers and other stakeholders to avoid past mistakes, overcome new challenges and reap the benefits of deploying renewables -- today and tomorrow.

  15. 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-29

    The 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  16. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2015 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  17. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp; Tian, Tian

    2016-11-01

    The 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  18. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  19. The European market of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-09-01

    This market study on renewable energies presents: 1 - the different renewable energy industries for power generation: the field of renewable energies (hydropower, wind power, solar energy, geothermal energy and biomass power plants) and their common points, their characteristics, advantages and constraints; 2 - the political and regulatory context with its ambitious goals: main steps of worldwide negotiations, Europe and the management of CO 2 emissions, stiffening of the environmental regulation, the energy/climate package and the efforts to be borne by the different member states; 3 - Economy of the sector and the necessary public support: investment and production costs by industry, wholesale prices and competitiveness of the different power generation means, government's incentives for projects profitability; 4 - dynamics of the European market of renewable energies: energy-mix and evolution of the renewable energies contribution in the world and in the European Union, key-figures by country and by industry (installed capacity, production, turnover, employment); 5 - medium-term development perspectives: 2020 prospect scenarios, evolution of the energy mix, perspectives of development for each industry; 6 - the strengths in presence in the domain of facilities: main manufacturers, market shares, innovations, vertical integration, external growth; 7 - the strengths in presence in the domain of power facilities operation: main European operators, position and ranking, installed capacities, projects portfolio; 8 - medium-term perspectives of reconfiguration: best-positioned operators in a developing market, future of European manufacturers with respect to Asian ones, inevitable concentration in the operation sector. (J.S.)

  20. Renewable energy: power for a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2001-01-01

    By the end of the 21 century, according to United National projections, the number of people on the earth is likely to have approximately doubled. How can a world of 10 to 12 billion people be provided with adequate supplies of energy, cleanly, safely and substantially? There is a growing consensus that renewable energy sources will be a very important part of the answer. The growing interest in 'renewables' has been prompted in part, by increasing concern over the pollution, resource depletion and possible climate change implications of our continuing use of conventional fossil and nuclear fuels. But recent technological developments have also improved the cost-effectiveness of many of the renewables, making their economic prospects look increasingly attractive. It describes the achievements and progress made in hydropower, biomass conversion, geothermal, solar thermal technology, wind energy conversion and the increasing usage of photovoltaics. It is evident that global warming is setting in and is going to change the climate as well as the terrain of many countries unless drastic measures are taken. The Kyoto meeting emphasised the importance of limiting CO 2 emissions and to abide by some form of agreement to reduce emissions. Present study concludes that renewable energy penetration into the energy market is much faster than was expected in recent years and by 2030, 15-20 percent of our prime energy will be met by renewable energy. (Author)

  1. Review of Turkey's renewable energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgur, M. Arif

    2008-01-01

    The use of renewable energy has a long history. Biomass, for instance, has been used for heating and cooking, while wind has been used in the irrigation of fields and to drive windmills for centuries. Although Turkey has many energy resources, all of these with the exception of coal and hydropower, cannot meet the total energy demand. Turkey has been importing resources to meet this deficit. These resources have become increasingly expensive and also have undesirably high emissions ratings. Turkey has an extensive shoreline and mountains and is rich in renewable energy potential. The share of renewables on total electricity generation is 29.63% while that of natural gas is 45% for the year 2006. The projection prepared for the period between 2006 and 2020 aims an annual growth of 8% for the total electricity generation. According to this projection, it is expected that renewables will have a share about 23.68% with a decrease of 5.95% while natural gas will have a share about 33.38% for 2020. This paper presents the present state of world renewable energy sources and then looks in detail at the potential resources available in Turkey. Energy politics are also considered. (author)

  2. EDITORIAL: Renewing energy technology Renewing energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Renewable energy is now a mainstream concern among businesses and governments across the world, and could be considered a characteristic preoccupation of our time. It is interesting to note that many of the energy technologies currently being developed date back to very different eras, and even predate the industrial revolution. The fuel cell was first invented as long ago as 1838 by the Swiss--German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein [1], and the idea of harnessing solar power dates back to ancient Greece [2]. The enduring fascination with new means of harnessing energy is no doubt linked to man's innate delight in expending it, whether it be to satisfy the drive of curiosity, or from a hunger for entertainment, or to power automated labour-saving devices. But this must be galvanized by the sustained ability to improve device performance, unearthing original science, and asking new questions, for example regarding the durability of photovoltaic devices [3]. As in so many fields, advances in hydrogen storage technology for fuel cells have benefited significantly from nanotechnology. The idea is that the kinetics of hydrogen uptake and release may be reduced by decreasing the particle size. An understanding of how effective this may be has been hampered by limited knowledge of the way the thermodynamics are affected by atom or molecule cluster size. Detailed calculations of individual atoms in clusters are limited by computational resources as to the number of atoms that can studied, and other innovative approaches that deal with force fields derived by extrapolating the difference between the properties of clusters and bulk matter require labour-intensive modifications when extending such studies to new materials. In [4], researchers in the US use an alternative approach, considering the nanoparticle as having the same crystal structure as the bulk but relaxing the few layers of atoms near the surface. The favourable features of nanostructures for catalysis

  3. Renewables. Global futures report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to show the range of credible possibilities for the future of renewable energy. It does not present just one vision of the future, but rather a full and objective range of visions, based on the collective and contemporary thinking of many. This report combines a unique array of interviews with 170 experts from around the world, along with over 50 recently published scenarios. These interviews and scenarios are blended into a 'mosaic' of thinking about the future. Persons interviewed included industry and finance experts, CEOs and business managers, researchers and academics, policy-makers and parliamentarians, and public advocates and visionaries, among many others. Views of existing energy companies are also included

  4. The electricity market reinvention by regional renewal

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Just one hundred years ago, electricity was classified as a luxury good. Since renewable energies entered the German market 25 years ago, they slowly started to change some fundamental conditions. The ubiquity of electrical devices in our daily life is not something we think about anymore in the industrialised world. It has become as normal as breathing. Yet unlike air, power has to be obtained and distributed. The constant availability of current is therefore not a given thing, but something...

  5. Nuclear power : decline, prolongation or renewal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In an international context still under the shock of Fukushima, and at a time when France is committed to an energy transition, the details of which still have to be decided, the future of nuclear power in the world is provoking intense and contradictory debate. What to expert: a decline, business as usual, or a renewal of the sector throughout its value chain? Some answers are to be found in an analysis by Colombus Consulting. (author)

  6. Renewable energy handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fine, R

    1976-01-01

    The potential for renewable energy use in Canada is examined. It is pointed out that Canada can choose to begin to diversify its energy supply now, moving rapidly and smoothly towards an efficient energy society based on renewable energy sources; or, it can continue on its present course and face the possibility of being forced by necessity to make a later transition to renewable sources, probably with a great deal of economic and political disruption. The handbook begins with a discussion on major issues and options available. This second section deals with the technology, applications, and costs of direct solar energy utilization, solar thermal electricity generation, photovoltaic conversion, wind energy, biomass energy, tidal power, wave energy, ocean thermal energy, geothermal energy, heat pumps, and energy storage. Section three discusses how renewable energy might realistically supply Canada's energy requirements within a reasonable period of time. Some issues on how government, industry, and the individual may become involved to make this happen are suggested. A list of resource people and renewable energy businesses is provided in the last section. A recommended reading list and bibliography complete the handbook. (MCW)

  7. Renewable energy education for 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charters, W.W.S.

    2000-01-01

    The major technological developments in equipment, designed to harness new and renewable sources of energy, have only taken place in the last four decades of the twentieth century, although the principles involved have been previously known for many centuries and were clearly formulated in many of the ancient civilizations. The term renewable energy (RE) itself is of relatively recent origin and only came into widespread use worldwide in the eighties, after the United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, held in Nairobi, Kenya in 1981, Ref 1. Currently, the term renewable s is extensively used to describe the full range of direct and indirect uses of solar radiation incident on the earth's surface, and is often extended to include energy resources, such as tidal power or geothermal energy, neither of which is strictly renewable in the true sense of the word. Energy extracted from biomass is also generally included under this heading, although biomass is truly renewable only if continuous plantation development and replanting is carried out as the biomass is harvested. On a global scale, relatively extensive teaching about renewable energy started in the late seventies and early eighties, after the first impact of the OPEC oil price shock. Up till this time, there were only a few centres around the world where individual dedicated researchers and university teachers were involved in such activity. The next impetus to course and teaching material development came with national movements for energy independence and finally, in the latter years of this century, considerable stimulation has been given due to the increasing realisation of global environmental factors such as global warming, ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere, acid rain formation, and many other environmental degradation effects due to the increasing use of fossil fuel reserves. Considerable attention has been focused in the last twenty years through the many national and

  8. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  9. “Strange Beasts… in taste Chinese” : Le goût chinois dans l’Angleterre du XVIIIe siècle ou l’esthétique de l’étrange “Strange Beasts… in taste Chinese” The Chinese taste in 18th-century England or the aesthetics of the strange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Alayrac

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The wonders and riches of China brought back to England by the East Indiamen at the end of the 17th century and in the 18th century triggered a deep interest for things Chinese. Indeed, England was hit by the Chinese taste in the decorative arts, emblematised by the playful chinoiserie style. This taste nonetheless evolved during the 18th century, and although it remained very popular throughout the period, it underwent some sharp criticisms. What was the nature of the English reception of this style? Why was it so welcomed, and at the same time seen so suspicious? This paper explores the ambivalence which lay in the reception of the Chinese style, and examines what was perceived as the lure and threat of Chinese exoticism through the concepts of strangeness and foreignness.

  10. Renewability of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, Michael; Yeh, Angus [Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Mannington, Warren [Contact Energy Limited, Taupo (New Zealand)

    2010-12-15

    In almost all geothermal projects worldwide, the rate of extraction of heat energy exceeds the pre-exploitation rate of heat flow from depth. For example, current production of geothermal heat from the Wairakei-Tauhara system exceeds the natural recharge of heat by a factor of 4.75. Thus, the current rate of heat extraction from Wairakei-Tauhara is not sustainable on a continuous basis, and the same statement applies to most other geothermal projects. Nevertheless, geothermal energy resources are renewable in the long-term because they would fully recover to their pre-exploitation state after an extended shut-down period. The present paper considers the general issue of the renewability of geothermal resources and uses computer modeling to investigate the renewability of the Wairakei-Tauhara system. In particular, modeling is used to simulate the recovery of Wairakei-Tauhara after it is shut down in 2053 after a hundred years of production. (author)

  11. People and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenvald, Avo

    2002-01-01

    The use of renewable energy is tightly connected to solving social problems in Estonia by creating more new jobs. It is essential that Estonia should increase the use of biofuels. One of the biofuels, firewood, has been used already for centuries. For wider use of renewable energy in Estonia, it is not enough to rely only on enterprices. Rather, before any serious progress can take place, the state should create the appropriate legal environment. Due to its many social and environmental aspects, renewable energy is more important to the state than a sole enterprice. Unfortunately, Estonian government has been delaying its duties. Estonia has two resources that should be taken advantage of, fertile spare land and people still used to the country life. The country people would get work by growing different energy crops on the spare land. (author)

  12. Understanding renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, Volker

    2005-01-15

    Beginning with an overview of renewable energy sources including biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, tidal, wind and solar power, this book explores the fundamentals of different renewable energy systems. The main focus is on technologies with high development potential such as solar thermal systems, photovoltaics and wind power. This text not only describes technological aspects, but also deals consciously with problems of the energy industry. In this way, the topics are treated in a holistic manner, bringing together maths, engineering, climate studies and economics, and enabling readers to gain a broad understanding of renewable energy technologies and their potential. The book also contains a free CD-ROM resource, which includes a variety of specialist simulation software and detailed figures from the book. (Author)

  13. Renewables vs fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, K. (Energy Research and Development Corporation (Australia))

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines some of the factors which will influence the future mix of energy from fossil fuels and renewable sources in Australia. Aspects covered include: the present energy situation; impact of environmental issues; potential for renewable energy; motivators for change; and research and development. It is concluded that the future for fossil fuels and renewable energy is dependent on a number of complex factors, many of which are currently unknown. The key factor is economic viability and that will be influenced by a range of factors such as policies of the Australian and overseas governments in relation to pollution and environment protection (reflected in the cost of meeting such requirements), exploration and production costs (also influenced by government policies), availability of supply, rate of technological development and the size of export markets. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Renewable energy technology applications in the Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charters, W.W.S.

    1996-01-01

    The interest shown by Asia in renewable energy technologies is currently extremely high as the region is expected to account for up to 50 percent of the total world power generation equipment orders over the next ten years. Mature developed technologies for power production from renewable energy resources are now available in the form of micro and mini hydro plants, biomass pyrolysis and gasification units, wind aerogenerators and photovoltaic arrays. If Australia is to move towards a sustainable energy society, renewable energy resources must be utilized on a widespread scale as soon as possible. There are large niche markets for renewable energy resource based equipment in Australia, as well as immense market opportunities in the neighbouring fast growing economies in Asia. Key issues to be addressed in terms of implementing major renewable energy programs in the region on a large scale include identification and encouragement of reliable markets, and mass production of high quality reliable products. (author). 10 refs

  15. Renewable energies and the challenge for a sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After a presentation of some basic definitions and data (locations, assessment, utilisation), this collective report proposes a first set of contributions about perspectives for renewable energies: their role in middle- and long-term world scenarios, their relationship with greenhouse effect, the relentless technological pursuit through the example of hydrogen. A second set of contributions deals with the relationship between renewable energies and sustainable development: in northern countries (an environmental responsibility and a society issue), in southern countries (the challenge of access to energy), the promotion of renewable energies in the North-South cooperation, the chaotic decentralized electrification program in South Africa, the relationship between energy and struggle against poverty, the search for instruments to stimulate renewable electricity development, the sociological constraints to renewable energy development, the sustainable development at the service of new industries in countries of the North

  16. The renewable energy development framework - I. The challenge of renewable energy development. Territorial challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Mauricette; Grison, Jean-Baptiste; Rieutort, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The authors comment the evolutions of renewable energy production in the world during the last thirty years and notice how the geography of this production and of the associated consumption has changed while still displaying contrasts. They also notice the diversification of actors (big companies as well as small and medium sized companies and local communities). Then, they highlight the challenges of renewable energies at the local level: these energies can be tools for local development and competitiveness, but are also matters of either cooperation or conflict (they comment factors related to social acceptance or non-acceptance of wind farm projects in France)

  17. World's Most Efficient Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    World's Most Efficient Solar Cell National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Spectrolab Set Record For , 1999 - A solar cell that can convert sunlight to electricity at a record-setting 32 percent efficiency on Earth. Spectrolab of Sylmar, Calif., "grew" the record-setting solar cell. After

  18. Raw and renewable polymers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available in the permeability of the membrane and HO H3C H3C H2C H2C HO OH NH NH OH O OC C n O O O O Fig. 4 Structure of Chitin Raw and Renewable Polymers promoting internal osmotic imbalances. This results in leaching of electrolytes and proteins. 2... is often lost. In most cases this denaturation is not reversible. R-CH-COOH NH2 w Amino acid H2N COOHR a Amino acid Fig. 5 Structure of amino acid Raw and Renewable Polymers The solubilities of proteins vary considerably based on compositions...

  19. Renewable energy sources (promotion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, F.

    1986-01-01

    Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.)

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation library summarizes findings of NREL's Renewable Electricity Futures study, published in June 2012. RE Futures investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. It was presented at the 2012 RE AMP Annual Meeting. RE-AMP is an active network of 144 nonprofits and foundations across eight Midwestern states working on climate change and energy policy with the goal of reducing global warming pollution economy-wide 80% by 2050.

  1. Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Mits

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations

  2. Intensidade de ruído em hospital de 222 leitos na 18ª Regional de Saúde - PR Noise level in a 222 bed hospital in the 18th health region - PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique Otenio

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A poluição sonora ambiental torna-se hoje onipresente e beira o intolerável. Nos hospitais, os avanços tecnológicos trazem, como conseqüência, níveis de ruído potencialmente danosos. Muito do ruído no hospital provém mais de dentro, do que de fora desse ambiente, sendo as principais causas de ruído em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, por exemplo, os equipamentos e a conversação entre a equipe hospitalar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o nível de ruído nos diversos ambientes hospitalares, em Hospital de 222 leitos na 18ª RS de Saúde - PR. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Conduziu-se, em março de 2005 no período de 24 horas, em dez setores. Forma de Estudo: Aferição do nível de ruído ambiental utilizando um Decibelímetro modelo 1350. RESULTADOS: O nível de ruído encontrado em nosso estudo apresentou média total de 63,7 dB(A, que excede os valores máximos permitidos de 45 dB recomendados pela Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (1987. CONCLUSÃO: Nos setores analisados, o nível de ruído encontrado neste está consideravelmente acima do recomendado. A equipe hospitalar deve estar consciente do ruído e dos efeitos deste, para que possa atuar de maneira mais efetiva na redução da poluição sonora, beneficiando assim a função laborativa dos profissionais e recuperação dos pacientes.Environment noise pollution is common place today, at intolerable levels. In hospitals, technological developments have, as a consequence, potentially harmful noise levels. Much of the hospital noise comes from inside, rather than outside, and the major source of such noise is the Intensive Care Unit, for example equipment and hospital staff talk. Our goal with the present study was to investigate the noise level present in the different hospital environments, within a 222 bed hospital located at the 18th health zone, PR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out in March, 2005, during a period of 24 hours, in tem different

  3. La vente des biens nationaux à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, nouvelle donne pour la ville The sale of national assets at the end of the 18th century – a gift to the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Antoine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available À la fin de l’Ancien Régime, les villes des Pays-Bas gardaient les traits de villes médiévales sans ordre et faites d’entrelacs de rues et de ruelles. Le caractère corporatif de la production limitait la présence de grands ensembles industriels et les couvents et leurs jardins occupaient une grande partie de la superficie intra et extra muros des cités. Par ailleurs, l’Église était propriétaire d’un important parc immobilier de petites demeures adossées à des églises jusqu’aux importants refuges d’abbayes dominant dans les campagnes de vastes espaces fonciers. Durant la deuxième moitié du xviiie, les autorités habsbourgeoises menèrent une politique tendant à moderniser les villes en faisant, en autres, tomber les enceintes et en donnant une nouvelle affectation aux couvents contemplatifs supprimés. La Révolution française bouleversa ces ensembles urbains en libérant d’un coup une masse très importante de biens immobiliers qui appartenait à l’Église et en modifiant radicalement les modes de production par la suppression des corporations de métiers. La bourgeoisie principalement négociante réussi habilement tirer tous les profits de cette nouvelle donne. Cet effet d’aubaine contribua grandement à faire passer nos régions dans un nouveau stade de leur démarrage industriel.At the end of the Ancien Régime, the towns of the Netherlands retained the characteristics of medieval towns, without any order and consisting of warrens of streets and alleys. The corporative nature of production limited the presence of major industrial complexes and the monasteries and convents, together with their gardens, covered a large part of the urban areas both within and outside city walls. In addition, the church had important property holdings, ranging from small residential properties attached to churches to major abbey residences dominating vast countryside estates. During the second half of the 18th century, the

  4. Alteraçoes das práticas contabilísticas na Casa da Moeda de Lisboa no século XVIII = Changes in accounting practices at the Lisbon Mint in the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Martins De Sousa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se explica el cambio de prácticas contables en la Casa da Moeda de Lisboa encuadrándolas en la política de difusión de la contabilidad por partida doble en el ámbito público en Portugal durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII.La necesidad del Estado de ejercer un mayor control sobre sus fuentes de ingresos justificó la transformación ocurrida demostrando la adaptación de las prácticas contables a las características de cada organización. En la Casa da Moeda, lo específico de su misión acuñación de monedas originó una legislación propia fechada en 1773. La periodización de estas prácticas contables en la Casa da Moeda de Lisboa se organizó en tres fases: la primera entre 1686 y 1761, la segunda entre 1761 y 1773 y por último desde 1773 a 1797, período final de este estudio.This article explains the changes made to accounting practices at the Lisbon Mint within the context of the introduction of double-entry bookkeeping into the public sphere in Portugal during the second half of the 18th century.The State’s requirement to exercise greater control over its sources of income justified the changes that took place, with accounting practices being adapted to the features of each organisation. The Mint's specific function –the minting of metallic money– gave rise to the creation of its own particular legislation, in 1773. The study of these accounting practices at the Lisbon Mint will be divided into three separate periods: firstly from 1686 to 1761, secondly from 1761 to 1773, and finally from 1773 to 1797. Neste artigo explica-se a alteração das práticas contabilísticas na Casa da Moeda de Lisboa enquadrando-as na política de difusão da contabilidade por partidas dobradas na esfera pública, em Portugal, na segunda metade do século XVIII.A necessidade de um maior controlo exercido pelo Estado sobre as suas fontes de receita justificarão as transformações ocorridas, demonstrando estas a

  5. World energy outlook 2014

    CERN Document Server

    International Energy Agency. Paris

    2014-01-01

    The global energy landscape is evolving at a rapid pace, reshaping long-held expectations for our energy future. The 2014 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO) will incorporate all the latest data and developments to produce a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of medium- and longer-term energy trends. It will complement a full set of energy projections – which extend from today through, for the first time, the year 2040 – with strategic insights into their meaning for energy security, the economy and the environment. Oil, natural gas, coal, renewables and energy efficiency will be covered, along with updates on trends in energy-related CO2 emissions, fossil-fuel and renewable energy subsidies, and universal access to modern energy services.

  6. IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables

  7. On the determinants of renewable energy consumption: International Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Anis Omri; Duc Khuong Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Over recent years, renewable energy sources have emerged as an important component of world energy consumption. Little is however known about the determinants of renewable energy consumption. This article tackles this issue for a global panel consisting of 64 countries over the period 1990-2011 by using a dynamic system- GMM panel model. We also consider three homogeneous subpanels which are constructed based on the income level of sample countries (high-, middle-, and low-income subpanels). ...

  8. Environmental problems connected to the use of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottana, A.; Pignotti, S.

    2000-01-01

    The development of FER (renewable energy sources) can represent a fundamental answer to the growing energy need and the requirement for a new environmental quality. Also the renewable sources, however, have an environmental cost, whose amount can be considered of little importance at a world balance, but can have a large impact at a local level. Among FER the author has chosen hydroelectric source, biomass and wind energy, since they are most effective according to the aims of this discussion [it

  9. Renewable Electricity: Insights for the Coming Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Camila [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A sophisticated set of renewable electricity (RE) generation technologies is now commercially available. Globally, RE captured approximately half of all capacity additions since 2011. The cost of RE is already competitive with fossil fuels in some areas around the world, and prices are anticipated to continue to decline over the next decade. RE options, led by wind and solar, are part of a suite of technologies and business solutions that are transforming electricity sectors around the world. Renewable deployment is expected to continue due to: increasingly competitive economics; favorable environmental characteristics such as low water use, and minimal local air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; complementary risk profiles when paired with natural gas generators; strong support from stakeholders. Despite this positive outlook for renewables, the collapse in global oil prices since mid-2014 and continued growth in natural gas supply in the United States--due to the development of low-cost shale gas--raise questions about the potential impacts of fossil fuel prices on RE. Today, oil plays a very minor role in the electricity sectors of most countries, so direct impacts on RE are likely to be minimal (except where natural gas prices are indexed on oil). Natural gas and RE generating options appear to be more serious competitors than oil and renewables. Low gas prices raise the hurdle for RE to be cost competitive. Additionally, although RE emits far less GHG than natural gas, both natural gas and RE offer the benefits of reducing carbon relative to coal and oil (see Section 4.1 for more detail on the GHG intensity of electricity technologies). However, many investors and decision makers are becoming aware of the complementary benefits of pairing natural gas and renewables to minimize risk of unstable fuel prices and maintain the reliability of electricity to the grid.

  10. Nuclear energy and its synergies with renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Mermilliod, N.; Devezeaux De Lavergne, J.G.; Durand, S.

    2011-01-01

    France has the ambition to become a world leader in both nuclear industry and in renewable energies. 3 types of synergies between nuclear power and renewable energies are highlighted. First, nuclear power can be used as a low-carbon energy to produce the equipment required to renewable energy production for instance photovoltaic cells. Secondly, to benefit from the complementary features of both energies: continuous/intermittency of the production, centralized/local production. The future development of smart grids will help to do that. Thirdly, to use nuclear energy to produce massively hydrogen from water and synthetic fuels from biomass. (A.C.)

  11. A renewables-based South African energy system?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available in electricity mix from 75 to 50% by 2025 That's a reduction by 140 TWh/yr of nuclear power generation, which is the same amount of energy produced by 10 Koebergs This energy will be replaced by renewables This emphasises again the recently achieved cost...-competitiveness of renewableshttp://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NP-French- energy-transition-bill-adopted-2307155.html 8Agenda International context Renewables in South Africa Extreme renewables scenarios 9Integrated Resource Plan 2010 (IRP 2010): Plan of the power generation mix...

  12. Energy consumption and Growth of renewable energies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunie, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese government's ability to shift the energy structure towards renewable energies is now a world stake. The high weight of coal takes the economy into unsustainable growth, both at local level (SO 2 emissions) and at a global level (CO 2 emissions). But the extensive goods accumulation strategy at a pace in the region of 10% per year, prevents renewable energy sources from gaining a growing share of total consumption. On the contrary, the exponential increase in needs makes an ever-growing use of coal quite inescapable. This articles discusses the driving forces behind the energy sector and explores the high potential or renewable resources in China. (author)

  13. Renewable energies and the poor: niche or nexus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energies are considered as an essential element of any strategy for sustainable energy development. The poor in the developing world without access to modern energies are regarded as a major market for renewable energies. This short paper attempts to analyse whether such a niche is backed by any economic logic and whether renewable energy and the poor nexus could be a strategy for success. The paper suggests that contrary to the common belief, the economic logic behind the niche is unsound and that the nexus is not a recipe for success

  14. The myth and realities of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shargal, M.; Houseman, D.

    2008-01-01

    Renewable energies use natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. Renewable energy technologies range from wind power, hydroelectricity, wave, solar, biomass, and biofuels. While most renewable energy sources do not produce pollution directly, the materials, industrial processes, and construction equipment used to create them may generate waste and pollution. This paper discussed the myths and realities of these energy applications. The following were described as being myths: plug-in cars could help reduce air pollution; current electric infrastructure can support the growth in plug-in cars; transmission grid can support the transportation of renewable electricity generated in rural areas to homes and business that need it in large metropolitan areas; there is a shortage of renewable energy sources on earth; biofuels do not have environmental issues; renewable energy facilities last forever; biofuel and biomass energy positively influence greenhouse gas; and greater efficiency results in lower energy consumption, resulting in energy independence. The paper also addressed the myth that ethanol is an eco-friendly fuel, and that if the United States tapped into its vast coal reserves effectively with clean and efficient coal-to-liquids technology, America would achieve energy independence. The paper also discussed the transformation from surplus fossil fuel resources to constrained gas and oil carriers, and subsequently to new energy supply and conversion technologies. Specifically, the paper addressed carbon offsets and allowance, cow power, and innovative experiments. It was concluded that the world is not on course to achieve a sustainable energy future. The global energy supply will continue to be dominated by fossil fuels for several decades. In order to reduce the resultant greenhouse gas emissions, a transition to zero and low-carbon technologies will be required. 10 refs

  15. Renewables 2015 global status report - Annual Reporting on Renewables: Ten years of excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Sverrisson, Freyr; Rickerson, Wilson; Lins, Christine; Williamson, Laura E.; Adib, Rana; Murdock, Hannah E.; Musolino, Evan; Hullin, Martin; Reith, Ayla; Valero, Alana; Mastny, Lisa; Petrichenko, Ksenia; Seyboth, Kristin; Skeen, Jonathan; Sovacool, Benjamin; Wouters, Frank; Martinot, Eric

    2015-01-01

    regions. China again led the world in new renewable power capacity installations in 2014, and Brazil, India, and South Africa accounted for a large share of the capacity added in their respective regions. An increasing number of developing countries across Asia, Africa, and Latin America became important manufacturers and installers of renewable energy technologies. In parallel with growth in renewable energy markets, 2014 saw significant advances in the development and deployment of energy storage systems across all sectors. The year also saw the increasing electrification of transportation and heating applications, highlighting the potential for further overlap among these sectors in the future

  16. Nontraditional renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the application possibilities of nontraditional renewable energy sources to generate electricity, estimates the potential of nontraditional sources using energy of Sun, wind, biomass, as well as, geothermal energy and presents the results of economical analysis of cost of electricity generated by solar electrical power plants, geothermal and electrical plants and facilities for power reprocessing of biomass. 1 tab

  17. The wood, renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-12-01

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  18. Information for Institutional Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Richard L.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses a planning, management, and evaluation system, an objective-based planning process, research databases, analytical reports, and transactional data as state-of-the-art tools available to generate data which link research directly to planning for institutional renewal. (RC)

  19. Renewable Energies, Present & Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. S. Cai

    2005-01-01

    Fossil fuels are major cause of environmental destruction in pollutions. It has created much needed momentum for renewable energies, which are environmentally benign, generated locally, and can play a significant role in developing economy. As a sustainable energy sources, it can grow at a rapid pace to meet increasing demands for electricity in a cost-effective way.

  20. Renewable Energy for Microenterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allderdice, A.; Rogers, J.H.

    2000-11-28

    This guide provides readers with a broad understanding of the potential benefits that current renewable energy technologies can offer rural microenterprises. It also introduces the institutional approaches that have been developed to make RE technologies accessible to microentrepreneurs and the challenges that these entrepreneurs have encountered.

  1. Renewable material resource potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weenen, H.; Wever, R.; Quist, J.; Tukker, A.; Woudstra, J.; Boons, F.A.A.; Beute, N.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable material resources, consist of complex systems and parts. Their sub-systems and sub-sub-systems, have unique, specific, general and common properties. The character of the use that is made of these resources, depends on the availability of knowledge, experience, methods, tools, machines

  2. Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Hydropower is currently the most common form of renewable energy and plays an important part in global power generation. Worldwide hydropower produced 3 288 TWh, just over 16% of global electricity production in 2008, and the overall technical potential for hydropower is estimated to be more than 16 400 TWh/yr.

  3. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  4. The Renewable Energy Data Explorer: Mapping Our Renewable Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-13

    The Renewable Energy (RE) Data Explorer, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is an innovative web-based platform that allows users to visualize and analyze renewable energy potential. The RE Data Explorer informs prospecting, integrated planning, and policymaking to enable low emission development.

  5. Renewable Energy on Tribal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008 regarding Renewable Energy on Tribal Lands.

  6. Non-renewal of contracts

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    A new illegal practice is appearing in certain sectors of the Organization: the non-renewal of renewable three-year limited-duration (LD) contracts, despite a more than satisfactory performance and an obvious commitment to the Organization.

  7. Management of development of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper: 'Management of development of renewable energy sources is to point out the possible solutions for neutralizing the threat of energy shortages. The paper outlines major short and long term energy problems facing humanity. The increase of world human population is, inevitably, accompanied by higher energy consumption. Reserves decrease of nonrenewable energy sources like oil, gas, and coal is a major threat to maintaining current living conditions, and thus requires solutions in order to neutralize the threat. This is why the management of development of renewable energy sources is an imperative for Serbia. The paper emphasizes the use of solar energy, because the annual average of solar radiation in Serbia is about 40% higher than the European average, however, the actual use of the sun's energy to generate electricity in Serbia is far behind the countries of the European Union. Solar energy is clean, renewable, and the fact that 4.2 kilowatt-hours are received daily per square meter averaged over the entire surface of the planet, makes it an almost unused energy source, Compared to EU countries, the price of non-renewable derived energy is, on average, higher in Serbia. Taking this into consideration, the use of solar energy, as an unused resource, imposes itself as indispensable.

  8. Renewable energy in Pakistan: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, I.A.; Khalil, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the countries around the world have realized that the key to attaining and maintaining prosperity and sovereignty is having independence and self-reliance in access to and subsequent use of energy. To address the global challenges, the energy system needs to undergo a transformation from fossil-fuels to renewable energy and energy efficient technologies. Pakistan has a huge potential for harnessing renewable energy and its share in the electricity mix has to be increased to achieve energy security. Security issues and circular debt in the country are the key challenges that need to be addressed to promote on-grid renewable energy through private sector. Around 38 % of the total Pakistani population remains without access to electricity. Fifty four per cent of the rural population currently has no access to electricity, forcing them to live a sub-standard life of poverty and social inequity. Microfinance and other innovative financial tools need to be evolved to promote rural electrification through renewable energies. (author)

  9. Renewable energy education in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bara, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    The global call for more and more penetration of renewable energy sources in the energy mix for several countries driven by various different motives including the desire for attaining sustainable development through the use of these renewable sources, for decreasing pollution, trying to decrease dependency on imported fuels or to exploit the locally available renewable resources, this call has not been satisfactorily responded to, partially, it is believed here, due to the lack of awareness and adequate manpower qualifications in these sources at the different levels of decision making. Energy education in many countries is still not so dynamic to coup with the ever changing circumstances and developments related to the demand, supply, technologies, economics policies as well as environmental aspects this is more noticed in the world developing countries, with other related obstacles facing the desired and needed wider application of renewable energy sources. The paper will try to handle this situation, analyzing its components, citing some examples of good fruitful practice in this connection, and drawing some recommendations that may help in improving the same

  10. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2009 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  11. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; Silva, Cristina G. da; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; Oliveira, Fernando de; Santos, Rachel P. O. [Macromolecular Materials and Lignocellulosic Fibers Group, Center for Research on Science and Technology of BioResources, Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, CP 780, 13560-970 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-05-18

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called “biopolyethylene” (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  12. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; da Silva, Cristina G.; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; de Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Rachel P. O.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called "biopolyethylene" (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  13. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren`t always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation.

  14. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren't always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation

  15. Combining Renewable Energy With Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    There are various possibilities for incorporating biomass into coal-fuelled processes and a number of these are already being deployed commercially. Others are the focus of ongoing research and development. Biomass materials can vary widely, although the present report concentrates mainly on the use of woody biomass in the form of forest residues. Potentially, large amounts are available in some parts of the world. However, not all forested regions are very productive, and the degree of commercial exploitation varies considerably between individual countries. The level of wastage associated with timber production and associated downstream processing is frequently high and considerable quantities of potentially useful materials are often discarded. Overall, forest residues are a largely underexploited resource. Combining the use of biomass with coal can be beneficial, particularly from an environmental standpoint, although any such process may have its limitations or drawbacks. Each coal type and biomass feedstock has different characteristics although by combining the two, it may be possible to capitalise on the advantages of each, and minimise their individual disadvantages. An effective way is via cogasification, and useful operating experience has been achieved in a number of large-scale coal-fuelled gasification and IGCC plants. Cogasification can be the starting point for producing a range of products that include synthetic natural gas, chemicals, fertilisers and liquid transport fuels. It also has the potential to form the basis of systems that combine coal and biomass use with other renewable energy technologies to create clean, efficient energy-production systems. Thus, various hybrid energy concepts, some based on coal/biomass cogasification, have been proposed or are in the process of being developed or trialled. Some propose to add yet another element of renewable energy to the system, generally by incorporating electricity generated by intermittent

  16. Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoudis, Christos; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Electricity is nowadays commonly exchanged through electricity markets, designed in a context where dispatchable generators, with non-negligible marginal costs, were dominating. By depending primarily on conventional (fossil, hydro and nuclear) power generation based on marginal pricing...... not designed to take into account the uncertainty brought by the substantial variability and limited predictability associated with stochastic sources, most notably wind power and solar energy. Due to these developments, the need for decision making models able to account for the uncertainty introduced by high...... from renewables, and on the adaption of electricity market designs and power system operations to the aforementioned characteristics of renewables. Additionally, the aim of the research group is supplemented by providing the appropriate frameworks for secure future investments in the field...

  17. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity......This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...... are to be found when the electricity sector is combined with the heating and cooling sectors and/or the transportation sector. Moreover, the combination of electricity and gas infrastructures may play an important role in the design of future renewable energy systems. The paper illustrates why electricity smart...

  18. Bolivia renewable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1997-12-01

    The author summarizes changes which have occurred in Bolivia in the past year which have had an impact on renewable energy source development. Political changes have included the privatization of power generation and power distribution, and resulted in a new role for state level government and participation by the individual. A National Rural Electrification Plan was adopted in 1996, which stresses the use of GIS analysis and emphasizes factors such as off grid, economic index, population density, maintenance risk, and local organizational structure. The USAID program has chosen to stress economic development, environmental programs, and health over village power programs. The national renewables program has adopted a new development direction, with state projects, geothermal projects, and private sector involvement stressed.

  19. Renewable Energy Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Representatives of state universities, public institutions and Costa Rican private sector, and American experts have exposed projects or experiences about the use and generation of renewable energy in different fields. The thematics presented have been about: development of smart grids and design of electrical energy production systems that allow money saving and reducing emissions to the environment; studies on the use of non-traditional plants and agricultural waste; sustainable energy model in the process of coffee production; experiments from biomass for the fabrication of biodiesel, biogas production and storage; and the use of non-conventional energy. Researches were presented at the Renewable Energy Symposium, organized by the Centro de Investigacion en Estructuras Microscopicas and support of the Vicerrectoria de Investigacion, both from the Universidad de Costa Rica [es

  20. Renewable energy project development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author presents this paper with three main thrusts. The first is to discuss the implementation of renewable energy options in China, the second is to identify the key project development steps necessary to implement such programs, and finally is to develop recommendations in the form of key issues which must be addressed in developing such a program, and key technical assistance needs which must be addressed to make such a program practical.

  1. Renewing Samsø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazu, Irina

    2017-01-01

    and globally, I ask: if indeed such a process of renewal must be understood as a political process and the island’s energy transition as an inherently political event, what can Samsø teach us about the workings of politics and local democracy as enacted in practice? This is politics not as election result...... or ideological struggle over values, ideals and the distribution of goods, but as the down-to-earth but significant activity of creating something new together....

  2. Renewable Energy in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipkovs, P.; Kashkarova, G. [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M. [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

    1997-12-31

    Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

  3. Market analysis. Renewable fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR) had on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture created a study on the market development of renewable resources in Germany and published this in the year of 2006. The aim of that study was to identify of actual status and market performance of the individual market segments of the material and energetic use as a basis for policy recommendations for accelerated and long term successful market launch and market share expansion of renewable raw materials. On behalf of the FNR, a market analysis of mid-2011 was carried out until the beginning of 2013, the results of which are hereby resubmitted. This market analysis covers all markets of material and energetic use in the global context, taking account of possible competing uses. A market segmentation, which was based on the product classification of the Federal Statistical Office, formed the basis of the analysis. A total of ten markets have been defined, seven material and three energetic use. [de

  4. Renewable Energy in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipkovs, P; Kashkarova, G [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

    1998-12-31

    Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

  5. Technology and the diffusion of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, David; Hascic, Ivan; Medhi, Neelakshi

    2011-01-01

    We consider investment in wind, solar photovoltaic, geothermal, and electricity from biomass and waste across 26 OECD countries from 1991 to 2004. Using the PATSTAT database, we obtain a comprehensive list of patents for each of these technologies throughout the world, which we use to assess the impact of technological change on investment in renewable energy capacity. We consider four alternative methods for counting patents, using two possible filters: weighting patents by patent family size and including only patent applications filed in multiple countries. For each patent count, we create knowledge stocks representing the global technological frontier. We find that technological advances do lead to greater investment, but the effect is small. Investments in other carbon-free energy sources, such as hydropower and nuclear power, serve as substitutes for renewable energy. Comparing the effectiveness of our four patent counts, we find that both using only patents filed in multiple countries and weighting by family size improve the fit of the model.

  6. Energy and durable development: the place of the renewable energies; Energie et developpement durable: la place des energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The 29 may 2000, took place at the UNESCO, a colloquium on the place of the renewable energies facing the economic development. This document presents the opening presentation of A. Antolini and L. Jospin and the colloquium papers and debates in the following four domains: the energy challenges of the durable development, the renewable energies sources facing the european directive, the thermal renewable energies (solar, geothermics and biomass) and the greenhouse effect, the world market of the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  7. What drives renewable energy development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagappan, L.; Orans, R.; Woo, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint reviews renewable energy development in 14 markets that differ in market structure (restructured vs. not restructured), use of feed-in-tariff (FIT) (yes vs. no), transmission planning (anticipatory vs. reactive), and transmission interconnection cost allocated to a renewable generator (high vs. low). We find that market restructuring is not a primary driver of renewable energy development. Renewable generation has the highest percent of total installed capacity in markets that use a FIT, employ anticipatory transmission planning, and have loads or end-users paying for most, if not all, of the transmission interconnection costs. In contrast, renewable developers have been less successful in markets that do not use a FIT, employ reactive transmission planning, and have generators paying for most, if not all, of the transmission interconnection costs. While these policies can lead to higher penetration of renewable energy in the short run, their high cost to ratepayers can threaten the economic sustainability of renewable energy in the long-run. - Highlights: → Market structure seems to have little effect on renewable energy development. → Renewable energy development is more successful in markets that use a FIT. → Anticipatory transmission planning aids renewable energy development. → Low interconnection costs for developers also aids renewable energy development.

  8. Six policy actions for accelerated deployment of renewable energy. READy Renewable Energy Action on Deployment. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    The READy book presents a kaleidoscope of policy options that have proven to accelerate the deployment of renewable energy technologies, based on experiences around the world at the local and national levels. Lessons learned from successful cases are distilled into six essential action points. Together these categories of policy actions compose the ACTION Star, a guide for taking action now while preparing for growth over the long term.

  9. Renewables global status report - 2009 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Martinot, Eric; Mastny, Lisa; Lempp, Philippe; Sonntag-O'Brien, Virginia; Lempp, Philippe; Foulon, Samia; Roussell, Jodie; Welker, Bettina

    2009-01-01

    from conventional sources (including gas, coal, oil, and nuclear). Renewable energy industries boomed during most of 2008. Global solar PV production increased by 90 percent to 6.9 GW in 2008. China usurped Japan to become the new world leader in PV cell production and also experienced huge growth in its wind power industry, with many new companies producing wind turbines and components. Globally, the wind industry continued to push turbine sizes higher, with models of 3 MW or larger becoming more widespread. The concentrating solar power (CSP) industry saw many entrants and new manufacturing facilities. The ethanol and bio-diesel industries similarly expanded, particularly in North America and Latin America, and the cellulosic ethanol industry was in the process of booming, with 300 million liters per year of capacity under construction. Although the clean energy sector initially weathered the financial crisis in late 2008 better than many other sectors, renewable investment did experience a downturn after September 2008. However, projects continued to progress and many economic stimulus bills included components for supporting renewable energy. At the same time, development assistance for renewables in developing countries expanded greatly, reaching about $2 billion in 2008. By early 2009, policy targets existed in at least 73 countries, and at least 64 countries had policies to promote renewable power generation, including 45 countries and 18 states/provinces/territories with feed-in tariffs (many of these recently updated). The number of countries/states/ provinces with renewable portfolio standards increased to 49. Policy targets for renewable energy were added, supplemented, revised, or clarified in a large number of countries in 2008. Many forms of policy support for renewables were added, supplemented, or extended in a number of countries during 2008. For example, new solar PV subsidy programs were adopted in Australia, China, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands

  10. Renewable energy education in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

  11. Role and status of renewable energies in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleghani, G.; Safaei, B.

    2001-01-01

    Energy plays a key role in the improvement of the human life. The article outline the existing energy resources and consumption of the world and expounds on energy consumption pattern of Iran, drawing on the environmental pollutions caused by the consumption of fossil fuels. It debates the status of new energies in Iran with regard to fossil fuel resources and the trend of energy consumption in the country. The article draws on the advantages of using renewable energy resources including jobs creation. Elsewhere, it gives a history of renewable energies and their situation in the present day world, and explains thermal technologies and solar heat. The article ends with a review of the renewable energies and ways of making such a process in Iran economical. The following points are among the ways for economizing renewable energies: 1- Cut fossil fuel subsidies and raise taxes for the protection of environment. 2- Reform electricity generation industry. 3- Raise efficiency of research and development with regard to technologies of renewable energies. 4- Pay subsidies on the consumption of renewable energies

  12. Boosting renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Public policy and funding are basically different, but both are needed to develop the renewable energy market. Public policy creates incentives, but also obligations. The setting up of a 'repurchase rate' also called a 'feed-in tariff' or 'clean energy cash back scheme' obliges electric power companies to buy back energy of renewable origin at a fixed, guaranteed rate. The extra-cost generated, although usually low, is passed on to all customers and does not cost the State anything. Funding is characterized by its source, the manner in which it is obtained and who supplies it, whether it be banks, mutual funds, development agencies, electric power companies, local governments or the consumers themselves. Repurchasing yields regular cash flows over a given period at a lower risk and allows banks to provide funding. This is one of the reasons for its success. This solution is also very popular with political leaders because it does not weigh down public funding. Both these reasons explain why repurchasing is so appreciated in Europe and in a growing number of countries, more than seventy having adopted it in 2010. In addition, it is regularly discounted in relation to technological breakthroughs and lower costs. As is the case in Europe, the problem lies in maintaining an acceptable rate while avoiding excessive project profitability. In Europe, for instance, the number of renewable energy projects is such that consumers are starting to complain about seeing their electricity rates rise because of the famous feed-in tariff, even though the cost of renewable energies continues to drop on a regular basis. The United States and a few other countries, including China, prefer the quota system, or RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standards), which requires electric power companies to generate a minimal share of electric power by a renewable energy source. These companies consequently invest in renewable energy projects or purchase this energy from other suppliers. Like the

  13. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  14. The world energy status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, S.

    2010-01-01

    As energy consumption increased by a factor 20 during the 20. century, energy has not only an economic, but also a political role, and its management involves diplomatic, social, and now environmental issues. The author discusses the primary role still hold by fossil energies (coal, gas and oil) in the world energy consumption, comments the energy reserve assessments, outlines the financial needs for a renewable energy development, and questions the future evolution of reserves and consumption, as well as the consequences of climate change or the uncertainty about economic growth. The world energy assessment shows important differences between inhabitants: a US citizen consumes more than eight times more than a Chinese one. The shares of the different energy sources are also different from one country to another. In order to decrease the demand in energy, energy efficiency must be improved and user behaviour must evolve

  15. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  16. Student Outreach With Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eric B. (Technical Monitor); Buffinger, D.; Fuller, C.; Kalu, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Student Outreach with Renewable Energy Technology (SORET) program is a joint grant that involves a collaboration between three HBCU's (Central State University, Savannah State University, and Wilberforce University) and NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The overall goal of the grant is to increase the interest of minority students in the technical disciplines, to encourage participating minority students to continue their undergraduate study in these disciplines, and to promote graduate school to these students. As a part of SORET, Central State University has developed an undergraduate research associates program over the past two years. As part of this program, students are required to take special laboratory courses offered at Wilberforce University that involve the application of renewable energy systems. The course requires the students to design, construct, and install a renewable energy project. In addition to the applied renewable energy course, Central State University provided four undergraduate research associates the opportunity to participate in summer internships at Texas Southern University (Renewable Energy Environmental Protection Program) and the Cleveland African-American Museum (Renewable Energy Summer Camp for High School Students) an activity co sponsored by NASA and the Cleveland African-American Museum. Savannah State University held a high school summer program with a theme of the Direct Impact of Science on Our Every Day Lives. The purpose of the institute was to whet the interest of students in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET) by demonstrating the effectiveness of science to address real world problems. The 2001 institute involved the design and installation of a PV water pumping system at the Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems at Savannah State. Both high school students and undergraduates contributed to this project. Wilberforce University has used NASA support to provide

  17. Toward a Low-Carbon Economy : Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Portfolio Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy and energy efficiency projects continue to perform strongly in the World Bank Group (WBG) energy portfolio and are increasingly being mainstreamed in the WBG's energy lending. In fiscal 2007 a total of US$1,433 million supported 63 renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in 32 countries. In addition to operational activities, the WBG engages in a variety of economic sector work and technical assistance focused on renewable energy and energy efficiency. This work is an...

  18. Marine renewable energy legislation for Nova Scotia : policy background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    Marine renewable energy sources can provide Nova Scotia with a large supply of sustainable, non-carbon emitting electricity. One of the largest tidal ranges within the world is contained within the Bay of Fundy, which holds power potential in the form of wind, wave and tidal energy. A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) on the Bay of Fundy's potential marine renewable energy was published in 2008. An assessment of the social, economic, and environmental effects and factors linked with possible development of renewable energy sources in the Bay Fundy was published. Twenty-nine recommendations were offered, including the creation of marine renewable energy legislation incorporating sustainability principles. This discussion paper described the policy drivers and opportunities in Nova Scotia for marine renewable energy sources as well as the challenges and relevant subject areas that should be considered when creating marine renewable energy legislation and policy. Specific challenges that were discussed included a policy approach to development; multiple jurisdictions; Aboriginal issues; economic factors; environmental impacts; occupational and operation safety; allocation of rights; and regulatory issues. It was concluded that if the marine renewable energy resource was going to be created with the possibility of providing commercial electricity generation, a coordinated legislative framework should be established. refs., tabs.

  19. Renewable energy sources offering flexibility through electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago

    governments. Renewable energy sources are characterized by their uncertain and variable production that limits the current operation and management tools of the power system. Nevertheless, recent developments of renewable energy technologies enable these resources to provide, to some extent, ancillary......All over the world, penetration of renewable energy sources in power systems has been increasing, creating new challenges in electricity markets and for operation and management of power systems, since power production from these resources is by nature uncertain and variable. New methods and tools...... in both energy and reserve markets. In this context, the main contribution of this thesis is the design and development of optimal offering strategies for the joint participation of renewables in the energy and reserve markets. Two distinct control policies for the splitting of available wind power...

  20. Multi criteria analysis in the renewable energy industry

    CERN Document Server

    San Cristóbal Mateo, José Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Decision makers in the Renewable Energy sector face an increasingly complex social, economic, technological, and environmental scenario in their decision process. Different groups of decision-makers become involved in the process, each group bringing along different criteria therefore, policy formulation for fossil fuel substitution by Renewable Energies must be addressed in a multi-criteria context. Multi Criteria Analysis in the Renewable Energy Industry is a direct response to the increasing interest in the Renewable Energy industry which can be seen as an important remedy to many environmental problems that the world faces today. The multiplicity of criteria and the increasingly complex social, economic, technological, and environmental scenario makes multi-criteria analysis a valuable tool in the decision-making process for fossil fuel substitution. The detailed chapters explore the use of the Multi-criteria decision-making methods and how they provide valuable assistance in reaching equitable and accept...

  1. Renewables 2017 Global Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawin, Janet L.; Sverrisson, Freyr; Seyboth, Kristin; Adib, Rana; Murdock, Hannah E.; Lins, Christine; Edwards, Isobel; Hullin, Martin; Nguyen, Linh H.; Prillianto, Satrio S.; Satzinger, Katharina; Appavou, Fabiani; Brown, Adam; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Logan, Jeffrey; Milligan, Michael; Zinaman, Owen; Epp, Baerbel; Huber, Lon; Lyons, Lorcan; Nowak, Thomas; Otte, Pia; Skeen, Jonathan; Sovacool, Benjamin; Witkamp, Bert; Musolino, Evan; Brown, Adam; Williamson, Laura E.; Ashworth, Lewis; Mastny, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy technologies increase their hold across developing and emerging economies throughout the year The year 2016 saw several developments and ongoing trends that all have a bearing on renewable energy, including the continuation of comparatively low global fossil fuel prices; dramatic price declines of several renewable energy technologies; and a continued increase in attention to energy storage. For the third consecutive year, global energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels and industry were nearly flat in 2016, due largely to declining coal use worldwide but also due to improvements in energy efficiency and to increasing use of renewable energy. As of 2015, renewable energy provided an estimated 19.3% of global final energy consumption, and growth in capacity and production continued in 2016. The power sector experienced the greatest increases in renewable energy capacity in 2016, whereas the growth of renewables in the heating and cooling and transport sectors was comparatively slow. Most new renewable energy capacity is installed in developing countries, and largely in China, the single largest developer of renewable power and heat over the past eight years. In 2016, renewable energy spread to a growing number of developing and emerging economies, some of which have become important markets. For the more than 1 billion people without access to electricity, distributed renewable energy projects, especially those in rural areas far from the centralised grid, offer important and often cost-effective options to provide such access. The renewable energy sector employed 9.8 million people in 2016, an increase of 1.1% over 2015. By technology, solar PV and biofuels provided the largest numbers of jobs. Employment shifted further towards Asia, which accounted for 62% of all renewable energy jobs (not including large-scale hydropower), led by China. The development of community renewable energy projects continued in 2016, but the pace of

  2. Science Forum of the renewables 2004: Networked knowledge for renewable energies - Research, development and education - Basis for wide-spread deployment of renewable energies. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wienges, S.; Stadermann, G.; Szczepanski, P. (eds.)

    2004-09-01

    Energy was one of five foci of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg in 2002. While the access to modern energy is crucial for poverty reduction in particular and development in general, the way of producing and providing that energy is as crucial for environmental and social sustainability. Hence, the renewables 2004 - the International Conference for Renewable Energies was the logical consequence and next step on the way forward. It was held from 1st June to 4th June 2004 in Bonn, Germany, and turned out to be a forum for stakeholders from all sectors: Governments as well as parliamentarians, the private sector, NGOs, International Organisations, and International Financial Institutions. On 1st June this multisectoral approach to the dissemination of renewables was completed by the Science Forum - Education, Research, and Training: Basis for Wide-spread Deployment of Renewable Energies. This one-day side-event brought together scientists and practitioners from allover the world, discussing the future requirements of research and development as well as needs and potentials of education and training for renewables in developing and industrialized countries. (orig.)

  3. Renewable energy sources and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panajotova, Yu.

    1998-01-01

    The share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the world energy balance is estimated from 1-2 to 10% of the total primary energy sources consumption. In EU since 1990 until now the power energy production from these sources is growing continuously by over 3% annually. The features of the updated Environmental Strategy for Bulgaria (ESB) elaborated with the World Bank in 1994 are: increasing the energy efficiency; utilising RES; granting preference to the regional energy concept and establishing regional energy centres based on the EU experience. In ESB the basic priorities are linked with disease factors - pollutants as lead in the air and soils (from leaded petrol, resp. from metallurgical enterprises), dust particles in the air (from household heating, industry and thermo-electric power stations) and sulfur dioxide and other gases (also from energy sector and industry). There is consistent policy for harmonization of the Bulgarian standards with those of the WHO. Among the implemented projects preference is granting to ones concerning new energy saving technologies and RES. Bulgaria got an environmental protection law harmonized with the international legislation and adapted to the economic situation inflicted by the market economy transition. The development of RES needs high investment cost and has low efficiency factor compared to the classical methods of energy production. Implementation of Environmental Action Programme (EAP) in Bulgaria with an international co-operation includes: solid wastes management; water sources management; water pollution problems; soil degradation; transport and environment; nuclear safety and nuclear waste problems and full value utilization of the RES. The Ministry of Environment and local Authorities have to develop their policies and implementing them by a range of activities to identify pollution control strategies, to identify areas where the greatest environmental benefits can be achieved at least cost and to incorporate the

  4. Talking Renewables; A renewable energy primer for everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anirudh

    2018-03-01

    This book provides a clear and factual picture of the status of renewable energy and its capabilities today. The book covers all areas of renewable energy, starting from biomass energy and hydropower and proceeding to wind, solar and geothermal energy before ending with an overview of ocean energy. The book also explores how the technologies are being implemented today and takes a look at the future of renewable energy.

  5. Nebezpečné „veřejné“ mínění lidu v 18. století v českých zemích (Dangerous Common Opinion of People in the Czech Lands in 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Soukalová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the advent of the formation of public opinion in the Czech lands in the end of 18th century. Specific attention focuses on the reflection of the French Revolution and its effects on the Czech environment, especially on minds of serfs. The article deals with unofficially disseminated information described by sheriffs in their reports, censorship of the press, surveys of the mood of the population and contemporary legends spread among the people. In this context, the paper shows that the given historical period gave birth to the modern public opinion in the Czech lands.

  6. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  7. Introduction to renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn C

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionEnergy and SocietyTypes of EnergyRenewable EnergyAdvantages/DisadvantagesEconomicsGlobal WarmingOrder of Magnitude EstimatesGrowth (Exponential)SolutionsEnergyIntroductionDefinition of Energy and PowerHeatThermodynamicsEnergy Dilemma in Light of the Laws of ThermodynamicsUse of Fossil FuelsNuclearFinite ResourceSummarySunSolar PowerElectromagnetic SpectrumEnergy Balance of the EarthEarth-Sun MotionInsolationSolar ResourceGreenhouse EffectHeat Transfer and StorageIntroductionConductionConvectionRadiationThermal MassSeasonal Heating or CoolingThermal ComfortSolar Heating and CoolingB

  8. Renewable sources of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojas, K.

    1996-01-01

    The author takes a look at causes of the present interest in the renewable, natural sources of energy. These are: the fuel deposits becoming exhausted, hazard to environment (especially carbon dioxide) and accessibility of these sources for under-developed countries. An interrelation is shown between these sources and the energy circulations connected with atmosphere and ocean systems. The chief ones from among them that are being used now are discussed, i.e. solar radiation, wind, water waves energy, tides, geothermal heat, and the like. Problems of conversion of the forms of these kinds of energy are also given a mention. (author)

  9. NAPS renewable energy systems R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiers, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Neste Advanced Power Systems (NAPS) is a renewable energy systems company supplying complete power systems based on photovoltaics, wind turbine generator, diesel generators, or hybrid systems combining two or more of these. Except for a few demonstration systems linked to the electricity grid, these are stand-alone power supplies which include storage batteries. Our present market areas are: Domestic systems for remote houses, largely in the Nordic countries. Systems for developing countries, mostly for lighting, health care and water supply and industrial and professional systems for use anywhere in the world, mainly for telecommunications and navigation aids

  10. Awareness and Misconceptions of High School Students about Renewable Energy Resources and Applications: Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is the one of the countries in the world which has potential of renewable energy resource because of its geographical position. However, being usage of renewable energy resources and applications (RERAs) is low, it shows that awareness and consciousness of RERAs is very low too. Education must play a key role in growing out of an energy…

  11. Analysis of Factors that have Influenced Outcomes of Battles and Wars: A Data Base of Battles and Engagements. Volume 2. Wars from 1600 through 1800. Part 1. Wars of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    Tis f~ actor is applied only to engagements of World War I (where applicable) and later. It identifies the side whose air force has established a degree... actress Maria Calderon. Don Juan’s amy included a force of French rebels led by the Prince of Conde, Turenne’s old comrade in arms. The Spanish...IS S I IS 1 _________________ C.4 0" ’a ___ __________ LLu) f-I _____ __________________ - A xi II .uJ U 4J U VS TE JAaBrTE REPELLIUC?. 174S

  12. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the

  13. 100% Renewable Energy Systems in Project Future Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are generally considered costly with world leaders often engaging in debate concerning the costs of mitigation and the distribution of these costs between different countries. In this paper, the analyses and results of the design of a 100 per cent renewable en...

  14. State of art and perspectives of using renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovskij, B.M.; Mikhalevich, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    State of art of renewable energy sources for the beginning of the nineties and perspectives up to 2020 are considered by the forecast of the European Commission. The program of the World Sun Summit up to 1996-2005 is presented

  15. Renewable Energy for Electric Vehicles : Price Based Charging Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Schuller, A.; Dinther, C.; Ketter, W.; Weinhardt, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the charging coordination of battery electric vehicles (BEV) with respect to the availability of intermittent renewable energy generation considering individual real world driving profiles in a deterministic simulation based analysis, mapping a part of the German power

  16. Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    Since 2003 Ernst and Young team has been releasing quarterly data that ranks national renewable energy markets, and their suitability for individual technologies. The Country Attractiveness Indices now track the relative attractiveness of 30 countries' renewable energy markets across a selection of technologies each quarter. The Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Indices publication scores and comments on various technologies, including: on-shore wind, off-shore wind, solar PV, solar CSP, biomass, and geothermal.

  17. Policies for a renewable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter identifies changes needed in policies regarding the utilization of renewable energy sources. The topics of the chapter include financial and legal incentives, information needs, long range energy and economic policy, environmental issues as an impetus to commercialization of renewable energy sources, taxing use of fossil fuels, encouraging renewable energy use by electric utilities through least-cost planning, educating the public and providing technical assistance, research and development, and environmental regulation and monitoring

  18. Renewable energy development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  19. Visions of regulatory renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgeworth, A.

    1998-01-01

    The economic contribution of the CEPA (Canadian Energy Pipeline Association) member companies to Canada's trade balance was discussed. CEPA member companies transport 95 per cent of the crude oil and natural gas produced in Canada to domestic and export markets. This represents a total of 5.6 Tcf of gas annually. Half of Canada's natural gas and oil production is exported to U.S. markets. All of these exports are transported by pipeline. CEPA member companies operate 90,000 km of pipeline from British Columbia to Quebec. Expansions are needed as a result of a significant increase in demand for natural gas and crude oil since 1990. Several issues exist for regulatory renewal. They include the need to create a level playing field, the overseeing of tolls and contract renewal terms, changing risk/reward trade-offs, the right to confidentiality of information and price discovery mechanism. The drivers for regulatory reform at Westcoast Energy are the need for pricing flexibility, customers desire for toll certainty, decontracting and opposition to rolled-in expansions for gathering and processing. An overview of Westcoast Energy's negotiated toll settlement, its implications, and the components of Westcoast Energy's 'light handed regulation' (LHR) was presented

  20. Renewable Energy Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadimian, Vachik

    The renewable energy sector is evolving, and today, renewable energy has become a viable alternative for many facilities. Because this sector is in its infancy stage, lack of experience has resulted in failing solar projects. This project involves the design and implementation of a functioning web application that streamlines and automates the planning, risk assessment and financing of a solar development project. The three key stakeholders, the host facility, solar installer and financier are seamlessly integrated into a single marketplace. By designing a project development workflow, projects are vetted early on and terminated if deemed infeasible, saving time and resources. By risk assessing the project using the proposed scoring model, one can inherit more confident investors. The project scoring model also serves as a debt rating system, where investors can measure the risk/rewards. The platform will also serve as a communication medium between the three stakeholders. Besides storing documents like engineering drawings, permits, etc., the platform auto-generates all necessary transactional documents, legal documents and agreements among the three stakeholders.

  1. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  2. Mexican renewable electricity law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  3. Europe and the Atlantic world. A historiographic summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Carmagnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the importance and meaning of the role played by Europe in its new interactions with Africa and the Americas between the 15th Century and first third of the 19th Century. The interconnection of the Atlantic world strengthened the mercantile economic system, allowing Europe to compete with Asia and giving life to a colonial world that created new rules in the relationship between European metropoli. Multi-ethnic feudal societies developed in Latin America and segmental societies developed in Africa and Anglo-Saxon and French America. The difference between the metropoli and their American colonies led to the Atlantic revolution that provoked the fall of the old regimes in America and Europe between the last third of the 18th Century and the first third of the 19th Century.

  4. A 100% Renewable Energy Scenario for the Java-Bali Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Guenther

    2018-02-01

    ; Received: October 18th 2017; Accepted: January 14th 2018; Available online How to Cite This Article: Günther, M., Ganal, I. and Bofinger, S. (2018 A 100% Renewable Electricity Scenario for the Java-Bali Grid. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 7(1, 13-22. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.7.1.13-22

  5. Renewables portfolio standard and regional energy structure optimisation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J.; Sun, W.; Ren, D.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Eastern Coastal areas of China have been developing rapidly since the implementation of reforms and the opening of China's economic markets in 1978. As in most areas of the world, this rapid economic growth has been accompanied by large increases in energy consumption. China's coal-dominated energy structure has resulted in serious ecological and environmental problems. Exploiting renewable energy resources and introducing Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) are some of the most important approaches towards optimising and sustaining the energy structure of China. This paper discusses international experiences in the implementation of RPS policies and prospects for using these policies to encourage renewable energy development in China, establishes a concise definition of renewable resources, differentiating between the broad definition (which includes hydro over 25 MW in size) from the narrow definition (which limits the eligibility of hydro to below 25 MW in size), and quantitatively analyses the potential renewable energy target. The research shows that: (1) Under the narrow hydro definition the renewable energy target would be 5.1% and under the broad hydro definition it would be 18.4%. (2) Western China has contributed 90.2% of the total renewable electricity generation in the country (if big and medium hydropowers are not included). Including big and medium hydropower, the figure is 63.8%. (3) Eastern electricity companies can achieve their quota by buying Tradable Renewable Energy Certificates (TRCs or Green Certificates) and by exploiting renewable energy resources in Western China. The successful implementation of the RPS policy will achieve the goal of sharing the benefits and responsibilities of energy production between the different regions of China

  6. Renewable energies and energy choices. Summary of the colloquium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This document is an executive summary of the colloquium organized by the French syndicate of renewable energies (SER) which took place at the Maison de l'UNESCO in Paris during the national debate on energies organized by the French government in spring 2003. The colloquium was organized around 6 round tables dealing with: the world perspectives and the environmental context of the contribution of renewable energies to the sustainable development (respect of Kyoto protocol commitments, contribution to the security of energy supplies, lack of large scale program of development of decentralized power generation in developing countries, lack of market tools linked with CO 2 emissions, improvement of competitiveness); development of renewable energies in Europe (promotion and sustain in all European countries, obligation of supply and purchase, pricing regulation, European harmonization of practices); renewable electricity and its place in the new orientation law about energies (tariff/pluri-annual investment planing, administrative authorizations, connections to the grid, calls for offer, costs of the photovoltaic solar energy); contribution of renewable energies in the transportation sector (bio-fuels, low taxes, ethanol fuel cells, vegetal chemistry); renewable heat and integration of renewable energy sources in buildings (intelligent architecture, promotion, quality labels and standards, lack of CO 2 penalties linked with fossil fuels, tax reduction for solar and wood fuel appliances, acknowledgment of geothermal heat pumps as renewable energy source); and the presentation of the first proposals for the future orientation law (balance between nuclear and renewable energy sources, integration in the local environment, competitiveness, use of market mechanisms, R and D etc.). (J.S.)

  7. Renewables 2007 - Global status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric; Mastny, Lisa; Rosbotham, Lyle; Suding, Paul; Sonntag-O'Brien, Virginia; Lempp, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, more than $100 billion was invested in new renewable energy capacity, manufacturing plants, and research and development-a true global milestone. Yet perceptions lag behind the reality of renewable energy because change has been so rapid in recent years. This report captures that reality and provides an overview of the status of renewable energy worldwide in 2007. The report covers trends in markets, investments, industries, policies, and rural (off-grid) renewable energy. (By design, the report does not provide analysis, discuss current issues, or forecast the future.) Many of the trends reflect increasing significance relative to conventional energy

  8. Integrating Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, Antonio J.; Madsen, Henrik

    in the electricity market. • The development of procedures to enable demand response and to facilitate the integration of stochastic renewable units. This book is written in a modular and tutorial manner and includes many illustrative examples to facilitate its comprehension. It is intended for advanced...... such as: • The modeling and forecasting of stochastic renewable power production. • The characterization of the impact of renewable production on market outcomes. • The clearing of electricity markets with high penetration of stochastic renewable units. • The development of mechanisms to counteract...

  9. Economics of nuclear and renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Hisham; Difiglio, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the economic challenges faced by both nuclear power and “new” renewable electricity technologies. The assessment reflects the need to incorporate new renewables into power grids and issues faced in dispatching power and their effect on traditional electricity technologies as well as the need for transmission extension and/or grid reinforcement. Wider introduction of smart grids and the likely demise of nuclear in some OECD countries are bound to enhance the future prospects for new renewables. However, their immediate future expansion will depend on continued subsidies, which are becoming difficult to sustain in present economic circumstances. Development of large energy storage facilities and carbon pricing could significantly enhance future renewable energy prospects. Correspondingly, expanding renewable energy, in spite of their popularity with some governments and sections of the public, is likely to face challenges which will slow their present rapid progress. Nuclear is now shied away from in many industrialized countries and having mixed prospects in developing economies. In many instances, it suffers from high initial costs, long lead times and often excessive construction delays. Nuclear power also faces challenging risks – investment as well as regulatory. In contrast to renewables, its share of global energy consumption is declining. - Highlights: •Renewables are increasing their energy share. •Renewables system cost is higher than their production cost. •Nuclear share is not increasing and their costs are not reduced. •Discount rate and subsidies are important in economics of renewables and nuclear.

  10. Regulatory guidance for license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, John A.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed 10 CFR Part 54 rule proceduralizes the process for license renewal by identifying both the administrative and technical requirements for a renewal application. To amplify and support this regulation, written guidance has been provided in the form of a draft Regulatory Guide (DG 1009) and a draft Standard Review Plan for License Renewal (NUREG 1299). This guidance is scheduled to be finalized in 1992. Similar guidance will be provided for the proposed revisions to 10 CFR Part 51 concerning the environmental aspects of license renewal. (author)

  11. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  12. Innovation management in renewable energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2017-08-01

    As a result of the globalization of knowledge, shortening of the innovation cycle and the aggravation of the price situation, the diffusion of innovation has accelerated. The protection of innovation has become even more important for companies in technologyintensive industries. Legal and actual patent right strategies complement one another, in order to amortize the investment in product development. Climate change is one of today’s truly global challenges, affecting all aspects of socio-economic development in every region of the world. Technology development and its rapid diffusion are considered crucial for tackling the climate change challenge. At the global level, the last decades have seen a continuous expansion of inventive activity in renewable energy technologies. The growth in Renewable Energy (RE) inventions has been much faster than in other technologies, and RE today represents nearly 6% of global invention activity, up from 1.5% in 1990. This paper discusses about global innovation activity in the last five years in the renewable energy sector and describes the Innovation and Technology Management process for supporting managerial decision making.

  13. Renewal of cooling system of JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoue, Ryuji; Kawamata, Takanori; Otsuka, Kaoru; Koike, Sumio; Nishiyama, Yutaka; Fukasaku, Akitomi

    2011-06-01

    The Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) is a light water moderated and cooled tank-type reactor, and its thermal power is 50 MW. The JMTR is categorized as high flux testing reactors in the world. The JMTR has been utilized for irradiation experiments of nuclear fuels and materials, as well as for radioisotope productions since the first criticality in March 1968 until August 2006. JAEA decided to refurbish the JMTR as an important fundamental infrastructure to promote the nuclear research and development. The refurbishment work was started from 2007, and restart is planned in 2011. Renewal facilities were selected from evaluation on their damage and wear in terms of aging. Facilities whose replacement parts are no longer manufactured or not likely to be manufactured continuously in near future, are selected as renewal ones. Replacement priority was decided with special attention to safety concerns. A monitoring of aging condition by the regular maintenance activity is an important factor in selection of continuous using after the restart. In this report, renewal of the cooling system within refurbishment facilities in the JMTR is summarized. (author)

  14. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE LLC, Wexford, PA (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Gary [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  15. Command World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Leah Y; Lange, Douglas S; Sebastyn, Jerome T; Roof, William H

    2006-01-01

    .... The Command World scenario was expressly designed as a crisis action planning exercise in order to replicate the communications, collaboration, and information requirements inherent in a military...

  16. International entrepreneurship within offshore renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevdal, Nicolai S.

    2011-07-01

    The climate is changing, the worlds known fossil energy reserves are limited, and most economies are struggling to get out of a financial crisis. The UNs Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change calls for new technologies, rapid commercialization, and rapid international diffusion as important tools to mitigate the climate change (IPCC 2007). Nations all over the world have allocated large funds to facilitate the development of renewable energy technologies and markets to secure the future supply of energy and to sustain economic growth (REN21 2009). Use of fossil fuel is the main source of humans contribution to global warming. At the same time, fossil fuel is probably the most important resource for economic development on a global scale (IEA 2009). With this as a backdrop, the objective of this PhD thesis is to investigate how technology-based companies act to commercialize and internationally diffuse technologies that may produce abundant clean, renewable energy. More specifically, I have assessed the emerging offshore renewable energy industries (offshore wind, wave, and tidal energy) as case industries to make the International Entrepreneurship literature more relevant for the current situation. The findings reveal extensive international activities at both the company level and industry level, even in phases in which the firms have yet to commercialize and industries have yet to enter the growth phase. These findings demand significant updates to theoretical models and convey several recommendations to mangers, investors, and policy makers. Managers should be aware of and master the new opportunities/threats identified. For investors, the findings provide implications for their valuation of new ventures. For policy makers, the findings open up a new landscape of political threats and opportunities as the battle to attract promising industries has begun earlier than previously prescribed. Four research questions have resulted in four papers that constitute

  17. International entrepreneurship within offshore renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevdal, Nicolai S.

    2011-01-01

    The climate is changing, the worlds known fossil energy reserves are limited, and most economies are struggling to get out of a financial crisis. The UNs Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change calls for new technologies, rapid commercialization, and rapid international diffusion as important tools to mitigate the climate change (IPCC 2007). Nations all over the world have allocated large funds to facilitate the development of renewable energy technologies and markets to secure the future supply of energy and to sustain economic growth (REN21 2009). Use of fossil fuel is the main source of humans contribution to global warming. At the same time, fossil fuel is probably the most important resource for economic development on a global scale (IEA 2009). With this as a backdrop, the objective of this PhD thesis is to investigate how technology-based companies act to commercialize and internationally diffuse technologies that may produce abundant clean, renewable energy. More specifically, I have assessed the emerging offshore renewable energy industries (offshore wind, wave, and tidal energy) as case industries to make the International Entrepreneurship literature more relevant for the current situation. The findings reveal extensive international activities at both the company level and industry level, even in phases in which the firms have yet to commercialize and industries have yet to enter the growth phase. These findings demand significant updates to theoretical models and convey several recommendations to mangers, investors, and policy makers. Managers should be aware of and master the new opportunities/threats identified. For investors, the findings provide implications for their valuation of new ventures. For policy makers, the findings open up a new landscape of political threats and opportunities as the battle to attract promising industries has begun earlier than previously prescribed. Four research questions have resulted in four papers that constitute

  18. Manual: Renewable Energy Sources in Germany; Handbuch Regenerative Energiequellen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, M.

    2004-07-01

    One of the measures to reduce CO2 is the utilization of renewable energies. Meanwhile, Germany has come to play a leading role worldwide in this subject and is the world leader especially regarding the use of wind and solar energy. The manual called ''Renewable Energy Sources in Germany'' shows the present state of the importance of renewable energies in Germany and describes the possibilities and future potentials for the future. The author describes the ways of utilizing renewable energies in a very comprehensive manner. He assesses the medium and long-term chances of renewable energies realistically from a neutral point of view, giving the readers a well-founded basis to build their own opinions about the subject. Thus the book makes a good contribution to rationalize the discussion on renewable energies which often is lead in an emotional way. The book covers following chapters: 1) Renewable energy sources in Germany 2) Basic data on renewable energies in Germany 3) Renewable energy source in building techniques 4) Power plant and thermal plant techniques of renewable energy sources 5) Evaluation methods for renewable energies in energy supply.

  19. Accelerating the market penetration of renewable energy technologies in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, J.W.; De Lange, T.J.; Cloin, J.; Szewczuk, S.; Morris, R.; Zak, J.

    2001-03-01

    There exists a large potential for renewable energy technologies in South Africa and despite the fact that rapid growth of the application of renewable energy takes place in many parts of the world, the current installed renewable capacity in South Africa is negligible. The objective of this study is to address this gap by analysing ways to accelerate the market penetration of renewable energy technologies in South Africa. The activities undertaken in this study comprise two major components: a thorough analysis of South Africa's specific constraints and barriers to renewable energy implementation, and a review of the lessons learnt from Member States of the European Union (EU) on the promotion of renewable energy development. The focus of the study was restricted to the analysis of electricity generating technologies, in particular solar energy, biomass, wind power and mini-hydro renewable energy technologies. Recommendations to stimulate the market penetration of renewable energy technologies in South Africa are formulated. They are structured in: actions to enhance the policy framework for renewable power generation, actions to enhance the policy framework for off-grid renewable energy, and recommendations to stimulate renewable energy project development. 44 refs

  20. New frontiers for tomorrow's world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassler, P.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with new frontiers and barricades in the global economic development and their influence on fuel consumption and energy source development. Topics discussed are incremental energy supply - new frontiers, world car population - new frontiers, OPEC crude production capacity vs call on OPEC, incremental world oil demand by region 1992-2000, oil resource cost curve, progress in seismic 1983-1991, Troll picture, cost reduction in renewables, sustained growth scenario, nuclear electricity capacity - France, OECD road transport fuels - barricades, and energy taxation. 18 figs