WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewable resources national

  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2001 Information Resources Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-03-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) eighth annual Information Resources Catalog can help keep you up-to-date on the research, development, opportunities, and available technologies in energy efficiency and renewable energy. The catalog includes five main sections with entries grouped according to subject area.

  2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Information Resources Catalog 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-01-01

    NREL's ninth annual Information Resources Catalog can keep you up-to-date on the research, development, opportunities, and available technologies in energy efficiency and renewable energy. It includes five main sections with entries grouped according to subject area.

  3. Renewable energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Twidell, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s

  4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory information resources catalogue. A collection of energy efficiency and renewable energy information resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    NREL`s first annual Information Resources Catalogue is intended to inform anyone interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies of NREL`s outreach activities, including publications and services. For ease of use, all entries are categorized by subject. The catalogue is separated into six main sections. The first section lists and describes services that are available through NREL and how they may be assessed. The second section contains a list of documents that are published by NREL on a regular or periodic basis. The third section highlights NREL`s series publications written for specific audiences and presenting a wide range of subjects. NREL`s General Interest Publications constitute the fourth section of the catalogue and are written for nontechnical audiences. Descriptions are provided for these publications. The fifth section contains Technical Reports that detail research and development projects. The section on Conference Papers/Journal Articles/Book Chapters makes up the sixth and final section of the catalogue.

  5. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  6. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  7. Renewable Resources in SA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is derived form natural resources that are replenished at a faster rate than they are consumed, and thus cannot be depleted. Solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and some forms of biomass are common sources of renewable energy. Almost 90...

  8. The Use of Reanalysis Data for Wind Resource Assessment at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; George, R.

    1999-01-01

    An important component of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory wind resource assessment methodology is the use of available upper-air data to construct detailed vertical profiles for a study region. Currently, the most useful upper-air data for this type of analysis are archived observations from approximately 1800 rawinsonde and pilot balloon stations worldwide. However, significant uncertainty exists in the accuracy of the constructed profiles for many regions. The United States Reanalysis Data Set, recently created by the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, has the potential to improve the quality of the vertical profiles. The initial evaluation of the usefulness of the Reanalysis data for wind resource assessment consisted of contrasting reanalysis-derived vertical profiles of the wind characteristics to those generated from upper-air observations for comparable locations. The results indicate that, while reanalysis data can be substituted for upper-air observation data in the assessment methodology for areas of the world where observation data are limited, enough discrepancies with observation data have been noticed to warrant further studies

  9. Renewable material resource potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weenen, H.; Wever, R.; Quist, J.; Tukker, A.; Woudstra, J.; Boons, F.A.A.; Beute, N.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable material resources, consist of complex systems and parts. Their sub-systems and sub-sub-systems, have unique, specific, general and common properties. The character of the use that is made of these resources, depends on the availability of knowledge, experience, methods, tools, machines

  10. Taxation of non-renewable resources: Appendix A to Canada's resources and the national interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-11-01

    This report includes all revisions made in legislation and other developments up to May 1976 at both the Federal and provincial level that affect the taxation of the nonrenewable resource industries. The report is divided into four sections. Section I is a brief summary of the principal conclusions; Section II presents recent developments in the Taxation of Mining, Oil, and Gas in Canada; Section III provides estimated Federal and provincial government revenues from nonrenewable resources during the six years 1970/71 to 1975/76; and Section IV analyzes briefly the various methods used by governments to obtain additional revenues and the likely effect of these methods on the future development of the industry. (MCW)

  11. Renewability of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, Michael; Yeh, Angus [Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Mannington, Warren [Contact Energy Limited, Taupo (New Zealand)

    2010-12-15

    In almost all geothermal projects worldwide, the rate of extraction of heat energy exceeds the pre-exploitation rate of heat flow from depth. For example, current production of geothermal heat from the Wairakei-Tauhara system exceeds the natural recharge of heat by a factor of 4.75. Thus, the current rate of heat extraction from Wairakei-Tauhara is not sustainable on a continuous basis, and the same statement applies to most other geothermal projects. Nevertheless, geothermal energy resources are renewable in the long-term because they would fully recover to their pre-exploitation state after an extended shut-down period. The present paper considers the general issue of the renewability of geothermal resources and uses computer modeling to investigate the renewability of the Wairakei-Tauhara system. In particular, modeling is used to simulate the recovery of Wairakei-Tauhara after it is shut down in 2053 after a hundred years of production. (author)

  12. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 1. Northeast Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Northeast Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK).

  13. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 3. Southern Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Southern Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK)

  14. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  15. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.

  16. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Ravi; Campbell, Daniel; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm sh...

  17. The renewable energy resources in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Lingova, S.; Trifonova, L.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the results from the joint study between the National Laboratory of Renewable Energy Resources of USA and the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia (BG). The geographical distribution of solar and wind energy potential in Bulgaria as well as inventory of biomass is studied. Calculation of total, available and reserve solar and wind resources is performed. Comparative data on all kind of renewable energy resources in Bulgaria are presented. The evaluation of economically accessible resources and feasibility of implementation of specific technologies is given. 7 refs., 1 tab

  18. Renewable resources - future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Martin H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Renewable Energy and Related Greenhouse Gas Abatement Technologies (ACRE), its technologies, commercial relationships and markets. The relevance of ACRE to developing country communities which lack reliable, adequate power supplies, is discussed. The opportunities for mutual collaboration between Australia and the developing countries in the application of renewable energy have never been stronger. Renewable energy promises real advantages to those who deploy it wisely, as well as significant job creation. Education at all level together with operational training, public awareness of what is possible and increased system reliability, are also vital ingredients for acceptance of these new technologies. They underpin successful commercialisation. The author concludes with the hope for a united international cooperative approach to the development of the renewable energy industry. (author)

  19. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  20. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. ...

  1. Resources: the renewable promises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, I.; Damier, J.; Persiaux, R.

    2010-01-01

    A set of brief articles gives an overview of development perspectives and objectives for renewable energies in France (biomass, hydraulic, wind, geothermal, solar, and sea energies). The influence of public investments and subsidies, and possible technological developments are evoked for solar energy. The advances of various projects and ideas in the field of sea energy are discussed: sea current energy, wave and swell energy, offshore wind generators, ocean thermal energy. The objectives and impacts of the use of biomass and of the development of bio-refineries are discussed, as well as the challenge CO 2 capture and storage. The evolution of electricity networks is outlined in terms of electricity storage, demand management and energy saving

  2. Innovative biofibers from renewable resources

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    This book will be a one-stop-shop for readers seeking information on biofibers that are sustainable and environmentally friendly and those that can replace the non-renewable synthetic polymer based fibers. Emphasis will be on fibers that are derived from agricultural byproducts and coproducts without the need for additional natural resources.

  3. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  4. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alterna...

  5. Renewable energy sources and Estonian national interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    2002-01-01

    There is only one national level document, The Long-term National Development Plan for the Fuel and Energy sector, regulating the development of renewable energy for Estonia. It was approved by the Parliament (Riigikogu) in 1998. This document planned a 2/3 (66,7%) increase in the share of renewable (according to the document: peat, biofuels and other renewables) to the year 2010 against 1996. At the same time a decrease of the share of domestic oil shale was planned 1/5 to the year 2010 against 1995. That means the use of domestic energy sources, both renewable and non-renewable, will decrease by 16,8% altogether. In reality the rapid projected growth of renewables in Estonia (+66,7% between 1996 and 2010) was changed with decrease of 20% by 2000. So the security of supply must shift to the first place in Estonia. It is also an issue of national sovereignty. Estonia is rich in renewable energy sources, mainly in wood, peat and wind, to achieve the goals set in the National Development Plan. Forest resources amount 352,7, total felling 6,44, allowed felling 7,81 million cubic meters solid volume in 2000. The future of fuel peat usage in Estonia is uncertain, as most of the EU member states, which have burned up their peat resources and/or drained their mires do not consider peat as a renewable fuel. Obviously Estonia has to explain its opinion about the renewability of its resources. Although progress is needed in all directions of additional use of all renewable energy sources in tactical consideration finance must be directed first to guarantee better use of wastes of woodworking and timber industry

  6. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 2. Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region. (WHK)

  7. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K

    2016-12-14

    Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.

  8. A national human resource strategy for the electricity and renewable energy industry in Canada: results of a Pan-Canadian consultation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The Electricity Sector Council (ESC) conducted a labour market information study in 2008 indicating that more than a quarter of the employees currently working in the electricity sector would be retiring four or five years later. Up to now, Canada has not been engaged enough in hiring and has not supported electricity and renewable energy training programs needed to satisfy workforce needs. The skills profile of workers in the electricity sector are modified by the advances in technology, especially regarding the sectors of energy efficiency and renewable energy. ESC has conducted the building connectivity project, which included a consultation process with 88 provincial/regional and federal important stakeholders. The purpose of this project was to establish a Pan-Canadian human resource strategy to undertake industry human resource practices and promote workforce development. The national human resource strategy for the electricity and renewable energy sector is based on the results of regional consultations. Stakeholders were invited to give their opinion regarding existing human resources limitations and gaps, the skills that should be developed, the suggested practices regarding recruitment and retention, the partnerships and collaborations that should be created or reinforced, and the tools and support that would be needed by industry stakeholders to undertake these issues. The regional consultations resulted in the final strategies and tactics, which were prioritized by senior industry stakeholders by the means of web surveys. 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. Essays in renewable resource economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdlenbruch, K.

    2005-03-01

    This thesis constitutes a study on renewable resource economics. Chapter 2 presents two types of extracting behaviour in two optimal control models, continuous and impulse control. Chapter 3 analyses stock dependent instruments and shows their advantages. Chapter 4 compares the two types of extracting behaviour and demonstrates that the impulse control generates higher gains, whereas fiscal revenues and stocks are not always higher. Chapter 5 establishes a dynamic game and shows that the scope for cooperation between heterogeneous agents is greatest for intermediary levels of heterogeneity. Chapter 6 studies forest exploitation and fiscal- and regulatory systems of the forest sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo and in France. Finally, chapter 7 presents a study on forest biodiversity and indicates the economic criteria and cutting strategies that are beneficial for biodiversity preservation. (author)

  10. Externality costs by resource. E. Renewable generation resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter describes the environmental impacts associated with operation of renewable energy technologies. Renewable energy technologies currently supply 8% of US total energy usage and that figure is certain to grow. The rate of growth will depend heavily on the availability of research and development funds, and could reach 28% of US energy demands by 2030. Renewable generation resources include hydroelectric development, solar energy technologies, wind conversion facilities, and biomass fueled generation. A task force of personnel from five national laboratories recently concluded that renewable energy technologies generally have lower environmental impacts than do fossil fuel energy systems. The task force also stated that a comprehensive and comparative analysis of environmental impacts is needed and would strengthen the National Energy Strategy. This chapter summarizes some of the available literature on costing the environmental externalities associated with hydro, solar, wind, and biomass facilities. The less prevalent renewable energy technologies, including geothermal and ocean energy technologies, were not researched. The cost ranges identified are summarized in Table 1. The Table does not include a value for hydroelectric energy. The one study which attempted to value hydroelectric externalities was highly site-specific and has been criticized for having vastly overstated the value of the externalities

  11. Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Anthony [Madison, NJ; Jaffe, Michael [Maplewood, NJ; Zhang, Yi [Harrison, NJ; Catalani, Luiz H [Carapicuiba, BR

    2009-11-17

    Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

  12. Committee on renewable resources for industrial materials (Corrim)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Meyer; Carol B. Ovens

    1976-01-01

    In recent years major emphasis has been placed on nonrenewable resources in relation to potential national problems that may arise from possible changes in materials supply or utilization. Renewable resources, however, have received disproportionately small attention in spite of their current importance as industrial raw materials and their potential for the future. In...

  13. Renewable energy resources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Volker; Naumann, Karin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin; Janczik, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

    2015-07-01

    Although the need to decarbonise our global economy and thus in particular the supply of energy to limit the global temperature increase is internationally undisputed the German politics in 2014 has significantly contributed less compared to previous years in order to attain this objective. The expansion of renewable energies in the electricity sector has decelerated significantly; and in the heating and mobility area no new impulses were set in relation to renewable energies. In addition, a dramatic fallen oil price makes it difficult to increase the use of renewable energy supply. Based on these deteriorated framework conditions compared to conditions of the previous years, the developments in Germany of 2014 are shown in the electricity, heat and transport sector in the field of renewable energy. For this purpose - in addition to a discussion of the current energy economic framework - for each option to use renewable energies the state and looming trends are analyzed. [German] Obwohl die Notwendigkeit zur Dekarbonisierung unserer globalen Wirtschaft und damit insbesondere der Energiebereitstellung zur Begrenzung des globalen Temperaturanstiegs international unstrittig ist, hat die deutsche Politik im Jahr 2014 im Vergleich zu den Vorjahren deutlich weniger zur Erreichung dieses Zieles beigetragen. Der Ausbau der Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien im Stromsektor wurde deutlich verlangsamt; und im Waerme- und Mobilitaetsbereich wurden keine neuen Impulse in Bezug auf regenerative Energien gesetzt. Zusaetzlich erschwert ein drastisch gefallener Rohoelpreis die verstaerkte Nutzung des erneuerbaren Energieangebots. Ausgehend von diesen im Vergleich zu den Vorjahren verschlechterten Rahmenbedingungen werden nachfolgend die Entwicklungen in Deutschland des Jahres 2014 im Strom-, Waerme- und Transportsektor fuer den Bereich der erneuerbaren Energien aufgezeigt. Dazu werden - neben einer Diskussion des derzeitigen energiewirtschaftlichen Rahmens - fuer die

  14. Growth and non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Schou, Poul

    2007-01-01

    , interest income taxes and investment subsidies can no longer affect the long-run growth rate, whereas resource tax instruments are decisive for growth. The results stand out both against observations in the literature from the 1970's on non-renewable resources and taxation-observations which were not based...

  15. Comment: The Economics of Interdependent Renewable and Non-renewable Resources revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoria Kahui; Claire W. Armstrong

    2009-01-01

    This work expands upon Swallow's theoretical analysis of interactions between renewable and non-renewable resources. In this comment the interaction is such that the renewable resource prefers the non-renewable environment, as opposed to SwallowÕs (op cit) case of the non-renewable environment being essential to the renewable resource. We find that this difference strongly affects the results, and makes the resources change from being complements to being substitutes, i.e. in the essential ca...

  16. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; Silva, Cristina G. da; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; Oliveira, Fernando de; Santos, Rachel P. O. [Macromolecular Materials and Lignocellulosic Fibers Group, Center for Research on Science and Technology of BioResources, Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, CP 780, 13560-970 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-05-18

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called “biopolyethylene” (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  17. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; da Silva, Cristina G.; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; de Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Rachel P. O.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called "biopolyethylene" (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  18. Regulating renewable resources under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn

    ) that a pro-quota result under uncertainty about prices and marginal costs is unlikely, requiring that the resource growth function is highly concave locally around the optimum and, 3) that quotas are always preferred if uncertainly about underlying structural economic parameters dominates. These results...... showing that quotas are preferred in a number of situations qualify the pro fee message dominating prior studies....

  19. Valorization of Renewable Carbon Resources for Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yunzhu; Yan, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The overuse of fossil fuels has caused an energy crisis and associated environment issues. It is desirable to utilize renewable resources for the production of chemicals. This review mainly introduces our recent work on the transformation of renewable carbon resources including the conversion of cellulose, lignin, and chitin into sustainable chemicals. Various transformation routes have been established to form value-added chemicals, and accordingly a variety of effective catalytic systems have been developed, either based on metal catalysis and/or acid-base catalysis, to enable the desired transformation.

  20. Economic and environmental effects under resource scarcity and substitution between renewable and non-renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Susana; Soares, Isabel; Afonso, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    We build a general equilibrium model with renewable (non-polluting) and non-renewable (polluting) resources to analyze the interaction and compatibility between economic growth and a cleaner environment. The study is in two phases: (i) resource extraction/production costs are constant; (ii) resource producers invest in knowledge to reduce extraction/production costs, endogenizing technical change. With constant costs, there is a permanent trade-off between economic growth and a cleaner environment. With endogenous technical change, it is possible to harmonize more output and less emissions by replacing non-renewable resources for renewable ones. We also conduct a sensitivity analysis to explore three specific policy actions. With constant costs, the best policy action is the imposition of a higher renewable resources standard, while with endogenous technical change, under certain conditions, all policy interventions may benefit both the economy and the environment. - Highlights: ► Our general equilibrium model includes renewable and non-renewable resources. ► Under constant resource production costs emissions grow at the same rate as output. ► Resource producers can invest in knowledge to reduce production costs. ► Under decreasing costs, lower emissions are compatible with stable output growth. ► Empirical results differ under constant costs and under endogenous technical change

  1. Sustainable processes synthesis for renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halasz, L.; Povoden, G.; Narodoslawsky, M.

    2005-01-01

    Renewable resources pose special challenges to process synthesis. Due to decentral raw material generation, usually low transport densities and the perishable character of most renewable raw materials in combination with their time dependent availability, logistical questions as well as adaptation to regional agricultural structures are necessary. This calls for synthesis of structures not only of single processes but of the whole value chain attached to the utilisation of a certain resource. As most of the innovative technologies proposed to build on a renewable raw material base face stiff economic competition from fossil based processes, economic optimality of the value chain is crucial to their implementation. On top of this widening of the process definition for synthesis, many processes on the base of renewable resources apply technologies (like membrane separations, chromatographic purification steps, etc.) for which the heuristic knowledge is still slim. This reduces the choice of methods for process synthesis, mainly to methods based on combinatorial principles. The paper investigates applicability as well as impact on technology development of process synthesis for renewable raw material utilisation. It takes logistic considerations into account and applies process synthesis to the case study of the green biorefinery concept. The results show the great potential of process synthesis for technology development of renewable resource utilisation. Applied early in the development phase, it can point towards the most promising utilisation pathways, thus guiding the engineering work. On top of that, and even more important, it can help avoid costly development flops as it also clearly indicates 'blind alleys' that have to be avoided

  2. Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batten, Belinda [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Polagye, Brian [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); LiVecchi, Al [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    In 2008, the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Program issued a funding opportunity announcement to establish university-led National Marine Renewable Energy Centers. Oregon State University and the University of Washington combined their capabilities in wave and tidal energy to establish the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center, or NNMREC. NNMREC’s scope included research and testing in the following topic areas: • Advanced Wave Forecasting Technologies; • Device and Array Optimization; • Integrated and Standardized Test Facility Development; • Investigate the Compatibility of Marine Energy Technologies with Environment, Fisheries and other Marine Resources; • Increased Reliability and Survivability of Marine Energy Systems; • Collaboration/Optimization with Marine Renewable and Other Renewable Energy Resources. To support the last topic, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was brought onto the team, particularly to assist with testing protocols, grid integration, and testing instrumentation. NNMREC’s mission is to facilitate the development of marine energy technology, to inform regulatory and policy decisions, and to close key gaps in scientific understanding with a focus on workforce development. In this, NNMREC achieves DOE’s goals and objectives and remains aligned with the research and educational mission of universities. In 2012, DOE provided NNMREC an opportunity to propose an additional effort to begin work on a utility scale, grid connected wave energy test facility. That project, initially referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center, is now referred to as the Pacific Marine Energy Center South Energy Test Site (PMEC-SETS) and involves work directly toward establishing the facility, which will be in Newport Oregon, as well as supporting instrumentation for wave energy converter testing. This report contains a breakdown per subtask of the funded project. Under each subtask, the following

  3. Managing risk with renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, M.C.; Bernow, S.; Duckworth, M.; Spinney, P.; Bell, K.

    1997-01-01

    One approach to managing risk is for a utility company to invest in diverse power sources such as wind power plants. Since wind plants consume no fuel, can be built in relatively small increments with short construction lead times, and generate no pollutants, it is often said that they offer significant protection from risks associated with conventional fossil-fuel power plants. With assistance from Convergence Research, Charles River Associates, and the Tellus Institute, the authors tested this hypothesis by conducting an in-depth analysis of the risk implications of a decision to build a 1,600 MW wind power plant instead of a 400 MW gas-fired combined cycle plant. (The two plants were assumed to have equal firm capacity.) The case study utility was Texas Utilities Electric, a very large investor-owned company serving an area with substantial, high-quality wind resources. The uncertain inputs included fuel prices, environmental regulations (specifically, CO 2 and air pollution controls), wind plant output, conventional plant availability, and load growth. Two different market scenarios were examined: traditional regulation and an unregulated wholesale market characterized either by a power pool or fixed-price contracts of varying duration. Conclusions are striking: under traditional regulation, wind energy provides a net present-value risk-reduction benefit of $3.4 to $7.8/MWh

  4. Renewable resources and renewable energy a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasiero, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    As energy demands continue to surge worldwide, the need for efficient and environmentally neutral energy production becomes increasingly apparent. In its first edition, this book presented a well-rounded perspective on the development of bio-based feedstocks, biodegradable plastics, hydrogen energy, fuel cells, and other aspects related to renewable resources and sustainable energy production. The new second edition builds upon this foundation to explore new trends and technologies. The authors pay particular attention to hydrogen-based and fuel cell-based technologies and provide real-world c

  5. Novel Hydrogels from Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Muzafer Ahmet

    2011-12-01

    The cell wall of most plant biomass from forest and agricultural resources consists of three major polymers, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Of these, hemicelluloses have gained increasing attention as sustainable raw materials. In the first part of this study, novel pH-sensitive semi-IPN hydrogels based on hemicelluloses and chitosan were prepared using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinking agent. The hemicellulose isolated from aspen was analyzed for sugar content by HPLC, and its molecular weight distribution was determined by high performance size exclusion chromatography. Results revealed that hemicellulose had a broad molecular weight distribution with a fair amount of polymeric units, together with xylose, arabinose and glucose. The effect of hemicellulose content on mechanical properties and swelling behavior of hydrogels were investigated. The semi-IPNs hydrogel structure was confirmed by FT-IR, X-ray study and ninhydrin assay method. X-ray analysis showed that higher hemicellulose contents yielded higher crystallinity. Mechanical properties were mainly dependent on the crosslink density and average molecular weight between crosslinks. Swelling ratios increased with increasing hemicellulose content and were high at low pH values due to repulsion between similarly charged groups. In vitro release study of a model drug showed that these semi-IPN hydrogels could be used for controlled drug delivery into gastric fluid. The aim of the second part of this study was to control the crosslink density and the mechanical properties of hemicellulose/chitosan semi-IPN hydrogels by changing the crosslinking sequence. It has been hypothesized that by performing the crosslinking step before introducing hemicellulose, covalent crosslinking of chitosan would not be hindered and therefore more and/or shorter crosslinks could be formed. Furthermore, additional secondary interactions and crystalline domains introduced through hemicellulose could be favorable in terms of

  6. Renewable energy and integrated resource planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    Integrated resource planning, or IRP, is a new means of comparing resource choices for electric and gas utilities. Since its inception in 1986, at least 15 states have implemented IRP, and more are considering adopting IRP or have limited IRP processes in place. Some of the characteristics of IRP, such as increased public participation and an expanded analysis of the costs and benefits of energy resources, can contribute to addressing some of the technical and market barriers that hinder the increased deployment of renewable energy technologies. This paper looks at the status of some of these issues

  7. 1976 Inter-university symposium on renewable resource assessment and programming: executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billy G. Pemberton

    1977-01-01

    The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 directs the Secretary of Agriculture to prepare an assessment of the nation's renewable resources and a program that will assure an adequate future supply of these resources. Responsibility for this work is assigned to the Forest Service. An inter-university symposium was held in 1976 to evaluate...

  8. Human Capital, Wealth, and Renewable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies dynamic interdependence among physical capital, resource and human capital. We integrate the Solow one-sector growth, Uzawa-Lucas two-sector and some neoclassical growth models with renewable resource models. The economic system consists of the households, production sector, resource sector and education sector. We take account of three ways of improving human capital: Arrow’s learning by producing (Arrow, 1962, Uzawa’s learning by education (Uzawa, 1965, and Zhang’s learning by consuming (Zhang, 2007. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among wealth accumulation, human capital accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. We simulate the model to demonstrate existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. We also examine effects of changes in the productivity of the resource sector, the utilization efficiency of human capital, the propensity to receive education, and the propensity to save upon dynamic paths of the system.

  9. Inventory of Canadian marine renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornett, A. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Hydraulics Centre; Tarbotton, M. [Triton Consultants Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The future development of marine renewable energy sources was discussed with reference to an inventory of both wave energy and tidal current resources in Canada. Canada is endowed with rich potential in wave energy resources which are spatially and temporally variable. The potential offshore resource is estimated at 37,000 MW in the Pacific and 145,000 MW in the Atlantic. The potential nearshore resource is estimated at 9,600 MW near the Queen Charlotte Islands, 9,400 MW near Vancouver Island, 1,000 MW near Sable Island, and 9,000 MW near southeast Newfoundland. It was noted that only a fraction of the potential wave energy resource is recoverable and further work is needed to delineate important local variations in energy potential close to shore. Canada also has rich potential in the tidal resource which is highly predictable and reliable. The resource is spatially and temporally variable, with 190 sites in Canada with an estimated 42,200 MW; 89 sites in British Columbia with an estimated 4,000 MW; and, 34 sites in Nunavut with an estimated 30,500 MW. It was also noted that only a fraction of the potential tidal resource is recoverable. It was suggested that the effects of energy extraction should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis for both wave and tidal energy. This presentation provided a site-by site inventory as well as an analysis of buoy measurements and results from wind-wave hindcasts and tide models. Future efforts will focus on wave modelling to define nearshore resources; tidal modelling to fill gaps and refine initial estimates; assessing impacts of energy extraction at leading sites; and developing a web-enabled atlas of marine renewable energy resources. The factors not included in this analysis were environmental impacts, technological developments, climate related factors, site location versus power grid demand, hydrogen economy developments and economic factors. tabs., figs.

  10. Renewable Resources, Environmental Pollution, and International Migration

    OpenAIRE

    KENJI KONDO

    2013-01-01

    We develop a two-country model with two industries: the smokestack manufacturing industry, which generates pollution, and the transboundary renewable resource industry. With no trade, migration occurs from the foreign country, with lower manufacturing productivity, to the home country. If the gap in pollution abatement technology, which is superior in the home country, dominates the productivity gap, both countries gain from migration. Under a free trade equilibrium, we also show that if the ...

  11. FIREX mission requirements document for renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Dixon, T.

    1982-01-01

    The initial experimental program and mission requirements for a satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system FIREX (Free-Flying Imaging Radar Experiment) for renewable resources is described. The spacecraft SAR is a C-band and L-band VV polarized system operating at two angles of incidence which is designated as a research instrument for crop identification, crop canopy condition assessments, soil moisture condition estimation, forestry type and condition assessments, snow water equivalent and snow wetness assessments, wetland and coastal land type identification and mapping, flood extent mapping, and assessment of drainage characteristics of watersheds for water resources applications. Specific mission design issues such as the preferred incidence angles for vegetation canopy measurements and the utility of a dual frequency (L and C-band) or dual polarization system as compared to the baseline system are addressed.

  12. The supply of non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    that the substitution effect always dominates: A price increase at some point in space and time causes NRR supply to decrease at all other points. This new but orthodox supply setting extends to NRRs the partial equilibrium analysis of demand and supply policies. Thereby, it provides a generalization of many results......There exists no formal treatment of non-renewable resource (NRR) supply, systematically deriving quantity as function of price. We establish instantaneous restricted (fixed reserves) and unrestricted NRR supply functions. The supply of a NRR at any date and location not only depends on the local...... contemporary price of the resource but also on prices at all other dates and locations. Besides the usual law of supply, which characterizes the own-price effect, cross-price effects have their own law. They can be decomposed into a substitution effect and a stock compensation effect. We show...

  13. Quinault Indian Nation Renewable Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Hopps, Institute for Washington' s Future; Jesse Nelson, Institute for Washington' s Future

    2006-11-28

    The Quinault Indian Nation (Nation) initiated this study on conservation and production of renewable energy because this approach created the opportunity: • To become self-sufficient and gain greater control over the energy the Nation uses; • To generate jobs and businesses for its members; • To better manage, sustain, and protect its resources; • To express the cultural values of the Nation in an important new arena. The Nation has relatively small energy needs. These needs are concentrated at two separate points: the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino (QBRC) and Taholah on the Quinault Indian Reservation (QIR). Except for the town of Queets, energy needs are small and scattered. The needs vary greatly over the season. The small scale, widely dispersed, and variable nature of these needs presents a unique challenge to the Nation. Meeting these needs requires a resource and technology that is flexible, effective, and portable. Conservation is the most cost-effective way to meet any need. It is especially effective in a situation like this where production would leave a high per unit cost. This plan is based on first gaining energy savings through conservation. Major savings are possible through: 1. Upgrading home appliances on the QIR. 2. Weatherizing homes and facilities. 3. Changes in lighting/ventilation in the QBRC pool room. These elements of the plan are already being implemented and promise to save the Nation around a quarter of its present costs. Wood biomass is the best resource available to the QIN for energy production either on-site or for commercial development. It is abundant, flexible and portable. Its harvesting has high job potential and these jobs are a good fit for the present “skill set” of the QIN. This plan focuses on using wood biomass to produce energy and other value-added products. Our study considered various technologies and approaches to using wood for energy. We considered production for both on-site and commercial production

  14. Biomethane: A Renewable Resource as Vehicle Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cucchiella

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU has set a mandatory target for renewable fuels of 10% for each member state by 2020. Biomethane is a renewable energy representing an alternative to the use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. This resource is a solution to reach this target. Furthermore, it contributes to reducing carbon dioxide emissions, gives social benefits and increases the security supply. Sustainability is reached also when the economic opportunities are verified. This work studies the profitability of small plants of biomethane, which is sold as vehicle fuel using the Net Present Value (NPV and Discounted Payback Time (DPBT. The paper shows in detail the method used for the economic assessment of two typologies of feedstock recovered: (i municipal solid waste and (ii agricultural waste. Detailed information about the various parameters that affect the profitability of biomethane is given, and several case studies are analyzed as a function of two variables: subsidies and selling price. The results support the commercialization of small-scale plants, reducing also several environmental issues. The role of subsidies is strategic, and the profitability is verified only in some case studies

  15. NWTC Helps Guide U.S. Offshore R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is helping guide our nation's research-and-development effort in offshore renewable energy, which includes: Design, modeling, and analysis tools; Device and component testing; Resource characterization; Economic modeling and analysis; Grid integration.

  16. Essays in economics of renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulte, E.H.

    1997-01-01

    In chapter 2 the basics of renewable resource management are described, based on a brief literature review. Key issues are (1) optimum stock size; (2) approach dynamics; (3) extinction; (4) property rights; and (5) tropical deforestation. Chapter 3 focuses on tropical deforestation in more detail. The distinction between primary, undisturbed forests and secondary, or selectively logged, forests is crucial for understanding deforestation. With a model that explicitly recognizes the transformation of primary forests into secondary forests, the validity of two widely held presumptions is theoretically examined. First, we examine the claim that encroachment is necessarily detrimental for nature conservation. Second, we investigate whether high discount rates accelerate deforestation, as conventional wisdom implies. Chapter 4 also deals with deforestation. The usefulness of providing international transfers to developing countries to promote conservation of tropical forests is examined. In chapter 5 a fairly standard renewable resource model is constructed to study the impact of the trade ban on ivory on the optimum elephant population tion as perceived by the govermnent of African countries. Chapter 6 follows naturally from the previous chapter, where the performance of a trade ban is explored. The central issue is whether, from an economic point of view, trade bans should have been implemented mented in the first place. The case examined relates to commercial (minke) whaling, which has been subject to a commercial moratorium since the mid-1980s. Chapters 7, 8 and 9 are about fisheries policies. Chapter 7 goes back to the property rights problems, discussed in chapter 2. Chapter 8 is a more formal theoretical model of fishing policies. In chapter 9 an instrument is discussed that could be used to facilitate implementation of quota cuts next to other management instruments that have the potential to meet resistance from the sector. Chapters 10 and 11 are based on

  17. Yakama Nation Renewable Energy Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigdon, Phillip [Yakama Nation, Toppenish, WA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    It is the intention of the Yakama Nation to make improvements on the Wapato Irrigation Project (WIP) for the benefit of all stakeholders. Water management, water conservation and water allocation on the Wapato Irrigation Project is equally as important as hydropower. Irrigation will always be the primary purpose of this water system, but the irrigation system can also generate energy. The purpose of this project is the purchase and installation of inflow water turbines to generate an additional one megawatt of hydro-electrical power. The project will occur in two phases, Environmental Assessment and Project Implementation. The core objective for this proposal is to meet the Yakama Nation’s goal in hydroelectric power development. This will include the installation of inflow water turbines on the Wapato Irrigation Project. The Yakama Nation will prepare an Environmental Assessment in preparation to purchase and install new water turbines for hydropower generation of 1 Megawatt. This is a valuable economic development strategy for Yakama Nation that will create new jobs, improve and increase rural electrification, and attract private investments. This water system has an untapped low head/low power potential without the need to construct a new dam. The objective of Phase 1 is to complete an environmental assessment and obtain approval to proceed with installation of the hydroelectric power system.

  18. Renewable energy resources in Pakistan: status, potential and information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides some details regarding the characteristic properties, potential and assessment of renewable energy compared with other forms of energy sources. It gives status of renewable energy sources in Pakistan. It also lights about the agencies providing technical information regarding renewable energy in Pakistan as well as suggestions and recommendations for the development of these resources, and over view the present status of renewable energy sources. (author)

  19. State and Local Initiatives: Your Bridge to Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Resources (Brochure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, K.

    2001-01-01

    A brochure for local and state policymakers, informing them about the State and Local Initiatives team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The brochure outlines the benefits of using renewables and energy efficiency, the benefits of using the State and Local Initiatives team as a liaison to the wealth of information at NREL, and some of the services and resources available

  20. Plant oil renewable resources as green alternatives in polymer science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, M.A.R.; Metzger, J.O.; Schubert, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of plant oil renewable resources as raw materials for monomers and polymers is discussed and reviewed. In an age of increasing oil prices, global warming and other environmental problems (e.g. waste) the change from fossil feedstock to renewable resources can considerably contribute

  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2003 Research Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-04-01

    In-depth articles on several NREL technologies and advances, including: production of hydrogen using renewable resources and technologies; use of carbon nanotubes for storing hydrogen; enzymatic reduction of cellulose to simple sugars as a platform for making fuel, chemicals, and materials; and the potential of electricity from wind energy to offset carbon dioxide emissions. Also covered are NREL news, awards and honors received by the Laboratory, and patents granted to NREL researchers.

  2. Renewable energy resources: Opportunities and constraints 1990-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This study examined the prospects for new renewable energy resources, from a global perspective, over the next three decades and beyond. The study is intended to support the work of the World Energy Council (WEC) Commission on Energy for Tomorrow's World. The new renewable resources investigated were: Solar; wind; geothermal; modern biomass; ocean; small hydro. Each of these areas was thoroughly researched and was the subject of a separate section of the report. Recent information on large-scale hydroelectric and traditional biomass is included for added perspective on total use of renewable energy, but both fall outside the definition of new renewable energy used in this report

  3. Renewable energy resources and technologies practice in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rofiqul Islam, M.; Rafiqul Alam Beg, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Rabiul Islam, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh)

    2008-02-15

    Bangladesh has very limited nonrenewable energy resources of its own. She is facing energy crisis and serious desertification problem in rural areas. These issues could be removed if renewable energy is used as a primary source of energy in rural areas. It is essential for scientists and researchers to find out the renewable energy resources and effective technologies. Bangladesh is endowed with vast renewable energy resources such as biomass and solar insolation. Besides, hydro and wind power can be considered as potential renewable energy resources. Harnessing these resources appears to be a promising solution for improving the quality of life of rural villagers. The government and many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have tried to comprehend and have strived to address the problem of energy. This paper reviews the renewable energy resources and renewable energy technologies (RETs) practicing in Bangladesh in terms of its implementation, research and development activities. The development and trial of systems are mostly funded so far by donor agencies in collaboration with government and NGOs. Biomass energy sources are traditionally used for domestic cooking and in small rural industries. Approximately 60% of total energy demand of the country is supplied by indigenous biomass based fuels. Activities on the development and promotion of biomass technologies have been going on for one decade. Some national and international funds have been available for biogas technology, improved biomass cookers and production of biomass briquettes. At the time, around 25,000 biogas plants exist all over the country in rural areas and educational institutes, etc. More than 0.20 million improve stoves have been installed to save biomass fuel. Over 900 briquetting machines have been operating in the country on commercial basis. The annual solar radiation availability in Bangladesh is as high as 1700 kWh/m{sup 2}. Research and demonstration activities carried out for one

  4. Growth with Endogenous Capital, Knowledge, and Renewable Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with endogenous technological change, physical capital and renewable resources. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory, Arrow’s learning by doing, and some traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence between technological change, physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because o...

  5. Research on the decomposition model for China’s National Renewable Energy total target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhen; Shi, Yuren; Yan, Jianming; Ou, Xunmin; Lieu, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    It is crucial that China’s renewable energy national target in 2020 is effectively decomposed into respective period targets at the provincial level. In order to resolve problems arising from combining the national and local renewable energy development plan, a total target and period target decomposition model of renewable energy is proposed which considers the resource distribution and energy consumption of different provinces as well as the development characteristics of various renewable energy industries. In the model, the total proposed target is comprised of three shares: basic share, fixed share and floating share target. The target distributed for each province is then determined by the preference relation. That is, when total renewable energy target is distributed, the central government is more concerned about resources potential or energy consumption. Additionally, the growth models for various renewable energy industries are presented, and the period targets of renewable energy in various provinces are proposed in line with regional economic development targets. In order to verify whether the energy target can be achieved, only wind power, solar power, and hydropower are considered in this study. To convenient to assess the performance of local government, the two year period is chosen as an evaluation cycle in the paper. The renewable energy targets per two-year period for each province are calculated based on the overall national renewable energy target, energy requirements and resources distribution. Setting provincial period targets will help policy makers to better implement and supervise the overall renewable energy plan. - Highlights: It is very importance that the national target of renewable energy in 2020 can be effectively decomposed into the stages target of various province. In order to resolve the relation the plan between the national and local renewable energy development planning, a total target and phase target decomposition model

  6. Harvesting and replenishment policies for renewable natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The current paper links the optimal intertemporal use of renewable natural resources to the harvesting activities of various economic agents. Previous contributions cite market forces as a causative factor inducing the extirpation of renewable natural resources. The analysis given here discusses investment in the stock of renewable resources and cites important examples of this activity. By introducing joint harvesting and replenishment strategies into a model of renewable resource use, the analysis adds descriptive reality and relevance to positive and normative discussions of renewable natural resource use. A high price for the yield or a high discount rate tend to diminish the size of the optimum stationary stock of the resource with a non-replenishment harvesting strategy. Optimal non-replenishment harvesting strategies for renewable natural resources will exhaustion or extirpation of the resource if the price of the yield or the discount rate are sufficiently large. However, the availability of a replenishment technology and the use of replenishment activities tends to buffer the resource against exhaustion or extirpation.

  7. Renewable energy resource and technology assessment: Southern Tier Central Region, New York, New York. Renewable Energy Resource Inventory; renewable energy technology handbook; technology assessment workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Resource Inventory contains regional maps that record the location of renewable energy resources such as insolation, wind, biomass, and hydropower in the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State. It contains an outline of a process by which communities can prepare local renewable energy resource inventories using maps and overlays. The process starts with the mapping of the resources at a regional scale and telescopes to an analysis of resources at a site-specific scale. The resource inventory presents a site analysis of Sullivan Street Industrial Park, Elmira, New York.

  8. Renewable energy resources in the law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnizhevskij, B.V.; Mal'tseva, A.V.; Muzalev, E.Yu.; Makarova, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    Results of analysis of about 30 sources (USA, Germany, Greece, Denmark, Israel, EEC) were used to distinguish some characteristic features of foreign legislation, concerning use of renewable energy sources [ru

  9. Hybrid mini-grid systems – electricity for communities not connected to the national electricity grid based on renewable energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The primary objective of this project was the identification of electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to existing and new economic activities. A holistic and integrated approach is required...

  10. Electric power from renewable energy: resources and stakes for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the essential of the last thematic letter published by the IFEN (French institute of the environment), devoted to the resources and stakes of the electric power produced by the renewable energies in France. (A.L.B.)

  11. Evaluation of substrates from renewable-resources in biosurfactants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of substrates from renewable-resources in biosurfactants production by Pseudomonas strains. Sidnei Cerqueira dos Santos, Luzimar Gonzaga Fernandez, Juan Carlos Rossi-Alva, Milton Ricardo de Abreu Roque ...

  12. Liquid fuels from renewable resources in Canada: systems economics studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osler, C. F

    1978-01-01

    This paper highlights the methodology and results of a six volume study completed for the Canadian government on alternatives for liquid fuel production from renewable resources after the mid-1980s...

  13. Distribution of decentralized renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, J.L.; Benque, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The existence of a great number of inhabitants without electricity, living in areas of low population density, with modest energy requirements and low income provides a major potential market for decentralized renewable energy sources. Ademe and EDF in 1993 made two agreements concerning the development of Renewable Energy Sources. The first aims at promoting their decentralized use in France in pertinent cases. The second agreement concerns other countries and has two ambitions: facilitate short-term developments and produce in the longer term a standardised proposal for decentralized energy production using Renewable Energy Sources to a considerable extent. These ideas are explained, and the principles behind the implementation of both Ademe-EDF agreements as well as their future prospects are described. (R.P.)

  14. Renewable resources: development at the crossroads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, B.; Cummings, J.

    1981-12-01

    The era of fossil fuel alternatives began with no clear definition or consensus on which energy supplies are alternatives or renewables. It also brought a technological search for diverse solutions, with solar getting the most adherents. Debate centered on how much solar and other renewables can realistically contribute to the total energy demand, what that contribution means in terms of barrels of oil and tons of coal, and how to attract the political and financial support necessary to develop new energy industries. The current status of renewable energy technologies underscores the critical juncture facing research because of inflation, budget cuts, the dismantlement of DOE, and a philosophical opposition to government participation. Some solar technologies can continue commercial development, but fusion is unique in its classification as a high-risk venture justifying government support. If research on renewable and synthetic energy sources is to progress, American industry must regroup and organize in support of technical, institutional, and social innovation. A timetable of development and commercialization for those technologies expected to be making a significant contribution by 2030 follows the article. (DCK)

  15. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2005 Research Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H.; Gwinner, D.; Miller, M.; Pitchford, P.

    2006-06-01

    Science and technology are at the heart of everything we do at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, as we pursue innovative, robust, and sustainable ways to produce energy--and as we seek to understand and illuminate the physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering behind alternative energy technologies. This year's Research Review highlights the Lab's work in the areas of alternatives fuels and vehicles, high-performing commercial buildings, and high-efficiency inverted, semi-mismatched solar cells.

  16. Big is beautiful: the case for Federal leadership on a national renewable portfolio standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Cooper, Christopher

    2007-05-15

    State-based renewable portfolio standards (RPS) create regulatory uncertainty for investors and inherent inequities among ratepayers. Ultimately, federal legislation can help create a more just, diverse and predictable national market for renewable resources without significantly increasing aggregate electricity prices. (author)

  17. Review of dynamic optimization methods in renewable natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, the applications of dynamic optimization procedures in natural resource management have proliferated. A systematic review of these applications is given in terms of a number of optimization methodologies and natural resource systems. The applicability of the methods to renewable natural resource systems are compared in terms of system complexity, system size, and precision of the optimal solutions. Recommendations are made concerning the appropriate methods for certain kinds of biological resource problems.

  18. Renewable resource policy when distributional impacts matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, R.D.; Shortle, J.S.; Bulte, E.H.

    1999-01-01

    The standard assumption in bioeconomic resource models is that optimal policies maximize the present value of economic surplus to society. This assumption implies that regulatory agencies should not be concerned with the distributional consequences of management strategies. Both contemporary welfare-theoretic and rent-seeking approaches suggests distributional issues are important in designing resource management policies. This paper explores resource management when the managing agency has preferences defined over the economic welfare of various groups with a direct economic interest in the use of resources. Policy schemes consistent with this approach are derived and compared with standard results. 42 refs

  19. Spatiotemporal variability of marine renewable energy resources in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varlas, George; Christakos, Konstantinos; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, A.; Steeneveld, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) resources such as wind and wave energy depend on the complex behaviour of weather and climatic conditions which determine the development of MRE technologies, energy grid, supply and prices. This study investigates the spatiotemporal variability of MRE resources along

  20. A New-Growth Perspective on Non-Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian

    This article reviews issues related to the incorporation of non-renewable resources in the theory of economic growth and development. As an offshoot of the new growth theory of the last two decades a series of contributions have studied endogenous technical change in relation to resource scarcity...

  1. Low Cost Carbon Fiber From Renewable Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles has shown that, by lowering overall weight, the use of carbon fiber composites could dramatically decrease domestic vehicle fuel consumption. For the automotive industry to benefit from carbon fiber technology, fiber production will need to be substantially increased and fiber price decreased to$7/kg. To achieve this cost objective, alternate precursors to pitch and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) are being investigated as possible carbon fiber feedstocks. Additionally, sufficient fiber to provide 10 to 100 kg for each of the 13 million cars and light trucks produced annually in the U.S. will require an increase of 5 to 50-fold in worldwide carbon fiber production. High-volume, renewable or recycled materials, including lignin, cellulosic fibers, routinely recycled petrochemical fibers, and blends of these components, appear attractive because the cost of these materials is inherently both low and insensitive to changes in petroleum price. Current studies have shown that a number of recycled and renewable polymers can be incorporated into melt-spun fibers attractive as carbon fiber feedstocks. Highly extrudable lignin blends have attractive yields and can be readily carbonized and graphitized. Examination of the physical structure and properties of carbonized and graphitized fibers indicates the feasibility of use in transportation composite applications

  2. Renewable Energy Resources With Smart Microgrid Model In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikant Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of civilization is increasing energy consumption. Due to which India is facing an energy crisis. It is estimated that global energy demand will double in 2030. India Trhurga other developing countries will face a crisis. Returning to the problem Fall growth of renewable energy resources will increase. Even for electricity generation from renewable sources. Naturally replenished renewable energy such as sunlight wind rain tides and geothermal heat as will have to depend on natural resources. High energy demand and environmental concerns in the papers smart microgrid is forced to change the existing power grid. This paper dynamic demand response and smart microgrid for residential and industrial consumption in the context of renewable energy production including the proposed management approach. The objectives of this research renewable energy resources with a smart microgrid has played an important role. Power system in rural areas in India to meet growing energy demand. The model deployed PLC networks data management system sensors Switchgears Transformers and other utility tools to integrate Smart Grid Smart homes are used together. Analytical results Residential renewable energy generation and smart meters show the effectiveness of the proposed system to optimize control of the electrical grid and is designed to improve energy conservation.

  3. Fleet Tools; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-01

    From beverage distributors to shipping companies and federal agencies, industry leaders turn to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to help green their fleet operations. Cost, efficiency, and reliability are top priorities for fleets, and NREL partners know the lab’s portfolio of tools can pinpoint fuel efficiency and emissions-reduction strategies that also support operational the bottom line. NREL is one of the nation’s foremost leaders in medium- and heavy-duty vehicle research and development (R&D) and the go-to source for credible, validated transportation data. NREL developers have drawn on this expertise to create tools grounded in the real-world experiences of commercial and government fleets. Operators can use this comprehensive set of technology- and fuel-neutral tools to explore and analyze equipment and practices, energy-saving strategies, and other operational variables to ensure meaningful performance, financial, and environmental benefits.

  4. RENEWABLE ENERGY IN UKRAINE: TOWARDS NATIONAL ECO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    on the renewable energy sources, including solar, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal. It is emphasized that ... structures. Keywords: renewable ..... has three wind power plants with the capacity for 2; 2,5; and 3 MW, respectively. Its special ...

  5. Renewable Energy Resources: Solutions to Nigeria power and energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladan-Haruna, A.

    2011-01-01

    Power and energy, with particularly electricity remains the pivot of economical and social development of any country. In view of this fact, a research on how renewable energy resources can solve Nigeria power and energy needs was carried out. It has identified main issues such as inconsistence government policies, corruptions and lack of fund hindering the development of renewable and power sectors for sustainable energy supply. The capacity of alternative energy resources and technology [hydropower, wind power, biomass, photovoltaic (solar), and geothermal power] to solve Nigerian energy crisis cannot be over-emphasized as some countries of the world who have no petroleum resources, utilizes other alternatives or options to solves their power and energy requirement. This paper reviews the prospects, challenges and solutions to Nigeria energy needs using renewable sources for development as it boost industrialization and create job opportunities

  6. Profit-based conventional resource scheduling with renewable energy penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K. Srikanth; Panwar, Lokesh Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2017-08-01

    Technological breakthroughs in renewable energy technologies (RETs) enabled them to attain grid parity thereby making them potential contenders for existing conventional resources. To examine the market participation of RETs, this paper formulates a scheduling problem accommodating energy market participation of wind- and solar-independent power producers (IPPs) treating both conventional and RETs as identical entities. Furthermore, constraints pertaining to penetration and curtailments of RETs are restructured. Additionally, an appropriate objective function for profit incurred by conventional resource IPPs through reserve market participation as a function of renewable energy curtailment is also proposed. The proposed concept is simulated with a test system comprising 10 conventional generation units in conjunction with solar photovoltaic (SPV) and wind energy generators (WEG). The simulation results indicate that renewable energy integration and its curtailment limits influence the market participation or scheduling strategies of conventional resources in both energy and reserve markets. Furthermore, load and reliability parameters are also affected.

  7. Towards innovative industrialization for optimal renewable resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... #Laboratory of Signals, Distributed Systems and Artificial Intelligence (SSDIA), Normal superior school of ... human activities, the exhaustion of the layers of fossil resources ... quality and grain size, weak abrasive action, low cost price… .... moduli being able to play a significant role in the improvement.

  8. Solid waste as a renewable resource

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria Albanese, Jimmy Alexander; Ruiz, M. Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The volume of waste produced by human activity continues to grow, but steps are being taken to mitigate this problem by viewing waste as a resource. Recovering a proportion of waste for re-use immediately reduces the volume of landfill. Furthermore, the scarcity of some elements (such as phosphorous

  9. Exploration can cause falling non-renewable resource prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyce, John R.

    2003-01-01

    This note shows that when marginal exploration costs are increasing in the rate of exploration that it is possible to observe non-renewable resource prices falling over a portion of the extraction profile. Thus, while the model of Pindyck (J. Polit. Econ. 86 (1978) 841) was based on an incorrect specification of the aggregate extraction cost function, its general conclusion that exploration can cause falling non-renewable resource prices is upheld. This result is in contrast to Mendelsohn and Swierzbinski (Int. Econ. Rev. 30 (1989) 175), who assumed that marginal extraction costs were constant

  10. Renewable marine energies, resources for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Lidec, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The need for alternative sources of energy has never been more urgent than it is today. At the very time International Energy Agency estimates that demand will increase 30% by 2030, fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) are beginning to dwindle, as the need to counter global warming imposes limits on CO 2 emissions. In this context, DCNS has entered a new field of innovation and development: ocean energy. Having included marine renewable energy as an intrinsic part of its strategic growth plan, DCNS is the only industrial company in the world to invest in all four key technologies in this sector: - the tidal energy generated using underwater turbines known as 'tidal turbines',' which convert the energy of marine tidal streams into electricity; - the ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) technology that exploits the difference of temperature between the warm surface water of tropical oceans and the cold water found in the ocean depths to generate electrical power 24 hours a day, 35 days a year; - the offshore wind energy generated by offshore floating wind turbines; - the wave energy technology which operates on the principle of recovering energy from the ocean swell. With 400 years of expertise in shipbuilding and its in-depth understanding of the marine environment, DCNS is committed to playing a major role in the development of this new ocean industry. (author)

  11. Space use by foragers consuming renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Guillermo; Kuperman, Marcelo N.; Morales, Juan M.; Miller, Joel C.

    2014-05-01

    We study a simple model of a forager as a walk that modifies a relaxing substrate. Within it simplicity, this provides an insight on a number of relevant and non-intuitive facts. Even without memory of the good places to feed and no explicit cost of moving, we observe the emergence of a finite home range. We characterize the walks and the use of resources in several statistical ways, involving the behavior of the average used fraction of the system, the length of the cycles followed by the walkers, and the frequency of visits to plants. Preliminary results on population effects are explored by means of a system of two non directly interacting animals. Properties of the overlap of home ranges show the existence of a set of parameters that provides the best utilization of the shared resource.

  12. Final Technical Report: Renewable Energy Feasibility Study and Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Mariah [BEC Environmental, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-02-28

    In March 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded White Pine County, Nevada, a grant to assess the feasibility of renewable resource-related economic development activities in the area. The grant project included a public outreach and training component and was to include a demonstration project; however, the demonstration project was not completed due to lack of identification of an entity willing to locate a project in White Pine County. White Pine County completed the assessment of renewable resources and a feasibility study on the potential for a renewable energy-focused economic sector within the County. The feasibility study concluded "all resources studied were present and in sufficient quantity and quality to warrant consideration for development" and there were varying degrees of potential economic impact based on the resource type and project size. The feasibility study and its components were to be used as tools to attract potential developers and other business ventures to the local market. White Pine County also marketed the County’s resources to the renewable energy business community in an effort to develop contracts for demonstration projects. The County also worked to develop partnerships with local educational institutions, including the White Pine County School District, conducted outreach and training for the local community.

  13. Growth with Endogenous Capital, Knowledge, and Renewable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with endogenous technological change, physical capital and renewable resources. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory, Arrow’s learning by doing, and some traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence between technological change, physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, the model analyzes some interactions between economic variables which are not found in the existing literature of economic growth. We simulate the model to demonstrate existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the capacity of the renewable resource increases the stock and reduces the price of the resource of the resource over time; the output levels of the two sectors, the total capital stock, and capital inputs of the two sectors are all increased; the labor distribution between the two sectors is slightly affected initially but is not affected in the long term; the rate of interest rises initially rise and is almost not affected in the long term; the per capita consumption levels of the good and the resource and the wage rate are increased.

  14. Regional renewable energy and resource planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Hon Loong; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Klemes, Jiri Jaromir

    2011-01-01

    The exploitation of the energy potential in biomass in a specific geographical region is frequently constrained by high production costs and the amount of land required per unit of energy generated. In addition, the distributed nature of the biomass resource and its normally low energy density may result in large transportation costs. Biomass also requires large land areas to collect and process the incoming solar radiation before the energy can be harvested. Previously published works on regional energy clustering (REC) and the Regional Resources Management Composite Curve, RRMCC (in this paper shortened to RMC), have been extended in this paper to tackle simultaneously the issues of the biomass supply chain, transportation, and land use. The RMC is a tool for supporting decision making in regional resource management. It provides a complete view of energy and land availability in a region, displaying their trade-offs in a single plot. The extension presented in this work has been developed in two steps. The first step presents the Regional Energy Cascade Analysis, which estimates the energy target within regional supply chains and provides the result for energy exchange flows between zones, the quantity of energy required to be imported/exported, and the locations of the demands. In the second step, the initial results are analysed against potential measures for improving the energy and land use targets by using the RMC and a set of rules for its manipulation. The presented method provides the option to assess the priorities: either to produce and sell the surplus energy on the fuel market or use the land for other purposes such as food production. This extended approach is illustrated with a comprehensive case study demonstrating that with the RMC application it is possible to maximise the land use and to maximise the biofuel production for the requested energy demand.

  15. Estimation of Total Tree Height from Renewable Resources Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Many ecological, biological, and genetic studies use the measurement of total tree height. Until recently, the Southern Forest Experiment Station's inventory procedures through Renewable Resources Evaluation (RRE) have not included total height measurements. This note provides equations to estimate total height based on other RRE measurements.

  16. Biotechnological Production of Organic Acids from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Dietz, Donna; van Duuren, Jozef Bernhard Johann Henri; Wittmann, Christoph; Yang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Venus, Joachim

    2017-03-07

    Biotechnological processes are promising alternatives to petrochemical routes for overcoming the challenges of resource depletion in the future in a sustainable way. The strategies of white biotechnology allow the utilization of inexpensive and renewable resources for the production of a broad range of bio-based compounds. Renewable resources, such as agricultural residues or residues from food production, are produced in large amounts have been shown to be promising carbon and/or nitrogen sources. This chapter focuses on the biotechnological production of lactic acid, acrylic acid, succinic acid, muconic acid, and lactobionic acid from renewable residues, these products being used as monomers for bio-based material and/or as food supplements. These five acids have high economic values and the potential to overcome the "valley of death" between laboratory/pilot scale and commercial/industrial scale. This chapter also provides an overview of the production strategies, including microbial strain development, used to convert renewable resources into value-added products.

  17. Toward a Regional Geography of Renewable Electrical Energy Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    It is postulated that many types of renewable energy resources, like fossil fuels, are amenable to regional availability analysis. Among these are hydropower, geothermal, ocean temperature gradient, wind, and direct solar energy. A review of the spatial attributes of each of these types reveals areas of the United States that contain comparative…

  18. Industrial Performance of the Renewable Resources Industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Zhou; Xingang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Promoting the development of renewable resources industry is an effective way to solve the problems of resources shortage and environmental pollution in China. In this paper, studies have found that “market structure” and “ownership structure”, namely “double structure”, is an important explanatory variable that affects industrial performance according to the “structure-conduct-performance” paradigm. Literature reviews have shown that large state-owned enterprises are playing an important rol...

  19. The Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    The long-term well-being of the nation and maintenance of a sustainable leadership position in agriculture, forestry, and manufacturing, clearly depend on current and near-term support of multidisciplinary research for the development of a reliable renewable resource base. This document sets a roadmap and priorities for that research. America needs leadership that will continue to recognize, support, and move rapidly to meet the need to expand the use of sustainable renewable resources. This roadmap has highlighted potential ways for progress and has identified goals in specific components of the system. Achieving success with these goals will provide the opportunity to hit the vision target of a fivefold increase in renewable resource use by 2020.

  20. The technology roadmap for plant/crop-based renewable resources 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    1999-02-22

    The long-term well-being of the nation and maintenance of a sustainable leadership position in agriculture, forestry, and manufacturing, clearly depend on current and near-term support of multidisciplinary research for the development of a reliable renewable resource base. This document sets a roadmap and priorities for that research. America needs leadership that will continue to recognize, support, and move rapidly to meet the need to expand the use of sustainable renewable resources. This roadmap has highlighted potential ways for progress and has identified goals in specific components of the system. Achieving success with these goals will provide the opportunity to hit the vision target of a fivefold increase in renewable resource use by 2020.

  1. Renewable energy resources barriers in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umoh, U.T.; Ekpoh, I.J.

    2008-01-01

    Africa's hydroelectric power plants are not able to perform at greater than 30 per cent of their installed capacity, despite the fact that Africa has abundant hydroelectric resources. Droughts and floods attributed to climate change are presenting challenges to the effective management and distribution of hydroelectric power supplies. This paper identified climate change-related barriers against hydroelectric power development in Africa. Case studies of 3 hydroelectric power projects in Nigeria were considered. Rainfall intensity data for a 25-year period were analyzed. The study showed that while the hydroelectric power plants are capable of supplying more power, most dams in Africa are prone to erosion and flash flooding. The sedimentation of reservoirs and natural lakes are also posing significant water management problems. Redesigns are needed in order to reduce risk. The new hydroelectric projects should be designed to ensure that environmental impacts are minimized. A river basin management approach was recommended in order to improve industrial water supplies, power generation, and recreational aspects of waterways. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory: 35 Years of Innovation (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    This brochure is an overview of NREL's innovations over the last 35 years. It includes the lab's history and a description of the laboratory of the future. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) primary national laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency. NREL's work focuses on advancing renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies from concept to the commercial marketplace through industry partnerships. The Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, a partnership between Battelle and MRIGlobal, manages NREL for DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  3. Meta-analysis of non-renewable energy resource estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers a review of estimates of ultimately recoverable resources (URR) of non-renewable energy sources: coal, conventional and unconventional oil, conventional and unconventional gas, and uranium for nuclear fission. There is a large range in the estimates of many of the energy sources, even those that have been utilized for a long time and, as such, should be well understood. If it is assumed that the estimates for each resource are normally distributed, then the total value of ultimately recoverable fossil and fissile energy resources is 70,592 EJ. If, on the other hand, the best fitting distribution from each of the resource estimate populations is used, a the total value is 50,702 EJ, a factor of around 30% smaller. - Highlights: ► Brief introduction to categorization of resources. ► Collated over 380 estimates of ultimately recoverable global resources for all non-renewable energy sources. ► Extensive statistical analysis and distribution fitting conducted. ► Cross-energy source comparison of resource magnitudes.

  4. National Renewable Energy Policy in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Minji

    Increasing trade of renewable energy products has significantly contributed to reducing the costs of renewable energy sources, but at the same time, it has generated protectionist policies, which may negatively affect the trend of the cost reduction. Although a few recent studies examined the rise of renewable energy protectionism and trade disputes, they are limited in addressing the conflict between the original goal of traditional renewable energy policies and the new protectionist policies under the globalized renewable energy industry. To fill this gap, this dissertation explores how the globalized renewable energy industry has changed national renewable energy policies. Through three analyses, three aspects of the globalized renewable energy industry are examined: the rise of multinational corporations, international interactions among actors, and the changes of the global and domestic market conditions. First analysis investigates how multinational renewable energy corporations have affected national policies. A content analysis of the annual reports of 15 solar photovoltaic multinational corporation shows that solar multinationals have been influenced by national policies and have adapted to the changes rather than having attempted to change national policies. Second analysis examines how diverse actors have framed renewable energy trade issues through a network analysis of the Chinese solar panel issue in the United States. The result shows that the Chinese solar panel issue was framed differently from the traditional environmental frame of renewable energy, being dominated by multinational corporations headquartered in other countries. Third analysis explores what has caused the increasing diversity in national renewable energy policies through the case studies of the U.S. and South Korea. The result reveals that the globalization of solar industry has affected the diversification of solar policies in two countries by generating both challenges, which

  5. Sustainable growth and renewable resources in the global economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Ploeg, Frederick; Ligthart, Jenny E. [University of Amsterdam, Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1993-02-01

    An endogenous growth model is developed to study the concept of sustainable growth in the context of two countries that exploit a common-property renewable resource. The strategic interactions between countries are analysed within the framework of a differential game. In the absence of international policy coordination too much renewable natural resources are used in production which boosts the rate of economic growth and depresses environmental quality. However, if apart from international environmental externalities there are international knowledge spill-overs in production and productive government spending benefits the productivity of capital in other countries as well, international policy coordination may lead to a higher rate of economic growth and a worse environmental quality. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 20 refs.

  6. Sustainable growth and renewable resources in the global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Ploeg, Frederick; Ligthart, Jenny E.

    1993-02-01

    An endogenous growth model is developed to study the concept of sustainable growth in the context of two countries that exploit a common-property renewable resource. The strategic interactions between countries are analysed within the framework of a differential game. In the absence of international policy coordination too much renewable natural resources are used in production which boosts the rate of economic growth and depresses environmental quality. However, if apart from international environmental externalities there are international knowledge spill-overs in production and productive government spending benefits the productivity of capital in other countries as well, international policy coordination may lead to a higher rate of economic growth and a worse environmental quality. 1 fig., 2 tabs., 20 refs

  7. Green power: A renewable energy resources marketing plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Green power is electricity generated from renewable energy sources such as power generated from the sun, the wind, the heat of the earth, and biomass. Green pricing is the marketing strategy to sell green power to customers who voluntarily pay a premium for it. Green pricing is evolving from the deregulation of the electric industry, the need for clean air, reflected in part as concern over global warming, and technology advances. The goal of the renewable energy marketing plan is to generate enough revenues for a utility to fund power purchase agreements (PPAs) with renewable energy developers or construct its own renewable facilities. Long-term, fixed price PPAs enable developers to obtain financing to construct new facilities, sometimes taking technological risks which a utility might not take otherwise. The marketing plan is built around different rate premiums for different categories of ratepayers, volunteer customer participation, customer participation recognition, and budget allocations between project costs and power marketing costs. Green prices are higher than those for conventional sources, particularly prices from natural gas fired plants. Natural gas is abundant relative to oil in price per British thermal unit (Btu). Green pricing can help bridge the gap between the current oversupply of gas and the time, not far off, when all petroleum prices will exceed those for renewable energy. The rapid implementation of green pricing is important. New marketing programs will bolster the growing demand for renewable energy evidenced in many national surveys thus decreasing the consumption of power now generated by burning hydrocarbons. This paper sets forth a framework to implement a green power marketing plan for renewable energy developers and utilities working together

  8. Resource use efficiency and renewability. Assessment of low-input agricultural production using eMergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Christina; Østergård, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    by reducing dependency on external input. We apply the emergy approach to evaluate resource use efficiency of twolow-input innovative farms while distinguishing between use of renewable and non-renewable resources aswell as local and global origin of resources. This study is a part of the SOLIBAM (www.......solibam.eu) projectfunded by the European commission under the Seventh Framework Programme.We apply an approach where we include efficiency in resource use to produce food energy joules soldwhile distinguishing between use of renewable and non-renewable resources as well as on-site, local andnon-local resources. Result...... shows that the large farm (75 ha) had an input of renewable resources of 32%while the small (6 ha) had a renewable fraction of 26%. The latter is based on assuming that the firewoodused is 50% renewable. If this percentage is increased to 100% then both farms have a renewable fractionof resource use...

  9. Renewable energy and power cooperation between China and six Latin American nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuetao; Yan, Bingzhong; Zhou, Shichun

    2018-02-01

    China has been entitled the biggest supplier and largest market of renewable energy for the past few years. With One Belt and One Road initiative carrying on, the China’s renewable energy industry is looking for opportunities across the world. Latin America, which has rich renewable energy resources and urge demand for a cleaner and more sustainable energy system, may become an important target market for China. The prospect and potential of renewable energy cooperation between China and Latin America are promising. In this paper, six Latin American nations of varied background were selected as study cases. Their nation profile, energy resources, power market, and energy development trends were analysed, and the cooperation prospect and potential between these nations and China in renewable energy sector were discussed. The results indicate that Argentina and Bolivia are most potential cooperation partners, and project development and equipment manufacturing of non-hydro renewable energy, along with power grid upgrading are the prioritized areas. In addition, recommendations and solutions addressing the issues and challenges incurred in the current bilateral energy cooperation between China and Latin American nations were proposed.

  10. Transposition and national level resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasev, Nikolay Rumenov; Vrangbæk, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Several recent papers have summarised the status of EU implementation studies. In this paper we suggest that the issue of sector specific resources has received too little attention in previous studies. Sector specific resources include “health sector resources” and “state administrative resources......”. Our theoretical contribution is thus to add an explicit and more detailed concern for "sector specific resources" in national transposition. This can refine the understanding of resources, for example in the multi-variable models that are emerging as the state of the art in the field of EU...... implementation studies. To illustrate these points we have chosen an empirical design focusing on a directive with a potentially high impact on system resources and several ambiguous components (the Cross Border Health Care Directive). We have further chosen to focus on two Eastern European countries (Bulgaria...

  11. The research and training of human resources to produce renewable resources of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Rangel Delgado

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The prospective technique approach used as a context, this paper emphasizes the importance of a long term vision on the human resources development for renewable energies production. In the same sense it outlines the connection between the professions associated with the generation of renewable energy and the labor market. Results are presented on the research intellectual capacity of Mexico, highlighting, the public universities, specialized research centers, researchers, and the associated academic programs to renewable energies. Finally, it is presented the conclusions, and suggestions oriented to increase strategically, the renewable energies research for the technology development. Also it might incorporate our country towards the international market for renewable technologies, in the long term.

  12. Environmental Programs: National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2001-05-01

    Major NREL environmental programs and initiatives include: integrated energy and environmental strategies; implementation of air pollution programs and climate change programs; Green Power Network; environmental and economic impacts and benefits of energy efficiency and renewable energy (EERE) technologies; technology transfer between developed and developing countries; greenhouse gas emission reduction projects; climate change action plans with developing countries and development of life cycle assessments.

  13. Dentin biomodification: strategies, renewable resources and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedran-Russo, Ana K; Pauli, Guido F; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James; Castellan, Carina S; Phansalkar, Rasika S; Aguiar, Thaiane R; Vidal, Cristina M P; Napotilano, José G; Nam, Joo-Won; Leme, Ariene A

    2014-01-01

    The biomodification of dentin is a biomimetic approach, mediated by bioactive agents, to enhance and reinforce the dentin by locally altering the biochemistry and biomechanical properties. This review provides an overview of key dentin matrix components, targeting effects of biomodification strategies, the chemistry of renewable natural sources, and current research on their potential clinical applications. The PubMed database and collected literature were used as a resource for peer-reviewed articles to highlight the topics of dentin hierarchical structure, biomodification agents, and laboratorial investigations of their clinical applications. In addition, new data is presented on laboratorial methods for the standardization of proanthocyanidin-rich preparations as a renewable source of plant-derived biomodification agents. Biomodification agents can be categorized as physical methods and chemical agents. Synthetic and naturally occurring chemical strategies present distinctive mechanism of interaction with the tissue. Initially thought to be driven only by inter- or intra-molecular collagen induced non-enzymatic cross-linking, multiple interactions with other dentin components are fundamental for the long-term biomechanics and biostability of the tissue. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins show promising bioactivity, and their chemical complexity requires systematic evaluation of the active compounds to produce a fully standardized intervention material from renewable resource, prior to their detailed clinical evaluation. Understanding the hierarchical structure of dentin and the targeting effect of the bioactive compounds will establish their use in both dentin-biomaterials interface and caries management. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential for natural evaporation as a reliable renewable energy resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, Ahmet-Hamdi; Chen, Xi; Gentine, Pierre; Sahin, Ozgur

    2017-09-26

    About 50% of the solar energy absorbed at the Earth's surface drives evaporation, fueling the water cycle that affects various renewable energy resources, such as wind and hydropower. Recent advances demonstrate our nascent ability to convert evaporation energy into work, yet there is little understanding about the potential of this resource. Here we study the energy available from natural evaporation to predict the potential of this ubiquitous resource. We find that natural evaporation from open water surfaces could provide power densities comparable to current wind and solar technologies while cutting evaporative water losses by nearly half. We estimate up to 325 GW of power is potentially available in the United States. Strikingly, water's large heat capacity is sufficient to control power output by storing excess energy when demand is low, thus reducing intermittency and improving reliability. Our findings motivate the improvement of materials and devices that convert energy from evaporation.The evaporation of water represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Building on previous models of evaporation, Cavusoglu et al. show that the power available from this natural resource is comparable to wind and solar power, yet it does not suffer as much from varying weather conditions.

  15. Research and utilization of renewable energy resources in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.S.; Aditya, S.K.; Mazumder, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Bangladesh is an energy deficit and low-economy country with high population density. Per-capita energy consumption is one of the lowest in the world. The only dependable indigenous gas, which is the major primary energy source in the country, is used mainly for the production of electricity and fertilizer. If it is burnt at an annual 10% growth rate of consumption, may not last more than 15-20 years. Around 30% of the people of the country have connections to the national grid line. In the villages, where 80% of the population live, the situation is worse. Even if it is possible to take the electric grid line to all villages of the country, which will be an extremely difficult and expensive work to do, the majority of the village houses will not be able to have electric connections due to poverty. No nuclear power station exists in the country and the possibility of setting up any in the near future is limited due to non-availability of funds. Hydroelectric resources are also low because of the flat terrain of the country. The fuel import bill also occupies a significant portion of the total amount of export earnings. Conventional resources in Bangladesh are utterly inadequate for supplying the energy needs to bring in a significant improvement in our economy. On the other hand when our gas reserves will be exhausted it will be difficult for us even to maintain the energy supply for the development of our country unless we find alternate sources of energy. Solar energy availability in Bangladesh is high around 5KWH/day per meter square or 2.6 10/sup 11/ MWH/year on the total surface area of the country. This is equivalent to the output of about 30GW capacity utility plant for 100 years assuming 10% efficiency of the solar devices. Large-scale production of electricity from new, renewable energy sources is a great challenge. Wind power is difficult to exploit economically in regions with wind speeds bellow 5 m/s yearly average. Solar thermal power plants come

  16. Renewable resource power production: Italian decree CIP No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Macco, C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an overall energy conservation campaign, a concrete step, in the form of a more favourable electricity rate structure for auto-producers, is being taken by the Italian Government to encourage medium sized industries to adopt cogeneration systems to meet their heat and power requirements. Within this context, this paper gives a look at the incentives for renewable energy source use which are incorporated in the CIP (Italian Inter-ministerial Commission on Prices) Provision No. 34/90, regulating industrial plant cogeneration systems, and which governs ENEL's (Italian National Electricity Board) rate structure in the case of independent on-site producers ceding power to the national utility's grid

  17. Industrial Performance of the Renewable Resources Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Promoting the development of renewable resources industry is an effective way to solve the problems of resources shortage and environmental pollution in China. In this paper, studies have found that “market structure” and “ownership structure”, namely “double structure”, is an important explanatory variable that affects industrial performance according to the “structure-conduct-performance” paradigm. Literature reviews have shown that large state-owned enterprises are playing an important role in improving the industrial performance because of the advantage in technology and capital. However, this paper analyzed the performance of China’s renewable resource industry from two aspects—the overall industrial development and the listed companies, from which two conclusions have drawn: (1 Above a designated size, private enterprises have the greatest contribution, while the contribution of state-owned and foreign-funded enterprises is different; (2 The main reason for the high positive growth rate of total factor productivity between 2009 and 2013 is the rapid growth of technological progress such as the improvement of production processes and manufacturing skills, rather than the promotion of management, system, or polices.

  18. Sensor Buoy System for Monitoring Renewable Marine Energy Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Emilio; Quiles, Eduardo; Correcher, Antonio; Morant, Francisco

    2018-03-22

    In this paper we present a multi-sensor floating system designed to monitor marine energy parameters, in order to sample wind, wave, and marine current energy resources. For this purpose, a set of dedicated sensors to measure the height and period of the waves, wind, and marine current intensity and direction have been selected and installed in the system. The floating device incorporates wind and marine current turbines for renewable energy self-consumption and to carry out complementary studies on the stability of such a system. The feasibility, safety, sensor communications, and buoy stability of the floating device have been successfully checked in real operating conditions.

  19. Mapping and monitoring renewable resources with space SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Brisco, B.; Dobson, M. C.; Moezzi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The SEASAT-A SAR and SIR-A imagery was examined to evaluate the quality and type of information that can be extracted and used to monitor renewable resources on Earth. Two tasks were carried out: (1) a land cover classification study which utilized two sets of imagery acquired by the SEASAT-A SAR, one set by SIR-A, and one LANDSAT set (4 bands); and (2) a change detection to examine differences between pairs of SEASAT-A SAR images and relates them to hydrologic and/or agronomic variations in the scene.

  20. Production of biosurfactants using substrates from renewable-resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface-active compounds commonly used in industries are chemically synthesized. However, biosurfactants have been paid increasing attention to replace the synthetic surfactants owing to their advantages such as biodegradability and low toxicity. Nowadays, the use of biosurfactant has been limited due to the high production cost. Nevertheless, biosurfactants can be produced with high yield by some microorganisms, especially Pseudomonas sp. These microorganisms can use the various renewal resources, especially agroindustrial wastes, as the potential carbon sources. This leads to the greater possibility for economical biosurfactant production and reduced pollution caused by those wastes.

  1. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimum commodity taxation with a non-renewable resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We examine optimum commodity taxation (OCT), including the taxation of non-renewable resources (NRRs), by a government that needs to rely on commodity taxes to raise revenues. NRRs should be taxed at higher rates than otherwise-identical conventional commodities, according to an augmented, dynamic...... formulas can directly be used to indicate how Pigovian taxation of carbon NRRs should be increased in the presence of public-revenue needs, as illustrated in a numerical example. We show that NRR substitutes and complements should receive a particular tax treatment. Finally, in a NRR-importing economy...

  3. Quantitative variability of renewable energy resources in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Konstantinos; Varlas, George; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Aalstad, Kristoffer; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Katsafados, Petros; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Based on European Union (EU) targets for 2030, the share of renewable energy (RE) consumption should be increased at 27%. RE resources such as hydropower, wind, wave power and solar power are strongly depending on the chaotic behavior of the weather conditions and climate. Due to this dependency, the prediction of the spatiotemporal variability of the RE resources is more crucial factor than in other energy resources (i.e. carbon based energy). The fluctuation of the RE resources can affect the development of the RE technologies, the energy grid, supply and prices. This study investigates the variability of the potential RE resources in Norway. More specifically, hydropower, wind, wave, and solar power are quantitatively analyzed and correlated with respect to various spatial and temporal scales. In order to analyze the diversities and their interrelationships, reanalysis and observational data of wind, precipitation, wave, and solar radiation are used for a quantitative assessment. The results indicate a high variability of marine RE resources in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea.

  4. Strategies for sustainable management of renewable resources during environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindkvist, Emilie; Ekeberg, Örjan; Norberg, Jon

    2017-03-15

    As a consequence of global environmental change, management strategies that can deal with unexpected change in resource dynamics are becoming increasingly important. In this paper we undertake a novel approach to studying resource growth problems using a computational form of adaptive management to find optimal strategies for prevalent natural resource management dilemmas. We scrutinize adaptive management, or learning-by-doing, to better understand how to simultaneously manage and learn about a system when its dynamics are unknown. We study important trade-offs in decision-making with respect to choosing optimal actions (harvest efforts) for sustainable management during change. This is operationalized through an artificially intelligent model where we analyze how different trends and fluctuations in growth rates of a renewable resource affect the performance of different management strategies. Our results show that the optimal strategy for managing resources with declining growth is capable of managing resources with fluctuating or increasing growth at a negligible cost, creating in a management strategy that is both efficient and robust towards future unknown changes. To obtain this strategy, adaptive management should strive for: high learning rates to new knowledge, high valuation of future outcomes and modest exploration around what is perceived as the optimal action. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Energy Policy Case Study - California: Renewables and Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    The purpose of this document is to present a case study of energy policies in California related to power system transformation and renewable and distributed energy resources (DERs). Distributed energy resources represent a broad range of technologies that can significantly impact how much, and when, electricity is demanded from the grid. Key policies and proceedings related to power system transformation and DERs are grouped into the following categories: 1.Policies that support achieving environmental and climate goals 2.Policies that promote deployment of DERs 3.Policies that support reliability and integration of DERs 4.Policies that promote market animation and support customer choice. Major challenges going forward are forecasting and modeling DERs, regulatory and utility business model issues, reliability, valuation and pricing, and data management and sharing.

  6. Effective management of combined renewable energy resources in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Khasan S; Akhmedov, Khakim M; Abid, Muhammad; Petrov, Georgiy N

    2013-09-01

    Water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between downstream countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those upstream countries, which use water for generation of electric power. At present Uzbekistan is blocking railway connection that is going to Tajikistan to interfere to transportation of the equipment and materials for construction of Rogun hydropower plant. In order to avoid conflicts between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan a number of measures for the utilization of water resources of the trans-boundary Rivers Amu-Darya and Sir-Darya are discussed. In addition, utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy projects for proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia; export-import exchanges of electric energy in summer and winter time between neighboring countries; development of small hydropower project, modern irrigation system in main water consuming countries and large water reservoir hydropower projects for control of water resources for hydropower and irrigation are also discussed. It is also concluded that an effective management of water resources can be achieved by signing Water treaty between upstream and downstream countries, first of all between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In this paper management of water as renewable energy resource in Tajikistan and Central Asian Republics are presented. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The resource curse: Analysis of the applicability to the large-scale export of electricity from renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisgruber, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    The “resource curse” has been analyzed extensively in the context of non-renewable resources such as oil and gas. More recently commentators have expressed concerns that also renewable electricity exports can have adverse economic impacts on exporting countries. My paper analyzes to what extent the resource curse applies in the case of large-scale renewable electricity exports. I develop a “comprehensive model” that integrates previous works and provides a consolidated view of how non-renewable resource abundance impacts economic growth. Deploying this model I analyze through case studies on Laos, Mongolia, and the MENA region to what extent exporters of renewable electricity run into the danger of the resource curse. I find that renewable electricity exports avoid some disadvantages of non-renewable resource exports including (i) shocks after resource depletion; (ii) macroeconomic fluctuations; and (iii) competition for a fixed amount of resources. Nevertheless, renewable electricity exports bear some of the same risks as conventional resource exports including (i) crowding-out of the manufacturing sector; (ii) incentives for corruption; and (iii) reduced government accountability. I conclude with recommendations for managing such risks. - Highlights: ► Study analyzes whether the resource curse applies to renewable electricity export. ► I develop a “comprehensive model of the resource curse” and use cases for the analysis. ► Renewable electricity export avoids some disadvantages compared to other resources. ► Renewable electricity bears some of the same risks as conventional resources. ► Study concludes with recommendations for managing such risks

  8. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Renewable Energy Opportunity Assessment for USAID Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Andrea [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bracho, Ricardo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Romero, Rachel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mercer, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-13

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program is designing its second phase of assistance to the Government of Mexico (GOM). In preparation for program design, USAID has asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assist in identifying options for enabling renewable energy in Mexico and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the energy sector. The NREL team conducted a literature review and consulted with over 20 Mexican agencies and organizations during a two-week temporary duty assignment (TDY) to Mexico to identify gaps, opportunities, and program theme areas for Mexico.

  9. Hydrogen from renewable resources - the hundred year commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade interest in a potential 'Hydrogen Economy' has increased and is now discussed in main stream literature and political debates. This is largely due to the promise that fuel cell technology, which uses a hydrogen-rich gas, has shown. Though hydrogen can be produced from a number of sources, it is steam reforming of natural gas that has gained a substantial support base, and is seen as an important bridge to a sustainable hydrogen production from renewable energy. What this paper examines is the synergy that exists now between hydrogen from renewable resources and the inception of the fuel cell market. It argues that although the natural gas pathway will be necessary for the short to medium term, there should not be a complete dominance of the production route. The paper also brings together a number of policy documents from the EU and argues that what is needed from the level of the EU is a long term, binding commitment to ensure that the natural gas pathway does not become locked in. (author)

  10. Micro generation from renewable resources - secure and sustainable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan's power demand is mainly satisfied by fossil fuel, which is not abundant and major source of global warming/climate change. A sustainable and secure alternative for Pakistan would be to exploit its indigenous and renewable energy (RE) resources like hydro, solar and wind with public participation. Pakistan receives year-round solar irradiance, which can become a major power producer in urban and non-arable areas. Secondly, locally managed run-of-river micro hydro projects can be an important source of power generation in Northern Pakistan. Thirdly, small wind turbines installed in coastal and windy areas of Southern Pakistan can serve as significant electricity producers. The limiting factors in the case of power from RE are: space, cost, storage, vested interests and reluctance to change. Regardless of production technique, the power shortfall can be controlled to some extent by energy conservation, managing heat loss, transmission and distribution losses and by having energy-efficient buildings and appliances. (author)

  11. Transport Energy Impact Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.

    2015-05-13

    Presented at the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Spring 2015 Symposium on May 13, 2015, this presentation by Jeff Gonder of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides information about NREL's transportation energy impact analysis of connected and automated vehicles.

  12. Accounting for the income of non-renewable resources - Four essays on new theoretical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Taoyuan

    2009-01-15

    , 1997, Sections II.C and IV). However, as pointed out by Hicks (1946, p. 174), income as interest on wealth can not serve as an indicator of prudent behavior if the real interest rate is expected to change. An advantage of the new method is that it is still plausible even if real interest rate is expected to change over time. Another advantage is that the new method provides an alternative way to estimate net investments of a sector. This can be applied when information on sectoral capital stocks is not available as it may be difficult to observe, measure, or evaluate the change of capital stocks. This dissertation consists of four essays. In the first essay, Geir Asheim and I propose the theory of sectoral income. In the second essay, I apply this theory to identify and classify the income generated by a non-renewable resource. In particular, sectoral net investments is shown to coincide with the shadow value of the change in capital stocks of the sector in a general framework. Then I illustrate the new theory by estimating sectoral income based on real data of the Norwegian petroleum sector in the third essay. As a first step to take into account real world uncertainty, I study the concept of national income in a stochastic setting in the last essay. (Author)

  13. National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC) is a national information and resource hub relating to all aspects of sexual violence. NSVRC staff collect and...

  14. Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-02

    Engineers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility (VTIF) are developing strategies to address two separate but equally crucial areas of research: meeting the demands of electric vehicle (EV) grid integration and minimizing fuel consumption related to vehicle climate control. Dedicated to renewable and energy-efficient solutions, the VTIF showcases technologies and systems designed to increase the viability of sustainably powered vehicles. NREL researchers instrument every class of on-road vehicle, conduct hardware and software validation for EV components and accessories, and develop analysis tools and technology for the Department of Energy, other government agencies, and industry partners.

  15. Vulnerability and fragility risk indices for non-renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anne E; Steele, Nicholas; Tobin, Benjamin W

    2018-06-02

    Protected areas are tasked with mitigating impacts to a wide range of invaluable resources. These resources are often subject to a variety of potential natural and anthropogenic impacts that require monitoring efforts and management actions to minimize the degradation of these resources. However, due to insufficient funding and staff, managers often have to prioritize efforts, leaving some resources at higher risk to impact. Attempts to address this issue have resulted in numerous qualitative and semi-quantitative frameworks for prioritization based on resource vulnerability. Here, we add to those methods by modifying an internationally standardized vulnerability framework, quantify both resource vulnerability, susceptibility to human disturbance, and fragility, susceptibility to natural disturbance. This modified framework quantifies impacts through a six-step process: identifying the resource and management objectives, identifying exposure and sensitivity indicators, define scoring criteria for each indicator, collect and compile data, calculate indices, and prioritize sites for mitigations. We applied this methodology to two resource types in Grand Canyon National Park (GRCA): caves and fossil sites. Three hundred sixty-five cave sites and 127 fossil sites in GRCA were used for this analysis. The majority of cave and fossil sites scored moderate to low vulnerability (0-6 out of 10 points) and moderate to low fragility for fossils. The percentage of sites that fell in the high-priority range was 5.5% for fossils and 21.9% for caves. These results are consistent with the known state of these resources and the results present a tool for managers to utilize to prioritize monitoring and management needs.

  16. Rice Hulls as a Renewable Complex Material Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Glushankova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rice grain processing, a big amount of waste (up to 20% is produced. It is mainly rice hulls. The main components of rice hulls are cellulose, lignin and mineral ash. The mineral ash quantity in rice hulls varies from 15 up to 20%, by weight of the rice hulls. The mineral ash consists of amorphous silica (opal-type. Due to the high content of silica in rice hulls, the material burns with difficulty under natural conditions, and it is biodegradably destroyed only with difficulty, when composted. Utilization of rice hulls then becomes an ecological problem due to huge rice production and its continuous growth. At the same time, the annual quantity of silica content in rice hulls is comparable with the quantity of amorphous silica produced as a mineral resource. The issue of manufacturing cellular glass silica construction materials from rice hulls as a renewable resource is discussed in this paper. The utilization technology is based on an amorphous silicon oxide with the use of energy from the combustion of the organic component of rice hulls.

  17. Determinants of Renewable Energy Resources and Their Relationship Between Economic Growth: The Case of Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Çınar; Mine Yılmazer

    2015-01-01

    Literature on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth is based on two different approaches that are supply-side and demand-side. The impact of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption on economic growth is investigated with traditional production function on supply-side approach. The relationship between renewable energy consumption, economic growth, CO2 and energy prices is analyzed on demand-side approach. In this study, the impact of renewable resources on eco...

  18. Forecasting US renewables in the national energy modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diedrich, R.; Petersik, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    The Energy information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts US renewable energy supply and demand in the context of overall energy markets using the National Energy Modelling System (NEMS). Renewables compete with other supply and demand options within the residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, and electricity sectors of the US economy. NEMS forecasts renewable energy for grid-connected electricity production within the Electricity Market Module (EM), and characterizes central station biomass, geothermal, conventional hydroelectric, municipal solid waste, solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, and wind-powered electricity generating technologies. EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 1998, projecting US energy markets, forecasts marketed renewables to remain a minor part of US energy production and consumption through to 2020. The USA is expected to remain primarily a fossil energy producer and consumer throughout the period. An alternative case indicates that biomass, wind, and to some extent geothermal power would likely increase most rapidly if the US were to require greater use of renewables for power supply, though electricity prices would increase somewhat. (author)

  19. Using modeling, satellite images and existing global datasets for rapid preliminary assessments of renewable energy resources: The case of Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Badger, Jake; Larsen, Soeren; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Thomas Theis; Hansen, Lars Boye; Stisen, Simon; Mariko, Adama; Togola, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing and meteorological mesoscale modeling. The paper presents first results from applying the methodology in Mali and discusses the appropriateness of the results obtained. It is shown that northern Mali has considerable wind energy potential, while average wind speeds in the southern part are too low to make wind power a competitive option. Solar energy resources are shown to be abundant in all of Mali, though the highest values are found in the south. The temporal variation is relatively limited. Bio-energy resources are also concentrated in the south, but there are small pockets of high vegetation productivity in the irrigated areas of the Niger inland delta that might be interesting from a renewable energy resource perspective. Finally, the paper discusses the role that renewable energy resources might play in the energy systems of Mali, given the spatio-temporal distribution of renewable energy resources. It is argued that at the current price of about 70 US$/barrel for fossil fuels, renewable energy resources are becoming economically as well as environmentally attractive options. (author)

  20. Catalytic Conversion of Renewable Resources into Bulk and Fine Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Johannes G

    2016-12-01

    Several strategies can be chosen to convert renewable resources into chemicals. In this account, I exemplify the route that starts with so-called platform chemicals; these are relatively simple chemicals that can be produced in high yield, directly from renewable resources, either via fermentation or via chemical routes. They can be converted into the existing bulk chemicals in a very efficient manner using multistep catalytic conversions. Two examples are given of the conversion of sugars into nylon intermediates. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) can be prepared in good yield from fructose. Two hydrogenation steps convert HMF into 1,6-hexanediol. Oppenauer oxidation converts this product into caprolactone, which in the past, has been converted into caprolactam in a large-scale industrial process by reaction with ammonia. An even more interesting platform chemical is levulinic acid (LA), which can be obtained directly from lignocellulose in good yield by treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at 200°C. Hydrogenation converts LA into gamma-valerolactone, which is ring-opened and esterified in a gas-phase process to a mixture of isomeric methyl pentenoates in excellent selectivity. In a remarkable selective palladium-catalysed isomerising methoxycarbonylation, this mixture is converted in to dimethyl adipate, which is finally hydrolysed to adipic acid. Overall selectivities of both processes are extremely high. The conversion of lignin into chemicals is a much more complicated task in view of the complex nature of lignin. It was discovered that breakage of the most prevalent β-O-4 bond in lignin occurs not only via the well-documented C3 pathway, but also via a C2 pathway, leading to the formation of highly reactive phenylacetaldehydes. These compounds went largely unnoticed as they immediately recondense on lignin. We have now found that it is possible to prevent this by converting these aldehydes in a tandem reaction, as they are formed. For this purpose, we have used

  1. Awareness and Misconceptions of High School Students about Renewable Energy Resources and Applications: Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is the one of the countries in the world which has potential of renewable energy resource because of its geographical position. However, being usage of renewable energy resources and applications (RERAs) is low, it shows that awareness and consciousness of RERAs is very low too. Education must play a key role in growing out of an energy…

  2. 75 FR 4836 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... ``Tribal Energy Resource Agreements (TERAs)'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for renewal... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of request...

  3. Microgrid planning based on fuzzy interval prediction models of renewable resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales, R.; Sáez, D.; Marín, L.G.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Cordon, O.

    2016-01-01

    Microgrids are sustainable solutions for electrification of rural zones that can make use of their local renewable resources. In this paper, we propose a new method for microgrid planning which includes the effect of the uncertainties of the renewable resources explicitly. Fuzzy interval models are

  4. Sustainability Report: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2003 -- 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Sustainability Report for 2003-2004 highlights the Laboratory's comprehensive sustainability activities. These efforts demonstrate NREL's progress toward achieving overall sustainability goals. Sustainability is an inherent centerpiece of the Laboratory's work. NREL's mission--to develop renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices and transfer knowledge and innovations to address the nation's energy and environmental goals--is synergistic with sustainability. The Laboratory formalized its sustainability activities in 2000, building on earlier ideas--this report summarizes the status of activities in water use, energy use, new construction, green power, transportation, recycling, environmentally preferable purchasing, greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental management.

  5. New Horizons for Hydrogen: Producing Hydrogen from Renewable Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    Recent events have reminded us of the critical need to transition from crude oil, coal, and natural gas toward sustainable and domestic sources of energy. One reason is we need to strengthen our economy. In 2008 we saw the price of oil reach a record $93 per barrel. With higher oil prices, growing demand for gasoline, and increasing oil imports, an average of $235 billion per year, has left the United States economy to pay for foreign oil since 2005, or $1.2 trillion between 2005 and 2009. From a consumer perspective, this trend is seen with an average gasoline price of $2.50 per gallon since 2005, compared to an average of $1.60 between 1990 and 2004 (after adjusting for inflation). In addition to economic impacts, continued reliance on fossil fuels increases greenhouse gas emissions that may cause climate change, health impacts from air pollution, and the risk of disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Energy efficiency in the form of more efficient vehicles and buildings can help to reduce some of these impacts. However, over the long term we must shift from fossil resources to sustainable and renewable energy sources.

  6. Canada's resources and the national interest: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This booklet is a summary of a report prepared by an Independent Task Force on the critical policy choices facing Canada with respect to the development of its mining and petroleum resources. The main report of the Task Force (NP-22249) is accompanied by four major research studies, published as Appendices to the main report, and covering the broad subjects of the taxation of non-renewable resources, a survey of our oil and gas resources, a survey of our other mineral resources, and a possible plan for the development of our oil and gas reserves in the coming decade.

  7. Linking global scenarios to national assessments: Experiences from the Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda L. Langner; Peter J. Ince

    2012-01-01

    The Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment provides a nationally consistent analysis of the status and trends of the Nation's renewable forest resources. A global scenario approach was taken for the 2010 RPA Assessment to provide a shared world view of potential futures. The RPA Assessment scenarios were linked to the global scenarios and climate projections used...

  8. Emerging issues confronting the renewable natural resources sector in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marter, A; Gordon, A

    1996-05-01

    The renewable natural resources sector in Africa is highly important because of the relatively high proportion of livelihoods it supports relative to other developing regions. However, ongoing rapid population growth threatens the long-term survival of the sector. Key concerns include the need for agricultural intensification in the context of systems which are often located in marginal areas, the demands imposed by rapid urbanization, and access rights to essential resources such as water. The policy and institutional environment can make problems worse since trends toward greater democracy often prove destabilizing or deflect the political agenda toward short-term expediency instead of longer-term strategies essential to the renewable natural resources sector. Structural adjustment has yet to produce the expected benefits and it is clear that the private sector will be unable to meet growth and distributional objectives on its own. A broader-based strategy is needed which includes not only government institutions at national and local levels, but also nongovernmental organizations, community organizations, and regional and international bodies.

  9. The rheology, degradation, processing, and characterization of renewable resource polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jason David

    Renewable resource polymers have become an increasingly popular alternative to conventional fossil fuel based polymers over the past couple decades. The push by the government as well as both industrial and consumer markets to go "green" has provided the drive for companies to research and develop new materials that are more environmentally friendly and which are derived from renewable materials. Two polymers that are currently being produced commercially are poly-lactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers, both of which can be derived from renewable feedstocks and have shown to exhibit similar properties to conventional materials such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, and PET. PLA and PHA are being used in many applications including food packaging, disposable cups, grocery bags, and biomedical applications. In this work, we report on the rheological properties of blends of PLA and PHA copolymers. The specific materials used in the study include Natureworks RTM 7000D grade PLA and PHA copolymers of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate). Blends ranging from 10 to 50 percent PHA by weight are also examined. Shear and extensional experiments are performed to characterize the flow behavior of the materials in different flow fields. Transient experiments are performed to study the shear rheology over time in order to determine how the viscoelastic properties change under typical processing conditions and understand the thermal degradation behavior of the materials. For the blends, it is determined that increasing the PHA concentration in the blend results in a decrease in viscosity and increase in degradation. Models are fit to the viscosity of the blends using the pure material viscosities in order to be able to predict the behavior at a given blend composition. We also investigate the processability of these materials into films and examine the resultant properties of the cast films. The mechanical and thermal properties of the

  10. Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1995 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO95) forecasts. The report catalogs and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources -- wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. The RFM also reads in hydroelectric facility capacities and capacity factors from a data file for use by the NEMS Electricity Market Module (EMM). The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological, cost, and resource size characteristics of renewable energy technologies. These characteristics are used to compute a levelized cost to be competed against other similarly derived costs from other energy sources and technologies. The competition of these energy sources over the NEMS time horizon determines the market penetration of these renewable energy technologies. The characteristics include available energy capacity, capital costs, fixed operating costs, variable operating costs, capacity factor, heat rate, construction lead time, and fuel product price.

  11. Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1995 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO95) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources--wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. The RFM also reads in hydroelectric facility capacities and capacity factors from a data file for use by the NEMS Electricity Market Module (EMM). The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological, cost and resource size characteristics of renewable energy technologies. These characteristics are used to compute a levelized cost to be competed against other similarly derived costs from other energy sources and technologies. The competition of these energy sources over the NEMS time horizon determines the market penetration of these renewable energy technologies. The characteristics include available energy capacity, capital costs, fixed operating costs, variable operating costs, capacity factor, heat rate, construction lead time, and fuel product price.

  12. Help, Resources and Information: National Opioids Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Search Help, Resources and Information National Opioids Crisis Search Search Need Help? Call the National Helpline ... HHS 5-POINT STRATEGY TO COMBAT THE OPIOIDS CRISIS BETTER ADDICTION PREVENTION, TREATMENT, AND RECOVERY SERVICES BETTER ...

  13. Process Design and Evaluation for Chemicals Based on Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing

    . In addition, another characteristic of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks is that many alternative technologies and possible routes exist, resulting in many possible process flowsheets. The challenge for process engineers is then to choose between possible process routes and alternative technologies...... development of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks. As an example, this thesis especially focuses on applying the methodology in process design and evaluation of the synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from the renewable feedstock glucose/fructose. The selected example is part of the chemoenzymatic......One of the key steps in process design is choosing between alternative technologies, especially for processes producing bulk and commodity chemicals. Recently, driven by the increasing oil prices and diminishing reserves, the production of bulk and commodity chemicals from renewable feedstocks has...

  14. Renewable sources electric power: resources and challenges for the France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchereau, J.M.; Dormoy, C.

    2001-05-01

    This paper provides information (statistical data, legal framework) on the electric power produced by the renewable energy sources in France. It explains the associated local economical challenge and the french objectives in the European Union Directive. (A.L.B.)

  15. Assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy on National Forest System Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-01-01

    This technical report and CD for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (USFS), evaluates the potential for renewable energy resource development on National Forest System (NFS) lands. USFS can use the report findings to consider potential for development of solar and wind energy resources on NFS lands, in land management decisions. The Geographical Information System (GIS) based analysis resulted in the following findings: (1) Ninety-nine National Forest Units have high potential for power production from one or more of these solar and wind energy sources; and (2) Twenty National Forest Units in nine states have high potential for power production from two or more of these solar and wind energy sources.

  16. 2nd U.S.-Australia Workshop on Renewable Resource Management

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Yosef; Grantham, Walter; Kirkwood, Geoffrey; Skowronski, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This vol ume contains the proceedings of the second U. S. -Austral ia workshop on Renewable Resource Management held at the East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, December 9-12, 1985. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the National Science Foundation (USA) and the Department of Science and Technology (Austral ia) under the U. S. -Austral ia Cooperative Science Program. The objective of the workshop was to focus on problems associated with the management of renewable resource systems. A particular emphasis was given to methods for handling uncertain elements whieh are present in any real system. Toward this end, the partiei pants were chosen so that the collective expertise included mathematical modeling, dynamical control/game theory, ecology, and practical management of real systems. Each participant was invited to give an informal presentation in his field of expertise as related to the overall theme. The formal papers (contained in this vo 1 ume) were written after the workshop so that the authors coul d u...

  17. Renewable energy technology development at Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, P. C.

    1994-02-01

    The use of renewable energy technologies is typically thought of as an integral part of creating and sustaining an environment that maximizes the overall quality of life of the Earth's present inhabitants and does not leave an undue burden on future generations. Sandia National Laboratories has been a leader in developing many of these technologies over the last two decades. This paper describes innovative solar, wind and geothermal energy systems and components that Sandia is helping to bring to the marketplace. A common but special aspect of all of these activities is that they are conducted in partnership with non-federal government entities. A number of these partners are from New Mexico.

  18. Enhancement of the NEEDS-TIMES Model: Data for Spain on Biomass Resources and Renewable Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the data related to both electricity generation (focus on distributed generation and Renewable Energy Source) as well as biomass resources and transformation in Spain. It will contribute to the analysis of the renewable energy potential at the European level (RES2020 project). (Author)

  19. Survey cost of electric power generation from renewable resources in the state of Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ronaldo Pereira de; Bortoni, Edson da Costa; Haddad, Jamil

    2010-01-01

    The work presents a developed study to obtain the investment index costs for renewable based distributed generation in Goias state. A set of renewable resources was selected, along with their availability in each city of the state. Therefore, a rank of investments could be developed. (author)

  20. Enhancement of the NEEDS-TIMES Model: Data for Spain on Biomass Resources and Renewable Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the data related to both electricity generation (focus on distributed generation and Renewable Energy Source) as well as biomass resources and transformation in Spain. It will contribute to the analysis of the renewable energy potential at the European level (RES2020 project). (Author)

  1. 78 FR 23290 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs [DR.5B813.IA001113] Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... 1995, the Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs is seeking comments on the renewal of Office of...

  2. 78 FR 19005 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of request...--Indian Affairs is seeking comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for...

  3. 78 FR 37567 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs [DR.5B811.IA000913] Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior... Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs is seeking comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget...

  4. 78 FR 4867 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Secretary--Indian Affairs is seeking comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB...

  5. Canada's renewable energy resources. An assessment of potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, P; Argue, R; Burrell, T; Hathaway, G

    1976-04-01

    Rising costs of conventional, frontier and nuclear energy production and the prospect of future shortages have prompted a resurgence of interest in alternative, renewable energy technologies. This study constituted a preliminary step in determining which sources, technologies and applications may be appropriate in Canada, and when and under what conditions they might be technically and economically viable. Principal sources of renewable energy (solar radiation, wind and biomass), as well as waves, thermal gradients and sensible heat sources are reviewed to establish, in general terms, their significance in the Canadian context. Next, the technical characteristics, efficiency, costs, impacts and state-of-the-art of sixteen harnessing or conversion technologies are presented as an information base upon which to build an assessment of potential. A method of comparing the life cost of a renewable energy system to that of the likely conventional alternative is proposed and applied in cases where adequate technical and economic data are available. A variety of different economic assumptions are also outlined under which the renewable systems would be cost competitive. This costing methodology is applied in detail to four case studies: residential solar space and water heating, photovoltaics, residential, a 200 kW wind generator, and anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes. Finally, the potential for renewable energy approaches in Canada is explored and evaluated from three perspectives: technical viability, economic viability and implementation. 319 refs., 18 figs., 94 tabs.

  6. Canada's renewable energy resources: an assessment of potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, P; Argue, R; Argue, R; Burrell, T; Hathaway, G

    1976-04-01

    Rising costs of conventional, frontier, and nuclear energy production and the prospect of future shortages have prompted a resurgence of interest in alternative, renewable energy technologies. This study constitutes a preliminary step in determining which sources, technologies, and applications may be appropriate in Canada and when and under what conditions they might be technically and economically viable. Principal sources of renewable energy (solar radiation, wind, and biomass), as well as waves, thermal gradients and, sensible heat sources are reviewed to establish, in general terms, their significance in the Canadian context. Next, the technical characteristics, efficiency, costs, impacts, and state of the art of sixteen harnessing or conversion technologies are presented as an information base upon which to build an assessment of potential. A method of comparing the life cost of a renewable energy system to that of the likely conventional alternative is proposed and applied in cases where adequate technical and economic data are available. A variety of different economic assumptions are also outlined under which the renewable systems would be cost competitive. This costing methodology is applied in detail to four Case Studies: solar space and water heating--residential; photovoltaics--residential; wind generator--200 kW; and anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes. Finally, the potential for renewable energy approaches in Canada is explored and evaluated from three perspectives: technical viability, economic viability, and implementation.

  7. Sustainable hybrid photocatalysts: titania immobilized on carbon materials derived from renewable and biodegradable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review comprises the preparation, properties and heterogeneous photocatalytic applications of TiO2 immobilized on carbon materials derived from earth-abundant, renewable and biodegradable agricultural residues and sea food waste resources. The overview provides key scientifi...

  8. A pre-feasibility case study on integrated resource planning including renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Pelin; Hakan Hocaoglu, M.; Konukman, Alp Er S.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, economical and environmental constraints force governments and energy policy decision-makers to change the prominent characteristics of the electricity markets. Accordingly, depending on local conditions on the demand side, usage of integrated resource planning approaches in conjunction with renewable technologies has gained more importance. In this respect, an integrated resource planning option, which includes the design and optimization of grid-connected renewable energy plants, should be evaluated to facilitate a cost-effective and green solution to a sustainable future. In this paper, an integrated resource planning case is studied for an educational campus, located in Gebze, Turkey. It is found that for the considered campus, the integrated resource planning scenario that includes renewables as a supply-side option with existing time-of-use tariff may provide a cost-effective energy production, particularly for the high penetration level of the renewables

  9. Classroom Resources | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center Community Outreach Learning Experiences School Competitions Teacher Programs Classroom Resources Learning Center Community Outreach Learning Experiences School Competitions Teacher Programs Classroom every student and that is free from harassment and discrimination based upon race, color, religion

  10. GMLC Extreme Event Modeling -- Slow-Dynamics Models for Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkali, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Min, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The need for slow dynamics models of renewable resources in cascade modeling essentially arises from the challenges associated with the increased use of solar and wind electric power. Indeed, the main challenge is that the power produced by wind and sunlight is not consistent; thus, renewable energy resources tend to have variable output power on many different timescales, including the timescales that a cascade unfolds.

  11. Analysis of Renewable Energy Potential on U. S. National Forest Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvolanek, E. [Environmental Science Division; Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K.

    2013-12-13

    In 2005, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) completed an assessment of the potential for solar and wind energy development on National Forest System (NFS) public lands managed by the US Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service (USFS). This report provides an update of the analysis in the NREL report, and extends the analysis with additional siting factors for solar and wind energy. It also expands the scope to biomass and geothermal energy resources. Hydropower is acknowledged as another major renewable energy source on NFS lands; however, it was not analyzed in this project primarily because of the substantially different analysis that would be needed to identify suitable locations. Details about each renewable energy production technology included in the study are provided following the report introduction, including how each resource is converted to electrical power, and examples of existing power plants. The analysis approach was to use current and available Geographic Information System (GIS) data to map the distribution of the subject renewable energy resources, major siting factors, and NFS lands. For each major category of renewable energy power production, a set of siting factors were determined, including minimum levels for the renewable energy resources, and details for each of the other siting factors. Phase 1 of the analysis focused on replicating and updating the 2005 NREL analysis, and Phase 2 introduced additional siting factors and energy resources. Source data were converted to a cell-based format that helped create composite maps of locations meeting all the siting criteria. Acreages and potential power production levels for NFS units were tabulated and are presented throughout this report and the accompanying files. NFS units in the southwest United States were found to have the most potentially suitable land for concentrating solar power (CSP), especially in Arizona and New Mexico. In total, about 136,032 acres of NFS lands

  12. Status of Avian Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, K.

    2001-01-01

    As the use of wind energy expands across the United States, concerns about the impacts of commercial wind farms on bird and bat populations are frequently raised. Two primary areas of concern are (1) possible litigation resulting from the killing of even one bird if it is protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, the Endangered Species Act, or both; and (2) the effect of avian mortality on bird populations. To properly address these concerns, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supports scientifically based avian/wind power interaction research. In this paper I describe NREL's field-based research projects and summarize the status of the research. I also summarize NREL's other research activities, including lab-based vision research to increase the visibility of moving turbine blades and avian acoustic research, as well as our collaborative efforts with the National Wind Coordinating Committee's Avian Subcommittee

  13. Smoothing effect for spatially distributed renewable resources and its impact on power grid robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Motoki; Hirata, Yoshito; Fujiwara, Naoya; Tanaka, Gouhei; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we show that spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs greatly influences the robustness of the power grids against large fluctuations of the effective power. First, we evaluate the spatial correlation among renewable energy outputs. We find that the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs depends on the locations, while the influence of the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs on power grids is not well known. Thus, second, by employing the topology of the power grid in eastern Japan, we analyze the robustness of the power grid with spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs. The analysis is performed by using a realistic differential-algebraic equations model. The results show that the spatial correlation of the energy resources strongly degrades the robustness of the power grid. Our results suggest that we should consider the spatial correlation of the renewable energy outputs when estimating the stability of power grids.

  14. Science requirements for free-flying imaging radar (FIREX) experiment for sea ice, renewable resources, nonrenewable resources and oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    A future bilateral SAR program was studied. The requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by science and operations in sea-ice-covered waters, oceanography, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources are addressed. The instrument, mission, and program parameters were discussed. Research investigations supporting a SAR flight and the subsequent overall mission requirements and tradeoffs are summarized.

  15. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  16. Forest resources of the Lincoln National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Lincoln National Forest 1997 inventory...

  17. National Aquatic Resource Survey data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Surface water monitoring data from national aquatic surveys (lakes, streams, rivers). This dataset is associated with the following publication: Stoddard , J., J....

  18. Exploration of resource and transmission expansion decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Andrew; Phadke, Amol; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33% of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33% RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65%). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41%). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19% of the total delivered cost of renewable energy. - Research highlights: → We describe a new tool to evaluate transmission expansion and renewable resource selection. → We examine a scenario where 33% of the energy in the Western Interconnection comes from renewables. → Wind energy provides the majority of new renewable energy. → For some loads, the decision to procure wind and the required transmission is insensitive to assumptions. → For other loads, assumptions can shift toward more solar, which also changes the needed transmission.

  19. Model documentation: Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it related to the production of the 1994 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO94) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves two purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources -- wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. Of these six, four are documented in the following chapters: municipal solid waste, wind, solar and biofuels. Geothermal and wood are not currently working components of NEMS. The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological and cost characteristics of renewable energy technologies, and to pass these characteristics to other NEMS modules for the determination of mid-term forecasted renewable energy demand.

  20. Including alternative resources in state renewable portfolio standards: Current design and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, Jenny; Bird, Lori

    2013-01-01

    As of October 2012, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. Increasingly, new RPS polices have included alternative resources. Alternative resources have included energy efficiency, thermal resources, and, to a lesser extent, non-renewables. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation. - Highlights: • Increasingly, new RPS policies have included alternative resources. • Nearly all states provide a separate tier or cap on the quantity of eligible alternative resources. • Where allowed, non-renewables and energy efficiency are being heavily utilized

  1. More than wind: evaluating renewable energy opportunities for First Nations in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Diana [MREM Canada (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    The Nova Scotia and New Brunswick governments have committed to developing the renewable energy sector in the coming years. However, due to a lack of information, First Nations are not familiar with renewable energy technologies and their economic opportunities. The aim of this paper is to provide First Nations with information on the different renewable energies. It has been noticed that First Nations have not seized either the opportunities offered by the Nova Scotia feed-in tariff nor the New Brunswick community energy policy and an overview of these policies is provided. In addition, information on renewable energy technologies is presented along with potential opportunities specific to each First Nation in the 2 provinces. This paper provides First Nations with useful information on renewable energy and with recommendations for immediate and long term action; it is expected that this document will result in a greater involvement of First Nations in the renewable energy sector.

  2. Renewable liquid transport fuels from microbes and waste resources

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhodri

    2014-01-01

    In order to satisfy the global requirement for transport fuel sustainably, renewable liquid biofuels must be developed. Currently, two biofuels dominate the market; bioethanol for spark ignition and biodiesel for compression ignition engines. However, both fuels exhibit technical issues such as low energy density, poor low temperature performance and poor stability. In addition, bioethanol and biodiesel sourced from first generation feedstocks use arable land in competition with food producti...

  3. A Global Look at Future Trends in the Renewable Energy Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Freedman, J. M.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.; Brower, M.

    2017-12-01

    With the aggressive deployment of utility-scale and distributed generation of wind and solar energy systems, an accurate estimate of the uncertainty associated with future resource trends and plant performance is crucial in maintaining financial integrity in the renewable energy markets. With continuing concerns regarding climate change, the move towards energy resiliency, and the cost-competitiveness of renewables, a rapidly expanding fleet of utility-scale wind and solar power facilities and distributed generation of both resources is now being incorporated into the electric distribution grid. Although solar and wind account for about 3% of global power production, renewable energy is now and will continue to be the world's fastest-growing energy source. With deeper penetration of renewables, confidence in future power production output on a spectrum of temporal and spatial scales is crucial to grid stability for long-term planning and achieving national and international targets in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we use output from a diverse subset of Earth System Models (Climate Model Inter-comparison Project-Phase 5 members) to produce projected trends and uncertainties in regional and global seasonal and inter-annual wind and solar power production and respective capacity factors through the end of the 21st century. Our trends and uncertainty analysis focuses on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. For wind and solar energy production estimates, we extract surface layer wind (extrapolated to hub height), irradiance, cloud fraction, and temperature (air temperature affects density [hence wind power production] and the efficiency of photovoltaic [PV] systems), output from the CMIP5 ensemble mean fields for the period 2020 - 2099 and an historical baseline for POR of 1986 - 2005 (compared with long-term observations and the ERA-Interim Reanalysis). Results include representative statistics such as the

  4. 75 FR 29533 - National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... and Technology Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice....2, the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT) is a necessary...

  5. Values of Land and Renewable Resources in a Three-Sector Economic Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei-Bin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies dynamic interdependence of capital, land and resource values in a three sector growth model with endogenous wealth and renewable resources. The model is based on the neoclassical growth theory, Ricardian theory and growth theory with renewable resources. The household’s decision is modeled with an alternative approach proposed by Zhang two decades ago. The economic system consists of the households, industrial, agricultural, and resource sectors. The model describes a dynamic interdependence between wealth accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of a unique stable equilibrium point and plot the motion of the dynamic system. The study conducts comparative dynamic analysis with regard to changes in the propensity to consume resources, the propensity to consume housing, the propensity to consume agricultural goods, the propensity to consume industrial goods, the propensity to save, the population, and the output elasticity of capital of the resource sector.

  6. Definition of a remuneration system for heat from renewable resources; Ausgestaltung einer Einspeiseverguetung fuer erneuerbare Waerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R.; Ott, W.; Philippen, D.; Umbricht, A.

    2009-06-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with proposals for a remuneration system for heat obtained from renewable resources. Local and regional district heating systems cover around three percent of Swiss heating needs. The authors estimate that, if these systems were to be operated completely using renewable resources such as biomass, ambient heat and the renewable portion of heat from waste incineration, around seven per cent of needs could be met. Further, around 10,000 heating systems with a power of more than 350 kW could be operated with renewables. A further potential for the use of renewable heating resources can be found in wastewater treatment plants and industrial waste heat. Various obstacles and restraints on the use of renewable resources in the heating area are discussed. The idea of providing a cost-covering remuneration system for heat is discussed and compared with that for renewable electricity. The proposed system is discussed, which would provide investment subsidies, risk-coverage and project development subsidies. The report discusses the results of a market analysis and the differences to be found between the markets for electricity and heat. Existing promotional programs are noted and the aims of a possible remuneration system are discussed. A concept for a promotion program for renewable heat generation and the use of waste heat is introduced. The installations to be promoted and the amount of remuneration to be paid out are discussed. Finally, the costs and the effects of the proposed promotion scheme are discussed. A comprehensive appendix provides details on the proposed system and provides information on market volume, energy resources, networks and infrastructure, providers of heat energy, heat consumers and general conditions as far as factors such as pricing and legislation are concerned. Finally, the 'Climate Cent' foundation is commented on.

  7. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Phadke, Amol A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2010-06-10

    The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33percent of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33percent RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65percent). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41percent). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19percent of the total delivered cost of renewable energy.

  8. The Preston Geothermal Resources; Renewed Interest in a Known Geothermal Resource Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas R. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Worthing, Wade [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cannon, Cody [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Carl [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis L [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Mattson, Earl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Dobson, Patric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Conrad, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

    2015-01-01

    The Preston Geothermal prospect is located in northern Cache Valley approximately 8 kilometers north of the city of Preston, in southeast Idaho. The Cache Valley is a structural graben of the northern portion of the Basin and Range Province, just south of the border with the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). This is a known geothermal resource area (KGRA) that was evaluated in the 1970's by the State of Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR) and by exploratory wells drilled by Sunedco Energy Development. The resource is poorly defined but current interpretations suggest that it is associated with the Cache Valley structural graben. Thermal waters moving upward along steeply dipping northwest trending basin and range faults emanate in numerous hot springs in the area. Springs reach temperatures as hot as 84° C. Traditional geothermometry models estimated reservoir temperatures of approximately 125° C in the 1970’s study. In January of 2014, interest was renewed in the areas when a water well drilled to 79 m (260 ft) yielded a bottom hole temperature of 104° C (217° F). The well was sampled in June of 2014 to investigate the chemical composition of the water for modeling geothermometry reservoir temperature. Traditional magnesium corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometry estimates this new well to be tapping water from a thermal reservoir of 227° C (440° F). Even without the application of improved predictive methods, the results indicate much higher temperatures present at much shallower depths than previously thought. This new data provides strong support for further investigation and sampling of wells and springs in the Northern Cache Valley, proposed for the summer of 2015. The results of the water will be analyzed utilizing a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry (MEG) tool called Reservoir Temperature Estimate (RTEst) to obtain an improved estimate of the reservoir temperature. The new data suggest that other KGRAs and overlooked areas may need

  9. Securing renewable resource supplies for changing market demands in a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Struik, P.C.; Rabbinge, R.

    2005-01-01

    Establishment of a bio-based economy has been recognised as one of the key issues for sustainable development For future developments renewable resources will play a key role as CO2 neutral raw material for sustainable industrial production to curb depletion of fossil resources. Options to fully

  10. Dynamic taxation of non-renewable natural resources under asymmetric information about reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, P.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted in which a model was developed for the effective tax collection of non-renewable natural resources, subject to private information about reserves. Most governments are faced with the problem that resource exploitation companies possess private information about the size of reserves. Often governments do not know if a company's high costs are due to low reserves or to strategic cost reporting. This model was designed to solve that problem. It was shown that the specific cost characteristics of extracting non-renewable natural resource make it desirable to reduce both the extent and the pace of extraction. This conclusion was reached using both a two-period model and a time terminal endogenized model. Although this paper referred specifically to petroleum, the model applies for all types of non-renewable natural resources. 21 refs

  11. Renewable energy resources for distributed generation systems in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczuk, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    The South African Government has objective to provide universal access of electricity for its citizens and its electrification programme has been successful but focus has moved from numbers of connections to one of achieving sustainable socio-economic benefits. First-hand understanding was obtained of the complexity of socio-economic development where CSIR undertook a project in the rural areas of South Africa to identify electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to economic activities. Lessons formed basis of a government funding implementation of pilot hybrid mini-grids to inform a future rollout. Results informed the development of distributed generation concepts and an integrated methodology.

  12. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  13. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy inWestern Utility Resource Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Markets for renewable electricity have grown significantly in recent years, motivated in part by federal tax incentives and in part by state renewables portfolio standards and renewable energy funds. State renewables portfolio standards, for example, motivated approximately 45% of the 4,300 MW of wind power installed in the U.S. from 2001 through 2004, while renewable energy funds supported an additional 15% of these installations. Despite the importance of these state policies, a less widely recognized driver for renewable energy market growth is poised to also play an important role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Formal resource planning processes have re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions - primarily coming from wind power - are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. The treatment of renewable energy in utility resource plans is not uniform, however. Assumptions about the direct and indirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resource availability, differ, as do approaches to incorporating such resources into the candidate portfolios that are analyzed in utility IRPs. The treatment of natural gas price risk, as well as the risk of future environmental regulations, also varies substantially. How utilities balance expected portfolio cost versus risk in selecting a preferred portfolio also differs. Each of these variables may have a substantial effect on the degree to which renewable energy contributes to the preferred portfolio of each utility IRP. This article

  14. The Project Activities of the Renewable Energy Resources Use in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Jovanović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the ratification of the Energy Community of Southeast Europe countries (14th July 2006 the Republic of Serbia, among other things, accepted the obligation to adopt and implement a plan of applying the Directive 2001/77/EC about promoting the production of electrical energy from renewable energy sources. The projects of the renewable energy resources use have a positive impact on the environment, in particular about the mitigation of global climate change and local environmental sustainability.

  15. Propylene from renewable resources: catalytic conversion of glycerol into propylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yong-Mei; He, He-Yong; Fan, Kang-Nian; Cao, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Propylene, one of the most demanded commodity chemicals, is obtained overwhelmingly from fossil resources. In view of the diminishing fossil resources and the ongoing climate change, the identification of new efficient and alternative routes for the large-scale production of propylene from biorenewable resources has become essential. Herein, a new selective route for the synthesis of propylene from bio-derived glycerol is demonstrated. The route consists of the formation of 1-propanol (a versatile bulk chemical) as intermediate through hydrogenolysis of glycerol at a high selectivity. A subsequent dehydration produces propylene. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Phadke, Amol; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-02-16

    Building transmission to reach renewable energy (RE) goals requires coordination among renewable developers, utilities and transmission owners, resource and transmission planners, state and federal regulators, and environmental organizations. The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this report we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33% of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Of the renewable resources in WREZ resource hubs, and under the assumptions described in this report, our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33% RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65%). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41%). Solar exceeds wind by a small margin only when solar thermal energy is assumed to experience cost reductions relative to all other technologies. Biomass, geothermal, and hydropower are found to represent a smaller portion of the selected resources, largely due to the limited resource quantity of these resources identified within the WREZ-identified hubs (16-23% combined). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Uncertainties and policies that impact bus-bar costs are the most important to evaluate carefully, but

  17. America's Changing Energy Landscape - USGS National Coal Resources Data System Changes to National Energy Resources Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, J. A., II

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Eastern Energy Resources Science Center (EERSC) has an ongoing project which has mapped coal chemistry and stratigraphy since 1977. Over the years, the USGS has collected various forms of coal data and archived that data into the National Coal Resources Data System (NCRDS) database. NCRDS is a repository that houses data from the major coal basins in the United States and includes information on location, seam thickness, coal rank, geologic age, geographic region, geologic province, coalfield, and characteristics of the coal or lithology for that data point. These data points can be linked to the US Coal Quality Database (COALQUAL) to include ultimate, proximate, major, minor and trace-element data. Although coal is an inexpensive energy provider, the United States has shifted away from coal usage recently and branched out into other forms of non-renewable and renewable energy because of environmental concerns. NCRDS's primary method of data capture has been USGS field work coupled with cooperative agreements with state geological agencies and universities doing coal-related research. These agreements are on competitive five-year cycles that have evolved into larger scope research efforts including solid fuel resources such as coal-bed methane, shale gas and oil. Recently these efforts have expanded to include environmental impacts of the use of fossil fuels, which has allowed the USGS to enter into agreements with states for the Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Assessment as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act. In 2016 they expanded into research areas to include geothermal, conventional and unconventional oil and gas. The NCRDS and COALQUAL databases are now online for the public to use, and are in the process of being updated to include new data for other energy resources. Along with this expansion of scope, the database name will change to the National Energy Resources Data System (NERDS) in FY 2017.

  18. Model documentation, Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. For AEO98, the RFM was modified in three principal ways, introducing capital cost elasticities of supply for new renewable energy technologies, modifying biomass supply curves, and revising assumptions for use of landfill gas from municipal solid waste (MSW). In addition, the RFM was modified in general to accommodate projections beyond 2015 through 2020. Two supply elasticities were introduced, the first reflecting short-term (annual) cost increases from manufacturing, siting, and installation bottlenecks incurred under conditions of rapid growth, and the second reflecting longer term natural resource, transmission and distribution upgrade, and market limitations increasing costs as more and more of the overall resource is used. Biomass supply curves were also modified, basing forest products supplies on production rather than on inventory, and expanding energy crop estimates to include states west of the Mississippi River using information developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Finally, for MSW, several assumptions for the use of landfill gas were revised and extended.

  19. A regional-scale assessment of local renewable energy resources in Cumbria, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormally, A.M.; Whyatt, J.D.; Timmis, R.J.; Pooley, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the role small-scale decentralised renewable energy developments could play in helping the UK meet its target of over 15% renewable energy by the year 2020 and alter energy behaviours through active community engagement. Upland areas are considered key areas where such community-based developments could occur due to their natural resources and range of community scales. This study uses GIS-based techniques to develop a methodology that assesses the regional-scale potential for community-based renewable electricity across Cumbria and whether a combination of these developments at the community-scale could make a significant contribution to local electricity consumption. This methodology looks at a range of technologies including hydro-power, wind-power, solar PV and bioenergy. The results suggest there is ample resource available for small communities by combining a mix of localised renewable electricity developments, which is highlighted through energy scenarios for a selected community. Further work will investigate whether this potential can be realised in reality by looking at resource resilience and community-level acceptability. - Highlights: ► A mix of wind, solar, bioenergy and hydro-power options are presented for Cumbria, UK. ► High resolution spatial analysis is conducted focussing on localised developments. ► Locations with sufficient renewable electricity potential were identified. ► Renewable options are explored further through a town case study. ► Scenarios consider different scales, mixes and contributions to local energy demand.

  20. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  1. Stewards of a national resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Events of the past several years have had a profound impact on the mission of the Department of Energy. Most notably, the end of the Cold War has made it possible for us to reorient our mission from primarily the design, production, and testing of nuclear weapons toward: increasing efficiency and the choice of energy sources, supporting basic and applied research in science and technology, addressing environmental quality issues, improving industrial competitiveness, and a continued contribution to a secure national defense. These changes in direction will have a lasting effect on all of us. In all our efforts we have emphasized the need to earn trust and build partnerships. This booklet tells the story of a part of this change: new uses for our 50 major sites encompassing 2.4 million acres of land and billions of dollars worth of facilities. These new uses will reach beyond beating swords into plowshares and cleaning up our production facilities. They will include ecosystem protection, economic development, and industrial competitiveness. This is our future. None of this will be successful without the meaningful participation of our stakeholders: businesses and entrepreneurs, citizen groups, neighbors of our sites, government officials, and the American public as a whole. This booklet is to provide some insights into the new direction for our land and facilities

  2. Short run effects of bleaker prospects for oligopolistic producers of a non-renewable resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimsrud, Kristine; Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid; Tsygankova, Marina

    2013-01-15

    In a non-renewable resource market with imperfect competition, the resource owners' supply is governed both by current demand and by the resource rent. New information regarding future market conditions will typically affect the resource rent and hence current supply. Bleaker prospects will tend to accelerate extraction. We show, however, that for resource owners with substantial resource stocks, a more pessimistic outlook may in fact slow down early extraction. The explanation is that for players with extensive resource stocks, the resource rent is limited and supply is more driven by current market considerations. As players with less resources accelerate their supply, it may be optimal for the large resource owners to cut back on their supply. We illustrate this in the case of the European gas market, finding that the shale gas revolution may lead to an accelerated supply by most gas producers, but a postponement of Russian gas extraction.(Author)

  3. DETERMINATION OF PROCESSES OF USE, PRESERVING AND REPRODUCTION IN THE SYSTEM OF RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Gazuda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to develop factor model of renewable natural resources management, specifying the assessment of the amount of resource, including the natural factor, consumption level and intensity of reproduction. Methodology. The survey is based on highlighting factors influencing the reproductive capacity of natural environment. It allows, on the base of taking into consideration reproductive abilities of resources and intensity of consumption, to substantiate three models for their use, including: heavy exploitation of renewable natural resources as the most commonly used model at the current level of development of society; model of reproductive use of natural resources, stipulating for the interference from the side of authorities and management, and the model of simple reproduction of renewable natural resources, at which the resource itself and the amount of its reproduction for the next period remain constant. Practical implications. The need is substantiated in implementation of the new model for determination of the processes of managing balanced use of natural resources, which will stipulate processes of reproduction in the sphere of natural management, form new approaches to environmental protection and promote the optimal ratio between the consumption and reproduction of natural resources. At this, the processes of natural reproduction are influenced by the amount of resource itself, intensity of its reproduction and level of consumption. The main objective of the managing bodies in the sphere of the use of renewable natural resources should be securing optimal ratio between consumption and reproduction of such natural resources. The efficiency of the implementation process and reproduction of natural resources presupposes providing their simple and extended reproduction, economic effectiveness and sustainability in allocation and use of such resources. This will have positive effect on ecological and economic security

  4. Hawaii energy strategy project 3: Renewable energy resource assessment and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    RLA Consulting (RLA) has been retained by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) to conduct a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. This three-phase program is part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES), which is a multi-faceted program intended to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Phase 1 of the project, Development of a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Plan, is to better define the most promising potential renewable energy projects and to establish the most suitable locations for project development in the state. In order to accomplish this goal, RLA has identified constraints and requirements for renewable energy projects from six different renewable energy resources: wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and ocean thermal. These criteria were applied to areas with sufficient resource for commercial development and the results of Phase 1 are lists of projects with the most promising development potential for each of the technologies under consideration. Consideration of geothermal energy was added to this investigation under a separate contract with DBEDT. In addition to the project lists, a monitoring plan was developed with recommended locations and a data collection methodology for obtaining additional wind and solar data. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. Market Opportunities for Cellulose Products From Combined Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihare, Lauma; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates available resources that has not been used or is used with low added value, such as woody crops, forest residues and invasive species possibilities in case of cellulosic products. Main aspect is this study is market outlook, to see if the products can have positive market sales if produced. Resource have been selected by availability and current usage and properties they contain. Products have been chosen the most basic, to see is there possibility to enter an existing cellulose product markets. GE/McKinsey matrix have been used for clear visual decision making. The results show that only two out of seven products has a potential in international market.

  6. Renewables in figures. National and international trends in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    This publication provides information for the fields electricity / heat / fuels in detail on the expansion of renewable energies and illustrates this with tables and graphs. Basis of the data are the results of the Working Group on Renewable Energy Sources Statistics (AGEE-Stat), on behalf of the BMWi working out the balance of renewable energy in Germany. In addition you will also find information about Renewable Energy Law and to promote renewable Energy for heating purposes as well as for research and Development. In addition to the figures for Germany are also developments in the use of renewable energy in the European Union documented which also has set ambitious targets. Data for global Development are also included. [de

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun Williams

    2013-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at Idaho National Laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The Idaho National Laboratory is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable, bear valuable physical and intangible legacies, and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through regular reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of appendices

  8. 78 FR 79005 - Charter Renewal for the National Park System Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... amended. Certification: I hereby certify that the renewal of the National Park System Advisory Board is... of the Interior by the National Park Service Organic Act (16 U.S.C. 1 et seq.), and other statutes...

  9. Renewable energy resources and management appliances-use of smart technologies in the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultan, J.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution is aimed at analyzing the impact of renewable energy resources to power system steady modes and the possibility of using smart technology to reduce the impact of inequalities and the variance of the energies and the quality of energy supplied. The use of smart technologies in the form of active dynamic appliances in response to network conditions to reduce effects of stochastic renewable resources dynamic impacts / wind blasts, quickly changing sunlight emissions on solar panels, increasing the amount of water in flow-based water power plants /or a change in network status. Active response appliances, depending on network conditions, improves parameters of economic power generation, transmission, distribution and consumption. (Authors)

  10. Growth curves and sustained commissioning modelling of renewable energy: Investigating resource constraints for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsson, Simon; Grandell, Leena; Wachtmeister, Henrik; Höök, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have proposed fast transitions to energy systems based on renewable energy technology. Many of them dismiss potential physical constraints and issues with natural resource supply, and do not consider the growth rates of the individual technologies needed or how the energy systems are to be sustained over longer time frames. A case study is presented modelling potential growth rates of the wind energy required to reach installed capacities proposed in other studies, taking into account the expected service life of wind turbines. A sustained commissioning model is proposed as a theoretical foundation for analysing reasonable growth patterns for technologies that can be sustained in the future. The annual installation and related resource requirements to reach proposed wind capacity are quantified and it is concluded that these factors should be considered when assessing the feasibility, and even the sustainability, of fast energy transitions. Even a sustained commissioning scenario would require significant resource flows, for the transition as well as for sustaining the system, indefinitely. Recent studies that claim there are no potential natural resource barriers or other physical constraints to fast transitions to renewable energy appear inadequate in ruling out these concerns. - Highlights: • Growth rates and service life is important when evaluating energy transitions. • A sustained commissioning model is suggested for analysing renewable energy. • Natural resource requirements for renewable energy are connected to growth rates. • Arguments by recent studies ruling out physical constraints appear inadequate

  11. Energy policy, aid, and the development of renewable energy resources in Small Island Developing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, Matthew; Shah, Kalim U.

    2016-01-01

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have established ambitious renewable energy targets. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by several factors: a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, to attract development assistance in the energy sector, and to strengthen the position of SIDS in climate change negotiations. Here we explore the interplay between the role of aid and energy policy in the development of renewable energy resources in SIDS. We find that the importance of development assistance has implications for the sustainability of renewable energy development, given that funding is not always accompanied by necessary energy policy reforms. We also identify energy efficiency and access to modern energy services as having received insufficient attention in the establishment and structure of renewable energy targets in SIDS, and argue that this is problematic due to the strong economic case for such investments. - Highlights: • SIDS have established the world's most ambitious renewable energy targets. • These are motivated by fossil fuel dependence and climate change vulnerability. • Aid dependence has influenced the ambition of renewable energy targets. • Energy efficiency and energy access have received insufficient attention. • Domestic policy reforms necessary for the achievement of targets has been limited.

  12. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrey, Diana Lee

    2009-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrey, Diana Lee

    2011-02-01

    As a federal agency, the U.S. Department of Energy has been directed by Congress, the U.S. president, and the American public to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historic, and other cultural resources on the lands it administers. This mandate to preserve cultural resources in a spirit of stewardship for the future is outlined in various federal preservation laws, regulations, and guidelines such as the National Historic Preservation Act, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act, and the National Environmental Policy Act. The purpose of this Cultural Resource Management Plan is to describe how the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office will meet these responsibilities at the Idaho National Laboratory. This Laboratory, which is located in southeastern Idaho, is home to a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least 13,500 years of human occupation in the southeastern Idaho area. These resources are nonrenewable; bear valuable physical and intangible legacies; and yield important information about the past, present, and perhaps the future. There are special challenges associated with balancing the preservation of these sites with the management and ongoing operation of an active scientific laboratory. The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is committed to a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting both the spirit and intent of the legislative mandates. This document is designed for multiple uses and is intended to be flexible and responsive to future changes in law or mission. Document flexibility and responsiveness will be assured through annual reviews and as-needed updates. Document content includes summaries of Laboratory cultural resource philosophy and overall Department of Energy policy; brief contextual overviews of Laboratory missions, environment, and cultural history; and an overview of cultural resource management practices. A series of

  14. Solid domestic wastes as a renewable resource: European experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridland, V. S.; Livshits, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ways in which different types of solid domestic wastes, such as wastepaper, crushed glass, plastics and worn-out tires, can be efficiently included into the production, raw-material, and energy balances of the national economy are shown taking Germany and other European countries an example. Methods for recycling these solid domestic wastes and application fields of the obtained products are discussed.

  15. Distributed generation for South Africa based on renewable energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid mini-grid systems at the Hluleka Nature Reserve and Lucingweni on the Wild coast of the Eastern Cape Province of South African were implemented to provide the experience necessary to develop a nation wide rollout plan for hybrid mini...

  16. Renewable resources-based approach to biantennary glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabandeh, Mojtaba; Salman, Abbas Abdulameer; Goh, Ean Wai; Heidelberg, Thorsten; Hussen, Rusnah Syahila Duali

    2018-01-31

    A new synthesis approach towards biantennary lipids of Guerbet glycoside type was developed based on oleic acid as sustainable resource. Functionalization of the double bond provided access to primary alcohols with α-branched C 19 -skeleton. Formulation studies with corresponding lactosides indicated formation of vesicles with high assembly stability. A relatively narrow bimodal size distribution of the latter, which turns into a narrow unimodal distribution of small vesicles upon addition of an ionic cosurfactant, suggests potential for a vesicular drug delivery system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Harvesting Renewable Resources of Population with Size Structure and Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-Jun Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to explore the optimal exploitation way for a biological resources model incorporating individual’s size difference and spatial effects. The existence of a unique nonnegative solution to the state system is shown by means of Banach’s fixed point theorem, and the continuous dependence of the population density with the harvesting effort is given. The optimal harvesting strategy is established via normal cone and adjoint system technique. Some conditions are found to assure that there is only one optimal policy.

  18. The largest renewable, easily exploitable, and economically sustainable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, Giancarlo; Saraceno, Eugenio

    2018-02-01

    Sun, the ultimate energy resource of our planet, transfers energy to the Earth at an average power of 23,000 TW. Earth surface can be regarded as a huge panel transforming solar energy into a more convenient mechanical form, the wind. Since millennia wind is recognized as an exploitable form of energy and it is common knowledge that the higher you go, the stronger the winds flow. To go high is difficult; however Bill Gates cites high wind among possible energy miracles in the near future. Public awareness of this possible miracle is still missing, but today's technology is ready for it.

  19. Three essays on the exploration for non-renewable resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, P.A.

    1990-06-01

    A new additional motive for exploration activity is proposed in the first essay. When exploration occurs before the resource is extracted, there is an incentive to use exploration activity as a strategic instrument to capture market share and inflict capital losses on rivals. This provides an incentive for governments to use strategic taxation to capture greater rents from the imperfectly competitive world output markets. Analytic expressions for the optimal domestic extraction tax and exploration subsidy are presented. In the second essay, Canadian data are used to estimate a multiple-output translog exploration cost function. A new definition of depletion is introduced and its estimated coefficient is found to be statistically significant. Monte Carlo integration techniques were applied to ensure the estimated cost function satisfies concavity and monotonicity. The fitted cost function parameters are then used to estimate the marginal cost of oil and gas exploration. These estimates are used, along with estimates of exploration rents, to measure resource scarcity. In the third essay, Canadian data are used to estimate a stochastic and dynamic model of oil exploration and extraction in Alberta. The main determinants of current period extraction are one period lagged extraction and one period expected extraction. The main determinants of current period exploration are one period lagged cumulative exploration and a relative price variable. 150 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs

  20. Harvesting heterogeneous renewable resources: uncoordinated, selfish, team-, and community-oriented strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brede, M.; de Vries, H.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068361599

    2009-01-01

    Using the example of a fishing fleet harvesting in different fishing zones with different carrying capacities and growth rates, we investigate strategies for the exploitation of distributed renewable resources by a crowd of agents without centralized coordination. In agent-based simulations we

  1. On dynamical multi-team Cournot game in exploitation of a renewable resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asker, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    A dynamical multi-team Cournot game is formulated for a renewable resource (harvest fish and sell it in a market). Puu's imperfect information to dynamic standard game is generalized to multi-team Cournot game. The asymptotic stability of the equilibrium solution of the resulting game is studied

  2. Debriefing Can Reduce Misperceptions of Feedback: The Case of Renewable Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudrat-Ullah, Hassan

    2007-01-01

    According to the hypothesis of misperception of feedback, people's poor performance in renewable resource management tasks can be attributed to their general tendency to systematically misperceive the dynamics of bioeconomic systems. The thesis of this article is that dynamic decision performance can be improved by helping individuals develop more…

  3. Hydrogen research and development in Hawaii: Hawaii natural energy institute's hydrogen from renewable resources research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, K.R.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Takahashi, P.K.; Jensen, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Hawaii, an energy-vulnerable state, has launched a Renewable Resources Research Program, focusing on hydrogen production and storage; the main tasks of this effort are: photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen through the use of coated silicon electrodes; solar conversion and the production of hydrogen with cyanobacteria; improved hydrogen storage through the use of nonclassical poly-hydride metal complexes. 10 refs

  4. Efficient and Optimal Capital Accumulation under a Non Renewable Resource Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Moreaux, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Usual resource models with capital accumulation focus upon simple one to one process transforming output either into some consumption good or into some capitalgood. We consider a bisectoral model where the capital good, labor and a non renewable resource are used to produce the consumption good and the capital good. Capitalaccumulation is an irreversible process and capital is depreciating over time. In thisframework we reconsider the usual results of the efficient and optimal growth theoryun...

  5. National Electric Sector Cybersecurity Organization Resource (NESCOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-06-30

    The goal of the National Electric Sector Cybersecurity Organization Resource (NESCOR) project was to address cyber security issues for the electric sector, particularly in the near and mid-term. The following table identifies the strategies from the DOE Roadmap to Achieve Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity published in September 2011 that are applicable to the NESCOR project.

  6. Career Planning: Developing the Nation's Primary Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Phillip S.

    Career planning is the most critical ingredient in developing a nation's primary resource, its workers. A 1988 Gallup Poll showed that 62 percent of U.S. workers had no career goal when they began their first job, and more than 50 percent felt they were in the wrong job. The same results probably could be applied to Canada. Career planning skills…

  7. Metal recycling - a renewable resource in Gulf Cooperative Countries region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E. [Bahrain Univ. (Bahrain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-01

    The exhaustion of natural resources and growing environmental awareness highlighted the necessity of metal recycling all over the world. The production/consumption activities in the GCC region do generate annually a huge amount of valuable ferrous and nonferrous metal scrap. This paper deals with the benefits of metal recycling to the GCC region in lights of energetic, environmental and economic points of view. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die abnehmenden Vorraete von Primaermetallen sowie das zunehmende Umweltbewusstsein machen das Metall-Recycling auf der ganzen Welt notwendig. Die Produktions- und Verbrauchsaktivitaeten in der GCC-Region erzeugen jaehrlich riesige Mengen von wertvollem eisen- und nicht eisenhaltigen Schrott. Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit dem Energie-Verbrauch, dem Umweltschutz und der Wirtschaft des Recycling und stellt dessen Vorteile fuer die GCC-Region vor. (orig.)

  8. National uranium resource evaluation, preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The results of the initial phase of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) are reported. NURE is a comprehensive nationwide program to evaluate uranium resources and to identify areas favorable for uranium exploration. Part I presents estimates of uranium ore reserves and potential resources available at costs (not prices) of $10, $15, and $30 per pound U 3 O 8 (uranium oxide). These estimates comprise the national uranium resource position. They are, however, preliminary because limitations of time and available geologic data prevented adequate assessment of some areas that may be favorable for potential resources. Part II presents the potential uranium resources for each of 13 regions, whose boundaries have been drawn chiefly on geologic considerations. The general geology is summarized, and the types of uranium deposits are described. Although limited geologic reconnaissance was done in various parts of the country, the report is based primarily on the compilation and evaluation of data in ERDA files. Mining companies furnished a substantial amount of information on exploration results, development, production, and future plans. Published, manuscript, and open-file reports by government agencies, universities, and research organizations were reviewed. In addition, many individuals affiliated with universities and with state and federal agencies provided supplemental geologic information. This was particularly helpful in the eastern and central states and in Alaska, where information on uranium occurrences is limited

  9. 76 FR 36532 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, Horizon Wind...), Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, and Horizon Wind Energy LLC (Complainants) filed a formal complaint against Bonneville Power Administration...

  10. Possibilities of electricity generation from solar and other renewable resources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasdemiroglu, E.

    1993-01-01

    The paper begins by reviewing the conventional power generation in the country. Increasing power demand due to rapid industrialization as well as the environmental consequences of power generation will be discussed. The potential of renewable energy resources including solar, biomass, wind, and wave and their role in the power generation will be pointed out. Among the strong alternatives are thermal power plants, and rural electricity production by photovoltaic and by small wind machines. Finally, the technical economic difficulties in adapting renewable electricity generation systems for the conditions of the country will be discussed. (Author) 22 refs

  11. FY 2009 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Annual Report: A Year of Energy Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-01-01

    This FY2009 Annual Report surveys the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) accomplishments in renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development, commercialization and deployment of technologies, and strategic energy analysis. It offers NREL's vision and progress in building a clean, sustainable research campus and reports on community involvement.

  12. 75 FR 66797 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH), Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration [Docket No. OSHA-2010-0012] National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH), Charter Renewal AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of renewal of the NACOSH charter...

  13. Integration of wide scale renewable resources into the power delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The CD includes the 60 papers presented and discussed, which cover the following: - National experiences with wind power; - Impact of wind generation on planning; - Rules for connection of wind generation; grid codes; - Impact on operation: Forecasting wind generation; Stability, control; - Research, fields and labs; Modelling and simulation; Micro-grids; - Economics on integrating renewables and other general issues

  14. The Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Marta Bourke Calgon Carbon Corporation Joe Bozell National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kyd Brenner Corn Refiners Association Robert Brown Iowa State...Rowe Dow Chemical Company Colin Scanes Iowa State University Tom Schechinger Iron Horse Custom Farming LLC Sharon Shoemaker California Institute of Food

  15. Using modeling, satellite images and existing global datasets for rapid preliminary assessments of renewable energy resources: The case of Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Rasmussen, K.; Badger, Jake

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing and meteorolo...... that at the current price of about 70 US$/barrel for fossil fuels, renewable energy resources are becoming economically as well as environmentally attractive options.......This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing...... a competitive option. Solar energy resources are shown to be abundant in all of Mali, though the highest values are found in the south. The temporal variation is relatively limited. Bio-energy resources are also concentrated in the south, but there are small pockets of high vegetation productivity...

  16. Offshore Resource Assessment and Design Conditions: A Data Requirements and Gaps Analysis for Offshore Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Dennis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frame, Caitlin [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Gill, Carrie [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Hanson, Howard [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Powell, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilczak, Jim [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Wynne, Jason [Energetics, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The offshore renewable energy industry requires accurate meteorological and oceanographic (“metocean”) data for evaluating the energy potential, economic viability, and engineering requirements of offshore renewable energy projects. It is generally recognized that currently available metocean data, instrumentation, and models are not adequate to meet all of the stakeholder needs on a national scale. Conducting wind and wave resource assessments and establishing load design conditions requires both interagency collaboration as well as valuable input from experts in industry and academia. Under the Department of Energy and Department of Interior Memorandum of Understanding, the Resource Assessment and Design Condition initiative supports collaborative national efforts by adding to core atmospheric and marine science knowledge relevant to offshore energy development. Such efforts include a more thorough understanding and data collection of key metocean phenomena such as wind velocity and shear; low-level jets; ocean, tidal, and current velocities; wave characteristics; geotechnical data relating to surface and subsurface characteristics; seasonal and diurnal variations; and the interaction among these conditions. Figure 1 presents a graphical representation of some metocean phenomena that can impact offshore energy systems. This document outlines the metocean observations currently available; those that are not available; and those that require additional temporal-spatial coverage, resolution, or processing for offshore energy in an effort to gather agreed-upon, needed observations.

  17. Workshop on Control Theory Applied to Renewable Resource Management and Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Skowronski, Janislaw

    1981-01-01

    As society becomes stressed by economic and population pressures, in turn, nature's renewable resources become stressed by harvesting pressures. For our own survival and euphoria, it is paramount that such resources remain as their name implies and not be driven to extinction through short term programs of over exploitation. Consideration of the harvesting of renewable resources leads to a simple question that was the theme of the workshop and is the focus of these proceedings: SUPPoRe you are assigned the role of manager for a specific renewable resource eco­ system. How would you decide on harvesting policies so that the system can be exploited economically yet at the same time maintain the integrity of the system? This, of course, is a loaded question. First of all, it is not clear that there is ever anyone single decision maker who is able to set the rules for all of the harvesters in an exploited ecosystem. The political process is complicated and to some extent unpredictable. This aspect of the questio...

  18. Efficiency versus cost of alternative fuels from renewable resources: outlining decision parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Sanjay; Edinger, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    In the discussion of traditional versus renewable energies and alternatives to conventional crude oil-based fuels in the transportation sector, efficiency calculations are but one decision making parameter. Comparing the assets and liabilities of fossil-based and renewable fuels in the transportation sector, further aspects such as centralized versus decentralized technologies, cost evaluations, taxation, and ecological/social benefits have to be taken into account. This paper outlines the driving parameters for shifting toward alternative fuels based on fossil or renewable resources and their use in innovative vehicle technologies such as advanced internal combustion and fuel cell electric drive systems. For the decision in favor or against an alternative fuel to be introduced to the mass market, automotive technologies and the energy supply system have to be examined in an integrated way. From an economic and technological perspective, some fuels may be even incompatible with the trend toward using renewable resources that have advantages in decentralized systems. Beyond efficiency calculations, political and industrial interests arise and may be influential to reshaping our currently crude oil-based mobility sector

  19. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Junfeng, Li [Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  20. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 2002 Research Review (Booklet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, G.; Epstein, K.; Brown, H.

    2002-07-01

    America is making a long transition to a future in which conventional, fossil fuel technologies will be displaced by new renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This first biannual research review describes NREL's R&D in seven technology areas--biorefineries, transportation, hydrogen, solar electricity, distributed energy, energy-efficient buildings, and low-wind-speed turbines.

  1. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  2. 75 FR 43492 - Federal Advisory Committee; National Security Education Board; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; National Security... Department of Defense gives notice that it is renewing the charter for the National Security Education Board... awards that favors individuals expressing an interest in national security issues or pursuing a career in...

  3. Using Probability of Exceedance to Compare the Resource Risk of Renewable and Gas-Fired Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Of the myriad risks surrounding long-term investments in power plants, resource risk is one of the most difficult to mitigate, and is also perhaps the risk that most-clearly distinguishes renewable generation from natural gas-fired generation. For renewable generators like wind and solar projects, resource risk manifests as a quantity risk—i.e., the risk that the quantity of wind and insolation will be less than expected.i For gas-fired generators (i.e., a combined-cycle gas turbine or “CCGT”), resource risk manifests primarily as a price risk—i.e., the risk that natural gas will cost more than expected. Most often, resource risk—and natural gas price risk in particular—falls disproportionately on utility ratepayers, who are typically not well-equipped to manage this risk. As such, it is incumbent upon utilities, regulators, and policymakers to ensure that resource risk is taken into consideration when making or approving resource decisions, or enacting policies that influence the development of the electricity sector more broadly.

  4. Prices and costs of irregularity in renewable resources in the liberalized electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.

    2004-01-01

    The problems raised by incorporating irregular production are of a technical nature (risk of non-availability during peak demand, the requirements for additional reserves) but the electricity markets methods of operation impose economic penalties, which greatly exceed these additional technical costs. In this document, the authors examine the nature of the technical problems posed by irregularity of production and the additional costs resulting from this, and then analyse the origins of the economic penalties that the operation of liberalized electricity markets impose, taking in particular the example of the British market, the New Energy Trading Arrangement (NETA). It would appear that the markets' operating rules may conflict, in certain cases, with the targets for promoting electricity generation from renewable resources. Two types of solutions can therefore be envisaged: a set of rules to limit the impact on irregular production or collective handling of the adjustment to production from renewable resources as already exists in the Nordic electricity markets. (authors)

  5. On the dynamics of non-renewable resources. A mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliney, S.; Alvoni, E.

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the consumption dynamics of non-renewable resources; the underlying assumption is that the most relevant factor is given by the evolution of technology. Then, the consumption as a function of time is governed by a non-linear differential equation,whose parameters can be estimated using the historical record. Some meaningful cases are worked out in detail, namely the coal consumption in UK and the world oil consumption [it

  6. Geologic utility of improved orbital measurement capabilities in reference to non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H.; Marsh, S.

    1982-01-01

    Spectral and spatial characteristics necessary for future orbital remote sensing systems are defined. The conclusions are based on the past decade of experience in exploring for non-renewable resources with reference to data from ground, aircraft, and orbital systems. Two principle areas of investigation are used in the discussion: a structural interpretation in a basin area for hydrocarbon exploration, and a discrimination of altered areas in the Cuprite district in Nevada.

  7. Proceedings: Second Annual Pacific Northwest Alternative and Renewable Energy Resources Conference.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference are published in this volume. The purpose of the conference was to solicit regional cooperation in the promoting of near-term development of such alternative and renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest as: cogeneration; biomass; wind; small hydro; solar end-use applications; and geothermal direct heat utilization. Separate abstracts of selected papers were prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  8. Potential renewable energy resources of the Lerma Valley, Salta, Argentina for its strategic territorial planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte, S.; Viramonte, J.G. [Instituto GEONORTE, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Salta and CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150, Salta CP 4400 (Argentina); Nunez, V. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Ecodesarrollo (IRNED), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Salta, Avda. Bolivia 5150, Campo Castanares, Salta CP 4400 (Argentina); Franco, J. [Instituto Nacional de Energias No Convencionales (INENCO), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de Salta, CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150, Salta CP 4400 (Argentina)

    2009-08-15

    Renewable energy sources are considered as strategic opportunities to improve the population's quality of life, to promote the development of more efficient and equitable economic systems, and to favor environmental sustainability in the territorial planning of Lerma Valley (Salta, Argentina). The mapping in raster format (each pixel having a reference value) of the potential renewable energy sources (solar, wind, biomass, hydraulic, mixed) is essential to define ideal locations for different types of renewable applications, and to plan suitable strategies for its implementation. It is necessary considering environmental diversity and site conditions (topographic, natural resource, infrastructure and service availability, social and economical) of the intervention area. Different methodologies are used for mapping of potential energy resources. Solar radiation is spatialized through the application of statistical regressions between altitude, latitude, precise incident solar radiation records, and radiation data estimated with the Geosol V.2.0. trademark software. The Argentina Map program is used for the wind potential resource modeling. It requires as inputs: a Digital Elevation Model, a land use and cover map (to determine roughness), and measured and/or estimated wind speed and frequency data. The hydroelectric potential for microturbine applications is calculated from the topographic drop and the annual mean flow in cumulative models, through the application of the Idrisi Kilimanjaro trademark 's runoff tool; while the power densities are compared at the watershed. Biomass potential (at this exploratory stage), is interpreted from the available biomass type (land use and cover map), its energy application availability, and some quantitative indicators associated with the biomass types identified as priority. In conclusion, the renewable energy potential in Lerma Valley is very high and diverse, and its close connection with social

  9. Renewable energy resources in Mali : potential and options for a sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diarra, D.C. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering Solar Calorimetry Lab; Dembele, P. [Mali-Folkecenter, Faladie SEMA, Bamako (Mali)

    2006-07-01

    With a population of approximately 12 million, the per capita energy consumption of Mali is 228 Kilo tons of oil equivalent per inhabitant per year. Household energy consumption accounts for nearly 86 per cent of the total energy consumed with almost 99 per cent coming from wood energy. Energy consumption in the transportation, industrial and agricultural sectors is 10, 3, and 1 per cent respectively. The energy sector in Mali is characterized by the over-exploitation of forestry resources, dependence on imported oil and an under-exploitation of potential renewable energy resources such as solar, wind and biomass. The supply of solar energy is inexhaustible as the country receives almost 12 hours of sunshine with an average daily insolation of 5-7 KWh/m{sup 2}/day. Applications of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Mali concerns the basic needs of the population such as water pumping, lighting, battery charging and refrigeration. In 1994, the Mali government gave preferential fiscal policy on all solar equipment in order to encourage the wide spread use of solar energy, but technical constraints such as low efficiency, appropriate technology transfer methods, and sustainable financing mechanisms remain to be addressed. This paper described several programs that have been initiated to promote the use of renewable energy, protect the fragile environment threatened by the Sahara Desert and to provide access to drinking water. These achievements however, have not yet guaranteed energy sustainability, particularly in rural areas. It was recommended that efforts should be made to strengthen the renewable energy sector, correct inadequacies, introduce a sustainable renewable energy technology transfer process, and consolidate knowledge and experiences to focus on low cost renewable energy technologies. It was suggested that a natural resource map of the country should be made available in order allow for comparative cost and technology sustainability analysis before deciding

  10. Interactions between California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard and the National Renewable Fuel Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whistance, Jarrett; Thompson, Wyatt; Meyer, Seth

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the economic interactions between a national renewable fuel policy, namely the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) in the United States, and a sub-national renewable fuel policy, the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) in California. The two policies have a similar objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but the policies differ in the manner in which those objectives are met. The RFS imposes a hierarchical mandate of renewable fuel use for each year whereas the LCFS imposes a specific annual carbon-intensity reduction with less of a fuel specific mandate. We model the interactions using a partial-equilibrium structural model of agricultural and energy markets in the US and Rest-of-World regions. Our results suggest the policies are mutually reinforcing in that the compliance costs of meeting one of the requirements is lower in the presence of the other policy. In addition, the two policies combine to create a spatial shift in renewable fuel use toward California even though overall renewable fuel use remains relatively unchanged. - Highlights: • Results suggest the RFS and LCFS are mutually reinforcing. • Overall level of renewable fuel use is similar across scenarios. • Renewable fuel use shifts toward California in the presence of the LCFS. • Higher ethanol blend (e.g. E85) use also shifts toward California.

  11. VT County National Resources Inventory Data 1982-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This collection provides tabular USDA - Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), National Resources Inventory (NRI) data (1982-1997), by...

  12. National conference on integrated resource planning: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers` short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners` (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.

  13. National conference on integrated resource planning: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Until recently, state regulators have focused most of their attention on the development of least-cost or integrated resource planning (IRP) processes for electric utilities. A number of commissions are beginning to scrutinize the planning processes of local gas distribution companies (LDCs) because of the increased control that LDCs have over their purchased gas costs (as well as the associated risks) and because of questions surrounding the role and potential of gas end-use efficiency options. Traditionally, resource planning (LDCs) has concentrated on options for purchasing and storing gas. Integrated resource planning involves the creation of a process in which supply-side and demand-side options are integrated to create a resource mix that reliably satisfies customers' short-term and long-term energy service needs at the lowest cost. As applied to gas utilities, an integrated resource plan seeks to balance cost and reliability, and should not be interpreted simply as the search for lowest commodity costs. The National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners' (NARUC) Energy Conservation committee asked Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to survey state PUCs to determine the extent to which they have undertaken least cost planning for gas utilities. The survey included the following topics: status of state PUC least-cost planning regulations and practices for gas utilities; type and scope of natural gas DSM programs in effect, including fuel substitution; economic tests and analysis methods used to evaluate DSM programs; relationship between prudency reviews of gas utility purchasing practices and integrated resource planning; key regulatory issued facing gas utilities during the next five years.

  14. 4. National conferences on marine renewable energies. Debate synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechevin, Bruno; Royal, Segolene; Bal, Jean-Louis; Clergeau, Christophe; Le Lidec, Frederic; Cimitan, Filippo; Hutapea, Maritje; Tardieu, Pierre; Bales, Vincent

    2017-03-01

    After introducing speeches which outline the necessary support to the development of marine renewable energies in order to accelerate energy transition, propose a brief overview of the previous conferences, and discuss the current context of industrial development for this sector, a first document proposes synthetic reports of round tables which respectively addressed the status of marine renewable energies in France and in the world, the conditions for a successful development of these energies, the commitment of French littoral regions. It also proposes an overview of the propositions of candidates to the 2017 French President election, and a presentation of the action undertaken by the ADEME for the development of these energies. A second document proposes a presentation of the legal framework, and an overview of actions in favour of fixed foundation offshore wind farms, of marine current power energy and floating wind energy installations, and of hydrothermal, tidal and wave energy. These issues are also addressed in Power Point presentations

  15. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  16. Distributed Control and Management of Renewable Electric Energy Resources for Future Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin

    2016-01-01

    strategy is a promising approach to manage and utilise the resources in future distribution networks to effectively deal with grid electric quality issues and requirements. Jointly, utility and customers the owners of the resources in the network are considered as part of a practical coordination strategy......It is anticipated that both medium- and low-voltage distribution networks will include high level of distributed renewable energy resources, in the future. The high penetration of these resources inevitably can introduce various power quality issues, including; overvoltage and overloading....... This book chapter provides the current research state of the art concepts and techniques in dealing with these potential issues. The methods provided in this chapter are based on distributed control approach, tailored and suitable particularly for the future distribution composition. The distributed control...

  17. National uranium resource evaluation: Nogales Quadrangle, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luning, R.H.; Brouillard, L.A.

    1982-04-01

    Literature research, surface geologic investigations, rock sampling, and radiometric surveys were conducted in the Nogales Quadrangle, Arizona, to identify environments and to delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits according to criteria formulated during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. The studies were augmented by aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment surveys. No favorable environments were identified. Environments that do display favorable characteristics include magmatic-hydrothermal and authigenic environments in Precambrian and Jurassic intrusives, as well as in certain Mesozoic and Cenozoic igneous and sedimentary rocks

  18. Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Jasemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to technical and economic reasons, the distributed generation (DG units are widely connected to the low and medium voltage network and created a new structure called micro-grid. Renewable energies (especially wind and solar based DGs are one of the most important generations units among DG units. Because of stochastic behavior of these resources, the optimum and safe management and operation of micro-grids has become one of the research priorities for researchers. So, in this study, the optimal operation of a typical micro-grid is investigated in order to maximize the penetration of renewable energy sources with the lowest operation cost with respect to the limitations for the load supply and the distributed generation resources. The understudy micro-grid consists of diesel generator, battery, wind turbines and photovoltaic panels. The objective function comprises of fuel cost, start-up cost, spinning reserve cost, power purchasing cost from the upstream grid and the sales revenue of the power to the upstream grid. In this paper, the uncertainties of demand, wind speed and solar radiation are considered and the optimization will be made by using the GAMS software and mixed integer planning method (MIP. Article History: Received May 21, 2016; Received in revised form July 11, 2016; Accepted October 15, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Jasemi, M.,  Adabi, F., Mozafari, B., and Salahi, S. (2016 Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation, Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3,233-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.233-248

  19. Renewable energy resources and their role in the energy balance of the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.; Trifonova, L.

    2001-01-01

    The role of the renewable energy sources in the energy production sector is discussed. The main features of solar, wind and biomass energy are reviewed. Studies for Bulgaria show a total solar radiation above 1600 kWh/m 2 for the Southern regions. The assessment of the solar resources, made by the DOE gives about 170 000 TWh/y for the whole territory. The economically advantageous resources for passive heating are 10.6 TWh till 2020. For the same period the utilization of 0.92 TWh solar energy is possible. Solar installations with surface about 14 000 m 2 are currently in operation. 54% of them are in the tourism sphere and only 8% are in industry (due to some economical difficulties about 44% of the industrial installations are shut down). On the base of processing of the data from more that 100 meteorological stations on the country territory, a spatial assessment of the resources has been done. For the whole territory the wind potential is estimated to about 15800 GW. Theoretical average annual wind resources at 10 km above the surface are 125 000 TWh. There are several areas with wind velocity 5-6 m/s which are suitable for wind energy production. The energy resources of biomass for the country are large - around 35.5 TWh. Under the programmes 'Country Study Project' and PHARE, different scenarii for the renewable energy source utilization till 2020 are developed. Estimation for the possibilities for wider application of the renewable sources in the market are done

  20. Stochastic simulation of power systems with integrated renewable and utility-scale storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeilh, Yannick

    The push for a more sustainable electric supply has led various countries to adopt policies advocating the integration of renewable yet variable energy resources, such as wind and solar, into the grid. The challenges of integrating such time-varying, intermittent resources has in turn sparked a growing interest in the implementation of utility-scale energy storage resources ( ESRs), with MWweek storage capability. Indeed, storage devices provide flexibility to facilitate the management of power system operations in the presence of uncertain, highly time-varying and intermittent renewable resources. The ability to exploit the potential synergies between renewable and ESRs hinges on developing appropriate models, methodologies, tools and policy initiatives. We report on the development of a comprehensive simulation methodology that provides the capability to quantify the impacts of integrated renewable and ESRs on the economics, reliability and emission variable effects of power systems operating in a market environment. We model the uncertainty in the demands, the available capacity of conventional generation resources and the time-varying, intermittent renewable resources, with their temporal and spatial correlations, as discrete-time random processes. We deploy models of the ESRs to emulate their scheduling and operations in the transmission-constrained hourly day-ahead markets. To this end, we formulate a scheduling optimization problem (SOP) whose solutions determine the operational schedule of the controllable ESRs in coordination with the demands and the conventional/renewable resources. As such, the SOP serves the dual purpose of emulating the clearing of the transmission-constrained day-ahead markets (DAMs ) and scheduling the energy storage resource operations. We also represent the need for system operators to impose stricter ramping requirements on the conventional generating units so as to maintain the system capability to perform "load following'', i

  1. 4. National Conferences on marine renewable energies. Debate synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    After a report of introducing speeches, this publication proposes a synthesis of debates on three main topics: marine renewable energies in France and in the world, the conditions for a successful development, and the commitment of littoral regions (projects and investments in the different French littoral regions). A brief synthesis of propositions made by candidates for the President election is proposed. Six proposals made by the SER (professional body) are indicated, and an overview of the ADEME action in this field is given (research theses, R and D projects, tidal energy projects, floating wind energy projects, wave energy projects, sea thermal energy project)

  2. Biosurfactants' Production from Renewable Natural Resources: Example of Innovativeand Smart Technology in Circular Bioeconomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Surekha K.; Płaza, Grażyna A.; Banpurkar, Arun G.

    2017-03-01

    A strong developed bio-based industrial sector will significantly reduce dependency on fossil resources, help the countries meet climate change targets, and lead to greener and more environmental friendly growth. The key is to develop new technologies to sustainably transform renewable natural resources into bio-based products and biofuels. Biomass is a valuable resource and many parameters need to be taken in to account when assessing its use and the products made from its. The bioeconomy encompass the production of renewable biological resources and their conversion into food, feed and bio-based products (chemicals, materials and fuels) via innovative and efficient technologies provided by industrial biotechnology. The paper presents the smart and efficient way to use the agro-industrial, dairy and food processing wastes for biosurfactant's production. Clarification processes are mandatory to use the raw substrates for microbial growth as well as biosurfactant production for commercial purposes. At the same time it is very essential to retain the nutritional values of those cheap substrates. Broad industrial perspectives can be achieved when quality as well as the quantity of the biosurfactant is considered in great depth. Since substrates resulting from food processing, dairy, animal fat industries are not explored in great details; and hence are potential areas which can be explored thoroughly.

  3. Create the conditions - renewable energy and energy storage policies choices for island nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmins, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This fast moving, detailed presentation offers an in-depth look at the development, launch and renewal of renewable energy procurement programs worldwide, with an eye to (a) educating renewable energy policy makers and procurement program designers with up-to-date information on issues, investor concerns and trends from island nations around the globe, (b) informing industry participants and industry advocates regarding divergent public policy choices facing policy makers, and (c) helping industry stakeholders to assist public policy choice makers in formulating effective and sustainable policy choices. (full text)

  4. Renewable resources in industry. Industrial use of agricultural and wood raw materials in Germany. 3. compl. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Dietmar

    2010-11-17

    The ''Action Plan for the Industrial Use of Renewable Resources'' that was adopted by the German Federal Government in 2009 is an important impulse for promoting the industrial use of renewable resources parallel to their use for energy generation. The Action Plan sets forth a broad vision, not only for a significant and sustainable increase in the proportion of biomass used in industry but also for an improvement in the efficiency of biomass use in ensuring Germany's raw material supplies while taking into account the objectives and requirements of sustainability strategies. It also aims to secure and advance Germany's role as an international leader in the industrial use of renewable resources. This brochure provides an overview of the possible industrial uses of renewable resources in Germany and illustrates the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play in today's industry. (orig.)

  5. Renewable resources in industry. Industrial use of agricultural and wood raw materials in Germany. 3. compl. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Dietmar

    2010-11-17

    The ''Action Plan for the Industrial Use of Renewable Resources'' that was adopted by the German Federal Government in 2009 is an important impulse for promoting the industrial use of renewable resources parallel to their use for energy generation. The Action Plan sets forth a broad vision, not only for a significant and sustainable increase in the proportion of biomass used in industry but also for an improvement in the efficiency of biomass use in ensuring Germany's raw material supplies while taking into account the objectives and requirements of sustainability strategies. It also aims to secure and advance Germany's role as an international leader in the industrial use of renewable resources. This brochure provides an overview of the possible industrial uses of renewable resources in Germany and illustrates the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play in today's industry. (orig.)

  6. Highlighting High Performance: National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Visitors Center, Golden, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgert, S.

    2001-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory Visitors Center, also known as the Dan Schaefer Federal Building, is a high-performance building located in Golden, Colorado. The 6,400-square-foot building incorporates passive solar heating, energy-efficient lighting, an evaporative cooling system, and other technologies to minimize energy costs and environmental impact. The Visitors Center displays a variety of interactive exhibits on energy efficiency and renewable energy, and the building includes an auditorium, a public reading room, and office space

  7. Terpene and dextran renewable resources for the synthesis of amphiphilic biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvès, Marie-Hélène; Sfeir, Huda; Tranchant, Jean-François; Gombart, Emilie; Sagorin, Gilles; Caillol, Sylvain; Billon, Laurent; Save, Maud

    2014-01-13

    The present work shows the synthesis of amphiphilic polymers based on the hydrophilic dextran and the hydrophobic terpenes as renewable resources. The first step concerns the synthesis of functional terpene molecules by thiol-ene addition chemistry involving amino or carboxylic acid thiols and dihydromyrcenol terpene. The terpene-modified polysaccharides were subsequently synthesized by coupling the functional terpenes with dextran. A reductive amination step produced terpene end-modified dextran with 94% of functionalization, while the esterification step produced three terpene-grafted dextrans with a number of terpene units per dextran of 1, 5, and 10. The amphiphilic renewable grafted polymers were tested as emulsifiers for the stabilization of liquid miniemulsion of terpene droplets dispersed in an aqueous phase. The average hydrodynamic diameter of the stable droplets was observed at about 330 nm.

  8. Proposed applications with implementation techniques of the upcoming renewable energy resource, The Tesla Turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M Usman Saeed; Maqsood, M Irfan; Ali, Ehsan; Jamal, Shah; Javed, M

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that tesla turbine can be one of the future efficient sources of renewable energy. Modern techniques used for designing of tesla turbine have given optimum results regarding efficiency and applications. In this paper we have suggested fully coordinated applications of tesla turbine in different fields particularly in power generation at both low level and high level generation. In Energy deficient countries the tesla turbine has wide range of applications and it can play an important role in energy management system. Our proposed applications includes, - the use of tesla turbine as renewable energy resource; - using tesla turbine in distributed generation system; - use of tesla turbine at home for power generation; - use of tesla turbine in irrigation channels; - using tesla turbine in hybrid electric vehicles; All applications are explained with the help of flow charts and block diagrams and their implementation techniques are also explained in details. The results of physical experiments and simulations are also included for some applications.

  9. Regulation as a political contest: the probability of conservation of a renewable resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2017-01-01

    How do the levels of extreme positions of various interest groups influence the conservation policies in the context of a renewable resource conservation contest? To answer this question, a model is provided where conservation policy is determined as a contest between two opposing interest groups......: one in favor of conservation and another in favor of non-conservation. The levels of extreme positions for the conservationalists are determined by their demands about the severity of the conservation strategy that needs to be implemented. For the non-conservation group, the level of extreme position...... is determined by how large the current harvest of the resource should be. The main driver of the model is that resource conservation is realized only if the conservation group wins the contest, which again depends on the relative gain the two contenders receive when winning the contest. The paper derives...

  10. On the global economic potentials and marginal costs of non-renewable resources and the price of energy commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    A model is presented in this work for simulating endogenously the evolution of the marginal costs of production of energy carriers from non-renewable resources, their consumption, depletion pathways and timescales. Such marginal costs can be used to simulate the long term average price formation of energy commodities. Drawing on previous work where a global database of energy resource economic potentials was constructed, this work uses cost distributions of non-renewable resources in order to evaluate global flows of energy commodities. A mathematical framework is given to calculate endogenous flows of energy resources given an exogenous commodity price path. This framework can be used in reverse in order to calculate an endogenous marginal cost of production of energy carriers given an exogenous carrier demand. Using rigid price inelastic assumptions independent of the economy, these two approaches generate limiting scenarios that depict extreme use of natural resources. This is useful to characterise the current state and possible uses of remaining non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels and natural uranium. The theory is however designed for use within economic or technology models that allow technology substitutions. In this work, it is implemented in the global power sector model FTT:Power. Policy implications are given. - Highlights: • Theoretical model to forecast marginal costs of non-renewable resources. • Tracks the consumption and costs of non-renewable resources. • For use in economic or technology models

  11. 78 FR 58383 - Renewal of National Grain Car Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... of National Grain Car Council AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to... of the National Grain Car Council (NGCC). ADDRESSES: A copy of the charter is available at the... solutions and recommendations to the STB on matters affecting grain transportation. The NGCC functions...

  12. 76 FR 59186 - Renewal of National Grain Car Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... of National Grain Car Council AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to... National Grain Car Council (NGCC). ADDRESSES: A copy of the charter is available at the Library of the... grain transportation. The NGCC functions solely as an advisory body, and complies with the provisions of...

  13. Geothermal energy. A national proposal for geothermal resources research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denton, J.C. (ed.)

    1972-01-01

    Discussions are given for each of the following topics: (1) importance to the Nation of geothermal resources, (2) budget recommendations, (3) overview of geothermal resources, (4) resource exploration, (5) resource assessment, (6) resource development and production, (7) utilization technology and economics, (8) environmental effects, (9) institutional considerations, and (10) summary of research needs.

  14. Agricultural Commercialisation, Diversification, and Conservation of Renewable Resources in Northern Thailand Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Trébuil

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of commercialisation-diversification in the highlands of upper northern Thailand and the accompanying dismissal of self-subsistence are documented based on the findings from seven case studies carried out in different agricultural and social situations during the past decade. The characteristics of the key driving forces powering this agrarian transition such as rapid economic growth, decrease in the share of labour employed in the agriculture, urbanization and changes in food consumption patterns, and improved communication infrastructures, are presented in the Thai context. The environmental impact of these profound agrarian transformations on the degradation of key renewable resources, particularly soil erosion, is assessed. Their socio-economic consequences on an extensive differentiation among farming households and equity issues are also discussed. Finally the authors draw several lessons from this Thai experience that illustrate the very strong adaptive capacity of small highland farmers. They could be useful in similar agro-ecological zones of neighbouring countries that are presently experiencing the same kind of agricultural transition in the Montane Mainland Southeast Asia ecoregion. Particularly, the article underlines the need for more holistic and integrated approaches to agricultural development and the management of renewable resources in highland agro-ecosystems to alleviate poverty while conserving the resource base.

  15. National uranium resource evaluation Prescott Quadrangle Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.T.; White, D.L.; Nystrom, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Prescott Quadrangle was evaluated for uranium favorability by means of a literature search, examination of uranium occurrences, regional geochemical sampling of Precambrian rocks, limited rubidium-strontium studies, scintillometer traverses, measurement of stratigraphic sections, subsurface studies, and an aerial radiometric survey. A limited well-water sampling program for Cenozoic basins was also conducted. Favorability criteria used were those developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Five geologic environments are favorable for uranium. Three are in Tertiary rocks of the Date Creek-Artillery Basin, Big Sandy Valley, and Walnut Grove Basin. Two are in Precambrian rocks in the Bagdad and Wickenburg areas. Unfavorable areas include the southwestern crystalline terrane, the Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds, and metamorphic and plutonic Precambrian rocks of the Bradshaw and Weaver Mountains. Unevaluated areas are the basalt-covered mesas, alluvium-mantled Cenozoic basins, the Hualapai Mountains, and the Kellwebb Mine

  16. National Uranium Resource Evaluation, Llano Quadrangle, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droddy, M.J.; Hovorka, S.D.

    1982-04-01

    The Llano 2 0 quadrangle was evaluated to a depth of 1500 m to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits. The areas were delineated according to criteria established for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Surface studies included investigations of uranium occurrences described in the literature, location of aerial radiometric anomalies, carborne scintillometer surveys, outcrop investigations, and followup of hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance data. A radon emanometry survey and investigations of electric and gamma-ray well logs, drillers' logs, and well core samples were performed to evaluate the subsurface potential of the Llano Quadrangle. An environment favorable for pegmatitic deposits is identified in the Town Mountain Granite

  17. National Uranium Resource Evaluation, Tonopah quadrangle, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, B.W.; Parker, D.P.

    1982-04-01

    The Tonopah Quadrangle, Nevada, was evaluated using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria to identify and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits. Investigations included reconnaissance and detailed surface geologic and radiometric studies, geochemical sampling and evaluation, analysis and ground-truth followup of aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance data, and subsurface data evaluation. The results of these investigations indicate environments favorable for hydroallogenic uranium deposits in Miocene lacustrine sediments of the Big Smoky Valley west of Tonopah. The northern portion of the Toquima granitic pluton is favorable for authigenic uranium deposits. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits include Quaternary sediments; intermediate and mafic volcanic and metavolcanic rocks; Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Precambrian sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks; those plutonic rocks not included within favorable areas; and those felsic volcanic rocks not within the Northumberland and Mount Jefferson calderas

  18. Tri-generation based hybrid power plant scheduling for renewable resources rich area with energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazheri, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Involves scheduling of the tri-generation based hybrid power plant. • Utilization of renewable energy through energy storage is discussed. • Benefits of the proposed model are illustrated. • Energy efficient and environmental friendly dispatch is analyzed. • Modeled scheduling problem is applicable to any fuel enriched area. - Abstract: Solving power system scheduling is crucial to ensure smooth operations of the electric power industry. Effective utilization of available conventional and renewable energy sources (RES) by tri-generation and with the aid of energy storage facilities (ESF) can ensure clean and energy efficient power generation. Such power generation can play an important role in countries, like Saudi Arabia, where abundant fossil fuels (FF) and renewable energy sources (RES) are available. Hence, effective modeling of such hybrid power systems scheduling is essential in such countries based on the available fuel resources. The intent of this paper is to present a simple model for tri-generation based hybrid power system scheduling for energy resources rich area in presence of ESF, to ensure optimum fuel utilization and minimum pollutant emissions while meeting the power demand. This research points an effective operation strategy which ensure a clean and energy efficient power scheduling by exploiting available energy resources effectively. Hence, it has an important role in current and future power generation. In order to illustrate the benefits of the presented approach a clean and energy efficient hybrid power supply scheme for King Saud University (KSU), Saudi Arabia, is proposed and analyzed here. Results show that the proposed approach is very suitable for KSU since adequate solar power is available during its peak demand periods

  19. Gills Onions Advanced Energy Recovery System: Turning a Waste Liability into a Renewable Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Renewable Resource 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...i U fl A bi 2 rea u ce s ng an p ow naero c Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor 3 Recover Biogas from UASB Remove Sulfur and Moisture for Cattle... biogas per cell ● 15 psi ● Requires highly purified water (RO) Energy NG RO W ta er ● Methane and steam converted into hydrogen-rich gas

  20. Progress of succinic acid production from renewable resources: Metabolic and fermentative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Wu, Mingke; Liu, Rongming; Liang, Liya; Xin, Fengxue; Zhang, Wenming; Jia, Honghua; Dong, Weiliang

    2017-12-01

    Succinic acid is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid, which has attracted much interest due to its abroad usage as a precursor of many industrially important chemicals in the food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical industries. Facing the shortage of crude oil supply and demand of sustainable development, biological production of succinic acid from renewable resources has become a topic of worldwide interest. In recent decades, robust producing strain selection, metabolic engineering of model strains, and process optimization for succinic acid production have been developed. This review provides an overview of succinic acid producers and cultivation technology, highlight some of the successful metabolic engineering approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. DOD Future Energy Resources. Proceedings of Workshops Held at the National Defense University

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    fermentation of the cellulosic and hemicellulosic sugars, lignin remains as a residue. ( Lignin does not contain any sulfur and is consequently called “clean...Patzek, “Ethanol From Corn : Clean Renewable Fuel for the Future, or Drain on Our Resources and Pockets?” Working paper , University of California...to DOD and national policy, nor did he address any of the concerns presented in the opening premise of this paper . Instead, he stated his views as

  2. Renewable energies and national development; Energies renouvelables et amenagement du territoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document brings together the communications presented at this colloquium on renewable energy sources and the debates that took place during the round-tables. The aim of the colloquium was to take stock of the present day situation of the development of renewable energies in France, to share experiences and to discuss the conditions of implementation and development of renewable energies in particular in accommodations and tertiary buildings (solar thermal and photovoltaic) and in collective services (wood-fuel, cogeneration units, bio-automotive fuels, geothermal energy and biogas). One round table was devoted to the electricity produced from renewable energy sources (hydro- and wind power, cogeneration units, photovoltaic) and to the problem of connection of decentralized power generation units to the national grid (tariffs, legal aspects, administrative procedures) in the new context of deregulation of electricity markets. (J.S.)

  3. Workforce Education For Renewable Energy -- Lessons Learned From A National Gathering Of Educators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, Jane M. [Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Latham, NY (United States); Ferranti, Adele [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, NY (United States); Laflin, Kirk [Partnership for Environmental Technology Education, South Portland, ME (United States)

    2007-07-01

    On November 8 -10, 2006, the first national conference on renewable energy workforce education was held at Hudson Valley Community College in Troy, New York. The event was sponsored by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and organized by the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) and the Partnership for Environmental Technology Education (PETE). Over 200 instructors, school administrators, and industry representatives attended this event representing 30 states and over 65 Community Colleges and Technical High Schools. The conference resulted in an enormous collection of information on the best practices and effective approaches to teaching workforce skills in the renewable energy trades and industries. This paper discusses the following educational strategies: the hybrid course delivery model; interdisciplinary instruction; linking technical high schools with the local community college; integrating a renewable energy concentration within an energy management degree program; expanding hands-on opportunities through internship programs; and an industry-sponsored certificate program. Recommendations by educators are also discussed.

  4. The National Climate Assessment as a Resource for Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 Third National Climate Assessment (NCA3) is scientifically authoritative and features major advances, relative to other assessments produced by several organizations. NCA3 is a valuable resource for communicating climate science to a wide variety of audiences. Other assessments were often overly detailed and laden with scientific jargon that made them appear too complex and technical to many in their intended audiences, especially policymakers, the media, and the broad public. Some other assessments emphasized extensive scientific caveats, quantitative uncertainty estimates and broad consensus support. All these attributes, while valuable in research, carry the risk of impeding science communication to non-specialists. Without compromising scientific accuracy and integrity, NCA3 is written in exceptionally clear and vivid English. It includes outstanding graphics and employs powerful techniques aimed at conveying key results unambiguously to a wide range of audiences. I have used NCA3 as a resource in speaking about climate change in three very different settings: classroom teaching for undergraduate university students, presenting in academia to historians and other non-scientists, and briefing corporate executives working on renewable energy. NCA3 proved the value of developing a climate assessment with communication goals and strategies given a high priority throughout the process, not added on as an afterthought. I draw several lessons. First, producing an outstanding scientific assessment is too complex and demanding a task to be carried out by scientists alone. Many types of specialized expertise are also needed. Second, speaking about science to a variety of audiences requires an assortment of communication skills and tools, all tailored to specific groups of listeners. Third, NCA3 is scientifically impeccable and is also an outstanding example of effective communication as well as a valuable resource for communicators.

  5. An integrated approach to national marine resources development

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Jean-Pierre

    1984-01-01

    A review is presented of the various marine resources and their potential, concerning fishing, aquaculture, transportation, pollution, hydrocarbons and solid minerals, renewable energy and ocean thermal energy conversion. Administrative problems confronting their rational management in Sri Lanka are examined, considering coastal area management and development, management issues, and alternatives.

  6. Development of RBWR (Resource-renewable BWR) for environmental burden reduction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Tetsushi; Ohtsuka, Masaya; Moriya, Kumiaki; Matsuura, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of long-life transuranium elements produced as by-products with uranium fuel burning became an issue of nuclear power. Hitachi had been developing the reactor with transuranium elements burning as fuels based on BWR type reactors successfully used as commercial reactors: RBWR (Resource-renewable BWR). Efficient transmutation and fissioning of transuranium elements needed adjustment of in-core neutron energy spectra distribution better for nuclear reaction of transuranium elements. Taking advantage of characteristics of BWR type reactors with neutron spectra hardening more easily adjustable than other type of reactors, multiple recycling and fissioning transuranium elements as fuels could make environmental burden reduction of radioactive wastes and efficient use of resources compatible. This article described the concept and history of RBWR and showed its specifications and reactor core characteristics. (T. Tanaka)

  7. On conservation of renewable resources with stock-dependent return and non-concave production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Lars J.; Roy, Santanu

    1994-05-01

    An analysis is presented of the intertemporal choice foundations underlying the conservation or extinction of renewable resources when the resource production function is non-concave and the immediate return function depends on both current consumption and the size of the resource stock. This case may exhibit nonlinear dynamics and extinction is possible from high stocks even if conservation occurs from lower stocks. The paper focusses on the influence of preferences and the production function on the efficiency of: global conservation, the existence of a safe standard of conservation, or extinction. We show that conservation is efficient under weaker conditions than the 'δ-productivity' requirements derived in models where return function is not stock-dependent. The marginal rate of substitution between investment and the stock plays an important role in addition to the discount factor and the marginal productivity of the resource. Extinction need not be optimal even if the intrinsic growth rate of the resource is less than the external rate of return. Our analysis demonstrates the potential role of taxes, subsidies, demand forces, and harvest costs in determining the efficiency of conservation or extinction. 3 figs., 1 appendix, 24 refs

  8. On conservation of renewable resources with stock-dependent return and non-concave production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Lars J. [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Roy, Santanu [Econometric Institute, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-05-01

    An analysis is presented of the intertemporal choice foundations underlying the conservation or extinction of renewable resources when the resource production function is non-concave and the immediate return function depends on both current consumption and the size of the resource stock. This case may exhibit nonlinear dynamics and extinction is possible from high stocks even if conservation occurs from lower stocks. The paper focusses on the influence of preferences and the production function on the efficiency of: global conservation, the existence of a safe standard of conservation, or extinction. We show that conservation is efficient under weaker conditions than the `{delta}-productivity` requirements derived in models where return function is not stock-dependent. The marginal rate of substitution between investment and the stock plays an important role in addition to the discount factor and the marginal productivity of the resource. Extinction need not be optimal even if the intrinsic growth rate of the resource is less than the external rate of return. Our analysis demonstrates the potential role of taxes, subsidies, demand forces, and harvest costs in determining the efficiency of conservation or extinction. 3 figs., 1 appendix, 24 refs.

  9. Biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources by Neurospora crassa: an alternative to conventional yeast fermentations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris

    2013-02-01

    Microbial production of ethanol might be a potential route to replace oil and chemical feedstocks. Bioethanol is by far the most common biofuel in use worldwide. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising renewable resource for fuel bioethanol production. Bioconversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol consists of four major unit operations: pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and product separation/distillation. Conventional bioethanol processes for lignocellulosics apply commercial fungal cellulase enzymes for biomass hydrolysis, followed by yeast fermentation of resulting glucose to ethanol. The fungus Neurospora crassa has been used extensively for genetic, biochemical, and molecular studies as a model organism. However, the strain's potential in biotechnological applications has not been widely investigated and discussed. The fungus N. crassa has the ability to synthesize and secrete all three enzyme types involved in cellulose hydrolysis as well as various enzymes for hemicellulose degradation. In addition, N. crassa has been reported to convert to ethanol hexose and pentose sugars, cellulose polymers, and agro-industrial residues. The combination of these characteristics makes N. crassa a promising alternative candidate for biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources. This review consists of an overview of the ethanol process from lignocellulosic biomass, followed by cellulases and hemicellulases production, ethanol fermentations of sugars and lignocellulosics, and industrial application potential of N. crassa.

  10. Day-ahead resource scheduling of a renewable energy based virtual power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, Ali Ghahgharaee; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Simultaneous energy and reserve scheduling of a VPP. • Aggregate uncertainties of electricity prices, renewable generation and load demand. • Develop a stochastic scheduling model using the point estimate method. - Abstract: The evolution of energy markets is accelerating in the direction of a greater reliance upon distributed energy resources (DERs). To manage this increasing two-way complexity, virtual power plants (VPPs) are being deployed today all over the world. In this paper, a probabilistic model for optimal day ahead scheduling of electrical and thermal energy resources in a VPP is proposed where participation of energy storage systems and demand response programs (DRPs) are also taken into account. In the proposed model, energy and reserve is simultaneously scheduled considering the uncertainties of market prices, electrical demand and intermittent renewable power generation. The Point Estimate Method (PEM) is applied in order to model the uncertainties of VPP’s scheduling problem. Moreover, the optimal reserve scheduling of VPP is presented which efficiently decreases VPP’s risk facing the unexpected fluctuations of uncertain parameters at the power delivery time. The results demonstrated that implementation of demand response programs (DRPs) would decrease total operation costs of VPP as well as its dependency on the upstream network.

  11. Assessment of post-Fukushima renewable energy policy in Japan's nation-wide power grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript analyzes an optimal power generation mix in Japan's nation-wide power grid by considering the post-Fukushima energy policy which puts a high priority on expanding renewable energy. The study is performed, employing an optimal power generation mix model which is characterized by detailed geographical resolution derived from 135 nodes and 166 high-voltage power transmission lines with 10-min temporal resolution. Simulated results reveal that renewable energy promotion policy underlies the necessity for capacity expansion of inter- or intra-regional power transmission lines in Japan in order to realize economical power system operation. In addition, the results show that the integration of massive variable renewable (VR) such as PV and wind decreases the capacity factor of power plant including ramp generator and possibly affects that profitability, which implies the challenge to ensure power system adequacy enough to control VR variability. - Highlights: • Authors analyze installable potential of renewable by Japan's power grid model. • Power grid of the model includes 135 nodes and 166 power transmission lines. • Renewable promotion underlies the necessity for capacity expansion of power lines. • Unremunerated power plants affect power grid adequacy under extensive renewable.

  12. Alternatives to electricity for transmission and annual-scale firming - Storage for diverse, stranded, renewable energy resources: hydrogen and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighty, William

    2010-09-15

    The world's richest renewable energy resources 'of large geographic extent and high intensity' are stranded: far from end-users with inadequate or nonexistent gathering and transmission systems to deliver energy. Output of most renewables varies greatly, at time scales of seconds-seasons: energy capture assets operate at low capacity factor; energy delivery is not 'firm'. New electric transmission systems, or fractions thereof, dedicated to renewables, suffer the same low CF: substantial stranded capital assets, increasing the cost of delivered renewable-source energy. Electricity storage cannot affordably firm large renewables at annual scale. Gaseous hydrogen and anhydrous ammonia fuels can: attractive alternatives.

  13. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Hutchinson Quadrangle, Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fair, C.L.; Smit, D.E.; Gundersen, J.N.

    1982-08-01

    Surface reconnaissance and detailed subsurface studies were done within the Hutchinson Quadrangle, Kansas, to evaluate uranium favorability in accordance with National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. These studies were designed in part to follow up prior airborne radiometric, hydrogeochemical, and stream-sediment surveys. Over 4305 well records were examined in the subsurface phase of this study. The results of these investigations indicate environments favorable for channel-controlled peneconcordant sandstone deposits in rocks of Cretaceous age and for Wyoming and Texas roll-type deposits in sandstones of Pennsylvanian age. The Cretaceous sandstone environments exhibit favorable characteristics such as a bottom unconformity; high bedload; braided, fluvial channels; large-scale cross-bedding; and an anomalous outcrop. The Pennsylvanian sandstone environments exhibit favorable characteristics such as arkosic cross-bedded sandstones, included pyrite and organic debris, interbedded shales, and gamma-ray log anomalies. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits are limestone and dolomite environments, marine black shale environments, evaporative precipitate environments, and some fluvial sandstone environments. Environments considered unevaluated due to insufficient data include Precambrian plutonic, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, even though a large number of thin sections were available for study

  14. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Manhattan Quadrangle, Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fair, C.L.; Smit, D.E.

    1982-08-01

    Surface reconnaissance and detailed subsurface studies were conducted in the Manhattan Quadrangle, Kansas, to evaluate uranium favorability using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. These studies were designed in part to follow up airborne radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment surveys. More than 600 well records were examined in the subsurface phase of the study. Results of these investigations indicate environments favorable for channel-controlled peneconcordant sandstone uranium deposits in Cretaceous rocks and for Wyoming roll-type deposits in Pennsylvanian sandstones. The Cretaceous sandstone environments exhibit such favorable characteristics as a bottom unconformity, high bed load, braided fluvial channels, large-scale cross-bedding, and one anomalous outcrop. The Pennsylvanian sandstone environments exhibit such favorable characteristics as arkosic cross-bedded sandstones, included pyrite and organic debris, interbedded shales, and gamma-ray log anomalies. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits are limestone and dolomite environments, marine black shale environments, evaporative precipitate environments, and some fluvial sandstone environments. Environments considered unevaluated because not enough data were available include Precambrian plutonic, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, even though a large number of thin sections were available for study

  15. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Marfa Quadrangle, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, C.D.; Duex, T.W.; Wilbert, W.P.

    1982-09-01

    The uranium favorability of the Marfa 1 0 by 2 0 Quadrangle, Texas, was evaluated in accordance with criteria established for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Surface and subsurface studies, to a 1500 m (5000 ft) depth, and chemical, petrologic, hydrogeochemical, and airborne radiometric data were employed. The entire quadrangle is in the Basin and Range Province and is characterized by Tertiary silicic volcanic rocks overlying mainly Cretaceous carbonate rocks and sandstones. Strand-plain sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous San Carlos Formation and El Picacho Formation possess many favorable characteristics and are tentatively judged as favorable for sandstone-type deposits. The Tertiary Buckshot Ignimbrite contains uranium mineralization at the Mammoth Mine. This deposit may be an example of the hydroauthigenic class; alternatively, it may have formed by reduction of uranium-bearing ground water produced during diagenesis of tuffaceous sediments of the Vieja Group. Although the presence of the deposit indicates favorability, the uncertainty in the process that formed the mineralization makes delineation of a favorable environment or area difficult. The Allen intrusions are favorable for authigenic deposits. Basin fill in several bolsons possesses characteristics that suggest favorability but which are classified as unevaluated because of insufficient data. All Precambrian, Paleozoic, other Mesozoic, and other Cenozoic environments are unfavorable

  16. National uranium resource evaluation, Montrose Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodknight, C.S.; Ludlam, J.R.

    1981-06-01

    The Montrose Quadrangle in west-central Colorado was evaluated to identify and delineate areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits according to National Uranium Resource Evaluation program criteria. General surface reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were conducted in all geologic environments in the quadrangle. Preliminary data from aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance were analyzed and brief followup studies were performed. Twelve favorable areas were delineated in the quadrangle. Five favorable areas contain environments for magmatic-hydrothermal uranium deposits along fault zones in the Colorado mineral belt. Five areas in parts of the Harding and Entrada Sandstones and Wasatch and Ohio Creek Formations are favorable environments for sandstone-type uranium deposits. The area of late-stage rhyolite bodies related to the Lake City caldera is a favorable environment for hydroauthigenic uranium deposits. One small area is favorable for uranium deposits of uncertain genesis. All near-surface Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks are unfavorable for uranium deposits, except parts of four formations. All near-surface plutonic igneous rocks are unfavorable for uranium deposits, except five areas of vein-type deposits along Tertiary fault zones. All near-surface volcanic rocks, except one area of rhyolite bodies and several unevaluated areas, are unfavorable for uranium. All near-surface Precambrian metamorphic rocks are unfavorable for uranium deposits. Parts of two wilderness areas, two primitive areas, and most of the subsurface environment are unevaluated

  17. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Bozeman Quadrangle, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, I.M.; Fields, R.W.; Fountain, D.M.; Moore, J.N.; Qamar, A.I.; Silverman, A.J.; Thompson, G.R.; Chadwick, R.A.; Custer, S.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1982-08-01

    The Bozeman Quadrangle, Montana, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas containing environments favorable for uranium deposits. This evaluation was conducted using methods and criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. General surface reconnaissance, mapping, radiometric traverses, and geochemical sampling were performed in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric and HSSR data were evaluated and followup studies of these anomalies and most of the previously known uranium occurrences were conducted. Detailed gravity profiling was done in the Tertiary Three Forks-Gallatin Basin and the Madison and Paradise Valleys. Also, selected well waters were analyzed. Eight areas are considered favorable for sandstone uranium deposits. They include the Tertiary Three Forks-Gallatin basin, the Madison and Paradise Valleys, and five areas underlain by Cretaceous fluvial and marginal-marine sandstones. Other environments within the quadrangle are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits when judged by the program criteria. A few environments were not evaluated due to inaccessibility and/or prior knowledge of unfavorable criteria

  18. National uranium resource evaluation: Williams quadrangle, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, A.J.; Nystrom, R.J.; Thiede, D.S.

    1981-03-01

    Geologic environments of the Williams Quadrangle, Arizona, were evaluated for uranium favorability by means of literature research, uranium-occurrence investigation and other surface studies, subsurface studies, aerial radiometric data, hydrogeochemical data, and rock-sample analytic data. Favorability criteria are those of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Three geologic environments are favorable for uranium: the Tertiary fluvial rocks of the Colorado Plateau where they unconformably overlie impermeable bed rock (for channel-controlled peneconcordant deposits); collapse breccia pipes in Paleozoic strata of the Colorado Plateau (for vein-type deposits in sedimentary rocks); and Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Hualapai, Peacock, and Aquarius Mountains, and Cottonwood and Grand Wash Cliffs (for magmatic-hydrothermal deposits). Unfavorable geologic environments are: Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks, Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks of the Colorado Plateau, nearly all Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, and the Precambrian-Cambrian unconformity of the Grand Wash Cliffs area. Tertiary rocks in Cenozoic basins and Precambrian crystalline rocks in the Grand Canyon region and in parts of the Aquarius Mountains and Cottonwood and Grand Wash Cliffs are unevaluated

  19. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Bozeman Quadrangle, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, I.M.; Fields, R.W.; Fountain, D.M.; Moore, J.N.; Qamar, A.I.; Silverman, A.J.; Thompson, G.R.; Chadwick, R.A.; Custer, S.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1982-08-01

    The Bozeman Quadrangle, Montana, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas containing environments favorable for uranium deposits. This evaluation was conducted using methods and criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. General surface reconnaissance, mapping, radiometric traverses, and geochemical sampling were performed in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric and HSSR data were evaluated and followup studies of these anomalies and most of the previously known uranium occurrences were conducted. Detailed gravity profiling was done in the Tertiary Three Forks-Gallatin Basin and the Madison and Paradise Valleys. Also, selected well waters were analyzed. Eight areas are considered favorable for sandstone uranium deposits. They include the Tertiary Three Forks-Gallatin basin, the Madison and Paradise Valleys, and five areas underlain by Cretaceous fluvial and marginal-marine sandstones. Other environments within the quadrangle are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits when judged by the program criteria. A few environments were not evaluated due to inaccessibility and/or prior knowledge of unfavorable criteria.

  20. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Durango Quadrangle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theis, N.J.; Madson, M.E.; Rosenlund, G.C.; Reinhart, W.R.; Gardner, H.A.

    1981-06-01

    The Durango Quadrangle (2 0 ), Colorado, was evaluated using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria to determine environments favorable for uranium deposits. General reconnaissance, geologic and radiometric investigations, was augmented by detailed surface examination and radiometric and geochemical studies in selected areas. Eight areas favorable for uranium deposits were delineated. Favorable geologic environments include roscoelite-type vanadium-uranium deposits in the Placerville and Barlow Creek-Hermosa Creek districts, sandstone uranium deposits along Hermosa Creek, and vein uranium deposits in the Precambrian rocks of the Needle Mountains area and in the Paleozoic rocks of the Tuckerville and Piedra River Canyon areas. The major portions of the San Juan volcanic field, the San Juan Basin, and the San Luis Basin within the quadrangle were judged unfavorable. Due to lack of information, the roscoelite belt below 1000 ft (300 m), the Eolus Granite below 0.5 mi (0.8 km), and the Lake City caldera are unevaluated. The Precambrian Y melasyenite of Ute Creek and the Animas Formation within the Southern Ute Indian Reservation are unevaluated due to lack of access

  1. Model documentation Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analaytical approach and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1996 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described.

  2. A Comparative Review of a Dozen National Energy Plans. Focus on Renewable and Efficient Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); James, Ted L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Dozens of groups have submitted energy, environmental, and economic recovery plans for consideration by the Obama administration and the 111th Congress. This report provides a comparative analysis of 12 national proposals, focusing especially on energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) market and policy issues.

  3. Comparative Review of a Dozen National Energy Plans: Focus on Renewable and Efficient Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.; James, T. L.

    2009-03-01

    Dozens of groups have submitted energy, environmental, and economic recovery plans for consideration by the Obama administration and the 111th Congress. This report provides a comparative analysis of 12 national proposals, focusing especially on energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) market and policy issues.

  4. National Renewable Policies in an International Electricity Market : A Socio-Technical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iychettira, K.K.

    2018-01-01

    The current regulatory framework under which the support schemes for Renewable energy sources specifically for electricity (RES-E) operate, is provided for by the Directive 2009/28/EC. It sets a 20% target for energy consumption, while relying on legally binding, national targets until 2020. The

  5. Innovative Commercialization Efforts Underway at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheesbrough, Kate; Bader, Meghan

    2016-08-26

    New clean energy and energy efficiency technology solutions hold the promise of significant reductions in energy consumption. However, proven barriers for these technologies, including the technological and commercialization valleys of death, result in promising technologies falling to the wayside. To address these gaps, NREL's Innovation & Entrepreneurship Center designs and manages advanced programs aimed at supporting the development and commercialization of early stage clean energy technologies with the goal of accelerating new technologies to market. These include: Innovation Incubator (IN2) in partnership with Wells Fargo: this technology incubator supports energy efficiency building-related startups to overcome market gaps by providing access to technical support at NREL; Small Business Voucher Pilot: this program offers paid vouchers for applicants to access a unique skill, capability, or facility at any of the 17 DOE National Laboratories to bring next-generation clean energy technologies to market; Energy Innovation Portal: NREL designed and developed the Energy Innovation Portal, providing access to EERE focused intellectual property available for licensing from all of the DOE National Laboratories; Lab-Corps: Lab-Corps aims to better train and empower national lab researchers to understand market drivers and successfully transition their discoveries into high-impact, real world technologies in the private sector; Incubatenergy Network: the Network provides nationwide coordination of clean energy business incubators, share best practices, support clean energy entrepreneurs, and help facilitate a smoother transition to a more sustainable clean energy economy; Industry Growth Forum: the Forum is the perfect venue for clean energy innovators to maximize their exposure to receptive capital and strategic partners. Since 2003, presenting companies have collectively raised more than $5 billion in growth financing.

  6. Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Miller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small generation rates of kinetic energy to maintain the high wind velocities, and it is this generation rate that will ultimately limit the potential use of jet streams as a renewable energy resource. Here we estimate the maximum limit of jet stream wind power by considering extraction of kinetic energy as a term in the free energy balance of kinetic energy that describes the generation, depletion, and extraction of kinetic energy. We use this balance as the basis to quantify the maximum limit of how much kinetic energy can be extracted sustainably from the jet streams of the global atmosphere as well as the potential climatic impacts of its use. We first use a simple thought experiment of geostrophic flow to demonstrate why the high wind velocities of the jet streams are not associated with a high potential for renewable energy generation. We then use an atmospheric general circulation model to estimate that the maximum sustainable extraction from jet streams of the global atmosphere is about 7.5 TW. This estimate is about 200-times less than previous estimates and is due to the fact that the common expression for instantaneous wind power 12 ρv3 merely characterizes the transport of kinetic energy by the flow, but not the generation rate of kinetic energy. We also find that when maximum wind power is extracted from the jet streams, it results in significant

  7. Optimal exploitation of a renewable resource with stochastic nonconvex technology: An analysis of extinction and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Tapan; Roy, Santanu

    1992-11-01

    This paper analyzes the possibilities of extinction and survival of a renewable resource whose technology of reproduction is both stochastic and nonconvex. In particular, the production function is subject to random shocks over time and is allowed to be nonconcave, though it eventually exhibits bounded growth. The existence of a minimum biomass below which the resource can only decrease, is allowed for. Society harvests a part of the current stock every time period over an infinite horizon so as to maximize the expected discounted sum of one period social utilities from the harvested resource. The social utility function is strictly concave. The stochastic process of optimal stocks generated by the optimal stationary policy is analyzed. The nonconvexity in the optimization problem implies that the optimal policy functions are not 'well behaved'. The behaviour of the probability of extinction (and the expected time to extinction), as a function of initial stock, is characterized for various possible configurations of the optimal policy and the technology. Sufficient conditions on the utility and production functions and the rate of impatience, are specified in order to ensure survival of the resource with probability one from some stock level (the minimum safe standard of conservation). Sufficient conditions for almost sure extinction and almost sure survival from all stock levels are also specified. These conditions are related to the corresponding conditions derived in models with deterministic and/or convex technology. 4 figs., 29 refs

  8. Optimal exploitation of a renewable resource with stochastic nonconvex technology: An analysis of extinction and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Tapan [Department of Economics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Roy, Santanu [Econometric Institute, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1992-11-01

    This paper analyzes the possibilities of extinction and survival of a renewable resource whose technology of reproduction is both stochastic and nonconvex. In particular, the production function is subject to random shocks over time and is allowed to be nonconcave, though it eventually exhibits bounded growth. The existence of a minimum biomass below which the resource can only decrease, is allowed for. Society harvests a part of the current stock every time period over an infinite horizon so as to maximize the expected discounted sum of one period social utilities from the harvested resource. The social utility function is strictly concave. The stochastic process of optimal stocks generated by the optimal stationary policy is analyzed. The nonconvexity in the optimization problem implies that the optimal policy functions are not `well behaved`. The behaviour of the probability of extinction (and the expected time to extinction), as a function of initial stock, is characterized for various possible configurations of the optimal policy and the technology. Sufficient conditions on the utility and production functions and the rate of impatience, are specified in order to ensure survival of the resource with probability one from some stock level (the minimum safe standard of conservation). Sufficient conditions for almost sure extinction and almost sure survival from all stock levels are also specified. These conditions are related to the corresponding conditions derived in models with deterministic and/or convex technology. 4 figs., 29 refs.

  9. The United States' energy play - California, the national drama, and renewable power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklar, Scott

    2001-01-01

    The energy supply crisis in California is examined, and the problems resulting from the deteriorating electricity infrastructures due to under investment and the slowing down of power plant construction due to deregulation are considered. Details are given of the lead shown by California in the use of renewable energy sources and the insulation from the worst of the energy crisis of some town such as Redding, Sacramento and Los Angeles which own their own electric utility. The building of solar homes, incentives offered for energy efficiency and the installation of photovoltaics (PV) by the Long Island Power Authority, and the investment in a PV micro-manufacturing plant in Illinois are reported. The absence of any cheap energy, new state energy portfolios, the passing of net-metering laws to promote PV and other renewable energy resources in 30 states, and the growth of the renewable energy sector in the US and in energy service companies are discussed

  10. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2006 Research Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    This 2006 issue of the NREL Research Review again reveals just how vital and diverse our research portfolio has become. Our feature story looks at how our move to embrace the tenants of "translational research" is strengthening our ability to meet the nation's energy goals. By closing the gap between basic science and applied research and development (R&D)--and focusing a bright light on the valuable end uses of our work--translational research promises to shorten the time it takes to push new technology off the lab bench and into the marketplace. This issue also examines our research into fuels of the future and our computer modeling of wind power deployment, both of which point out the real-world benefits of our work.

  11. New ways for the integrated appraisal of national energy scenarios: The case of renewable energy use in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Kowalski, Katharina; Stagl, Sigrid

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the contribution of renewable energy sources in heat and electricity production is a nationally and internationally acknowledged aim for sustainable development. In this context, the participatory development and appraisal of energy scenarios can be useful for enabling stakeholders to explore future energy options and for supporting the national policy discourse. The five renewable energy scenarios considered refer to Austria in the year 2020. The innovative methodology applied, which was developed as part of the ARTEMIS project, examines possible energy futures paths by combining (1) scenario development; (2) multi-criteria evaluation; and (3) a participatory process with stakeholders and energy experts on the national level. Economic, social, environmental and technological impacts as well as revealed social preferences are used for the ranking of the scenarios. Due to the paramount importance of bioenergy in Austria, special emphasis in the scenario development is put on the contribution of biomass. Two main bioenergy issues and their consideration in the ARTEMIS project are explicitly addressed in this paper: the cascadic utilisation of biomass resources and the demand for land area and land area conflicts. Overall, we demonstrate how the methodology can be applied in practice and what insights policy-makers can gain from it. We also explore the methodology's limitations, especially regarding the effort required for participatory scenario building and the availability of stakeholders

  12. China could satisfied her energy demand by her domestic resource of renewable and hydrogen energy and with her favorite condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao De You

    2006-01-01

    Paper described recent situation and the reason of oils consumed increasing rapidly and the activity for searching oil around the world wide and proposed some suggestion for rapid development and commercialization of hydrogen energy system in China with her domestic resources. China could satisfy the energy demand with her domestic resources of renewable energies and depending on her domestic scientific and technology and personal resources etc. It could Clean up the misunderstanding of other country and worried about the oil price increasing. (author)

  13. Environmental analysis of the life cycle emissions of 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran solvent manufactured from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C Stewart; Savelski, Mariano J; Hitchcock, David; Cavanagh, Eduardo J

    2016-01-01

    An environmental analysis has been conducted to determine the cradle to gate life cycle emissions to manufacture the green solvent, 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran. The solvent is considered a greener chemical since it can be manufactured from renewable resources with a lower life cycle footprint. Analyses have been performed using different methods to show greenness in both its production and industrial use. This solvent can potentially be substituted for other ether and chlorinated solvents commonly used in organometallic and biphasic reactions steps in pharmaceutical and fine chemical syntheses. The 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran made from renewable agricultural by-products is marketed by Penn A Kem under the name ecoMeTHF™. The starting material, 2-furfuraldehyde (furfural), is produced from corn cob waste by converting the available pentosans by acid hydrolysis. An evaluation of each step in the process was necessary to determine the overall life cycle and specific CO2 emissions for each raw material/intermediate produced. Allocation of credits for CO2 from the incineration of solvents made from renewable feedstocks significantly reduced the overall carbon footprint. Using this approach, the overall life cycle emissions for production of 1 kg of ecoMeTHF™ were determined to be 0.191 kg, including 0.150 kg of CO2. Life cycle emissions generated from raw material manufacture represents the majority of the overall environmental impact. Our evaluation shows that using 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran in an industrial scenario results in a 97% reduction in emissions, when compared to typically used solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, made through a conventional chemical route.

  14. Journal Articles Applying National Aquatic Resource Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) data are being used and applied above and beyond the regional and national assessments. This page includes a list of recent journal articles that reference NARS data.

  15. National Library of Medicine Web Resources for Student Health Professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Womble, R.

    2010-04-02

    Familiarize students affiliated with the Student National Medical Association with the National Library of Medicine's online resources that address medical conditions, health disparities, and public health preparedness needs.

  16. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Okanogan Quadrangle, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, M.L.; Powell, L.K.; Wicklund, M.A.

    1982-06-01

    The Okanogan Quadrangle, Washington, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas containing environments favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Reconnaissance and detailed surface studies were augmented by aerial radiometric surveys and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance studies. The results of the investigations indicate six environments favorable for uranium deposits. They are unclassified, anatectic, allogenic, and contact-metasomatic deposits in Late Precambrian and (or) Early Paleozoic mantling metamorphic core-complex rocks of the Kettle gneiss dome; magmatic-hydrothermal deposits in the Gold Creek pluton, the Magee Creek pluton, the Wellington Peak pluton, and the Midnite Mine pluton, all located in the southeast quadrant of the quadrangle; magmatic-hydrothermal allogenic deposits in Late Paleozoic and (or) Early Mesozoic black shales in the Castle Mountain area; allogenic deposits in Early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks in the Harvey Creek area and in Late Precambrian metasedimentary rocks in the Blue Mountain area; and sandstone deposits in Eocene sedimentary rocks possibly present in the Enterprise Valley. Seven geologic units are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits. They are all the remaining metamorphic core-complex rocks, Precambrian metasedimentary rocks,Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks, and all Pleistocene and Recent deposits; and, excluding those rocks in the unevaluated areas, include all the remaining plutonic rocks, Paleozoic miogeoclinical rocks, and Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic eugeosynclinal rocks. Three areas, the Cobey Creek-Frosty Creek area, the Oregon City Ridge-Wilmont Creek area, and the area underlain by the Middle Cambrian Metaline Formation and its stratigraphic equivalents may possibly be favorable but are unevaluated due to lack of data

  17. Canada's resources and the national interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This is the main report of the task force on the broad subjects of taxation of nonrenewable resources, a survey of oil and gas reserves, a survey of other mineral resources, and the development of an oil and gas energy plan for Canada. Individual reports on the subjects above were issued as separate appendices to this main report. The preliminary draft of the report was published in early 1976. The introductory chapter surveys the critical choices and their costs for Canada, followed by chapters on Canadian resources; availability of private resource capital investments and returns; the tax position of the nonrenewable resource industry; and Federal-provincial conflicts over resource revenue and jurisdiction. It is concluded that the future is likely to yield only possibly adequate returns after massive commitments of capital and the acceptance of large risks by all concerned; further, that a climate of cooperation between government and industry is needed. (MCW)

  18. Renewable energies in Germany, a national commitment... at the local scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of renewable energies in Germany: share in the national energy mix, the central role of municipalities, economical fallouts and added-value at the local scale (example of a 2 MW wind farm), key-role of the citizen in the development of renewable energies, cooperative companies: an appreciated model, citizen's solar facilities: when municipalities and citizens work side by side, citizen's wind farms: a model supported by citizens, French-German comparison of wind farms development, wind energy and photovoltaic development in Germany, French-German comparison of employment in the renewable energies industry, German consumers' contribution and electricity prices

  19. Energy management in microgrid based on the multi objective stochastic programming incorporating portable renewable energy resource as demand response option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabar, Vahid Sohrabi; Jirdehi, Mehdi Ahmadi; Hemmati, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy resources are often known as cost-effective and lucrative resources and have been widely developed due to environmental-economic issues. Renewable energy utilization even in small scale (e.g., microgrid networks) has attracted significant attention. Energy management in microgrid can be carried out based on the generating side management or demand side management. In this paper, portable renewable energy resource are modeled and included in microgrid energy management as a demand response option. Utilizing such resources could supply the load when microgrid cannot serve the demand. This paper addresses energy management and scheduling in microgrid including thermal and electrical loads, renewable energy sources (solar and wind), CHP, conventional energy sources (boiler and micro turbine), energy storage systems (thermal and electrical ones), and portable renewable energy resource (PRER). Operational cost of microgrid and air pollution are considered as objective functions. Uncertainties related to the parameters are incorporated to make a stochastic programming. The proposed problem is expressed as a constrained, multi-objective, linear, and mixed-integer programing. Augmented Epsilon-constraint method is used to solve the problem. Final results and calculations are achieved using GAMS24.1.3/CPLEX12.5.1. Simulation results demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of the proposed method in microgrid energy management. - Highlights: • Introducing portable renewable energy resource (PRER) and considering effect of them. • Considering reserve margin and sensitivity analysis for validate robustness. • Multi objective and stochastic management with considering various loads and sources. • Using augmented Epsilon-constraint method to solve multi objective program. • Highly decreasing total cost and pollution with PRER in stochastic state.

  20. Biomass as renewable energy resource in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The state with the wooden waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Semin; Smajevic, Izet

    2004-01-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina today fulfills its needs for primary energy mainly from fossil fuels. In spite of significant resources of all renewable sources of energy and despite evidently open possibility for their utilization, these resources (except for, partly, hydropower) hove practically not been used to date. Due to its climatic situation, Bosnia and Herzegovina is very rich in woodland. Thus the production, harvesting and processing of timber is one of the country's oldest economic activities, and also has nowadays major strategic importance for the country's economic development. The purpose of this paper is to point out the energy potential of wooden waste, as a component of still un sufficiently utilized biomass in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In this paper, attention is primarily focused on results of research in the area of estimation of obviously significant energy potential of wooden waste produced in rather widespread wood and timber industry of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Preliminary research of this resource carried out to date showed that technical potential of biomass from timber waste is approx. 8,5 PJ. (Author)

  1. Microwave-Assisted Syntheses in Recyclable Ionic Liquids: Photoresists Based on Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Charlotte; Luef, Klaus P; Edler, Matthias; Griesser, Thomas; Kremsner, Jennifer M; Stadler, Alexander; Grassl, Bruno; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Wiesbrock, Frank

    2015-10-26

    The copoly(2-oxazoline) pNonOx80 -stat-pDc(=) Ox20 can be synthesized from the cationic ring-opening copolymerization of 2-nonyl-2-oxazoline NonOx and 2-dec-9'-enyl-2-oxazoline Dc(=) Ox in the ionic liquid n-hexyl methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate under microwave irradiation in 250 g/batch quantities. The polymer precipitates upon cooling, enabling easy recovery of the polymer and the ionic liquid. Both monomers can be obtained from fatty acids from renewable resources. pNonOx80 -stat-pDc(=) Ox20 can be used as polymer in a photoresist (resolution of 1 μm) based on UV-induced thiol-ene reactions. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  2. Replacement of petroleum based hydraulic fluids with renewable and environmental friendly resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Sani Wan Nik; Noraini Ali

    2000-01-01

    Rational self-interest and good environmental citizenship are forcing the development of renewable and environmentally acceptable hydraulic fluids. Fluids that are at least equivalent in performance plus biodegradable have been formulated in Europe and USA using vegetable oils as base stocks for innovative additive packages. While many of the differences in using vegetable based stocks in place of mineral oils have been adapted to by straightforward formulating changes, the oxidation stability of vegetable-based stock is still a challenging area. This work initiates the investigation in Malaysia in the use of environmentally friendly resource to replace partially the petroleum based hydraulic fluid. The study concentrates more in improving the oxidation stability of the vegetable based stocks. (Author)

  3. USDOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy joint collaboration for renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touryan, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint collaboration between the US and Russia to develop renewable energy resources. There are five main goals of the project. First is to establish Intersolarcenter as a sister organization to NREL for joint R&D activities, and to provide training to the staff. Second is to install demonstration systems in parks and selected locations around Moscow. Third is to install pilot projects: a wind/diesel hybrid system at 21 sites in the northern territories; a 500 kW biomass power plant in the Arkhangelsk Region. Fourth is to assist in the start-up operations of a 2 MW/yr Triple Junction amorphous-Si manufacturing facility in Moscow using US technology. Fifth is to explore the possibilities of financing large-scale wind/hybrid and biomass power systems for the nouthern territories (possibly 900 sites).

  4. Trends in the development of industrially assimilated renewable energy: the problem of resource restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhegorodtsev, R. M.; Ratner, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of the development of wind and solar energy and potential resource restrictions of the dissemination of these technologies of energy generation associated with intensive use of rare earth metals and some other mineral resources are presented. The technological prospects of various directions of decisions of the problem of resource restrictions, including escalating of volumes of extraction and production of necessary mineral components, creating substitutes of scarce materials and development of recycling are considered. The bottlenecks of each of the above-mentioned decisions were founded. Conclusions are drawn on the prospects of development of the Russian high-tech sectors of the economy in the context of the most probable decisions of the problem of resource restrictions of wind and solar energy. An increase in extraction and production of rare earth metals and some other materials, stimulation of domestic research and development (R&D) to create the permanent magnets of new types and new technologies of wind-powered generation, and reduction of the resource-demand and technology development of recycling the components of power equipment are the most prospective directions of progress. The innovations in these directions will be in demand on the European, Chinese, and North American markets in the near decades due to the end of the life cycle (approximately 30 years) of wind and solar energy projects started at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries (the beginning of exponential growth in plants). The private investors and relevant regional and federal government agencies can use the qualitative characteristics of the dynamics of industrially assimilated renewable energy to choose the most promising investment orientations in energy projects and selection of the most economically sound development methods of energy and related industries.

  5. Mass and energy-capital conservation equations to study the price evolution of non-renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, F.

    2006-01-01

    Mass conservation equation of non-renewable resources is employed to study the resources remaining in the reservoir according to the extraction policy. The energy conservation equation is transformed into an energy-capital conservation equation. The Hotelling rule is shown to be a special case of the general energy-capital conservation equation when the mass flow rate of extracted resources is equal to unity. Mass and energy-capital conservation equations are then coupled and solved together. It is investigated the price evolution of extracted resources. The conclusion of the Hotelling rule for non-extracted resources, i.e. an exponential increase of the price of non-renewable resources at the rate of current interest, is then generalized. A new parameter, called 'Price Increase Factor', PIF, is introduced as the difference between the current interest rate of capital and the mass flow rate of extraction of non-renewable resources. The price of extracted resources can increase exponentially only if PIF is greater than zero or if the mass flow rate of extraction is lower than the current interest rate of capital. The price is constant if PIF is zero or if the mass flow rate of extraction is equal to the current interest rate. The price is decreasing with time if PIF is smaller than zero or if the mass flow rate of extraction is higher than the current interest rate. (author)

  6. New resource nationalism? Continuity and change in Tanzania’s extractive industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Thabit; Pedersen, Rasmus Hundsbæk

    2018-01-01

    in July 2017. Combined, the new acts aim to regain the loss of the country’s sovereignty over its resources, first and foremost by opening the renegotiation of existing contracts and removing firms’ access to international arbitration. Such actions have renewed the debate on resource nationalism......, with some political commentators referring to ‘a new resource nationalism’, supposedly marking a break with the previous administration. By analysing changes in extractive governance in recent years, this article argues that, whereas some new features related to the current President’s personality...... and populist style may explain some of the new nationalism, the continuities from previous administration are more pronounced. This can be seen in the repeated calls for a tougher fiscal take, involvement of state-owned enterprises and presidents’ direct involvement in deal-making, all of which were already...

  7. Proceedings of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.

    2014-12-01

    The second National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop was held in Broomfield, Colorado, from January 29 to February 1, 2013. The event included a day-and-a-half workshop exploring a wide variety of topics related to system modeling and design of wind turbines and plants. Following the workshop, 2 days of tutorials were held at NREL, showcasing software developed at Sandia National Laboratories, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Glenn Laboratories, and NREL. This document provides a brief summary of the various workshop activities and includes a review of the content and evaluation results from attendees.

  8. Technical and economic viability of electric power plants on the basis of renewable energy resources regarding hierarchical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balzannikov Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with power stations working on the basis of non-renewable energy resources and finite resources which will inevitably come to depletion in the future. These installations produce considerable negative impact on the environment, including air pollution. It is noted that considerable amounts of emissions of harmful substances accounts for the share of small thermal installations which aren’t always considered in calculations of pollution. The author specifies that emission reduction of harmful substances should be achieved due to wider use of environmentally friendly renewable energy resources. It is recommended to use hierarchical structure with the priority of ecological and social conditions of the region for technical and economic viability of consumers’ power supply systems and installations, based on renewable energy resources use. At the same time the author suggests considering federal, regional and object levels of viability. It is recommended to consider the main stages of lifecycle of an object for object level: designing, construction, operation, reconstruction of an object and its preservation. The author shows the example of calculation of power plant efficiency, based on renewable energy resources during its reconstruction, followed by power generation increase.

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Monitoring Report for FY 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Braun

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the cultural resource monitoring activities of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Cultural Resource Management (CRM) Office during fiscal year 2009 (FY 2009). Throughout the year, thirty-eight cultural resource localities were revisited including: two locations with Native American human remains, one of which is a cave, two additional caves, twenty-two prehistoric archaeological sites, six historic homesteads, two historic stage stations, two historic trails, and two nuclear resources, including Experimental Breeder Reactor-I, which is a designated National Historic Landmark. Several INL project areas were also monitored in FY 2009 to assess project compliance with cultural resource recommendations and monitor the effects of ongoing project activities. Although impacts were documented at a few locations and trespassing citations were issued in one instance, no significant adverse effects that would threaten the National Register eligibility of any resources were observed. Monitoring also demonstrated that several INL projects generally remain in compliance with recommendations to protect cultural resources.

  10. Environmental, economic, social and political drivers for increasing use of woodfuel as a renewable resource in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Present woodfuel usage in Britain is negligible. Historically, Britain has been fortunate in having abundant coal, oil and gas. At an EU level, biomass is seen as an important element of energy, environment and agriculture/forestry policy. In the European context, biomass is taken to include agricultural and industrial wastes in addition to forest woodfuel, and it is regarded as a potential source of heat, fuels and electricity. In the UK, energy policy as a whole is based on four considerations-environment, energy reliability and security, affordability for the poorest in society and competitive pricing for businesses, industries and households. Within UK policy, the dominant driver for greater use of biomass as a renewable source of energy is climate change mitigation; energy security is an emerging driver; all other potential benefits of biomass as a renewable resource are of limited significance. At the moment, the UK focus is narrower than in Europe. National targets are set only for electricity generation. Furthermore, expansion of energy crops, which are defined in the major regulations as 'crops planted since 1989 and grown primarily for the purpose of being used as a fuel' and, therefore, do not include material from extant forests, is seen as the main way to ensure energy security and minimise carbon expended to transport the raw material to the point of end use. Nevertheless, woody biomass from forests, sawmills, urban areas and transportation corridors is already available in vastly greater quantities than 'energy crops'. At a regional and local scale, global environmental issues are of lower relative importance and a much wider range of potential benefits tend to be taken into consideration. For example, the economic benefits of woodfuel heating in areas without connections to the gas grid have been an important consideration in the steady increase in woodheat developments. In other areas where there is a less obvious financial driver, rural

  11. A 100% renewable electricity generation system for New Zealand utilising hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, I.G.; Page, S.C.; Williamson, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand electricity generation system is dominated by hydro generation at approximately 60% of installed capacity between 2005 and 2007, augmented with approximately 32% fossil-fuelled generation, plus minor contributions from geothermal, wind and biomass resources. In order to explore the potential for a 100% renewable electricity generation system with substantially increased levels of wind penetration, fossil-fuelled electricity production was removed from an historic 3-year data set, and replaced by modelled electricity production from wind, geothermal and additional peaking options. Generation mixes comprising 53-60% hydro, 22-25% wind, 12-14% geothermal, 1% biomass and 0-12% additional peaking generation were found to be feasible on an energy and power basis, whilst maintaining net hydro storage. Wind capacity credits ranged from 47% to 105% depending upon the incorporation of demand management, and the manner of operation of the hydro system. Wind spillage was minimised, however, a degree of residual spillage was considered to be an inevitable part of incorporating non-dispatchable generation into a stand-alone grid system. Load shifting was shown to have considerable advantages over installation of new peaking plant. Application of the approach applied in this research to countries with different energy resource mixes is discussed, and options for further research are outlined.

  12. 77 FR 16651 - National Defense Resources Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... commercial sectors for research and development and for acquisition of materials, services, components, and... by a small business supplier or subcontractor in accordance with section 108(b)(2) of the Act, 50 U.S... the National Labor Relations Board, the Federal Labor Relations Authority, the National Mediation...

  13. Introduction of the national centre for research and application of renewable energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Smitkova, Miroslava; Eleschova, Zaneta; Hajducek, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Minovski, Dragan; Sarac, Vasilija

    2011-01-01

    Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava acquired financial support from the European Fund for Regional Development for the establishment of the National Centre for Research and Application of Renewable Energy Sources in the framework of the “Operation Program Research and Development”. Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (STU) is a research oriented university contributing to the development and spreading of scientific knowledge. Paper deals with the presentation o...

  14. Driving R&D for the Next Generation Work Truck; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, M.

    2015-03-04

    Improvements in medium- and heavy-duty work truck energy efficiency can dramatically reduce the use of petroleum-based fuels and the emissions of greenhouse gases. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with industry partners to develop fuel-saving, high-performance vehicle technologies, while examining fleet operational practices that can simulateneously improve fuel economy, decrease emissions, and support bottom-line goals.

  15. Simulations of scenarios with 100% renewable electricity in the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliston, Ben; Diesendorf, Mark; MacGill, Iain

    2012-01-01

    As a part of a program to explore technological options for the transition to a renewable energy future, we present simulations for 100% renewable energy systems to meet actual hourly electricity demand in the five states and one territory spanned by the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) in 2010. The system is based on commercially available technologies: concentrating solar thermal (CST) power with thermal storage, wind, photovoltaic (PV), existing hydro and biofuelled gas turbines. Hourly solar and wind generation data are derived from satellite observations, weather stations, and actual wind farm outputs. Together CST and PV contribute about half of total annual electrical energy supply. A range of 100% renewable energy systems for the NEM are found to be technically feasible and meet the NEM reliability standard. The principal challenge is meeting peak demand on winter evenings following overcast days when CST storage is partially charged and sometimes wind speeds are low. The model handles these circumstances by combinations of an increased number of gas turbines and reductions in winter peak demand. There is no need for conventional base-load power plants. The important parameter is the reliability of the whole supply-demand system, not the reliability of particular types of power plants. - Highlights: ► We simulate 100% renewable electricity in the Australian National Electricity Market. ► The energy system comprises commercially available technologies. ► A range of 100% renewable electricity systems meet the reliability standard. ► Principal challenge is meeting peak demand on winter evenings. ► The concept of ‘base-load’ power plants is found to be redundant.

  16. Situational analysis of the Canadian renewable energy sector with a focus on human resource issues : 2007 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Several factors are steering world energy supplies away from traditional fossil fuel sources and toward renewable energy technologies. As a result, renewable energy markets are experiencing significant growth, and experts predict this trend will continue. As of 2004, 2 per cent of Canada's total electricity generation capacity was provided from emerging renewable technologies, excluding large scale hydro which represents 56 per cent of Canada's electricity generation capacity. The development of renewable energy sources in Canada is expected to contribute to Canada's economic prosperity by providing diversified energy supply to industrial buyers, generating direct economic advantages and employment to local communities, as well as direct benefits such as improved air quality and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Human Resources and Social Development Canada contracted the Delphi Group to provide information on the labour market for the renewable energy sector in Canada in order to identify the steps needed to help the sector in developing a human resource strategy. This report provided an overview of key characteristics defining the renewable energy subsectors in Canada along with anticipated changes in the near term. The study focused on the following technologies: wind turbines; photovoltaics; active solar thermal; geoexchange/earth energy; small scale hydropower; bioenergy; and, ocean energy. A reliable estimate of the labour demands in the subsectors over the next 5 to 10 year was presented along with a review of the human resource issues affecting the sector. This project was guided by an advisory committee of members from 4 sector councils; 3 government agencies including Environment Canada, Industry Canada and Natural Resources Canada; 4 industry associations representing bioenergy, geothermal energy, solar energy and wind energy; and other organizations including the Association of Canadian Community Colleges, the Canadian Council of Technicians and

  17. Dynamic Control of Facts Devices to Enable Large Scale Penetration of Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Govind Sahadeo

    This thesis focuses on some of the problems caused by large scale penetration of Renewable Energy Resources within EHV transmission networks, and investigates some approaches in resolving these problems. In chapter 4, a reduced-order model of the 500 kV WECC transmission system is developed by estimating its key parameters from phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. The model was then implemented in RTDS and was investigated for its accuracy with respect to the PMU data. Finally it was tested for observing the effects of various contingencies like transmission line loss, generation loss and large scale penetration of wind farms on EHV transmission systems. Chapter 5 introduces Static Series Synchronous Compensators (SSSC) which are seriesconnected converters that can control real power flow along a transmission line. A new application of SSSCs in mitigating Ferranti effect on unloaded transmission lines was demonstrated on PSCAD. A new control scheme for SSSCs based on the Cascaded H-bridge (CHB) converter configuration was proposed and was demonstrated using PSCAD and RTDS. A new centralized controller was developed for the distributed SSSCs based on some of the concepts used in the CHB-based SSSC. The controller's efficacy was demonstrated using RTDS. Finally chapter 6 introduces the problem of power oscillations induced by renewable sources in a transmission network. A power oscillation damping (POD) controller is designed using distributed SSSCs in NYPA's 345 kV three-bus AC system and its efficacy is demonstrated in PSCAD. A similar POD controller is then designed for the CHB-based SSSC in the IEEE 14 bus system in PSCAD. Both controllers were noted to have significantly damped power oscillations in the transmission networks.

  18. Control scheme of three-level H-bridge converter for interfacing between renewable energy resources and AC grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a control strategy of multilevel converters for integration of renewable energy resources into power grid. The proposed technique provides compensation for active, reactive, and harmonic current components of grid-connected loads. A three-level H-bridge converter is proposed a...

  19. Companion modeling for integrated renewable resource management: a new collaborative approach to create common values for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruankaew, N.; Page, Le C.; Dumrongrojwattana, P.; Barnaud, C.; Gajaseni, N.; Paassen, van A.; Trebuil, G.

    2010-01-01

    The sustainable management of renewable resources is often complicated by the diversity and dynamic nature of the ecological and socio-economic systems involved. As the dynamics and interactions of these systems are highly complex and frequently unpredictable, there is a need to opt for

  20. 78 FR 15718 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-44-006] Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America LLC Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 1, 2013...

  1. 77 FR 2286 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-44-000] Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Designation of Certain Commission Personnel as...

  2. A theoretical bilevel control scheme for power networks with large-scale penetration of distributed renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boroojeni, Kianoosh; Amini, M. Hadi; Nejadpak, Arash

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a bilevel control framework to achieve a highly-reliable smart distribution network with large-scale penetration of distributed renewable resources (DRRs). We assume that the power distribution network consists of several residential/commercial communities. In the first ...

  3. Forest resources of the Nez Perce National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Disney

    2010-01-01

    As part of a National Forest System cooperative inventory, the Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service conducted a forest resource inventory on the Nez Perce National Forest using a nationally standardized mapped-plot design (for more details see the section "Inventory methods"). This report presents highlights...

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Monitoring Report for FY 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    INL Cultural Resource Management Office

    2010-10-01

    This report describes the cultural resource monitoring activities of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Cultural Resource Management (CRM) Office during fiscal year 2010 (FY 2010). Throughout the year, thirty-three cultural resource localities were revisited, including somethat were visited more than once, including: two locations with Native American human remains, one of which is a cave, two additional caves, twenty-six prehistoric archaeological sites, two historic stage stations, and Experimental Breeder Reactor-I, which is a designated National Historic Landmark. The resources that were monitored included seventeen that are routinely visited and sixteen that are located in INL project areas. Although impacts were documented at a few locations and one trespassing incident (albeit sans formal charges) was discovered, no significant adverse effects that would threaten the National Register eligibility of any resources were observed. Monitoring also demonstrated that several INL projects generally remain in compliance with recommendations to protect cultural resources.

  5. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  6. Potential Teaching Model for Applying Novel Approaches of Renewed Estonian National Curriculum into Visual Art Classes in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahter, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the renewed national curriculum was legislated in Estonia. Major changes include a new list of cross-curricular topics, increased importance of integration and specification of the components of the art learning process. In this situation, the question arises--how to fully implement the challenges of the renewed curriculum in primary…

  7. 76 FR 76153 - Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a National Grid; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-12-000] Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a National Grid; Notice of Complaint Take notice... Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), Allco Renewable Energy Limited filed a formal complaint...

  8. A State-Based Approach to Building a Liquid National Market for Renewable Energy Certificates: The REC-EX Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berendt, Christopher B.

    2006-01-01

    RECs are the currency driving the growth of renewable energy markets and the sale of RECs from renewable energy generation projects could promise a predictable return. But the existing REC markets in the U.S. sorely lack the liquidity needed to make good on that promise. The author proposes a Renewable Energy Certificate Exchange program rooted in the construction of a national trading platform for RECs in tandem with the execution of a new agreement among the states with REC-based renewable portfolio standards. (author)

  9. Renewable Diesel from Algal Lipids: An Integrated Baseline for Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential from a Harmonized Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Fishman, D.; Frank, E. D.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Aden, A.; Coleman, A. M.; Pienkos, P. T.; Skaggs, R. J.; Venteris, E. R.; Wang, M. Q.

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Program has begun an initiative to obtain consistent quantitative metrics for algal biofuel production to establish an 'integrated baseline' by harmonizing and combining the Program's national resource assessment (RA), techno-economic analysis (TEA), and life-cycle analysis (LCA) models. The baseline attempts to represent a plausible near-term production scenario with freshwater microalgae growth, extraction of lipids, and conversion via hydroprocessing to produce a renewable diesel (RD) blendstock. Differences in the prior TEA and LCA models were reconciled (harmonized) and the RA model was used to prioritize and select the most favorable consortium of sites that supports production of 5 billion gallons per year of RD. Aligning the TEA and LCA models produced slightly higher costs and emissions compared to the pre-harmonized results. However, after then applying the productivities predicted by the RA model (13 g/m2/d on annual average vs. 25 g/m2/d in the original models), the integrated baseline resulted in markedly higher costs and emissions. The relationship between performance (cost and emissions) and either productivity or lipid fraction was found to be non-linear, and important implications on the TEA and LCA results were observed after introducing seasonal variability from the RA model. Increasing productivity and lipid fraction alone was insufficient to achieve cost and emission targets; however, combined with lower energy, less expensive alternative technology scenarios, emissions and costs were substantially reduced.

  10. Economics and Security: Resourcing National Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    Papers Number 5 N um ber 5 Econom ics and Security: R esourcing N ational Priorities http://www.usnwc.edu Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...2010 William B. Ruger Chair of National Security Economics Papers Number 5 N um ber 5 Econom ics and Security: R esourcing N ational Priorities http://www.usnwc.edu

  11. Recent advances in the metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of lactate and succinate from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Yota; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-03-01

    Recent increasing attention to environmental issues and the shortage of oil resources have spurred political and industrial interest in the development of environmental friendly and cost-effective processes for the production of bio-based chemicals from renewable resources. Thus, microbial production of commercially important chemicals is viewed as a desirable way to replace current petrochemical production. Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive soil bacterium, is one of the most important industrial microorganisms as a platform for the production of various amino acids. Recent research has explored the use of C. glutamicum as a potential cell factory for producing organic acids such as lactate and succinate, both of which are commercially important bulk chemicals. Here, we summarize current understanding in this field and recent metabolic engineering efforts to develop C. glutamicum strains that efficiently produce L- and D-lactate, and succinate from renewable resources.

  12. Prodigiosin Production by Serratia marcescens UCP 1549 Using Renewable-Resources as a Low Cost Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galba M. Campos Takaki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A new strain of Serratia marcescens UCP1459 isolated from a semi-arid soil produced the natural red pigment prodigiosin, characterized by an uncommon pyrrolylpyrromethane skeleton. Prodigiosin is a promising drug due to its reported antifungal, immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative activities. The objective of this work was to indentify a suitable medium to simultaneously enhance S. marcescens growth and pigment production using renewable resources obtained from industrial wastes. S. marcescens produced the highest level of prodigiosin (49.5 g/L at 48 h of cultivation using 6% “manipueira” (cassava wastewater supplemented with mannitol (2% at pH 7 and 28 °C. Carbohydrates in “manipueira” and mannitol play a role in the enhanced cell growth and prodigiosin production. The purified pigment extracted from the biomass was analyzed by mass spectrophotometry and showed the expected molecular weight of 324 Da corresponding to prodigiosin. In conclusion, we have successfully designed a new, economically feasible medium supporting enhanced S. marcescens growth and a high yield production of prodigiosin.

  13. Recent developments and future prospects on bio-based polyesters derived from renewable resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Noreen, Aqdas; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A significantly growing interest is to design a new strategy for development of bio-polyesters from renewable resources due to limited fossil fuel reserves, rise of petrochemicals price and emission of green house gasses. Therefore, this review aims to present an overview on synthesis of biocompatible, biodegradable and cost effective polyesters from biomass and their prospective in different fields including packaging, coating, tissue engineering, drug delivery system and many more. Isosorbide, 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol, bicyclic diacetalyzed galactaric acid, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, citric, 2,3-O-methylene l-threitol, dimethyl 2,3-O-methylene l-threarate, betulin, dihydrocarvone, decalactone, pimaric acid, ricinoleic acid and sebacic acid, are some important monomers derived from biomass which are used for bio-based polyester manufacturing, consequently, replacing the petrochemical based polyesters. The last part of this review highlights some recent advances in polyester blends and composites in order to improve their properties for exceptional biomedical applications i.e. skin tissue engineering, guided bone regeneration, bone healing process, wound healing and wound acceleration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Production of green biocellulose nanofibers by Gluconacetobacter xylinus through utilizing the renewable resources of agriculture residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdallah, Wahib; Dahman, Yaser

    2013-11-01

    The present study demonstrates the ability to produce green biocellulose nanofibers using the renewable resources of agriculture residues. Locally grown wheat straws (WS) were hydrolyzed under different conditions. Their hydrolysates were utilized to produce the nanofibers in separate hydrolysis fermentation process by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain bacterium. Highest biocellulose production of ~10.6 g/L was achieved with samples that were enzymatically hydrolyzed. Moreover, acidic hydrolyzed WS produced up to 9.7 g/L, with total sugar concentrations in culture media of 43 g/L. Generally, enzymatic hydrolysis of WS resulted in more total sugar concentration than the acidic hydrolysis (i.e., 52.12 g/L), while water hydrolysis produced the least. This can be related to utilizing Xylanase in addition to Cellulase and Beta-glucosidase that helps to hydrolyse WS dry basis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. Sugar mixtures produced under all hydrolysis conditions were mainly composed of glucose and xylose with average percentages of 56 and 28 %, respectively. Acidic hydrolysis at higher acid concentration, as well as soaking WS in the acidic solution for longer time, improved the total sugar concentration in the culture media by 18 %. Conducting thermal treatment at more intense conditions of higher temperature or heating time improved the total sugar produced with acidic hydrolysis. These conditions, however, resulted in further production of furfural, which considerably affected bacterial cells proliferation. This resulted in lowest sugar consumption in the range of 62-64 % that affected final BC production.

  15. Feasibility of Stochastic Voltage/VAr Optimization Considering Renewable Energy Resources for Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Salkuti, Surender Reddy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization technique for solving the Voltage/VAr control problem including the load demand and Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) variation. The RERs often take along some inputs like stochastic behavior. One of the important challenges i. e., Voltage/VAr control is a prime source for handling power system complexity and reliability, hence it is the fundamental requirement for all the utility companies. There is a need for the robust and efficient Voltage/VAr optimization technique to meet the peak demand and reduction of system losses. The voltages beyond the limit may damage costly sub-station devices and equipments at consumer end as well. Especially, the RERs introduces more disturbances and some of the RERs are not even capable enough to meet the VAr demand. Therefore, there is a strong need for the Voltage/VAr control in RERs environment. This paper aims at the development of optimal scheme for Voltage/VAr control involving RERs. In this paper, Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to cover full range of variables by maximally satisfying the marginal distribution. Here, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios effectively and maximally retain the fitting accuracy of samples. The developed optimization scheme is tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) considering the load demand and RERs variation.

  16. The German energy market. 2014 yearbook. Data and facts on conventional and renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm; RWTH Aachen Univ.; World Energy Council, London

    2014-01-01

    The present book provides an overview of the energy market of the German Federal Republic. Its main emphasis is on structures of demand and supply in the markets for crude oil, brown coal, hard coal, natural gas and electricity. A special chapter has been dedicated to renewable energy resources. Another focal area are the price formation mechanisms for oil, coal, natural gas and electricity. The development of energy demand is analysed, differentiating between the sectors industry, transport, households and trade/industry/services. The book addresses the international climate protection treaties, the legal framework for climate protection activities at the European level and the implementation of trade in greenhouse gas emission permits in Germany. It presents current forecasts and scenarios, thus pointing out possible perspectives in the German energy market. It also discusses the framework conditions for Germany's energy policy. The energy markets are portrayed through facts and figures compiled in a total of 125 tables and 148 diagrams. Details of ownership of more than 100 utility companies are made transparent. The chapter on energy in the coalition agreement of 27 November 2013 between the Christian Democratic Union, Christian Social Union and the Social Democratic Party is documented verbatim. Rounding off the publication is a detailed glossary that will facilitate the reader's understanding of complex matters in the field of energy economy.

  17. 77 FR 46375 - Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... Schools and Community Self-Determination Act (Pub. L. 110-343) (the Act) and operates in compliance with... review with the Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee members their roles and...

  18. Promotion of renewable energy supply in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the utilization of the various non-renewable energy resources and the associated environmental problems deriving from the different stages and uses of these resources. Some of the most important of these problems are loss of vegetation and environmental pollution. The need for a conscious shift to the exploitation of renewable energy sources are highlighted and a presentation of renewable energy resources of Nigeria is made. A review of national efforts in the development and utilization of renewable energy sources in Nigeria and the achievements so far are presented

  19. Promotion of renewable energy supply in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, O V [National Centre for Energy Research and Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)

    1999-07-01

    The paper discusses the utilization of the various non-renewable energy resources and the associated environmental problems deriving from the different stages and uses of these resources. Some of the most important of these problems are loss of vegetation and environmental pollution. The need for a conscious shift to the exploitation of renewable energy sources are highlighted and a presentation of renewable energy resources of Nigeria is made. A review of national efforts in the development and utilization of renewable energy sources in Nigeria and the achievements so far are presented.

  20. Are government policies effective in promoting deployment of renewable electricity resources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimali, Gireesh; Kniefel, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Using a panel data over 50 US states and years 1991-2007, this paper uses a state fixed-effects model with state-specific time-trends to estimate the effects of state policies on the penetration of various emerging renewable electricity sources, including wind, biomass, geothermal, and solar photovoltaic. Renewable portfolio standards with either capacity or sales requirements have a significant impact on the penetration of all types of renewables-however, this impact is variable depending on the type of renewable source: it is negative for combined renewables, wind, and biomass; and positive for geothermal and solar. Further, clean energy funds and required green power options mostly result in increasing the penetration of all types of renewables. On the other hand, voluntary renewable portfolio standards as well as state green power purchasing programs are found to be ineffective in increasing the penetration of any type of renewable source. Finally, economic variables, such as electricity price, natural gas price, and per capita GDP as well as structural variables, such as league of conservation voters rating and the share of coal-generated electricity are found to be generally insignificant, suggesting the crucial role of policy in increasing the penetration of renewables. - Highlights: → Ascertains the impact of state policies on increasing the renewable capacity. → Renewable portfolio requirements have an (sometimes unexpected) impact. → Clean energy funds and required green power options have a positive impact. → Voluntary renewable standards as well as state green power purchasing requirements are ineffective. → Economics as well as political and structural variables are ineffective.

  1. Consumption of forest chips as an energy source as part of the national action plan for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylitalo, E.

    2004-01-01

    A specific Action Plan for Renewable Energy was introduced in 1999 in order to increase the utilisation of renewable energy sources in Finland. The Plan was renewed in 2002, taking into account a revision of the goals defined in the statements given by the Parliament in the de-bate on national Climate Strategy and the decision on building a new nuclear power plant. The main reason for increasing the consumption of renewable energy is the aim of decreasing emissions of greenhouse gases caused by fossil fuels. The renewed Action Plan includes aims and means of how to increase the consumption of renewable energy in practice in the future. Specific goals for separate renewable energy sources were set for the years 2005, 2010 and 2025. Proportional targets were set for the consumption of forest chips: in 2010 consumption is expected to be four times larger than in 2001 and in 2025 seven times larger. In Finland, the most important source for renewable energy is wood and wood waste, which currently makes up approximately 20 per cent of total energy consumption. Wood waste (incl. waste liquor and solid wood waste) produced by the forest industries can be considered as being fully utilized at the moment. Therefore, the most important means of increasing the consumption of wood energy in the future is in the utilisation of forest chips resources. Since 2000, the Finnish Forest Re-search Institute has compiled statistics on the consumption of forest chips and forest industry by-products used in energy generation. One aim of these statistics is to monitor the fruition of the Action Plan mentioned. In 2003, the volume of forest chips consumed in energy generation was 2.1 mill. m3, i.e. approximately five per cent of all energy sources consumed. According to the statistics, the consumption of forest chips has doubled during the period 2000-2003 with an annual average increase of 0.4 mill. m 3 . The goals set in the Action Plan can be considered to be high. In order to achieve

  2. Resources for Teaching about Nationalism, 1812 to the Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, David

    1987-01-01

    Highlights five resources for teaching about the rise of U.S. nationalism between 1812 and 1865 available from the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC). Items included are: (1) the War of 1812; (2) the annexation of Texas; (3) the Kansas-Nebraska Act; and (4) the question of slavery. (BSR)

  3. Fair Access to and Benefit Sharing of Genetic Resources : National ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Fair Access to and Benefit Sharing of Genetic Resources : National Policy Development (China, Jordan, Nepal, Peru). Local practices pertaining to biodiversity conservation, crop improvement and natural resource management are under stress. Existing laws and mechanisms - such as intellectual property rights (IPRs) ...

  4. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: San Juan National Forest - Dolores Ranger District, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-26

    This report summarizes the results from an energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Dolores Ranger District in the San Juan National Forest in Colorado. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the assessment with United States Forest Service (USFS) personnel on August 16-17, 2016, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use and implement renewable energy technologies. The assessment is approximately an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements.

  5. How much electricity really costs. Comparison of the state subsidisation and overall social costs of conventional and renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuechler, Swantje; Meyer, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    This study explains how the costs of electricity are an aggregate of different components. The electricity price paid by the end consumer contains not only the actual costs of energy production, which make up only about a third of the actual price in an average household, but also different surcharges such as network charges, electricity tax, value added tax and the concession levy. It furthermore contains the allocation charge stipulated by the Renewable Energy Law (EEG reallocation charge) as a means of allocating the costs of the subsidisation of electricity from renewable resources to the consumers. On the other hand conventional energy resources such as nuclear energy, hard coal and brown coal have substantially benefited over many decades from state subsidies in the form of financial aids, tax rebates and other promotive measures. The main difference between this and the subsidisation of renewable energy is that the costs of conventional energy resources are largely charged to the state budget rather than being made transparent in the electricity price. Based on an evaluation of the literature, data, interviews and the authors' own methodological deliberations this study makes a systematic comparison of the direct as well as indirect state subsidisation of renewable and conventional energy resources during the period from 1970 until 2012. The annual totals obtained for each energy resources are then set in relation to the share of that resource in overall electricity production, yielding specific subsidisation rates in terms of cents per kWh for each resource. This does not yet take into account the high consequential costs in the form of environmental damage and climate-related damage caused by fossil and nuclear fuels as well as the risks associated with the latter (collectively referred to as ''external costs''), all of which are charged to the polluters only at a small fraction of the true amount. The two cost categories of state

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Monitoring Report for 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Julie B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-10-01

    This report describes the cultural resource monitoring activities of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Cultural Resource Management (CRM) Office during 2013. Throughout the year, thirty-eight cultural resource localities were revisited including: two locations with Native American human remains, one of which is also a cave; fourteen additional caves; seven prehistoric archaeological sites ; four historic archaeological sites; one historic trail; one nuclear resource (Experimental Breeder Reactor-I, a designated National Historic Landmark); and nine historic structures located at the Central Facilities Area. Of the monitored resources, thirty-three were routinely monitored, and five were monitored to assess project compliance with cultural resource recommendations along with the effects of ongoing project activities. On six occasions, ground disturbing activities within the boundaries of the Power Burst Facility/Critical Infrastructure Test Range Complex (PBF/CITRC) were observed by INL CRM staff prepared to respond to any additional finds of Native American human remains. In addition, two resources were visited more than once as part of the routine monitoring schedule or to monitor for additional damage. Throughout the year, most of the cultural resources monitored had no visual adverse changes resulting in Type 1determinations. However, Type 2 impacts were noted at eight sites, indicating that although impacts were noted or that a project was operating outside of culturally cleared limitations, cultural resources retained integrity and noted impacts did not threaten National Register eligibility. No new Type 3 or any Type 4 impacts that adversely impacted cultural resources and threatened National Register eligibility were observed at cultural resources monitored in 2013.

  7. Marketing a national forest: the resource manager's dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard A. Clonts; Jeffrey R. Hibbert

    1995-01-01

    National Forests throughout the United States are facing critical management decisions regarding optimal resource use amidst strong countervailing pressures for access. Visitors to Talladega National Forest in Alabama were surveyed to develop appropriate marketing strategies. Cluster analysis showed that separate homogeneous user groups exist. This information was...

  8. The Paradoxical Relationship between Renewable Energy and Economic Growth: A Cross-National Panel Study, 1990-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Thombs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This cross-national study employs a time-series cross-sectional Prais-Winsten regression model with panel-corrected standard errors to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth, and its impact on total carbon dioxide emissions and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP. Findings indicate that renewable energy consumption has its largest negative effect on total carbon emissions and carbon emissions per unit of GDP in low-income countries. Contrary to conventional wisdom, renewable energy has little influence on total carbon dioxide emissions or carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP at high levels of GDP per capita. The findings of this study indicate the presence of a “renewable energy paradox,” where economic growth becomes increasingly coupled with carbon emissions at high levels of renewable energy, and the negative effect of economic growth on carbon emissions per unit of GDP lessens as renewable energy increases. These findings suggest that public policy should be directed at deploying renewable energy in developing countries, while focusing on non-or-de-growth strategies accompanied with renewable energy in developed nations.

  9. The Relationship between the Generation of Electricity from Renewable Resources and Unemployment: An Empirical Study on the Egyptian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa Nabil Khodeir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a global trend towards the use of renewable energy resources. This is due to their benefits in terms of economic diversification, job creation, and sustainable development. Given the suffering of the Egyptian economy from the chronic unemployment problem, this paper has adopted the effect of electricity generation from renewable resources on unemployment. It tests the hypothesis which implies an inverse relationship between renewable electricity generation and unemployment rate in Egypt. By using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL approach to identify the effects in the short and long run during the period (1989-2013, it has been found that the hypothesis was achieved in the long run only. This is due to the fact that renewable energy projects in their establishment stages focus on capital intensity more than labour intensity, but with time both direct and indirect employment effects start to emerge. The econometric results agree in the presence of a significant negative impact of both economic growth and investments on the unemployment rate.

  10. Canada's resources and the national interest. A summary of a report by an independent task force on the crisis in the development of Canada's mining and petroleum resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R D; Chapman, E P; Gander, J E; Manning, E C; Pallister, A E; Peters, D D; Thorssen, L A [Canada West Foundation

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes almost two years of research and discussion concerning the fundamental problems facing Canada with respect to the development of its resource industries. The report expresses the concern of the members of the Task Force that, unless action is taken now, Canada will fail to secure the benefits that it should from the use of its national heritage of mineral and petroleum resources. The main report of the Task Force is accompanied by four major research studies, published as appendices to the main report and covering the broad subjects of the taxation of non-renewable resources, a survey of Canada's oil and gas resources, a survey of its other mineral resources, and a possible plan for the development of its oil and gas reserves in the coming decade. This booklet represents only a summary of the Report's main discussion and conclusions.

  11. Least cost 100% renewable electricity scenarios in the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliston, Ben; MacGill, Iain; Diesendorf, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Least cost options are presented for supplying the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) with 100% renewable electricity using wind, photovoltaics, concentrating solar thermal (CST) with storage, hydroelectricity and biofuelled gas turbines. We use a genetic algorithm and an existing simulation tool to identify the lowest cost (investment and operating) scenarios of renewable technologies and locations for NEM regional hourly demand and observed weather in 2010 using projected technology costs for 2030. These scenarios maintain the NEM reliability standard, limit hydroelectricity generation to available rainfall, and limit bioenergy consumption. The lowest cost scenarios are dominated by wind power, with smaller contributions from photovoltaics and dispatchable generation: CST, hydro and gas turbines. The annual cost of a simplified transmission network to balance supply and demand across NEM regions is a small proportion of the annual cost of the generating system. Annual costs are compared with a scenario where fossil fuelled power stations in the NEM today are replaced with modern fossil substitutes at projected 2030 costs, and a carbon price is paid on all emissions. At moderate carbon prices, which appear required to address climate change, 100% renewable electricity would be cheaper on an annual basis than the replacement scenario

  12. Annual Technology Baseline (Including Supporting Data); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, Nate; Cory, Karlynn; Hand, Maureen; Parkhill, Linda; Speer, Bethany; Stehly, Tyler; Feldman, David; Lantz, Eric; Augusting, Chad; Turchi, Craig; O' Connor, Patrick

    2015-07-08

    Consistent cost and performance data for various electricity generation technologies can be difficult to find and may change frequently for certain technologies. With the Annual Technology Baseline (ATB), National Renewable Energy Laboratory provides an organized and centralized dataset that was reviewed by internal and external experts. It uses the best information from the Department of Energy laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information. The ATB includes both a presentation with notes (PDF) and an associated Excel Workbook. The ATB includes the following electricity generation technologies: land-based wind; offshore wind; utility-scale solar PV; concentrating solar power; geothermal power; hydropower plants (upgrades to existing facilities, powering non-powered dams, and new stream-reach development); conventional coal; coal with carbon capture and sequestration; integrated gasification combined cycle coal; natural gas combustion turbines; natural gas combined cycle; conventional biopower. Nuclear laboratory's renewable energy analysts and Energy Information Administration information for conventional technologies. The ATB will be updated annually in order to provide an up-to-date repository of current and future cost and performance data. Going forward, we plan to revise and refine the values using best available information.

  13. VA's National PTSD Brain Bank: a National Resource for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Matthew J; Huber, Bertrand R; Brady, Christopher B; Ursano, Robert J; Benedek, David M; Kowall, Neil W; McKee, Ann C

    2017-08-25

    The National PTSD Brain Bank (NPBB) is a brain tissue biorepository established to support research on the causes, progression, and treatment of PTSD. It is a six-part consortium led by VA's National Center for PTSD with participating sites at VA medical centers in Boston, MA; Durham, NC; Miami, FL; West Haven, CT; and White River Junction, VT along with the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences. It is also well integrated with VA's Boston-based brain banks that focus on Alzheimer's disease, ALS, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, and other neurological disorders. This article describes the organization and operations of NPBB with specific attention to: tissue acquisition, tissue processing, diagnostic assessment, maintenance of a confidential data biorepository, adherence to ethical standards, governance, accomplishments to date, and future challenges. Established in 2014, NPBB has already acquired and distributed brain tissue to support research on how PTSD affects brain structure and function.

  14. Water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore, northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore consists of 21 islands, part of the Bayfield Peninsula, and the adjacent waters of Lake Superior. Selected water resources of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore were assessed to aid the National Park Service in developing and managing the Lakeshore and to provide a data base against which future changes can be compared. This summary of water-resources data, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1979-84, provides a qualitative description of selected hydrologic components of the Lakeshore.

  15. A Resiliency Action Plan for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: May 23, 2014 -- June 5, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J [Abt Environmental Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Wagner, C. [Abt Environmental Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Renfrow, S. [Abt Environmental Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-09-03

    The second stage in a two-stage project called the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Climate Change Resiliency and Preparedness (CCRP) project is summarized in this resiliency action plan. This CCRP pilot project was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Sustainability Performance Office and launched in winter 2014. The resiliency action plan begins where the previous stage of the project -- the vulnerability assessment -- ended. This report discusses resiliency options to reduce the risk of the highest risk vulnerabilities that were identified in the NREL vulnerability assessment.

  16. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Lewistown Quadrangle, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, J.C.

    1982-09-01

    Uranium resources in the Lewistown Quadrangle, Montana, were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m (5000 ft). All existing geologic data were considered, including geologic surveys, literature, theses, radiometric surveys, oil- and water-well logs. Additional data were generated during the course of two field seasons, including the collection of more than 350 water, rock, crude oil and panned concentrate samples for analyses, sedimentary facies maps, structural geology and isopach maps, and field examination of reported areas of anomalous radioactivity. Three environments with potential for the occurrence of a minimum of 100 t of 0.01% U 3 O 8 were delineated. The most favorable environment is located in the southeastern portion of the quadrangle; here, Tertiary felsic dikes intrude four potential sandstone host rocks in the Kootenai Formation and the Colorado Shale. Structural-chemical traps for allogenic uranium are provided by the juxtaposition of oil-bearing domes. A second potential environment is located in the Eagle Sandstone in the northwestern and western portions of the quadrangle; here, anomalous water samples were obtained downtip from oxidized outcrops that are structurally related to Tertiary intrusive rocks of the Bearpaw and Highwood Mountains. Lignitic lenses and carbonaceous sandstones deposited in a near-shore lagoonal and deltaic environment provide potential reductants for hexavalent uranium in this environment. A third environment, in the Judith River Formation, was selected as favorable on the basis of water-well and gamma-ray log anomalies and their structural relationship with the Bearpaw Mountains. Organic materials are present in the Judith River Formation as potential reductants. They were deposited in a near-shore fluvial and lagoonal system similar to the depositional environment of the Jackson Group of the Texas Gulf Coast

  17. Forest resources of Mississippi’s national forests, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt

    2011-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resource characteristics of Mississippi’s national forests, with emphasis on DeSoto National Forest, following the 2006 survey completed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Mississippi’s national forests comprise > 1 million acres of forest land, or about 7 percent of all forest...

  18. Evaluation of Reliability in Risk-Constrained Scheduling of Autonomous Microgrids with Demand Response and Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    of microgrid. Moreover, the impacts of different VOLL and risk aversion parameter are illustrated on the system reliability. Extensive simulation results are also presented to illustrate the impact of risk aversion on system security issues with and without DR. Numerical results demonstrate the advantages......Uncertain natures of the renewable energy resources and consumers’ participation in demand response (DR) programs have introduced new challenges to the energy and reserve scheduling of microgrids, particularly in the autonomous mode. In this paper, a risk-constrained stochastic framework...... is presented to maximize the expected profit of a microgrid operator under uncertainties of renewable resources, demand load and electricity price. In the proposed model, the trade-off between maximizing the operator’s expected profit and the risk of getting low profits in undesired scenarios is modeled...

  19. Summary of technical information and agreements from Nuclear Management and Resources Council industry reports addressing license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, C.; Lee, S.

    1996-10-01

    In about 1990, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) submitted for NRC review ten industry reports (IRs) addressing aging issues associated with specific structures and components of nuclear power plants ad one IR addressing the screening methodology for integrated plant assessment. The NRC staff had been reviewing the ten NUMARC IRs; their comments on each IR and NUMARC responses to the comments have been compiled as public documents. This report provides a brief summary of the technical information and NUMARC/NRC agreements from the ten IRs, except for the Cable License Renewal IR. The technical information and agreements documented herein represent the status of the NRC staffs review when the NRC staff and industry resources were redirected to address rule implementation issues. The NRC staff plans to incorporate appropriate technical information and agreements into the draft standard review plan for license renewal

  20. Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological processes, as well as the social and economic phenomena that influence the use of ecosystems. In Mexico there are four species of deer: white-tailed deer, mule deer, red brocket and brown brocket. These ungulates have been an important part of the diet of indigenous people and rural communities, and represent an important resource for sport and trophy hunting. We found the best deer populations in protected areas; these can therefore maintain the gene pool and serve as source populations for other areas. These populations are also useful from a research perspective. People living in some protected areas continue to use natural resources such as deer, and also receive economic inputs to develop ecotourism programs, and support from the government for the environmental services derived from conserving biodiversity.

  1. A National Research Council Evaluation of the Department of Energy's Marine and Hydrokinetic Resource Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Holmes, K. J.; Cooke, D.

    2012-12-01

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) resources are increasingly becoming part of energy regulatory, planning, and marketing activities in the U.S. and elsewhere. In particular, state-based renewable portfolio standards and federal production and investment tax credits have led to an increased interest in the possible deployment of MHK technologies. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-58) directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the size of the MHK resource base. In order to help DOE prioritize its overall portfolio of future research, increase the understanding of the potential for MHK resource development, and direct MHK device and/or project developers to locations of greatest promise, the DOE Wind and Water Power Program requested that the National Research Council (NRC) provide an evaluation of the detailed assessments being conducted by five individual resource assessment groups. These resource assessment groups were contracted to estimate the amount of extractable energy from wave, tidal, ocean current, ocean thermal energy conversion, and riverine resources. Performing these assessments requires that each resource assessment group estimate the average power density of the resource base, as well as the basic technology characteristics and spatial and temporal constituents that convert power into electricity for that resource. The NRC committee evaluated the methodologies, technologies, and assumptions associated with each of these resource assessments. The committee developed a conceptual framework for delineating the processes used to develop the assessment results requested by the DOE, with definitions of the theoretical, technical, and practical resource to clarify elements of the overall resource assessment process. This allowed the NRC committee to make a comparison of different methods, terminology, and processes among the five resource assessment groups. The committee concluded that the overall approach taken by the wave resource and

  2. Evaluating renewable natural resources flow and net primary productivity with a GIS-Emergy approach: A case study of Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenyan; Yan, Wanglin; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yutao

    2016-11-18

    Renewable natural resources, such as solar radiation, rainfall, wind, and geothermal heat, together with ecosystem services, provide the elementary supports for the sustainable development of human society. To improve regional sustainability, we studied the spatial distributions and quantities of renewable natural resources and net primary productivity (NPP) in Hokkaido, which is the second largest island of Japan. With the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) software, distribution maps for each type of renewable natural resource were generated by kriging interpolation based on statistical records. A composite map of the flow of all types of renewable natural resources was also generated by map layer overlapping. Additionally, we utilized emergy analysis to convert each renewable flow with different attributes into a unified unit (i.e., solar equivalent joules [sej]). As a result, the spatial distributions of the flow of renewable natural resources of the Hokkaido region are presented in the form of thematic emergy maps. Thus, the areas with higher renewable emergy can be easily visualized and identified. The dominant renewable flow in certain areas can also be directly distinguished. The results can provide useful information for regional sustainable development, environmental conservation and ecological management.

  3. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Monitoring Report for FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the cultural resource monitoring activities of the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Cultural Resource Management (CRM) Office during fiscal year 2008 (FY 2008). Throughout the year, 45 cultural resource localities were revisited including: two locations of heightened Shoshone-Bannock tribal sensitivity, four caves, one butte, twenty-eight prehistoric archaeological sites, three historic homesteads, two historic stage stations, one historic canal construction camp, three historic trails, and Experimental Breeder Reactor-I, which is a designated National Historic Landmark. Several INL project areas were also monitored in FY 2008 to assess project compliance with cultural resource recommendations, confirm the locations of previously recorded cultural resources in relation to project activities, to assess the damage caused by fire-fighting efforts, and to watch for cultural materials during ground disturbing activities. Although impacts were documented at a few locations, no significant adverse effects that would threaten the National Register eligibility of any resource were observed. Monitoring also demonstrated that INL projects generally remain in compliance with recommendations to protect cultural resources

  4. The Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources 2020

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... Renewable materials from home-grown crops trees and agricultural wastes can provide many of the same chemical building blocks-plus others that petrochemicals cannot Despite the expertise and ingenuity of U.S...

  5. Time for National Renewal: Australian adult literacy and numeracy as ‘foundation skills’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Black

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Those working in the field of adult literacy and numeracy are currently anticipating changes in the near future as the federal government has flagged the development of a National Foundation Skills Strategy (Australian Government 2010. ‘Foundation skills’ is a term that has recently been suggested as a way of simplifying discussions about literacy and numeracy (Perkins 2009:8, and it has gained traction in various Australian national policy environments (e.g. Gillard 2009, Council of Australian Governments [COAG] Reform Council 2009, Australian Government 2010. Foundation skills appears to encapsulate adult language, literacy and numeracy, and more broadly, it may also include so-called employability skills such as communication and teamwork (Roberts and Wignall 2010:1. In this paper, our main focus is on the adult literacy and numeracy dimensions of what is needed in the policy renewal.

  6. Migrant female head porters' enrolment in and utilisation and renewal of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Simon; Amoako, Prince; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Baabereyir, Anthony; Gyasi, Razak Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    As a social protection policy, Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) aims to improve access to healthcare, especially for the vulnerable. Migrant female head porters ( kayayoo ), who are part of the informal economic workforce, are underscored as an ethnic minority and vulnerable group in Ghana. This study aimed to analyse the factors associated with enrolment in and renewal and utilisation of the NHIS among migrant female head porters in the Kumasi Metropolis. We purposively sampled 392 migrant female head porters in the Kejetia, Asafo and Bantama markets. We used a binary logit regression model to estimate associations among baseline characteristics, convenience and benefit factors and enrolment in and renewal and utilisation of the NHIS. Age and income significantly increased the probability of NHIS enrolment, renewal and utilisation. Long waiting times at NHIS offices significantly reduced the likelihood of renewal, while provision of drugs highly significantly increased the tendency for migrant female head porters to enrol in, renew and use the NHIS. Consulting and surgery also significantly increased renewal and utilisation of the NHIS. Political commitment is imperative for effective implementation of the decentralisation policy of the NHIS through the National Health Insurance Authority in Kumasi. We argue that retail offices should be well equipped with logistic facilities to ensure convenience in NHIS initial enrolment and renewal processes by citizenry, and by vulnerable groups in particular.

  7. Sitewide Environmental Assessment for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-04

    The Solar Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1974 authorized a federal program to develop solar energy as a viable source of the nation`s future energy needs. Under this authority, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was created as a laboratory of the Department of Energy (DOE) to research a number of renewable energy possibilities. The laboratory conducts its operations both in government-owned facilities on the NREL South Table Mountain (STM) Site near Golden, Colorado, and in a number of leased facilities, particularly the Denver West Office Park. NREL operations include research in energy technologies, and other areas of national environmental and energy technology interest. Examples of these technologies include electricity from sunlight with solar cells (photovoltaics); energy from wind (windmills or wind turbines); conversion of plants and plant products (biomass) into liquid fuels (ethanol and methanol); heat from the sun (solar thermal) in place of wood, oil, gas, coal and other forms of heating; and solar buildings. NREL proposes to continue and expand the present R&D efforts in C&R energy by making infrastructure improvements and constructing facilities to eventually consolidate the R&D and associated support activities at its STM Site. In addition, it is proposed that operations continue in current leased space at the present levels of activity until site development is complete. The construction schedule proposed is designed to develop the site as rapidly as possible, dependent on Congressional funding, to accommodate not only the existing R&D that is being conducted in leased facilities off-site but to also allow for the 20-year projected growth. Impacts from operations currently conducted off-site are quantified and added to the cumulative impacts of the STM site. This environmental assessment provides information to determine the severity of impacts on the environment from the proposed action.

  8. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium 1999 plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-30

    The purpose of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium is to serve the Texas Panhandle, the State of Texas and the US Department of Energy by: conducting scientific and technical research; advising decision makers; and providing information on nuclear weapons materials and related environment, safety, health, and nonproliferation issues while building academic excellence in science and technology. This paper describes the electronic resource library which provides the national archives of technical, policy, historical, and educational information on plutonium. Research projects related to the following topics are described: Environmental restoration and protection; Safety and health; Waste management; Education; Training; Instrumentation development; Materials science; Plutonium processing and handling; and Storage.

  9. Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium 1999 plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium is to serve the Texas Panhandle, the State of Texas and the US Department of Energy by: conducting scientific and technical research; advising decision makers; and providing information on nuclear weapons materials and related environment, safety, health, and nonproliferation issues while building academic excellence in science and technology. This paper describes the electronic resource library which provides the national archives of technical, policy, historical, and educational information on plutonium. Research projects related to the following topics are described: Environmental restoration and protection; Safety and health; Waste management; Education; Training; Instrumentation development; Materials science; Plutonium processing and handling; and Storage

  10. Assessment of the Great Lakes Marine Renewable Energy Resources: Characterizing Lake Erie Surge, Seiche and Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadzadeh, A.; Hashemi, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    Lake Erie, the fourth largest in surface area, smallest in volume and shallowest among the Great Lakes is approximately 400 km long and 90 km wide. Short term lake level variations are due to storm surge generated by high winds and moving pressure systems over the lake mainly in the southwest-northeast direction, along the lakes longitudinal axis. The historical wave data from three active offshore buoys shows that significant wave height can exceed 5 m in the eastern and central basins. The long-term lake level data show that storm surge can reach up to 3 m in eastern Lake Erie. Owing its shallow depth, Lake Erie frequently experiences seiching motions, the low frequency oscillations that are initiated by storm surge. The seiches whose first mode of oscillations has a period of nearly 14.2 hours can last from several hours to days. In this study, the Lake Erie potential for power generation, primarily using storm surge and seiche and also waves are assessed. Given the cyclic lake level variations due to storm-induced seiching, a concept similar to that of tidal range development is utilized to assess the potential of storm surge and seiche energy harvesting mechanisms for power generation. In addition, wave energy resources of the Lake is characterized -. To achieve these objectives, the following steps are taken : (1) Frequency of occurrence for extreme storm surge and wave events is determined using extreme value analysis such as Peak-Over-Threshold method for the long-term water level and wave data; (2) Spatial and temporal variations of wave height, storm surge and seiche are characterized. The characterization is carried out using the wave and storm surge outputs from numerical simulation of a number of historical extreme events. The coupled ADCIRC and SWAN model is utilized for the modeling; (3) Assessment of the potentials for marine renewable power generation in Lake Erie is made. The approach can be extended to the other lakes in the Great Lakes region.

  11. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Annual Report FY 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton F. Marler; Julie Braun; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Brenda Ringe Pace

    2007-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory Site is home to vast numbers and a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least a 13,500-year span of human occupation in the region. As a federal agency, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office has legal responsibility for the management and protection of those resources and has delegated these responsibilities to its primary contractor, Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). The INL Cultural Resource Management Office, staffed by BEA professionals, is committed to maintaining a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting the resources’ importance in local, regional, and national history. This annual report summarizes activities performed by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office staff during Fiscal Year 2006. This work is diverse, far-reaching and though generally confined to INL cultural resource compliance, also includes a myriad of professional and voluntary community activities. This document is intended to be both informative to internal and external stakeholders, and to serve as a planning tool for future cultural resource management work to be conducted on the INL.

  12. Renewable resources in the chemical industry--breaking away from oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, Stefan; Höcker, Hans; Gebhardt, Henrike

    2007-12-01

    Rising prices for fossil-based raw materials suggest that sooner or later renewable raw materials will, in principle, become economically viable. This paper examines this widespread paradigm. Price linkages like those seen for decades particularly in connection with petrochemical raw materials are now increasingly affecting renewable raw materials. The main driving force is the competing utilisation as an energy source because both fossil-based and renewable raw materials are used primarily for heat, electrical power and mobility. As a result, prices are determined by energy utilisation. Simple observations show how prices for renewable carbon sources are becoming linked to the crude oil price. Whether the application calls for sugar, starch, virgin oils or lignocellulose, the price for the raw material rises with the oil price. Consequently, expectations regarding price trends for fossil-based energy sources can also be utilised for the valuation of alternative processes. However, this seriously calls into question the assumption that a rising crude oil price will favour the economic viability of alternative products and processes based on renewable raw materials. Conversely, it follows that these products and processes must demonstrate economic viability today. Especially in connection with new approaches in white biotechnology, it is evident that, under realistic assumptions, particularly in terms of achievable yields and the optimisation potential of the underlying processes, the route to utilisation is economically viable. This makes the paradigm mentioned at the outset at least very questionable.

  13. An Intelligent Approach to Strengthening of the Rural Electrical Power Supply Using Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, F. C.; Sisodia, G. S.; Gopalan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The healthy growth of economy lies in the balance between rural and urban development. Several developing countries have achieved a successful growth of urban areas, yet rural infrastructure has been neglected until recently. The rural electrical grids are weak with heavy losses and low capacity. Renewable energy represents an efficient way to generate electricity locally. However, the renewable energy generation may be limited by the low grid capacity. The current solutions focus on grid reinforcement only. This article presents a model for improving renewable energy integration in rural grids with the intelligent combination of three strategies: 1) grid reinforcement, 2) use of storage and 3) renewable energy curtailments. Such approach provides a solution to integrate a maximum of renewable energy generation on low capacity grids while minimising project cost and increasing the percentage of utilisation of assets. The test cases show that a grid connection agreement and a main inverter sized at 60 kW (resp. 80 kW) can accommodate a 100 kWp solar park (resp. 100 kW wind turbine) with minimal storage.

  14. Hybrid PV/Wind Power Systems Incorporating Battery Storage and Considering the Stochastic Nature of Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulwasa Bakr

    Hybrid power generation system and distributed generation technology are attracting more investments due to the growing demand for energy nowadays and the increasing awareness regarding emissions and their environmental impacts such as global warming and pollution. The price fluctuation of crude oil is an additional reason for the leading oil producing countries to consider renewable resources as an alternative. Saudi Arabia as the top oil exporter country in the word announced the "Saudi Arabia Vision 2030" which is targeting to generate 9.5 GW of electricity from renewable resources. Two of the most promising renewable technologies are wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic cells (PV). The integration or hybridization of photovoltaics and wind turbines with battery storage leads to higher adequacy and redundancy for both autonomous and grid connected systems. This study presents a method for optimal generation unit planning by installing a proper number of solar cells, wind turbines, and batteries in such a way that the net present value (NPV) is minimized while the overall system redundancy and adequacy is maximized. A new renewable fraction technique (RFT) is used to perform the generation unit planning. RFT was tested and validated with particle swarm optimization and HOMER Pro under the same conditions and environment. Renewable resources and load randomness and uncertainties are considered. Both autonomous and grid-connected system designs were adopted in the optimal generation units planning process. An uncertainty factor was designed and incorporated in both autonomous and grid connected system designs. In the autonomous hybrid system design model, the strategy including an additional amount of operation reserve as a percent of the hourly load was considered to deal with resource uncertainty since the battery storage system is the only backup. While in the grid-connected hybrid system design model, demand response was incorporated to overcome the impact of

  15. Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies for sustainable energy supply in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsoo; Won, Wangyun; Kim, Jiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies. • A new superstructure-based optimization model to identify the energy supply system. • Model validation via application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. - Abstract: In this study, a new design for a sustainable energy system was developed by integrating two technology frameworks: the renewable resource-based energy supply and the conventional (fossil fuel) resource-based energy production coupled with carbon capture and sequestration. To achieve this goal, a new superstructure-based optimization model was proposed using mixed-integer linear programming to identify the optimal combination of these technologies that minimizes the total daily cost, subject to various practical and logical constraints. The performance of the proposed model was validated via an application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. By considering six different scenarios that combined varying crude oil/natural gas prices and environmental regulation options, the optimal configuration of the energy supply system was identified, and the major cost drivers and their sensitivities were analyzed. It was shown that conventional resource-based energy production was preferred if crude oil and natural gas prices were low, even though environmental regulation was considered. Environmental regulation caused an increase in the total daily cost by an average of 26.4%, mainly due to CO_2 capture cost.

  16. Sitewide Environmental Assessment for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Solar Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1974 authorized a federal program to develop solar energy as a viable source of the nation's future energy needs. Under this authority, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was created as a laboratory of the Department of Energy (DOE) to research a number of renewable energy possibilities. The laboratory conducts its operations both in government-owned facilities on the NREL South Table Mountain (STM) Site near Golden, Colorado, and in a number of leased facilities, particularly the Denver West Office Park. NREL operations include research in energy technologies, and other areas of national environmental and energy technology interest. Examples of these technologies include electricity from sunlight with solar cells (photovoltaics); energy from wind (windmills or wind turbines); conversion of plants and plant products (biomass) into liquid fuels (ethanol and methanol); heat from the sun (solar thermal) in place of wood, oil, gas, coal and other forms of heating; and solar buildings. NREL proposes to continue and expand the present R ampersand D efforts in C ampersand R energy by making infrastructure improvements and constructing facilities to eventually consolidate the R ampersand D and associated support activities at its STM Site. In addition, it is proposed that operations continue in current leased space at the present levels of activity until site development is complete. The construction schedule proposed is designed to develop the site as rapidly as possible, dependent on Congressional funding, to accommodate not only the existing R ampersand D that is being conducted in leased facilities off-site but to also allow for the 20-year projected growth. Impacts from operations currently conducted off-site are quantified and added to the cumulative impacts of the STM site. This environmental assessment provides information to determine the severity of impacts on the environment from the

  17. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This article investigates upgrading biomass pyrolysis vapors to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals using catalysts with different concentrations of acid sites. It shows that greater separation of acid sites makes catalysts more efficient at producing hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. The conversion of biomass into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant attention because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Biomass is a renewable resource, which is abundant worldwide and can potentially be exploited to produce transportation fuels that are less damaging to the environment. This renewable resource consists of cellulose (40–50%), hemicellulose (25–35%), and lignin (16–33%) biopolymers in addition to smaller quantities of inorganic materials such as silica and alkali and alkaline earth metals (calcium and potassium). Fast pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical technology for converting biomass into precursors for hydrocarbon fuels because it produces up to 75 wt% bio-oil,1 which can be upgraded to feedstocks and/or blendstocks for further refining to finished fuels. Bio-oil that has not been upgraded has limited applications because of the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups, derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which gives rise to high acidity, high viscosity, low heating value, immiscibility with hydrocarbons and aging during storage. Ex situ catalytic vapor phase upgrading is a promising approach for improving the properties of bio-oil. The goal of this process is to reject oxygen and produce a bio-oil with improved properties for subsequent downstream conversion to hydrocarbons.

  18. Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draxl, Caroline; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2015-07-14

    A webinar about the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit was presented by Bri-Mathias Hodge and Caroline Draxl on July 14, 2015. It was hosted by the Southern Alliance for Clean Energy. The toolkit is a grid integration data set that contains meteorological and power data at a 5-minute resolution across the continental United States for 7 years and hourly power forecasts.

  19. The contribution of renewable energy resources on the electrification and development at the Guantanamo Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, S.; Angel, J. [CUBASOLAR, Guantanamo (Cuba); Moreno Figueredo, C. [Centro de Estudio de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (Cuba); Montesinos Larrosa, A. [Sociedad Cubana para la Promocion de las Energias Renovables (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Cuba's Guantanamo province is a leader in the application of renewable energy technologies. This paper discussed the socio-economic impact of renewable energy projects that are underway in the Guantanamo province to improve the standard of living in rural areas. More than 400 rural schools and 70 rural medical offices get their electricity from photovoltaic systems. Hydropower provides the energy needs to 3000 rural houses with 11,000 inhabitants. Other applications include remote community solar systems, improved woodstoves for community kitchens, solar cookers and solar dryers. This paper demonstrated how the high penetration of these renewable energy technologies has contributed to the sustainable development of the province. The lessons learned in energy management by the local governments and research institutions were also outlined. 1 tab.

  20. The United Nations' endeavour to standardize mineral resource classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanz, J.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The United Nations' Economic and Social Council passed a resolution in July 1975 calling for the development of a mineral resources classification system to be used in reporting data to the United Nations. Following preparation of background papers and an agenda by the UN Centre for Natural Resources, Energy and Transport, a panel of experts recommended a classification system to the Council's Committee on Natural Resources. The Committee met in Turkey in June 1979 and has reported favourably to the Council on the proposed system. The classification system is designed to provide maximum capability for requesting and receiving data from the resources data systems already used internally by major mineral producing nations. In addition, the system provides for flexibility in adjusting to the particular needs of individual mineral commodities. The proposed system involves three basic categories of in-situ resources: R-1, reliable estimates of known deposits; R-2, preliminary estimates of the extensions of known deposits; and, R-3, tentative estimates of quantities to be found in undiscovered deposits. As an option for given countries and commodities, the R-1 category can be further sub-divided into: R-1-E, economic; R-1-M, marginal; and R-1-S, sub-economic. Finally, the classification scheme provides for all categories to have a parallel set of estimates of recoverable mineral quantities. (author)

  1. Strategic and tactiocal planning for managing national park resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson

    2001-01-01

    Each National Park Service unit in the United States produces a resource management plan (RMP) every four years or less. These plans constitute a strategic agenda for a park. Later, tactical plans commit budgets and personnel to specific projects over the planning horizon. Yet, neither planning stage incorporates much quantitative and analytical rigor and is devoid of...

  2. 75 FR 57438 - Chippewa National Forest Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act (Pub. L. 110-343) and in compliance with the... Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES: The meeting will be held on... following business will be conducted: Overview of the roles and responsbilities of the Chippewa National...

  3. Resource partitioning between large herbivores in Hustai National Park, Mongolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietses, D.J.; Faupin, G.; Boer, de W.F.; Jong, de C.B.; Henkens, R.J.H.G.; Usukhjargal, D.; Batbaatar, T.

    2009-01-01

    Re-introduced Przewalski horses in Hustai National Park, Mongolia could suffer from food competition with other herbivore species through food resource depletion. Diet composition of the Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and four livestock species (sheep, goat,

  4. Resource nationalism and credit growth in FSU countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyuzhnova, Yelena; Nygaard, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the connection between resource nationalism and financial sector intervention in the FSU countries. We consider recent financial development in the FSU and the special features of energy rich emerging economies (Russia and Kazakhstan, in particular) which are influencing recent credit expansions. We find that the hydrocarbon sector has boosted boosting domestic credits through a number of direct and indirect routes. Recent decline in oil prices may change government attitudes to a continued resource nationalist strategy. Sovereign wealth funds that were established in a majority of energy rich emerging economies may, to the extent that they enable the selection of winners in specific economic sectors, create path dependency or exacerbate longer term allocative inefficiency arising from the governance structure associated with resource nationalism.

  5. Resource nationalism and credit growth in FSU countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyuzhnova, Yelena; Nygaard, Christian [The Centre for Euro-Asian Studies, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 218, Reading RG6 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    This paper analyses the connection between resource nationalism and financial sector intervention in the FSU countries. We consider recent financial development in the FSU and the special features of energy rich emerging economies (Russia and Kazakhstan, in particular) which are influencing recent credit expansions. We find that the hydrocarbon sector has boosted boosting domestic credits through a number of direct and indirect routes. Recent decline in oil prices may change government attitudes to a continued resource nationalist strategy. Sovereign wealth funds that were established in a majority of energy rich emerging economies may, to the extent that they enable the selection of winners in specific economic sectors, create path dependency or exacerbate longer term allocative inefficiency arising from the governance structure associated with resource nationalism. (author)

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Cultural Resource Management Annual Report FY 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Clayton Marler; Brenda Pace

    2008-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site is home to vast numbers and a wide variety of important cultural resources representing at least a 13,500-year span of human land use in the region. As a federal agency, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office has legal responsibility for the management and protection of those resources and has delegated these responsibilities to its primary contractor, Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA). The BEA professional staff is committed to maintaining a cultural resource management program that accepts these challenges in a manner reflecting the resources’ importance in local, regional, and national history. This annual report summarizes activities performed by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office (CRMO) staff during fiscal year 2007. This work is diverse, far-reaching and though generally confined to INL cultural resource compliance, also includes a myriad of professional and voluntary community activities. This document is intended to be both informative to internal and external stakeholders, and to serve as a planning tool for future cultural resource management work to be conducted on the INL.

  7. National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) N/P Values for Lakes – National Lake Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) findings for nutrients in streams and lakes highlight that nutrient pollution is widespread across the United States and...

  8. Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1997 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs. and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Finally, such documentation facilitates continuity in EIA model development by providing information sufficient to perform model enhancements and data updates as part of EIA`s ongoing mission to provide analytical and forecasting information systems.

  9. Photovoltaic Calibrations at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Uncertainty Analysis Following the ISO 17025 Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The measurement of photovoltaic (PV) performance with respect to reference conditions requires measuring current versus voltage for a given tabular reference spectrum, junction temperature, and total irradiance. This report presents the procedures implemented by the PV Cell and Module Performance Characterization Group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to achieve the lowest practical uncertainty. A rigorous uncertainty analysis of these procedures is presented, which follows the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. This uncertainty analysis is required for the team’s laboratory accreditation under ISO standard 17025, “General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories.” The report also discusses additional areas where the uncertainty can be reduced.

  10. Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1997 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs. and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Finally, such documentation facilitates continuity in EIA model development by providing information sufficient to perform model enhancements and data updates as part of EIA's ongoing mission to provide analytical and forecasting information systems

  11. 76 FR 34684 - Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... deployment of offshore renewable energy plants, particularly wind and marine hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies.... Technology Design and Validation Design and validate energy devices for the marine environment that would predictably withstand physical loads on energy devices in the marine environment while operating at optimum...

  12. Efficiency analysis for the production of modern energy carriers from renewable resources and wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ptasinski, K.J.; Tiezzi, E.; Marques, J.C.; Brebbia, C.A.; Jorgensen, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Two global problems related to the use of fossil fuels are fast depletion and environmental damage. Biomass has a great potential as a clean renewable feedstock for producing modern energy carriers such as biodiesel, methanol, and hydrogen. However, the use of biomass is accompanied by possible

  13. Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for large scale and standalone applications in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina Terefe; Weesie, Peter D.M.; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the contribution of renewable energy to large scale and standalone application in Ethiopia. The assessment starts by determining the present energy system and the available potentials. Subsequently, the contribution of the available potentials for large scale and

  14. Renewable energy projects in small island countries funded under the United Nation trust found for new and renewable source of energy (NRSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gururaja, J.

    1999-01-01

    The NRSE trust fund established with financial support from the Italian Government has succeeded in catalyzing a number of energy projects in small island developing countries. These projects have elicited a great deal of interest by local communities and opened up prospects for further utilization of locally available energy resources. The projects have created a positive impact on the quality of life of people in dispersed locations in small island developing countries by focusing on provision of renewable energy based electricity services such as solar PV lighting for homes, schools, and hospitals; radio, TV, VCR as well as medicine refrigerators. Thus it has become evident that renewable energy technologies such as solar and wind systems can have an important role to play in improving the quality of life of people in these small island countries. Market potential for these technologies is indeed substantial. However constraints and barriers still exist. One of the principal barriers is still the high initial cost of solar devices. Innovative financing including microcredit facilities needs to be explored. Efforts are also needed to strengthen local capacity to undertake assembly of components and systems, and also in the installation, maintenance, and service of renewable energy devices. Entrepreneurial activities need to be fostered through further strengthening of skills in this area. (EHS)

  15. Renewable energy projects in small island countries funded under the United Nation trust found for new and renewable source of energy (NRSE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gururaja, J. [Energy and Transport Branch, Division for Sustainabel Development, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, NY (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The NRSE trust fund established with financial support from the Italian Government has succeeded in catalyzing a number of energy projects in small island developing countries. These projects have elicited a great deal of interest by local communities and opened up prospects for further utilization of locally available energy resources. The projects have created a positive impact on the quality of life of people in dispersed locations in small island developing countries by focusing on provision of renewable energy based electricity services such as solar PV lighting for homes, schools, and hospitals; radio, TV, VCR as well as medicine refrigerators. Thus it has become evident that renewable energy technologies such as solar and wind systems can have an important role to play in improving the quality of life of people in these small island countries. Market potential for these technologies is indeed substantial. However constraints and barriers still exist. One of the principal barriers is still the high initial cost of solar devices. Innovative financing including microcredit facilities needs to be explored. Efforts are also needed to strengthen local capacity to undertake assembly of components and systems, and also in the installation, maintenance, and service of renewable energy devices. Entrepreneurial activities need to be fostered through further strengthening of skills in this area. (EHS)

  16. The Efficacy and Potential of Renewable Energy from Carbon Dioxide that is Sequestered in Sedimentary Basin Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, J. M.; Adams, B. M.; Choi, H.; Saar, M. O.; Taff, S. J.; Jamiyansuren, B.; Buscheck, T. A.; Ogland-Hand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mitigating climate change requires increasing the amount of electricity that is generated from renewable energy technologies and while simultaneously reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is emitted to the atmosphere from present energy and industrial facilities. We investigated the efficacy of generating electricity using renewable geothermal heat that is extracted by CO2 that is sequestered in sedimentary basins. To determine the efficacy of CO2-Geothermal power production in the United States, we conducted a geospatial resource assessment of the combination of subsurface CO2 storage capacity and heat flow in sedimentary basins and developed an integrated systems model that combines reservoir modeling with power plant modeling and economic costs. The geospatial resource assessment estimates the potential resource base for CO2-Geothermal power plants, and the integrated systems model estimates the physical (e.g., net power) and economic (e.g., levelized cost of electricity, capital cost) performance of an individual CO2-Geothermal power plant for a range of reservoir characteristics (permeability, depth, geothermal temperature gradient). Using coupled inverted five-spot injection patterns that are common in CO2-enhanced oil recovery operations, we determined the well pattern size that best leveraged physical and economic economies of scale for the integrated system. Our results indicate that CO2-Geothermal plants can be cost-effectively deployed in a much larger region of the United States than typical approaches to geothermal electricity production. These cost-effective CO2-Geothermal electricity facilities can also be capacity-competitive with many existing baseload and renewable energy technologies over a range of reservoir parameters. For example, our results suggest that, given the right combination of reservoir parameters, LCOEs can be as low as $25/MWh and capacities can be as high as a few hundred MW.

  17. The United Nations Framework Classification for World Petroleum Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blystad, P.; Young, E.D.; Slavov, S.; Heiberg, S.

    2003-01-01

    The United Nations has developed an international framework classification for solid fuels and minerals (UNFC). This is now being extended to petroleum by building on the joint classification of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the World Petroleum Congresses (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). The UNFC is a 3-dimansional classification. This: Is necessary in order to migrate accounts of resource quantities that are developed on one or two of the axes to the common basis; Provides for more precise reporting and analysis. This is particularly useful in analyses of contingent resources. The characteristics of the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification has been preserved and enhanced to facilitate improved international and national petroleum resource management, corporate business process management and financial reporting. A UN intergovernmental committee responsible for extending the UNFC to extractive energy resources (coal, petroleum and uranium) will meet in Geneva on October 30th and 31st to review experiences gained and comments received during 2003. A recommended classification will then be delivered for consideration to the United Nations through the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE).

  18. US Coast Guard national spill response resource inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraitis, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) mandated the establishment of a National Response Unit, now renamed the National Strike Force Coordination Center (NSFCC). Among the duties OPA 90 assigned to this new Coast Guard unit was to compile and maintain a comprehensive list of spill removal resources, personnel, and equipment that is available to Federal and State agencies and to the public. The Coast Guard's Research and Development Center has been developing this project, the Response Resource Inventory (RRI), for one year. The RRI is expected to be operational, with resource data from industry in the data base, by the time of the International Oil Spill Conference in March 1993. The RRI will contain data on skimmers, specialized oil recovery vessels, oil/water separators, dispersants and delivery systems, etc. Previous attempts to maintain a national data base of these response resources, including an earlier Coast Guard system called the Spill Cleanup Equipment Inventory System (SKIM), fell into disuse for a number of reasons. Inaccuracies caused by inadvertent double counting of equipment and outdated information coupled with difficulties in accessing the information were common shortfalls of early systems. During the development of the RRI, user-group meetings were held to determine system requirements and study the failures of previous systems. Methods of obtaining and entering data were a major concern during RRI development. A data collection system that supplies the resource holder with a DOS-formatted diskette containing a collection program will be used. The program will make extensive use of pick lists to minimize the data entry burden on the resource holder and maintain standard entries. When the program is completed, the diskette will be mailed to the NSFCC, where the data will be transferred quickly to the RRI data base. Easy access to the data for the public and industry will be afforded mainly through a computer bulletin board

  19. A Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment Report for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: May 23, 2014 -- June 5, 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J. [Abt Environmental Research, Boulder, CO (United States); O' Grady, M. [Abt Environmental Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Renfrow, S. [Abt Environmental Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-09-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), in Golden, Colorado, focuses on renewable energy and energy efficiency research. Its portfolio includes advancing renewable energy technologies that can help meet the nation's energy and environmental goals. NREL seeks to better understand the potential effects of climate change on the laboratory--and therefore on its mission--to ensure its ongoing success. Planning today for a changing climate can reduce NREL's risks and improve its resiliency to climate-related vulnerabilities. This report presents a vulnerability assessment for NREL. The assessment was conducted in fall 2014 to identify NREL's climate change vulnerabilities and the aspects of NREL's mission or operations that may be affected by a changing climate.

  20. Voronoi-Tessellated Graphite Produced by Low-Temperature Catalytic Graphitization from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Leyi; Zhao, Xiuyun; Burke, Luke T; Bennett, J Craig; Dunlap, Richard A; Obrovac, Mark N

    2017-09-11

    A highly crystalline graphite powder was prepared from the low temperature (800-1000 °C) graphitization of renewable hard carbon precursors using a magnesium catalyst. The resulting graphite particles are composed of Voronoi-tessellated regions comprising irregular sheets; each Voronoi-tessellated region having a small "seed" particle located near their centroid on the surface. This suggests nucleated outward growth of graphitic carbon, which has not been previously observed. Each seed particle consists of a spheroidal graphite shell on the inside of which hexagonal graphite platelets are perpendicularly affixed. This results in a unique high surface area graphite with a high degree of graphitization that is made with renewable feedstocks at temperatures far below that conventionally used for artificial graphites. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Promotion of renewable energy resources with a focus on cost-based feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweighofer, M.; Tretter, H.; Veigl, A.

    2006-01-01

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of possible systems that could be used to promote power production in Switzerland using renewable energy sources. Promotional models on both the provider and consumer sides that use both price and quantity as control factors are examined. Three models are compared: the submission-to-tender model, the quota model with certificates and a model that uses cost-based feed-in tariffs. On the basis of a comparison with Austria, interaction between increasing the proportion of renewable forms of energy and the realisation of energy-efficiency goals is discussed. A further part of the report deals with various options for the use of biomass as a source of energy

  2. Comparative Cost-Benefit Analysis of Renewable Energy Resource Trade Offs for Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    energy and energy efficiency are defined. Renewable energy comes from natural sources, those that are naturally replenished by the planet , such as rain...temperature gradients, which will change as the planet warms” (Greene, Chatelain, Morrissey, & Stadler, 2012, p. 32). Greene et al. (2012) offer that any...negative effects on the environment. The toxic chemicals used in manufacturing solar panels (such as mercury and chromium, and including the conduit

  3. Resource Management As Panacea For Sustainable National Economic Development And National Unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanbi Oluwajuwon Mayomi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Resource Management as a Panacea for Sustainable National Economic Development and National Unity. The nation has been besieged by numerous problems due to poor resource management. These problems include corruption health implications poverty and inequality in income distribution ethnic crisis pollutions and it has also resulted in economic losses. These problems have militated against the countrys ability to create wealth for the present and future generation. The paper also looked at the concept of conservation and sustainability and their relationship with resource management. The main thrust of the recommendations was hinged on the problems mentioned. These recommendations include making revenue from resources more equitably distributed compensating the people of the area through the development of infrastructures like health facilities and provision of pipe borne water making and enforcing laws that will reduce pollution and development of capital projects.

  4. An analysis of Grenada's power sector and energy resources: a role for renewable energy technologies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesser, D.

    2004-01-01

    Presently, Grenada's power sector is fully dependent on fossil fuel imports for meeting the country's electricity demand. Electric utilities in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), in general, face high cost of electricity generation due to diseconomies of scale in production, consumption and logistical aspects. Grenada's private power monopoly is no exception and the high cost of import dependent electricity generation places an increasing burden on economic development. In light of rapid technological and economic improvement of renewable energy technologies (RETs), the country's abundant sources of renewable energy should be harnessed. Benefits are envisaged to include lower electricity cost, better environmental performance and a safer and diversified supply of energy. However, barriers for shifting power production towards meaningful contributions from RETs exist, both in government and industry. This work analyses important economic interactions between the power sector and economic development, bringing to attention the importance of power sector reform. Further, present problems of integrating RETs into the grid, ranging from technical and regulatory issues to shareholder interest are investigated. A summary and analysis of past research into renewable sources of energy (RES) underscore the potential for power production from RETs in Grenada. (author)

  5. The Water Resources Board: England and Wales’ Venture into National Water Resources Planning, 1964-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. McCulloch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An era of technocratic national planning of water resources is examined against the views of a leading liberal economist and critics, both contemporary and retrospective. Post Second World War Labour Governments in Britain failed to nationalise either land or water. As late as 1965, the idea of public ownership of all water supplies appeared in the Labour Party manifesto and a short-lived Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, 1964-1966, had amongst its duties the development of plans for reorganising the water supply industry under full public ownership. However, instead of pursuing such a politically dangerous takeover of the industry, in July 1964, a Water Resources Board (WRB, a special interest group dominated by engineers, was set up to advise on the development of water resources. In its first Annual Report (1965 WRB claimed its role as "the master planner of the water resources of England and Wales". The WRB had a great deal of influence and justified its national planning role by promoting large-scale supply schemes such as interbasin transfers of water, large reservoirs and regulated rivers. Feasibility studies were even carried out for building innovative, large storage reservoirs in tidal estuaries. Less progress was made on demand reduction. Yet the seeds of WRB’s demise were contained in its restricted terms of reference. The lack of any remit over water quality was a fatal handicap. Quantity and quality needed to be considered together. Privatisation of the water industry in 1989 led to a shift from national strategic planning by engineers to attempts to strengthen economic instruments to fit supply more closely to demand. Engineers have now been usurped as leaders in water resources management by economists and accountants. Yet climate change may demand a return to national strategic planning of engineered water supply, with greater democratic input.

  6. Invention, innovation and R and D behaviours in non-renewable resource markets: the case of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poudou, J.Ch.

    1996-12-01

    This work tries to show how the neo-Hotellinian analysis can be reconsidered through the R and D and technological innovation prism. It tries to appreciate how the R and D efforts, the incitation to innovate and the innovation timing phenomena modify the basic r% rule and allow to explain some of the conventionalized facts observed on non-renewable resource markets, and in particular on the crude-oil market. Methodologically talking, this work follows the mining paradigm built by H. Hotelling and L. Gray, i.e. a neo-classical logic of the agents and of the market. This choice corresponds to a wish to carry out a theoretical analysis instead of a pragmatic one of the relations between natural resource sectors and technological innovation. This study is organized around a separation between the decision problems of companies and the market strategy problems. (J.S.)

  7. 75 FR 76453 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., (CARE), and Barbara Durkin v. National Grid, Cape Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-9-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., (CARE), and Barbara Durkin v. National Grid, Cape Wind, and the Massachusetts... Energy Regulatory Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206, (2010...

  8. Web-based tools from AHRQ's National Resource Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Caitlin M; Shah, Sapna

    2008-11-06

    The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has made an investment of over $216 million in research around health information technology (health IT). As part of their investment, AHRQ has developed the National Resource Center for Health IT (NRC) which includes a public domain Web site. New content for the web site, such as white papers, toolkits, lessons from the health IT portfolio and web-based tools, is developed as needs are identified. Among the tools developed by the NRC are the Compendium of Surveys and the Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Resources. The Compendium of Surveys is a searchable repository of health IT evaluation surveys made available for public use. The CDS Resources contains content which may be used to develop clinical decision support tools, such as rules, reminders and templates. This live demonstration will show the access, use, and content of both these freely available web-based tools.

  9. Renewables in Global Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  10. The survival of the conformist: social pressure and renewable resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoni, Alessandro; Schlüter, Maja; Levin, Simon

    2012-04-21

    This paper examines the role of other-regarding behavior as a mechanism for the establishment and maintenance of cooperation in resource use under variable social and environmental conditions. By coupling resource stock dynamics with social dynamics concerning compliance to a social norm prescribing non-excessive resource extraction in a common pool resource, we show that when reputational considerations matter and a sufficient level of social stigma affects the violators of a norm, sustainable outcomes are achieved. We find large parameter regions where norm-observing and norm-violating types coexist, and analyze to what extent such coexistence depends on the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Industrial exploitation of renewable resources: from ethanol production to bioproducts development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Plants, which are one of major groups of life forms, are constituted of an amazing number of molecules such as sugars, proteins, phenolic compounds etc. These molecules display multiple and complementary properties involved in various compartments of plants (structure, storage, biological activity etc.). The first uses of plants in industry were for food and feed, paper manufacturing or combustion. In the coming decades, these renewable biological materials will be the basis of a new concept: the "biorefiner" i.e. the chemical conversion of the whole plant to various products and uses. This concept, born in the 90ies, is analogous to today's petroleum refinery, which produces multiple fuels and derivative products from petroleum. Agriculture generates lots of co-products which were most often wasted. The rational use of these wasted products, which can be considered as valuable renewable materials, is now economically interesting and will contribute to the reduction of greenhouse has emissions by partially substituting for fossil fuels. Such substructures from biological waste products and transforming them into biofuels and new industrial products named "bioproducts". These compounds, such as bioplastics or biosurfactants, can replace equivalent petroleum derivatives. Towards that goal, lots of filamentous fungi, growing on a broad range of vegetable species, are able to produce enzymes adapted to the modification of these type of substrates. The best example, at least the more industrially developed to date, is the second generation biofuel technology using cellulose as a raw material. The process includes an enzymatic hydrolysis step which requires cellulases secreted from Trichoderma fungal species. This industrial development of a renewable energy will contribute to the diversification of energy sources used to transport and to the development of green chemistry which will partially substitute petrochemicals.

  12. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. With Ireland's current 'trajectory' of renewable energy growth, it is likely to slightly fall short of its 2020 nationally binding renewable energy target. Ireland initiated a 'moratorium' on its REFIT (Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff) support scheme in December 2015, with the aim of introducing a revised scheme in 2017 in line with market developments. Grants and tax relief remain in place for renewable heat promotion. An Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) was introduced in 2014, which sets out Government policy in relation to the sustainable development of Ireland's abundant offshore renewable energy resource

  13. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Hunt, Andrew J; Sherwood, James

    2015-07-28

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  14. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H.; Farmer, Thomas J.; Hunt, Andrew J.; Sherwood, James

    2015-01-01

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents. PMID:26225963

  15. Assessing Resource Intensity and Renewability of Cellulosic Ethanol Technologies using Eco-LCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the contributions of natural resources and the lack of their comprehensive accounting in life cycle assessment (LCA) of cellulosic ethanol, an in-depth analysis of the contribution of natural resources in the life cycle of cellulosic ethanol derived from five differen...

  16. Carbohydrates in sustainable development I. Renewable resources for chemistry and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauter, Amelia, P. [Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Dept. Quimica e Bioquimica; Vogel, Pierre [Swiss Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab. of Glycochemistry and Asymmetric Synthesis; Queneau, Yves (eds.) [Lyon Univ. Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Chimie et Biochimie

    2010-07-01

    Sucrose: A Prospering and Sustainable Organic Raw Material, By S. Peters, T. Rose, and M. Moser; Sucrose-Utilizing Transglucosidases for Biocatalysis, By I. Andre, G. Potocki-Veronese, S. Morel, P. Monsan, and M. Remaud-Simeon; Difructose Dianhydrides (DFAs) and DFA-Enriched Products as Functional Foods, By C. Ortiz Mellet and J. M. Garcia Fernandez; Development of Agriculture Left-Overs: Fine Organic Chemicals from Wheat Hemicellulose-Derived Pentoses, By F. Martel, B. Estrine, R. Plantier-Royon, N. Hoffmann, and C. Portella; Cellulose and Derivatives from Wood and Fibers as Renewable Sources of Raw-Materials, By J.A. Figueiredo, M.I. Ismael, C.M.S. Anjo, and A.P. Duarte; Olive Pomace, a Source for Valuable Arabinan-Rich Pectic Polysaccharides, By M. A. Coimbra, S. M. Cardoso, and J. A. Lopes-da-Silva; Oligomannuronates from Seaweeds as Renewable Sources for the Development of Green Surfactants,By T. Benvegnu and J.-F. Sassi; From Natural Polysaccharides to Materials for Catalysis, Adsorption, and Remediation, By F. Quignard, F. Di Renzo, and E. Guibal. (orig.)

  17. Modelling renewable energy resource and the electricity network (East Midlands region)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, P.A.; Ma, T.

    2002-07-01

    The UK Government's targets for renewable generation and combined heat and power (CHP) are expected to result in a significant growth in embedded generation. This report describes the results of a study of the capability of the electricity distribution network in the East Midlands to accept embedded generation. Detailed network studies were performed for two sample networks: one representing an urban network (Leicester) and one representing a rural network (Boston). The 132 kV networks of the grid groups covering these areas were also studied. This included an examination of the connection points from major 132 kV busbars at grid supply points down to 11 kV primary substations. Power system studies were performed to identify the constraints and capabilities of the existing network, These studies included load flow to examine voltage profile and overloading, fault level analysis and transient studies to examine generator and network stability following faults on the network and voltage step change due to generator tripping. Space network capacity for the region was identified and used to assess the ability to accommodate regional targets for renewables and CHP. The study also examined constraining factors and potential solutions, including four improvement scenarios.

  18. Resource analysis of the Chinese society 1980-2002 based on exergy-Part 2: Renewable energy sources and forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.; Chen, G.Q.

    2007-01-01

    This second part is the continuation of the first part on fossil fuels and energy minerals. The major renewable energy sources and forest products entering the Chinese society from 1980 to 2002, including sunlight, wind power, tidal power, wave power, geothermal power and heating, biomass, hydroelectric resource and forestry products, are calculated and analyzed in detail in this paper. The solar exergy inputs from solar photovoltaics and solar collectors, including water heater, solar oven and solar building, are calculated and discussed. The development of the wind power plant is presented. Major tidal power plants, which are still working, are addressed. Wave power devices and plants are introduced. Geothermal resources, mainly for power generation and heating, associated with distribution, are depicted. The utilization of biomass, embracing firewood, straw and biogas, which served as the main obtainable local resources for private consumption and production in the rural areas, is illustrated. Development of hydroelectric resources as complement to scarce fossil fuels is represented, of which the small hydropower project adapted for rural areas is emphasized. Finally, forest products from timber forest and economic forest are presented, with the forestation, reproducing, tending areas and sum of odd forestation trees being manifested

  19. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  20. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Topic 2 Final Report: End-to-End Communication and Control System to Support Clean Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudgins, Andrew P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carrillo, Ismael M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simmins, John [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2018-02-21

    This document is the final report of a two-year development, test, and demonstration project, 'Cohesive Application of Standards- Based Connected Devices to Enable Clean Energy Technologies.' The project was part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology (INTEGRATE) initiative hosted at Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF). This project demonstrated techniques to control distribution grid events using the coordination of traditional distribution grid devices and high-penetration renewable resources and demand response. Using standard communication protocols and semantic standards, the project examined the use cases of high/low distribution voltage, requests for volt-ampere-reactive (VAR) power support, and transactive energy strategies using Volttron. Open source software, written by EPRI to control distributed energy resources (DER) and demand response (DR), was used by an advanced distribution management system (ADMS) to abstract the resources reporting to a collection of capabilities rather than needing to know specific resource types. This architecture allows for scaling both horizontally and vertically. Several new technologies were developed and tested. Messages from the ADMS based on the common information model (CIM) were developed to control the DER and DR management systems. The OpenADR standard was used to help manage grid events by turning loads off and on. Volttron technology was used to simulate a homeowner choosing the price at which to enter the demand response market. Finally, the ADMS used newly developed algorithms to coordinate these resources with a capacitor bank and voltage regulator to respond to grid events.

  1. How do dynamic capabilities transform external technologies into firms’ renewed technological resources? – A mediation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Ning, Lutao

    2016-01-01

    microfoundations of dynamic technological capabilities, mediate the relationship between external technology breadth and firms’ technological innovation performance, based on the resource-based view and dynamic capability view. Using a sample of listed Chinese licensee firms, we find that firms must broadly......How externally acquired resources may become valuable, rare, hard-to-imitate, and non-substitute resource bundles through the development of dynamic capabilities? This study proposes and tests a mediation model of how firms’ internal technological diversification and R&D, as two distinctive...... explore external technologies to ignite the dynamism in internal technological diversity and in-house R&D, which play their crucial roles differently to transform and reconfigure firms’ technological resources....

  2. Comparing primary energy attributed to renewable energy with primary energy equivalent to determine carbon abatement in a national context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallachóir, Brian P O; O'Leary, Fergal; Bazilian, Morgan; Howley, Martin; McKeogh, Eamon J

    2006-01-01

    The current conventional approach to determining the primary energy associated with non-combustible renewable energy (RE) sources such as wind energy and hydro power is to equate the electricity generated from these sources with the primary energy supply. This paper compares this with an approach that was formerly used by the IEA, in which the primary energy equivalent attributed to renewable energy was equated with the fossil fuel energy it displaces. Difficulties with implementing this approach in a meaningful way for international comparisons lead to most international organisations abandoning the primary energy equivalent methodology. It has recently re-emerged in prominence however, as efforts grow to develop baseline procedures for quantifying the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions avoided by renewable energy within the context of the Kyoto Protocol credit trading mechanisms. This paper discusses the primary energy equivalent approach and in particular the distinctions between displacing fossil fuel energy in existing plant or in new plant. The approach is then extended provide insight into future primary energy displacement by renewable energy and to quantify the amount of CO2 emissions avoided by renewable energy. The usefulness of this approach in quantifying the benefits of renewable energy is also discussed in an energy policy context, with regard to increasing security of energy supply as well as reducing energy-related GHG (and other) emissions. The approach is applied in a national context and Ireland is case study country selected for this research. The choice of Ireland is interesting in two respects. The first relates to the high proportion of electricity only fossil fuel plants in Ireland resulting in a significant variation between primary energy and primary energy equivalent. The second concerns Ireland's poor performance to date in limiting GHG emissions in line with its Kyoto target and points to the need for techniques to quantify the potential

  3. National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the early development of wind turbine generators (WTG) in the United States, wind farms were primarily located in California where lightning activity is the lowest in the United States. As such, lightning protection for wind turbines was not considered to be a major issue for designers or wind farm operators. However, wind turbine installations are expanding into the Midwest, Southwest and other regions of the United States where lightning activity is significantly more intense and lightning damage to wind turbines is more common. There is a growing need, therefore, to better understand lightning activity on wind farms and to improve wind turbine lightning protection systems. In support of the U.S. Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) Utility Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently begun to take steps to determine the extent of damage due to lightning and the effectiveness of various lightning protection techniques for wind power plants. Working through the TVP program, NREL will also perform outreach and education to (1) help manufacturers to provide equipment that is adequately designed to survive lightning, (2) make sure that operators are aware of effective safety procedures, and (3) help site designers and wind farm developers take the risk of lightning into account as effectively as possible.

  4. Maximum Intervention: Renewal of a Maori Waka by George Nuku and National Museums Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Stable

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available National Museums Scotland (NMS has in its collections a Mäori war canoe (A.UC.767 or 'Waka Taua 'from New Zealand'.' The 'Waka' had been held in the Museum stores for many years and due to its incompleteness and poor state of repair had not been on public display. It was proposed that the 'Waka' be restored with the intention of it being a focal point of a new permanent gallery in the Royal Museum in Edinburgh dedicated to South Pacific cultures and communities. The gallery was being developed as one part of a £44 million redevelopment of Royal Museum building. Due to its poor condition assistance was sought to help in the restoration, reconstruction and visual interpretation of the 'Waka'. NMS commissioned George Nuku, a Mäori carver, to remake  missing parts. Nuku uses a variety of mediums to carve including Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA. This made a clear distinction between new and original material that could be easily read by the public and reflected Nuku’s conceptual vision of creating physical “ghosts” influenced by the original carvings. Due to the composite construction and condition of the canoe the  project became more complex and  involved. This paper describes how the renewal was done and relationships that developed between the artist, curator and conservator.

  5. NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREEN,T.ET AL.

    2003-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is located near the geographic center of Long Island, New York. The Laboratory is situated on 5,265 acres of land composed of Pine Barrens habitat with a central area developed for Laboratory work. In the mid-1990s BNL began developing a wildlife management program. This program was guided by the Wildlife Management Plan (WMP), which was reviewed and approved by various state and federal agencies in September 1999. The WMP primarily addressed concerns with the protection of New York State threatened, endangered, or species of concern, as well as deer populations, invasive species management, and the revegetation of the area surrounding the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The WMP provided a strong and sound basis for wildlife management and established a basis for forward motion and the development of this document, the Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP), which will guide the natural resource management program for BNL. The body of this plan establishes the management goals and actions necessary for managing the natural resources at BNL. The appendices provide specific management requirements for threatened and endangered amphibians and fish (Appendices A and B respectively), lists of actions in tabular format (Appendix C), and regulatory drivers for the Natural Resource Program (Appendix D). The purpose of the Natural Resource Management Plan is to provide management guidance, promote stewardship of the natural resources found at BNL, and to integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission. The philosophy or guiding principles of the NRMP are stewardship, adaptive ecosystem management, compliance, integration with other plans and requirements, and incorporation of community involvement, where applicable.

  6. Optimising the extraction rate of a non-durable non-renewable resource in a monopolistic market: a mathematical programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Albert; Fossas, Enric

    2015-01-01

    We assume a monopolistic market for a non-durable non-renewable resource such as crude oil, phosphates or fossil water. Stating the problem of obtaining optimal policies on extraction and pricing of the resource as a non-linear program allows general conclusions to be drawn under diverse assumptions about the demand curve, discount rates and length of the planning horizon. We compare the results with some common beliefs about the pace of exhaustion of this kind of resources.

  7. Supply-cost curves for geographically distributed renewable-energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, Salvador; Dopazo, Cesar; Fueyo, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    The supply-cost curves of renewable-energy sources are an essential tool to synthesize and analyze large-scale energy-policy scenarios, both in the short and long terms. Here, we suggest and test a parametrization of such curves that allows their representation for modeling purposes with a minimal set of information. In essence, an economic potential is defined based on the mode of the marginal supply-cost curves; and, using this definition, a normalized log-normal distribution function is used to model these curves. The feasibility of this proposal is assessed with data from a GIS-based analysis of solar, wind and biomass technologies in Spain. The best agreement is achieved for solar energy.

  8. Strategy of penetration of renewable power resources in the Granma province, through Analytical Hierarchy Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benítez Leyva, Lázaro Ventura; Rosa Andino, Alain Ariel de la; Jácome Cadena, Jaime Fernando; Paredes Palomeque, Cristian Rene

    2014-01-01

    In selecting new energy sources for a country, region or rural communities, the criteria to be considered conflict and it is difficult to determine the best energetic options as to preference and priority. Therefore, the present work had as objective to define a strategy of penetration of renewable energy sources from consultation of experts and the later application of the mathematical procedure ''Analytic Hierarchy Process''. The obtained results suggest that the energy strategies of better performance for the Granma province are the following: eolian energy for water pumping, solar photovoltaic for water pumping, solar thermal energy for the sector which demands hot water, and solar photovoltaic for the electrical sector, in that order of priority. (author)

  9. Modern Energy Markets Real-Time Pricing, Renewable Resources and Efficient Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Energy has moved to the forefront in terms of societal and economic development. Modern Energy Markets is a comprehensive, economically oriented, exploration of modern electricity networks from production and distribution to deregulation and liberalization processes. Updating previous work by the authors, different aspects are considered resulting in a complete and detailed picture of  the systems and characteristics of modern electricity markets. Modern Energy Markets provides clear detail whilst encompassing a broad scope of topics and includes: •A method to model energy production systems including the main characteristics of future demand side management, •Different applications of this model in nuclear and renewable energy scenarios, •An analysis of Real-Time Pricing of electricity and its potential effects across the market, and, •A discussion of the need for regulation in an easily monopolized industry. Engineering and Economics students alike will find that Modern Energy Markets is a succinct...

  10. The National Resource Library for Youth with Disabilities*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lynda B.M.; Blum, Robert W.; Geber, Gayle; Okinow, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Program in Adolescent Health, in collaboration with the Society for Adolescent Medicine, has established a National Center for Youth with Disabilities. The National Center is developing an on-line National Resource Library for information related to this topic. The Library presently consists of three separate data files: journal articles, books, reports, and other bibliographic materials; model programs and projects; and a technical assistance network with referrals to experts in relevant fields. Two additional files, federal and state legislation and case law, and education and training materials, will be added in early 1988. The innovative design of this Library, including the user interface that permits it to be used by the general public, is described, and the maintenance of and modes of access to this resource are detailed. It is projected that over the first year of operation, use will grow to approximately 200 searches per month, from public and private institutions, groups and individuals, health care professionals, government officials, and parent and client groups.

  11. Education resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter S; Lipshultz, Dawn; Matten, Wayne T; McGinnis, Scott D; Pechous, Steven; Romiti, Monica L; Tao, Tao; Valjavec-Gratian, Majda; Sayers, Eric W

    2010-11-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) hosts 39 literature and molecular biology databases containing almost half a billion records. As the complexity of these data and associated resources and tools continues to expand, so does the need for educational resources to help investigators, clinicians, information specialists and the general public make use of the wealth of public data available at the NCBI. This review describes the educational resources available at NCBI via the NCBI Education page (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Education/). These resources include materials designed for new users, such as About NCBI and the NCBI Guide, as well as documentation, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) and writings on the NCBI Bookshelf such as the NCBI Help Manual and the NCBI Handbook. NCBI also provides teaching materials such as tutorials, problem sets and educational tools such as the Amino Acid Explorer, PSSM Viewer and Ebot. NCBI also offers training programs including the Discovery Workshops, webinars and tutorials at conferences. To help users keep up-to-date, NCBI produces the online NCBI News and offers RSS feeds and mailing lists, along with a presence on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube.

  12. CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVIS, M.

    2005-04-01

    The Cultural Resource Management Plan (CRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) provides an organized guide that describes or references all facets and interrelationships of cultural resources at BNL. This document specifically follows, where applicable, the format of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Guidelines for Development of Cultural Resource Management Plans, DOE G 450.1-3 (9-22-04[m1]). Management strategies included within this CRMP are designed to adequately identify the cultural resources that BNL and DOE consider significant and to acknowledge associated management actions. A principal objective of the CRMP is to reduce the need for additional regulatory documents and to serve as the basis for a formal agreement between the DOE and the New York State Historic Preservation Officer (NYSHPO). The BNL CRMP is designed to be a ''living document.'' Each section includes identified gaps in the management plan, with proposed goals and actions for addressing each gap. The plan will be periodically revised to incorporate new documentation.

  13. Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets in a Cabon-Constrained Electricity Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-31

    The benchmark goal that drives the report is to achieve a 20 percent reduction in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in Colorado's electricity sector below 2005 levels by 2020. We refer to this as the '20 x 20 goal.' In discussing how to meet this goal, the report concentrates particularly on the role of utility-scale renewable energy and high-voltage transmission. An underlying recognition is that any proposed actions must not interfere with electric system reliability and should minimize financial impacts on customers and utilities. The report also describes the goals of Colorado's New Energy Economy5 - identified here, in summary, as the integration of energy, environment, and economic policies that leads to an increased quality of life in Colorado. We recognize that a wide array of options are under constant consideration by professionals in the electric industry, and the regulatory community. Many options are under discussion on this topic, and the costs and benefits of the options are inherently difficult to quantify. Accordingly, this report should not be viewed as a blueprint with specific recommendations for the timing, siting, and sizing of generating plants and high-voltage transmission lines. We convened the project with the goal of supplying information inputs for consideration by the state's electric utilities, legislators, regulators, and others as we work creatively to shape our electricity sector in a carbon-constrained world. The report addresses various issues that were raised in the Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets report, also known as the SB07-91 Report. That report was produced by the Senate Bill 2007-91 Renewable Resource Generation Development Areas Task Force and presented to the Colorado General Assembly in 2007. The SB07-91 Report provided the Governor, the General Assembly, and the people of Colorado with an assessment of the capability of Colorado's utility-scale renewable

  14. Energy Development in Colorado's Pawnee National Grasslands: Mapping and Measuring the Disturbance Footprint of Renewables and Non-Renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynard, Chris W.; Mjachina, Ksenya; Richardson, Robert D.; Schupp, Robert W.; Lambert, J. David; Chibilyev, Alexander A.

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the pattern and extent of energy development in steppe landscapes of northeast Colorado, United States. We compare the landscape disturbance created by oil and gas production to that of wind energy inside the Pawnee National Grasslands eastern side. This high-steppe landscape consists of a mosaic of federal, state, and private lands where dominant economic activities include ranching, agriculture, tourism, oil and gas extraction, and wind energy generation. Utilizing field surveys, remote sensing data and geographic information systems techniques, we quantify and map the footprint of energy development at the landscape level. Findings suggest that while oil and gas and wind energy development have resulted in a relatively small amount of habitat loss within the study area, the footprint stretches across the entire zone, fragmenting this mostly grassland habitat. Futhermore, a third feature of this landscape, the non-energy transportation network, was also found to have a significant impact. Combined, these three features fragment the entire Pawnee National Grasslands eastern side, leaving very few large intact core, or roadless areas. The primary objective of this ongoing work is to create a series of quantifiable and replicable surface disturbance indicators linked to energy production in semi-arid grassland environments. Based on these, and future results, we aim to work with industry and regulators to shape energy policy as it relates to environmental performance, with the aim of reducing the footprint and thus increasing the sustainability of these extractive activities.

  15. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Lamar quadrangle, Colorado and Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maarouf, A.M.; Johnson, V.C.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium resources of the Lamar Quadrangle, Colorado and Kansas, were evaluated using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. The environment favorable for uranium is the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone in the area east of John Martin Reservoir for south Texas roll-type sandstone deposits. Carbonaceous trash and sulfides are abundant in the Dakota Sandstone. The unit underlies a thick Upper Cretaceous section that contains bentonitic beds and uraniferous marine black shale. Water samples from the Dakota Sandstone aquifer contain as much as 122 ppB U 3 O 8 . Geologic units considered unfavorable include most of the Paleozoic rocks, except in the Brandon Fault area; the Upper Cretaceous rocks; and the Ogallala Formation. The Dockum Group, Morrison Formation, and Lytle Member of the Purgatoire Formation are unevaluated because of lack of data

  16. National uranium resource evaluation, NURE 1979: annual activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    NURE is a DOE-directed program with the major goal of establishing reliable and timely comprehensive estimates of the uranium resources of the nation. To develop and compile geologic, geophysical, and other information which will contribute to assessing the distribution and magnitude of uranium resources and to determine areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium in the United States, NURE has been organized into the following elements: (1) quadrangle evaluation; (2) aerial radiometric reconnaissance; (3) subsurface investigations; (4) hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance; (5) geologic studies; (6) technology applications; and (7) information dissemination. The extensive effort now under way on each of these NURE program elements will result in a systematic collection and compilation of data which will be culminating in a comprehensive report covering certain priority areas of the United States. This report summarizes the technical activities undertaken during 1979 to support this program

  17. The 'renewable' stakes of the national debate on energies; Les enjeux ''renouvelables'' du debat national sur les energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Renewable energies do not produce any additional greenhouse gas emissions and do not leed to the production of dangerous wastes. The facilities used for their valorization are easily dismantled at the end of their life, and they offer many advantages in terms of employment, local economy, decentralization and national development. Their main drawbacks concern the required land surfaces and the intermittency of their availability. This paper analyzes the feasibility and the medium- and long-term perspectives of development of renewable energies in France and in Europe: costs and conditions (decentralized production, public acceptability, competitiveness, investments, operating costs, international cooperation). (J.S.)

  18. Consideration of reference points for the management of renewable resources under an adaptive management paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Brian J.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The success of natural resource management depends on monitoring, assessment and enforcement. In support of these efforts, reference points (RPs) are often viewed as critical values of management-relevant indicators. This paper considers RPs from the standpoint of objective-driven decision making in dynamic resource systems, guided by principles of structured decision making (SDM) and adaptive resource management (AM). During the development of natural resource policy, RPs have been variously treated as either ‘targets’ or ‘triggers’. Under a SDM/AM paradigm, target RPs correspond approximately to value-based objectives, which may in turn be either of fundamental interest to stakeholders or intermediaries to other central objectives. By contrast, trigger RPs correspond to decision rules that are presumed to lead to desirable outcomes (such as the programme targets). Casting RPs as triggers or targets within a SDM framework is helpful towards clarifying why (or whether) a particular metric is appropriate. Further, the benefits of a SDM/AM process include elucidation of underlying untested assumptions that may reveal alternative metrics for use as RPs. Likewise, a structured decision-analytic framework may also reveal that failure to achieve management goals is not because the metrics are wrong, but because the decision-making process in which they are embedded is insufficiently robust to uncertainty, is not efficiently directed at producing a resource objective, or is incapable of adaptation to new knowledge.

  19. Natural Resource Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    green, T.

    2011-08-15

    This comprehensive Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) for Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) was built on the successful foundation of the Wildlife Management Plan for BNL, which it replaces. This update to the 2003 plan continues to build on successes and efforts to better understand the ecosystems and natural resources found on the BNL site. The plan establishes the basis for managing the varied natural resources located on the 5,265 acre BNL site, setting goals and actions to achieve those goals. The planning of this document is based on the knowledge and expertise gained over the past 10 years by the Natural Resources management staff at BNL in concert with local natural resource agencies including the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Long Island Pine Barrens Joint Planning and Policy Commission, The Nature Conservancy, and others. The development of this plan is an attempt at sound ecological management that not only benefits BNL's ecosystems but also benefits the greater Pine Barrens habitats in which BNL is situated. This plan applies equally to the Upton Ecological and Research Reserve (Upton Reserve). Any difference in management between the larger BNL area and the Upton Reserve are noted in the text. The purpose of the Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP) is to provide management guidance, promote stewardship of the natural resources found at BNL, and to sustainably integrate their protection with pursuit of the Laboratory's mission. The philosophy or guiding principles of the NRMP are stewardship, sustainability, adaptive ecosystem management, compliance, integration with other plans and requirements, and the incorporation of community involvement, where applicable. The NRMP is periodically reviewed and updated, typically every five years. This review and update was delayed to develop documents associated with a new third party facility, the Long Island Solar Farm. This two hundred acre facility will result in

  20. Funds from non-renewable energy resources: Policy lessons from Alaska and Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baena, César; Sévi, Benoît; Warrack, Allan

    2012-01-01

    We document the use of energy natural resource funds in Alaska and Alberta and analyze theirs characteristics for further implementation in resource-rich countries. Such funds allow dealing theoretically with intergenerational equity issues, corruption, and more general institutional problems. The performance of both funds is very different, depending on the management and composition choices but some policy lessons can be drawn from these two examples. Importantly, the role of a public dividend policy is highlighted as a way to bypass corrupted institutions and to enhance quality of life for poorest people. We also emphasize the need to deal with inflation to make the fund sustainable. - Highlights: ► We document the optimal intergenerational energy resource management using funds. ► We use Alaskan and Albertan experiences to provide policy lessons for future implementation of such funds. ► We emphasize the role of a public dividend policy

  1. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Athens Quadrangle, Georgia and South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.H.

    1979-09-01

    Reconnaissance and detailed geologic and radiometric investigations were conducted throughout the Athens Quadrangle, Georgia and South Carolina, to evaluate the uranium favorability using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. Surface and subsurface studies were augmented by aerial radiometric surveys, emanometry studies and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance studies. The results of the investigations indicate environments favorable for allogenic deposits in metamorphic rocks adjacent to granite plutons, and Texas roll-type sandstone deposits in the Coastal Plain Province. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits are the placers of the Monazite Belt, pegmatites, and base- and precious-metal veins associated with faults and shear zones in metamorphic rocks

  2. RESOURCES CONSUMPTION MANAGEMENT AT THE NATIONAL LIBRARY OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naddafi, J. Nouri, R. Nabizadeh, N. Shahbod

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the various resources (water, energy, paper as well as other wastes consumption management at the National Library of Iran in Tehran. After setting the targets and specifying the correct management framework of resources consumption through the green management schedule, the resources analysis in consumption pattern in National Library of Iran was set up. Some attempt plans were performed to find out management solutions to the related issues. For the achievement of this aim, the first step was considered the study of general conditions of the Library through several visits, completing the checklists and questionnaires and then gathering the necessary information and analyzing them. The results of the fuel consumption in transportations related to the National Library showed that the major pollutants produced by the transportation were CO2, CO, NOx, and hydrocarbons. The rate of CO2 had a maximum level of 904 Kg and CO was 6 Kg, NOx was 2 Kg and hydrocarbons were 0.58 Kg. Among the equipments, which use energy in the Library, refrigerators produce the levels of CO2, SO2 and NOx .The total level of CO2, SO2 and NOx produced by all the equipments were 1140.32 Kg, 3.9072 kg and 2.886 Kg respectively. The results of water investigations showed that the total water consumption was 45459 L/year and the greater part of it was related to irrigation of the garden in the courtyard which was equal to 32471 L/year. Regarding to the wastes, the results of 30 times sampling showed the highest level to be related to aluminum and paper and a computer analysis revealed these results in the rates of 19745 Kg/year of CO2, 77.54 Kg/year, SO2 57.4Kg/year NOx and particulate matter was 2.92 Kg/year. Following the investigations carried out in management, executive solutions were suggested which led to the conclusion that the Green Management System should be established at this organization which should result in optimum consumption of resources

  3. Legislative framework affecting First Nations and resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclean, M.

    1998-01-01

    In its Delgamuukw decision (released December 1997), the Supreme Court of Canada has given a clear direction to the Crown and First Nations to negotiate rather than litigate outstanding claims within the province of British Columbia. This paper describes the practical implications which the Delgamuukw decision will have for resource development on lands located within the traditional territories of Aboriginal people, reviews constitutional and jurisdictional issues, and discusses issues such as reserve lands in British Columbia, including the nature of reserve interest, tax considerations, the surrender of reserve lands, and provincial regulation on reserve lands

  4. Planning for a soft landing : non-renewable resource development and community infrastructure in the Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    This paper provided a high-level overview of research related to the boom and bust cycle of resource-based economic development and community infrastructure in the north, particularly in the Northwest Territories. The paper focused on what is known and on knowledge gaps that needed to be filled in each of 3 theme areas for an experts workshop on northern communities. The themes that were discussed at the workshop and in this paper were: the connections between non-renewable resources development and community infrastructure in the north; planning for resource development; and strategies for moving ahead and putting ideas into practice. The paper discussed the objectives of the research and discussed findings under each of the 3 themes. Topics discussed included: changes in the infrastructure mix; infrastructure and climate change; infrastructure financing; uncertainty; knowledge; planning tools; stakeholder participation; and measuring and monitoring planning implementation. Data availability was also discussed along with funding mechanisms, technological innovations and community capacity building. It was concluded that strategies for dealing with the boom-induced infrastructure challenges facing communities in the Northwest Territories should focus on making more creative use of available funding; promoting technical innovation; and improving maintenance capacity at the community level. 62 refs

  5. A critical review of algal biomass: A versatile platform of bio-based polyesters from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Aqdas; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Ali, Muhammad; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    Algal biomass is an excellent renewable resource for the production of polymers and other products due to their higher growth rate, high photosynthetic efficiency, great potential for carbon dioxide fixation, low percentage of lignin and high amount of carbohydrates. Algae contain unique metabolites which are transformed into monomers suitable for development of novel polyesters. This review article mainly focuses on algal bio-refinery concept for polyester synthesis and on exploitation of algae-based biodegradable polyester blends and composites in tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery system. Algae-derived hybrid polyester scaffolds are extensively used for bone, cartilage, cardiac and nerve tissue regeneration due to their biocompatibility and tunable biodegradability. Microcapsules and microspheres of algae-derived polyesters have been used for controlled and continuous release of several pharmaceutical agents and macromolecules to produce humoral and cellular immunity with efficient intracellular delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Resources for National Water Savings for Outdoor Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melody, Moya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    In support of efforts by the U.S. Environmental Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program to develop a spreadsheet model for calculating the national water and financial savings attributable to WaterSense certification and labeling of weather-based irrigation controllers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory reviewed reports, technical data, and other information related to outdoor water use and irrigation controllers. In this document we categorize and describe the reviewed references, highlighting pertinent data. We relied on these references when developing model parameters and calculating controller savings. We grouped resources into three major categories: landscapes (section 1); irrigation devices (section 2); and analytical and modeling efforts (section 3). Each category is subdivided further as described in its section. References are listed in order of date of publication, most recent first.

  7. Structural identification of lipopeptide biosurfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis strains grown on the media obtained from renewable natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Bernat, Przemysław; Kuśmierska, Anna; Chojniak, Joanna; Płaza, Grażyna

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify and characterize lipopeptide (LP) biosurfactants produced by two Bacillus subtilis strains (KP7 and I'-1a) grown on various media prepared from renewable natural resources: two different brewery wastewaters (BW#4 and BW#6), 2% beet molasses (M), apple peels extract (APE) supplemented with 0.25% of yeast extract (YE) or 0.25% peptone (P), and similarly supplemented carrot peels extract (CPE). In all used media both strains retained their individual LP production signature characterized by surfactin and iturin overproduction exhibited by KP7 and I'-1a strain, respectively. The production level and the structural diversity of synthesized LPs were dependent on the medium composition. In the CPE+YE medium it was higher than the yield obtained in Luria-Bertani (140.6 and 100.3 mg L -1 , respectively). Surfactins were produced by both strains as a mixture of four homologues (C13-C16) with the domination of variant C14. All other broths prepared from renewable resources strongly stimulated the iturin production by I'-1a strain with the exception of BW media. The highest iturin concentration (428.7 mg L -1 ) obtained in the CPE+P culture of I'-1a strain was about seven-fold higher than in LB. In all cultures only iturin A was identified. Among four iturin homologues (C13-16) produced by I'-1a strain, the highest relative contents of C16 variant (70-80%) were calculated for samples obtained from APE+P and CPE+P media. The obtained data indicate that the waste composition has an influence on both the types and amounts of biosurfactants produced by studied B. subtilis strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Renewable energy and resource curse on the possible consequences of solar energy in North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bae, Yuh Jin

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to project whether the five North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisa) have the potentials to suffer from a solar energy curse. Under the assumption that a solar energy curse will be similar to the current resource curse, the combination of

  9. 77 FR 58181 - Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 04008964, NRC-2012-0214] Power Resources, Inc., Smith... available in ADAMS) is provided the first time that a document is referenced. The Smith Ranch Highland... (Smith Ranch Technical Report); Accession No. ML12234A539 (Smith Ranch Environmental Report). In addition...

  10. The End of Flat Earth Economics & the Transition to Renewable Resource Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Hazel

    1978-01-01

    A post-industrial revolution is predicted for the future with an accompanying shift of focus from simple, brute force technolgies, based on cheap, accessible resources and energy, to a second generation of more subtle, refined technologies grounded in a much deeper understanding of biological and ecological realities. (Author/BB)

  11. Integration of renewable energy resources when they dominate the electricity production mix; Integration erneuerbarer Energiequellen bei hohen Anteilen an der Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trieb, Franz [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Gruppe Energie Integration

    2013-07-15

    The energy turnaround has triggered a reorganisation of the German energy supply system and in the process has given rise to a number of complex problems. The challenge at hand is to find the optimal route into an energy supply landscape based largely on renewable resources. This article investigates two scenarios of a sustainable future, one based on largely fluctuating resources and the other including controllable renewable sources as well as the use of storages. The author has found there to be substantial differences between these two paths.

  12. From resource to valorisation: the long way of renewable energies - ADeus' Notes Nr 191. Renewable energies - To support sectors at the heart of energy transition - ADeus' Notes Nr 192. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Anne; Gendron, Yves; Isenmann, Jean; Ruff, Valentine; Berlet, Jessica; Jeanniard, Myriam; Martin, Stephanie; Vigneron, Fabienne; Masse, Camille

    2015-12-01

    A first issue of this publication discusses the various technical, regulatory, economic or social barriers or brakes which may impede or slow down the development of renewable energies from a theoretical potential to an available one. It outlines that various planning tools are available to local communities to plan such a development, and to manage the valorisation of various resources, to choose the right equipment at the right place, and to manage social acceptance issues through a well planned process. It also discusses the relationship between resources and usages, and the need to integrate local renewable energies to their consumption locations. The second issue of this publication proposes an overview of the differences which can be noticed between local resources in terms of exploitation capacities. It outlines that the different renewable energy sectors display different levels of organisation, and that the diversification of firms, professions and training is still on its way. The next article highlights the promising context for costs and technologies: higher efficiencies, better distribution of installations, progressive reduction of cost differences between renewable energies on the one hand and fossil and nuclear energies on the other hand. Potential courses of action are discussed: a better readability of public supports, guaranteed supply and outputs, promotion of acceptability, support of new actor configurations and integration to the grid

  13. Disassembly of Bacterial Biofilms by the Self-Assembled Glycolipids Derived from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Yadavali Siva; Miryala, Sandeep; Lalitha, Krishnamoorthy; Ranjitha, K; Barbhaiwala, Shehnaz; Sridharan, Vellaisamy; Maheswari, C Uma; Srinandan, C S; Nagarajan, Subbiah

    2017-11-22

    More than 80% of chronic infections of bacteria are caused by biofilms. It is also a long-term survival strategy of the pathogens in a nonhost environment. Several amphiphilic molecules have been used in the past to potentially disrupt biofilms; however, the involvement of multistep synthesis, complicated purification and poor yield still remains a major problem. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of glycolipid based surfactant from renewable feedstocks in good yield. The nature of carbohydrate unit present in glycolipid influence the ring chain tautomerism, which resulted in the existence of either cyclic structure or both cyclic and acyclic structures. Interestingly, these glycolipids self-assemble into gel in highly hydrophobic solvents and vegetable oils, and displayed foam formation in water. The potential application of these self-assembled glycolipids to disrupt preformed biofilm was examined against various pathogens. It was observed that glycolipid 6a disrupts Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes biofilm, while the compound 6c was effective in disassembling uropathogenic E. coli and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium biofilms. Altogether, the supramolecular self-assembled materials, either as gel or as surfactant solution could be potentially used for surface cleansing in hospital environments or the food processing industries to effectively reduce pathogenic biofilms.

  14. The state of energy storage in electric utility systems and its effect on renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, N S

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the state of the art of electric energy storage technologies and discusses how adding intermittent renewable energy technologies (IRETs) to a utility network affects the benefits from storage dispatch. Load leveling was the mode of storage dispatch examined in the study. However, the report recommended that other modes be examined in the future for kilowatt and kilowatt-hour optimization of storage. The motivation to install storage with IRET generation can arise from two considerations: reliability and enhancement of the value of energy. Because adding storage increases cost, reliability-related storage is attractive only if the accruing benefits exceed the cost of storage installation. The study revealed that the operation of storage should not be guided by the output of the IRET but rather by system marginal costs. Consequently, in planning studies to quantify benefits, storage should not be considered as an entity belonging to the system and not as a component of IRETS. The study also indicted that because the infusion of IRET energy tends to reduce system marginal cost, the benefits from load leveling (value of energy) would be reduced. However, if a system has storage, particularly if the storage is underutilized, its dispatch can be reoriented to enhance the benefits of IRET integration.

  15. Municipal wastes and landfield gases utilization - renewable resource of energy and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuburovic, M.; Jovovic, A.

    2002-01-01

    Urbanization and industrialization, have been fundamental causes of environmental pollution (of water, air and land) which the cities were unable to handle. There is already enough evidence of the fact that the role of technology in environmental matters is moving in two important directions: sustainable development, dealing primary with global problems, and preventive technology, designed to reduce the environmental effects of processes, operations, and products. Treatment plants for industrial and municipal wastes, emission controls for incinerators, and safe landfills for waste disposal were developed to control air, water, and land pollution. Now, this 'end-of-pipe' treatment technologies are still the way of environmental protection philosophy, particularly in the developing countries. New environmental standards demand more and more rigorous preventive environmental protection technologies, therefore further development of industrial production requires the rational use of natural sources of raw materials and energy. Production and the use of goods with the minimum municipal and industrial wastes and the development of recycling technology provided closed cycle of materials. Main principles for the development and exploitation of the technology with the minimum or without waste materials and energy are: the use of renewable sources of material and energy, maximum use of waste materials and waste energy, waste minimisation and reduction of energy losses in the production, development of new industrial processes operating with minimum material and energy losses in products exploitation period and after that, and the responsible use of natural sources, products and energy in the field of industry and consumption. (author)

  16. Depletion of the non-renewable natural exergy resources as a measure of the ecological cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szargut, Jan; Ziebik, Andrzej; Stanek, Wojciech

    2002-01-01

    The cumulative consumption of non-renewable exergy connected with the fabrication of particular products has been termed as their ecological cost. System of linear input-output equations determining the ecological costs have been formulated. The cogeneration processes have been considered using the principle of the avoided costs of fabrication of the products substituted by the by-products of the considered process. The ecological cost determined in a regional scope takes into account the ecological cost of the imported raw materials and semi-finished products. These quantities have been substituted by the economically equivalent export of own products. The deleterious effect of the rejection of waste products to the environment has been approximately determined by means of the monetary indices of harmfulness of waste products. It has been proved, that the ecological cost of human work cannot be introduced into the set of input-output equations. Exemplary calculations have been made for the products connected with the blast-furnace process. The influence of the injection of auxiliary fuels into the blast furnace on the ecological cost of pig iron has been analyzed too. (Author)

  17. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  18. A Review on the Development of Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant as Alternative Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Tan, J. H.; Fadzlita, M. T.; Khairul Muzammil, A. R. Wan

    2017-07-01

    Gravitational water vortex power plant is a green technology that generates electricity from alternative or renewable energy source. In the vortex power plant, water is introduced into a circular basin tangentially that creates a free vortex and energy is extracted from the free vortex by using a turbine. The main advantages of this type of power plant is the generation of electricity from ultra-low hydraulic pressure and it is also environmental friendly. Since the hydraulic head requirement is as low as 1m, this type of power plant can be installed at a river or a stream to generate electricity for few houses. It is a new and not well-developed technology to harvest electricity from low pressure water energy sources. There are limited literatures available on the design, fabrication and physical geometry of the vortex turbine and generator. Past researches focus on the optimization of turbine design, inlets, outlets and basin geometry. However, there are still insufficient literatures available for the technology to proceed beyond prototyping stage. The maximum efficiency obtained by the researchers are approximately 30% while the commercial companies claimed about 50% of efficiency with 500W to 20kW of power generated. Hence, the aim of this paper is to determine the gap in the vortex power plant technology development through past works and a set of research recommendations will be developed as efforts to accelerate the development of GWVPP.

  19. Funding of Geosciences: Coordinating National and International Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, B.; Fontaine, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    Funding is an important element of national as well as international policy for Earth observations. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. The lack of dedicated funding to support specific S&T activities in support of GEOSS is one of the most important obstacles to engaging the S&T communities in its implementation. This problem can be addressed by establishing explicit linkages between research and development programmes funded by GEO Members and Participating Organizations and GEOSS. In appropriate funding programs, these links may take the form of requiring explanations of how projects to be funded will interface with GEOSS and ensuring that demonstrating significant relevance for GEOSS is viewed as an asset of these proposals, requiring registration of Earth observing systems developed in these projects, or stipulating that data and products must adhere to the GEOSS Data Sharing Principles. Examples of Earth observations include: - Measurements from ground-based, in situ monitors; - Observations from Earth satellites; - Products and predictive capabilities from Earth system models, often using the capabilities of high-performance computers; - Scientific knowledge about the Earth system; and, - Data visualization techniques. These examples of Earth observations activities requires different types of resources, R&D top-down, bottom-up funding and programs of various sizes. Where innovation and infrastructure are involved different kind of resources are better suited, for developing countries completely other sources of funding are applicable etc. The European Commission funded Egida project is coordinating the development of a funding mechanism based on current national and international funding instruments such as the European ERANet, the new Joint Programming Initiatives, ESFRI as well as other European and non-European instruments. A general introduction to various

  20. Renewability emergy index calculation in the evaluation of the sustainability of a national economy; Calculo do indice de renovabillidade emergetica na avaliacao da sustentabilidade de uma economia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siche Jara, Raul Benito [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, La Libertad (Peru). Fac. de Ciencias Agropecuarias. Escuela de Ingenieria Agroindustrial], e-mail: Siche.J.R@gmail.com; Ortega Rodriguez, Enrique [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Ecologica e Informatica Aplicada], e-mail: ortega@fea.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the emergy methodology was used to analyze the sustainability of the Peruvian economic system. The resources (natural and not natural) and importations had been accounting in units of solar emergy using data of the Peruvian economy for the year 2004. Emergy is an energy measure based in the contribution of the resources and its influence, defined as the energy of a type required producing a flow or storage of another type. The focus of this study is the calculation of the emergy index call 'renewability' (REN), considered as a general measure of the ecological sustainability. In a long period, only systems or processes with high REN are sustainable. This index is calculated by the accounting of the resources renewed used in the economy in emergy units (2.17E+23 seJ) and divided by emergy total that enters to the economic system (6.93E+23 seJ), resulting a REN of 0.31. The renewable resources that use Peru almost represent 20% of the total of renewable resources available in the system. The great amount of renewable resources that Peru can potentially use was calculated in 11.44E+23 seJ, meaning that the system can be more sustainable if the economy is based on increasing the use of renewable resources and to diminish the use of non-renewable resources and imported resources. These data show that Peru has a relatively sustainable economy that can improve or get worse, depending of its politics in the use of resources. (author)

  1. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.

  2. Migrant female head porters’ enrolment in and utilisation and renewal of the National Health Insurance Scheme in Kumasi, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Boateng, Simon; Amoako, Prince; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Baabereyir, Anthony; Gyasi, Razak Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Purpose As a social protection policy, Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) aims to improve access to healthcare, especially for the vulnerable. Migrant female head porters (kayayoo), who are part of the informal economic workforce, are underscored as an ethnic minority and vulnerable group in Ghana. This study aimed to analyse the factors associated with enrolment in and renewal and utilisation of the NHIS among migrant female head porters in the Kumasi Metropolis. Method We purpo...

  3. Ethiopia's national strategy for improving water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey

  4. Applying adaptive management in resource use in South African National Parks: A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Scheepers

    2011-05-01

    Conservation implications: There is no blueprint for the development of sustainable resource use systems and resource use is often addressed according to multiple approaches in national parks. However, the SANParks resource use policy provides a necessary set of guiding principles for resource use management across the national park system that allows for monitoring progress.

  5. Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Cybersecurity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Danish [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-11-08

    This presentation covers the work that Sandia National Laboratories and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are doing for distributed energy resource cybersecurity standards, prepared for NREL's Annual Cybersecurity & Resilience Workshop on October 9-10, 2017.

  6. Lipids as renewable resources: current state of chemical and biotechnological conversion and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, J O; Bornscheuer, U

    2006-06-01

    Oils and fats are the most important renewable raw materials of the chemical industry. They make available fatty acids in such purity that they may be used for chemical conversions and for the synthesis of chemically pure compounds. Oleic acid (1) from "new sunflower," linoleic acid (2) from soybean, linolenic acid (3) from linseed, erucic acid (4) from rape seed, and ricinoleic acid (5) from castor oil are most important for chemical transformations offering in addition to the carboxy group one or more C-C-double bonds. New plant oils containing fatty acids with new and interesting functionalities such as petroselinic acid (6) from Coriandrum sativum, calendic acid (7) from Calendula officinalis, alpha-eleostearic acid (8) from tung oil, santalbic acid (9) from Santalum album (Linn.), and vernolic acid (10) from Vernonia galamensis are becoming industrially available. The basic oleochemicals are free fatty acids, methyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty amines as well as glycerol as a by-product. Their interesting new industrial applications are the usage as environmentally friendly industrial fluids and lubricants, insulating fluid for electric utilities such as transformers and additive to asphalt. Modern methods of synthetic organic chemistry including enzymatic and microbial transformations were applied extensively to fatty compounds for the selective functionalization of the alkyl chain. Syntheses of long-chain diacids, omega-hydroxy fatty acids, and omega-unsaturated fatty acids as base chemicals derived from vegetable oils were developed. Interesting applications were opened by the epoxidation of C-C-double bonds giving the possibility of photochemically initiated cationic curing and access to polyetherpolyols. Enantiomerically pure fatty acids as part of the chiral pool of nature can be used for the synthesis of nonracemic building blocks.

  7. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Nigaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    On invitation of the Nicaraguan Government, the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted a reconnaissance for uranium in March, 1953. Operating and abandoned mines, as well as prospects, formations, contacts, dikes and sills enroute to these mines were tested by scintillometer. Reconnaissance included two mineralized areas exposed in windows within the volcanic belt but did not include the schists and granitic intrusions in the north eastern part of the country. No anomalous radioactivity was detected. No uranium occurrences were discovered during the 1953 reconnaissance and no uranium deposits or prospects are indicated on the metallogenetic map of Central America or in the bibliography of Nicaraguan geology. Information is net available on current exploration in Nicaragua. All subsoil mineral resources besides quarry materials belong to the state. In the interest of national defence, uranium, thorium, lithium and their derivatives, along with certain other mineral substances, may be classified as o f temporary strategic interest , and their exploration or exploitation would then be subject to special laws. The Ministry of Economy may establish permanent or temporary national reserves on which mining activities are essentially precluded. Foreign nationals and corporations may acquire mineral concessions although particular regulations may be applicable to such an acquisition. Exploration of any favourable formations has been hindered by volcanic ash cover in western Nicaragua and dense vegetation in the East. Little geologic work has been done on the Paleozoic metamorphic rocks or Todos Santos Formation of the Northern Highlands. These could possibly show some potential for discovery of uranium as might the alaskites near Siuna. The potential resources of Nicaragua are estimated at less than 1,000 tonnes uranium

  8. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 3. Mid-Continent region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The US Corps of Engineers' assessment of the nation's hydroelectric resources provides a current and comprehensive estimate of the potential for incremental or new generation at existing dams and other water resource projects, as well as for undeveloped sites in the US. The demand for hydroelectric power is addressed and various related policy and technical considerations are investigated to determine the incentives, constraints, and impacts of developing hydropower to meet a portion of the future energy demands. The comprehensive data represent the effort of the Corps of Engineers based on site-specific analysis and evaluation. Summary tables include estimates of the potential capacity and energy at each site in the inventory. The number of sites and potential capacity in each state are identified, but specific detailed information is included for sites in Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming.

  9. Integrated Evaluation of Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential for Algal Biofuels at the National Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Ryan; Fishman, Daniel; Frank, Edward D.; Johnson, Michael C.; Jones, Susanne B.; Kinchin, Christopher; Skaggs, Richard; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-04-21

    Costs, emissions, and resource availability were modeled for the production of 5 billion gallons yr-1 (5 BGY) of renewable diesel in the United States from Chlorella biomass by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The HTL model utilized data from a continuous 1-L reactor including catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous phase, and catalytic hydrotreatment of the HTL oil. A biophysical algae growth model coupled with weather and pond simulations predicted biomass productivity from experimental growth parameters, allowing site-by-site and temporal prediction of biomass production. The 5 BGY scale required geographically and climatically distributed sites. Even though screening down to 5 BGY significantly reduced spatial and temporal variability, site-to-site, season-to-season, and inter-annual variations in productivity affected economic and environmental performance. Performance metrics based on annual average or peak productivity were inadequate; temporally and spatially explicit computations allowed more rigorous analysis of these dynamic systems. For example, 3-season operation with a winter shutdown was favored to avoid high greenhouse gas emissions, and economic performance was harmed by underutilized equipment during slow-growth periods. Thus, analysis of algal biofuel pathways must combine spatiotemporal resource assessment, economic analysis, and environmental analysis integrated over many sites when assessing national scale performance.

  10. Integrated evaluation of cost, emissions, and resource potential for algal biofuels at the national scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ryan E; Fishman, Daniel B; Frank, Edward D; Johnson, Michael C; Jones, Susanne B; Kinchin, Christopher M; Skaggs, Richard L; Venteris, Erik R; Wigmosta, Mark S

    2014-05-20

    Costs, emissions, and resource availability were modeled for the production of 5 billion gallons yr(-1) (5 BGY) of renewable diesel in the United States from Chlorella biomass by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The HTL model utilized data from a continuous 1-L reactor including catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous phase, and catalytic hydrotreatment of the HTL oil. A biophysical algae growth model coupled with weather and pond simulations predicted biomass productivity from experimental growth parameters, allowing site-by-site and temporal prediction of biomass production. The 5 BGY scale required geographically and climatically distributed sites. Even though screening down to 5 BGY significantly reduced spatial and temporal variability, site-to-site, season-to-season, and interannual variations in productivity affected economic and environmental performance. Performance metrics based on annual average or peak productivity were inadequate; temporally and spatially explicit computations allowed more rigorous analysis of these dynamic systems. For example, 3-season operation with a winter shutdown was favored to avoid high greenhouse gas emissions, but economic performance was harmed by underutilized equipment during slow-growth periods. Thus, analysis of algal biofuel pathways must combine spatiotemporal resource assessment, economic analysis, and environmental analysis integrated over many sites when assessing national scale performance.

  11. A Depletion Protocol for Non-Renewable Natural Resources: Australia as an Example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, Albert A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of statements by Australia's Minister of Resources that Australia's exports of coal are growing rapidly and that Australia's coal will last '110 years at current rates of production.' If one assumes that coal production P(t), follows a Gaussian curve (similar to a Hubbert curve) one can construct a family of Gaussian curves showing possible future paths of P(t) which are consistent with the cited '110 years.' Each curve reaches a maximum after which P(t) declines toward zero. Knowledge of the present value of dP/dt allows one member of the family to be identified as the most probable future path of P(t). Families of curves and tabular data are presented for resource quantities that would last 50, 100 and 200 years 'at current rates of production.' If, instead, Australia's P(t) follows a declining exponential curve (exp(-kt)) with k = (1/110) per year, the stated quantity of coal will allow production to continue forever, with P(t) declining with a half life of 76 y. This and more rapidly declining exponential paths are the only paths that can be said to be sustainable. The envelope of the family of Gaussian curves divides the (P, t) plane into 'allowed' and 'forbidden' areas. The declining exponential curve divides the 'allowed' area into an upper area that is 'terminal' and a lower area that is 'sustainable.' These facts, coupled with Australia's expectations of rapid growth of its population, suggest that Australia's present resource policies are 'anti-sustainable' and that the people of Australia need to rethink their present policy of rapidly exporting their fossil fuels

  12. Renewable sources of electricity in the SWEB area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Following the privatisation of the Electricity Supply Industry, Regional Electricity Companies now have greater influence on the generation and supply of electricity, including power from renewable sources. The introduction of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation has also greatly assisted the development of electricity generation from renewables, culminating in around 260 MW of new renewables capacity by April 1993 in England and Wales, including 116 MW from windfarms. In view of the increased interest in renewables shown nationally and within the South West, SWEB and the Department of Trade and Industry agreed to conduct a study of the renewable energy technologies and their associated resource potential within the SWEB region. (author)

  13. Migrant labor supply in a booming non-renewable resource economy: Cure and transmission mechanism for de-industrialization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulle, Grant Mark

    This paper challenges the determinism that booming resource economies suffer from de-industrialization, the "Dutch Disease". For several decades, economists have attempted to explain how a sudden surge in mineral and energy extraction affects an economy's output and employment from an aggregate and sectoral perspective. Economic theory shows that a "boom" in mineral and energy production is welfare enhancing to the economy experiencing it. However, the phenomenon also induces inter-sectoral adjustments among non-renewable resource (NRR), traditional traded, and non-traded industries that tend to crowd out traditional export sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing. In turn, this paper asks two fundamental questions: 1) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments wrought by a boom in NRR production be mitigated in the resource-abundant economy experiencing it; 2) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments be exported to a neighboring non-resource economy by movements in migrant labor supply? The theoretical model and empirical estimation approach presented in this paper introduces an endogenous migrant labor supply response to booms in NRR output to test the extent traditional tradable sectors shrink in the NRR-abundant economy during the boom and if such effects are exported to a neighboring jurisdiction. Using data at the U.S. county level, the empirical results show that booming economies experience positive and statistically significant rates of real income and traded sector job growth during the boom, attributable to the influx of migrant labor. By contrast, little evidence is found that non-booming counties adjacent to the booming counties experience declines in income or job growth because of labor supply outflows. Instead, the results suggest the larger the number of potential "donor" counties that can supply labor to the booming economies, the more likely the transmission of booming economy effects, namely evidence of de-industrialization, is diffused across all of the

  14. A Project to Develop an Associate of Science Degree Curriculum in Renewable Energy Resources and Applications in Agriculture. Final Report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keith; Fielding, Marvin R.

    A project was conducted at State Fair Community College (SFCC) in Sedalia, Missouri, to develop an associate of science degree curriculum in renewable energy resources and their application in agriculture. A pilot study, designed to verify and rate the importance of 138 competencies in fuel alcohol production and to ascertain employment…

  15. Renewable Energy Development In Africa - Challenges, Opportunities, Way Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Babu

    2010-09-15

    The unexploited potential of renewable energy in Sub-Saharan Africa can be traced back to national energy policies, which concentrate on the conventional electricity sector while the support for renewable resources remains on the fringes. This Paper reviews public policies and funding instruments to exploit renewable energy resources for increasing electricity and energy access rate in Africa. Estimates indicate that 8,500 MW renewable energy projects could be developed in short-term. Way forward, conclusions and recommendations are presented in this regard in the paper.

  16. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Wells Quadrangle, Nevada, Idaho, and Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proffitt, J.L.; Mayerson, D.L.; Parker, D.P.; Wolverson, N.; Antrim, D.; Berg, J.; Witzel, F.

    1982-08-01

    The Wells 2 0 Quadrangle, Nevada, Idaho, and Utah, was evaluated using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria to delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits. Our investigation has resulted in the delineation of areas that contain Tertiary sedimentary rocks favorable for hydroallogenic deposits in the Mountain City area (Favorable Area A) and in the Oxley Peak area north of Wells (Favorable Area B). Environments considered to be unfavorable for uranium deposits include Tertiary felsic volcanic, felsic plutonic, intermediate to mafic volcanic, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Precambrian rocks, and most Tertiary sedimentary rocks located outside the favorable areas. Present-day basins are unevaluated environments because of a paucity of adequate outcrop and subsurface data. However, the scarce data indicate that some characteristics favorable for uranium deposits are present in the Susie Creek-Tule Valley-Wild Horse basin, the Contact-Granite Range-Tijuana John stocks area, the Charleston Reservoir area, and the Wells-Marys River basin

  17. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Baker Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, M.L.; Robins, J.W.

    1982-05-01

    The Baker Quadrangle, Oregon, and Idaho, was evaluated to identify areas containing geologic environments favorable for uranium deposits. The criteria used was developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Stream-sediment reconnaissance and detailed surface studies were augmented by subsurface-data interpretion and an aerial radiometric survey. Results indicate that lower Pliocene sedimentary rocks in the Lower Powder River Valley-Virtue Flat basin are favorable characteristics, they remain unevaluated because of lack of subsurface data. Tertiary sandstones, possibly present at depth in the Long and Cascade Valleys, also remain unevaluated due to lack of subsurface data. All remaining environments in the Baker Quadrangle are unfavorable for all classes of uranium deposits

  18. National uranium resource evaluation: Sheridan Quadrangle, Wyoming and Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damp, J.N.; Jennings, M.D.

    1982-04-01

    The Sheridan Quadrangle of north-central Wyoming was evaluated for uranium favorability according to specific criteria of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Procedures consisted of geologic and radiometric surveys; rock, water, and sediment sampling; studying well logs; and reviewing the literature. Five favorable environments were identified. These include portions of Eocene Wasatch and Upper Cretaceous Lance sandstones of the Powder River Basin and Lower Cretaceous Pryor sandstones of the Bighorn Basin. Unfavorable environments include all Precambrian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Permian, Triassic, and Middle Jurassic rocks; the Cretaceous Thermopolis, Mowry, Cody, Meeteetse, and Bearpaw Formations; the Upper Jurassic Sundance and Morrison, the Cretaceous Frontier, Meseverde, Lance, and the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Willwood Formations of the Bighorn Basin; the Wasatch Formation of the Powder River Basin, excluding two favorable areas and all Oligocene and Miocene rocks. Remaining rocks are unevaluated

  19. National uranium resource evaluation, Rapid City Quadrangle, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanna, R.F.; Milton, E.J.

    1982-04-01

    The Rapid City (1 0 x 2 0 ) Quadrangle, South Dakota, was evaluated for environments favorble for uranium deposits to a depth of 1500 m. Criteria used were those of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Field reconnaissance involved the use of hand-held scintillometers to investigate uranium occurrences reported in the literature and anomalies in aerial radiometric surveys, and geochemical samples of stream sediments and well waters. Gamma-ray logs were used to define the favorable environments in the subsurface. Environments favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposits occur in the Inyan Kara Group, the Fox Hills Sandstone, and the Hell Creek Formation. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits include all Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary rocks other than those identified as favorable

  20. National uranium resource evaluation: Clifton Quadrangle, Arizona and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.L.; Foster, M.

    1982-05-01

    The Clifton Quadrangle, Arizona and New Mexico, was evaluated to identify environments and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits. The evaluation used criteria formulated for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Evidence for the evaluation was based on surface studies, hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, and aerial radiometric surveys. The quadrangle encompasses parts of three physiographic provinces: the Colorado Plateau, the transition zone, and the Basin and Range. The one environment determined, during the present study, to be favorable for uranium deposits is the Whitewater Creek member of the Cooney tuff, which is favorable for magmatic-hydrothermal uranium deposits on the west side of the Bursum caldera. No other areas were favorable for uranium deposits in sandstone, limestone, volcanogenic, igneous, or metamorphic environments. The subsurface is unevaluated because of lack of information, as are areas where access is a constraint