WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewable resource utilization

  1. The utilization of renewable resources in German industrial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Rainer; Hirth, Thomas; Liese, Andreas; Nordhoff, Stefan; Puls, Jürgen; Pulz, Otto; Sell, Dieter; Syldatk, Christoph; Ulber, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Renewable resources will be an increasingly important issue for the chemical industry in the future. In the context of white biotechnology, they represent the intersection point of agriculture and the chemical industry. The scarcity and related increase in the price of fossil resources make renewable resources an interesting alternative. If one considers the production of bulk chemicals, it is evident that for this area besides the C sources, sugar and starch, new sources of raw materials must be opened up. One possible solution is to utilize lignocellulose both for materials and energy. This article discusses this interesting prospective for the future, particularly from the point of view of the German industry.

  2. Optimal Control of Renewable Resources Based on the Effective Utilization Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective utilization rate of exploited renewable resources affects the final total revenue and the further exploitation of renewable resources. Considering the effective utilization rate, we propose an optimal control model for the exploitation of the renewable resources in this study. Firstly, we can prove that the novel model is nonsingular compared with the singular basic model. Secondly, we solve the novel model and obtain the optimal solution by Bang-Bang theory. Furthermore, we can determine the optimal total resources and the maximal total revenue. Finally, a numerical example is provided to verify the obtained theoretical results.

  3. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  4. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 4. Western Solar Utilization Network Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Western Solar Utilization Network Region. (WHK)

  5. Stochastic simulation of power systems with integrated renewable and utility-scale storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeilh, Yannick

    The push for a more sustainable electric supply has led various countries to adopt policies advocating the integration of renewable yet variable energy resources, such as wind and solar, into the grid. The challenges of integrating such time-varying, intermittent resources has in turn sparked a growing interest in the implementation of utility-scale energy storage resources ( ESRs), with MWweek storage capability. Indeed, storage devices provide flexibility to facilitate the management of power system operations in the presence of uncertain, highly time-varying and intermittent renewable resources. The ability to exploit the potential synergies between renewable and ESRs hinges on developing appropriate models, methodologies, tools and policy initiatives. We report on the development of a comprehensive simulation methodology that provides the capability to quantify the impacts of integrated renewable and ESRs on the economics, reliability and emission variable effects of power systems operating in a market environment. We model the uncertainty in the demands, the available capacity of conventional generation resources and the time-varying, intermittent renewable resources, with their temporal and spatial correlations, as discrete-time random processes. We deploy models of the ESRs to emulate their scheduling and operations in the transmission-constrained hourly day-ahead markets. To this end, we formulate a scheduling optimization problem (SOP) whose solutions determine the operational schedule of the controllable ESRs in coordination with the demands and the conventional/renewable resources. As such, the SOP serves the dual purpose of emulating the clearing of the transmission-constrained day-ahead markets (DAMs ) and scheduling the energy storage resource operations. We also represent the need for system operators to impose stricter ramping requirements on the conventional generating units so as to maintain the system capability to perform "load following'', i

  6. Production of green biocellulose nanofibers by Gluconacetobacter xylinus through utilizing the renewable resources of agriculture residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdallah, Wahib; Dahman, Yaser

    2013-11-01

    The present study demonstrates the ability to produce green biocellulose nanofibers using the renewable resources of agriculture residues. Locally grown wheat straws (WS) were hydrolyzed under different conditions. Their hydrolysates were utilized to produce the nanofibers in separate hydrolysis fermentation process by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain bacterium. Highest biocellulose production of ~10.6 g/L was achieved with samples that were enzymatically hydrolyzed. Moreover, acidic hydrolyzed WS produced up to 9.7 g/L, with total sugar concentrations in culture media of 43 g/L. Generally, enzymatic hydrolysis of WS resulted in more total sugar concentration than the acidic hydrolysis (i.e., 52.12 g/L), while water hydrolysis produced the least. This can be related to utilizing Xylanase in addition to Cellulase and Beta-glucosidase that helps to hydrolyse WS dry basis of cellulose and hemicelluloses. Sugar mixtures produced under all hydrolysis conditions were mainly composed of glucose and xylose with average percentages of 56 and 28 %, respectively. Acidic hydrolysis at higher acid concentration, as well as soaking WS in the acidic solution for longer time, improved the total sugar concentration in the culture media by 18 %. Conducting thermal treatment at more intense conditions of higher temperature or heating time improved the total sugar produced with acidic hydrolysis. These conditions, however, resulted in further production of furfural, which considerably affected bacterial cells proliferation. This resulted in lowest sugar consumption in the range of 62-64 % that affected final BC production.

  7. Potential Utilization of Renewable Energy Resources for Electicity Generation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajik Begić

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with the current processes of restructuring of Energy power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina, liberalisation of the electricity market, and modernisation of the existing power plants, Bosnia and Herzegovina must turn to the utilisation of renewable resources in reasonable dynamics as well. Respecting this policy, the initial evaluation of the potential of renewable energy resources in Bosnia and Herzegovina is performed. The methodology of evaluation of wind energy utilisation is presented in this paper, as well as some other aspects of utilisation of the renewable energy resources in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Implementation of selected projects should improve sustainability of energy power production in Bosnia and Herzegovina, by reducing the total emission of carbon dioxide originated from energy power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  8. Geologic utility of improved orbital measurement capabilities in reference to non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H.; Marsh, S.

    1982-01-01

    Spectral and spatial characteristics necessary for future orbital remote sensing systems are defined. The conclusions are based on the past decade of experience in exploring for non-renewable resources with reference to data from ground, aircraft, and orbital systems. Two principle areas of investigation are used in the discussion: a structural interpretation in a basin area for hydrocarbon exploration, and a discrimination of altered areas in the Cuprite district in Nevada.

  9. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  10. Renewable energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Twidell, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s

  11. Modeling renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D.; Neil, C.; Taylor, A. [RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Including renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning (IRP) requires that utility planning models properly consider the relevant attributes of the different renewable resources in addition to conventional supply-side and demand-side options. Otherwise, a utility`s resource plan is unlikely to have an appropriate balance of the various resource options. The current trend toward regulatory set-asides for renewable resources is motivated in part by the perception that the capabilities of current utility planning models are inadequate with regard to renewable resources. Adequate modeling capabilities and utility planning practices are a necessary prerequisite to the long-term penetration of renewable resources into the electric utility industry`s resource mix. This report presents a review of utility planning models conducted for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The review examines the capabilities of utility planning models to address key issues in the choice between renewable resources and other options. The purpose of this review is to provide a basis for identifying high priority areas for advancing the state of the art.

  12. Utilization of biodiesel waste as a renewable resource for activated carbon. Application to environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    Stepping into the new globalized and paradigm shifted era, a huge revolution has been undergone by the oil palm industry. From a humble source of the edible oil, today oil palm has demonstrated a wide variety of uses, almost by every part of its plant. With the price of the crude petroleum hitting record height every other day, the feasibility of palm oil and oil palm biomass as renewable substitutes for the production of biodiesel has been proposed. Lately, its development has received various criticisms, mainly hinges on the huge generation of solid residues which are currently no profitable use. In view of the aforementioned reason, this paper presents a state-of-the-art review of oil palm industry, its fundamental background studies, propagation and industrial applications. Moreover, the recent developments on the preparation of activated carbons from oil palm waste, its major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expansion of oil palm waste in the field of adsorption science represents a potentially viable and powerful tool, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental conservation. (author)

  13. Resources of Renewable Energy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surmadhur Pant

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources sector growth in India has been significant, even for electricity generation from renewable sources. Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished. Even for the decentralized systems, the growth for solar home lighting systems has been 300%, solar lanterns 99% and solar photovoltaic water pumps 196%. This is a phenomenal growth in the renewable energy sector mainly for applications that were considered to be supplied only through major electricity utilities. Some large projects have been proposed, and a 35,000 km2 area of the Thar Desert has been set aside for solar power projects, sufficient to generate 700 to 2,100 giga watts. Renewable energy systems are also being looked upon as a major application for electrification of 20,000 remote and unelectrified villages and hamlets by 2007 and all households in such villages and hamlets by 2018.

  14. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  15. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. ...

  16. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. ...

  17. Valorization of Renewable Carbon Resources for Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yunzhu; Yan, Ning

    2015-01-01

    The overuse of fossil fuels has caused an energy crisis and associated environment issues. It is desirable to utilize renewable resources for the production of chemicals. This review mainly introduces our recent work on the transformation of renewable carbon resources including the conversion of cellulose, lignin, and chitin into sustainable chemicals. Various transformation routes have been established to form value-added chemicals, and accordingly a variety of effective catalytic systems have been developed, either based on metal catalysis and/or acid-base catalysis, to enable the desired transformation.

  18. Innovative biofibers from renewable resources

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    This book will be a one-stop-shop for readers seeking information on biofibers that are sustainable and environmentally friendly and those that can replace the non-renewable synthetic polymer based fibers. Emphasis will be on fibers that are derived from agricultural byproducts and coproducts without the need for additional natural resources.

  19. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  20. Regulating renewable resources under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn

    Renewable natural resources (like water, fish and wildlife stocks, forests and grazing lands) are critical for the livelihood of millions of people and understanding how they can be managed efficiently is an important economic problem. I show how regulator uncertainty about different economic......) that a pro-quota result under uncertainty about prices and marginal costs is unlikely, requiring that the resource growth function is highly concave locally around the optimum and, 3) that quotas are always preferred if uncertainly about underlying structural economic parameters dominates. These results...

  1. Regulating renewable resources under uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn

    Renewable natural resources (like water, fish and wildlife stocks, forests and grazing lands) are critical for the livelihood of millions of people and understanding how they can be managed efficiently is an important economic problem. I show how regulator uncertainty about different economic......) that a pro-quota result under uncertainty about prices and marginal costs is unlikely, requiring that the resource growth function is highly concave locally around the optimum and, 3) that quotas are always preferred if uncertainly about underlying structural economic parameters dominates. These results...

  2. Utilization of renewable energy in architectural design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lei; QIN Youguo

    2007-01-01

    Renewable energy does not simply equal to using a photovoltaic (PV) board.In addition to heating,ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) engineering considerations,the design approaches of architects are crucial to the utilization condition and methods of renewable energy.Through profound comprehension of the relationship between renewable energy utilization and design approaches,we can achieve a dual-standard of building environment performance and esthetics.

  3. Human Capital, Wealth, and Renewable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies dynamic interdependence among physical capital, resource and human capital. We integrate the Solow one-sector growth, Uzawa-Lucas two-sector and some neoclassical growth models with renewable resource models. The economic system consists of the households, production sector, resource sector and education sector. We take account of three ways of improving human capital: Arrow’s learning by producing (Arrow, 1962, Uzawa’s learning by education (Uzawa, 1965, and Zhang’s learning by consuming (Zhang, 2007. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among wealth accumulation, human capital accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. We simulate the model to demonstrate existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. We also examine effects of changes in the productivity of the resource sector, the utilization efficiency of human capital, the propensity to receive education, and the propensity to save upon dynamic paths of the system.

  4. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K

    2016-12-14

    Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.

  5. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K.

    2016-12-01

    Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.

  6. Wood fuel technologies and group-oriented Timber Stand Improvement Program: model for waste wood utilization and resource renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: educating and assisting landowners in the most efficient and profitable use of wood resources; developing local timber resources as energy alternatives by representing collective interests to Consumers Power, the woodchip industry, firewood retailers, country residents, and woodlot owners; and providing public information on the economics and methods of wood heat as a supplemental energy source. (MHR)

  7. Potential impacts of electric power production utilizing natural gas, renewables and carbon capture and sequestration on US Freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C; Malczynski, Leonard A; Kobos, Peter H; Klise, Geoffrey T; Shuster, Erik

    2013-08-06

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has important implications relative to future thermoelectric water use. A bounding analysis is performed using past greenhouse gas emission policy proposals and assumes either all effected capacity retires (lower water use bound) or is retrofitted (upper bound). The analysis is performed in the context of recent trends in electric power generation expansion, namely high penetration of natural gas and renewables along with constrained cooling system options. Results indicate thermoelectric freshwater withdrawals nationwide could increase by roughly 1% or decrease by up to 60% relative to 2009 levels, while consumption could increase as much as 21% or decrease as much as 28%. To identify where changes in freshwater use might be problematic at a regional level, electric power production has been mapped onto watersheds with limited water availability (where consumption exceeds 70% of gauged streamflow). Results suggest that between 0.44 and 0.96 Mm(3)/d of new thermoelectric freshwater consumption could occur in watersheds with limited water availability, while power plant retirements in these watersheds could yield 0.90 to 1.0 Mm(3)/d of water savings.

  8. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.

  9. Hydrogen from renewable resources research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, P.K.; McKinley, K.R.

    1990-07-01

    In 1986 the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were contracted by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) to conduct an assessment of hydrogen production technologies and economic feasibilities of the production and use of hydrogen from renewable resources. In the 1989/90 period all monies were directed toward research and development with an emphasis on integration of tasks, focusing on two important issues, production and storage. The current year's efforts consisted of four tasks, one task containing three subtasks: Hydrogen Production by Gasification of Glucose and Wet Biomass in Supercritical Water; Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen; Photoemission and Photoluminescence Studies of Catalyzed Photoelectrode Surfaces for Hydrogen Production; Solar Energy Chemical Conversion by Means of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Methods Using Coated Silicon Electrodes; Assessment of Impedance Spectroscopy Methods for Evaluation of Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interfaces; Solar Energy Conversion with Cyanobacteria; Nonclassical Polyhydride Metal Complexes as Hydrogen Storage Materials. 61 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Hydrogen from renewable resources research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, P.K.; McKinley, K.R.

    1990-07-01

    In 1986 the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were contracted by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) to conduct an assessment of hydrogen production technologies and economic feasibilities of the production and use of hydrogen from renewable resources. In the 1989/90 period all monies were directed toward research and development with an emphasis on integration of tasks, focusing on two important issues, production and storage. The current year's efforts consisted of four tasks, one task containing three subtasks: Hydrogen Production by Gasification of Glucose and Wet Biomass in Supercritical Water; Photoelectrochemical Production of Hydrogen; Photoemission and Photoluminescence Studies of Catalyzed Photoelectrode Surfaces for Hydrogen Production; Solar Energy Chemical Conversion by Means of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Methods Using Coated Silicon Electrodes; Assessment of Impedance Spectroscopy Methods for Evaluation of Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interfaces; Solar Energy Conversion with Cyanobacteria; Nonclassical Polyhydride Metal Complexes as Hydrogen Storage Materials. 61 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Hydrogen generation from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loges, Bjoern

    2009-09-04

    In this thesis, the hydrogen generation by dehydrogenation of 2-propanol and formic acid as model substances for renewable resources have been studied, which is of importance for hydrogen storage. For the base-assisted dehydrogenation of 2-propanol, a ruthenium diamine catalyst system has been investigated. For the selective decomposition of formic acid to hydrogen and carbon dioxide, a system has been established containing ruthenium catalysts and formic acid amine adducts as substrates. The best catalyst activity and productivity have been achieved with in situ generated ruthenium phosphine catalysts, e.g. [RuCl{sub 2}(benzene)]{sub 2} / dppe (TOF = 900 h{sup -1}, TON = 260,000). The gas evolved has been directly used in fuel cells. Furthermore, the influence of irradiation with visible light has been described for the ruthenium phosphine catalysts. (orig.)

  12. Biodegradable polyesters from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Amy; Wright, Zachary C; Frank, Curtis W

    2013-01-01

    Environmental concerns have led to the development of biorenewable polymers with the ambition to utilize them at an industrial scale. Poly(lactic acid) and poly(hydroxyalkanoates) are semicrystalline, biorenewable polymers that have been identified as the most promising alternatives to conventional plastics. However, both are inherently susceptible to brittleness and degradation during thermal processing; we discuss several approaches to overcome these problems to create a balance between durability and biodegradability. For example, copolymers and blends can increase ductility and the thermal-processing window. Furthermore, chain modifications (e.g., branching/crosslinking), processing techniques (fiber drawing/annealing), or additives (plasticizers/nucleating agents) can improve mechanical properties and prevent thermal degradation during processing. Finally, we examine the impacts of morphology on end-of-life degradation to complete the picture for the most common renewable polymers.

  13. FIREX mission requirements document for renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Dixon, T.

    1982-01-01

    The initial experimental program and mission requirements for a satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system FIREX (Free-Flying Imaging Radar Experiment) for renewable resources is described. The spacecraft SAR is a C-band and L-band VV polarized system operating at two angles of incidence which is designated as a research instrument for crop identification, crop canopy condition assessments, soil moisture condition estimation, forestry type and condition assessments, snow water equivalent and snow wetness assessments, wetland and coastal land type identification and mapping, flood extent mapping, and assessment of drainage characteristics of watersheds for water resources applications. Specific mission design issues such as the preferred incidence angles for vegetation canopy measurements and the utility of a dual frequency (L and C-band) or dual polarization system as compared to the baseline system are addressed.

  14. Committee on renewable resources for industrial materials (Corrim)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Meyer; Carol B. Ovens

    1976-01-01

    In recent years major emphasis has been placed on nonrenewable resources in relation to potential national problems that may arise from possible changes in materials supply or utilization. Renewable resources, however, have received disproportionately small attention in spite of their current importance as industrial raw materials and their potential for the future. In...

  15. Universality classes of foraging with resource renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupeau, M.; Bénichou, O.; Redner, S.

    2016-03-01

    We determine the impact of resource renewal on the lifetime of a forager that depletes its environment and starves if it wanders too long without eating. In the framework of a minimal starving random-walk model with resource renewal, there are three universal classes of behavior as a function of the renewal time. For sufficiently rapid renewal, foragers are immortal, while foragers have a finite lifetime otherwise. In the specific case of one dimension, there is a third regime, for sufficiently slow renewal, in which the lifetime of the forager is independent of the renewal time. We outline an enumeration method to determine the mean lifetime of the forager in the mortal regime.

  16. Growth and non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Schou, Poul

    2007-01-01

    , interest income taxes and investment subsidies can no longer affect the long-run growth rate, whereas resource tax instruments are decisive for growth. The results stand out both against observations in the literature from the 1970's on non-renewable resources and taxation-observations which were not based...... on general equilibrium considerations-and against the general view in the newer literature on taxes and endogenous growth which ignores the role of non-renewable resources in the "growth engine"......We contrast effects of taxing non-renewable resources with the effects of traditional capital taxes and investment subsidies in an endogenous growth model. In a simple framework we demonstrate that when non-renewable resources are a necessary input in the sector where growth is ultimately generated...

  17. Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Anthony; Jaffe, Michael; Zhang, Yi; Catalani, Luiz H

    2009-11-17

    Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

  18. Renewable energy resources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Volker; Naumann, Karin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin; Janczik, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

    2015-07-01

    Although the need to decarbonise our global economy and thus in particular the supply of energy to limit the global temperature increase is internationally undisputed the German politics in 2014 has significantly contributed less compared to previous years in order to attain this objective. The expansion of renewable energies in the electricity sector has decelerated significantly; and in the heating and mobility area no new impulses were set in relation to renewable energies. In addition, a dramatic fallen oil price makes it difficult to increase the use of renewable energy supply. Based on these deteriorated framework conditions compared to conditions of the previous years, the developments in Germany of 2014 are shown in the electricity, heat and transport sector in the field of renewable energy. For this purpose - in addition to a discussion of the current energy economic framework - for each option to use renewable energies the state and looming trends are analyzed. [German] Obwohl die Notwendigkeit zur Dekarbonisierung unserer globalen Wirtschaft und damit insbesondere der Energiebereitstellung zur Begrenzung des globalen Temperaturanstiegs international unstrittig ist, hat die deutsche Politik im Jahr 2014 im Vergleich zu den Vorjahren deutlich weniger zur Erreichung dieses Zieles beigetragen. Der Ausbau der Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien im Stromsektor wurde deutlich verlangsamt; und im Waerme- und Mobilitaetsbereich wurden keine neuen Impulse in Bezug auf regenerative Energien gesetzt. Zusaetzlich erschwert ein drastisch gefallener Rohoelpreis die verstaerkte Nutzung des erneuerbaren Energieangebots. Ausgehend von diesen im Vergleich zu den Vorjahren verschlechterten Rahmenbedingungen werden nachfolgend die Entwicklungen in Deutschland des Jahres 2014 im Strom-, Waerme- und Transportsektor fuer den Bereich der erneuerbaren Energien aufgezeigt. Dazu werden - neben einer Diskussion des derzeitigen energiewirtschaftlichen Rahmens - fuer die

  19. Optimal Foraging of Renewable Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Enright, John J

    2011-01-01

    Consider a team of agents in the plane searching for and visiting target points that appear in a bounded environment according to a stochastic renewal process with a known absolutely continuous spatial distribution. Agents must detect targets with limited-range onboard sensors. It is desired to minimize the expected waiting time between the appearance of a target point, and the instant it is visited. When the sensing radius is small, the system time is dominated by time spent searching, and it is shown that the optimal policy requires the agents to search a region at a relative frequency proportional to the square root of its renewal rate. On the other hand, when targets appear frequently, the system time is dominated by time spent servicing known targets, and it is shown that the optimal policy requires the agents to service a region at a relative frequency proportional to the cube root of its renewal rate. Furthermore, the presented algorithms in this case recover the optimal performance achieved by agents ...

  20. Comment: The Economics of Interdependent Renewable and Non-renewable Resources revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Viktoria Kahui; Armstrong, Claire W.

    2009-01-01

    This work expands upon Swallow's theoretical analysis of interactions between renewable and non-renewable resources. In this comment the interaction is such that the renewable resource prefers the non-renewable environment, as opposed to SwallowÕs (op cit) case of the non-renewable environment being essential to the renewable resource. We find that this difference strongly affects the results, and makes the resources change from being complements to being substitutes, i.e. in the essential ca...

  1. Profiles in renewable energy: Case studies of successful utility-sector projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anson, S.; Sinclair, K.; Swezey, B.

    1993-10-01

    As considerations of fuel diversity, environmental concerns, and market uncertainties are increasingly factored into electric utility resource planning, renewable energy technologies are beginning to find their place in the utility resource portfolio. This document profiles 10 renewable energy projects, utilizing six different renewable resources, that were built in the US throughout the 1980s. The resources include: biomass, geothermal, hydropower, photovoltaics, solar thermal, and wind. For each project, the factors that were key to its success and the development issues that it faced are discussed, as are the project`s cost, performance, and environmental impacts and benefits.

  2. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; da Silva, Cristina G.; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; de Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Rachel P. O.

    2016-05-01

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called "biopolyethylene" (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  3. Polymeric materials from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frollini, Elisabete; Rodrigues, Bruno V. M.; Silva, Cristina G. da; Castro, Daniele O.; Ramires, Elaine C.; Oliveira, Fernando de; Santos, Rachel P. O. [Macromolecular Materials and Lignocellulosic Fibers Group, Center for Research on Science and Technology of BioResources, Institute of Chemistry of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, CP 780, 13560-970 São Carlos, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-05-18

    The goals of our studies have been the use of renewable raw materials in the preparation of polymeric materials with diversified properties. In this context, lignosulfonate, which is produced in large scale around the world, but not widely used in the production of polymeric materials, was used to replace phenol and polyols in the preparation of phenolic- (Ligno-PH) and polyurethane-type (Ligno-PU) polymers, respectively. These polymers were used to prepare composites reinforced with sisal lignocellulosic fibers. The use of lignosulfonate in the formulation of both types of polymers was beneficial, because in general composites with improved properties, specially impact strength, were obtained. Composites were also prepared from the so called “biopolyethylene” (HDPE), curaua lignocellulosic fiber, and castor oil (CO). All composites HDBPE/CO/Fiber exhibited higher impact strength, when compared to those of the corresponding HDBPE/Fiber. These results, combined with others (eg SEM images of the fractured surfaces) indicated that, in addition to acting as a plasticizer, this oil may have acted as a compatibilizer of the hydrophilic fiber with the hydrophobic polymer. The set of results indicated that (i) mats with nano (diameter ≤ 100nm) and/or ultrafine (submicron scale) fibers were produced, (ii) hybrid fibers were produced (bio-based mats composites), (iii) cellulosic pulp (CP) and/or lignin (Lig) can be combined with PET matrices to control properties such as stiffness and hydrophilicity of the respective mats. Materials with diversified properties were prepared from high content of renewable raw materials, thus fulfilling the proposed targets.

  4. Non-Renewable Resources Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This document is designed to help teachers and administrators in Alaska develop secondary and postsecondary training in nonrenewable natural resources. Its competencies reflect those needed for entry-level employment in the following industries as identified by international businesses surveyed in Alaska: gas and petroleum, coal, placer, and…

  5. Renewable Energy Resources With Smart Microgrid Model In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikant Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of civilization is increasing energy consumption. Due to which India is facing an energy crisis. It is estimated that global energy demand will double in 2030. India Trhurga other developing countries will face a crisis. Returning to the problem Fall growth of renewable energy resources will increase. Even for electricity generation from renewable sources. Naturally replenished renewable energy such as sunlight wind rain tides and geothermal heat as will have to depend on natural resources. High energy demand and environmental concerns in the papers smart microgrid is forced to change the existing power grid. This paper dynamic demand response and smart microgrid for residential and industrial consumption in the context of renewable energy production including the proposed management approach. The objectives of this research renewable energy resources with a smart microgrid has played an important role. Power system in rural areas in India to meet growing energy demand. The model deployed PLC networks data management system sensors Switchgears Transformers and other utility tools to integrate Smart Grid Smart homes are used together. Analytical results Residential renewable energy generation and smart meters show the effectiveness of the proposed system to optimize control of the electrical grid and is designed to improve energy conservation.

  6. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  7. Energy and other non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Anticipated U.S. demands for non-renewable energy and mineral resources exceed domestic supplies essential for economic growth. For the long term changes necessary in the energy supply and demand gap, new technologies and substitute materials as well as legislation and socio-economic strategies are elaborated.

  8. Energy and other non-renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Anticipated U.S. demands for non-renewable energy and mineral resources exceed domestic supplies essential for economic growth. For the long term changes necessary in the energy supply and demand gap, new technologies and substitute materials as well as legislation and socio-economic strategies are elaborated.

  9. Catalytic Preparation of Pyrrolidones from Renewable Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong

    2005-12-01

    Use of renewable resources for production of valuable chemical commodities is becoming a topic of great national interest and importance. This objective fits well with the USDOE’s objective of promoting the industrial bio-refinery concept in which a wide array of valuable chemical, fuel, food, nutraceuticals and animal feed products all result from the integrated processing of grains, oil seeds and other bio-mass materials. The bio-refinery thus serves to enhance the overall utility and profitability of the agriculture industry as well as helping to reduce the dependence on petroleum. Pyrrolidones fit well with the bio-refinery concept since they may be produced in a scheme beginning with the fermentation of a portion of the bio-refinery’s sugar product into succinate. Pyrrolidones are a class of industrially important chemicals with a variety of uses including as polymer intermediates, cleaners, and “green solvents” which can replace hazardous chlorinated compounds. Battelle has developed an efficient process for the thermo – catalytic conversion of succinate into pyrrolidones, especially n-methylpyrrolidone. The process uses both novel Rh based catalysts and novel aqueous process conditions and results in high selectivities and yields of pyrrolidone compounds. The process also includes novel methodology for enhancing yields by recycling and converting non-useful side products of the catalysis into additional pyrrolidone. The process has been demonstrated in both batch and continuous reactors. Additionally, stability of the unique Rh-based catalyst has been demonstrated.

  10. Renewable resources and renewable energy a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasiero, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    As energy demands continue to surge worldwide, the need for efficient and environmentally neutral energy production becomes increasingly apparent. In its first edition, this book presented a well-rounded perspective on the development of bio-based feedstocks, biodegradable plastics, hydrogen energy, fuel cells, and other aspects related to renewable resources and sustainable energy production. The new second edition builds upon this foundation to explore new trends and technologies. The authors pay particular attention to hydrogen-based and fuel cell-based technologies and provide real-world c

  11. Biotechnological Production of Organic Acids from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Dietz, Donna; van Duuren, Jozef Bernhard Johann Henri; Wittmann, Christoph; Yang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Venus, Joachim

    2017-03-07

    Biotechnological processes are promising alternatives to petrochemical routes for overcoming the challenges of resource depletion in the future in a sustainable way. The strategies of white biotechnology allow the utilization of inexpensive and renewable resources for the production of a broad range of bio-based compounds. Renewable resources, such as agricultural residues or residues from food production, are produced in large amounts have been shown to be promising carbon and/or nitrogen sources. This chapter focuses on the biotechnological production of lactic acid, acrylic acid, succinic acid, muconic acid, and lactobionic acid from renewable residues, these products being used as monomers for bio-based material and/or as food supplements. These five acids have high economic values and the potential to overcome the "valley of death" between laboratory/pilot scale and commercial/industrial scale. This chapter also provides an overview of the production strategies, including microbial strain development, used to convert renewable resources into value-added products.

  12. Catalytic Preparation of Pyrrolidones from Renewable Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Werpy, Todd A.; Wang, Yong

    2005-06-01

    Abstract Use of renewable resources for production of valuable chemical commodities is becoming a topic of great national interest and importance. This objective fits well with the U.S. DOE’s objective of promoting the industrial bio-refinery concept in which a wide array of valuable chemical, fuel, food, nutraceuticals, and animal feed products all result from the integrated processing of grains, oil seeds, and other bio-mass materials. The bio-refinery thus serves to enhance the overall utility and profitability of the agriculture industry as well as helping to reduce the USA’s dependence on petroleum. Pyrrolidones fit well into the bio-refinery concept since they may be produced in a scheme beginning with the fermentation of a portion of the bio-refinery’s sugar product into succinate. Pyrrolidones are a class of industrially important chemicals with a variety of uses including polymer intermediates, cleaners, and “green solvents” which can replace hazardous chlorinated compounds. Battelle has developed an efficient process for the thermo-catalytic conversion of succinate into pyrrolidones, especially n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. The process uses both novel Rh based catalysts and novel aqueous process conditions and results in high selectivities and yields of pyrrolidone compounds. The process also includes novel methodology for enhancing yields by recycling and converting non-useful side products of the catalysis into additional pyrrolidone. The process has been demonstrated in both batch and continuous reactors. Additionally, stability of the unique Rh-based catalyst has been demonstrated.

  13. Plant oil renewable resources as green alternatives in polymer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Michael A R; Metzger, Jürgen O; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2007-11-01

    The utilization of plant oil renewable resources as raw materials for monomers and polymers is discussed and reviewed. In an age of increasing oil prices, global warming and other environmental problems (e.g. waste) the change from fossil feedstock to renewable resources can considerably contribute to a sustainable development in the future. Especially plant derived fats and oils bear a large potential for the substitution of currently used petrochemicals, since monomers, fine chemicals and polymers can be derived from these resources in a straightforward fashion. The synthesis of monomers as well as polymers from plant fats and oils has already found some industrial application and recent developments in this field offer promising new opportunities, as is shown within this contribution. (138 references.)

  14. The supply of non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    There exists no formal treatment of non-renewable resource (NRR) supply, systematically deriving quantity as function of price. We establish instantaneous restricted (fixed reserves) and unrestricted NRR supply functions. The supply of a NRR at any date and location not only depends on the local...... contemporary price of the resource but also on prices at all other dates and locations. Besides the usual law of supply, which characterizes the own-price effect, cross-price effects have their own law. They can be decomposed into a substitution effect and a stock compensation effect. We show...

  15. Implementing Workload Postponing In Cloudsim to Maximize Renewable Energy Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enida Sheme

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Green datacenters has become a major research area among researchers in academy and industry. One of the recent approaches getting higher attention is supplying datacenters with renewable sources of energy, leading to cleaner and more sustainable datacenters. However, this path poses new challenges. The main problem with existing renewable energy technologies is high variability, which means high fluctuation of available energy during different time periods on a day, month or year. In our paper, we address the issue of better managing datacenter workload in order to achieve higher utilization of available renewable energy. We implement an algorithm in CloudSim simulator which decides to postpone or urgently run a specific job asking for datacenter resources, based on job’s deadline and available solar energy. The aim of this algorithm is to make workload energy consumption through 24 hours match as much as possible the solar energy availability in 24 hours. Two typical, clear and cloudy days, are taken in consideration for simulation. The results from our experiments show that, for the chosen workload model, jobs are better managed by postponing or urgently running them, in terms of leveraging available solar energy. This yields up to 17% higher utilization of daily solar energy.

  16. Renewable resource applications of remote sensing in the 1980's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, R. M.; Calabrese, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    A number of renewable resource applications in the areas of agriculture, land, and water are summarized; and some of the current and future research efforts designed to enhance the utility of this tool are explored. Programs to incorporate microwave sensors with higher resolutions into the resource planning and management processes are also considered. Particular consideration is given to experience with LACIE and AgRISTARS; the current hydrologic land use, watershed physiography, and snow covered area applications of Landsat; and land cover mapping with MSS technology. Needed improvements are discussed with regard to goals of fundamental research, data acquisition requirements, and data handling and merging with other data sources.

  17. Exploitation and Utilization of Oilfield Geothermal Resources in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shejiao Wang; Jiahong Yan; Feng Li,; Junwen Hu; Kewen Li

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a clean, green renewable resource, which can be utilized for power generation, heating, cooling, and could effectively replace oil, gas, and coal. In recent years, oil companies have put more efforts into exploiting and utilizing geothermal energy with advanced technologies for heat-tracing oil gathering and transportation, central heating, etc., which has not only reduced resource waste, but also improved large-scale and industrial resource utilization levels, and has ac...

  18. The supply of non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daubanes, Julien Xavier; Lasserre, Pierre

    about policy-induced changes on NRR markets. The properties of restricted and unrestricted supply functions are characterized for Hotelling (homogeneous) as well as Ricardian (non homogeneous) reserves, for a single deposit as well as for several deposits that endogenously come into production or cease......There exists no formal treatment of non-renewable resource (NRR) supply, systematically deriving quantity as function of price. We establish instantaneous restricted (fixed reserves) and unrestricted NRR supply functions. The supply of a NRR at any date and location not only depends on the local...

  19. Tuneable porous carbonaceous materials from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robin J; Budarin, Vitaly; Luque, Rafael; Clark, James H; Macquarrie, Duncan J

    2009-12-01

    Porous carbon materials are ubiquitous with a wide range of technologically important applications, including separation science, heterogeneous catalyst supports, water purification filters, stationary phase materials, as well as the developing future areas of energy generation and storage applications. Hard template routes to ordered mesoporous carbons are well established, but whilst offering different mesoscopic textural phases, the surface of the material is difficult to chemically post-modify and processing is energy, resource and step intensive. The production of carbon materials from biomass (i.e. sugars or polysaccharides) is a relatively new but rapidly expanding research area. In this tutorial review, we compare and contrast recently reported routes to the preparation of porous carbon materials derived from renewable resources, with examples of our previously reported mesoporous polysaccharide-derived "Starbon" carbonaceous material technology.

  20. Communication Systems for Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, F Richard; Xiao, Weidong; Choudhury, Paul

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in renewable energy around the world. Since most renewable sources are intermittent in nature, it is a challenging task to integrate renewable energy resources into the power grid infrastructure. In this grid integration, communication systems are crucial technologies, which enable the accommodation of distributed renewable energy generation and play extremely important role in monitoring, operating, and protecting both renewable energy generators and power systems. In this paper, we review some communication technologies available for grid integration of renewable energy resources. Then, we present the communication systems used in a real renewable energy project, Bear Mountain Wind Farm (BMW) in British Columbia, Canada. In addition, we present the communication systems used in Photovoltaic Power Systems (PPS). Finally, we outline some research challenges and possible solutions about the communication systems for grid integration of renewable energy resources.

  1. Natural Non-Renewable Resources in Economic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Alexandra Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    Non-renewable resources can doubtlessly be regarded as the backbone of our modern society. However, most of economists have ignored the impact of non-renewable resources on the environment by dissociating the economy from the ecological network it is fundamentally linked to. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to highlight a literature overview of the most important opinions regarding non-renewable natural resources.

  2. Mapping and monitoring renewable resources with space SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Brisco, B.; Dobson, M. C.; Moezzi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The SEASAT-A SAR and SIR-A imagery was examined to evaluate the quality and type of information that can be extracted and used to monitor renewable resources on Earth. Two tasks were carried out: (1) a land cover classification study which utilized two sets of imagery acquired by the SEASAT-A SAR, one set by SIR-A, and one LANDSAT set (4 bands); and (2) a change detection to examine differences between pairs of SEASAT-A SAR images and relates them to hydrologic and/or agronomic variations in the scene.

  3. Effective management of combined renewable energy resources in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Khasan S; Akhmedov, Khakim M; Abid, Muhammad; Petrov, Georgiy N

    2013-09-01

    Water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between downstream countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those upstream countries, which use water for generation of electric power. At present Uzbekistan is blocking railway connection that is going to Tajikistan to interfere to transportation of the equipment and materials for construction of Rogun hydropower plant. In order to avoid conflicts between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan a number of measures for the utilization of water resources of the trans-boundary Rivers Amu-Darya and Sir-Darya are discussed. In addition, utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy projects for proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia; export-import exchanges of electric energy in summer and winter time between neighboring countries; development of small hydropower project, modern irrigation system in main water consuming countries and large water reservoir hydropower projects for control of water resources for hydropower and irrigation are also discussed. It is also concluded that an effective management of water resources can be achieved by signing Water treaty between upstream and downstream countries, first of all between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In this paper management of water as renewable energy resource in Tajikistan and Central Asian Republics are presented. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Reconciling resource utilization and resource selection functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Johnson, Devin S.; Alldredge, Mat W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: 1. Analyses based on utilization distributions (UDs) have been ubiquitous in animal space use studies, largely because they are computationally straightforward and relatively easy to employ. Conventional applications of resource utilization functions (RUFs) suggest that estimates of UDs can be used as response variables in a regression involving spatial covariates of interest. 2. It has been claimed that contemporary implementations of RUFs can yield inference about resource selection, although to our knowledge, an explicit connection has not been described. 3. We explore the relationships between RUFs and resource selection functions from a hueristic and simulation perspective. We investigate several sources of potential bias in the estimation of resource selection coefficients using RUFs (e.g. the spatial covariance modelling that is often used in RUF analyses). 4. Our findings illustrate that RUFs can, in fact, serve as approximations to RSFs and are capable of providing inference about resource selection, but only with some modification and under specific circumstances. 5. Using real telemetry data as an example, we provide guidance on which methods for estimating resource selection may be more appropriate and in which situations. In general, if telemetry data are assumed to arise as a point process, then RSF methods may be preferable to RUFs; however, modified RUFs may provide less biased parameter estimates when the data are subject to location error.

  5. Renewable Energy Resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael J.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines renewable energy and outlines possible sources of this energy. Supplies, and ethics are considered. The position of renewable energy sources in the energy policy of Great Britain are discussed. (CW)

  6. Electric car with solar and wind energy may change the environment and economy: A tool for utilizing the renewable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanhua

    2014-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues are among the most important problems of public concern. Wind and solar energy may be one of the alternative solutions to overcome energy shortage and to reduce greenhouse gaseous emission. Using electric cars in cities can significantly improve the air quality there. Through our analyses and modeling on the basis of the National Centers for Environment Prediction data we confirm that the amount of usable solar and wind energy far exceeds the world's total energy demand, considering the feasibility of the technology being used. Storing the surplus solar and wind energy and then releasing this surplus on demand is an important approach to maintaining uninterrupted solar- and wind-generated electricity. This approach requires us to be aware of the available solar and wind energy in advance in order to manage their storage. Solar and wind energy depends on weather conditions and we know weather forecasting. This implies that solar and wind energy is predictable. In this article, we demonstrate how solar and wind energy can be forecasted. We provide a web tool that can be used by all to arrive at solar and wind energy amount at any location in the world. The tool is available at http://www.renewableenergyst.org. The website also provides additional information on renewable energy, which is useful to a wide range of audiences, including students, educators, and the general public.

  7. Challenges in Renewable Natural Resources: A Guide to Alternative Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Robert

    First presented at a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) conference on renewable resources, this material includes information and discussion on critical issues, policies, and future alternatives for natural resources in the United States. (CO)

  8. Energy Policy Case Study - California: Renewables and Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    The purpose of this document is to present a case study of energy policies in California related to power system transformation and renewable and distributed energy resources (DERs). Distributed energy resources represent a broad range of technologies that can significantly impact how much, and when, electricity is demanded from the grid. Key policies and proceedings related to power system transformation and DERs are grouped into the following categories: 1.Policies that support achieving environmental and climate goals 2.Policies that promote deployment of DERs 3.Policies that support reliability and integration of DERs 4.Policies that promote market animation and support customer choice. Major challenges going forward are forecasting and modeling DERs, regulatory and utility business model issues, reliability, valuation and pricing, and data management and sharing.

  9. Space use by foragers consuming renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Guillermo; Kuperman, Marcelo N.; Morales, Juan M.; Miller, Joel C.

    2014-05-01

    We study a simple model of a forager as a walk that modifies a relaxing substrate. Within it simplicity, this provides an insight on a number of relevant and non-intuitive facts. Even without memory of the good places to feed and no explicit cost of moving, we observe the emergence of a finite home range. We characterize the walks and the use of resources in several statistical ways, involving the behavior of the average used fraction of the system, the length of the cycles followed by the walkers, and the frequency of visits to plants. Preliminary results on population effects are explored by means of a system of two non directly interacting animals. Properties of the overlap of home ranges show the existence of a set of parameters that provides the best utilization of the shared resource.

  10. Renewable Resource Integration Project - Scoping Study of Strategic Transmission, Operations, and Reliability Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph; Budhraja, Vikram; Ballance, John; Dyer, Jim; Mobasheri, Fred; Eto, Joseph

    2008-07-01

    California is on a path to increase utilization of renewable resources. California will need to integrate approximately 30,000 megawatts (MW) of new renewable generation in the next 20 years. Renewable resources are typically located in remote locations, not near the load centers. Nearly two/thirds or 20,000 MW of new renewable resources needed are likely to be delivered to Los Angeles Basin transmission gateways. Integration of renewable resources requires interconnection to the power grid, expansion of the transmission system capability between the backbone power grid and transmission gateways, and increase in delivery capacity from transmission gateways to the local load centers. To scope the transmission, operations, and reliability issues for renewables integration, this research focused on the Los Angeles Basin Area transmission gateways where most of new renewables are likely. Necessary actions for successful renewables integration include: (1) Expand Los Angeles Basin Area transmission gateway and nomogram limits by 10,000 to 20,000 MW; (2) Upgrade local transmission network for deliverability to load centers; (3) Secure additional storage, demand management, automatic load control, dynamic pricing, and other resources that meet regulation and ramping needed in real time operations; (4) Enhance local voltage support; and (5) Expand deliverability from Los Angeles to San Diego and Northern California.

  11. Renewable energy resource and technology assessment: Southern Tier Central Region, New York, New York. Renewable Energy Resource Inventory; renewable energy technology handbook; technology assessment workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Resource Inventory contains regional maps that record the location of renewable energy resources such as insolation, wind, biomass, and hydropower in the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State. It contains an outline of a process by which communities can prepare local renewable energy resource inventories using maps and overlays. The process starts with the mapping of the resources at a regional scale and telescopes to an analysis of resources at a site-specific scale. The resource inventory presents a site analysis of Sullivan Street Industrial Park, Elmira, New York.

  12. Harvesting and replenishment policies for renewable natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The current paper links the optimal intertemporal use of renewable natural resources to the harvesting activities of various economic agents. Previous contributions cite market forces as a causative factor inducing the extirpation of renewable natural resources. The analysis given here discusses investment in the stock of renewable resources and cites important examples of this activity. By introducing joint harvesting and replenishment strategies into a model of renewable resource use, the analysis adds descriptive reality and relevance to positive and normative discussions of renewable natural resource use. A high price for the yield or a high discount rate tend to diminish the size of the optimum stationary stock of the resource with a non-replenishment harvesting strategy. Optimal non-replenishment harvesting strategies for renewable natural resources will exhaustion or extirpation of the resource if the price of the yield or the discount rate are sufficiently large. However, the availability of a replenishment technology and the use of replenishment activities tends to buffer the resource against exhaustion or extirpation.

  13. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Sterling, J.; Taylor, M.; McLaren, J.

    2014-01-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. Through interviews and a questionnaire, the authors gathered information on utility supply planning and how solar is represented. Utilities were asked to provide their resource planning process details, key assumptions (e.g. whether DG is represented as supply or negative load), modeling methodology (e.g. type of risk analytics and candidate portfolio development), capacity expansion and production simulation model software, and solar project representation (project size, capacity value and integration cost adder). This presentation aims to begin the exchange of information between utilities, regulators and other stakeholders by capturing utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  14. Coupling renewables via hydrogen into utilities: Temporal and spatial issues, and technology opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannucci, J.J.; Horgan, S.A.; Eyer, J.M. [Distributed Utility Associates, San Ramon, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    This paper discusses the technical potential for hydrogen used as an energy storage medium to couple time-dependent renewable energy into time-dependent electric utility loads. This analysis will provide estimates of regional and national opportunities for hydrogen production, storage and conversion, based on current and near-term leading renewable energy and hydrogen production and storage technologies. Appropriate renewable technologies, wind, photovoltaics and solar thermal, are matched to their most viable regional resources. The renewables are assumed to produce electricity which will be instantaneously used by the local utility to meet its loads; any excess electricity will be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically and stored for later use. Results are derived based on a range of assumptions of renewable power plant capacity and fraction of regional electric load to be met (e.g., the amount of hydrogen storage required to meet the Northwest region`s top 10% of electric load). For each renewable technology national and regional totals will be developed for maximum hydrogen production per year and ranges of hydrogen storage capacity needed in each year (hydroelectric case excluded). The sensitivity of the answers to the fraction of peak load to be served and the land area dedicated for renewable resources are investigated. These analyses can serve as a starting point for projecting the market opportunity for hydrogen storage and distribution technologies. Sensitivities will be performed for hydrogen production, conversion. and storage efficiencies representing current and near-term hydrogen technologies.

  15. Generation scheduling of renewable energy resources under uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad NEMATBAKHSH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, utilization of renewable energy resources (RERs has become an active and interesting area of research in energy management of power systems. In this paper, a new three-stage generation scheduling method is proposed for thermal units and renewable energy resources. In the method, all generation units are bidding in a competitive market along with the external energy tie-line at the point of common coupling. The scheduling problem is solved while considering uncertainties in both generation and demand. At the first stage, Generation Companies (GenCos use forecasted information (such as market price and climate conditions to determine their optimal bidding strategy for maximum revenue. In the next stages, independent system operator (ISO manages available contracts to minimize the operating cost of the power system. The proposed method is applied to a 10-unit network using GAMS software. Simulation results show that the effectiveness of this method is to the benefit of generation companies and ISO in the presence of traditional tie-line.

  16. The 1980 Report to Congress on the Nation's Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Bob; And Others

    This assessment describes the present renewable resources situation and projects future supplies of, and demands for, these resources. It also identifies various means to meet the demands. For selected resources, it also analyzes benefits and costs of meeting the demand. This assessment also shows that demand for forest and rangeland resources…

  17. Playing games against nature: optimal policies for renewable resource allocation

    CERN Document Server

    Ermon, Stefano; Gomes, Carla P; Selman, Bart

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a class of Markov decision processes that arise as a natural model for many renewable resource allocation problems. Upon extending results from the inventory control literature, we prove that they admit a closed form solution and we show how to exploit this structure to speed up its computation. We consider the application of the proposed framework to several problems arising in very different domains, and as part of the ongoing effort in the emerging field of Computational Sustainability we discuss in detail its application to the Northern Pacific Halibut marine fishery. Our approach is applied to a model based on real world data, obtaining a policy with a guaranteed lower bound on the utility function that is structurally very different from the one currently employed.

  18. Energy minimization strategies and renewable energy utilization for desalination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2011-02-01

    Energy is a significant cost in the economics of desalinating waters, but water scarcity is driving the rapid expansion in global installed capacity of desalination facilities. Conventional fossil fuels have been utilized as their main energy source, but recent concerns over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have promoted global development and implementation of energy minimization strategies and cleaner energy supplies. In this paper, a comprehensive review of energy minimization strategies for membrane-based desalination processes and utilization of lower GHG emission renewable energy resources is presented. The review covers the utilization of energy efficient design, high efficiency pumping, energy recovery devices, advanced membrane materials (nanocomposite, nanotube, and biomimetic), innovative technologies (forward osmosis, ion concentration polarization, and capacitive deionization), and renewable energy resources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Utilization of energy efficient design combined with high efficiency pumping and energy recovery devices have proven effective in full-scale applications. Integration of advanced membrane materials and innovative technologies for desalination show promise but lack long-term operational data. Implementation of renewable energy resources depends upon geography-specific abundance, a feasible means of handling renewable energy power intermittency, and solving technological and economic scale-up and permitting issues.

  19. A New-Growth Perspective on Non-Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian

    This article reviews issues related to the incorporation of non-renewable resources in the theory of economic growth and development. As an offshoot of the new growth theory of the last two decades a series of contributions have studied endogenous technical change in relation to resource scarcity....... We discuss the main approaches within this literature and consider questions like: How is the new literature related to the wave of resource economics of the 1970s? What light is thrown on the limits-to-growth issue? Does the existence of non-renewable resources have implications...

  20. 76 FR 34684 - Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Offshore Renewable Energy; Public Meeting on Information Needs for Resource Assessment and Design Conditions AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... meteorological and oceanographic information to support cost-effective deployment of offshore renewable...

  1. Pressure sensitive adhesives from renewable resources

    OpenAIRE

    Maaßen, Wiebke

    2015-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) represent an important segment of the adhesives market. In this work, novel insights into the adhesive performance of bio-based pressure sensitive adhesives are presented. Three different homopolymers based on fatty acids derived from native vegetable oils as renewable feedstock were characterized in terms of their mechanical and adhesive properties.

  2. A CRITICAL INDEX OF FILMS AND FILMSTRIPS IN CONSERVATION DEALING WITH RENEWABLE RESOURCES, NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES, RESOURCES AND PEOPLE, AND ECOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRAIN, RUSSELL E.

    LISTED ARE THE FILMS AND FILMSTRIPS SELECTED FROM OVER 7,000 WHICH HAVE BEEN SCREENED AND EVALUATED BY THE CONSERVATION FOUNDATION'S AUDIOVISUAL CENTER AS THE BEST AVAILABLE IN THE FIELD OF CONSERVATION EDUCATION. PART 1 LISTS FILMS UNDER THE CATEGORIES OF (1) RENEWABLE RESOURCES, (2) NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES, (3) RESOURCES AND PEOPLE, (4) ECOLOGY,…

  3. A CRITICAL INDEX OF FILMS AND FILMSTRIPS IN CONSERVATION DEALING WITH RENEWABLE RESOURCES, NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES, RESOURCES AND PEOPLE, AND ECOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRAIN, RUSSELL E.

    LISTED ARE THE FILMS AND FILMSTRIPS SELECTED FROM OVER 7,000 WHICH HAVE BEEN SCREENED AND EVALUATED BY THE CONSERVATION FOUNDATION'S AUDIOVISUAL CENTER AS THE BEST AVAILABLE IN THE FIELD OF CONSERVATION EDUCATION. PART 1 LISTS FILMS UNDER THE CATEGORIES OF (1) RENEWABLE RESOURCES, (2) NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES, (3) RESOURCES AND PEOPLE, (4) ECOLOGY,…

  4. NDRC Issued the Guideline on "the 12th Five-Year Plan" Resource Comprehensive Utilization%NDRC Issued the Guideline on "the 12th Five-Year Plan" Resource Comprehensive Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of waste tires is affiliated to the environmental protection and renewable resource recycling industry in China. The waste tires are listed into the key field for renewable resource recycling in the Guideline on "the 12th Five-Year Plan" Resource Comprehensive Utilization issued by NDRC on December 10, 2011 again.

  5. Review of dynamic optimization methods in renewable natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, the applications of dynamic optimization procedures in natural resource management have proliferated. A systematic review of these applications is given in terms of a number of optimization methodologies and natural resource systems. The applicability of the methods to renewable natural resource systems are compared in terms of system complexity, system size, and precision of the optimal solutions. Recommendations are made concerning the appropriate methods for certain kinds of biological resource problems.

  6. Control scheme of three-level H-bridge converter for interfacing between renewable energy resources and AC grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a control strategy of multilevel converters for integration of renewable energy resources into power grid. The proposed technique provides compensation for active, reactive, and harmonic current components of grid-connected loads. A three-level H-bridge converter is proposed...... as the interfacing system between renewable energy resources and utility grid. High performance of the proposed technique is indicated with injection of maximum available power from renewable energy resources to the power grid, increases power factor of the utility grid, and reduces the total harmonic distortion...

  7. A New-Growth Perspective on Non-Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian

    This article reviews issues related to the incorporation of non-renewable resources in the theory of economic growth and development. As an offshoot of the new growth theory of the last two decades a series of contributions have studied endogenous technical change in relation to resource scarcity...

  8. Study on Insulating Material by Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yasuyuki; Kurosumi, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Keita

    Under circumstances such as global warming caused by carbon dioxide and other green house gas and crisis of depletion of fossil resources, recyclable resources such as biomass have captured the world's attention as reproducible resources alternative to petroleum. Therefore the technologies such to manufacture chemicals from recyclable resources have been developed for the achievement of measures for controlling global warming and the low carbon society. Recently, the bioplastic such as polylactic resin is applied to the home appliances and the automobile interior part as substitution of general-purpose plastic Moreover, the insulation oil from the vegetable oil has been put to practical use. The application of recyclable resources is extending in an electric field. In this paper, we introduce the characteristic and the problem of the insulating material made from recyclable resources in the field of the solid insulation.

  9. ENERGY FOR ROMANIA FROM RENEWABLE RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    LUCIAN Paul

    2012-01-01

    The European Union admits the fact that energy is essential, for the development of the European economy, but that it also constitutes a challenge, due to the impact on climate change. In Romania, as well as in all the countries of the European Union, which have chosen to promote renewable energy, governments have come up with support frameworks for investors in this field. In Romania’s case, the option for green schemes and compulsory quotas was selected, meaning that each energy producer, w...

  10. Exploitation and Utilization of Oilfield Geothermal Resources in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shejiao Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal energy is a clean, green renewable resource, which can be utilized for power generation, heating, cooling, and could effectively replace oil, gas, and coal. In recent years, oil companies have put more efforts into exploiting and utilizing geothermal energy with advanced technologies for heat-tracing oil gathering and transportation, central heating, etc., which has not only reduced resource waste, but also improved large-scale and industrial resource utilization levels, and has achieved remarkable economic and social benefits. Based on the analysis of oilfield geothermal energy development status, resource potential, and exploitation and utilization modes, the advantages and disadvantages of harnessing oilfield geothermal resource have been discussed. Oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization have advantages in resources, technical personnel, technology, and a large number of abandoned wells that could be reconstructed and utilized. Due to the high heat demand in oilfields, geothermal energy exploitation and utilization can effectively replace oil, gas, coal, and other fossil fuels, and has bright prospects. The key factors limiting oilfield geothermal energy exploitation and utilization are also pointed out in this paper, including immature technologies, lack of overall planning, lack of standards in resource assessment, and economic assessment, lack of incentive policies, etc.

  11. Resourceful Utilization of Tannery Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen; Wang Xikui; Ding Maochen; Zhang Chaoyu

    2012-01-01

    Leather industry is an important light industry in China. Leather making requires a series of chemical treatment. Degreasing, unhairing and chrome tanning wastewaters are the main portions of tannery wastewater. Reclaiming and reusing these wastewaters can eliminate 80% of COD, 75% of BOD, 95% of chromium and 93% of sulfuret, furthermore reduce environment impact, decrease treatment costs, save chemicals and water. Some application methods of wastewater reclamation and reuse for dif- ferent operations were reported. The suitable reclamation and reuse technologies can enable leather making processes more ra- tional, and realize the recovery and recycle of several chemicals in the tannery. Resourceful utilization of tannery wastewater should mate with renovating production technology, updating equipment, and must be guaranteed sufficiently by environmental protection measures.

  12. Quality of renewable energy utilization in transport in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Ari

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy utilization in transportation (RES-T) is a long way behind its utilization in power (RES-E) and heat (RES-H) sectors. International and national environmental policies have recently given a lot of emphasis on this problem. For that reason information is sought on how to implement solutions both politically and technologically. As Sweden is a global leader in this area, it can provide valuable examples. In 2012 Sweden became the first country to reach the binding requirement of the European Union for at least 10 % share for renewable energy in transport energy consumption. But qualitative development has been even stronger than quantitative. Among the success stories behind qualitative progress, most noteworthy are those created by innovative municipal policies. By 2030 Sweden aims to achieve fossil fuel independent road transport system and by 2050 completely carbon neutral transport system in all modes of transport.

  13. Conservation and renewable energy resource directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Directory facilitates quick access to DOE offices responsible for conservation and renewable energy activities. Because several offices in DOE may have responsibility for various phases of a technology or service (i.e., research, development, demonstration, commercialization, information, education, etc.) the Directory lists the key contacts from the various phases by category. The Directory is organized in five main categories plus an index and relevant appendices. The categories are: revewable energy technologies (thermal and electric solar, wind energy systems, small scale hydroelectric, biomass, ocean systems); complementary technologies (appropriate technology, advanced engine design, cogeneration, energy storage, total energy systems); conservation technologies (buildings and community systems, transportation, industrial and agricultural energy conservation, state and local programs); environment; and support services (information, outreach, education, small business support, basic research, data and analysis, publication, films, Solar Energy Research Institute, regional offices laboratories, and information centers).

  14. Tandem synthesis of alternating polyesters from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Carine; de Montigny, Frédéric; Thomas, Christophe M

    2011-12-13

    The vast majority of commodity materials are obtained from petrochemical feedstocks. These resources will plausibly be depleted within the next 100 years, and the peak in global oil production is estimated to occur within the next few decades. In this regard, biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource for the production of polymers. Here we report a new strategy, based on tandem catalysis, to obtain renewable materials. Commercially available complexes are found to be efficient catalysts for alternating polyesters from the cyclization of dicarboxylic acids followed by alternating copolymerization of the resulting anhydrides with epoxides. This operationally simple method is an attractive strategy for the production of new biodegradable polyesters.

  15. Final Technical Report: Renewable Energy Feasibility Study and Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Mariah [BEC Environmental, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-02-28

    In March 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded White Pine County, Nevada, a grant to assess the feasibility of renewable resource-related economic development activities in the area. The grant project included a public outreach and training component and was to include a demonstration project; however, the demonstration project was not completed due to lack of identification of an entity willing to locate a project in White Pine County. White Pine County completed the assessment of renewable resources and a feasibility study on the potential for a renewable energy-focused economic sector within the County. The feasibility study concluded "all resources studied were present and in sufficient quantity and quality to warrant consideration for development" and there were varying degrees of potential economic impact based on the resource type and project size. The feasibility study and its components were to be used as tools to attract potential developers and other business ventures to the local market. White Pine County also marketed the County’s resources to the renewable energy business community in an effort to develop contracts for demonstration projects. The County also worked to develop partnerships with local educational institutions, including the White Pine County School District, conducted outreach and training for the local community.

  16. Growth with Endogenous Capital, Knowledge, and Renewable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with endogenous technological change, physical capital and renewable resources. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory, Arrow’s learning by doing, and some traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence between technological change, physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, the model analyzes some interactions between economic variables which are not found in the existing literature of economic growth. We simulate the model to demonstrate existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the capacity of the renewable resource increases the stock and reduces the price of the resource of the resource over time; the output levels of the two sectors, the total capital stock, and capital inputs of the two sectors are all increased; the labor distribution between the two sectors is slightly affected initially but is not affected in the long term; the rate of interest rises initially rise and is almost not affected in the long term; the per capita consumption levels of the good and the resource and the wage rate are increased.

  17. Optimal control of renewable economic resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelani, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Two main problems are studied: economic optimization, and determination of the optimal age of harvest for an initially immature population which follows a Bertalanffy-type growth law. Conditions are derived on the economic parameters that make maximization of economic rent biologically superior to maximization of sustainable yield. A general equation is derived for the optimal equilibrium biomass size when maximization of present value is the control objective. Also, it is shown that under perfectly elastic demand for the resource, a critical price level exists beyond which economic optimization has to be sacrificed in order to enhance conservation of the resource. An equation is derived whose solution represents the optimal age of harvest for an initially immature population stock. In certain circumstances, analytic forms are obtained for the optimal age of harvest. Some properties of the optimal age of harvest are also investigated.

  18. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

    2013-10-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  19. Distributed Control and Management of Renewable Electric Energy Resources for Future Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin

    2016-01-01

    It is anticipated that both medium- and low-voltage distribution networks will include high level of distributed renewable energy resources, in the future. The high penetration of these resources inevitably can introduce various power quality issues, including; overvoltage and overloading...... strategy is a promising approach to manage and utilise the resources in future distribution networks to effectively deal with grid electric quality issues and requirements. Jointly, utility and customers the owners of the resources in the network are considered as part of a practical coordination strategy...

  20. Recent wind resource characterization activities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D L; Schwartz, M N

    1997-07-01

    The wind resource characterization team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working to improve the characterization of the wind resource in many key regions of the world. Tasks undertaken in the past year include: updates to the comprehensive meteorological and geographic data bases used in resource assessments in the US and abroad; development and validation of an automated wind resource mapping procedure; support in producing wind forecasting tools useful to utilities involved in wind energy generation; continued support for recently established wind measurement and assessment programs in the US.

  1. Estimation of Total Tree Height from Renewable Resources Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Many ecological, biological, and genetic studies use the measurement of total tree height. Until recently, the Southern Forest Experiment Station's inventory procedures through Renewable Resources Evaluation (RRE) have not included total height measurements. This note provides equations to estimate total height based on other RRE measurements.

  2. Wind as a renewable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawsey, R. A.; Ferraro, R. J.

    1988-12-01

    A description of the United States wind energy technology status, a discussion of recent milestones achieved in wind power, and a call for action in order for competitive wind systems to become practical in an international marketplace is presented in this report. An immediate opportunity to initiate a joint venture project with the government, equipment developers, equipment manufacturers, utilities, and the Electric Power Research Institute is described. The key technical areas of materials technology for reduced airfoil fatigue, airfoil design for optimum new-site performance, and power electronics for variable-speed wind turbines are highlighted.

  3. Renewable energy utilization in 3 european cities. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Energy production based on fossil fuels produces CO2, SO2 and NOx, which are harmful to the environment. It is agreed, both nationally and internationally, that it is necessary to considerably reduce the energy consumption. The difference between different European countries politically, financially, culturally, and socially needs to be acknowledged when energy initiatives are considered for implementation on a local as well as an international scale. This was the basis for the initiation of the project `Renewable Energy Utilization in 3 European Cities`. Three very different cities with different problems and thus different interests got together and joined efforts to develop action plans to increase renewable energy use to reduce the burden on the environment from energy consumption in the urban and regional areas. The work has been undertaken by the working group presented in appendix 3. (EG) ALTENER. 25 refs.

  4. Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-07-01

    The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUC's analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in California--one element of California's Climate Change Scoping Plan. The information would be used to support development of an analytic plan to augment the cost analysis of this RPS (which recently was completed). NREL has responded to this request by developing a high-level survey of renewable electricity effects, quantification alternatives, and considerations for selection of analytic methods. This report addresses economic effects and health and environmental effects, and provides an overview of related analytic tools. Economic effects include jobs, earnings, gross state product, and electricity rate and fuel price hedging. Health and environmental effects include air quality and related public-health effects, solid and hazardous wastes, and effects on water resources.

  5. Industrial low temperature utilization of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.

    1976-05-01

    This brief presentation on industrial utilization of low temperature geothermal resources first considers an overview of what has been achieved in using geothermal resources in this way and, second, considers potential, future industrial applications.

  6. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakun V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  7. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, S.; Rafikova, J.; Shakun, V.

    2012-10-01

    During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  8. Relative Abundance of Renewable Resources in Asia and Europe and the Future Demand for Renewable Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsson, Peter [European Renewable Energies Federation (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    In Europe and in many other parts of the world, energy consumption has reached unsustainable levels. As such, efforts must be made both to expand the use of renewable energy and to reduce the total level of energy consumption. If there are any pertinent driving forces for this, they would be the need to reduce harmful emissions; to increase sustainable energy supply, security, poverty, eradication and access to dignity for billions of people - the ending of a vicious circle of exploitation of scarce natural resources for inefficient energy use. Most European nations belong to the relatively small group of wealthy countries enjoying a comparatively high standard of living. They comprise of approximately 20% of the world's population, producing 80% of the world's GNP, while at the same time, consuming 60% of the world's energy, Ironically, more than half of the world's population, or close to 3 billion people, have almost no access to energy services - 1.2 billion live in Asia. There is, however, enough renewable energy flow worldwide to meet all demands. Renewable energies in general now provide some 14% of the world's primary energy and is mostly covered by traditional biomass. In the field of electricity, where renewables account for 20% worldwide, it is mostly hydropower which is used as source. We need a rapid and courageous worldwide change towards an energy-efficient, Renewable Energy Systems powered energy. Asia already offers a set of successful initiatives and examples of how renewables can be promoted. Some countries have set national targets for the future share of renewable energy. Targets are an excellent strategy to demonstrate political willingness and create a stimulating investment climate for the private sector. Financing schemes, adapted to regional situations, in particular microfinance systems, demonstrate how small-scale installations of renewables could become affordable to the population.

  9. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Phadke, Amol; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-02-16

    Building transmission to reach renewable energy (RE) goals requires coordination among renewable developers, utilities and transmission owners, resource and transmission planners, state and federal regulators, and environmental organizations. The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this report we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33% of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Of the renewable resources in WREZ resource hubs, and under the assumptions described in this report, our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33% RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65%). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41%). Solar exceeds wind by a small margin only when solar thermal energy is assumed to experience cost reductions relative to all other technologies. Biomass, geothermal, and hydropower are found to represent a smaller portion of the selected resources, largely due to the limited resource quantity of these resources identified within the WREZ-identified hubs (16-23% combined). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Uncertainties and policies that impact bus-bar costs are the most important to evaluate carefully, but

  10. A Novel Method of Utilizing Hybrid Generator as Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Fathima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy production and consumption in the future may depend on renewable energy sources and also depends on the efficiency of utilizing it. Here, a hybrid system, a combination of solar cells and thermoelectric generators is controlled by open circuit voltage method which is normally used for linear electrical characteristics. The proposed system is supported by theoretical analysis and simulation. Lead acid battery is used to accumulate the harvested energy. Cuk converters are used here to improve the efficiency and helps in reduction of noises. Hybrid generators are found to be efficient and more stable.

  11. Renewable energy utilization and CO2 mitigation in the power sector: A case study in selected GMS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Pagnarith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative resource to substitute fossil fuels. Currently, the share of renewable energy inpower generation is very low. The selected Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS, namely, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand andVietnam is a region having abundant of renewable energy resources. Though these countries have a high potential of renewableenergy utilization, they are still highly dependent on the imported fossil fuels for electricity generation. The less contributionof renewable energy in the power sector in the region is due to the high cost of technologies. Renewable energytechnology cannot compete with the conventional power plant. However, in order to promote renewable energy utilizationand reduce dependency on imported fossil fuel as well as to mitigate CO2 emissions from the power sector, this study introducesfour renewable energy technologies, namely, biomass, wind, solar PV, and geothermal power, for substitution of conventionaltechnologies. To make the renewable energy competitive to the fossil fuels, incentives in terms of carbon credit of20$/ton-ne CO2 are taken into account. Results are analyzed by using the Long-Range Energy Alternative Planning System(LEAP modeling. Results of analyses reveal that in the renewable energy (RE scenario the biomass power, wind, solarphotovoltaics, and geothermal would contribute in electricity supply for 5.47 GW in the region, accounted for 3.5% in 2030.The RE scenario with carbon credits could mitigate CO2 emissions at about 36.0 million tonne at lower system cost whencompared to the business-as-usual scenario.

  12. 78 FR 4867 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program... Information Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-4M-P ... comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the collection of...

  13. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  14. Forest biological diversity interactions with resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.T. Mok

    1992-01-01

    The most important forest resources of the Asia-Pacific region are the highly diverse rain forests. Utilization of the resource is a natural and inevitable consequence of the region's socio-economic development. The sustainable management and development of forest resources in the region can be achieved by implementing conservational forestry, which is based on...

  15. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  16. Lignin as a renewable aromatic resource for the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselink, R.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Valorization of lignin plays a key role in the further development of lignocellulosic biorefinery processes for biofuels and biobased materials production. Today’s increased demand for alternatives to fossil carbon-based products expands the interest and the need to create added value to the unconverted lignin fraction. The aim of the research was to study the potential of lignin to become a renewable aromatic resource for the chemical industry. Lignin can be considered as an abundantly...

  17. Proceedings: Second Annual Pacific Northwest Alternative and Renewable Energy Resources Conference.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference are published in this volume. The purpose of the conference was to solicit regional cooperation in the promoting of near-term development of such alternative and renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest as: cogeneration; biomass; wind; small hydro; solar end-use applications; and geothermal direct heat utilization. Separate abstracts of selected papers were prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. Forest resources of the United States, 2002: mapping the renewable resource planning act data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra M. Kurtz; Daniel J. Kaisershot; Dale D. Gormanson; Jeffery S. Wazenegger

    2009-01-01

    Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA), a national program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture conducts and maintains comprehensive inventories of the forest resources in the United States. The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974 mandates a comprehensive assessment of past trends, current status, and the future potential...

  19. The research and training of human resources to produce renewable resources of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Rangel Delgado

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The prospective technique approach used as a context, this paper emphasizes the importance of a long term vision on the human resources development for renewable energies production. In the same sense it outlines the connection between the professions associated with the generation of renewable energy and the labor market. Results are presented on the research intellectual capacity of Mexico, highlighting, the public universities, specialized research centers, researchers, and the associated academic programs to renewable energies. Finally, it is presented the conclusions, and suggestions oriented to increase strategically, the renewable energies research for the technology development. Also it might incorporate our country towards the international market for renewable technologies, in the long term.

  20. Dentin biomodification: strategies, renewable resources and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedran-Russo, Ana K; Pauli, Guido F; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James; Castellan, Carina S; Phansalkar, Rasika S; Aguiar, Thaiane R; Vidal, Cristina M P; Napotilano, José G; Nam, Joo-Won; Leme, Ariene A

    2014-01-01

    The biomodification of dentin is a biomimetic approach, mediated by bioactive agents, to enhance and reinforce the dentin by locally altering the biochemistry and biomechanical properties. This review provides an overview of key dentin matrix components, targeting effects of biomodification strategies, the chemistry of renewable natural sources, and current research on their potential clinical applications. The PubMed database and collected literature were used as a resource for peer-reviewed articles to highlight the topics of dentin hierarchical structure, biomodification agents, and laboratorial investigations of their clinical applications. In addition, new data is presented on laboratorial methods for the standardization of proanthocyanidin-rich preparations as a renewable source of plant-derived biomodification agents. Biomodification agents can be categorized as physical methods and chemical agents. Synthetic and naturally occurring chemical strategies present distinctive mechanism of interaction with the tissue. Initially thought to be driven only by inter- or intra-molecular collagen induced non-enzymatic cross-linking, multiple interactions with other dentin components are fundamental for the long-term biomechanics and biostability of the tissue. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins show promising bioactivity, and their chemical complexity requires systematic evaluation of the active compounds to produce a fully standardized intervention material from renewable resource, prior to their detailed clinical evaluation. Understanding the hierarchical structure of dentin and the targeting effect of the bioactive compounds will establish their use in both dentin-biomaterials interface and caries management. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable resources: dirty vs clean energy sources and the relative efficiency of generators

    OpenAIRE

    Elettra Agliardi; Luigi Sereno

    2012-01-01

    We develop a model on the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable energy sources with endogenous extraction choices under emission taxes, subsidies on renewable resources and abatement costs. We assume that non-renewable resources are "dirty" inputs and create environmental degradation, while renewable resources are more environmentally friendly, although they may be more or less productive than the exhaustible resources. The value of the switching option from non-renewabl...

  2. Potential for natural evaporation as a reliable renewable energy resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, Ahmet-Hamdi; Chen, Xi; Gentine, Pierre; Sahin, Ozgur

    2017-09-26

    About 50% of the solar energy absorbed at the Earth's surface drives evaporation, fueling the water cycle that affects various renewable energy resources, such as wind and hydropower. Recent advances demonstrate our nascent ability to convert evaporation energy into work, yet there is little understanding about the potential of this resource. Here we study the energy available from natural evaporation to predict the potential of this ubiquitous resource. We find that natural evaporation from open water surfaces could provide power densities comparable to current wind and solar technologies while cutting evaporative water losses by nearly half. We estimate up to 325 GW of power is potentially available in the United States. Strikingly, water's large heat capacity is sufficient to control power output by storing excess energy when demand is low, thus reducing intermittency and improving reliability. Our findings motivate the improvement of materials and devices that convert energy from evaporation.The evaporation of water represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Building on previous models of evaporation, Cavusoglu et al. show that the power available from this natural resource is comparable to wind and solar power, yet it does not suffer as much from varying weather conditions.

  3. Using Probability of Exceedance to Compare the Resource Risk of Renewable and Gas-Fired Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Of the myriad risks surrounding long-term investments in power plants, resource risk is one of the most difficult to mitigate, and is also perhaps the risk that most-clearly distinguishes renewable generation from natural gas-fired generation. For renewable generators like wind and solar projects, resource risk manifests as a quantity risk—i.e., the risk that the quantity of wind and insolation will be less than expected.i For gas-fired generators (i.e., a combined-cycle gas turbine or “CCGT”), resource risk manifests primarily as a price risk—i.e., the risk that natural gas will cost more than expected. Most often, resource risk—and natural gas price risk in particular—falls disproportionately on utility ratepayers, who are typically not well-equipped to manage this risk. As such, it is incumbent upon utilities, regulators, and policymakers to ensure that resource risk is taken into consideration when making or approving resource decisions, or enacting policies that influence the development of the electricity sector more broadly.

  4. Lunar resources: possibilities for utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vladislav

    Introduction: With the current advanced orbiters sent to the Moon by the United States, Europe, Japan, China, and India, we are opening a new era of lunar studies. The International Academy of Aeronautics (IAA) has begun a study on opportunities and challenges of developing and using space mineral resources (SRM). This study will be the first international interdisciplinary assessment of the technology, economics and legal aspects of using space mineral resources for the benefit of humanity. The IAA has approved a broad outline of areas that the study will cover including type, location and extent of space mineral resources on the Moon, asteroids and others. It will be studied current technical state of the art in the identification, recovery and use of SRM in space and on the Earth that identifies all required technical processes and systems, and that makes recommendations for specific technology developments that should be addressed near term at the system and subsystem level to make possible prospecting, mineral extraction, beneficiation, transport, delivery and use of SMR. Particular attention will be dedicated to study the transportation and retrieval options available for SRM. Lunar polar volatile: ROSCOSMOS places a high priority on studying lunar polar volatiles, and has outlined a few goals related to the study of such volatiles. Over the course of several years, NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter scanned the Moon’s South Pole using its Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND - IKI Russia) to measure how much hydrogen is trapped within the lunar soil. Areas exhibiting suppressed neutron activity indicate where hydrogen atoms are concentrated most, strongly suggesting the presence of water molecules. Current survey of the Moon’s polar regions integrated geospatial data for topography, temperature, and hydrogen abundances from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, and Lunar Prospector to identify several landing sites near both the North and

  5. Industrial Performance of the Renewable Resources Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Promoting the development of renewable resources industry is an effective way to solve the problems of resources shortage and environmental pollution in China. In this paper, studies have found that “market structure” and “ownership structure”, namely “double structure”, is an important explanatory variable that affects industrial performance according to the “structure-conduct-performance” paradigm. Literature reviews have shown that large state-owned enterprises are playing an important role in improving the industrial performance because of the advantage in technology and capital. However, this paper analyzed the performance of China’s renewable resource industry from two aspects—the overall industrial development and the listed companies, from which two conclusions have drawn: (1 Above a designated size, private enterprises have the greatest contribution, while the contribution of state-owned and foreign-funded enterprises is different; (2 The main reason for the high positive growth rate of total factor productivity between 2009 and 2013 is the rapid growth of technological progress such as the improvement of production processes and manufacturing skills, rather than the promotion of management, system, or polices.

  6. 75 FR 48742 - Renewal of the Regional Resource Stewardship Council Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Renewal of the Regional Resource Stewardship Council Charter AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Notice of Charter Renewal. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) (5 U.S.C. Appendix), the TVA Board of Directors has renewed the Regional Resource Stewardship...

  7. Renewable Fuel Utilization in a Cogeneration Arrangement with Hydrate Storage Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Soe; Yamada, Takanobu; Nakanishi, Kimio

    According to the third conference of parties (COP3), Japan has set a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 6% by the year 2010. Many believe that the bulk utilization of fossil fuel influences to the damaging environmental effect. The objective of this paper is to propose an effective method for this goad which is possible to clarify a noticeable utilization of renewable fuel in a micro gas turbine cogeneration system in cold region. Moreover, analysis of renewable fuel, biogas production indicates that production amount becomes largest in hot season, while the total heat energy demand is lowest on during three years. Biogas storage is also adapted for the delay between peak energy supply and demand. Biogas hydrate formation is examined by resource from laboratory experiments and simulation of integration into an existing cogeneration arrangement. The proposed system can be successfully supported the use and reuse of renewable fuel for providing to substantial emission and clean development mechanism for reducing greenhouse gas emission.

  8. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of biosurfactants using substrates from renewable-resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Surface-active compounds commonly used in industries are chemically synthesized. However, biosurfactants have been paid increasing attention to replace the synthetic surfactants owing to their advantages such as biodegradability and low toxicity. Nowadays, the use of biosurfactant has been limited due to the high production cost. Nevertheless, biosurfactants can be produced with high yield by some microorganisms, especially Pseudomonas sp. These microorganisms can use the various renewal resources, especially agroindustrial wastes, as the potential carbon sources. This leads to the greater possibility for economical biosurfactant production and reduced pollution caused by those wastes.

  10. Quantitative variability of renewable energy resources in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Konstantinos; Varlas, George; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Aalstad, Kristoffer; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Katsafados, Petros; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Based on European Union (EU) targets for 2030, the share of renewable energy (RE) consumption should be increased at 27%. RE resources such as hydropower, wind, wave power and solar power are strongly depending on the chaotic behavior of the weather conditions and climate. Due to this dependency, the prediction of the spatiotemporal variability of the RE resources is more crucial factor than in other energy resources (i.e. carbon based energy). The fluctuation of the RE resources can affect the development of the RE technologies, the energy grid, supply and prices. This study investigates the variability of the potential RE resources in Norway. More specifically, hydropower, wind, wave, and solar power are quantitatively analyzed and correlated with respect to various spatial and temporal scales. In order to analyze the diversities and their interrelationships, reanalysis and observational data of wind, precipitation, wave, and solar radiation are used for a quantitative assessment. The results indicate a high variability of marine RE resources in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea.

  11. Strategies for sustainable management of renewable resources during environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindkvist, Emilie; Ekeberg, Örjan; Norberg, Jon

    2017-03-15

    As a consequence of global environmental change, management strategies that can deal with unexpected change in resource dynamics are becoming increasingly important. In this paper we undertake a novel approach to studying resource growth problems using a computational form of adaptive management to find optimal strategies for prevalent natural resource management dilemmas. We scrutinize adaptive management, or learning-by-doing, to better understand how to simultaneously manage and learn about a system when its dynamics are unknown. We study important trade-offs in decision-making with respect to choosing optimal actions (harvest efforts) for sustainable management during change. This is operationalized through an artificially intelligent model where we analyze how different trends and fluctuations in growth rates of a renewable resource affect the performance of different management strategies. Our results show that the optimal strategy for managing resources with declining growth is capable of managing resources with fluctuating or increasing growth at a negligible cost, creating in a management strategy that is both efficient and robust towards future unknown changes. To obtain this strategy, adaptive management should strive for: high learning rates to new knowledge, high valuation of future outcomes and modest exploration around what is perceived as the optimal action. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Utilizing Distributed Resources in Smart Grids - A Coordination Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The Danish electricity grid is expected to face numerous challenges in the future. These are the combined effect of several factors, such as an increased use of renewable resources for power production; an increased use of electricity for previously fossil-fueled consumption; and an increase...... as well as its limitations. Enforcing coordination through temporal shifts of consumption and production requires the problems we consider to be solved across some predefined time-horizon. Utilizing flexibility of consumers through coordination, is known as demand management, and considers how consumers...

  13. Utilizing GIS to Examine the Relationship Between State Renewable Portfolio Standards and the Adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Schelly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, there is no comprehensive energy policy at the federal level. To address issues as diverse as climate change, energy security, and economic development, individual states have increasingly implemented Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs, which mandate that utility providers include a specified amount of electricity from renewable energy sources in their total energy portfolios. Some states have included incentives for individual energy technologies in their RPS, such as solar electric (also called photovoltaic or PV technology. Here, we use GIS to visualize adoption of RPSs and electricity generation from renewable energy sources in the US and examine changes in renewable electricity and solar electric generation over time with the goal of informing future policies aimed at promoting the adoption of renewable energy technologies.

  14. The Preston Geothermal Resources; Renewed Interest in a Known Geothermal Resource Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas R. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Worthing, Wade [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cannon, Cody [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Carl [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis L [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Mattson, Earl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Dobson, Patric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Conrad, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

    2015-01-01

    The Preston Geothermal prospect is located in northern Cache Valley approximately 8 kilometers north of the city of Preston, in southeast Idaho. The Cache Valley is a structural graben of the northern portion of the Basin and Range Province, just south of the border with the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). This is a known geothermal resource area (KGRA) that was evaluated in the 1970's by the State of Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR) and by exploratory wells drilled by Sunedco Energy Development. The resource is poorly defined but current interpretations suggest that it is associated with the Cache Valley structural graben. Thermal waters moving upward along steeply dipping northwest trending basin and range faults emanate in numerous hot springs in the area. Springs reach temperatures as hot as 84° C. Traditional geothermometry models estimated reservoir temperatures of approximately 125° C in the 1970’s study. In January of 2014, interest was renewed in the areas when a water well drilled to 79 m (260 ft) yielded a bottom hole temperature of 104° C (217° F). The well was sampled in June of 2014 to investigate the chemical composition of the water for modeling geothermometry reservoir temperature. Traditional magnesium corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometry estimates this new well to be tapping water from a thermal reservoir of 227° C (440° F). Even without the application of improved predictive methods, the results indicate much higher temperatures present at much shallower depths than previously thought. This new data provides strong support for further investigation and sampling of wells and springs in the Northern Cache Valley, proposed for the summer of 2015. The results of the water will be analyzed utilizing a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry (MEG) tool called Reservoir Temperature Estimate (RTEst) to obtain an improved estimate of the reservoir temperature. The new data suggest that other KGRAs and overlooked areas may need

  15. Non-renewable but inexhaustible: Resources in an endogenous growth model

    OpenAIRE

    Stürmer, Martin; Schwerhoff, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an endogenous growth model with an essential non-renewable resource, where economic growth enables firms to invest in innovation in the extraction technology and to allocate more capital to resource extraction. Innovation in the extraction technology offsets the deterioration of ore qualities and keeps the production costs of the non-renewable resource constant. Aggregate output as well as production and use of the non-renewable resource increase exponentially. Our model e...

  16. Biosurfactant Production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavasi, R; Subramanyam Nambaru, V R M; Jayalakshmi, S; Balasubramanian, T; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2011-01-01

    This study deals with production and characterization of biosurfactant from renewable resources by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biosurfactant production was carried out in 3L fermentor using waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake. Maximum biomass (11.6 mg/ml) and biosurfactant production (8.6 mg/ml) occurred with peanut oil cake at 120 and 132 h respectively. Characterization of the biosurfactant revealed that, it is a lipopeptide with chemical composition of protein (50.2%) and lipid (49.8%). The biosurfactant (1 mg/ml) was able to emulsify waste motor lubricant oil, crude oil, peanut oil, kerosene, diesel, xylene, naphthalene and anthracene, comparatively the emulsification activity was higher than the activity found with Triton X-100 (1 mg/ml). Results obtained in the present study showed the possibility of biosurfactant production using renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resources. Emulsification activity found with the biosurfactant against different hydrocarbons showed its possible application in bioremediation of environments polluted with various hydrocarbons.

  17. Microbial production of biopolymers from the renewable resource wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, E; Ballmann, P; Dröge, S; Bohn, J; König, H

    2014-10-01

    Production of poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and the chemical basic compound lactate from the agricultural crop 'wheat straw' as a renewable carbon resource. A thermal pressure hydrolysis procedure for the breakdown of wheat straw was applied. By this means, the wheat straw was converted into a partially solubilized hemicellulosic fraction, consisting of sugar monomers, and an insoluble cellulosic fraction, containing cellulose, lignin and a small portion of hemicellulose. The insoluble cellulosic fraction was further hydrolysed by commercial enzymes in monomers. The production of PHB from the sugar monomers originating from hemicellulose or cellulose was achieved by the isolates Bacillus licheniformis IMW KHC 3 and Bacillus megaterium IMW KNaC 2. The basic chemical compound, lactate, a starting compound for the production of polylactide (PLA), was formed by some heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) able to grow with xylose from the hemicellulosic wheat straw hydrolysate. Two strains were selected which were able to produce PHB from the sugars both from the hemicellulosic and the cellulosic fraction of the wheat straw. In addition, some of the LAB tested were capable of producing lactate from the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The renewable resource wheat straw could serve as a substrate for microbiologically produced basic chemicals and biodegradable plastics. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Renewable resources: Sustainable development indicators : Phase 1: Background document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-26

    This report is part of a series of reports prepared for the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Environment and Sustainable Development Indicators (ESDI) Initiative. It is used to evaluate and develop sustainable development indicators (SDIs), with the emphasis on renewable natural resources. A comparative analysis was not performed, but rather key information was made available for each indicator or indicator set. The development of a recommended set of SDIs will be prepared with this document used as a tool. Two conceptually similar resources, but distinct, were addressed in the report: marine fisheries and forests. The feasibility of developing a national indicator of marine ecosystem health (biodiversity and other ecosystem factors) and the feasibility of determining stock estimates and indicators of commercially exploited marine species represented the mandate for the marine fisheries portion. As for the section dealing with forests, the report discussed the development of a stock estimate and indicators of commercially exploitable forest resources, examined the feasibility of determining an indicator of the quality of timber stocks, and the development of a national indicator that would best represent the health of all forest ecosystems (diversity and environmental services provided by the forests). Canadian SDIs and related databases were investigated, and where appropriate, the SDIs developed by foreign jurisdictions were included. The two categories were dealt with separately, and the overall health of the supporting ecosystems and the supply of resources were discussed. refs.

  19. 1976 Inter-university symposium on renewable resource assessment and programming: executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billy G. Pemberton

    1977-01-01

    The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 directs the Secretary of Agriculture to prepare an assessment of the nation's renewable resources and a program that will assure an adequate future supply of these resources. Responsibility for this work is assigned to the Forest Service. An inter-university symposium was held in 1976 to evaluate...

  20. Sustainable use of renewable resources in a stylized social-ecological network model under heterogeneous resource distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfuss, Wolfram; Donges, Jonathan F.; Wiedermann, Marc; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Human societies depend on the resources ecosystems provide. Particularly since the last century, human activities have transformed the relationship between nature and society at a global scale. We study this coevolutionary relationship by utilizing a stylized model of private resource use and social learning on an adaptive network. The latter process is based on two social key dynamics beyond economic paradigms: boundedly rational imitation of resource use strategies and homophily in the formation of social network ties. The private and logistically growing resources are harvested with either a sustainable (small) or non-sustainable (large) effort. We show that these social processes can have a profound influence on the environmental state, such as determining whether the private renewable resources collapse from overuse or not. Additionally, we demonstrate that heterogeneously distributed regional resource capacities shift the critical social parameters where this resource extraction system collapses. We make these points to argue that, in more advanced coevolutionary models of the planetary social-ecological system, such socio-cultural phenomena as well as regional resource heterogeneities should receive attention in addition to the processes represented in established Earth system and integrated assessment models.

  1. SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jette, M; Grondona, M

    2002-12-19

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling and stream copy modules. This paper presents an overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

  2. Deriving minimal models for resource utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Brinke, Steven; Bockisch, Christoph; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Malakuti Khah Olun Abadi, Somayeh; Aksit, Mehmet; Katz, Shmuel

    2013-01-01

    We show how compact Resource Utilization Models (RUMs) can be extracted from concrete overly-detailed models of systems or sub-systems in order to model energy-aware software. Using the Counterexample-Guided Abstraction Refinement (CEGAR) approach, along with model-checking tools, abstract models

  3. Resource Utilization and Productivity in IGE Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmiller, Richard A.; And Others

    Cost, resource utilization, and productivity were studied in 41 elementary schools using Individually Guided Education (IGE) and in 15 matched pairs of IGE and non-IGE schools. Instructional expenditures in IGE and non-IGE schools did not differ significantly. However, IGE teachers devoted significantly more time to individual instruction. A…

  4. SLURM: Simplex Linux Utility for Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jette, M; Grondona, M

    2003-04-22

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling, and stream copy modules. This paper presents an overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

  5. OPTIMAL DYNAMICAL BALANCE HARVESTING FOR A CLASS OF RENEWABLE RESOURCES SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何泽荣; 王绵森; 王峰

    2004-01-01

    An optimal utilization problem for a class of renewable resources system is investigated. Firstly, a control problem was proposed by introducing a new utility function which depends on the harvesting effort and the stock of resources.Secondly, the existence of optimal solution for the problem was discussed. Then, using a maximum principle for infinite horizon problem, a nonlinear four-dimensional differential equations system was attained. After a detailed analysis of the unique positive equilibrium solution, the existence of limit cycles for the system is demonstrated. Next a reduced system on the central manifold is carefully derived, which assures the stability of limit cycles. Finally significance of the results in bioeconomics is explained.

  6. Biotechnological production of enantiomeric pure lactic acid from renewable resources: recent achievements, perspectives, and limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kenji; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2010-01-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is an important and versatile chemical that can be produced from renewable resources such as biomass. LA is used in the food, pharmaceutical, and polymers industries and is produced by microorganism fermentation; however, most microorganisms cannot directly utilize biomass such as starchy materials and cellulose. Here, we summarize LA production using several kinds of genetically modified microorganisms, such as LA bacteria, Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and yeast. Using gene manipulation and metabolic engineering, the yield and optical purity of LA produced from biomass has been significantly improved. In this review, the drawbacks as well as improvements of LA production by fermentation is discussed.

  7. Relative Efficiency Evaluation on Water Resource Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ying

    2011-01-01

    Water resource allocation was defined as an input-output question in this paper, and a preliminary input-output index system was set up. Then GEM (group eigenvalue method)-MAUE (multi-attribute utility theory) model was applied to evaluate relative efficiency of water resource allocation plans. This model determined weights of indicators by GEM, and assessed the allocation schemes by MAUE. Compared with DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) or ANN (Artificial Neural Networks), the mode was more applicable in some cases where decision-makers had preference for certain indicators

  8. Review of different renewable fuels for potential utilization in SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradis, H.; Andersson, M.; Yuan, J.; Sunden, B. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Sciences

    2010-07-01

    A literature review was carried out to enhance knowledge about alternative fuels for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). This paper outlined the materials and structure of SOFCs along with the possibilities involving SOFCs fed with different renewable fuels. The alternative fuels discussed in this study were methanol, ethanol, di-methyl-ether (DME), ammonia, biogas and and natural gas (methane). Finally, the different hydrogen-based fuels were compared and analyzed. Due to their high operating temperature and suitable catalyst material, SOFCs provide a good enough environment for renewable fuels. The development of new catalyst materials could help promote the use of alternative fuels in SOFCs, so they can better tolerate impurities and effectively reform the hydrocarbon fuels. The high cost for both SOFCs and the alternative fuels remains a concern for market implementation. It was concluded that although renewable fuels in SOFCs are promising and have shown good tendency as an energy provider, further research is still needed. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jette, M; Dunlap, C; Garlick, J; Grondona, M

    2002-07-08

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, scheduling and stream copy modules. The design also includes a scalable, general-purpose communication infrastructure. This paper presents a overview of the SLURM architecture and functionality.

  10. Renewable Natural Resources/Agriculture Curriculum. Secondary and Postsecondary Articulated Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum is designed to be a handbook for courses in renewable natural resources/agriculture in Alaska. It details the competencies, developed through a survey of renewable natural resources/agriculture employers in Alaska, that such occupations require. The handbook is organized in six sections. Section I introduces the…

  11. Awareness and Misconceptions of High School Students about Renewable Energy Resources and Applications: Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is the one of the countries in the world which has potential of renewable energy resource because of its geographical position. However, being usage of renewable energy resources and applications (RERAs) is low, it shows that awareness and consciousness of RERAs is very low too. Education must play a key role in growing out of an energy…

  12. 78 FR 23290 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program... Burden: $0. Dated: April 12, 2013. John Ashley, Acting Assistant Director for Information Resources... comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the collection of...

  13. 77 FR 58181 - Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...-415- 4737, or by email to pdr.resource@nrc.gov . The ADAMS accession number for each document... is referenced. The Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project license renewal request is...

  14. Financial Impact of Energy Efficiency under a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard: Case Study of a Kansas"super-utility"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Cappers, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Local, state and federal policies that jointly promote the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency are expected to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. If only supply-side options are considered, our analysis suggests that a Kansas"super-utility" would prefer to build its own renewable energy resources, while ratepayers would favor a procurement strategy that relies on long-term renewable power purchase agreements. Introducing energy efficiency under varying levels as a CERES resource will, under our analysis, reduce ratepayer bills by ~;;$400M to ~;;$1.0B between 2009 and 2028, but commensurately erode shareholder returns by ~;;10 to ~;;100 basis points. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our results illustrate how shareholder returns can be improved through the pursuit of energy efficiency, by at most ~;;20 basis points if certain conditions apply, while ratepayers continue to save between $10M and ~;;$840M over 20 years.

  15. Catalytic Conversion of Renewable Resources into Bulk and Fine Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Johannes G

    2016-12-01

    Several strategies can be chosen to convert renewable resources into chemicals. In this account, I exemplify the route that starts with so-called platform chemicals; these are relatively simple chemicals that can be produced in high yield, directly from renewable resources, either via fermentation or via chemical routes. They can be converted into the existing bulk chemicals in a very efficient manner using multistep catalytic conversions. Two examples are given of the conversion of sugars into nylon intermediates. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) can be prepared in good yield from fructose. Two hydrogenation steps convert HMF into 1,6-hexanediol. Oppenauer oxidation converts this product into caprolactone, which in the past, has been converted into caprolactam in a large-scale industrial process by reaction with ammonia. An even more interesting platform chemical is levulinic acid (LA), which can be obtained directly from lignocellulose in good yield by treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at 200°C. Hydrogenation converts LA into gamma-valerolactone, which is ring-opened and esterified in a gas-phase process to a mixture of isomeric methyl pentenoates in excellent selectivity. In a remarkable selective palladium-catalysed isomerising methoxycarbonylation, this mixture is converted in to dimethyl adipate, which is finally hydrolysed to adipic acid. Overall selectivities of both processes are extremely high. The conversion of lignin into chemicals is a much more complicated task in view of the complex nature of lignin. It was discovered that breakage of the most prevalent β-O-4 bond in lignin occurs not only via the well-documented C3 pathway, but also via a C2 pathway, leading to the formation of highly reactive phenylacetaldehydes. These compounds went largely unnoticed as they immediately recondense on lignin. We have now found that it is possible to prevent this by converting these aldehydes in a tandem reaction, as they are formed. For this purpose, we have used

  16. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs. 36 pp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair G. [Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  17. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A.; Cory, K. S.; Swezey, B. G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  18. Renewable resources for biosurfactant production by yarrowia lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Fontes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the production of a biosurfactant synthesized by Yarrowia lipolytica using different renewable resources as carbon source was investigated. Crude glycerol, a biodiesel co-product, and clarified cashew apple juice (CCAJ, an agroindustrial residue, were applied as feedstocks for the microbial surfactant synthesis. The microorganism was able to grow and produce biosurfactant on CCAJ and crude glycerol, achieving maximum emulsification indexes of 68.0% and 70.2% and maximum variations in surface tension of 18.0 mN.m-1and 22.0 mN.m-1, respectively. Different organic solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate and chloroform - methanol were tested for biosurfactant extraction. Maximum biosurfactant recovery was obtained with chloroform - methanol (1:1, reaching 6.9 g.L-1for experiments using CCAJ and 7.9 g.L-1for media containing crude glycerol as carbon source.The results herein obtained indicate that CCAJ and the co-product of biodiesel production are appropriate raw materials for biosurfactant production by Y. lipolytica.

  19. New Horizons for Hydrogen: Producing Hydrogen from Renewable Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    Recent events have reminded us of the critical need to transition from crude oil, coal, and natural gas toward sustainable and domestic sources of energy. One reason is we need to strengthen our economy. In 2008 we saw the price of oil reach a record $93 per barrel. With higher oil prices, growing demand for gasoline, and increasing oil imports, an average of $235 billion per year, has left the United States economy to pay for foreign oil since 2005, or $1.2 trillion between 2005 and 2009. From a consumer perspective, this trend is seen with an average gasoline price of $2.50 per gallon since 2005, compared to an average of $1.60 between 1990 and 2004 (after adjusting for inflation). In addition to economic impacts, continued reliance on fossil fuels increases greenhouse gas emissions that may cause climate change, health impacts from air pollution, and the risk of disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Energy efficiency in the form of more efficient vehicles and buildings can help to reduce some of these impacts. However, over the long term we must shift from fossil resources to sustainable and renewable energy sources.

  20. Evaluating renewable natural resources flow and net primary productivity with a GIS-Emergy approach: A case study of Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenyan; Yan, Wanglin; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yutao

    2016-11-01

    Renewable natural resources, such as solar radiation, rainfall, wind, and geothermal heat, together with ecosystem services, provide the elementary supports for the sustainable development of human society. To improve regional sustainability, we studied the spatial distributions and quantities of renewable natural resources and net primary productivity (NPP) in Hokkaido, which is the second largest island of Japan. With the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) software, distribution maps for each type of renewable natural resource were generated by kriging interpolation based on statistical records. A composite map of the flow of all types of renewable natural resources was also generated by map layer overlapping. Additionally, we utilized emergy analysis to convert each renewable flow with different attributes into a unified unit (i.e., solar equivalent joules [sej]). As a result, the spatial distributions of the flow of renewable natural resources of the Hokkaido region are presented in the form of thematic emergy maps. Thus, the areas with higher renewable emergy can be easily visualized and identified. The dominant renewable flow in certain areas can also be directly distinguished. The results can provide useful information for regional sustainable development, environmental conservation and ecological management.

  1. Evaluating renewable natural resources flow and net primary productivity with a GIS-Emergy approach: A case study of Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenyan; Yan, Wanglin; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yutao

    2016-11-18

    Renewable natural resources, such as solar radiation, rainfall, wind, and geothermal heat, together with ecosystem services, provide the elementary supports for the sustainable development of human society. To improve regional sustainability, we studied the spatial distributions and quantities of renewable natural resources and net primary productivity (NPP) in Hokkaido, which is the second largest island of Japan. With the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) software, distribution maps for each type of renewable natural resource were generated by kriging interpolation based on statistical records. A composite map of the flow of all types of renewable natural resources was also generated by map layer overlapping. Additionally, we utilized emergy analysis to convert each renewable flow with different attributes into a unified unit (i.e., solar equivalent joules [sej]). As a result, the spatial distributions of the flow of renewable natural resources of the Hokkaido region are presented in the form of thematic emergy maps. Thus, the areas with higher renewable emergy can be easily visualized and identified. The dominant renewable flow in certain areas can also be directly distinguished. The results can provide useful information for regional sustainable development, environmental conservation and ecological management.

  2. Multiple timescale stochastic optimization with application to integrating renewable resources in power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangammanavar, Harsha

    The contribution of renewable resources to the energy portfolio across the world has been steadily increasing over the past few years. Several studies predict the continuation of this trend in the future leading to large scale integration of renewable resources into energy networks. A principal challenge associated with this is the intermittency and non-dispatchability of the renewable sources. This necessitates incorporation of faster reserves, storage devices and similar services operating alongside the slow ramping conventional generators in the energy network. To maintain the robustness of such a network, there are proposals to require hourly planning for some resources, and sub-hourly planning for others: an hourly scale may be used for conventional generator production levels and a sub-hourly scale for renewable generator levels and/or storage and transmission network utilization. This dissertation will present a multiple time scale stochastic programming formulation of the economic dispatch problem and algorithmic frameworks to tackle it. The first approach highlights the difference between hourly and sub-hourly planning of economic dispatch and uses the two-stage Stochastic Decomposition (SD) algorithm. The second framework combines three principal components: optimization, dynamic control and simulation. The conventional generator decisions are obtained iteratively by solving a regularized linear problem in the first stage of SD. For these first stage decisions, a policy for recommending the dispatch decisions is identified using an Approximate Dynamic Programming based controller. A vector autoregression based simulator is used to provide the sub-hourly wind generation scenarios. The performance of these algorithms was tested on the IEEE model energy networks and the Illinois energy network. The insights gained regarding the benefits of sub-hourly planning and role of operating reserves/storage in energy network with high renewable penetration will be

  3. Utilization of wind-energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, V.I.; Sidorov, V.V.; Kuznetsov, V.M.

    A review of developments in wind-energy in the Soviet Union, U.S., and West Europe is presented. The resources of the USSR are evaluated in three zones with the highest wind-energy potential, and designs of a 5 MW wind generator are analyzed along with a multirotor unit of 40 MW which will serve as the basis of an experimental 1000 MW system. The latter will be used as the first stage of utilization of wind-energy resources for electrical power generation. The wind-energy programs in the U.S., West Germany, Denmark, and Sweden are described which plan to produce 2 to 10% of electrical energy from wind energy by the year 2000.

  4. The utilization of wind-energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, V. I.; Sidorov, V. V.; Kuznetsov, V. M.

    1980-06-01

    A review of developments in wind-energy in the Soviet Union, U.S., and West Europe is presented. The resources of the USSR are evaluated in three zones with the highest wind-energy potential, and designs of a 5 MW wind generator are analyzed along with a multirotor unit of 40 MW which will serve as the basis of an experimental 1000 MW system. The latter will be used as the first stage of utilization of wind-energy resources for electrical power generation. The wind-energy programs in the U.S., West Germany, Denmark, and Sweden are described which plan to produce 2 to 10% of electrical energy from wind energy by the year 2000.

  5. SLURM: Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jette, M; Dunlap, C; Garlick, J; Grondona, M

    2002-04-24

    Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) is an open source, fault-tolerant, and highly scalable cluster management and job scheduling system for Linux clusters of thousands of nodes. Components include machine status, partition management, job management, and scheduling modules. The design also includes a scalable, general-purpose communication infrastructure. Development will take place in four phases: Phase I results in a solid infrastructure; Phase II produces a functional but limited interactive job initiation capability without use of the interconnect/switch; Phase III provides switch support and documentation; Phase IV provides job status, fault-tolerance, and job queuing and control through Livermore's Distributed Production Control System (DPCS), a meta-batch and resource management system.

  6. City growth as a resource utilization problem

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Asim; Chakrabarti, Anindya S; Chakrabarti, Bikas K

    2014-01-01

    We study a resource utilization scenario characterized by intrinsic attractiveness, in a system of many restaurants where customers compete to get the best services out of many choices. Results for the case with uniform attractiveness are reported. When attractiveness is uniformly distributed, it gives rise to a Zipf-Pareto law for the number of customers. We perform an exact calculation for the utilization fraction for the case when choices are made independent of attractiveness. A variant of the model is also introduced where the attractiveness can be treated as a fitness to stay in the business. When a restaurant loses customers, its fitness is replaced by a random fitness. The fitness distribution is characterized by a power law, but the power law distribution in number of customers still holds, implying the robustness of the model. Our model serves as a paradigm for city size distribution and the emergence of Zipf law.

  7. The rheology, degradation, processing, and characterization of renewable resource polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jason David

    Renewable resource polymers have become an increasingly popular alternative to conventional fossil fuel based polymers over the past couple decades. The push by the government as well as both industrial and consumer markets to go "green" has provided the drive for companies to research and develop new materials that are more environmentally friendly and which are derived from renewable materials. Two polymers that are currently being produced commercially are poly-lactic acid (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers, both of which can be derived from renewable feedstocks and have shown to exhibit similar properties to conventional materials such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene, and PET. PLA and PHA are being used in many applications including food packaging, disposable cups, grocery bags, and biomedical applications. In this work, we report on the rheological properties of blends of PLA and PHA copolymers. The specific materials used in the study include Natureworks RTM 7000D grade PLA and PHA copolymers of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate). Blends ranging from 10 to 50 percent PHA by weight are also examined. Shear and extensional experiments are performed to characterize the flow behavior of the materials in different flow fields. Transient experiments are performed to study the shear rheology over time in order to determine how the viscoelastic properties change under typical processing conditions and understand the thermal degradation behavior of the materials. For the blends, it is determined that increasing the PHA concentration in the blend results in a decrease in viscosity and increase in degradation. Models are fit to the viscosity of the blends using the pure material viscosities in order to be able to predict the behavior at a given blend composition. We also investigate the processability of these materials into films and examine the resultant properties of the cast films. The mechanical and thermal properties of the

  8. Process Design and Evaluation for Chemicals Based on Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing

    One of the key steps in process design is choosing between alternative technologies, especially for processes producing bulk and commodity chemicals. Recently, driven by the increasing oil prices and diminishing reserves, the production of bulk and commodity chemicals from renewable feedstocks has...... development of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks. As an example, this thesis especially focuses on applying the methodology in process design and evaluation of the synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from the renewable feedstock glucose/fructose. The selected example is part of the chemoenzymatic...... gained considerable interest. Renewable feedstocks usually cannot be converted into fuels and chemicals with existing process facilities due to the molecular functionality and variety of the most common renewable feedstock (biomass). Therefore new types of catalytic methods as well as new types...

  9. National Renewable Energy Laboratory information resources catalogue. A collection of energy efficiency and renewable energy information resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-31

    NREL`s first annual Information Resources Catalogue is intended to inform anyone interested in energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies of NREL`s outreach activities, including publications and services. For ease of use, all entries are categorized by subject. The catalogue is separated into six main sections. The first section lists and describes services that are available through NREL and how they may be assessed. The second section contains a list of documents that are published by NREL on a regular or periodic basis. The third section highlights NREL`s series publications written for specific audiences and presenting a wide range of subjects. NREL`s General Interest Publications constitute the fourth section of the catalogue and are written for nontechnical audiences. Descriptions are provided for these publications. The fifth section contains Technical Reports that detail research and development projects. The section on Conference Papers/Journal Articles/Book Chapters makes up the sixth and final section of the catalogue.

  10. Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the Second EUROSOLAR Conference of EUROSOLAR, the European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 15th and 16th May, 2008, at the Waterworks Braunschweig (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The municipal public utility: The paradigm shift from power distribution companies to municipal infrastructure provider (C. Jaenig); (2) Public utilities and their concepts (Z. Meszaros); (3) The BS Energy Group (U.Lehmann-Grube); (4) New ways with energy (T. Westerheide); (5) Public utilities and their concepts (R. Edzards); (6) Public utilities with renewable energy (P. Asmuth); (7) Total concept of the public utility Wolfhagen (M. Ruehl); (8) Municipal energy concepts for the expansion of the combined heat and power generation and renewable energies (J. van Bergen); (9) Storage of renewable energy (T. Blank); (10) Public utility as a confident partner of a renewable regional economy (R. Hemmers); (11) The regenerative combined cycle power plant (M. Meyr); (12) The solar power system of systaic (O. Achilles); (13) The concession contract as an instrument for restructuring (J. Schwarz); (14) EEG 2009, GasNZV and EEWaermeG: The changed legal framework as a chance for a restructured power generation (M. Altrock).

  11. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2): Final Rule Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on March 26, 2010 and is effective on July 1, 2010. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  12. Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS1): Final Rule Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on May 1, 2007 and is effective on September 1, 2007. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  13. Renewable energy resources in a restructured electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen, P.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper highlights a conference presentation addressing changes in the residential energy sector in view of the increasing competitiveness of the energy market. Renewable energy characteristics are briefly outlined, and capacity and generation data for non-hydroelectric power in 1994 are listed. A review of critical factors in renewables development and policy responses to market impediments is made. Current market barriers are identified, and proposals for Federal policies are made. 17 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Enhancement of the NEEDS-TIMES Model: Data for Spain on Biomass Resources and Renewable Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the data related to both electricity generation (focus on distributed generation and Renewable Energy Source) as well as biomass resources and transformation in Spain. It will contribute to the analysis of the renewable energy potential at the European level (RES2020 project). (Author)

  15. A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Bodonská

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society.Several renewable energy technologies are established in world markets, building global industries and infrastructures. Other renewables become competitive in growing markets, and some are widely recognised as the lowest cost option for stand-alone and offgrid applications. An increased utilization of renewable energy sources in the heat and electricity generation is one of priority tasks of the Slovak Republic to boost the use of domestic energy potential and thus to decrease the Slovakia’s dependence on imported fossil fuels.

  16. Sustainable hybrid photocatalysts: titania immobilized on carbon materials derived from renewable and biodegradable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review comprises the preparation, properties and heterogeneous photocatalytic applications of TiO2 immobilized on carbon materials derived from earth-abundant, renewable and biodegradable agricultural residues and sea food waste resources. The overview provides key scientifi...

  17. AN ANTIDOTE TO THE RESOURCE CURSE: THE BLESSING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki N. Menegaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the validity of the resource curse in Europe and it is the first time renewable energy is inserted in this research context. The study uses panel data with a variety of explanatory variable proxies for investment, openness, rule of law, resource endowments and human capital. It employs a single equation fixed effects model with heteroskedasticity robust covariance and a simultaneous two equation model where renewable energy enters the structural equation as an endogenous variable. The resource curse is confirmed only for crude oil and resource productivity in the single equation model while renewable energy has a positive relationship to growth. In the simultaneous two equation model, countries with high oil production and emissions also have a higher production of renewable energies.

  18. Sustainable hybrid photocatalysts: titania immobilized on carbon materials derived from renewable and biodegradable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review comprises the preparation, properties and heterogeneous photocatalytic applications of TiO2 immobilized on carbon materials derived from earth-abundant, renewable and biodegradable agricultural residues and sea food waste resources. The overview provides key scientifi...

  19. 78 FR 37567 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... of energy resources on tribal lands. Information collection: Enables IEED to engage in a consultation... Assistant Director for Information Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-4M-P...

  20. 75 FR 4836 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... Affairs, is proposing to submit the information collection titled ``Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... resources on tribal lands. Information collected: Enables IEED to engage in a consultation process...

  1. 75 FR 16173 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... submitting the information collection titled ``Tribal Energy Resource Agreements (TERAs)'' to the Office of... determine the capacity of tribes to manage the development of energy resources on tribal lands....

  2. 78 FR 19005 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... resources on tribal lands. Information collection: Enables IEED to engage in a consultation process with... Assistant Director for Information Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-4M-P...

  3. GMLC Extreme Event Modeling -- Slow-Dynamics Models for Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkali, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Min, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The need for slow dynamics models of renewable resources in cascade modeling essentially arises from the challenges associated with the increased use of solar and wind electric power. Indeed, the main challenge is that the power produced by wind and sunlight is not consistent; thus, renewable energy resources tend to have variable output power on many different timescales, including the timescales that a cascade unfolds.

  4. Vapour phase corrosion inhibitors from South African renewable resources and their evaluation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vuorinen, E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available ) in an environment depends on the vapour pressure of the compounds. Suitable chemicals from the petroleum industry are used as corrosion inhibitors but often chemicals from renewable resources have been overlooked. Furfural is produced from bagasse (a by... of amines proved to be excellent VCIs for mild steel. Screening of potential VCIs from furfural and furfural derivatives will be done using thermogravimetry. Vapour Phase Corrosion Inhibitors from South African Renewable Resources and their Evaluation...

  5. The problem of non-renewable energy resources in the production of physical capital

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Barahona, Agustin

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the possibilities of technical progress to deal with the growth limit problem imposed by the usage of non-renewable energy resources, when physical capital production is relatively more energy-intensive than consumption. In particular, this work presents the conditions under which energy-saving technologies can sustain long-run growth, although energy is produced by means of non-renewable energy resources. The mechanism behind that is energy efficiency.

  6. Smoothing effect for spatially distributed renewable resources and its impact on power grid robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Motoki; Hirata, Yoshito; Fujiwara, Naoya; Tanaka, Gouhei; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we show that spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs greatly influences the robustness of the power grids against large fluctuations of the effective power. First, we evaluate the spatial correlation among renewable energy outputs. We find that the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs depends on the locations, while the influence of the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs on power grids is not well known. Thus, second, by employing the topology of the power grid in eastern Japan, we analyze the robustness of the power grid with spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs. The analysis is performed by using a realistic differential-algebraic equations model. The results show that the spatial correlation of the energy resources strongly degrades the robustness of the power grid. Our results suggest that we should consider the spatial correlation of the renewable energy outputs when estimating the stability of power grids.

  7. Comments on long-term aspects of renewable vs nonrenewable resource substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeller, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    There are many cases where materials applications involve the use of nonrenewable materials. In some instances, renewable resources can be substituted for nonrenewable ones; in other cases, there are no readily feasible renewable-resource substitutes for certain nonrenewable-materials applications. The author points out advantages and limitations of renewable resources as substitutes for nonrenewale resources, with particular emphasis on the longer term when economic resources of some of the more-limited chemical elements will be starting to run out or will, or least, become too expensive to use except in absolutely necessary, nonsubstitutable uses. On the one hand, renewable resources will continue to become available through natural processes, in some cases augmented by modern technology, but only at some maximum level. For example, the amount of hydroelectric power available in the world is determined by rainfall and topography. On the other hand, nonrenewable resources are generally regarded as being material souces that, once used, are gone forever. This is certainly true for fossil fuels, where current demands are many orders of magnitude larger than rates of formation of new coal and petroleum. It is not true, however, for some of the atmospheric gases (e.g., nitrogen and argon) which are returned to the atmosphere either directly or through biological processes after use use so that they are truly renewable resources.

  8. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  9. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  10. Science requirements for free-flying imaging radar (FIREX) experiment for sea ice, renewable resources, nonrenewable resources and oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.

    1982-01-01

    A future bilateral SAR program was studied. The requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by science and operations in sea-ice-covered waters, oceanography, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources are addressed. The instrument, mission, and program parameters were discussed. Research investigations supporting a SAR flight and the subsequent overall mission requirements and tradeoffs are summarized.

  11. Renewable Energy Resources Portfolio Optimization in the Presence of Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behboodi, Sahand; Chassin, David P.; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2016-01-15

    In this paper we introduce a simple cost model of renewable integration and demand response that can be used to determine the optimal mix of generation and demand response resources. The model includes production cost, demand elasticity, uncertainty costs, capacity expansion costs, retirement and mothballing costs, and wind variability impacts to determine the hourly cost and revenue of electricity delivery. The model is tested on the 2024 planning case for British Columbia and we find that cost is minimized with about 31% renewable generation. We also find that demand responsive does not have a significant impact on cost at the hourly level. The results suggest that the optimal level of renewable resource is not sensitive to a carbon tax or demand elasticity, but it is highly sensitive to the renewable resource installation cost.

  12. Resource utilization and outcomes of intoxicated drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camera Lindsay J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high risk behavior of intoxicated drivers, impaired reaction time, lack of seat belt use, and increased incidence of head injury raises questions of whether pre-hospital use of alcohol leads to a higher injury severity score and worse clinical outcomes. We therefore compared intoxicated and non-intoxicated drivers of motor vehicle crashes with respect to outcome measurements and also describe the resources utilized to achieve those outcomes at our Level 1 trauma center. Methods Retrospective descriptive study (Jan 2002-June 2007 of our trauma registry and financial database comparing intoxicated drivers with blood alcohol levels (BAC > 80 mg/dl (ETOH > 80 with drivers who had a BAC of 0 mg/dl (ETOH = 0. Drivers without a BAC drawn or who had levels ranging from 1 mg/dL to 80 mg/dL were excluded. Data was collected on demographic information (age, gender, injury severity score or ISS, outcome variables (mortality, complications, ICU and hospital LOS, ventilator days and resource utilization (ED LOS, insurance, charges, costs, payments. Statistical analysis: p 80; stratified chi square. Results Out of 1732 drivers, the combined study group (n = 987 of 623 ETOH = 0 and 364 ETOH > 80 had a mean age of 38.8 ± 17.9, ISS of 18.0 ± 12.1, and 69.8%% male. There was no difference in ISS (p = 0.67 or complications (p = 0.38. There was a trend towards decreased mortality (p = 0.06. The ETOH = 0 group had more patients with a prolonged ICU LOS (≥ 5 days, ventilator days (≥ 8 days, and hospital LOS (> 14 days when compared to the ETOH > 80 group (p 80 group tended to be self pay (4.9% vs. 0.7%, p Conclusions The data suggests that intoxicated drivers may have better outcomes and a trend towards reduced mortality. They appeared to be less likely to have prolonged hospital LOS, ICU LOS, and ventilator days. We also observed that intoxicated drivers were more likely to be self-pay, less likely to have charges > $50K, and less likely

  13. Process Design and Evaluation for Chemicals Based on Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing

    with recycle of the aqueous phase back to the enzymatic reaction. Costing analysis indicates the HMF production cost by the designed process is very sensitive to the dehydration reaction yield, the amount of solvent used in the whole process and the glucose price. In addition, increasing scale is also help......One of the key steps in process design is choosing between alternative technologies, especially for processes producing bulk and commodity chemicals. Recently, driven by the increasing oil prices and diminishing reserves, the production of bulk and commodity chemicals from renewable feedstocks has....... In addition, another characteristic of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks is that many alternative technologies and possible routes exist, resulting in many possible process flowsheets. The challenge for process engineers is then to choose between possible process routes and alternative technologies...

  14. Definition of a remuneration system for heat from renewable resources; Ausgestaltung einer Einspeiseverguetung fuer erneuerbare Waerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R.; Ott, W.; Philippen, D.; Umbricht, A.

    2009-06-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with proposals for a remuneration system for heat obtained from renewable resources. Local and regional district heating systems cover around three percent of Swiss heating needs. The authors estimate that, if these systems were to be operated completely using renewable resources such as biomass, ambient heat and the renewable portion of heat from waste incineration, around seven per cent of needs could be met. Further, around 10,000 heating systems with a power of more than 350 kW could be operated with renewables. A further potential for the use of renewable heating resources can be found in wastewater treatment plants and industrial waste heat. Various obstacles and restraints on the use of renewable resources in the heating area are discussed. The idea of providing a cost-covering remuneration system for heat is discussed and compared with that for renewable electricity. The proposed system is discussed, which would provide investment subsidies, risk-coverage and project development subsidies. The report discusses the results of a market analysis and the differences to be found between the markets for electricity and heat. Existing promotional programs are noted and the aims of a possible remuneration system are discussed. A concept for a promotion program for renewable heat generation and the use of waste heat is introduced. The installations to be promoted and the amount of remuneration to be paid out are discussed. Finally, the costs and the effects of the proposed promotion scheme are discussed. A comprehensive appendix provides details on the proposed system and provides information on market volume, energy resources, networks and infrastructure, providers of heat energy, heat consumers and general conditions as far as factors such as pricing and legislation are concerned. Finally, the 'Climate Cent' foundation is commented on.

  15. Exploration of Resource and Transmission Expansion Decisions in the Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew D.; Phadke, Amol A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2010-06-10

    The Western Renewable Energy Zone (WREZ) initiative brings together a diverse set of voices to develop data, tools, and a unique forum for coordinating transmission expansion in the Western Interconnection. In this paper we use a new tool developed in the WREZ initiative to evaluate possible renewable resource selection and transmission expansion decisions. We evaluate these decisions under a number of alternative future scenarios centered on meeting 33percent of the annual load in the Western Interconnection with new renewable resources located within WREZ-identified resource hubs. Our analysis finds that wind energy is the largest source of renewable energy procured to meet the 33percent RE target across nearly all scenarios analyzed (38-65percent). Solar energy is almost always the second largest source (14-41percent). We find several load zones where wind energy is the least cost resource under a wide range of sensitivity scenarios. Load zones in the Southwest, on the other hand, are found to switch between wind and solar, and therefore to vary transmission expansion decisions, depending on uncertainties and policies that affect the relative economics of each renewable option. Further, we find that even with total transmission expenditures of $17-34 billion these costs still represent just 10-19percent of the total delivered cost of renewable energy.

  16. Values of Land and Renewable Resources in a Three-Sector Economic Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei-Bin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies dynamic interdependence of capital, land and resource values in a three sector growth model with endogenous wealth and renewable resources. The model is based on the neoclassical growth theory, Ricardian theory and growth theory with renewable resources. The household’s decision is modeled with an alternative approach proposed by Zhang two decades ago. The economic system consists of the households, industrial, agricultural, and resource sectors. The model describes a dynamic interdependence between wealth accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of a unique stable equilibrium point and plot the motion of the dynamic system. The study conducts comparative dynamic analysis with regard to changes in the propensity to consume resources, the propensity to consume housing, the propensity to consume agricultural goods, the propensity to consume industrial goods, the propensity to save, the population, and the output elasticity of capital of the resource sector.

  17. Classroom Games: The Allocation of Renewable Resources under Different Property Rights and Regulation Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Kelly L.; Herrmann, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Describes a renewable resource allocation game designed to stimulate student interest in and understanding of market failure associated with open-access types of resource use. Employs the game to discuss advantages and disadvantages of property rights and regulation schemes. States the game benefits noneconomics majors in natural resource…

  18. Securing renewable resource supplies for changing market demands in a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Struik, P.C.; Rabbinge, R.

    2005-01-01

    Establishment of a bio-based economy has been recognised as one of the key issues for sustainable development For future developments renewable resources will play a key role as CO2 neutral raw material for sustainable industrial production to curb depletion of fossil resources. Options to fully exp

  19. Securing renewable resource supplies for changing market demands in a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Struik, P.C.; Rabbinge, R.

    2005-01-01

    Establishment of a bio-based economy has been recognised as one of the key issues for sustainable development For future developments renewable resources will play a key role as CO2 neutral raw material for sustainable industrial production to curb depletion of fossil resources. Options to fully

  20. Securing renewable resource supplies for changing market demands in a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Struik, P.C.; Rabbinge, R.

    2005-01-01

    Establishment of a bio-based economy has been recognised as one of the key issues for sustainable development For future developments renewable resources will play a key role as CO2 neutral raw material for sustainable industrial production to curb depletion of fossil resources. Options to fully exp

  1. Smoothing effect for spatially distributed renewable resources and its impact on power grid robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Motoki; Fujiwara, Naoya; Tanaka, Gouhei; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we show that spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs greatly influences the robustness of power grids. First, we propose a new index for the spatial correlation among renewable energy outputs. We find that the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs in a short time-scale is as weak as that caused by independent random variables and that in a long time-scale is as strong as that under perfect synchronization. Then, by employing the topology of the power grid in eastern Japan, we analyze the robustness of the power grid with spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs. The analysis is performed by using a realistic differential-algebraic equations model and the result shows that the spatial correlation of the energy resources strongly degrades the robustness of the power grid. Our result suggests that the spatial correlation of the renewable energy outputs should be taken into account when estimating the stability of power grids.

  2. Background research paper : township of East Garafraxa utilities and renewable energy planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-11

    This paper established the foundation for future policies in Ontario's Township of East Garafraxa regarding renewable energy facilities and utilities. The paper provided research which included a summary of policy and regulatory best practices; a lexicon for renewable energy and wind power terminology; a baseline for scales of facilities; identification of constraints and land use issues; a discussion on alternative energy sources and their impacts; a summary of discussions with stakeholders and interest groups; and an opportunity and constraints analysis. Specifically, the report provided an overview of the Township of East Garafraxa and discussed regulations such as the Environmental Assessment Act and Environmental Protection Act. The forms of renewable energy that were discussed included wind, solar, biomass, hydro and geothermal energy. A jurisdictional analysis was then presented. Scale options for each renewable energy system were presented along with recommended scales for each renewable energy system. It was concluded that the Township of East Garafraxa has an opportunity to proactively accommodate new renewable energy land uses in a manner that reflects the local characteristics and aspirations of its residents. 50 refs., 12 figs., 1 appendix.

  3. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at Makerere University. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types ...

  4. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  5. Improving resource utilization in hierarchy network by optimizing topological structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G. L.; Peng, H. P.; Li, L. X.; Sun, F.; Yang, Y. X.

    2012-02-01

    We study the performance of peer-to-peer (P2P) network built on the top of hierarchy topological structure of local area networks (LAN). We find that the topological structure of the underlying physical network has significant impacts on the resource utilization of the P2P overlay network. The larger size of the physical network is, the lower resource utilization of the overlay network is. Through optimizing the topological structure of physical network, we propose two novel schemes to improve the resource utilization. The experimental results show that in any case the resource utilization of P2P network can always achieve 100% by these two schemes.

  6. Renewable energy resources for distributed generation systems in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczuk, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    The South African Government has objective to provide universal access of electricity for its citizens and its electrification programme has been successful but focus has moved from numbers of connections to one of achieving sustainable socio-economic benefits. First-hand understanding was obtained of the complexity of socio-economic development where CSIR undertook a project in the rural areas of South Africa to identify electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to economic activities. Lessons formed basis of a government funding implementation of pilot hybrid mini-grids to inform a future rollout. Results informed the development of distributed generation concepts and an integrated methodology.

  7. Jicarilla Apache Utility Authority Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Strategic Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, K.R.

    2008-06-28

    The purpose of this Strategic Plan Report is to provide an introduction and in-depth analysis of the issues and opportunities, resources, and technologies of energy efficiency and renewable energy that have potential beneficial application for the people of the Jicarilla Apache Nation and surrounding communities. The Report seeks to draw on the best available information that existed at the time of writing, and where necessary, draws on new research to assess this potential. This study provides a strategic assessment of opportunities for maximizing the potential for electrical energy efficiency and renewable energy development by the Jicarilla Apache Nation. The report analyzes electricity use on the Jicarilla Apache Reservation in buildings. The report also assesses particular resources and technologies in detail, including energy efficiency, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and small hydropower. The closing sections set out the elements of a multi-year, multi-phase strategy for development of resources to the maximum benefit of the Nation.

  8. The Project Activities of the Renewable Energy Resources Use in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Jovanović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the ratification of the Energy Community of Southeast Europe countries (14th July 2006 the Republic of Serbia, among other things, accepted the obligation to adopt and implement a plan of applying the Directive 2001/77/EC about promoting the production of electrical energy from renewable energy sources. The projects of the renewable energy resources use have a positive impact on the environment, in particular about the mitigation of global climate change and local environmental sustainability.

  9. Building a sustainable market for renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, N.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding marketing approaches for electricity generation from renewable resources are presented in the paper. The Renewables Portfolio Standard of the California Public Utilities Commission is described. This system is based on renewable energy credits. Other marketing approaches, including surcharges, auctioned renewables credit, green pricing, and green marketing are also assessed. It is concluded that the Renewables Portfolio Standard creates a stable economic environment for the renewable energy industries.

  10. Propylene from renewable resources: catalytic conversion of glycerol into propylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yong-Mei; He, He-Yong; Fan, Kang-Nian; Cao, Yong

    2014-03-01

    Propylene, one of the most demanded commodity chemicals, is obtained overwhelmingly from fossil resources. In view of the diminishing fossil resources and the ongoing climate change, the identification of new efficient and alternative routes for the large-scale production of propylene from biorenewable resources has become essential. Herein, a new selective route for the synthesis of propylene from bio-derived glycerol is demonstrated. The route consists of the formation of 1-propanol (a versatile bulk chemical) as intermediate through hydrogenolysis of glycerol at a high selectivity. A subsequent dehydration produces propylene. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    The long-term well-being of the nation and maintenance of a sustainable leadership position in agriculture, forestry, and manufacturing, clearly depend on current and near-term support of multidisciplinary research for the development of a reliable renewable resource base. This document sets a roadmap and priorities for that research. America needs leadership that will continue to recognize, support, and move rapidly to meet the need to expand the use of sustainable renewable resources. This roadmap has highlighted potential ways for progress and has identified goals in specific components of the system. Achieving success with these goals will provide the opportunity to hit the vision target of a fivefold increase in renewable resource use by 2020.

  12. Hawaii energy strategy project 3: Renewable energy resource assessment and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    RLA Consulting (RLA) has been retained by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) to conduct a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. This three-phase program is part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES), which is a multi-faceted program intended to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Phase 1 of the project, Development of a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Plan, is to better define the most promising potential renewable energy projects and to establish the most suitable locations for project development in the state. In order to accomplish this goal, RLA has identified constraints and requirements for renewable energy projects from six different renewable energy resources: wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and ocean thermal. These criteria were applied to areas with sufficient resource for commercial development and the results of Phase 1 are lists of projects with the most promising development potential for each of the technologies under consideration. Consideration of geothermal energy was added to this investigation under a separate contract with DBEDT. In addition to the project lists, a monitoring plan was developed with recommended locations and a data collection methodology for obtaining additional wind and solar data. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. Catalytic conversion of renewable biomass resources to fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; West, Ryan M; Dumesic, James A

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is renewable and cheap, and it has the potential to displace fossil fuels in the production of fuels and chemicals. Biomass-derived carboxylic acids are important compounds that can be used as platform molecules for the production of a variety of important chemicals on a large scale. Lactic acid, a prototypical biomass derivative, and levulinic acid, an important chemical feedstock produced by hydrolysis of waste cellulosic materials, can be upgraded using bifunctional catalysts (those containing metal and acid sites), which allows the integration of several transformations (e.g., oxygen removal and C-C coupling) in a single catalyst bed. This coupling between active sites is beneficial in that it reduces the complexity and cost of the biomass conversion processes. Deoxygenation of biomass derivatives is a requisite step for the production of fuels and chemicals, and strategies are proposed to minimize the consumption of hydrogen from an external source during this process.

  14. Incentive Driven Distributed Generation Planning with Renewable Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAUR, S.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Renewable DGs may not be economically viable due to the stochastic generation and huge capital investment, but are an inevitable choice for sustainable energy development and future planning. An appropriate incentive scheme for clean Distributed Generation (DG technologies is able to address this issue in an economical manner and is considered in proposed distributed generation planning model. The proposed model minimizes the annualized cost with Emission Offset Incentive (EOI and the penalty for Green-house Gas (GHG emissions. A meta-heuristic approach with dynamic tuning of control parameters is adopted to improve the success and the convergence rate of optimal solutions. The algorithm provides the optimal solution in terms of type, size, and location of DG. The proposed technique is implemented on IEEE 33-bus system. Proposed model helps the Distribution Network Operators (DNOs to decide the proper DG technology from an economic prospective for eco-friendly energy planning.

  15. Thermal infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The subjects of infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications is reviewed with respect to the basic physical concepts involved at the Earth's surface and up through the atmosphere, as well as the historical development of satellite systems which produce such data at increasingly greater spatial resolution. With this general background in hand, the growth of a variety of specific renewable resource applications using the developing thermal infrared technology are discussed, including data from HCMM investigators. Recommendations are made for continued growth in this field of applications.

  16. Resource management in utility and cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Han

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBrief reviews the existing market-oriented strategies for economically managing resource allocation in distributed systems. It describes three new schemes that address cost-efficiency, user incentives, and allocation fairness with regard to different scheduling contexts. The first scheme, taking the Amazon EC2? market as a case of study, investigates the optimal resource rental planning models based on linear integer programming and stochastic optimization techniques. This model is useful to explore the interaction between the cloud infrastructure provider and the cloud resource c

  17. Studies on Iron Embedded Polyesteramide Resin Derived from Melia-azedarach Seed oil-A Renewable Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hasnat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the depletion of petroleum oil reserves and the environmental issues both, efforts have made to utilize the renewable resources in the polymer synthesis now-a-days.Among the different renewable resources seed oils of different plants pay considerable attraction due to its unique properties. Melia azedarach is a medium sized tree largely cultivated throughout the country as a shadow tree. The seeds of the plant have approximately 40-wt% non edible oil with sufficiently high unsaturation. In the present work, oil of the Melia azedarach seeds utilized in making iron embedded polyesteramide with the objective to provide satisfactory utilization of abundantly available raw material significantly going waste in every season. The physico-chemical characterization of the polymeric material and intermediates were carried out as per standard laboratory methods.The structural elucidation of the polymeric resin was carried out by spectral analyses. The film properties of the iron embedded polyesteramide were also investigated in different environments. The results show that the iron embedded polyesteramide derived from Melia azedrach show good physic-mechanical and corrosion resistance performances in different service conditions.

  18. Assessment and utilization of soil water resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analyses of water interactions and water balance, this paper discusses the issues on the assessment and regulation of soil water resources, which lays the scientific basis for limited irrigation and water-saving agriculture.

  19. Market Opportunities for Cellulose Products From Combined Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihare, Lauma; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates available resources that has not been used or is used with low added value, such as woody crops, forest residues and invasive species possibilities in case of cellulosic products. Main aspect is this study is market outlook, to see if the products can have positive market sales if produced. Resource have been selected by availability and current usage and properties they contain. Products have been chosen the most basic, to see is there possibility to enter an existing cellulose product markets. GE/McKinsey matrix have been used for clear visual decision making. The results show that only two out of seven products has a potential in international market.

  20. Distributed generation for South Africa based on renewable energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available measures must take into account other conditions such as markets, water, infrastructure, telecommunications etc • sociological facilitation to ensure community ownership and sustainable enterprise management. • environmental externalities such as Green... activities New economic activities Natural resources - arable land - tourism potential - forestry potential - minerals, - etc Enterprise creation Sociological (Cultural) Facilitation Governance facilitation Capacity development Intervention...

  1. Hybrid PV/Wind Power Systems Incorporating Battery Storage and Considering the Stochastic Nature of Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulwasa Bakr

    Hybrid power generation system and distributed generation technology are attracting more investments due to the growing demand for energy nowadays and the increasing awareness regarding emissions and their environmental impacts such as global warming and pollution. The price fluctuation of crude oil is an additional reason for the leading oil producing countries to consider renewable resources as an alternative. Saudi Arabia as the top oil exporter country in the word announced the "Saudi Arabia Vision 2030" which is targeting to generate 9.5 GW of electricity from renewable resources. Two of the most promising renewable technologies are wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic cells (PV). The integration or hybridization of photovoltaics and wind turbines with battery storage leads to higher adequacy and redundancy for both autonomous and grid connected systems. This study presents a method for optimal generation unit planning by installing a proper number of solar cells, wind turbines, and batteries in such a way that the net present value (NPV) is minimized while the overall system redundancy and adequacy is maximized. A new renewable fraction technique (RFT) is used to perform the generation unit planning. RFT was tested and validated with particle swarm optimization and HOMER Pro under the same conditions and environment. Renewable resources and load randomness and uncertainties are considered. Both autonomous and grid-connected system designs were adopted in the optimal generation units planning process. An uncertainty factor was designed and incorporated in both autonomous and grid connected system designs. In the autonomous hybrid system design model, the strategy including an additional amount of operation reserve as a percent of the hourly load was considered to deal with resource uncertainty since the battery storage system is the only backup. While in the grid-connected hybrid system design model, demand response was incorporated to overcome the impact of

  2. Optimization Model to Enhance Sustainable Utilization of Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guo-hao; SHEN Tu-jing

    2002-01-01

    Resources are material foundation for sustainable development. To enhance resources utilization is the key factor for realizing sustainable development. Based on the idea of sustainable development, the paper establishes the model to effectively distribute resources and proposes a method for studies on sustainable development.

  3. Issues, Challenges, Causes, Impacts and Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources - Grid Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Mamatha Sandhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources have increased significantly due to environmental issues and fossil fuels elevated cost. Integration of renewable energy sources to utility grid depends on the scale of power generation. Large scale power generations are connected to transmission systems where as small scale distributed power generation is connected to distribution systems. There are certain challenges in the integration of both types of systems directly. Due to this, wind energy has gained a lot of investments from all over the world. However, due to the wind speed‘s uncertain behavior it is difficult to obtain good quality power, since wind speed fluctuations reflect on the voltage and active power output of the electric machine connected to the wind turbine. Solar penetration also changes the voltage profile and frequency response of the system and affects the transmission and distribution systems of utility grid. This paper presents a review in the issues, challenges, causes, impacts and utilization of renewable energy sources (RES - Grid Integration.

  4. Resource use efficiency and renewability. Assessment of low-input agricultural production using eMergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Christina; Østergård, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    of about 39%. In conclusion, especially fuels and machinery may be subject to management improvements as theserepresent a large fraction of the total eMergy use. Further, they are characterized by being mainly nonrenewable.The larger resource inputs per food Joule to the small farm compared to the larger...... farm may bean economy-of-scale consequence. The larger farm can grow more crops on-site reducing the externalinputs. Also the larger farm area may reduce the input of machinery per ha of cultivated area, reducing thispart of the total use per food Joule produced....... by reducing dependency on external input. We apply the emergy approach to evaluate resource use efficiency of twolow-input innovative farms while distinguishing between use of renewable and non-renewable resources aswell as local and global origin of resources. This study is a part of the SOLIBAM (www...

  5. Utilization and transfer of forest genetic resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskela, Jarkko; Vinceti, Barbara; Dvorak, William

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 200 years, genetic resources of forest trees have been increasingly transferred, within and outside of species’ native distribution ranges, for forestry and for research and development (R&D). Transferred germplasm has been deployed to grow trees for numerous purposes, ranging from ...

  6. Assessing resource intensity and renewability of cellulosic ethanol technologies using eco-LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Anil; Bakshi, Bhavik R; Smith, Raymond L

    2012-02-21

    Recognizing the contributions of ecosystem services and the lack of their comprehensive accounting in life cycle assessment (LCA), an in-depth analysis of their contribution in the life cycle of cellulosic ethanol derived from five different feedstocks was conducted, with gasoline and corn ethanol as reference fuels. The relative use intensity of natural resources encompassing land and ecosystem goods and services by cellulosic ethanol was estimated using the Eco-LCA framework. Despite being resource intensive compared to gasoline, cellulosic ethanol offers the possibility of a reduction in crude oil consumption by as much as 96%. Soil erosion and land area requirements can be sources of concern for cellulosic ethanol derived directly from managed agriculture. The analysis of two broad types of thermodynamic metrics, namely: various types of physical return on investment and a renewability index, which indicate competitiveness and sustainability of cellulosic ethanol, respectively, show that only ethanol from waste resources combines a favorable thermodynamic return on investment with a higher renewability index. However, the production potential of ethanol from waste resources is limited. This finding conveys a possible dilemma of biofuels: combining high renewability, high thermodynamic return on investment, and large production capacity may remain elusive. A plot of renewability versus energy return on investment is suggested as one of the options for providing guidance on future biofuel selection.

  7. Debriefing Can Reduce Misperceptions of Feedback: The Case of Renewable Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudrat-Ullah, Hassan

    2007-01-01

    According to the hypothesis of misperception of feedback, people's poor performance in renewable resource management tasks can be attributed to their general tendency to systematically misperceive the dynamics of bioeconomic systems. The thesis of this article is that dynamic decision performance can be improved by helping individuals develop more…

  8. Resins and additives for powder coatings and alkyd paints, based on renewable resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Oostveen, E.A.; Micciche, F.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Koning, C.E.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; Frissen, A.E.; Weijnen, J.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Due to limited fossil resources and an increased need for environmentally friendly, sustainable technologies, the importance of using renewable feedstocks in the paint and coatings area will increase in the decades to come. This paper highlights some of the perspectives in this area. Alkyd resins

  9. Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villet, R.H.

    1980-04-01

    To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

  10. Resins and additives for powder coatings and alkyd paints, based on renewable resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Oostveen, E.A.; Micciche, F.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Koning, C.E.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; Frissen, A.E.; Weijnen, J.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Due to limited fossil resources and an increased need for environmentally friendly, sustainable technologies, the importance of using renewable feedstocks in the paint and coatings area will increase in the decades to come. This paper highlights some of the perspectives in this area. Alkyd resins fo

  11. Renewable Resources – a Way of Putting an End to Environmental Pollution and an Inexhaustible Asset

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Bumbac

    2009-01-01

    Being “green” is not anymore just a problem of trendy or only for people with special ideas. “Green” became a global issue, involving governments, international organisations, regional authorities. Renewable resources are becoming more and more important, especially in countries where the dependence of imported fuels is high. The climate change put a huge pressure on carbon emmissions and endorsed programmes which take into consideration alternative resources. The European Union is the mo...

  12. Harvesting Renewable Resources of Population with Size Structure and Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang-Jun Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to explore the optimal exploitation way for a biological resources model incorporating individual’s size difference and spatial effects. The existence of a unique nonnegative solution to the state system is shown by means of Banach’s fixed point theorem, and the continuous dependence of the population density with the harvesting effort is given. The optimal harvesting strategy is established via normal cone and adjoint system technique. Some conditions are found to assure that there is only one optimal policy.

  13. Feasibility of Stochastic Voltage/VAr Optimization Considering Renewable Energy Resources for Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Salkuti, Surender Reddy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization technique for solving the Voltage/VAr control problem including the load demand and Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) variation. The RERs often take along some inputs like stochastic behavior. One of the important challenges i. e., Voltage/VAr control is a prime source for handling power system complexity and reliability, hence it is the fundamental requirement for all the utility companies. There is a need for the robust and efficient Voltage/VAr optimization technique to meet the peak demand and reduction of system losses. The voltages beyond the limit may damage costly sub-station devices and equipments at consumer end as well. Especially, the RERs introduces more disturbances and some of the RERs are not even capable enough to meet the VAr demand. Therefore, there is a strong need for the Voltage/VAr control in RERs environment. This paper aims at the development of optimal scheme for Voltage/VAr control involving RERs. In this paper, Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to cover full range of variables by maximally satisfying the marginal distribution. Here, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios effectively and maximally retain the fitting accuracy of samples. The developed optimization scheme is tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) considering the load demand and RERs variation.

  14. Multi-state time-varying reliability evaluation of smart grid with flexible demand resources utilizing Lz transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Heping; Jin, Wende; Ding, Yi; Song, Yonghua; Yu, Dezhao

    2017-01-01

    With the expanding proportion of renewable energy generation and development of smart grid technologies, flexible demand resources (FDRs) have been utilized as an approach to accommodating renewable energies. However, multiple uncertainties of FDRs may influence reliable and secure operation of smart grid. Multi-state reliability models for a single FDR and aggregating FDRs have been proposed in this paper with regard to responsive abilities for FDRs and random failures for both FDR devices and information system. The proposed reliability evaluation technique is based on Lz transform method which can formulate time-varying reliability indices. A modified IEEE-RTS has been utilized as an illustration of the proposed technique.

  15. Case Studies of Potential Facility-Scale and Utility-Scale Non-Hydro Renewable Energy Projects across Reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.; Burman, K.; Dahle, D.; Heimiller, D.; Jimenez, A.; Melius, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; VanGeet, O.

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of an assessment and analysis of renewable energy opportunities conducted for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Tasks included assessing the suitability for wind and solar on both a utility and facility scale.

  16. Energy Efficiency as a Preferred Resource: Evidence from Utility Resource Plans in the Western United States and Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Nichole; Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2008-09-15

    This article examines the future role of energy efficiency as a resource in the Western United States and Canada, as envisioned in the most recent resource plans issued by 16 utilities, representing about 60percent of the region's load. Utility and third-party administered energy efficiency programs proposed by 15 utilities over a ten-year horizon would save almost 19,000 GWh annually, about 5.2percent of forecast load. There are clear regional trends in the aggressiveness of proposed energy savings. California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) had the most aggressive savings targets, followed by IOUs in the Pacific Northwest, and the lowest savings were proposed by utilities in Inland West states and by two public utilities on the West coast. The adoption of multiple, aggressive policies targeting energy efficiency and climate change appear to produce sizeable energy efficiency commitments. Certain specific policies, such as mandated energy savings goals for California's IOUs and energy efficiency provisions in Nevada's Renewable Portfolio Standard had a direct impact on the level of energy savings included in the resource plans. Other policies, such as revenue decoupling and shareholder incentives, and voluntary or legislatively mandated greenhouse gas emission reduction policies, may have also impacted utilities' energy efficiency commitments, though the effects of these policies are not easily measured. Despite progress among the utilities in our sample, more aggressive energy efficiency strategies that include high-efficiency standards for additional appliances and equipment, tighter building codes for new construction and renovation, as well as more comprehensive ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs are likely to be necessary to achieve a region-wide goal of meeting 20percent of electricity demand with efficiency in 2020.

  17. Utilization of digitized information resources by academic staff of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of digitized information resources by academic staff of Waziri ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... The paper gave an overview of digitization and its initiatives in academic libraries in Nigeria.

  18. An Efficient Heat Exchanger for In Situ Resource Utilization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is essential for several of NASA's future flagship missions. Currently envisioned ISRU plants include production of oxygen from...

  19. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  20. Utilizing the rich resources of a diverse workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E K

    1993-01-01

    The dynamic and ever-increasing diversity of the U.S. workforce challenges those in executive management to utilize human resources in a manner that maximizes those resources and produces optimal results. A diverse organization is itself laden with rich resources of human capital waiting to be tapped in creative ways. In order to be competitive and remain so, physician executives in today's market must engage in the management of diversity on a continuous basis.

  1. The development of renewable resources at Arizona public service company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herb Hayden, P.E. [Arizona Public Service Company, (United states)

    1995-12-31

    Arizona Public Service (APS) has been pursuing the development of solar energy for many years, through feasibility studies, solar monitoring, photovoltaics testing, demonstration projects, and internal applications of solar. Key examples are our comparative testing of photovoltaics (PV) at our Solar Test And Research (STAR) Center, the construction of a 225 kW grid-connected PV system, about 20 kW of rooftop PV systems at several customers properties, our participation in the development of Solar Central Receiver technology, and two recent studies on the value of solar in centralized and distributed generation. The costs and performance of solar technologies has been steadily improving, and there are current needs for energy services in APS service territory which cannot be economically served by power line extensions. These off-grid demands provide an opportunity for the initial application of solar for customer service, which can expand as costs are further reduced. It is expected that with continued development support, the costs of solar will decrease to a level which will be competitive in certain grid-connected applications before 2000. Recently, APS established a goal of installing 12 megawatts of solar by 2000 in applications that are cost-effective or can be made cost effective, for the economic and environmental benefit of our customers and shareholders. In order to achieve this goal, APS will develop cooperative working relationships with suppliers and other utilities that have a similar interest in the cost-effective use of solar energy for customer service. [Espanol] Servicios Publicos de Arizona (APS) ha proseguido el desarrollo de la energia solar desde hace muchos anos a traves de estudios de factibilidad, monitoreo solar, prueba de equipos fotovoltaicos, proyectos de demostracion y aplicaciones internas de energia solar. Son ejemplos importantes nuestras pruebas comparativas de fotovoltaicos (PV) en nuestro Centro de Pruebas e Investigaciones

  2. Workshop on Control Theory Applied to Renewable Resource Management and Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Skowronski, Janislaw

    1981-01-01

    As society becomes stressed by economic and population pressures, in turn, nature's renewable resources become stressed by harvesting pressures. For our own survival and euphoria, it is paramount that such resources remain as their name implies and not be driven to extinction through short term programs of over exploitation. Consideration of the harvesting of renewable resources leads to a simple question that was the theme of the workshop and is the focus of these proceedings: SUPPoRe you are assigned the role of manager for a specific renewable resource eco­ system. How would you decide on harvesting policies so that the system can be exploited economically yet at the same time maintain the integrity of the system? This, of course, is a loaded question. First of all, it is not clear that there is ever anyone single decision maker who is able to set the rules for all of the harvesters in an exploited ecosystem. The political process is complicated and to some extent unpredictable. This aspect of the questio...

  3. Modeling and Simulation of Microgrid Connected Renewable Energy Resources with Svpwm Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Chukka,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing tension on the global energy supply has resulted in greater interest in renewable energy resources. This presents a significant opportunity for distributed power generation (DG systems using renewable energy resources, including wind turbines, photovoltaic (PV generators, small hydro systems, and fuel cells .However, these DG units produce a wide range of voltages due to the fluctuation of energy resources and impose stringent requirements for the inverter topologies and controls. Usually, a boost-type dc–dc converter is added in the DG units to step up the dc voltage. This kind of topology, although simple may not be able to provide enough dc voltage gain when the input is very low, even with an extreme duty cycle. Also, large duty cycle operation may result in serious reverse-recovery problems and increase the ratings of switching devices. Furthermore, the added converter may deteriorate system efficiency and increase system size, weight, and cost. This paper deals with modeling and simulation of microgrid connected with renewable energy resources like Photo Voltaic panel and fuel cell. The inverter circuit is controlled by Space vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique.

  4. Analysis on Resources Utilization of Thermal Power Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mi Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis and comparison of coal, oil and water consumptions in thermal power plants, thispaper introduces the present state of resources utilization in thermal power industry, and points out that the poten-tial of resources saving lies mainly in cutting down coal consumption and increasing the ratio of large-sized thermalunits. Measures and suggestions for upgrading resources utilization are put forward, such as to optimize coal-firedthermal power structure, develop cogeneration, clean coal combustion techniques and gas-steam combined cycletechniques. The existing thermal power plants shall execute technical retrofits and popularize water saving techniques.

  5. Recent Trends in Renewable Energy Resources for Power Generation in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Ho Noh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for renewable energy in recent decades has continued to increase, despite adverse economic conditions such as world economic recessions, trade disputes, and falls in gas and oil prices. During this period, the United States and Europe have led the development of renewable energy technologies, but now emerging countries such as China, Brazil, India, and the Republic of Korea are also been actively participating in developing and deploying renewable energy. For example, since 1989, the Korea Electric Power Corporation has built a well-known test site for the application of renewable energy resources, including 500 kW photovoltaic systems with smooth integration into power grids in the Gochang area. The main objects of this study are (1 to review the recent trends in renewable energy systems, including solar, wind, bioenergy, hydroelectric, and tidal power, for electric power generation developed in Korea and (2 to introduce the test sites in Korea. For this purpose, this study examines the current activities of industry and government in Korea and compares them with global trends.

  6. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Junfeng, Li [Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  7. Bioconversion of renewable resources into ethanol: An economic evaluation of selected hydrolysis, fermentation, and membrane technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, N. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; Manderson, G.J. [Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand). Dept. of Process and Environmental Technology

    1995-03-01

    Four renewable agricultural resources were considered in a process design analysis for the industrial production of ethanol. Raw materials considered were wood, molasses, whey permeate, and starch. Final fermentation substrates were diluted and/or concentrated to give equivalent sugar concentrations for each case. Renewable resource costs were expressed as $/kg of sugar rather than /kg of the raw material. Molasses sugars were cheaper than sugars derived from the other raw materials. Various fermentation technologies were considered, including continuous culture and cell recycle. Ethanol recovery was examined using pervaporation and costs compared with distillation. The effects on ethanol prices of raw material costs, fermentation technology, product recovery, tax, plant size, and Lang factor are presented. Cultures of Candida shehatae, Zymomonas mobilis, Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (with Zymomonas mobilis) were used, depending on the substrate. The report identifies the most appropriate technologies in terms of final ethanol price.

  8. Utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumathi, S.; Chai, S.P.; Mohamed, A.R. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2008-12-15

    Malaysia is currently the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia produces about 47% of the world's supply of palm oil. Malaysia also accounts the highest percentage of global vegetable oils and fats trade in year 2005. Besides producing oils and fats, at present there is a continuous increasing interest concerning oil palm renewable energy. One of the major attentions is bio-diesel from palm oil. Bio-diesel implementation in Malaysia is important because of environmental protection and energy supply security reasons. This palm oil bio-diesel is biodegradable, non-toxic, and has significantly fewer emissions than petroleum-based diesel (petro-diesel) when burned. In addition to this oil, palm is also a well-known plant for its other sources of renewable energy, for example huge quantities of biomass by-products are developed to produce value added products such as methane gas, bio-plastic, organic acids, bio-compost, ply-wood, activated carbon, and animal feedstock. Even waste effluent; palm oil mill effluent (POME) has been converted to produce energy. Oil palm has created many opportunities and social benefits for the locals. In the above perspective, the objective of the present work is to give a concise and up-to-date picture of the present status of oil palm industry enhancing sustainable and renewable energy. This work also aims to identify the prospects of Malaysian oil palm industry towards utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy. (author)

  9. Potential renewable energy resources of the Lerma Valley, Salta, Argentina for its strategic territorial planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte, S.; Viramonte, J.G. [Instituto GEONORTE, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Salta and CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150, Salta CP 4400 (Argentina); Nunez, V. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Ecodesarrollo (IRNED), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Salta, Avda. Bolivia 5150, Campo Castanares, Salta CP 4400 (Argentina); Franco, J. [Instituto Nacional de Energias No Convencionales (INENCO), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de Salta, CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150, Salta CP 4400 (Argentina)

    2009-08-15

    Renewable energy sources are considered as strategic opportunities to improve the population's quality of life, to promote the development of more efficient and equitable economic systems, and to favor environmental sustainability in the territorial planning of Lerma Valley (Salta, Argentina). The mapping in raster format (each pixel having a reference value) of the potential renewable energy sources (solar, wind, biomass, hydraulic, mixed) is essential to define ideal locations for different types of renewable applications, and to plan suitable strategies for its implementation. It is necessary considering environmental diversity and site conditions (topographic, natural resource, infrastructure and service availability, social and economical) of the intervention area. Different methodologies are used for mapping of potential energy resources. Solar radiation is spatialized through the application of statistical regressions between altitude, latitude, precise incident solar radiation records, and radiation data estimated with the Geosol V.2.0. trademark software. The Argentina Map program is used for the wind potential resource modeling. It requires as inputs: a Digital Elevation Model, a land use and cover map (to determine roughness), and measured and/or estimated wind speed and frequency data. The hydroelectric potential for microturbine applications is calculated from the topographic drop and the annual mean flow in cumulative models, through the application of the Idrisi Kilimanjaro trademark 's runoff tool; while the power densities are compared at the watershed. Biomass potential (at this exploratory stage), is interpreted from the available biomass type (land use and cover map), its energy application availability, and some quantitative indicators associated with the biomass types identified as priority. In conclusion, the renewable energy potential in Lerma Valley is very high and diverse, and its close connection with social

  10. Using modeling, satellite images and existing global datasets for rapid preliminary assessments of renewable energy resources: The case of Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Rasmussen, K.; Badger, Jake

    2010-01-01

    in the irrigated areas of the Niger inland delta that might be interesting from a renewable energy resource perspective. Finally, the paper discusses the role that renewable energy resources might play in the energy systems of Mali, given the spatio-temporal distribution of renewable energy resources. It is argued...... that at the current price of about 70 US$/barrel for fossil fuels, renewable energy resources are becoming economically as well as environmentally attractive options.......This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing...

  11. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  12. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  13. Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Jasemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to technical and economic reasons, the distributed generation (DG units are widely connected to the low and medium voltage network and created a new structure called micro-grid. Renewable energies (especially wind and solar based DGs are one of the most important generations units among DG units. Because of stochastic behavior of these resources, the optimum and safe management and operation of micro-grids has become one of the research priorities for researchers. So, in this study, the optimal operation of a typical micro-grid is investigated in order to maximize the penetration of renewable energy sources with the lowest operation cost with respect to the limitations for the load supply and the distributed generation resources. The understudy micro-grid consists of diesel generator, battery, wind turbines and photovoltaic panels. The objective function comprises of fuel cost, start-up cost, spinning reserve cost, power purchasing cost from the upstream grid and the sales revenue of the power to the upstream grid. In this paper, the uncertainties of demand, wind speed and solar radiation are considered and the optimization will be made by using the GAMS software and mixed integer planning method (MIP. Article History: Received May 21, 2016; Received in revised form July 11, 2016; Accepted October 15, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Jasemi, M.,  Adabi, F., Mozafari, B., and Salahi, S. (2016 Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation, Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3,233-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.233-248

  14. Pneumatic Regolith Transfer Systems for In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Mantovani, J. G.; Zacny, Kris A.; Craft, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing of a pneumatic system for transfering regolith, to be used for In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Using both the simulated microgravity of parabolic flight and ground testing, the tests demonstrated that lunar regolith can be conveyed pneumatically into a simulated ISRU oxygen production plant reactor. The ground testing also demonstrated that the regolith can be expelled from the ISRU reactor for disposal or for other resource processing.

  15. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  16. Renewable resources in industry. Industrial use of agricultural and wood raw materials in Germany. 3. compl. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Dietmar

    2010-11-17

    The ''Action Plan for the Industrial Use of Renewable Resources'' that was adopted by the German Federal Government in 2009 is an important impulse for promoting the industrial use of renewable resources parallel to their use for energy generation. The Action Plan sets forth a broad vision, not only for a significant and sustainable increase in the proportion of biomass used in industry but also for an improvement in the efficiency of biomass use in ensuring Germany's raw material supplies while taking into account the objectives and requirements of sustainability strategies. It also aims to secure and advance Germany's role as an international leader in the industrial use of renewable resources. This brochure provides an overview of the possible industrial uses of renewable resources in Germany and illustrates the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play in today's industry. (orig.)

  17. Utilizing hydropower for load balancing non-storable renewable energy sources - technical and environmental challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsen, K. T.; Killingtveit, A.

    2011-12-01

    About 99% of the total energy production in Norway comes from hydropower, and the total production of about 120 TWh makes Norway Europe's largest hydropower producer. Most hydropower systems in Norway are based on high-head plants with mountain storage reservoirs and tunnels transporting water from the reservoirs to the power plants. In total, Norwegian reservoirs contributes around 50% of the total energy storage capacity in Europe. Current strategies to reduce emission of greenhouse gases from energy production involve increased focus on renewable energy sources, e.g. the European Union's 202020 goal in which renewable energy sources should be 20% of the total energy production by 2020. To meet this goal new renewable energy installations must be developed on a large scale in the coming years, and wind power is the main focus for new developments. Hydropower can contribute directly to increase renewable energy through new development or extensions to existing systems, but maybe even more important is the potential to use hydropower systems with storage for load balancing in a system with increased amount of non-storable renewable energies. Even if new storage technologies are under development, hydro storage is the only technology available on a large scale and the most economical feasible alternative. In this respect the Norwegian system has a high potential both through direct use of existing reservoirs and through an increased development of pump storage plants utilizing surplus wind energy to pump water and then producing during periods with low wind input. Through cables to Europe, Norwegian hydropower could also provide balance power for the North European market. Increased peaking and more variable operation of the current hydropower system will present a number of technical and environmental challenges that needs to be identified and mitigated. A more variable production will lead to fluctuating flow in receiving rivers and reservoirs, and it will also

  18. Biosurfactants' Production from Renewable Natural Resources: Example of Innovativeand Smart Technology in Circular Bioeconomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Surekha K.; Płaza, Grażyna A.; Banpurkar, Arun G.

    2017-03-01

    A strong developed bio-based industrial sector will significantly reduce dependency on fossil resources, help the countries meet climate change targets, and lead to greener and more environmental friendly growth. The key is to develop new technologies to sustainably transform renewable natural resources into bio-based products and biofuels. Biomass is a valuable resource and many parameters need to be taken in to account when assessing its use and the products made from its. The bioeconomy encompass the production of renewable biological resources and their conversion into food, feed and bio-based products (chemicals, materials and fuels) via innovative and efficient technologies provided by industrial biotechnology. The paper presents the smart and efficient way to use the agro-industrial, dairy and food processing wastes for biosurfactant's production. Clarification processes are mandatory to use the raw substrates for microbial growth as well as biosurfactant production for commercial purposes. At the same time it is very essential to retain the nutritional values of those cheap substrates. Broad industrial perspectives can be achieved when quality as well as the quantity of the biosurfactant is considered in great depth. Since substrates resulting from food processing, dairy, animal fat industries are not explored in great details; and hence are potential areas which can be explored thoroughly.

  19. BIOSURFACTANTS’ PRODUCTION FROM RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES: EXAMPLE OF INNOVATIVEAND SMART TECHNOLOGY IN CIRCULAR BIOECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha K. SATPUTE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A strong developed bio-based industrial sector will significantly reduce dependency on fossil resources, help the coun-tries meet climate change targets, and lead to greener and more environmental friendly growth. The key is to develop new technologies to sustainably transform renewable natural resources into bio-based products and biofuels. Biomass is a valuable resource and many parameters need to be taken in to account when assessing its use and the products made from its. The bioeconomy encompass the production of renewable biological resources and their conversion into food, feed and bio-based products (chemicals, materials and fuels via innovative and efficient technologies provided by indus-trial biotechnology. The paper presents the smart and efficient way to use the agro-industrial, dairy and food processing wastes for biosurfactant’s production. Clarification processes are mandatory to use the raw substrates for microbial growth as well as biosurfactant production for commercial purposes. At the same time it is very essential to retain the nutritional values of those cheap substrates. Broad industrial perspectives can be achieved when quality as well as the quantity of the biosurfactant is considered in great depth. Since substrates resulting from food processing, dairy, animal fat industries are not explored in great details; and hence are potential areas which can be explored thoroughly.

  20. Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets in a Cabon-Constrained Electricity Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-31

    The benchmark goal that drives the report is to achieve a 20 percent reduction in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in Colorado's electricity sector below 2005 levels by 2020. We refer to this as the '20 x 20 goal.' In discussing how to meet this goal, the report concentrates particularly on the role of utility-scale renewable energy and high-voltage transmission. An underlying recognition is that any proposed actions must not interfere with electric system reliability and should minimize financial impacts on customers and utilities. The report also describes the goals of Colorado's New Energy Economy5 - identified here, in summary, as the integration of energy, environment, and economic policies that leads to an increased quality of life in Colorado. We recognize that a wide array of options are under constant consideration by professionals in the electric industry, and the regulatory community. Many options are under discussion on this topic, and the costs and benefits of the options are inherently difficult to quantify. Accordingly, this report should not be viewed as a blueprint with specific recommendations for the timing, siting, and sizing of generating plants and high-voltage transmission lines. We convened the project with the goal of supplying information inputs for consideration by the state's electric utilities, legislators, regulators, and others as we work creatively to shape our electricity sector in a carbon-constrained world. The report addresses various issues that were raised in the Connecting Colorado's Renewable Resources to the Markets report, also known as the SB07-91 Report. That report was produced by the Senate Bill 2007-91 Renewable Resource Generation Development Areas Task Force and presented to the Colorado General Assembly in 2007. The SB07-91 Report provided the Governor, the General Assembly, and the people of Colorado with an assessment of the capability of Colorado's utility-scale renewable

  1. Space Resource Utilization: Technologies and Potential Synergism with Terrestrial Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    Space Resources and Their Uses: The idea of using resources in space to support human exploration and settlement or for economic development and profit beyond the surface of Earth has been proposed and discussed for decades. Work on developing a method to extract oxygen from lunar regolith started even before humans set foot on the Moon for the first time. The use of space resources, commonly referred to as In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), involves the processes and operations to harness and utilize resources in space (both natural and discarded) to create products for subsequent use. Potential space resources include water, solar wind implanted volatiles (hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, etc.), vast quantities of metals and minerals in extraterrestrial soils, atmospheric constituents, unlimited solar energy, regions of permanent light and darkness, the vacuum and zero-gravity of space itself, trash and waste from human crew activities, and discarded hardware that has completed its primary purpose. ISRU covers a wide variety of concepts, technical disciplines, technologies, and processes. When considering all aspects of ISRU, there are 5 main areas that are relevant to human space exploration and the commercialization of space: 1. Resource Characterization and Mapping, 2. In Situ Consumables Production, 3. Civil Engineering and Construction, 4. In Situ Energy Production and Storage, and 5. In Situ Manufacturing.

  2. Assessment of Global Wind Energy Resource Utilization Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M.; He, B.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, H.; Song, S.

    2017-09-01

    Development of wind energy resource (WER) is a key to deal with climate change and energy structure adjustment. A crucial issue is to obtain the distribution and variability of WER, and mine the suitable location to exploit it. In this paper, a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) model is constructed by integrating resource richness and stability, utilization value and trend of resource, natural environment with weights. The global resource richness is assessed through wind power density (WPD) and multi-level wind speed. The utilizable value of resource is assessed by the frequency of effective wind. The resource stability is assessed by the coefficient of variation of WPD and the frequency of prevailing wind direction. Regression slope of long time series WPD is used to assess the trend of WER. All of the resource evaluation indicators are derived from the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim with spatial resolution 0.125°. The natural environment factors mainly refer to slope and land-use suitability, which are derived from multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED 2010) and GlobalCover2009. Besides, the global WER utilization potential map is produced, which shows most high potential regions are located in north of Africa. Additionally, by verifying that 22.22 % and 48.8 9% operational wind farms fall on medium-high and high potential regions respectively, the result can provide a basis for the macroscopic siting of wind farm.

  3. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance U.S. Army – Project 276 Renewable Resource Development on Department of Defense Bases in Alaska: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, William M.

    2010-09-30

    The potential to increase utilization of renewable energy sources among military facilities in Alaska through coordinated development and operation is the premise of this task. The US Army Pacific Command requested assistance from PNNL to help develop a more complete understanding of the context for wheeling power within Alaska, including legal and regulatory barriers that may prohibit the DOD facilities from wheeling power among various locations to optimize the development and use of renewable resources.

  4. Palm olein ozonation as a renewable resource: spectroscopic analysis for monitoring the degree of saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmi, Bilal A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Bakar Mohamed, Abu

    2013-12-01

    The manufacturing of organic compounds by environmentally-friendly methods has been intensively reexamined in recent years. Several excellent methods have been devised to produce organic compounds from renewable resources. The ozonation is one of the high active oxidation methods which lead to producion of organic compounds by the breaking of double bonds. Palm olein as a renewable source is subjected to the ozonation process to break the double bond which leads to the formation of two carbonyl groups as well described by Criegee mechanism. The monitoring of the degree of saturation was obtained by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) by observing the change in function groups as a result of ozone consumption and heat of reaction. The reaction time was 2 hrs at different temperatures and without any solvent or participating catalyst. The complete cleavage of a double bond occurred at 150 °C temperature of reaction.

  5. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 1. Northeast Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Northeast Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK).

  6. Terpene and dextran renewable resources for the synthesis of amphiphilic biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvès, Marie-Hélène; Sfeir, Huda; Tranchant, Jean-François; Gombart, Emilie; Sagorin, Gilles; Caillol, Sylvain; Billon, Laurent; Save, Maud

    2014-01-13

    The present work shows the synthesis of amphiphilic polymers based on the hydrophilic dextran and the hydrophobic terpenes as renewable resources. The first step concerns the synthesis of functional terpene molecules by thiol-ene addition chemistry involving amino or carboxylic acid thiols and dihydromyrcenol terpene. The terpene-modified polysaccharides were subsequently synthesized by coupling the functional terpenes with dextran. A reductive amination step produced terpene end-modified dextran with 94% of functionalization, while the esterification step produced three terpene-grafted dextrans with a number of terpene units per dextran of 1, 5, and 10. The amphiphilic renewable grafted polymers were tested as emulsifiers for the stabilization of liquid miniemulsion of terpene droplets dispersed in an aqueous phase. The average hydrodynamic diameter of the stable droplets was observed at about 330 nm.

  7. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 3. Southern Solar Energy Center Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Southern Solar Energy Center Region. (WHK)

  8. June, 2015 Utilization of Reference Resources and Services by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of Reference Resources and Services by Users of Benue State. Public Library, Makurdi ... reference staff will guarantee user satisfaction and solve information apathy. Keywords: reference .... system of training and evaluation targeted specifically at the ... quality reference collection is hard to come by. The librarian ...

  9. Maize Genetic Resources Collections – Utilizing a Treasure Trove

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maize genetic resource collection managed by the USDA-ARS's National Plant Germplasm System is heavily utilized by researchers and educators. A collection of landraces, inbred lines from public and private sector sources, synthetics and key populations, it serves both as a living snapshot of th...

  10. Geothermal resource utilization: paper and cane sugar industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornburg, C.D.; Morin, O.J.

    1975-03-01

    This study was made as a specific contribution to an overall report by the United States in the area of industrial utilization of geothermal resources. This is part of an overall study in non-electrical uses of geothermal resources for a sub-committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This study was restricted to the geopressured zone along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast. Also, it was limited to utilizing the thermal energy of this ''geoenergy'' resource for process use in the Pulp and Paper Industry and Cane Sugar Industry. For the selected industries and resource area, this report sets forth energy requirements; identifies specific plant and sites; includes diagrams of main processes used; describes process and equipment modifications required; describes energy recovery systems; sets forth waste disposal schemes and problems; and establishes the economics involved. The scope of work included considerable data collection, analysis and documentation. Detailed technical work was done concerning existing processes and modifications to effectively utilize geothermal energy. A brief survey was made of other industries to determine which of these has a high potential for utilizing geothermal energy.

  11. LiDAR utility for natural resource managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Thomas Hudak; Jeffrey Scott Evans; Alistair Mattthew Stuart. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Applications of LiDAR remote sensing are exploding, while moving from the research to the operational realm. Increasingly, natural resource managers are recognizing the tremendous utility of LiDAR-derived information to make improved decisions. This review provides a cross-section of studies, many recent, that demonstrate the relevance of LiDAR across a suite of...

  12. Renewable Energy Potential of Greenland with emphasis on wind resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kasper Rønnow

    of Profitable (required returns of investment), more can economically be saved by replacing outdated equipment. The renewable energy potential for both solar and wind was relatively high, with solar radiation above 1000 kWh=m2=year and mean wind speeds of 6.1 m/s at 10 MAG. For a 50 kWp PV installation the 25...... sources, such as wind and solar power. The biggest barriers to implementing these sources are lack of knowledge about the resources and their geographical distribution. In this project, different sources and methods for wind resource assessment are studied, with a focus on their performance in the complex...... areas. First, the existing ground-based measurements (Climate stations) were studied to determine applicability for wind resource estimation, and for many of the stations, a high local effect, inhomogeneous time series, and deviance from the WMO guidelines were found. The next step was to design...

  13. Direct Heat Utilization of Geothermal Resources Worldwide 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Direct utilization of geothermal energy consists of various forms for heating and cooling instead of converting the energy for electric power generation. The geothermal resources that can be utilized are in the lower temperature range that are more wide-spread than the higher temperature resources used for electricity generation. The major areas of direct utilization are: heating of swimming pools and for balneology; space heating and cooling including district heating; agriculture applications (greenhouse heating and crop drying); aquaculture applications; industrial processing; and geothermal heat pumps. Direct utilization projects are reported in 72 countries with an installed capacity of 28,268 MWt and annual energy use of 273,372 TJ (75,943 GWh) reported in 2005. The equivalent annual savings in fuel oil amounts to 170 million barrels (25.4 million tonnes) and 24 million tonnes in carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Recent trends are to combined geothermal heat and power projects in order to maximize the use of the resource and improve the economics of the project. With the recent increases in fossil fuel prices, it is estimated that direct utilizations will more than double in the next 10 years.

  14. A Lunar Electromagnetic Launch System for In-Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael R.; Kuznetsov, Steven B.; Kloesel, Kurt J.

    2010-01-01

    Future human exploration of the moon will require the development of capabilities for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Transport of lunar-derived commodities such as fuel and oxygen to orbiting resource depots has been proposed to enable refueling landers or other vehicles. A lunar electromagnetic launch (LEML) system could be an effective means of transporting materials, as an alternative to non-renewable chemical-based propulsion systems. An example LEML concept is presented based on previous studies, existing EML technologies, and NASA's human exploration architecture. A preliminary assessment of the cost-versus-benefit of such a system is also offered; the conclusion, however, is not as favorable for LEML as originally suggested.

  15. The sustainable utilization of human resources in global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Hansen, Mette Sanne

    2010-01-01

    This empirical paper investigates the challenges global product development faces in regard to a sustainable utilization of resources through case studies and interviews in six Danish multinational corporations. Findings revealed 3 key challenges, which relates to increased rework in product...... development and production, overlapping work and a lack of utilization of knowledge and information at the supplier or subsidiary. The authors suggest the use of strategic simulation in order to gain greater transparency in the global network and thus utilize resources better. Strategic simulation...... is the combination of numerical and narrative simulation and can be used as a tool to support strategic decisions regarding different scenarios. The use of this method promotes an ongoing iterative process to constantly clarify points of uncertainty and enhance adaptability in order to promote a sustainable process....

  16. Legal regulation on utilization of natural resources of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Azem Hajdari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo is part of South-Eastern Europe, inside the Balkan Pe-ninsula. It has a surface area of 10.877 square kilometres, surroun-ded by Albania, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro.[1] Kosovo for-ms a geographical unit surrounded by impressive mountains and hills.[2] Kosovo’s location in the centre of the Balkan Peninsula defi-nes itself as the crossroad of important terrestrial routes, crossing from Northern and Central Europe towards South and West Euro-pe.[3] The Kosovo’s relief, taken in general, is a mountainous one. Kosovo does have agricultural land, which is generally arable, considerable forest land, large water bodies, flora and fauna rich areas, and considerable ground resources.[4] These and other resources Kosovo is endowed with represent the key supporting factors of Kosovo’s development, current and future. In fact, as any other country, Kosovo is also characterized by limiting elements in terms of extent of natural resources that may be available for utilization. As it is widely known, in conditions of free market economy and privatization, possibilities of ensuring a proper planning for the utilization of all natural resources available are considerably relative. Setting from the fact that there are no inexhaustible resources, it is necessary that relevant mechanisms are in place and authority to undertake all possible measures to provide for a diligent and rational utilization thereof. To achieve such a goal, modern countries, including Kosovo, have passed relevant laws. Setting from such terms, this article aims to present the current situation of Kosovo in terms of legal norms on utilization of natural resources it is endowed with. [1] Kosovo, an encyclopaedic view, Tirana, 1999, pg. 7. [2] Kosovo, a short history, Noel Malcolm, Tirana, 2001, pg. 1. [3] Kosovo, an encyclopaedic view, Tirana, 1999, pg. 8. [4] Ibid, pgs. 26-44.

  17. Agricultural Commercialisation, Diversification, and Conservation of Renewable Resources in Northern Thailand Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Trébuil

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of commercialisation-diversification in the highlands of upper northern Thailand and the accompanying dismissal of self-subsistence are documented based on the findings from seven case studies carried out in different agricultural and social situations during the past decade. The characteristics of the key driving forces powering this agrarian transition such as rapid economic growth, decrease in the share of labour employed in the agriculture, urbanization and changes in food consumption patterns, and improved communication infrastructures, are presented in the Thai context. The environmental impact of these profound agrarian transformations on the degradation of key renewable resources, particularly soil erosion, is assessed. Their socio-economic consequences on an extensive differentiation among farming households and equity issues are also discussed. Finally the authors draw several lessons from this Thai experience that illustrate the very strong adaptive capacity of small highland farmers. They could be useful in similar agro-ecological zones of neighbouring countries that are presently experiencing the same kind of agricultural transition in the Montane Mainland Southeast Asia ecoregion. Particularly, the article underlines the need for more holistic and integrated approaches to agricultural development and the management of renewable resources in highland agro-ecosystems to alleviate poverty while conserving the resource base.

  18. Resource constraints in a hydrogen economy based on renewable energy sources: An exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleijn, Rene; Voet, Ester van der [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    In order to tackle climate change, a transition to a renewable based energy system is crucial. A renewable based hydrogen economy is one of the possible implementations of such a system. The world receives ample energy from the sun that can be harvested by PV solar cells and, indirectly, by wind turbines. In order to use the most optimal locations for collecting and concentrating energy from these diffuse sources, a long distance transmission network is needed. Mature and semi-mature technologies are available for all parts of the system: from collection to transmission to end-use. In an early stage of development, when new technologies have to win market share from the existing energy system, their development is driven almost exclusively by the reduction of costs per J delivered. However, if a technology should be able to deliver tens to hundreds of EJ, resource constraints can become show stoppers. Many of the newest, most cost-efficient, energy technologies make use of scarce resources and, although they may play an important role in the transition process, they can not be scaled up the level we need for a complete transition. In most cases however other technologies are available that use more abundant materials, be it often at a cost of efficiency. The issue is not only with scarce resources. The sheer size of the energy transition will also challenge the industrial capacity for the mining and production of bulk materials like steel and copper. (author)

  19. Prospects for wider energetic utilization of subgeothermal water resources: Eastern Serbia case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive worldwide usage of fossil energy sources causes high pollution and contributes to global warming. Hence, achieving energy independence by stimulating efficient use of energy and environmentally friendly exploitation of renewable sources is a main orientation of European countries. Geothermal energy is generally treated as a renewable and inexhaustible energy source. Nonetheless, direct use of low enthalpy subgeothermal resources, i.e. groundwater of 30.C or lower, for heating is commonly viewed as economically unjustified. To enable its usage, large panel surfaces or a high-temperature heat pump with excellent efficiency is required. The development of a cascade type heat pump and its wide application would enable more efficient utilization of widely available and easy replenished groundwater sources with temperatures of 10-30.C. The hydrogeological conditions in eastern Serbia are particularly favourable for exploitation of subgeothermal resources due to rich aquifer systems and notable terrestrial heat flow formed into the main geo-structures of the region (Carpathian-Balkan arch and Dachian basin. More intensive exploitation of subgeothermal sources additionally justifies the existence of a number of urbanized small and medium-size cities with a heating infrastructure already developed and centralized. Sustainable use of groundwater resources should be followed by thermal reconstruction of the previously constructed buildings as well as new legislation which supports and encourages development of renewable energy sources. It is estimated that the total potential thermal power which can be generated from subgeothermal waters in the study area is around 33 MWt, which corresponds to some 16 % of the total heat requirements.

  20. Creative utilization of geothermal resources; Chinetsu shigen wo sozotekini tsukao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamiya, R. [Yamagata Research Institute of Technology, Yamagata (Japan)

    1993-10-31

    This paper explains the current status of geothermal and hot spring energy utilization and its problems in promoting the utilization. Although Japan has ten geothermal power plants, that is a high-level utilization of geothermal resources, new power plant construction is facing a difficulty because of undeveloped exploration techniques, exorbitant amount of boring cost, and harmonization with the natural environment. A large quantity of hot water wells up from production wells for geothermal power generation in addition to steam, whereas effective utilization of the hot water is desired. The Kakkonda and Onuma areas are utilizing the hot water for hot water supply to hotels, organized horticulture, and snow melting. Geothermal water utilization has such problems that hot water is used in locations far away from an energy utilizing area and that no technologies have been established to prevent and remove scales deposited in heat exchangers and other apparatuses. Acidic hot spring that wells up naturally has advantages of requiring no water pumping cost, being abundant in gushing quantity and high in temperature. Although it has a drawback of being prone to corrode metals, expanded utilization is desirable. Kusatsu Township uses it for warm-water swimming pools, room heating, and road heating. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Progress of succinic acid production from renewable resources: Metabolic and fermentative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Wu, Mingke; Liu, Rongming; Liang, Liya; Xin, Fengxue; Zhang, Wenming; Jia, Honghua; Dong, Weiliang

    2017-06-03

    Succinic acid is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid, which has attracted much interest due to its abroad usage as a precursor of many industrially important chemicals in the food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical industries. Facing the shortage of crude oil supply and demand of sustainable development, biological production of succinic acid from renewable resources has become a topic of worldwide interest. In recent decades, robust producing strain selection, metabolic engineering of model strains, and process optimization for succinic acid production have been developed. This review provides an overview of succinic acid producers and cultivation technology, highlight some of the successful metabolic engineering approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Load Forecasting in Electric Utility Integrated Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvallo, Juan Pablo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sanstad, Alan H [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is a process used by many vertically-integrated U.S. electric utilities to determine least-cost/risk supply and demand-side resources that meet government policy objectives and future obligations to customers and, in many cases, shareholders. Forecasts of energy and peak demand are a critical component of the IRP process. There have been few, if any, quantitative studies of IRP long-run (planning horizons of two decades) load forecast performance and its relationship to resource planning and actual procurement decisions. In this paper, we evaluate load forecasting methods, assumptions, and outcomes for 12 Western U.S. utilities by examining and comparing plans filed in the early 2000s against recent plans, up to year 2014. We find a convergence in the methods and data sources used. We also find that forecasts in more recent IRPs generally took account of new information, but that there continued to be a systematic over-estimation of load growth rates during the period studied. We compare planned and procured resource expansion against customer load and year-to-year load growth rates, but do not find a direct relationship. Load sensitivities performed in resource plans do not appear to be related to later procurement strategies even in the presence of large forecast errors. These findings suggest that resource procurement decisions may be driven by other factors than customer load growth. Our results have important implications for the integrated resource planning process, namely that load forecast accuracy may not be as important for resource procurement as is generally believed, that load forecast sensitivities could be used to improve the procurement process, and that management of load uncertainty should be prioritized over more complex forecasting techniques.

  3. Analysis of Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian

    2015-06-30

    Full realization of the potential of what might be considered “low-grade” geothermal resources will require that we examine many more uses for the heat than traditional electricity generation. To demonstrate that geothermal energy truly has the potential to be a national energy source we will be designing, assessing, and evaluating innovative uses for geothermal-produced water such as hybrid biomass-geothermal cogeneration of electricity and district heating and efficiency improvements to the use of cellulosic biomass in addition to utilization of geothermal in district heating for community redevelopment projects. The objectives of this project were: 1) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the integration and utilization potential of low-temperature geothermal sources. Innovative uses of low-enthalpy geothermal water were designed and examined for their ability to offset fossil fuels and decrease CO2 emissions. 2) To perform process optimizations and economic analyses of processes that can utilize low-temperature geothermal fluids. These processes included electricity generation using biomass and district heating systems. 3) To scale up and generalize the results of three case study locations to develop a regionalized model of the utilization of low-temperature geothermal resources. A national-level, GIS-based, low-temperature geothermal resource supply model was developed and used to develop a series of national supply curves. We performed an in-depth analysis of the low-temperature geothermal resources that dominate the eastern half of the United States. The final products of this study include 17 publications, an updated version of the cost estimation software GEOPHIRES, and direct-use supply curves for low-temperature utilization of geothermal resources. The supply curves for direct use geothermal include utilization from known hydrothermal, undiscovered hydrothermal, and near-hydrothermal EGS resources and presented these results at the Stanford

  4. Banana biomass as potential renewable energy resource: A Malaysian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tock, Jing Yan; Lai, Chin Lin; Lee, Keat Teong; Tan, Kok Tat; Bhatia, Subhash [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    The world has been relying on fossil fuels as its primary source of energy. This unsustainable energy source is not going to last long and thus, gradual shift towards green renewable energy should be practiced. In Malaysia, even though fossil fuel dominates the energy production, renewable energies such as hydropower and biomass are gaining popularity due to the implementation of energy policies and greater understanding on the importance of green energy. Malaysia has been well endowed with natural resources in areas such as agriculture and forestry. Thus, with the availability of feedstock, biomass energy is practical to be conducted and oil palm topped the ranking as biomass source here because of its high production. However, new sources should be sought after as to avoid the over dependency on a single source. Hence, other agriculture biomass should be considered such as banana plant biomass. This paper will discuss on its potential as a new biomass source in Malaysia. Banana plant is chosen as the subject due to its availability, high growth rates, carbon neutrality and the fact that it bears fruit only once a lifetime. Conversion of the biomass to energy can be done via combustion, supercritical water gasification and digestion to produce thermal energy and biogas. The theoretical potential power generation calculated reached maximum of 950 MW meeting more than half of the renewable energy requirement in the Fifth Fuel Policy (Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001-2005). Thus, banana biomass is feasible as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia and also other similar tropical countries in the world. (author)

  5. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  6. Addressing human resources issues in the renewable energy sector : partnership opportunities with HRSDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venne, J. [Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the sectoral initiatives of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) and provides a brief update on its work with renewable energy industries. The Sector Council Program supports research initiatives and activities proposed by sector councils, as well as ad-hoc national sector organizations working on skills and learning issues. The program also supports the establishment of new partnerships in sectors of the economy that are experiencing difficulties with human resources and skills issues. Details of HRSDC's occupational and skills initiatives were provided, including national occupational classification, national occupational standards and career awareness products. HRSDC is also a partner with the Canadian Apprenticeship Forum as well as maintaining an involvement in the development of national occupational analyses for trades. In addition, HRSDC works to improve processes for the assessment and recognition of foreign credentials in Canada for both regulated and non-regulated occupations. Current activities with renewable energy industries included a feasibility assessment with preliminary results. tabs., figs.

  7. Biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources by Neurospora crassa: an alternative to conventional yeast fermentations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris

    2013-02-01

    Microbial production of ethanol might be a potential route to replace oil and chemical feedstocks. Bioethanol is by far the most common biofuel in use worldwide. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising renewable resource for fuel bioethanol production. Bioconversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol consists of four major unit operations: pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and product separation/distillation. Conventional bioethanol processes for lignocellulosics apply commercial fungal cellulase enzymes for biomass hydrolysis, followed by yeast fermentation of resulting glucose to ethanol. The fungus Neurospora crassa has been used extensively for genetic, biochemical, and molecular studies as a model organism. However, the strain's potential in biotechnological applications has not been widely investigated and discussed. The fungus N. crassa has the ability to synthesize and secrete all three enzyme types involved in cellulose hydrolysis as well as various enzymes for hemicellulose degradation. In addition, N. crassa has been reported to convert to ethanol hexose and pentose sugars, cellulose polymers, and agro-industrial residues. The combination of these characteristics makes N. crassa a promising alternative candidate for biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources. This review consists of an overview of the ethanol process from lignocellulosic biomass, followed by cellulases and hemicellulases production, ethanol fermentations of sugars and lignocellulosics, and industrial application potential of N. crassa.

  8. Industrial bioconversion of renewable resources as an alternative to conventional chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, Th; Vorlop, K-D

    2004-12-01

    There are numerous possibilities for replacing chemical techniques with biotechnological methods based on renewable resources. The potential of biotechnology (products, technologies, metabolic pathways) is for the most part well known. Often the costs are still the problem. Biotechnological advances have the best chances for replacing some fine chemicals. While the raw material costs are less of a consideration here, the environmental benefit is huge, as chemical-technical processes often produce a wide range of undesirable/harmful by-products or waste. In the case of bulk chemicals (<1 US dollar/kg) the product price is affected mainly by raw material costs. As long as fossil raw materials are still relatively inexpensive, alternatives based on renewable resources cannot establish themselves. Residues and waste, which are available even at no cost in some cases, are an exception. The introduction of new technologies for the efficient use of such raw materials is currently being promoted. The utilisation of residual wood, plant parts, waste fat, and crude glycerol, for example, provides great potential. For industrial chemicals (2-4 US dollars/kg), process and recovery costs play a greater role. Here, innovative production technologies and product recovery techniques (e.g. on-line product separation) can increase competitiveness.

  9. 2nd U.S.-Australia Workshop on Renewable Resource Management

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Yosef; Grantham, Walter; Kirkwood, Geoffrey; Skowronski, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This vol ume contains the proceedings of the second U. S. -Austral ia workshop on Renewable Resource Management held at the East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, December 9-12, 1985. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the National Science Foundation (USA) and the Department of Science and Technology (Austral ia) under the U. S. -Austral ia Cooperative Science Program. The objective of the workshop was to focus on problems associated with the management of renewable resource systems. A particular emphasis was given to methods for handling uncertain elements whieh are present in any real system. Toward this end, the partiei pants were chosen so that the collective expertise included mathematical modeling, dynamical control/game theory, ecology, and practical management of real systems. Each participant was invited to give an informal presentation in his field of expertise as related to the overall theme. The formal papers (contained in this vo 1 ume) were written after the workshop so that the authors coul d u...

  10. Of all the planet's renewable resources, fresh water may be the most unforgiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Access to water is essential to social and economic development and the stability of cultures and civilizations throughout the world historically. The UN Commission on Sustainable Development in mid-1993 emphasized the importance of transfer of technology to poor countries for improvement in water quality. Less attention has been given to the issue of water availability. The amount of fresh water is finite. The capacity for storage of water has increased over time, but commodity expansion has not improved. Salinization processes have proven to be too costly in dollars, pollution, and nonrenewable fossil fuels. As population grows, the average amount of fresh water available declines. Improvements can only be made in efficiency of usage or conservation. Per capita use of water doubled to 800 cubic meters per person per year. But global use of water increased by 4 times in 50 years. Only 2.5% of the world's 1.4 billion cubic kilometers of water is fit for drinking, crops, or most industrial uses. In Africa and the Middle East water resources are declining in availability and quality. An important feature of water resources is the extent of replenishment in the hydrologic cycle. Water availability from rain and snow amounts to about 113,000 cubic kilometers yearly, of which 72,000 evaporates. Aquifers, rivers, and oceans are renewed with the remaining 41,000 cu km. About 50% returns to oceans and 1/8 is too far from human habitation for use. Estimates of renewable freshwater average 9-14,000 cu km yearly, and a substantial amount is needed to sustain ecosystems in rivers, wetlands, and coastal waters. Internal resources within each country may amount to only about 20% of potential water resources, due to water storage suitability of the land and the extent and condition of infrastructure.

  11. Thesis Report: Resource Utilization Provisioning in MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Barati, Hamidreza; Jaberi, Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis report, we have a survey on state-of-the-art methods for modelling resource utilization of MapReduce applications regard to its configuration parameters. After implementation of one of the algorithms in literature, we tried to find that if CPU usage modelling of a MapReduce application can be used to predict CPU usage of another MapReduce application.

  12. Status report on renewable energy in the States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, B.; Sinclair, K.

    1992-12-01

    As the concept of integrated resource planning has spread among states and utilities, a reexamination of the role of renewable energy sources in the utility resource mix is taking place. This report documents the findings of a study of state regulatory commissions undertaken to: (1) help assess the state of knowledge and awareness about renewable energy resources and technologies; (2) assess the impacts of state policies on renewable energy development; and (3) identify important information needs. The key findings from this effort are: Renewable energy development has occurred only slowly over the last decade, and a small number of states account for the bulk of development. The development that has occurred has been limited to non-utility entities. Directed state policies have been a key driver in renewable energy development. Those states not currently addressing renewables may need more data and information before they proceed with directed policies. Other important observations are: The cost of renewables is an overriding concern. Regulators distinguish between 'emerging' and 'established' renewable energy technologies. Specific data are lacking on state-level renewable energy development. Detailed renewable resource assessments have yet to be performed in many states. This report identifies renewable energy information needs of state regulators. However, a number of concerns are also identified that must be addressed before renewables will receive serious attention in many of those states with limited renewables experience. Finally, the report catalogs a wide variety of policies that have been utilized in the states to promote greater development of renewable energy.

  13. Alternatives to electricity for transmission and annual-scale firming - Storage for diverse, stranded, renewable energy resources: hydrogen and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighty, William

    2010-09-15

    The world's richest renewable energy resources 'of large geographic extent and high intensity' are stranded: far from end-users with inadequate or nonexistent gathering and transmission systems to deliver energy. Output of most renewables varies greatly, at time scales of seconds-seasons: energy capture assets operate at low capacity factor; energy delivery is not 'firm'. New electric transmission systems, or fractions thereof, dedicated to renewables, suffer the same low CF: substantial stranded capital assets, increasing the cost of delivered renewable-source energy. Electricity storage cannot affordably firm large renewables at annual scale. Gaseous hydrogen and anhydrous ammonia fuels can: attractive alternatives.

  14. Process improvements reduce utilization of resources for aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, T H; Yavorski, C C; Endean, E D; Kwolek, C J; Hyde, G L

    1998-01-01

    In conjunction with the VA reorganization to promote greater efficiency of health care provision, ambulatory surgery (AS) programs have been created. These programs institute outpatient preoperative assessment and operative management. This study examines the impact of these process changes on resources utilized by patients requiring repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The medical records of 15 consecutively treated patients undergoing elective, infrarenal AAA repair before (1992-1993) and after (1995-1996) AS implementation were reviewed. Resource utilization was assessed by evaluating preoperative tests performed (inpatient or outpatient), ICU days, and inpatient length of stay (LOS). Postoperative morbidity and mortality were noted. Patient age, AAA size, and prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiac disease, COPD, and tobacco use were similar between the two groups. Abdominal ultrasound, CT scanning, and angiography were significantly more frequently performed on an outpatient basis after implementation of the AS program. The median preoperative LOS was reduced in the AS group (1 vs 6 days, P = 0.001, Student t test), resulting in a lower inpatient LOS (11 vs 16, P < 0.01, Student t test). All patients survived and the incidence of complications was similar between the groups. Hospital resource utilization was significantly decreased, largely by shifting preoperative assessment to the outpatient setting. This study illustrates that benefits of an ambulatory surgery program can be extended beyond facilitating outpatient operations and should result in decreased length of hospitalization for other major surgical procedures, such as abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

  15. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    One of NASA's goals is to enable longterm human presence in space, without the need for continuous replenishment of consumables from Earth. In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is the use of extraterrestrial resources to support activities such as human life-support, material fabrication and repair, and radiation shielding. Potential sources of ISRU resources include lunar and Martian regolith, and Martian atmosphere. Water and byproducts (including hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids) can be produced from lunar regolith via a high-temperature hydrogen reduction reaction and passing the produced gas through a condenser. center dot Due to the high solubility of HCI and HF in water, these byproducts are expected to be present in the product stream (up to 20,000 ppm) and must be removed (less than 10 ppm) prior to water consumption or electrolysis.

  16. Modelling of landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash for utilization of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Chen

    2011-10-06

    Energy crisis, environment pollution and climate change are the serious challenges to people worldwide. In the 21st century, human being is trend to research new technology of renewable energy, so as to slow down global warming and develop society in an environmentally sustainable method. Landfill gas, produced by biodegradable municipal solid waste in landfill, is a renewable energy source. In this work, landfill gas utilization for energy generation is introduced. Landfill gas is able to produce hydrogen by steam reforming reactions. There is a steam reformer equipment in the fuel cells system. A sewage plant of Cologne in Germany has run the Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells power station with biogas for more than 50,000 hours successfully. Landfill gas thus may be used as fuel for electricity generation via fuel cells system. For the purpose of explaining the possibility of landfill gas utilization via fuel cells, the thermodynamics of landfill gas steam reforming are discussed by simulations. In practice, the methane-riched gas can be obtained by landfill gas purification and upgrading. This work investigate a new method for upgrading-landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash experimentally. Bottom ash is a by-product of municipal solid waste incineration, some of its physical and chemical properties are analysed in this work. The landfill gas adsorption experimental data show bottom ash can be used as a potential adsorbent for landfill gas adsorption to remove CO{sub 2}. In addition, the alkalinity of bottom ash eluate can be reduced in these adsorption processes. Therefore, the interactions between landfill gas and bottom ash can be explained by series reactions accordingly. Furthermore, a conceptual model involving landfill gas adsorption with bottom ash is developed. In this thesis, the parameters of landfill gas adsorption equilibrium equations can be obtained by fitting experimental data. On the other hand, these functions can be deduced with theoretical approach

  17. Connecting Projects to Complete the In Situ Resource Utilization Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.; Sanders, Gerald B.

    2017-01-01

    Terrain Identify specifics such as slope, rockiness, traction parameters Identify what part of ISRU needs each Physical Geotechnical Hardness, density, cohesion, etc. Identify what part of ISRU needs each (e.g., excavation needs to know hardness, density; soil processing needs to know density, cohesion; etc.)Mineral Identify specifics Identify what part of ISRU needs each Volatile Identify specifics Identify what part of ISRU needs each Atmosphere Identify specifics Identify what part of ISRU needs each Environment Identify specifics Identify what part of ISRU needs each Resource Characterization What: Develop an instrument suite to locate and evaluate the physical, mineral, and volatile resources at the lunar poles Neutron Spectrometer Near Infrared (IR) to locate subsurface hydrogen surface water Near IR for mineral identification Auger drill for sample removal down to 1 m Oven with Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer to quantify volatiles present ISRU relevance: Water volatile resource characterization and subsurface material access removal Site Evaluation Resource Mapping What: Develop and utilize new data products and tools for evaluating potential exploration sites for selection and overlay mission data to map terrain, environment, and resource information e.g., New techniques applied to generate Digital Elevation Map (DEMs) at native scale of images (1mpxl)ISRU relevance: Resource mapping and estimation with terrain and environment information is needed for extraction planning Mission Planning and Operations What: Develop and utilize tools and procedures for planning mission operations and real time changes Planning tools include detailed engineering models (e.g., power and data) of surface segment systems allows evaluation of designs ISRU relevance: Allows for iterative engineering as a function of environment and hardware performance.

  18. SEE HYDROPOWER Project, targeted to improve water resource management for a growing renewable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peviani, Maximo; Alterach, Julio; Danelli, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The three years SEE HYDROPOWER project started on June 2009, financed by the South-East Transnational Cooperation Programme (EU), aims to a sustainable exploitation of water concerning hydropower production in SEE countries, looking up to renewable energy sources development, preserving environmental quality and preventing flood risk. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for energy production in the SEE countries but creates ecological impacts on a local scale. If on one hand, hydroelectric production has to be maintained and likely increased following the demand trend and RES-e Directive, on the other hand, hydropower utilisation often involves severe hydrological changes, damages the connectivity of water bodies and injures river ecosystems. The project gives a strong contribution to the integration between the Water Frame and the RES-e Directives in the involved countries. The SEE HYDROPOWER project promotes the optimal use of water, as multiple natural resources, in order to face the increasing regional electrical-energy demand. Furthermore, SEE HYDROPOWER defines specific needs and test methodologies & tools, in order to help public bodies to take decisions about planning and management of water and hydropower concessions, considering all multi-purposes uses, taking into account the environmental sustainability of natural resources and flooding risks. Investigations is carried on to define common strategies & methods for preserving river with particular concerns to aquatic ecosystems, considering the required Minimum Environmental Flow, macro-habitat quality, migratory fishes and related environmental issues. Other problem addressed by the Project is the contrast between Public Administration and Environmental associations on one side and the Hydropower producers on the other side, for the exploitation of water bodies. Competition between water users (for drinking, irrigation, industrial processes, power generation, etc.) is becoming a serious

  19. Possibilities and implications of an energy supply based on renewable energy resources; Moeglichkeiten und Implikationen der Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Till; Haerdtlein, Marlies; Kruck, Christoph; Eltrop, Ludger [Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The use of renewable energy by municipalities has grown dynamically over the past years, with heat and electricity being delivered to single buildings, large residential units or entire housing or industrial estates. Renewable energy resources play an important role in the achievement of climate protection goals, development of local and regional value creation potential and increasing security of supply. Using the Scharnhauser Park as an example and based on model calculations the present article examines possibilities of using renewable energy and their implications for a new housing estate.

  20. Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Miller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small generation rates of kinetic energy to maintain the high wind velocities, and it is this generation rate that will ultimately limit the potential use of jet streams as a renewable energy resource. Here we estimate the maximum limit of jet stream wind power by considering extraction of kinetic energy as a term in the free energy balance of kinetic energy that describes the generation, depletion, and extraction of kinetic energy. We use this balance as the basis to quantify the maximum limit of how much kinetic energy can be extracted sustainably from the jet streams of the global atmosphere as well as the potential climatic impacts of its use. We first use a simple thought experiment of geostrophic flow to demonstrate why the high wind velocities of the jet streams are not associated with a high potential for renewable energy generation. We then use an atmospheric general circulation model to estimate that the maximum sustainable extraction from jet streams of the global atmosphere is about 7.5 TW. This estimate is about 200-times less than previous estimates and is due to the fact that the common expression for instantaneous wind power 12 ρv3 merely characterizes the transport of kinetic energy by the flow, but not the generation rate of kinetic energy. We also find that when maximum wind power is extracted from the jet streams, it results in significant

  1. Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Miller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small generation rates of kinetic energy to maintain the high wind velocities, and it is this generation rate that will ultimately limit the potential use of jet streams as a renewable energy resource. Here we estimate the maximum limit of jet stream wind power by considering extraction of kinetic energy as a term in the free energy balance of kinetic energy that describes the generation, depletion, and extraction of kinetic energy. We use this balance as the basis to quantify the maximum limit of how much kinetic energy can be extracted sustainably from the jet streams of the global atmosphere as well as the potential climatic impacts of its use. We first use a simple thought experiment of geostrophic flow to demonstrate why the high wind velocities of the jet streams are not associated with a high potential for renewable energy generation. We then use an atmospheric general circulation model to estimate that the maximum sustainable extraction from jet streams of the global atmosphere is about 7.5 TW. This estimate is about 200-times less than previous estimates and is due to the fact that the common expression for instantaneous wind power ½ ρ v3 merely characterizes the transport of kinetic energy by the flow, but not the generation rate of kinetic energy. We also find that when maximum wind power is extracted from the jet streams, it results in significant climatic impacts due to a substantial increase of heat transport across the jet streams in the upper atmosphere. This results in upper atmospheric temperature differences of >20 °C, greater atmospheric stability

  2. Environmental analysis of the life cycle emissions of 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran solvent manufactured from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C Stewart; Savelski, Mariano J; Hitchcock, David; Cavanagh, Eduardo J

    2016-01-01

    An environmental analysis has been conducted to determine the cradle to gate life cycle emissions to manufacture the green solvent, 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran. The solvent is considered a greener chemical since it can be manufactured from renewable resources with a lower life cycle footprint. Analyses have been performed using different methods to show greenness in both its production and industrial use. This solvent can potentially be substituted for other ether and chlorinated solvents commonly used in organometallic and biphasic reactions steps in pharmaceutical and fine chemical syntheses. The 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran made from renewable agricultural by-products is marketed by Penn A Kem under the name ecoMeTHF™. The starting material, 2-furfuraldehyde (furfural), is produced from corn cob waste by converting the available pentosans by acid hydrolysis. An evaluation of each step in the process was necessary to determine the overall life cycle and specific CO2 emissions for each raw material/intermediate produced. Allocation of credits for CO2 from the incineration of solvents made from renewable feedstocks significantly reduced the overall carbon footprint. Using this approach, the overall life cycle emissions for production of 1 kg of ecoMeTHF™ were determined to be 0.191 kg, including 0.150 kg of CO2. Life cycle emissions generated from raw material manufacture represents the majority of the overall environmental impact. Our evaluation shows that using 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran in an industrial scenario results in a 97% reduction in emissions, when compared to typically used solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, made through a conventional chemical route.

  3. Regression Analysis of Effective Factor on People Participation in Protecting, Revitalizing, Developing and Using Renewable Natural Resources in Ilam Province from the View of Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Arayesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The purpose of this study was the regression analysis of effective factor on people participation in protecting, revitalizing, developing and using renewable natural resources in Ilam province. Approach: This study was a casual comparative and applies one. Sample was taken from natural resources users. Results: The sample size of groups was 317 for users respectively. For sample selection, stratified, cluster and multiple sampling were utilized. The main tools for gathering data were questionnaire. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire were obtained by experts and pilot study and its Alfa level was 88%. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used and data was analyzed by sp. 15. To test the hypothesis, correlation, multiple regressions were employed. Conclusion: The result indicated that level of education, rate of media using, users trusting on natural resources executive, consulting with users before implementation the plans, number of cattles, kind of occupation, users membership in public institution and organization, social status of users, Technical knowledge of users, present status of natural of natural resources extensive plans, political and low full support of users, amount of loan received by users and organizing nature assistant, have a significant role on people participation on protecting, revitalizing, developing and using renewable natural resources.

  4. Satellite Beam Handover Strategy to Improve Return Link Resource Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Jang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile communication on the multi-beam satellite communication has attracted attention, since Digital Video Broadcasting – Return Channel Satellite (DVB-RCS has been successively implemented. In general, multi beam satellite employs uniform allocation of RF power and bandwidth to multi beams, since it is hard to predict the distribution of traffic requests and the arrival rate of new connection. This makes it difficult to satisfy the traffic requests in a beam. Thus, when an unpredictable event, such as a disaster, regional warfare and deteriorating weather conditions, occur in a special spot beam, many more terminals will require access to a special beam channel. This causes the special beam channel to be saturated, while adjacent beam channel resources are available. Thus, we propose a novel handover strategy to improve satellite return link resource utilization using load balancing handover. Simulation results shows the proposed handover algorithm outperforms conventional handover algorithms in terms of new connection block probability, handover block probability, return link resource utilization and capacity request block rate.

  5. RESOLVE Mission Architecture for Lunar Resource Prospecting and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J. A.; Mattes, G. W.; Rogers, K. N.; Magruder, D. F.; Paz, A. J.; Vaccaro, H. M.; Baird, R. S.; Sanders, G. B.; Smith, J. T.; Quinn, J. W.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Design Reference Mission (DRM) evaluations were performed for The Regolith & Environment Science, and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project to determine future flight mission feasibility and understand potential mission environment impacts on hardware requirements, science/resource assessment objectives, and mission planning. DRM version 2.2 (DRM 2.2) is presented for a notional flight of the RESOLVE payload for lunar resource ground truth and utilization (Figure 1) [1]. The rover/payload deploys on a 10 day surface mission to the Cabeus crater near the lunar south pole in May of 2016. A drill, four primary science instruments, and a high temperature chemical reactor will acquire and characterize water and other volatiles in the near sub-surface, and perform demonstrations of In-Situ Re-source Utilization (ISRU). DRM 2.2 is a reference point, and will be periodically revised to accommodate and incorporate changes to project approach or implementation, and to explore mission alternatives such as landing site or opportunity.

  6. Utilizing reanalysis and synthesis datasets in wind resource characterization for large-scale wind integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, William L.W. [ISO New England Inc., Holyoke, MA (United States); McGowan, Jon G.; Manwell, James F. [Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (United States). Wind Energy Center

    2010-07-01

    As wind plants become a more substantial portion of the generation resource, the ability of and manner in which this new fleet of generation supports meeting the power system load in a given area must be quantified in order to ensure security of supply. This paper describes the manner in which a reanalysis dataset - the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset - was utilized in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Eastern Wind Integration Dataset in order to perform an estimation of the interannual variability in wind power production as related to the capacity value of the investigated potential wind plants. Also described in the paper is a comparison of the MERRA data with publicly available wind data collected by the University of Massachusetts Wind Energy Center (UMass WEC). (orig.)

  7. Harnessing Potential Evaporation as a Renewable Energy Resource With Water-Saving Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, A. H.; Chen, X.; Gentine, P.; Sahin, O.

    2015-12-01

    Water's large latent heat of vaporization makes evaporation a critical component of the energy balance at the Earth's surface. An immense amount of energy drives the hydrological cycle and is an important component of various weather and climate patterns. However, the potential of harnessing evaporation has received little attention as a renewable energy resource compared to wind and solar energy. Here, we investigate the potential of harvesting energy from naturally evaporating water. Using weather data across the contiguous United States and a modified model of potential evaporation, we estimate the power availability, intermittency, and the changes in evaporation rates imposed by energy conversion. Our results indicate that natural evaporation can deliver power densities similar to existing renewable energy platforms and require little to no energy storage to match the varying power demands of urban areas. This model also predicts additional, and substantial, water savings by reducing evaporative losses. These findings suggest that evaporative energy harvesting can address significant challenges with water/energy interactions that could be of interest to the hydrology community.

  8. Carbohydrates in sustainable development I. Renewable resources for chemistry and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauter, Amelia, P. [Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Dept. Quimica e Bioquimica; Vogel, Pierre [Swiss Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab. of Glycochemistry and Asymmetric Synthesis; Queneau, Yves (eds.) [Lyon Univ. Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Chimie et Biochimie

    2010-07-01

    Sucrose: A Prospering and Sustainable Organic Raw Material, By S. Peters, T. Rose, and M. Moser; Sucrose-Utilizing Transglucosidases for Biocatalysis, By I. Andre, G. Potocki-Veronese, S. Morel, P. Monsan, and M. Remaud-Simeon; Difructose Dianhydrides (DFAs) and DFA-Enriched Products as Functional Foods, By C. Ortiz Mellet and J. M. Garcia Fernandez; Development of Agriculture Left-Overs: Fine Organic Chemicals from Wheat Hemicellulose-Derived Pentoses, By F. Martel, B. Estrine, R. Plantier-Royon, N. Hoffmann, and C. Portella; Cellulose and Derivatives from Wood and Fibers as Renewable Sources of Raw-Materials, By J.A. Figueiredo, M.I. Ismael, C.M.S. Anjo, and A.P. Duarte; Olive Pomace, a Source for Valuable Arabinan-Rich Pectic Polysaccharides, By M. A. Coimbra, S. M. Cardoso, and J. A. Lopes-da-Silva; Oligomannuronates from Seaweeds as Renewable Sources for the Development of Green Surfactants,By T. Benvegnu and J.-F. Sassi; From Natural Polysaccharides to Materials for Catalysis, Adsorption, and Remediation, By F. Quignard, F. Di Renzo, and E. Guibal. (orig.)

  9. Microwave-Assisted Syntheses in Recyclable Ionic Liquids: Photoresists Based on Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Charlotte; Luef, Klaus P; Edler, Matthias; Griesser, Thomas; Kremsner, Jennifer M; Stadler, Alexander; Grassl, Bruno; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Wiesbrock, Frank

    2015-10-26

    The copoly(2-oxazoline) pNonOx80 -stat-pDc(=) Ox20 can be synthesized from the cationic ring-opening copolymerization of 2-nonyl-2-oxazoline NonOx and 2-dec-9'-enyl-2-oxazoline Dc(=) Ox in the ionic liquid n-hexyl methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate under microwave irradiation in 250 g/batch quantities. The polymer precipitates upon cooling, enabling easy recovery of the polymer and the ionic liquid. Both monomers can be obtained from fatty acids from renewable resources. pNonOx80 -stat-pDc(=) Ox20 can be used as polymer in a photoresist (resolution of 1 μm) based on UV-induced thiol-ene reactions. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. USDOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy joint collaboration for renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touryan, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint collaboration between the US and Russia to develop renewable energy resources. There are five main goals of the project. First is to establish Intersolarcenter as a sister organization to NREL for joint R&D activities, and to provide training to the staff. Second is to install demonstration systems in parks and selected locations around Moscow. Third is to install pilot projects: a wind/diesel hybrid system at 21 sites in the northern territories; a 500 kW biomass power plant in the Arkhangelsk Region. Fourth is to assist in the start-up operations of a 2 MW/yr Triple Junction amorphous-Si manufacturing facility in Moscow using US technology. Fifth is to explore the possibilities of financing large-scale wind/hybrid and biomass power systems for the nouthern territories (possibly 900 sites).

  11. Seeing about Soil -- Management Lessons from a Simple Model for Renewable Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Lichtenegger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Employing an effective cellular automata model, we investigate and analyze the build-up and erosion of soil. Depending on the strategy employed for handling agricultural production, in many cases we find a critical dependence on the prescribed production target, with a sharp transition between stable production and complete breakdown of the system. Strategies which are particularly well-suited for mimicking real-world management approaches can produce almost cyclic behaviour, which can also either lead to sustainable production or to breakdown. While designed to describe the dynamics of soil evolution, this model is quite general and may also be useful as a model for other renewable resources and may even be employed in other disciplines like psychology.

  12. Development of space manufacturing systems concepts utilizing lunar resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, E. H.

    1979-01-01

    Results of a NASA sponsored study to evaluate the merits of constructing solar power satellites using lunar and terrestrial resources are reviewed. Three representative lunar resources utilization (LRU) concepts were developed and compared with a previously designed earth baseline concept, and major system hardware elements as well as personnel requirements were defined. LRU for space construction was shown to be competitive with earth baseline approach for a program requiring 10 to the 5th metric tons per year of completed satellites. Results also indicated that LRU can reduce earth launched cargo requirements to less than 10% of that needed to build satellites exclusively from earth materials, with a significant percentage of the reduction due to the use of liquid oxygen derived from lunar soil. A concept using the mass driver to catapult lunar material into space was found to be superior to the other LRU logistics techniques investigated.

  13. Trends in the development of industrially assimilated renewable energy: the problem of resource restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhegorodtsev, R. M.; Ratner, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of the development of wind and solar energy and potential resource restrictions of the dissemination of these technologies of energy generation associated with intensive use of rare earth metals and some other mineral resources are presented. The technological prospects of various directions of decisions of the problem of resource restrictions, including escalating of volumes of extraction and production of necessary mineral components, creating substitutes of scarce materials and development of recycling are considered. The bottlenecks of each of the above-mentioned decisions were founded. Conclusions are drawn on the prospects of development of the Russian high-tech sectors of the economy in the context of the most probable decisions of the problem of resource restrictions of wind and solar energy. An increase in extraction and production of rare earth metals and some other materials, stimulation of domestic research and development (R&D) to create the permanent magnets of new types and new technologies of wind-powered generation, and reduction of the resource-demand and technology development of recycling the components of power equipment are the most prospective directions of progress. The innovations in these directions will be in demand on the European, Chinese, and North American markets in the near decades due to the end of the life cycle (approximately 30 years) of wind and solar energy projects started at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries (the beginning of exponential growth in plants). The private investors and relevant regional and federal government agencies can use the qualitative characteristics of the dynamics of industrially assimilated renewable energy to choose the most promising investment orientations in energy projects and selection of the most economically sound development methods of energy and related industries.

  14. Engineering Sedimentary Geothermal Resources for Large-Scale Dispatchable Renewable Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Saar, Martin; Randolph, Jimmy

    2014-05-01

    Mitigating climate change requires substantial penetration of renewable energy and economically viable options for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). We present an approach using CO2 and N2 in sedimentary basin geothermal resources that (1) generates baseload and dispatchable power, (2) efficiently stores large amounts of energy, and (3) enables seasonal storage of solar energy, all which (5) increase the value of CO2 and render CCS commercially viable. Unlike the variability of solar and wind resources, geothermal heat is a constant source of renewable energy. Using CO2 as a supplemental geothermal working fluid, in addition to brine, reduces the parasitic load necessary to recirculate fluids. Adding N2 is beneficial because it is cheaper, will not react with materials and subsurface formations, and enables bulk energy storage. The high coefficients of thermal expansion of CO2 and N2 (a) augment reservoir pressure, (b) generate artesian flow at the production wells, and (c) produce self-convecting thermosiphons that directly convert reservoir heat to mechanical energy for fluid recirculation. Stored pressure drives fluid production and responds faster than conventional brine-based geothermal systems. Our design uses concentric rings of horizontal wells to create a hydraulic divide that stores supplemental fluids and pressure. Production and injection wells are controlled to schedule power delivery and time-shift the parasitic power necessary to separate N2 from air and compress it for injection. The parasitic load can be scheduled during minimum power demand or when there is excess electricity from wind or solar. Net power output can nearly equal gross power output during peak demand, and energy storage is almost 100% efficient because it is achieved by the time-shift. Further, per-well production rates can take advantage of the large productivity of horizontal wells, with greater leveraging of well costs, which often constitute a major portion of capital costs for

  15. NEO Targets for Biological In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J. M.; Ernst, S. M.; Navarrete, J. U.; Gentry, D.

    2014-12-01

    We are investigating a mission architecture concept for low-cost pre-processing of materials on long synodic period asteroids using bioengineered microbes delivered by small spacecraft. Space exploration opportunities, particularly those requiring a human presence, are sharply constrained by the high cost of launching resources such as fuel, construction materials, oxygen, water, and foodstuffs. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have been proposed for supporting a human space presence. However, the combination of high initial investment requirements, delayed potential return, and uncertainty in resource payoff currently prevents their effective utilization.Biomining is the process in which microorganisms perform useful material reduction, sequestration or separation. It is commonly used in terrestrial copper extraction. Compared to physical and chemical methods of extraction it is slow, but very low cost, thus rendering economical even very poor ores. These advantages are potentially extensible to asteroid in situ resource utilization (ISRU).One of the first limiting factors for the use of biology in these environments is temperature. A survey of NEA data was conducted to identify those NEAs whose projected interior temperatures remained within both potential (-5 - 100 ºC) and preferred (15 - 45 ºC) ranges for the minimum projected time per synodic period without exceeding 100 ºC at any point. Approximately 2800 of the 11000 NEAs (25%) are predicted to remain within the potential range for at least 90 days, and 120 (1%) in the preferred range.A second major factor is water availability and stability. We have evaluated a design for a small-spacecraft-based injector which forces low-temperature fluid into the NEA interior, creating potentially habitable microniches. The fluid contains microbes genetically engineered to accelerate the degradation rates of a desired fraction of the native resources, allowing for more efficient material extraction upon a subsequent

  16. Entrepreneurship as a source of development and strengthening of endogerous capacities for the utilization of renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Esperanza Sanabria A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg While current environmental problems are taken place worldwide, their impacts are seen in different regions, populations and economies. For this reason, all measures and plans to mitigate those problems should originate from local initiatives to respond to specific needs of social agents, making use of available resources and capacities in each territory. Facing all these current environmental problems bring about changes in production and consumption systems which involve more efficient and sustainable use of resources, changing the energy pattern with its key role due to the impact in the use of non- renewable energies. To solve all these problems, an entrepreneurial and innovative capacity is needed to adopt new production methods, supplies and products, as well as new ways to do things. As renewable energies play an important role as a new alternative to face the depletion of non- renewable energies and as a way to reduce the external negative factors associated with energy consumption. Then, this paper aims at showing a theoretical revision describing the relevance of entrepreneurship in the development and strengthening of endogenic capacities to take advantage of local renewable sources of energy.

  17. Technical and economic viability of electric power plants on the basis of renewable energy resources regarding hierarchical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balzannikov Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with power stations working on the basis of non-renewable energy resources and finite resources which will inevitably come to depletion in the future. These installations produce considerable negative impact on the environment, including air pollution. It is noted that considerable amounts of emissions of harmful substances accounts for the share of small thermal installations which aren’t always considered in calculations of pollution. The author specifies that emission reduction of harmful substances should be achieved due to wider use of environmentally friendly renewable energy resources. It is recommended to use hierarchical structure with the priority of ecological and social conditions of the region for technical and economic viability of consumers’ power supply systems and installations, based on renewable energy resources use. At the same time the author suggests considering federal, regional and object levels of viability. It is recommended to consider the main stages of lifecycle of an object for object level: designing, construction, operation, reconstruction of an object and its preservation. The author shows the example of calculation of power plant efficiency, based on renewable energy resources during its reconstruction, followed by power generation increase.

  18. Comparing the risk profiles of renewable and natural gas electricity contracts: A summary of the California Department of Water Resources contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachrach, Devra; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Golove, William

    2003-03-12

    Electricity markets in the United States have witnessed unprecedented instability over the last few years, with substantial volatility in wholesale market prices, significant financial distress among major industry organizations, and unprecedented legal, regulatory and legislative activity. These events demonstrate the considerable risks that exist in the electricity industry. Recent industry instability also illustrates the need for thoughtful resource planning to balance the cost, reliability, and risk of the electricity supplied to end-use customers. In balancing different supply options, utilities, regulators, and other resource planners must consider the unique risk profiles of each generating source. This paper evaluates the relative risk profiles of renewable and natural gas generating plants. The risks that exist in the electricity industry depend in part on the technologies that are used to generate electricity. Natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plant additions in the United States. To some, this emphasis on a single fuel source signals the potential for increased risk. Renewable generation sources, on the other hand, are frequently cited as a potent source of socially beneficial risk reduction relative to natural gas-fired generation. Renewable generation is not risk free, however, and also imposes certain costs on the electricity sector. This paper specifically compares the allocation and mitigation of risks in long-term natural gas-fired electricity contracts with the allocation and mitigation of these same risks in long-term renewable energy contracts. This comparison highlights some of the key differences between renewable and natural gas generation that decision makers should consider when making electricity investment and contracting decisions. Our assessment is relevant in both regulated and restructured markets. In still-regulated markets, the audience for this report clearly includes regulators and the utilities they

  19. Comparing the risk profiles of renewable and natural gas electricity contracts: A summary of the California Department of Water Resources contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachrach, Devra; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Golove, William

    2003-03-12

    Electricity markets in the United States have witnessed unprecedented instability over the last few years, with substantial volatility in wholesale market prices, significant financial distress among major industry organizations, and unprecedented legal, regulatory and legislative activity. These events demonstrate the considerable risks that exist in the electricity industry. Recent industry instability also illustrates the need for thoughtful resource planning to balance the cost, reliability, and risk of the electricity supplied to end-use customers. In balancing different supply options, utilities, regulators, and other resource planners must consider the unique risk profiles of each generating source. This paper evaluates the relative risk profiles of renewable and natural gas generating plants. The risks that exist in the electricity industry depend in part on the technologies that are used to generate electricity. Natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plant additions in the United States. To some, this emphasis on a single fuel source signals the potential for increased risk. Renewable generation sources, on the other hand, are frequently cited as a potent source of socially beneficial risk reduction relative to natural gas-fired generation. Renewable generation is not risk free, however, and also imposes certain costs on the electricity sector. This paper specifically compares the allocation and mitigation of risks in long-term natural gas-fired electricity contracts with the allocation and mitigation of these same risks in long-term renewable energy contracts. This comparison highlights some of the key differences between renewable and natural gas generation that decision makers should consider when making electricity investment and contracting decisions. Our assessment is relevant in both regulated and restructured markets. In still-regulated markets, the audience for this report clearly includes regulators and the utilities they

  20. In-Situ Resource Utilization for further exploration of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, B.; Pohajsky, S.

    In-Situ Resource Utilization ISRU is the concept of living off the land Initially proposed in the mid 20th Century many experts have suggested that ISRU is an important enabler for the expansion of humanity beyond the confines of limited resources on Earth However even today ISRU remains a relatively underdeveloped and under--demonstrated in current exploration roadmaps This paper summarizes the proposals of an interdisciplinary study carried out by 27 students from 17 different countries at the International Space University The study reviewed the past and present ISRU techniques and related robotic technologies in the context of complementing the Moon and Mars exploration scenarios of the major space faring countries The economic viability and benefits of ISRU are examined together with the regulatory ethical and cultural aspects of space resource utilisation The renewed opportunities for moon exploration have rekindled interest in ISRU as an enabling technology It is important to assess both the tangible and intangible benefits of this technology in order to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of adopting it in support of human exploration of the Moon Mars and beyond

  1. Optimal bidding strategy of wind farms for joint operation with other ‎renewable resources in power market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein parastegari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation and bidding strategy of renewable units are two important problems of the restructured power market. In this paper, a new method for the joint operation of wind, photovoltaic and pump-storage units in day ahead power market is studied to increase the profit of joint units. In this study, artificial neural network is used to predict the wind power generation of wind farms. Since, there are uncertainties in energy and reserve prices, wind and photovoltaic power generation, the optimal operation of joint units can be modeled as a stochastic optimization problem. For this purpose, uncertainties of parameters are modeled by scenario tree method. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on the renewable energy resources (wind farms, photovoltaic and pump-storage units of the modified IEEE 118 bus test system. Results of the proposed joint operation of renewable resources confirm that the value of expected profit increases in comparison with uncoordinated operation (UO of units.

  2. Leveraging Terrestrial Industry for Utilization of Space Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Linne, Diane L.; Starr, Stan O.; Boucher, Dale

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Journey to Mars: Pioneering Next Steps in Space Exploration released in October of 2015 states that NASA is working toward the capability to work, operate, and sustainably live safely beyond Earth. To progress from our current "Earth-Reliant" approach to exploration and eventually become "Earth Independent", we need to first identify resources in space and then learn to use and harvest them to minimize logistics from Earth, reduce costs, and enable sustainable and affordable space transportation and surface operations. Known as In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), the collection and conversion of space resources into products such as propellants, fuel cell reactants, and life support consumables can greatly reduce the mass, cost, and risk of space exploration. Also, the ability to perform civil engineering, construction, and manufacturing at sites of exploration can also allow for increased crew safety and sustainable growth in critical infrastructure. Much of what NASA wants to do on the Moon and Mars with respect to harnessing and utilizing space resources has been performed and perfected on Earth over the centuries. While minimizing mass and operating in the vacuum of space may be unique challenges to NASA, both terrestrial industry and NASA face many of the same challenges associated with operating in severe environments, minimizing maintenance and logistics, maximizing performance per unit mass and volume, performing remote and autonomous operations, and integrating hardware from many vendors and countries. In the end, both NASA and terrestrial industry need to obtain a return on the investment for the development and deployment of these capabilities. This paper will first examine what is ISRU and what are the space resources of interest. The paper will than discuss what are NASA's approach, life cycle, and economic considerations for implementing ISRU. The paper will outline the site and infrastructure needs associated with a phased implementation of

  3. Smart City: Utilization of IT resources to encounter natural disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartama, D.; Mawengkang, Herman; Zarlis, M.; Sembiring, R. W.

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes a framework for the utilization of IT resources in the face of natural disasters with the concept of Smart City in urban areas, which often face the earthquake, particularly in the city of North Sumatra and Aceh. Smart City is a city that integrates social development, capital, civic participation, and transportation with the use of information technology to support the preservation of natural resources and improved quality of life. Changes in the climate and environment have an impact on the occurrence of natural disasters, which tend to increase in recent decades, thus providing socio-economic impacts for the community. This study suggests a new approach that combines the Geographic Information System (GIS) and Mobile IT-based Android in the form of Geospatial information to encounter disaster. Resources and IT Infrastructure in implementing the Smart Mobility with Mobile service can make urban areas as a Smart City. This study describes the urban growth using the Smart City concept and considers how a GIS and Mobile Systems can increase Disaster Management, which consists of Preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery for recovery from natural disasters.

  4. Water Electrolysis for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Sending humans to Mars for any significant amount of time will require capabilities and technologies that enable Earth independence. To move towards this independence, the resources found on Mars must be utilized to produce the items needed to sustain humans away from Earth. To accomplish this task, NASA is studying In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) systems and techniques to make use of the atmospheric carbon dioxide and the water found on Mars. Among other things, these substances can be harvested and processed to make oxygen and methane. Oxygen is essential, not only for sustaining the lives of the crew on Mars, but also as the oxidizer for an oxygen-methane propulsion system that could be utilized on a Mars ascent vehicle. Given the presence of water on Mars, the electrolysis of water is a common technique to produce the desired oxygen. Towards this goal, NASA designed and developed a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) water electrolysis system, which was originally slated to produce oxygen for propulsion and fuel cell use in the Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project. As part of the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) project, this same electrolysis system, originally targeted at enabling in situ propulsion and power, operated in a life-support scenario. During HESTIA testing at Johnson Space Center, the electrolysis system supplied oxygen to a chamber simulating a habitat housing four crewmembers. Inside the chamber, oxygen was removed from the atmosphere to simulate consumption by the crew, and the electrolysis system's oxygen was added to replenish it. The electrolysis system operated nominally throughout the duration of the HESTIA test campaign, and the oxygen levels in the life support chamber were maintained at the desired levels.

  5. Potential of biocellulose nanofibers production from agricultural renewable resources: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahman, Yaser; Jayasuriya, Kithsiri E; Kalis, Magdalina

    2010-11-01

    In the present preliminary study, we report results for the biocellulose nanofibres production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus. Production was examined by utilizing different feedstocks of single sugars and sugar mixtures with compositions similar to the acid hydrolyzates of different agriculture residues. Profiles for cell proliferation, sugar consumption, and the subsequent pH changes were thoroughly analyzed. Highest biocellulose production of 5.65 g/L was achieved in fructose medium with total sugar consumption of 95.57%. Moreover, the highest production using sugar mixtures was 5.2 g/L, which was achieved in feedstock with composition identical to the acid hydrolyzate of wheat straws. This represented the highest biocellulose yield of 17.72 g/g sugars compared with 14.77 g/g fructose. The lowest production of 1.1 and 1.75 g/L were obtained in xylose and glucose media, respectively, while sucrose and arabinose media achieved relatively higher production of 4.7 and 4.1 g/L, respectively. Deviation in pH of the fermentation broths from the optimum value of 4-5 generally had marked effect on biocellulose production with single sugars in feedstock. However, the final pH values recorded in the different sugar mixtures were approximately 3.3-3.4, which had lower effect on production hindrance. Analyzing profiles for sugars' concentrations and cell growth showed that large amount of the metabolized sugars were mainly utilized for bacterial cell growth and maintenance, rather than biocellulose production. This was clearly observed with single sugars of low production, while sugar consumption was rather utilized for biocellulose production with sugar mixtures. Results reported in this study demonstrate that agriculture residues might be used as potential feedstocks for the biocellulose nanofibres production. Not only this represents a renewable source of feedstock, but also might lead to major improvements in production if proper supplements and control were utilized in

  6. Integrating renewable energy resources with energy storage for grid-connected systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joseph

    Renewable energy resources have been growing at a rapidly accelerating rate as an alternative for fossil fuels in the modern electric grid. As their penetration increases, variability in these resources, particularly wind and solar, poses a risk of instability on the grid. Energy storage can be used to mitigate this risk as well as provide other benefits to the larger grid. In this dissertation, a novel high frequency common bus multiport converter is proposed as a new integration scheme to improve efficiency of the power electronics interface by reducing the number of conversion steps and to reduce the system size by replacing the line frequency transformer with a high frequency transformer tied to the common bus. Two main innovations are introduced: a new switching scheme for the H-bridges on the common bus which allows them to operate in parallel without interfering in each others operation, and a novel single-phase to three-phase matrix converter which converts the high frequency bus to the line frequency in a single conversion stage. This proposed converter is simulated to develop the inner loop control methodology, then a low power prototype is constructed and tested to verify its operation. The results of these tests demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed ideas as well as suggesting new avenues of research to further improve the proposed system.

  7. Investigation of the stochastic nature of solar radiation for renewable resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudouris, Giannis; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Mamasis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2017-04-01

    A detailed investigation of the variability of solar radiation can be proven useful towards more efficient and sustainable design of renewable resources systems. This variability is mainly caused from the regular seasonal and diurnal variation, as well as its stochastic nature of the atmospheric processes, i.e. sunshine duration. In this context, we analyze numerous observations in Greece (Hellenic National Meteorological Service; http://www.hnms.gr/) and around the globe (NASA SSE - Surface meteorology and Solar Energy; http://www.soda-pro.com/web-services/radiation/nasa-sse) and we investigate the long-term behaviour and double periodicity of the solar radiation process. Also, we apply a parsimonious double-cyclostationary stochastic model to a theoretical scenario of solar energy production for an island in the Aegean Sea. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  8. Using Multi-Objective DEA to Assess the Overall and Partial Performance of Hierarchical Resource Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdorrahman Haeri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous resources transform into other resource forms through business processes and activities in organizations. This basic concept is called “resource transformation” in the literature. Resource transformation assumes that resources receive value from other resources and deliver value to the same resources. In this study, it is assumed that each resource acts as a Decision Making Unit (DMU that converts input factors from other resources to the output factors that are resources themselves. Multi-Objective Data Envelopment Analysis (MODEA is applied to attain overall and partial efficiency scores of resources to evaluate the performance of resources in utilizing different types of resources. The results show whether resources utilize other resources weakly or efficiently and provide the ability to compare the performance of different types of resource transformation. The findings help decision makers identify the weaknesses and strengths of resource performance in organizations.

  9. Beyond agrification : twenty five years of policy and innovation for non-food application of renewable resources in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Slingerland, M.A.; Elbersen, H.W.; Rabbinge, R.

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this review describes policy developments in the Netherlands since the 1980s around innovations for non-food application of renewable resources. Next, these developments are analyzed using the Strategic Niche Management (SNM) theory. The drivers at the regime level and the quality

  10. 78 FR 15718 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America LLC Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice...

  11. 77 FR 2286 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice...

  12. Companion modeling for integrated renewable resource management: a new collaborative approach to create common values for sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruankaew, N.; Page, Le C.; Dumrongrojwattana, P.; Barnaud, C.; Gajaseni, N.; Paassen, van A.; Trebuil, G.

    2010-01-01

    The sustainable management of renewable resources is often complicated by the diversity and dynamic nature of the ecological and socio-economic systems involved. As the dynamics and interactions of these systems are highly complex and frequently unpredictable, there is a need to opt for transdiscipl

  13. Panel Data Based Dynamic Evaluation of Agricultural Resource Utilization Efficiency: A Case Study of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajuan; TIAN; Li; ZHEN

    2013-01-01

    Resource utilization efficiency is one of important factors influencing modern agricultural development. This paper evaluates agricultural resource utilization efficiency of Hebei Province in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period by dynamic comprehensive evaluation method. Evaluation results indicate that regional disparity in agricultural resource utilization efficiency is significant, and the disparity is increasing year by year.

  14. Estimating the Value of Utility-Scale Solar Technologies in California Under a 40% Renewable Portfolio Standard (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2014-06-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of solar energy in that its output can be shifted over time. The ability of CSP-TES to be a flexible source of generation may be particularly valuable in regions with high overall penetration of solar energy, such as the state of California. California's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires the state to increase generation from eligible renewable energy resources to reach 33% of retail electricity sales by 2020. Beyond 2020, California targets a further reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. To help reach this goal, current California governor Jerry Brown has stated that a higher 40% RPS might be reachable in the near term. The levelized cost of energy is generally emphasized when assessing the economic viability of renewable energy systems implemented to achieve the RPS. However, the operational and capacity benefits of such systems are often ignored, which can lead to incorrect economic comparisons between CSP-TES and variable renewable generation technologies such as solar photovoltaics (PV). Here we evaluate a 40% RPS scenario in a California grid model with PV or CSP-TES providing the last 1% of RPS energy. We compare the technical and economic implications of integrating either solar technology under several sensitivities, finding that the ability to displace new conventional thermal generation capacity may be the largest source of value of CSP-TES compared to PV at high solar penetrations.

  15. Estimating the Value of Utility-Scale Solar Technologies in California Under a 40% Renewable Portfolio Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2014-05-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of solar energy in that its output can be shifted over time. The ability of CSP-TES to be a flexible source of generation may be particularly valuable in regions with high overall penetration of solar energy, such as the state of California. California's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires the state to increase generation from eligible renewable energy resources to reach 33% of retail electricity sales by 2020. Beyond 2020, California targets a further reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. To help reach this goal, current California governor Jerry Brown has stated that a higher 40% RPS might be reachable in the near term. The levelized cost of energy is generally emphasized when assessing the economic viability of renewable energy systems implemented to achieve the RPS. However, the operational and capacity benefits of such systems are often ignored, which can lead to incorrect economic comparisons between CSP-TES and variable renewable generation technologies such as solar photovoltaics (PV). Here we evaluate a 40% RPS scenario in a California grid model with PV or CSP-TES providing the last 1% of RPS energy. We compare the technical and economic implications of integrating either solar technology under several sensitivities, finding that the ability to displace new conventional thermal generation capacity may be the largest source of value of CSP-TES compared to PV at high solar penetrations.

  16. Pneumatic Regolith Transfer Systems for In-Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III; Mantovani, James G.

    2010-01-01

    One aspect of In-Situ Resource Utilization (lSRU) in a lunar environment is to extract oxygen and other elements from the minerals that make up the lunar regolith. Typical ISRU oxygen production processes include but are not limited to hydrogen reduction, carbothermal and molten oxide electrolysis. All of these processes require the transfer of regolith from a supply hopper into a reactor for chemical reaction processing, and the subsequent extraction of the reacted regolith from the reactor. This paper will discuss recent activities in the NASA ISRU project involved with developing pneumatic conveying methods to achieve lunar regolith simulant transfer under I-g and 1/6-g gravitational environments. Examples will be given of hardware that has been developed and tested by NASA on reduced gravity flights. Lessons learned and details of pneumatic regolith transfer systems will be examined as well as the relative performance in a 1/6th G environment

  17. A theoretical bilevel control scheme for power networks with large-scale penetration of distributed renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boroojeni, Kianoosh; Amini, M. Hadi; Nejadpak, Arash

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a bilevel control framework to achieve a highly-reliable smart distribution network with large-scale penetration of distributed renewable resources (DRRs). We assume that the power distribution network consists of several residential/commercial communities. In the first...... help from a few number of bulk power plants in the grid to improve its reliability in the context of satisfying the residential demand with high probability. The global controller dispatches the available non-renewable power plants between communities to enhance the reliability of each community. Using...

  18. Recent advances in the metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the production of lactate and succinate from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Yota; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-03-01

    Recent increasing attention to environmental issues and the shortage of oil resources have spurred political and industrial interest in the development of environmental friendly and cost-effective processes for the production of bio-based chemicals from renewable resources. Thus, microbial production of commercially important chemicals is viewed as a desirable way to replace current petrochemical production. Corynebacterium glutamicum, a Gram-positive soil bacterium, is one of the most important industrial microorganisms as a platform for the production of various amino acids. Recent research has explored the use of C. glutamicum as a potential cell factory for producing organic acids such as lactate and succinate, both of which are commercially important bulk chemicals. Here, we summarize current understanding in this field and recent metabolic engineering efforts to develop C. glutamicum strains that efficiently produce L- and D-lactate, and succinate from renewable resources.

  19. Evaluating options for balancing the water-electricity nexus in California: Part 2--greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply.

  20. Refractive ocular conditions and reasons for spectacles renewal in a resource-limited economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folorunso Francisca N

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a leading cause of visual impairment and a treatable cause of blindness globally, the pattern of refractive errors in many populations is unknown. This study determined the pattern of refractive ocular conditions, reasons for spectacles renewal and the effect of correction on refractive errors in a resource-limited community. Methods A retrospective review of case records of 1,413 consecutive patients seen in a private optometry practice, Nigeria between January 2006 and July 2007. Results A total number of 1,216 (86.1% patients comprising of (486, 40% males and (730, 60% females with a mean age of 41.02 years SD 14.19 were analyzed. The age distribution peaked at peri-adolescent and the middle age years. The main ocular complaints were spectacles loss and discomfort (412, 33.9%, blurred near vision (399, 32.8% and asthenopia (255, 20.9%. The mean duration of ocular symptoms before consultation was 2.05 years SD 1.92. The most common refractive errors include presbyopia (431, 35.3%, hyperopic astigmatism (240, 19.7% and presbyopia with hyperopia (276, 22.7%. Only (59, 4.9% had myopia. Following correction, there were reductions in magnitudes of the blind (VA Conclusions Adequate correction of refractive errors reduces visual impairment and avoidable blindness and to achieve optimal control of refractive errors in the community, services should be targeted at individuals in the peri-adolescent and the middle age years.

  1. Prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens UCP 1549 using renewable-resources as a low cost substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Helvia W Casullo; Fukushima, K; Takaki, Galba M Campos

    2010-10-08

    A new strain of Serratia marcescens UCP1459 isolated from a semi-arid soil produced the natural red pigment prodigiosin, characterized by an uncommon pyrrolylpyrromethane skeleton. Prodigiosin is a promising drug due to its reported antifungal, immunosuppressive and anti-proliferative activities. The objective of this work was to indentify a suitable medium to simultaneously enhance S. marcescens growth and pigment production using renewable resources obtained from industrial wastes. S. marcescens produced the highest level of prodigiosin (49.5 g/L) at 48 h of cultivation using 6% "manipueira" (cassava wastewater) supplemented with mannitol (2%) at pH 7 and 28 °C. Carbohydrates in "manipueira" and mannitol play a role in the enhanced cell growth and prodigiosin production. The purified pigment extracted from the biomass was analyzed by mass spectrophotometry and showed the expected molecular weight of 324 Da corresponding to prodigiosin. In conclusion, we have successfully designed a new, economically feasible medium supporting enhanced S. marcescens growth and a high yield production of prodigiosin.

  2. Recent developments and future prospects on bio-based polyesters derived from renewable resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Noreen, Aqdas; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A significantly growing interest is to design a new strategy for development of bio-polyesters from renewable resources due to limited fossil fuel reserves, rise of petrochemicals price and emission of green house gasses. Therefore, this review aims to present an overview on synthesis of biocompatible, biodegradable and cost effective polyesters from biomass and their prospective in different fields including packaging, coating, tissue engineering, drug delivery system and many more. Isosorbide, 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol, bicyclic diacetalyzed galactaric acid, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, citric, 2,3-O-methylene l-threitol, dimethyl 2,3-O-methylene l-threarate, betulin, dihydrocarvone, decalactone, pimaric acid, ricinoleic acid and sebacic acid, are some important monomers derived from biomass which are used for bio-based polyester manufacturing, consequently, replacing the petrochemical based polyesters. The last part of this review highlights some recent advances in polyester blends and composites in order to improve their properties for exceptional biomedical applications i.e. skin tissue engineering, guided bone regeneration, bone healing process, wound healing and wound acceleration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Are government policies effective in promoting deployment of renewable electricity resources?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrimali, Gireesh, E-mail: gireesh_shrimali@isb.edu [Indian School of Business, Hyderabad, AP (India); Kniefel, Joshua [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Using a panel data over 50 US states and years 1991-2007, this paper uses a state fixed-effects model with state-specific time-trends to estimate the effects of state policies on the penetration of various emerging renewable electricity sources, including wind, biomass, geothermal, and solar photovoltaic. Renewable portfolio standards with either capacity or sales requirements have a significant impact on the penetration of all types of renewables-however, this impact is variable depending on the type of renewable source: it is negative for combined renewables, wind, and biomass; and positive for geothermal and solar. Further, clean energy funds and required green power options mostly result in increasing the penetration of all types of renewables. On the other hand, voluntary renewable portfolio standards as well as state green power purchasing programs are found to be ineffective in increasing the penetration of any type of renewable source. Finally, economic variables, such as electricity price, natural gas price, and per capita GDP as well as structural variables, such as league of conservation voters rating and the share of coal-generated electricity are found to be generally insignificant, suggesting the crucial role of policy in increasing the penetration of renewables. - Highlights: > Ascertains the impact of state policies on increasing the renewable capacity. > Renewable portfolio requirements have an (sometimes unexpected) impact. > Clean energy funds and required green power options have a positive impact. > Voluntary renewable standards as well as state green power purchasing requirements are ineffective. > Economics as well as political and structural variables are ineffective.

  4. Recent Trends in Renewable Energy Resources for Power Generation in the Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Chul-Ho Noh; Insu Kim; Won-Hyeok Jang; Chul-Hwan Kim

    2015-01-01

    The global demand for renewable energy in recent decades has continued to increase, despite adverse economic conditions such as world economic recessions, trade disputes, and falls in gas and oil prices. During this period, the United States and Europe have led the development of renewable energy technologies, but now emerging countries such as China, Brazil, India, and the Republic of Korea are also been actively participating in developing and deploying renewable energy. For example, since ...

  5. FRANKINCENSE AND MYRRH RESOURCES OF ETHIOPIA: I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    myrrh resources and has been known as one of the major producers. Nevertheless, little efforts ...... of the vegetation resources and the protection of the vast marginal arid and .... utilization of these vast untapped renewable resources for the ...

  6. Scoping study of integrated resource planning needs in the public utility sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrick, C J; Garrick, J M; Rue, D R [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) is an approach to utility resource planning that integrates the evaluation of supply- and demand-site options for providing energy services at the least cost. Many utilities practice IRP; however, most studies about IRP focus on investor-owned utilities (IOUs). This scoping study investigates the IRP activities and needs of public utilities (not-for-profit utilities, including federal, state, municipal, and cooperative utilities). This study (1) profiles IRP-related characteristics of the public utility sector, (2) articulates the needs of public utilities in understanding and implementing IRP, and (3) identifies strategies to advance IRP principles in public utility planning.

  7. Utilization of urban free regions for renewable energies; Nutzung staedtischer Freiflaechen fuer erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genske, Dieter D.; Joedecke, Thomas; Ruff, Ariane [Fachhochschule Nordhausen (Germany); Porsche, Lars (comps.) [Bundesamt fuer Bauwesen und Raumordnung (BBR), Bonn (DE). Bundesinstitut fuer Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung (BBSR)

    2009-07-01

    A stronger use of renewable energies is the key for an economically sustainable, social and ecological development. Therefore, the European Union decided exemplary targets of climatic protection such as a distinct increase of the energy efficiency and use CO{sub 2} reduced technologies for the development of renewable energies. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration examines how free terrains can be supplied to a meaningful urban use, a recycling and a possible intermediate use. How large is the potential of free terrains for renewable energies in the future? How can renewable energies be won for suitable free terrains? Scenarios are developed for four model rooms. These scenarios aim to a gradual approach to an optimal supply of heat and electricity. The power requirement of the inhabitants of a city can be produced in the urban space. An energy document of identification for cities is suggested in order to enable a comparison of the cities among themselves. In the sense of a sustainable energy management, the existing stock also has to be used energetically.

  8. An ideal interval method of multi-objective decision-making for comprehensive assessment of water resources renewability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaohua; YANG Zhifeng; SHEN Zhenyao; LI Jianqiang

    2004-01-01

    In order to estimate water resources renewability scientifically, an Ideal Interval Method of Multiple Objective Decision-Making (IIMMODM) is presented. This method is developed through improving an ideal point method of multiple objective decision-making. The ideal interval is obtained with assessment standard instead of ideal points. The weights are decided by using the basic point and gray code accelerating genetic algorithm. This method has synthesized the expert's suggestion and avoided giving a mark for the objective again. It could solve the complicated problem of compatible or incompatible multi-objective assessment. The principle of IIMMODM is presented in this paper. It is used to assess the water resources renewability for nine administrative divisions in the Yellow River basin. The result shows that the water resources renewability in the Yellow River basin is very low. Compared with the gray associate analysis method, fuzzy synthesis method and genetic projection pursuit method,the IIMMODM is easier to use. Compared with the ideal point method of multiple objective decision-making, the IIMMODM has good robustness, which is applicable to the comprehensive assessments of water resources.

  9. Utilization of Spent Resources in Support of Eco-Economic Decoupling in Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuril Fikri Aulia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the development is often cause adverse environmental impacts. Adverse effects are environmental degradation and decreasing availability of resources. To overcome this, it is necessary that the development can still continue, the environment is not damaged, and the availability of resources is maintained. One effort is through eco - economic decoupling activities with the use of spent resources. The aim of study to determine the potential of spent resources in Central Java, knows the problems in the utilization of spent resources in Central Java, and to determine the impact of the utilization of spent resources in Central Java by a qualitative descriptive method. The results show that in the study have the potential of eco-economic decoupling indicated by the availability of spent resources and had done utilization of spent resources. However, this potential has not been optimally developed, because there are still some problems in its utilization. Problems in the use of spent resources are the lack of knowledge about eco-economic decoupling and spent resources among stakeholder, there is no specific policy on eco - economic decoupling, the lack of Local Government 's role in the utilization of spent resource, and the lack of synergy programs and activities in supporting the utilization of spent resources. Utilization of spent resources have positive impact to reduce pressure on the environment and natural resources, create a new job, and increase incomes for society.

  10. AHP Comprehensive Evaluation on Sustainable Utilization of Water Resources in Hengshui City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘峰; 赵林

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the sustainable utilization of water resources in Hengshui City, quantitative analysis and comprehensive evaluation on 15 indexes of Hengshui City, such as the perspectives of social and economic devel-opment condition, water resource condition, environment condition, development and utilization of water resources, were conducted by using the analytic hierarchy process(AHP) method from 2004 to 2008. Although the sustainable utilization has been growing from 2004 to 2008, the situation and environment of water resources were not optimistic because of the severe water shortage in Hengshui. In the future, improving the supply capacity is the key target for promoting sustainable utilization of water resources.

  11. [Research on resources chemistry of Chinese medicinal materials and resources recycling utilization ways and goals and tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jin-ao; Su, Shu-lan; Guo, Sheng; Jiang, Shu; Liu, Pei; Yan, Hui; Qian, Da-wei; Zhu, Hua-xu; Tang, Yu-ping; Wu, Qi-nan

    2015-09-01

    The objects of research on the resources chemistry of Chinese medicinal materials (RCCMM) are promotion of efficient production, rational utilization and improving quality of CMM and natural products. The development of TCM cause depends on the efficient utilization and sustainable development of CMM, hinges on the technologies and methods for using and discovering medicinal biological resources, stand or fall on the extension of industy chains, detailed utilizaion of resource chemical components by multi-way, multi-level. All of these may help to the recycling utilization and sound development of RCMM. In this article, five respects were discussed to the RCCMM researches and resources recycling utilization ways and goals and tasks. First, based on the principle of resource scarcity, discovering or replacing CMM resources, protecting the rare or endangered species or resources. Second, based on the multifunctionality of CMM, realizing the value-added and value compensation, and promoting the utilization efficiency through systermatic and detailed exploitation and utilization. Third, based on the resource conservation and environment-friendly, reducing raw material consumption, lowering cost, promoting recycling utilization and elevating utilization efficiency. Fourth, based on the stratege of turning harm into good, using the invasive alien biological resources by multi-ways and enriching the medicial resources. Fifth, based on the method of structure modification of chemical components, exploring and enhancing the utility value of resouces chemical substances. These data should provide references and attention for improving the utilization efficiency, promoting the development of recycling economy, and changing the mode of economic growth of agriculture and industry of CMM fundamentally.

  12. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extratrrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtrtion material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removable technique. Our studies have show a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  13. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Stephen M.; Jolley, Scott T.; Captain, James G.

    2013-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extraterrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtration material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removal technique. Our studies have shown a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  14. Towards synthetic biological approaches to resource utilization on space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Amor A; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A; Arkin, Adam P

    2015-01-06

    This paper demonstrates the significant utility of deploying non-traditional biological techniques to harness available volatiles and waste resources on manned missions to explore the Moon and Mars. Compared with anticipated non-biological approaches, it is determined that for 916 day Martian missions: 205 days of high-quality methane and oxygen Mars bioproduction with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum can reduce the mass of a Martian fuel-manufacture plant by 56%; 496 days of biomass generation with Arthrospira platensis and Arthrospira maxima on Mars can decrease the shipped wet-food mixed-menu mass for a Mars stay and a one-way voyage by 38%; 202 days of Mars polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis with Cupriavidus necator can lower the shipped mass to three-dimensional print a 120 m(3) six-person habitat by 85% and a few days of acetaminophen production with engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can completely replenish expired or irradiated stocks of the pharmaceutical, thereby providing independence from unmanned resupply spacecraft that take up to 210 days to arrive. Analogous outcomes are included for lunar missions. Because of the benign assumptions involved, the results provide a glimpse of the intriguing potential of 'space synthetic biology', and help focus related efforts for immediate, near-term impact.

  15. Economic analysis of large-scale hydrogen storage for renewable utility applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M.

    2011-08-01

    The work reported here supports the efforts of the Market Transformation element of the DOE Fuel Cell Technology Program. The portfolio includes hydrogen technologies, as well as fuel cell technologies. The objective of this work is to model the use of bulk hydrogen storage, integrated with intermittent renewable energy production of hydrogen via electrolysis, used to generate grid-quality electricity. In addition the work determines cost-effective scale and design characteristics and explores potential attractive business models.

  16. Increasing Biofuel Deployment and Utilization through Development of Renewable Super Premium: Infrastructure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.; Kass, M.; Theiss, T.

    2014-11-01

    A high octane fuel and specialized vehicle are under consideration as a market opportunity to meet federal requirements for renewable fuel use and fuel economy. Infrastructure is often cited as a barrier for the introduction of a new fuel. This report assesses infrastructure readiness for E25 (25% ethanol; 75% gasoline) and E25+ (more than 25% ethanol). Both above-ground and below-ground equipment are considered as are the current state of stations, codes and regulations, and materials compatibility.

  17. Demonstration and Verification of a Turbine Power Generation System Utilizing Renewable Fuel: Landfill Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    weight of the equipment and concrete pads. The heaviest integrated components (turbine, oxidizer, piping and supporting steel work) weigh about 25...DataTaker™ data logger and retrieved via cellular router on a weekly basis. Raw data were retrieved each week and appended into the ‘raw data’ tab of...Poster presentation 2010 ESTCP Symposium Poster presentation 2011 ESTCP Symposium Poster and presentation in renewable energy panel 2011 Exhibition

  18. Summary of technical information and agreements from Nuclear Management and Resources Council industry reports addressing license renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, C.; Lee, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Reactor Program Management; Chopra, O.K.; Ma, D.C.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In about 1990, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) submitted for NRC review ten industry reports (IRs) addressing aging issues associated with specific structures and components of nuclear power plants ad one IR addressing the screening methodology for integrated plant assessment. The NRC staff had been reviewing the ten NUMARC IRs; their comments on each IR and NUMARC responses to the comments have been compiled as public documents. This report provides a brief summary of the technical information and NUMARC/NRC agreements from the ten IRs, except for the Cable License Renewal IR. The technical information and agreements documented herein represent the status of the NRC staffs review when the NRC staff and industry resources were redirected to address rule implementation issues. The NRC staff plans to incorporate appropriate technical information and agreements into the draft standard review plan for license renewal.

  19. Enzyme catalysis: tool to make and break amygdalin hydrogelators from renewable resources: a delivery model for hydrophobic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Li, Jun; John, George

    2006-07-12

    We report a novel approach for the controlled delivery of an antiinflammatory, chemopreventive drug by an enzyme-triggered drug release mechanism via the degradation of encapsulated hydrogels. The hydro- and organogelators are synthesized in high yields from renewable resources by using regioselective enzyme catalysis, and a known chemopreventive and antiinflammatory drug, i.e., curcumin, is used for the model study. The release of the drug occurred at physiological temperature, and control of the drug release rate is achieved by manipulating the enzyme concentration and/or temperature. The byproducts formed after the gel degradation were characterized and clearly demonstrated the site specificity of degradation of the gelator by enzyme catalysis. The present approach could have applications in developing cost-effective controlled drug delivery vehicles from renewable resources, with a potential impact on pharmaceutical research and molecular design and delivery strategies.

  20. Control scheme of three-level H-bridge converter for interfacing between renewable energy resources and AC grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a control strategy of multilevel converters for integration of renewable energy resources into power grid. The proposed technique provides compensation for active, reactive, and harmonic current components of grid-connected loads. A three-level H-bridge converter is proposed a...... (THD) of grid current through Matlab/Simulink under proposed operating conditions. © 2011 EPE Association - European Power Electr....

  1. Problems of effective use of new constructions of electric power installations, based on renewable energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balzannikov Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays hydraulic and power installations can be defined as power installations that are well-designed in terms of construction and technology and working on renewable energy resources (RER. However wide use of such power stations is interfered by their low performance in comparison with thermal stations, using organic fuel. The purpose of the conducted research in this article is – search of ways to increase the competitiveness of power stations, using RER, in comparison with traditional power stations. In order to achieve the specified purpose the authors solved the following tasks: they analyzed and developed new constructive solutions of the power stations using RER; they developed the power-economic viability method for the choice of key parameters of the power stations working on RER. The researchers also gained the set objectives, using theoretical and experimental methods of calculation connected with physical modeling, the theoretical analysis and use of an economic case of the made decisions. Thus, carried-out analysis of designs of the power stations, based on RER allowed to develop a method of efficiency enhancement of these installations and to solve a problem of wider use of power stations as a part of the installations working on RER. The provided technical solutions of power stations that give the chance to develop new suggestions for improvement of designs of power stations, based on RER and to promote development of recommendations about their competitive recovery. As a result it will allow to create conditions for production of the effective national power stations, based on RER, and cumulative scientific and technical potential, that can be used for further development of nonconventional wind power and hydropower both in Russia, and abroad.

  2. Groundwater renewable resources in karst areas, the case of the Kleśnica River basin (Sudety Mountains, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olichwer, Tomasz; Otrębski, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    The karst-fractured medium constitutes a considerable groundwater capacity, as shown on the example of the Kleśnica River basin. The paleozoic crystalline limestones in the research area are good collectors of the groundwater. The Kleśnica River basin, one of the largest crystalline limestone lens, is situated in the Sudety Mountains. Groundwater renewable resources were distinguished with the use of hydrological methods, on the basis of hydrometric measurements of the flow discharge of the Kleśnica River during the low-flow period (2009-2010). The mean module of the groundwater runoff equals 20.79 dm3/s*km2, and includes the study of the river catchments areas with extremely high groundwater runoff. The groundwater renewable resources in the Kleśnica River basin are almost twice higher than in the neighbouring river basins (the Kamienica and Morawka River basins), in which there are no significant outcrops of carbonate rocks. These considerable renewable resources also provide a high runoff in the spring, 7.98 dm3/s*km2. The high values of the runoffs indicate, that the groundwater is coming from the regional circulation system and, on a smaller scale, from the local system. The groundwater from both systems flows into the fractured system through the karst of carbonate massif rocks and their weathering fringes.

  3. Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, A

    2001-04-01

    The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchf

  4. Stochastic Security and Risk-Constrained Scheduling for an Autonomous Microgrid with Demand Response and Renewable Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Rashidizadeh-Kermani, Homa; Najafi, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    Increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) and the development of advanced information, give rise to questions on how responsive loads can be managed to optimize the use of resources and assets. In this context, demand response (DR) as a way for modifying the consumption...... procure energy from various sources including local generating units and demand-side resources to serve the customers. The operator sells electricity to customers under real-time pricing (RTP) scheme and the response of customers to electricity prices by adjusting their loads. The objective...

  5. The smoothing effect for renewable resources in an Afro-Eurasian power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutova, Maria; Kies, Alexander; Schyska, Bruno U.; von Bremen, Lueder

    2017-07-01

    Renewable power systems have to cope with highly variable generation. Increasing the spatial extent of an interconnected power transmission grid smooths the feed-in by exchange of excess energy over long distances and therefore supports renewable power integration. In this work, we investigate and quantify the balancing potential of a supergrid covering Europe, Africa and Asia. We use ten years of historical weather data to model the interplay of renewable generation and consumption and show that a pan-continental Afro-Eurasian supergrid can smooth renewable generation to a large extent and reduce the need for backup energy by around 50 %. In addition, we show that results for different weather years vary by up to approximately 50 %.

  6. Implications of Model Structure and Detail for Utility Planning: Scenario Case Studies Using the Resource Planning Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hale, Elaine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dyson, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eurek, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In this report, we analyze the impacts of model configuration and detail in capacity expansion models, computational tools used by utility planners looking to find the least cost option for planning the system and by researchers or policy makers attempting to understand the effects of various policy implementations. The present analysis focuses on the importance of model configurations — particularly those related to capacity credit, dispatch modeling, and transmission modeling — to the construction of scenario futures. Our analysis is primarily directed toward advanced tools used for utility planning and is focused on those impacts that are most relevant to decisions with respect to future renewable capacity deployment. To serve this purpose, we develop and employ the NREL Resource Planning Model to conduct a case study analysis that explores 12 separate capacity expansion scenarios of the Western Interconnection through 2030.

  7. Proceedings of the economic renewal forum report on working partnerships : Aboriginal People, the private sector and resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Aboriginal Economic Renewal Initiative (AERI) has the mandate to develop partnerships and identify both barriers and solutions as they relate to sustainable economic development. This forum provided an opportunity for First Nation economic developers, representatives from government and other organizations in Ontario to develop business relationships beneficial to all parties. The participants discussed a wide range of topics, such as the creation of partnerships in the resource sector, the politics of resource development, and business models and funding agents. At the end of the forum, two trends were identified. Mainstream economic stakeholders are recognizing the increased strength of First Nations in major decision making regarding the development of resources in Canada. Future relationships between First Nations and the economic mainstream will determine in large part the landscape for resource development in Canada. tabs., figs.

  8. Utilizing a Flexibility Interface for Distributed Energy Resources Through a Cloud-Based Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orda, Lasse Dreisig; Bach, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders Bro;

    2013-01-01

    With governments around the world pushing for an ever increasing shift towards renewable energy production, large numbers of controllable distributed energy resources are starting to appear. Already a multitude of proposed control solutions have seen the light of day, but most are focused solely...

  9. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Overview report of combined energy storage and renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The first part of the paper briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of renewable energy sources with respect to the United Kingdom. It discusses the intermittent nature of wind and solar power and the less intermittent nature of hydro power and energy from biomass. The need to store energy generated, particularly from the intermittent sources, is discussed with special reference to electric batteries and pumped storage. If the energy cannot be stored and delivered when required, then the commercial viability of the source will be adversely affected - the economics and how this fits with NETA are discussed briefly. The second part of the paper is an overview of some relevant literature discussing (a) how the problems of fluctuating supplies may be managed, (b) an analytical assessment of the contribution from wind farms, (c) how fluctuations in wind power can be smoothed using sodium-sulfur batteries, (d) how small generators can get together and reduce trading costs and imbalance exposure under NETA, (e) the benefits of large-scale energy storage to network management and embedded generation, (f) distribution networks, (g) embedded generation and network management issues and (h) costs and benefits of embedded generation. The work was carried out as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme managed by Future Energy Solutions.

  10. Renewable Energy: The Future of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mamunur Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy is versatile and considered as the back bone of our daily life. It is directly or indirectly used in everyone’s daily activities. But for having the availability of the sources, we cannot but depend on the renewable resources. The renewable resources can be replaced through the natural process at a rate which is equal or greater than this rate at which they are used. Actually, renewable energy is generated from natural resources like sunlight, wind, tide, geothermal heat, ocean energy etc. that are renewable. A prediction is that in 2030, energy comes from renewable sources is 28% of total generation. Though Bangladesh having lots of natural resources, but still now facing and struggling with the shortage of power, while our neighboring countries are utilizing their sources properly and being richer with better economic growth. The vision for increasing economic growth to 10% by 2017 can be come into reality through the proper utilization of renewable energy resources for having a sustainable development of our country. This paper shows an analytical study on recent energy scenario of Bangladesh and describes the potentiality of available renewable energy resources that should be incorporated in the national energy planning.

  11. A Technical Mode for Sharing and Utilizing Open Educational Resources in Chinese Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Open educational resources just supply potentials to help equalize the access to worldwide knowledge and education, but themselves alone do not cause effective learning or education. How to make effective use of the resources is still a big challenge. In this study, a technical mode is proposed to collect the open educational resources from different sources on the Internet into a campus-network-based resource management system. The system facilitates free and easy access to the resources for instructors and students in universities and integrates the resources into learning and teaching. The technical issues regarding the design the resource management system are examined, including the structure and functions of the system, metadata standard compatibility and scalability, metadata file format, and resource utilization assessment. Furthermore, the resource collecting, storage and utilization modes are also discussed so as to lay a technical basis for extensive and efficient sharing and utilization of the OER in Chinese universities.

  12. Modeling Feasibility of a Proposed Renewable Energy System with Wind and Solar Resources and Hydro Storage in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Koracin, D.; Hamilton, R.; Hagen, D.; King, K. C.

    2012-04-01

    High temporal and spatial variability in wind and solar power brings difficulties in integrating these resources into an electricity grid. These difficulties are even more emphasized in areas with complex topography due to complicated flow patterns and cloudiness evolution. This study investigates the feasibility and efficiency of a proposed renewable energy system with wind and solar resources and hydro storages in western Nevada, U.S.A. The state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used for the prediction of wind fields and incoming solar radiation at the ground surface. Forecast winds and solar radiation were evaluated with observational data from four wind masts and four meteorological towers in two months, July 2007 and January 2010. Based on a hypothetical wind farm and an assumed neighboring solar power plant both located near the hydro storage facility, as well as considering local power demand, the efficiency of the renewable energy system is projected. One of the main questions was how to optimize a schedule of activating pump storages according to the characteristics of several available hydro pumps, and wind and/or solar power predictions. The results show that segmentation of the pump-storage channel provides improved efficiency of the entire system. This modeled renewable energy system shows promise for possible applications and grid integration.

  13. Synthesis of comb-like copolymers from renewable resources: Itaconic anhydride, stearyl methacrylate and lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Shurui

    The synthesis and properties of comb-like copolymers and ionomers derived from renewable resources: itaconic anhydride (ITA), stearyl methacrylate (SM) and lactic acid (LA) are described. The copolymers based on ITA and SM (ITA-SM) were nearly random with a slight alternating tendency. The copolymers exhibited a nanophase-separated morphology, with the stearate side-chains forming a bilayer, semi-crystalline structure. The crystalline side-chains suppressed molecular motion of the main-chain, so that a glass transition temperature (Tg) was not resolved unless the ITA concentration was sufficiently high so that Tg > the melting point (Tm). The softening point and modulus of the copolymers increased with the increasing ITA concentration, but the thermal stability decreased. The ITA moiety along the main chain of the copolymers was neutralized with metal acetates to produce Na-, Ca- and Zn- random ionomers with comb-like architectures. In general, the incorporation of the ionic groups increased the Tg and suppressed the crystallinity of the side-chain packing. Ionomers with high SM side-chain density had two competing driving forces for self-assembled nano-phase separation: ionic aggregation and side-chain crystalline packing. Upon neutralization, a morphological transition from semi-crystalline lamella to spherical ionic aggregation was observed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermomechanical analysis revealed an increasing resistance to penetration deformation with an increasing degree of neutralization and an apparent rubbery plateau was observed above Tg. A controlled transesterification of PLA in glassware was an effective way to prepare a methacrylate functionalized PLA macromonomer with controlled molecular weight, which was used to synthesize a variety of copolymers. The copolymerization of this functionalized PLA macromonomer with ITA totally suppressed the side-chain crystallinity for the PLA chain

  14. Efficient Resource Utilization Algorithm (ERUA for Service Request Scheduling in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar N

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing provides us with the massive pool of resources in terms of pay-as-you-use policy. Cloud delivers these resources on demand through the use of network resources under different load conditions. As the users will be charged based on their usage the effective utilization of resources poses a major challenge. To accomplish this, a service request scheduling algorithm which reduces the waiting time of the task in the scheduler and maximizes the Quality of Service (QoS is needed. Our proposed algorithm named Effective Resource Utilization Algorithm (ERUA is based on 3-tier cloud architecture (Consumer, Service Provider and the Resource Provider which benefits both the user (QoS and the service provider (Cost through effective schedule reallocation based on utilization ratio leading to better resource utilization. Performance analysis made with the existing scheduling techniques shows that our algorithm gives out a more optimized schedule and enhances the efficiency rate.

  15. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission–intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  16. Grid expansion for an enhanced utilization of renewable energies; Netzausbau zur verstaerkten Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Martin [TenneT TSO GmbH, Bayreuth (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In its energy plan from September 2010, the Federal Government has developed an overall strategy for a secure, payable and environmentally friendly energy supply to 2050. The results in Japan will accelerate the shift to renewable energies. The key to alternative energy sources is the transformation of our energy infrastructure by expanding the classical high-voltage lines, the creation of large-scale overlay connections on land and HVDC sea cable connections. In Germany, TenneT TSO GmbH (Bayreuth, Federal Republic of Germany) is mostly affected by the additional construction of wind turbines and therefore especially demanded to develop the existing transport network. This requires both national and European solutions.

  17. Renewable resources in the chemical industry--breaking away from oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, Stefan; Höcker, Hans; Gebhardt, Henrike

    2007-12-01

    Rising prices for fossil-based raw materials suggest that sooner or later renewable raw materials will, in principle, become economically viable. This paper examines this widespread paradigm. Price linkages like those seen for decades particularly in connection with petrochemical raw materials are now increasingly affecting renewable raw materials. The main driving force is the competing utilisation as an energy source because both fossil-based and renewable raw materials are used primarily for heat, electrical power and mobility. As a result, prices are determined by energy utilisation. Simple observations show how prices for renewable carbon sources are becoming linked to the crude oil price. Whether the application calls for sugar, starch, virgin oils or lignocellulose, the price for the raw material rises with the oil price. Consequently, expectations regarding price trends for fossil-based energy sources can also be utilised for the valuation of alternative processes. However, this seriously calls into question the assumption that a rising crude oil price will favour the economic viability of alternative products and processes based on renewable raw materials. Conversely, it follows that these products and processes must demonstrate economic viability today. Especially in connection with new approaches in white biotechnology, it is evident that, under realistic assumptions, particularly in terms of achievable yields and the optimisation potential of the underlying processes, the route to utilisation is economically viable. This makes the paradigm mentioned at the outset at least very questionable.

  18. An Intelligent Approach to Strengthening of the Rural Electrical Power Supply Using Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, F. C.; Sisodia, G. S.; Gopalan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The healthy growth of economy lies in the balance between rural and urban development. Several developing countries have achieved a successful growth of urban areas, yet rural infrastructure has been neglected until recently. The rural electrical grids are weak with heavy losses and low capacity. Renewable energy represents an efficient way to generate electricity locally. However, the renewable energy generation may be limited by the low grid capacity. The current solutions focus on grid reinforcement only. This article presents a model for improving renewable energy integration in rural grids with the intelligent combination of three strategies: 1) grid reinforcement, 2) use of storage and 3) renewable energy curtailments. Such approach provides a solution to integrate a maximum of renewable energy generation on low capacity grids while minimising project cost and increasing the percentage of utilisation of assets. The test cases show that a grid connection agreement and a main inverter sized at 60 kW (resp. 80 kW) can accommodate a 100 kWp solar park (resp. 100 kW wind turbine) with minimal storage.

  19. Renewable Resources: a national catalog of model projects. Volume 2. Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    This compilation of diverse conservation and renewable energy projects across the United States was prepared through the enthusiastic participation of solar and alternate energy groups from every state and region. Compiled and edited by the Center for Renewable Resources, these projects reflect many levels of innovation and technical expertise. In many cases, a critique analysis is presented of how projects performed and of the institutional conditions associated with their success or failure. Some 2000 projects are included in this compilation; most have worked, some have not. Information about all is presented to aid learning from these experiences. The four volumes in this set are arranged in state sections by geographic region, coinciding with the four Regional Solar Energy Centers. The table of contents is organized by project category so that maximum cross-referencing may be obtained. This volume includes information on the Mid-American Solar Energy Complex Region. (WHK)

  20. Efficient Resource Utilization in Shared-Everything Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Manegold (Stefan); J.K. Obermaier

    1998-01-01

    textabstractEfficient resource usage is a key to achieve better performance in parallel database systems. Up to now, most research has focussed on balancing the load on several resources of the same type, i.e. balancing either CPU load or I/O load. In this paper, we present floating probe, a strateg

  1. Efficient resource utilization in shared-everything environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Manegold (Stefan); J.K. Obermaier

    1997-01-01

    textabstractEfficient resource usage is a key to achieve better performance in parallel database systems. Up to now, most research has focussed on balancing the load on several resources of the same type, i.e. balancing either CPU load or I/O load. In this paper, we present emph{floating probe, a st

  2. Efficient resource utilization in shared-everything environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manegold, S.; Obermaier, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    Efficient resource usage is a key to achieve better performance in parallel database systems. Up to now, most research has focussed on balancing the load on several resources of the same type, i.e. balancing either CPU load or I/O load. In this paper, we present emph{floating probe, a strategy for p

  3. Efficient Resource Utilization in Shared-Everything Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manegold, S.; Obermaier, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Efficient resource usage is a key to achieve better performance in parallel database systems. Up to now, most research has focussed on balancing the load on several resources of the same type, i.e. balancing either CPU load or I/O load. In this paper, we present floating probe, a strategy for parall

  4. The contribution of renewable energy resources on the electrification and development at the Guantanamo Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, S.; Angel, J. [CUBASOLAR, Guantanamo (Cuba); Moreno Figueredo, C. [Centro de Estudio de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (Cuba); Montesinos Larrosa, A. [Sociedad Cubana para la Promocion de las Energias Renovables (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Cuba's Guantanamo province is a leader in the application of renewable energy technologies. This paper discussed the socio-economic impact of renewable energy projects that are underway in the Guantanamo province to improve the standard of living in rural areas. More than 400 rural schools and 70 rural medical offices get their electricity from photovoltaic systems. Hydropower provides the energy needs to 3000 rural houses with 11,000 inhabitants. Other applications include remote community solar systems, improved woodstoves for community kitchens, solar cookers and solar dryers. This paper demonstrated how the high penetration of these renewable energy technologies has contributed to the sustainable development of the province. The lessons learned in energy management by the local governments and research institutions were also outlined. 1 tab.

  5. CONSTRAINING FACTORS TO SUSTAINABLE UTILIZATION OF WATER RESOURCES AND THEIR COUNTERMEASURES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Jin-liang; FENG Ren-guo; XIA Jun

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the constraining factors to sustainable utilization of water resources in China, and the countermeasures to realize sustainable water utilization. The result of comprehensive analysis shows that constraining factors to sustainable utilization of water resources in China are complicated, including physical geographical factors and socio-economic factors, such as uneven distribution of water resources at temporal and spatial scales,inappropriate institutional arrangement and non-water-saving and non-water-conservation production and life mode.The countermeasures against constraining factors to water resources sustainable development are put forward as follows: 1) using wetlands and forests, and through spatial conversion to realize temporally sustainable supply of water resources; 2) transferring water between basins and areas and developing various water resources in water shortage area; 3) establishing water-saving society; 4) strengthening water pollution control and water resources protection;and 5) establishing unified water resources management mechanism.

  6. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  7. Using Forecasting to Predict Long-Term Resource Utilization for Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoas, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have spent years understanding resource utilization to improve scheduling, load balancing, and system management through short-term prediction of resource utilization. Early research focused primarily on single operating systems; later, interest shifted to distributed systems and, finally, into web services. In each case researchers…

  8. Economic principles and fundamental model of the sustainable utilization of ecological resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Jinpei; Li Lin

    2006-01-01

    By analyzing the basic rules and measurement principles of the sustainable utilization of ecological resources and constructing its mathematical model, this paper points out that the sustainable utilization of ecological resources is in nature to use the double-period model thousands of times for the dynamic distribution of ecological resources effectively. And it points out that in order to realize the sustainable utilization of ecological resources we must follow the basic principle - non-decreasing ecological capital and put forward corresponding standards, measures, policies and proposals.

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Utilization Efficiency of Major Agricultural Resources in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajuan; TIAN; Li; ZHEN

    2014-01-01

    The utilization efficiency of resources is one of the important factors affecting the development of modern agriculture. Using production function method and ratio analysis method,we carry out the horizontal comparison of the utilization efficiency of major agricultural resources such as arable land,agricultural machinery power and chemical fertilizer in Hebei Province and the national level,and the vertical comparison of the utilization efficiency of major agricultural resources between the prefecture-level cities in the province. The results show that the utilization efficiency of agricultural resources in Hebei Province is below the national average,and there are significant differences in the utilization efficiency of agricultural resources between the prefecture-level cities in the province.

  10. Pneumatic Excavation Mechanism for Lunar Resource Utilization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of the NASA goal of "locating and characterizing lunar volatile resources", Honeybee Robotics proposes to investigate two novel technologies that both are...

  11. 2015 Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in Ramat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intensely powerful and has permeated all segments and ... Web (WWW) and the internet to make information more accessible. On the other ... access points on the campus and computer literacy is till .... resources are often faster to consult than.

  12. Mineral Resources and Their Comprehensive Utilization in China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@It was said that mineral resources in oceans might be a reliable source for the material production. Ocean water is regarded as a huge “liquid deposit” for its ability to dissolve many kinds of elements. The total amount of elements in ocean water is greater than that in land. At the seafloor or below, occur a large number of mineral resources besides those in the water.China Sea, situated in the junction between North China block, Yangtze block and the Pacific plate and the Philippines plate, is excellent in ore-forming geological conditions, resulting in the presence of many kinds of deposits and abundant reserves. Mineral resources found in China Sea mainly include oil-gas resources, sea-beach placer and submarine coalfield.In addition, the manganese nodule and cobalt-rich crust are also discovered in South China Sea. Furthermore, the hydrothermal metalliferous deposit and gas hydrate may also be present in South China Sea.

  13. Renewable energy targets, forest resources, and second-generation biofuels in Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinimö, J.; Malinen, H.; Ranta, T.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of second-generation biofuels is an essential factor for meeting the EU’s 2020 targets for renewable energy in the transport sector and enabling the more ambitious targets for 2030. Finland’s forest industry is strongly involved in the development and commercializing of second-generatio

  14. Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for large scale and standalone applications in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina Terefe; Weesie, Peter D.M.; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the contribution of renewable energy to large scale and standalone application in Ethiopia. The assessment starts by determining the present energy system and the available potentials. Subsequently, the contribution of the available potentials for large scale and

  15. The Efficacy and Potential of Renewable Energy from Carbon Dioxide that is Sequestered in Sedimentary Basin Geothermal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, J. M.; Adams, B. M.; Choi, H.; Saar, M. O.; Taff, S. J.; Jamiyansuren, B.; Buscheck, T. A.; Ogland-Hand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mitigating climate change requires increasing the amount of electricity that is generated from renewable energy technologies and while simultaneously reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is emitted to the atmosphere from present energy and industrial facilities. We investigated the efficacy of generating electricity using renewable geothermal heat that is extracted by CO2 that is sequestered in sedimentary basins. To determine the efficacy of CO2-Geothermal power production in the United States, we conducted a geospatial resource assessment of the combination of subsurface CO2 storage capacity and heat flow in sedimentary basins and developed an integrated systems model that combines reservoir modeling with power plant modeling and economic costs. The geospatial resource assessment estimates the potential resource base for CO2-Geothermal power plants, and the integrated systems model estimates the physical (e.g., net power) and economic (e.g., levelized cost of electricity, capital cost) performance of an individual CO2-Geothermal power plant for a range of reservoir characteristics (permeability, depth, geothermal temperature gradient). Using coupled inverted five-spot injection patterns that are common in CO2-enhanced oil recovery operations, we determined the well pattern size that best leveraged physical and economic economies of scale for the integrated system. Our results indicate that CO2-Geothermal plants can be cost-effectively deployed in a much larger region of the United States than typical approaches to geothermal electricity production. These cost-effective CO2-Geothermal electricity facilities can also be capacity-competitive with many existing baseload and renewable energy technologies over a range of reservoir parameters. For example, our results suggest that, given the right combination of reservoir parameters, LCOEs can be as low as $25/MWh and capacities can be as high as a few hundred MW.

  16. Saving and Utilizing on Water Resources from Steel Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuLiguang

    2005-01-01

    In this espy, the author gives some presentation of the water saving practices in Baosteel for years. Relying on water saving research program and by means of water utilization analysis, water consumption distribution balance test water from every sequence of production activities, Baosteel promotes the waste saving projects including waster water comprehensive utilization and water loss reduction.At the same time, the water utilization technology analysis work and management work have considerably strengthened and operation of saving on fresh water sources and waster water utilization has been put into practice with the purpose to decrease water loss per ton of steel making, while the quality of water is placed under guarantee, a number of new records of water consumption ratio comes into being constantly.

  17. Resource Guide to Effective Utility Management and Lean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastewater utilities are critical to the environmental, economic, and social well being of our nation’s communities, as they work to ensure that the public continues to enjoy the benefits of clean and safe water.

  18. Coastal resources of Brunei Darussalam: Status, utilization and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, G.; Jaafar, H.M.H.; Yusof, P.S.P.H.; De Silva, M.W.R.N.; Chua, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    In light of the environmental dangers accompanying its recent program of economic diversification, the Government of Brunei Darussalam has signalled the need for improved management of its coastal areas, where 85 percent of the population lives and the country's social and economic activities are concentrated. The report contains the proceedings of a conference held in 1991 to review recent studies of Brunei Darussalam's coastal resources and draft an initial coastal area management plan. Individual papers cover: capture fisheries; mangrove and mangrove forest resources; fish communities in natural reef and artificial habitats; coastal area water quality; the populations and diversity of benthic fauna that inhabit coastal waters and are threatened by oil spills; a simulation of oil slick movement in Brunei Darussalam; a composite sensitivity index ranking the susceptibility of Brunei's five zones (as identified by resource prevalence) to oil spills; a management strategy for Brunei's 33 islands, most of which are uninhabited; zoning of industrial activities to minimize adverse effects on coastal water quality and the environment; the socioeconomic importance of Brunei's coastal resources; and the legal and institutional environment for coastal resource management.

  19. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  20. Utilization of extremozymes for the bioconversion of renewable sugar to molecular hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Danson, M.; Hough, D.; Ward, N. [Univ. of Bath (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    We have recently demonstrated the technical feasibility of the bioconversion of glucose and cellulose to molecular hydrogen using two extremozymes glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and hydrogenase. The utilization of compatible extremozymes is important to obtain the fastest rates of hydrogen production possible. The rate limiting step in the conversion of hydrogen appears to be the rate at which insoluble cellulose is enzymatically hydrolyzed to glucose by cellulase since the rate of hydrogen production from soluble starch, hydrolyzed by glucoamylase, was similar to that obtained with glucose at the substrate. Xylose is also a substrate for the GDH used (from Thermoplasma acidophilum expressed in E coli) suggesting that the hemicellulose component of biomass can also be transformed to hydrogen. Current to hydrogen experimentation includes the use of cellulases from extremophiles for the bioconversion of cellulosic substrates to hydrogen and the utilization of enzymatic pathways for obtaining the maximum yield of hydrogen/mol of substrate.

  1. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts onRegional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of the consumer price shocks and short-term power shortages of the 2000-01 electricity crisis, policymakers and regulators in Western states are placing increased emphasis on integrated resource planning (IRP), resource adequacy and assessment and a diversified portfolio of resources to meet the needs of electricity consumers. In some states, this has led to a resurgence in state and utility commitments to energy efficiency. Increasing interest in acquiring energy efficiency as a power-system resource is also driven by the desire to dampen high growth rates in electricity demand in some Western states, rapid increases in natural gas prices, concerns about the environmental impacts of electricity generation (e.g. water consumption by power plants, air quality), and the potential of energy efficiency to provide utility bill savings for households and businesses (WGA CDEAC 2006). Recognizing the cost-competitiveness and environmental benefits of energy efficiency, the Western Governor's Association (WGA) has set a high priority for energy efficiency, establishing a goal of reducing projected electricity demand by 20% across the West by 2020 in a policy resolution on Clean and Diversified Energy for the West (WGA 2004). Nationally, the need for improved tracking of demand-side resources in load forecasting is formalized in the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC)'s recently adopted reliability standards, which utilities and regional reliability organizations will need to comply with (NERC 2005a and 2005b). In this study, we examine the treatment of energy efficiency in recent resource plans issued by fourteen investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in the Western United States and Canada. The goals of this study are to: (1) summarize energy-efficiency resources as represented in a large sample of recent resource plans prepared by Western utilities and identify key issues; (2) evaluate the extent to which the information provided in

  2. Measuring Resource Utilization: A Systematic Review of Validated Self-Reported Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Laura E; Khadaroo, Rachel G; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Hanson, Heather; Wagg, Adrian; Padwal, Raj; Clement, Fiona

    2016-03-01

    A variety of methods may be used to obtain costing data. Although administrative data are most commonly used, the data available in these datasets are often limited. An alternative method of obtaining costing is through self-reported questionnaires. Currently, there are no systematic reviews that summarize self-reported resource utilization instruments from the published literature.The aim of the study was to identify validated self-report healthcare resource use instruments and to map their attributes.A systematic review was conducted. The search identified articles using terms like "healthcare utilization" and "questionnaire." All abstracts and full texts were considered in duplicate. For inclusion, studies had to assess the validity of a self-reported resource use questionnaire, to report original data, include adult populations, and the questionnaire had to be publically available. Data such as type of resource utilization assessed by each questionnaire, and validation findings were extracted from each study.In all, 2343 unique citations were retrieved; 2297 were excluded during abstract review. Forty-six studies were reviewed in full text, and 15 studies were included in this systematic review. Six assessed resource utilization of patients with chronic conditions; 5 assessed mental health service utilization; 3 assessed resource utilization by a general population; and 1 assessed utilization in older populations. The most frequently measured resources included visits to general practitioners and inpatient stays; nonmedical resources were least frequently measured. Self-reported questionnaires on resource utilization had good agreement with administrative data, although, visits to general practitioners, outpatient days, and nurse visits had poorer agreement.Self-reported questionnaires are a valid method of collecting data on healthcare resource utilization.

  3. Conservation and utilization of rice genetic resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Rice genetic resources presents variably in China. There are land races and wild species. cultivated lowland rice and upland rice, indica (Hsien) and japonica (Keng) riee. early, middle, and late rice as well as glutinous and non-glutinous rice. Up to February 2000, a total of 76, 646 rice accessions were catalogued,and 67. 444 base accessions were stored in the National Crop Gene Bank in the Institute of Crop Genetic Resources (ICGR) of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China (Table 1). About 35,000 rice duplicates were stored in China National Rice Research Institute(CNRRI), Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. China.

  4. Voronoi-Tessellated Graphite Produced by Low-Temperature Catalytic Graphitization from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Leyi; Zhao, Xiuyun; Burke, Luke T; Bennett, J Craig; Dunlap, Richard A; Obrovac, Mark N

    2017-09-11

    A highly crystalline graphite powder was prepared from the low temperature (800-1000 °C) graphitization of renewable hard carbon precursors using a magnesium catalyst. The resulting graphite particles are composed of Voronoi-tessellated regions comprising irregular sheets; each Voronoi-tessellated region having a small "seed" particle located near their centroid on the surface. This suggests nucleated outward growth of graphitic carbon, which has not been previously observed. Each seed particle consists of a spheroidal graphite shell on the inside of which hexagonal graphite platelets are perpendicularly affixed. This results in a unique high surface area graphite with a high degree of graphitization that is made with renewable feedstocks at temperatures far below that conventionally used for artificial graphites. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  6. Factors Influencing Post-Adoptive Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Organizations expend a great deal of time, effort and money on the implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. They are considered the price of entry for large organizations to do business. Yet the success rate of ERP systems is poor. IS literature suggests that one possible reason for this is the underutilization of these…

  7. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  8. Factors Influencing Post-Adoptive Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Thomas C.

    2011-01-01

    Organizations expend a great deal of time, effort and money on the implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. They are considered the price of entry for large organizations to do business. Yet the success rate of ERP systems is poor. IS literature suggests that one possible reason for this is the underutilization of these…

  9. Strengthening human resources for new and renewable energy technologies of the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovski, B. [UNESCO, Engineering and Technology Div, Geneva (Switzerland); Gottschalk, C.M.

    1997-02-01

    The UNESCO Engineering Education and Training Programme provides educational materials for postgraduate level students of energy engineering subjects in the fields of new and renewable energy technologies. Aimed at students in developing countries, the package can be used for distance learning. The multi-media ``Learning Package``, part of this program, consists of a textbook, multi-media products and software, much of which is already published. The energy educational goals include environmental awareness, and ethical responsibility towards society. (UK)

  10. Communication Network Architectures for Smart-House with Renewable Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the microgrid revolution, each house will have the ability to meet its own energy needs locally from renewable energy sources such as solar or wind. However, real-time data gathering, energy management and control of renewable energy systems will depend mainly on the performance of the communications infrastructure. This paper describes the design of a communication network architecture using both wired and wireless technologies for monitoring and controlling distributed energy systems involving small-scale wind turbines and photovoltaic systems. The proposed communication architecture consists of three layers: device layer, network layer, and application layer. Two scenarios are considered: a smart-house and a smart-building. Various types of sensor nodes and measurement devices are defined to monitor the condition of the renewable energy systems based on the international electrotechnical commission standard. The OPNET Modeler is used for performance evaluation in terms of end-to-end (ETE delay. The network performance is compared in view of ETE delay, reliability and implementation cost for three different technologies: Ethernet-based, WiFi-based, and ZigBee-based.

  11. [Application of synthetic biology to sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive natural products are the material bases of Chinese materia medica resources. With successful applications of synthetic biology strategies to the researches and productions of taxol, artemisinin and tanshinone, etc, the potential ability of synthetic biology in the sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources has been attracted by many researchers. This paper reviews the development of synthetic biology, the opportunities of sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources, and the progress of synthetic biology applied to the researches of bioactive natural products. Furthermore, this paper also analyzes how to apply synthetic biology to sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources and what the crucial factors are. Production of bioactive natural products with synthetic biology strategies will become a significant approach for the sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources.

  12. Utilization and Management of Small Fishery Population Resources in Coastal and Offshore Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua LE; Xiangguo ZHANG; Yingqi ZHOU

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous types of living resources in coastal and offshore areas of China. In recent years,both the population type and quantity structure have significant changes,and the stock of small fishery population resources is increasing. This population is precious protein resource. It is urgent to study how to take prompt and effective fishing and take full advantage of processing,utilization and management. Traditional utilization methods are limited by many factors. The utilization efficiency is extremely low. The feed conversion rate of some mariculture fishes with fresh small trash fishes as feeds is even as low as 0. 2. Innovative production and management organization model with aquatic enterprises as leaders greatly increases the utilization efficiency of small fish resources with the aid of marine processing mother ship. In order to further accelerate developing and utilizing small fishery population resources in coastal and offshore areas,China should launch survey and utilization researches of small fishery population resources in coastal and offshore areas,formulate practical and feasible laws,regulations and policies,actively encourage and support autonomous innovative management mode of enterprises,and promote effective utilization and management of coastal and offshore fishery resources.

  13. Demand-Side Management and Integrated Resource Planning: Findings from a Survey of 24 Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated resource planning differs from traditional utility planning practices primarily in its increased attention to demand-side management (DSM) programs and its integration of supply- and demand-side resources into a combined resource portfolio. This report details the findings from an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) survey of 24 electric utilities that have well-developed integrated planning processes. These utilities account for roughly one-third of total capacity, electricity generation, and DSM-program expenditures nationwide. The ORNL survey was designed to obtain descriptive data on a national sample of utilities and to test a number of hypothesized relationships between selected utility characteristics and the mix of resources selected for the integrated plan, with an emphasis on the use of DSM resources and the processes by which they are chosen. The survey solicited information on each utility's current and projected resource mix, operating environment, procedures used to screen potential DSM resources, techniques used to obtain public input and to integrate supply- and demand-side options into a unified plan, and procedures used in the final selection of resources for the plan.

  14. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning:Current Practices in the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-05-16

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. Assuch, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

  15. Managing Carbon Regulatory Risk in Utility Resource Planning: Current Practices in the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-07-11

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by fifteen electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without Federal climate regulation in the U.S., the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of U.S. electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations.

  16. A good integrated resource plan: Guidelines for electric utilities and regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1992-12-01

    Integrated resource planning helps utilities and state regulatory commissions consistently assess a broad range of demand and supply resources to meet customer energy-service needs cost-effectively. Key characteristics of this planning approach include: explicit consideration and fair treatment of a wide variety of demand and supply options, consideration of the environmental and other social costs of providing energy services, public participation in the development of the resource plan, and analysis of the uncertainties associated with different external factors and resource options. Integrated resource planning differs from traditional planning in the types and scope of resources considered, the owners of the resources, the organizations involved in resource planning, and the criteria for resource selection. This report presents suggestions to utilities on how to conduct such planning and what to include in their resource-planning reports. These suggestions are based on a review of about 50 resource plans as well as discussions with and presentations to regulators and utilities. The suggestions cover four broad topics; the technical competence with which the plan was developed; the adequacy, detail, and consistency (with the long-term plan) of the short-term action plan; the extent to which the interests of various stakeholders was considered, both in public participation in plan development and in the variety of resource plans developedand assessed; and the clarity and comprehensiveness of the utility`s report on its plan. Technical competence includes energy and demand forecasts, assessment of supply and demand resources, resource integration, and treatment of uncertainty. Issues associated with forecasts include forecasting approaches; links between the forecasts of energy use and peak demands; and links between the forecasts and the effects of past, present, and future demand-side management programs.

  17. Offshore Resource Assessment and Design Conditions: A Data Requirements and Gaps Analysis for Offshore Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Dennis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frame, Caitlin [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Gill, Carrie [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Hanson, Howard [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Moriarty, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Powell, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wilczak, Jim [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Wynne, Jason [Energetics, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The offshore renewable energy industry requires accurate meteorological and oceanographic (“metocean”) data for evaluating the energy potential, economic viability, and engineering requirements of offshore renewable energy projects. It is generally recognized that currently available metocean data, instrumentation, and models are not adequate to meet all of the stakeholder needs on a national scale. Conducting wind and wave resource assessments and establishing load design conditions requires both interagency collaboration as well as valuable input from experts in industry and academia. Under the Department of Energy and Department of Interior Memorandum of Understanding, the Resource Assessment and Design Condition initiative supports collaborative national efforts by adding to core atmospheric and marine science knowledge relevant to offshore energy development. Such efforts include a more thorough understanding and data collection of key metocean phenomena such as wind velocity and shear; low-level jets; ocean, tidal, and current velocities; wave characteristics; geotechnical data relating to surface and subsurface characteristics; seasonal and diurnal variations; and the interaction among these conditions. Figure 1 presents a graphical representation of some metocean phenomena that can impact offshore energy systems. This document outlines the metocean observations currently available; those that are not available; and those that require additional temporal-spatial coverage, resolution, or processing for offshore energy in an effort to gather agreed-upon, needed observations.

  18. Production and Utilization of Hemicelluloses from Renewable Resources for Sustainable Advanced Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    Vast amounts of by-products are generated every year from agricultural crop production and hence great quantities of polysaccharides remain underutilized. The polysaccharides from agricultural by-products can be separated and used in the form of new materials. This thesis is devoted to the possib...

  19. Production and Utilization of Hemicelluloses from Renewable Resources for Sustainable Advanced Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    OH) solution with different solid to liquid ratios. The ratio of arabinoxylans (~65%) and β-glucans (~25%) was similar in the water-extracted and alkaliextracted materials; however, their arabinose/xylose (Ara/Xyl) ratio differed. The alkaliextracted arabinoxylan was less substituted with an Ara/Xyl ratio of 0.......35, while the waterextracted material had an Ara/Xyl ratio of 0.54. In order to analyse the monosaccharide composition of the isolated hemicelluloses, a method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of acetylated methyl glycosides was developed. The derivatives of the monosaccharides...

  20. Multidisciplinary research program directed toward utilization of solar energy through bioconversion of renewable resources. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, W. R.

    1976-07-01

    Progress is reported in four research areas of solar bioconversion. The first program deals with the genetic selection of superior trees, physiological basis of vigor, tissue culture, haploid cell lines, and somatic hybridization. The second deals with the physiology of paraquat-induced oleoresin biogenesis. Separate abstracts were prepared for the other two program areas: biochemical basis of paraquat-induced oleoresin production in pines and biochemistry of methanogenesis. (JSR)

  1. Multidisciplinary research program directed toward utilization of solar energy through bioconversion of renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Progress is reported in this multidisciplinary research program. Genetic selection of superior trees, physiological basis of vigor, tissue culture systems leading to cloning of diploid and haploid cell lines are discussed in the Program A report. The physiological basis of enhanced oleoresin formation in southern pines when treated with sublethal concentrations of the herbicide paraquat was investigated in Program B. In Program C, metabolic changes in the stems of slash pine, in vivo, after application with paraquat were determined. The use of phdoem and xylem tissue slices as a laboratory model for studying paraquat associated- and normal-terpene synthesis in pines is discussed. The biochemistry and physiology of methane formation from cellulose during anaerobic fermentation are discussed in the Program D report. (DMC)

  2. MADLVF: An Energy Efficient Resource Utilization Approach for Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Verma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Last few decades have remained the witness of steeper growth in demand for higher computational power. It is merely due to shift from the industrial age to Information and Communication Technology (ICT age which was marginally the result of digital revolution. Such trend in demand caused establishment of large-scale data centers situated at geographically apart locations. These large-scale data centers consume a large amount of electrical energy which results into very high operating cost and large amount of carbon dioxide (CO2 emission due to resource underutilization. We propose MADLVF algorithm to overcome the problems such as resource underutilization, high energy consumption, and large CO2 emissions. Further, we present a comparative study between the proposed algorithm and MADRS algorithms showing proposed methodology outperforms over the existing one in terms of energy consumption and the number of VM migrations.

  3. Benefits and performance of ATLAS approaches to utilizing opportunistic resources

    CERN Document Server

    Filip\\v{c}i\\v{c}, Andrej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS has been extensively exploring possibilities of using computing resources extending beyond conventional grid sites in the WLCG fabric to deliver as many computing cycles as possible and thereby enhance the significance of the Monte-Carlo samples to deliver better physics results. The difficulties of using such opportunistic resources come from architectural differences such as unavailability of grid services, the absence of network connectivity on worker nodes or inability to use standard authorization protocols. Nevertheless, ATLAS has been extremely successful in running production payloads on a variety of sites, thanks largely to the job execution workflow design in which the job assignment, input data provisioning and execution steps are clearly separated and can be offloaded to custom services. To transparently include the opportunistic sites in the ATLAS central production system, several models with supporting services have been developed to mimic the functionality of a full WLCG site. Some are e...

  4. PROBLEMS AND COUNTERMEASURES OF WATER RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE UTILIZATION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    According to the theory of sustainable development, the current situation and existent problems of the exploita-tion of water resources were analyzed in this paper. The results show that the contradiction between supply and demandof water resources is continually aggravating, water pollution is increasingly serious, water environment is worse, theover-extraction area of the underground water is expanding and water crisis stands out. gradually, so it is imperative underthe situation to actualize the sustainable exploitation strategies of water resources. It is necessary for sustainableutilizingwater resources to introduce the model of sustainable utilization of water resources -the model of wealth transferring be-tween the generations of water resources, establish water-saving society system and water market, form technology sys-tems, management systems and evaluation systems for many sorts of water resoturces, improve the utilization ratio of waterresources, transform waste water into resources and maintain and restore the water space of water environment.

  5. Impact of teaching intensity and academic status on medical resource utilization by teaching hospitals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2012-11-01

    Teaching hospitals require excess medical resources to maintain high-quality care and medical education. To evaluate the appropriateness of such surplus costs, we examined the impact of teaching intensity defined as activities for postgraduate training, and academic status as functions of medical research and undergraduate teaching on medical resource utilization. Administrative data for 47,397 discharges from 40 academic and 12 non-academic teaching hospitals in Japan were collected. Hospitals were classified into three groups according to intern/resident-to-bed (IRB) ratio. Resource utilization of medical services was estimated using fee-for-service charge schedules and normalized with case mix grouping. 15-24% more resource utilization for laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications were observed in hospitals with higher IRB ratios. With multivariate adjustment for case mix and academic status, higher IRB ratios were associated with 10-15% more use of radiological imaging, injections, and medications; up to 5% shorter hospital stays; and not with total resource utilization. Conversely, academic status was associated with 21-33% more laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications; 13% longer hospital stays; and 10% more total resource utilization. While differences in medical resource utilization by teaching intensity may not be associated with indirect educational costs, those by academic status may be. Therefore, academic hospitals may need efficiency improvement and financial compensation.

  6. [Industrial exploitation of renewable resources: from ethanol production to bioproducts development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Plants, which are one of major groups of life forms, are constituted of an amazing number of molecules such as sugars, proteins, phenolic compounds etc. These molecules display multiple and complementary properties involved in various compartments of plants (structure, storage, biological activity etc.). The first uses of plants in industry were for food and feed, paper manufacturing or combustion. In the coming decades, these renewable biological materials will be the basis of a new concept: the "biorefiner" i.e. the chemical conversion of the whole plant to various products and uses. This concept, born in the 90ies, is analogous to today's petroleum refinery, which produces multiple fuels and derivative products from petroleum. Agriculture generates lots of co-products which were most often wasted. The rational use of these wasted products, which can be considered as valuable renewable materials, is now economically interesting and will contribute to the reduction of greenhouse has emissions by partially substituting for fossil fuels. Such substructures from biological waste products and transforming them into biofuels and new industrial products named "bioproducts". These compounds, such as bioplastics or biosurfactants, can replace equivalent petroleum derivatives. Towards that goal, lots of filamentous fungi, growing on a broad range of vegetable species, are able to produce enzymes adapted to the modification of these type of substrates. The best example, at least the more industrially developed to date, is the second generation biofuel technology using cellulose as a raw material. The process includes an enzymatic hydrolysis step which requires cellulases secreted from Trichoderma fungal species. This industrial development of a renewable energy will contribute to the diversification of energy sources used to transport and to the development of green chemistry which will partially substitute petrochemicals.

  7. [Research practices of conversion efficiency of resources utilization model of castoff from Chinese material medica industrialization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jin-Ao; Su, Shu-Lan; Guo, Sheng; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-Wei; Jiang, Shu; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Tang, Yu-Ping; Wu, Qi-Nan

    2013-12-01

    The industrialization chains and their products, which were formed from the process of the production of medicinal materials-prepared drug in pieces and deep processed product of Chinese material medica (CMM) resources, have generated large benefits of social and economic. However, The large of herb-medicine castoff of "non-medicinal parts" and "rejected materials" produced inevitably during the process of Chinese medicinal resources produce and process, and the residues, waste water and waste gas were produced during the manufactured and deep processed product of CMM. These lead to the waste of resources and environmental pollution. Our previous researches had proposed the "three utilization strategies" and "three types of resources models" of herb-medicine castoff according to the different physicochemical property of resources constitutes, resources potential and utility value of herb-medicine castoff. This article focus on the conversion efficiency of resources model and analysis the ways, technologies, practices, and application in herb-medicine cast off of the conversion efficiency of resources model based on the recycling economy theory of resources and thoughts of resources chemistry of CMM. These data may be promote and resolve the key problems limited the industrialization of Chinese material medica for long time and promote the realization of herb-medicine castoff resources utilization.

  8. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Hunt, Andrew J; Sherwood, James

    2015-07-28

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  9. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Clark

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  10. Formation and utilization of water resources of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI; Zhidong; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Bedford, D.P., International management in the Aral Sea Basin, Water International, 1996, 21(2): 63—69.[2]Mao, D., Water Resources, Environment and Management of the Tarim Basin (in Chinese), Beijing: China Environmental Science Press, 1998.[3]Sudhaker, S. M., Wu, S. M., Time Series and System Analysis with Applications (in Chinese), Beijing: Mechanical Industry Press, 1988.[4]Yang, W., Gu, L., Time Series Analysis and Dynamic Data Modeling (in Chinese), Beijing: Beijing Institute of Technology Press, 1986.

  11. From state monopoly to renewable portfolio: Restructuring China's electric utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Chunbo [Alcoa Foundation Research Fellow, Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)], E-mail: cbma@bus.umich.edu; He Lining [California Independent System Operator (CAISO), Folsom, CA 95630 (United States)], E-mail: lhe@caiso.com

    2008-05-15

    Deregulation and decentralization in the electricity sector have thrived worldwide since the early 1980s. China also started restructuring its electricity industry since the mid-1980s. The reform shares many common features with restructuring practices in other countries and exhibits some unique characteristics as well. To some extent, two features, namely governmental administrative departments' dual role of government and business inherited from a highly centralized planned economy, and the coal-intensive nature of power generation, has determined many aspects of the evolution of China's electric power sector. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive account of the process with some emphasis on recent developments. We also identify some of the features that are similar to electricity market reforms in other countries and, most importantly, those that characterize the uniqueness of the restructuring practices in China's electricity industry through investigating the administrative framework, price and investment mechanisms, and associated legislation and policy settings at each of the five stages in the evolution of the electric utility sector. The paper concludes with a discussion and summary of some generic characteristics and remaining challenges.

  12. From state monopoly to renewable portfolio: Restructuring China's electric utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chunbo [Alcoa Foundation Research Fellow, Erb Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); He, Lining [California Independent System Operator (CAISO), Folsom, CA 95630 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Deregulation and decentralization in the electricity sector have thrived worldwide since the early 1980s. China also started restructuring its electricity industry since the mid-1980s. The reform shares many common features with restructuring practices in other countries and exhibits some unique characteristics as well. To some extent, two features, namely governmental administrative departments' dual role of government and business inherited from a highly centralized planned economy, and the coal-intensive nature of power generation, has determined many aspects of the evolution of China's electric power sector. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive account of the process with some emphasis on recent developments. We also identify some of the features that are similar to electricity market reforms in other countries and, most importantly, those that characterize the uniqueness of the restructuring practices in China's electricity industry through investigating the administrative framework, price and investment mechanisms, and associated legislation and policy settings at each of the five stages in the evolution of the electric utility sector. The paper concludes with a discussion and summary of some generic characteristics and remaining challenges. (author)

  13. A good integrated resource plan: Guidelines for electric utilities and regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1992-12-01

    Integrated resource planning helps utilities and state regulatory commissions consistently assess a broad range of demand and supply resources to meet customer energy-service needs cost-effectively. Key characteristics of this planning approach include: explicit consideration and fair treatment of a wide variety of demand and supply options, consideration of the environmental and other social costs of providing energy services, public participation in the development of the resource plan, and analysis of the uncertainties associated with different external factors and resource options. Integrated resource planning differs from traditional planning in the types and scope of resources considered, the owners of the resources, the organizations involved in resource planning, and the criteria for resource selection. This report presents suggestions to utilities on how to conduct such planning and what to include in their resource-planning reports. These suggestions are based on a review of about 50 resource plans as well as discussions with and presentations to regulators and utilities. The suggestions cover four broad topics; the technical competence with which the plan was developed; the adequacy, detail, and consistency (with the long-term plan) of the short-term action plan; the extent to which the interests of various stakeholders was considered, both in public participation in plan development and in the variety of resource plans developedand assessed; and the clarity and comprehensiveness of the utility's report on its plan. Technical competence includes energy and demand forecasts, assessment of supply and demand resources, resource integration, and treatment of uncertainty. Issues associated with forecasts include forecasting approaches; links between the forecasts of energy use and peak demands; and links between the forecasts and the effects of past, present, and future demand-side management programs.

  14. User Utility Oriented Queuing Model for Resource Allocation in Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resource allocation is one of the most important research topics in servers. In the cloud environment, there are massive hardware resources of different kinds, and many kinds of services are usually run on virtual machines of the cloud server. In addition, cloud environment is commercialized, and economical factor should also be considered. In order to deal with commercialization and virtualization of cloud environment, we proposed a user utility oriented queuing model for task scheduling. Firstly, we modeled task scheduling in cloud environment as an M/M/1 queuing system. Secondly, we classified the utility into time utility and cost utility and built a linear programming model to maximize total utility for both of them. Finally, we proposed a utility oriented algorithm to maximize the total utility. Massive experiments validate the effectiveness of our proposed model.

  15. Martian resource utilization. 1: Plant design and transportation selection criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloupis, Peter; Nolan, Peter E.; Cutler, Andrew H.

    Indigenous Space Materials Utilization (ISMU) provides an opportunity to make Mars exploration mission scenarios more affordable by reducing the initial mass necessary in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Martian propellant production is discussed in terms of simple design and economic tradeoffs. Fuel and oxidizer combinations included are H2/O2, CH4/O2, and CO/O2. Process flow diagrams with power and mass flow requirements are presented for a variety of processes, and some design requirements are derived. Maximum allowable plant masses for single use amortization are included.

  16. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Marc A

    2013-09-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy.

  17. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.

  18. Biomining of regolith simulants for biological in situ resource utilization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this proposed research is to advance the development of biological in situ resource utilization for NASA's space exploration programs. We plan to build a...

  19. Retreaded Tire of Hangzhou Zhongce Company Regarded as Resources Comprehensive Utilization Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Wen

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Hangzhou Economic and Information Commission issued an announcement that the retreaded tire produced by Hangzhou Zhongce Rubber Cycle Technology Co., Ltd. was certified to be the resources comprehensive utilization product.

  20. Pneumatic Planetary Regolith Feed System for In-Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, James G.; Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I.; Craft, Jack; Zacny, Kris

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project requires a regolith feed system that can transfer lunar regolith several meters vertically into a chemical reactor for oxygen production on the moon.

  1. Miniature Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer for In-Situ Resource Utilization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In situ resource utilization (ISRU) is essential for several of NASA's future flagship missions. Currently envisioned ISRU plants include production of oxygen from...

  2. Sustainable Education: Exploiting Students’ Energy for Learning as a Renewable Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Van den Branden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, “sustainable education” is reconceptualized, drawing on the insight that education runs on the energy of students, teachers and all other stakeholders involved. Sustainable education systems are defined as systems in which students’ natural energy for learning is renewed (rather than depleted and no talent gets wasted. Students’ energy for learning is geared towards the acquisition of crucial competences for the 21st century (including the competence to make their own lives work and to make life on the planet work, which they can deploy and further develop on a long-term, sustainable basis. For this to happen, education systems need to be built upon strong, up-to-date curricula and to design classroom activity based on cutting-edge knowledge on what drives human learning. To this end, school teams’ joint energy for educating needs to be tapped and renewed, and assessment needs to be primarily used to further improve the quality of education.

  3. Direct medical resource utilization associated with osteoporosis-related nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Sonia; Bessette, Louis; Belzile, Etienne L; Davison, K Shawn; Candas, Bernard; Morin, Suzanne; Dodin, Sylvie; Brown, Jacques P

    2013-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess direct medical resource utilization related to the treatment of nonvertebral osteoporotic fractures within 1 year postfracture and to evaluate whether age impacts resource utilization. A previously-validated algorithm for physician claims databases identified 15,327 women aged 50 years or older with incident fracture at nonvertebral osteoporotic sites between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2005. Administrative databases of the health services available to all residents in Quebec served to study fracture-related health resource utilization in the year after fracture. Data were linked by a unique personal identifier, creating a longitudinal cohort of all fracture cases for health resource utilization. The proportions of fractures treated by open reduction, closed reduction, immobilization or follow-up by an orthopedic surgeon (OS) were evaluated. The mean number of claims for consultation with an OS or other clinicians in inpatient and outpatient visits, the hospitalization rate and length of stay (LOS) were assessed. Hip/femur fractures represented the highest rate of resource utilization because the majority of them required surgery (91.1%) and hospitalization (94.5%) with a mean (median) LOS of 39.2 (31) days. However, other nonvertebral fracture types needed significant clinical care related to surgery (27.9%), follow-up consultation with an OS (77.6%), and hospitalization (27.3% of total LOS). Even pelvic fractures, which often do not require surgical treatment, commanded high resource utilization due to the high hospitalization rate (67.4%) with mean (median) LOS of 34.2 (26) days. Moreover, age was an important determinant of health resource utilization, being associated with an increased number of visits to other physicians, hospitalization, and length of hospitalization (LOS), admissions to long term care (LTC), and death. Osteoporosis-related fractures accounted for substantial healthcare resource utilization

  4. Optimising the extraction rate of a non-durable non-renewable resource in a monopolistic market: a mathematical programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Albert; Fossas, Enric

    2015-01-01

    We assume a monopolistic market for a non-durable non-renewable resource such as crude oil, phosphates or fossil water. Stating the problem of obtaining optimal policies on extraction and pricing of the resource as a non-linear program allows general conclusions to be drawn under diverse assumptions about the demand curve, discount rates and length of the planning horizon. We compare the results with some common beliefs about the pace of exhaustion of this kind of resources.

  5. Utilization of market research in managing hospital pharmacy resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L; McNamara, E J

    1984-10-01

    A market research survey of staff physicians and nurses was completed to obtain information on customer preference to be used in making planning and development decisions about the allocation of the pharmacy department's resources. Survey questionnaires were mailed to representative samples of each professional group and included the optimum mix of open-ended and closed-ended questions that would result in the highest response rate. The survey responses identified differences in wants and needs between the nurses and physicians that demonstrate the value of market research. Data obtained from the survey are being used by a staff advisory committee and management to develop departmental goals and objectives that will reduce costs and increase profit margins under the ever-increasing restrictions of prospective reimbursement.

  6. Monitoring of computing resource utilization of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rousseau, D; The ATLAS collaboration; Vukotic, I; Aidel, O; Schaffer, RD; Albrand, S

    2012-01-01

    Due to the good performance of the LHC accelerator, the ATLAS experiment has seen higher than anticipated levels for both the event rate and the average number of interactions per bunch crossing. In order to respond to these changing requirements, the current and future usage of CPU, memory and disk resources has to be monitored, understood and acted upon. This requires data collection at a fairly fine level of granularity: the performance of each object written and each algorithm run, as well as a dozen per-job variables, are gathered for the different processing steps of Monte Carlo generation and simulation and the reconstruction of both data and Monte Carlo. We present a system to collect and visualize the data from both the online Tier-0 system and distributed grid production jobs. Around 40 GB of performance data are expected from up to 200k jobs per day, thus making performance optimization of the underlying Oracle database of utmost importance.

  7. Formation and utilization of water resources of Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷志栋; 甄宝龙; 尚松浩; 杨诗秀; 丛振涛; 张发旺; 毛晓辉; 周海鹰

    2001-01-01

    The Tarim River is a typical inland river in arid area without runoff yield of itself, and water resources are all supplied by its headstreams. The method of time series analysis is applied to annual runoff series of three headstreams, namely the Aksu River, Yarkant River and Hotan River to analyze their dynamic variations. A model is established to estimate water consumption in the headstream areas. Quantitative results indicate that both total annual runoff of headstreams and water consumption in the headstream areas have an increasing trend. The dynamic trends of annual runoff of hydrologic stations along the mainstream of the Tarim River are also presented to estimate the intermittence drying-up time at each station. Water consumption model of the mainstream area is used to analyze the characteristics of water consumption in the upper and middle reaches. It is shown that water consumption in each river reach of the mainstream decreases with the decrement of inflow and increases with human activities.

  8. Monitoring of computing resource utilization of the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, David; Dimitrov, Gancho; Vukotic, Ilija; Aidel, Osman; Schaffer, Rd; Albrand, Solveig

    2012-12-01

    Due to the good performance of the LHC accelerator, the ATLAS experiment has seen higher than anticipated levels for both the event rate and the average number of interactions per bunch crossing. In order to respond to these changing requirements, the current and future usage of CPU, memory and disk resources has to be monitored, understood and acted upon. This requires data collection at a fairly fine level of granularity: the performance of each object written and each algorithm run, as well as a dozen per-job variables, are gathered for the different processing steps of Monte Carlo generation and simulation and the reconstruction of both data and Monte Carlo. We present a system to collect and visualize the data from both the online Tier-0 system and distributed grid production jobs. Around 40 GB of performance data are expected from up to 200k jobs per day, thus making performance optimization of the underlying Oracle database of utmost importance.

  9. Case studies for utilizing groundwater-source and low-enthalpy geothermal resources in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.-H.; Shin, J.; Lee, K.-K.; Lee, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    As one of the top 10 oil-consuming countries in the world, Korea recently has had a great interest in extending the ways to utilize renewable energy. In this regard, geothermal energy resource is attracting more concerns from both of the government and the research field. Korea has neither active volcanic sites nor areas with abnormally higher heat flow. In spite of these natural conditions, many efforts have been exerted to utilize geothermal energy. Here, we introduce two case studies of using groundwater-source geothermal energy with relatively low-enthalpy: One is a riverbank filtration facility, which has been using some of its riverbank filtrate water for the indoor air-conditioning. The other is the first EGS plant planning site, where a few fault-related artesian wells reaching 70C were discovered lately. Numerical simulations to predict the temperature evolution of the two sites, which is dominated by several hydrogeologic factors, were carried out and compared. Simulation of temperature profile of riverbank filtrate water using HydroGeoSphere shows that the primary factor in determining filtrate water temperature is the pumping rate. It also shows that maintaining the facility operation with present pumping rate for the next 30 years will not cause any significant change of water temperature. However, following the new plan of the facility to install additional 37 wells with 6 times higher pumping rate than the current rate might cause about 2C decrease in filtrate water temperature in 10 years after the extension. Simulation for the temperature evolution in a faulted geothermal reservoir in EGS planning site under the supposed injection-extraction operating conditions were carried out using TOUGH2. A MINC model including a hydraulic discontinuity, which reflected the analysis from several geophysical explorations, was generated. Temperature distribution calculated from the simulation shows a rise of relatively hot geothermal water along the fault plane

  10. Federated and Cloud Enabled Resources for Data Management and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, R.; Gordon, M.; Potter, R. G.; Satchwill, B.

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of cloud computing over the past three years has led to a paradigm shift in how data can be managed, processed and made accessible. Building on the federated data management system offered through the Canadian Space Science Data Portal (www.cssdp.ca), we demonstrate how heterogeneous and geographically distributed data sets and modeling tools have been integrated to form a virtual data center and computational modeling platform that has services for data processing and visualization embedded within it. We also discuss positive and negative experiences in utilizing Eucalyptus and OpenStack cloud applications, and job scheduling facilitated by Condor and Star Cluster. We summarize our findings by demonstrating use of these technologies in the Cloud Enabled Space Weather Data Assimilation and Modeling Platform CESWP (www.ceswp.ca), which is funded through Canarie's (canarie.ca) Network Enabled Platforms program in Canada.

  11. Optimal Energy Management for a Smart Grid using Resource-Aware Utility Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Brook W.; Mahajan, Satish M.; Negeri, Ebisa O.

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous energy prosumers are aggregated to form a smart grid based energy community managed by a central controller which could maximize their collective energy resource utilization. Using the central controller and distributed energy management systems, various mechanisms that harness the power profile of the energy community are developed for optimal, multi-objective energy management. The proposed mechanisms include resource-aware, multi-variable energy utility maximization objectives, namely: (1) maximizing the net green energy utilization, (2) maximizing the prosumers' level of comfortable, high quality power usage, and (3) maximizing the economic dispatch of energy storage units that minimize the net energy cost of the energy community. Moreover, an optimal energy management solution that combines the three objectives has been implemented by developing novel techniques of optimally flexible (un)certainty projection and appliance based pricing decomposition in an IBM ILOG CPLEX studio. A real-world, per-minute data from an energy community consisting of forty prosumers in Amsterdam, Netherlands is used. Results show that each of the proposed mechanisms yields significant increases in the aggregate energy resource utilization and welfare of prosumers as compared to traditional peak-power reduction methods. Furthermore, the multi-objective, resource-aware utility maximization approach leads to an optimal energy equilibrium and provides a sustainable energy management solution as verified by the Lagrangian method. The proposed resource-aware mechanisms could directly benefit emerging energy communities in the world to attain their energy resource utilization targets.

  12. How do dynamic capabilities transform external technologies into firms’ renewed technological resources? – A mediation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Ning, Lutao

    2016-01-01

    microfoundations of dynamic technological capabilities, mediate the relationship between external technology breadth and firms’ technological innovation performance, based on the resource-based view and dynamic capability view. Using a sample of listed Chinese licensee firms, we find that firms must broadly......How externally acquired resources may become valuable, rare, hard-to-imitate, and non-substitute resource bundles through the development of dynamic capabilities? This study proposes and tests a mediation model of how firms’ internal technological diversification and R&D, as two distinctive...... explore external technologies to ignite the dynamism in internal technological diversity and in-house R&D, which play their crucial roles differently to transform and reconfigure firms’ technological resources....

  13. How do dynamic capabilities transform external technologies into firms’ renewed technological resources? – A mediation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi; Ning, Lutao

    2016-01-01

    How externally acquired resources may become valuable, rare, hard-to-imitate, and non-substitute resource bundles through the development of dynamic capabilities? This study proposes and tests a mediation model of how firms’ internal technological diversification and R&D, as two distinctive...... microfoundations of dynamic technological capabilities, mediate the relationship between external technology breadth and firms’ technological innovation performance, based on the resource-based view and dynamic capability view. Using a sample of listed Chinese licensee firms, we find that firms must broadly...... explore external technologies to ignite the dynamism in internal technological diversity and in-house R&D, which play their crucial roles differently to transform and reconfigure firms’ technological resources....

  14. Development and Utilization of Naturally ColoreC Cocoon Resources of Bombyx mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfeng LIU; Binbin LIU; Yi'an CHEN; Bin HAN; Chunmei HU; Zhouhe DU

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper summarized the diversity and prominent characteristics of natu- rally colored cocoon resources of Bombyx mori, and introduced the production methods of colored cocoons, the development and utilization of naturally colored co- coon resources at home and abroad as well as the variety breeding instances, based on which suggestions were proposed for the development of colored cocoon industry.

  15. Modern Energy Markets Real-Time Pricing, Renewable Resources and Efficient Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kopsakangas-Savolainen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Energy has moved to the forefront in terms of societal and economic development. Modern Energy Markets is a comprehensive, economically oriented, exploration of modern electricity networks from production and distribution to deregulation and liberalization processes. Updating previous work by the authors, different aspects are considered resulting in a complete and detailed picture of  the systems and characteristics of modern electricity markets. Modern Energy Markets provides clear detail whilst encompassing a broad scope of topics and includes: •A method to model energy production systems including the main characteristics of future demand side management, •Different applications of this model in nuclear and renewable energy scenarios, •An analysis of Real-Time Pricing of electricity and its potential effects across the market, and, •A discussion of the need for regulation in an easily monopolized industry. Engineering and Economics students alike will find that Modern Energy Markets is a succinct...

  16. Modeling Resource Utilization of a Large Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Alejandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS 'Phase-II' upgrade, scheduled to start in 2024, will significantly change the requirements under which the data-acquisition system operates. The input data rate, currently fixed around 150 GB/s, is anticipated to reach 5 TB/s. In order to deal with the challenging conditions, and exploit the capabilities of newer technologies, a number of architectural changes are under consideration. Of particular interest is a new component, known as the Storage Handler, which will provide a large buffer area decoupling real-time data taking from event filtering. Dynamic operational models of the upgraded system can be used to identify the required resources and to select optimal techniques. In order to achieve a robust and dependable model, the current data-acquisition architecture has been used as a test case. This makes it possible to verify and calibrate the model against real operation data. Such a model can then be evolved toward the future ATLAS Phase-II architecture. In this paper we introduce the current ...

  17. Modelling Resource Utilization of a Large Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Alejandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS 'Phase-II' upgrade, scheduled to start in 2024, will significantly change the requirements under which the data-acquisition system operates. The input data rate, currently fixed around 150 GB/s, is anticipated to reach 5 TB/s. In order to deal with the challenging conditions, and exploit the capabilities of newer technologies, a number of architectural changes are under consideration. Of particular interest is a new component, known as the Storage Handler, which will provide a large buffer area decoupling real-time data taking from event filtering. Dynamic operational models of the upgraded system can be used to identify the required resources and to select optimal techniques. In order to achieve a robust and dependable model, the current data-acquisition architecture has been used as a test case. This makes it possible to verify and calibrate the model against real operation data. Such a model can then be evolved toward the future ATLAS Phase-II architecture. In this paper we introduce the current ...

  18. Utilization of waste materials, non-refined materials, and renewable energy in in situ remediation and their sustainability benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favara, Paul; Gamlin, Jeff

    2017-04-05

    In the ramp-up to integrating sustainability into remediation, a key industry focus area has been to reduce the environmental footprint of treatment processes. The typical approach to integrating sustainability into remediation projects has been a top-down approach, which involves developing technology options and then applying sustainability thinking to the technology, after it has been conceptualized. A bottom-up approach allows for systems thinking to be included in remedy selection and could potentially result in new or different technologies being considered. When using a bottom-up approach, there is room to consider the utilization of waste materials, non-refined materials, and renewable energy in remediation technology-all of which generally have a smaller footprint than processed materials and traditional forms of energy. By integrating more systems thinking into remediation projects, practitioners can think beyond the traditional technologies typically used and how technologies are deployed. To compare top-down and bottom-up thinking, a traditional technology that is considered very sustainable-enhanced in situ bioremediation-is compared to a successful, but infrequently deployed technology-subgrade biogeochemical reactors. Life Cycle Assessment is used for the evaluation and shows the footprint of the subgrade biogeochemical reactor to be lower in all seven impact categories evaluated, sometimes to a significant degree. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Renewable Energy Deployment in Colorado and the West: A Modeling Sensitivity and GIS Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mooney, Meghan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Resource Planning Model is a capacity expansion model designed for a regional power system, such as a utility service territory, state, or balancing authority. We apply a geospatial analysis to Resource Planning Model renewable energy capacity expansion results to understand the likelihood of renewable development on various lands within Colorado.

  20. A widely adaptable habitat construction system utilizing space resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, Harry B.

    1993-01-01

    This study suggests that the cost of providing accommodations for various manned activities in space may be reduced by the extensive use of resources that are commonly found throughout the solar system. Several concepts are proposed for converting these resources into simple products with many uses. Concrete is already being considered as a possible moonbase material. Manufacturing equipment should be as small and simple as possible, which leads to the idea of molding it into miniature modules that can be produced and assembled in large numbers to create any conceivable shape. Automated equipment could build up complex structures by laying down layer after layer in a process resembling stereolithography. These tiny concrete blocks handle compression loads and provide a barrier to harmful radiation. They are joined by a web of tension members that could be made of wire or fiber-reinforced plastic. The finished structure becomes air-tight with the addition of a flexible liner. Wire can be made from the iron modules found in lunar soil. In addition to its structural role, a relatively simple apparatus can bend and weld it into countless products like chairs and shelving that would otherwise need to be supplied from Earth. Wire woven into a loose blanket could be an effective micrometeoroid shield, tiny wire compression beams could be assembled into larger beams which in turn form larger beams to create very large space-frame structures. A technology developed with lunar materials could be applied to the moons of Mars or the asteroids. To illustrate its usefulness several designs for free-flying habitats are presented. They begin with a minimal self-contained living unit called the Cubicle. It may be multiplied into clusters called Condos. These are shown in a rotating tether configuration that provides a substitute for gravity. The miniature block proposal is compared with an alternate design based on larger triangular components and a tetrahedral geometry. The

  1. Study for utilization of municipal residues as bioenergy resource in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minowa, Tomoaki [Biomass Technology Research Laboratory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Chugoku, 2-2-2 Suehiro, Hiro, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan); Kojima, Toshinori [Seikei University, 3-3-1, Kitamachi, Kichijouji, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8633 (Japan); Matsuoka, Yasunari [Saibu Gas Co. Kitakyushu Higashi 2-3-10, Tatemachi, Kokurakitaku, Kitakushu, Fukuoka 803-0818 (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    Utilization of municipal residues as energy resources is discussed. Municipal residues are divided into dry biomass and wet biomass from the viewpoint of energy utilization, and the separation of food garbage (wet biomass) from combustible waste (dry biomass) is proposed. The separation enables us to utilize garbage (wet biomass) as an energy source. Therefore, energy efficiency of the existent power generation from residues can be improved. The separation of wet biomass is also desirable from the viewpoint of sanitation. (author)

  2. Information resources: How they are utilized by Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S. [Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality, Baton Rouge (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Louisiana, now in a developmental stage of policy and planning, has completed a project aimed at reducing hazardous releases of air toxics in thee state. The state is also conducting a Comparative Risk Project and is using risk assessment practices to develop its waste quality standards. In developing an air toxic list, Louisiana incorporated four major criteria into the ranking: emission levels, human health effects, potential population exposure, and persistence or accumulation in the environment. For the human health effects criterion, data for each substance was gathered from numerous sources, although the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database was used as a primary source for toxicological information. Following guidelines established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Office of Water Resources, Water Pollution Control Division, has developed numerical criteria for human health protection based on risk assessment procedures in the 1989 Water Quality Standards Revision. Currently over 30 toxic substances have risk-based criteria for th protection of human health in the standards. Numerical criteria were calculated for carcinogenic substances having an EPA Classification of A, B1, B2, or C. Cancer class designations along with cancer potency slopes and reference doses were extracted from the IRIS database, with the exception of those chemicals that had not been assessed in IRIS as of December 1, 1988. The parameters necessary for calculating human health criteria for the missing chemicals were taken from 1980, 1984, and 1985 ambient water quality criteria documents: data on bioconcentration factors were included. Currently, Louisiana is working on a Comparative Risk Project, a ranking of the environmental issues in the state relative to potential risk to the public, which is the basis for a widespread 1991 public outreach effort.

  3. RESEARCH PROGRESS FOR THE RECYCLING OF RENEWABLE MOLYBDENUM RESOURCE%可再生钼资源回收研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亨

    2014-01-01

    Renewable molybdenum resources include low grade molybdenum ,waste catalyst ,waste molybdenum powder ,molybdenum metal products processing leftovers ,ammonium molybdate and sodium molybdate production waste water and waste residue.Research progress for the recycling of renewable molybdenum resources were re-viewed.%可再生钼资源包括低品位钼矿、废催化剂、废钼粉、钼金属制品生产下脚料、钼酸铵和钼酸钠生产废渣废水等。本文对可再生钼资源的回收利用研究进行了综述。

  4. Consideration of reference points for the management of renewable resources under an adaptive management paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Brian J.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The success of natural resource management depends on monitoring, assessment and enforcement. In support of these efforts, reference points (RPs) are often viewed as critical values of management-relevant indicators. This paper considers RPs from the standpoint of objective-driven decision making in dynamic resource systems, guided by principles of structured decision making (SDM) and adaptive resource management (AM). During the development of natural resource policy, RPs have been variously treated as either ‘targets’ or ‘triggers’. Under a SDM/AM paradigm, target RPs correspond approximately to value-based objectives, which may in turn be either of fundamental interest to stakeholders or intermediaries to other central objectives. By contrast, trigger RPs correspond to decision rules that are presumed to lead to desirable outcomes (such as the programme targets). Casting RPs as triggers or targets within a SDM framework is helpful towards clarifying why (or whether) a particular metric is appropriate. Further, the benefits of a SDM/AM process include elucidation of underlying untested assumptions that may reveal alternative metrics for use as RPs. Likewise, a structured decision-analytic framework may also reveal that failure to achieve management goals is not because the metrics are wrong, but because the decision-making process in which they are embedded is insufficiently robust to uncertainty, is not efficiently directed at producing a resource objective, or is incapable of adaptation to new knowledge.

  5. A critical review of algal biomass: A versatile platform of bio-based polyesters from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Aqdas; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Ali, Muhammad; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-05-01

    Algal biomass is an excellent renewable resource for the production of polymers and other products due to their higher growth rate, high photosynthetic efficiency, great potential for carbon dioxide fixation, low percentage of lignin and high amount of carbohydrates. Algae contain unique metabolites which are transformed into monomers suitable for development of novel polyesters. This review article mainly focuses on algal bio-refinery concept for polyester synthesis and on exploitation of algae-based biodegradable polyester blends and composites in tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery system. Algae-derived hybrid polyester scaffolds are extensively used for bone, cartilage, cardiac and nerve tissue regeneration due to their biocompatibility and tunable biodegradability. Microcapsules and microspheres of algae-derived polyesters have been used for controlled and continuous release of several pharmaceutical agents and macromolecules to produce humoral and cellular immunity with efficient intracellular delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The End of Flat Earth Economics & the Transition to Renewable Resource Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Hazel

    1978-01-01

    A post-industrial revolution is predicted for the future with an accompanying shift of focus from simple, brute force technolgies, based on cheap, accessible resources and energy, to a second generation of more subtle, refined technologies grounded in a much deeper understanding of biological and ecological realities. (Author/BB)

  7. Overexploitation of renewable resources by ancient societies and the role of sunk-cost effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.A.; Scheffer, M.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most persistent mysteries in the history of humankind is the collapse of ancient societies. It is puzzling that societies that achieved such high levels of development disappeared so suddenly. It has been argued that overexploitation of environmental resources played a role in the collaps

  8. Community Renewal. Experiences from the Field. An Adult Educator's Resource Kit. 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Baron, Beth; And Others

    This kit suggests ideas and resources for adult educators and other community workers to use in assisting individuals, groups, and communities to respond effectively to a changing economy. Introductory materials provide the purpose, a note on content arrangement, and suggestions for program methods and program planning. The main portion of the kit…

  9. Overexploitation of renewable resources by ancient societies and the role of sunk-cost effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.A.; Scheffer, M.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most persistent mysteries in the history of humankind is the collapse of ancient societies. It is puzzling that societies that achieved such high levels of development disappeared so suddenly. It has been argued that overexploitation of environmental resources played a role in the

  10. The End of Flat Earth Economics & the Transition to Renewable Resource Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Hazel

    1978-01-01

    A post-industrial revolution is predicted for the future with an accompanying shift of focus from simple, brute force technolgies, based on cheap, accessible resources and energy, to a second generation of more subtle, refined technologies grounded in a much deeper understanding of biological and ecological realities. (Author/BB)

  11. Renewable energy and resource curse on the possible consequences of solar energy in North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bae, Yuh Jin

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to project whether the five North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisa) have the potentials to suffer from a solar energy curse. Under the assumption that a solar energy curse will be similar to the current resource curse, the combination of

  12. [Protection, exploitation and utilization states of specialized Mongolian folk medicine resources and related development strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-hong; Man, Da; Wu, Guo-dong; Li, Zhen-hua; Zhao, Dong-dong; Liu, Yong; Li, Min-hui

    2015-03-01

    Mongolian folk medicine resource is the origin of Mongolian medicine development, even more important of which is the specialized Mongolian folk medicine resources with regional and high medicine quality, it processes distinctive national characteristics with irreplaceable important position in traditional Mongolian medicine. Nevertheless, due to the serious destroy of ecological environment and sharp increase of demands, etc. A lot of specialized Mongolian folk medicine resources were endangered, and there still existed some problems in the protection and exploitation and utilization. This paper intends to provide comprehensive insight into the species protection and exploitation and utilization states of specialized Mongolian folk medicine resources. The application and protection status and the existing problems were reviewed, and the development strategies of Mongolian folk medicine resource were analyzed.

  13. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  14. A Review on the Development of Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant as Alternative Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Tan, J. H.; Fadzlita, M. T.; Khairul Muzammil, A. R. Wan

    2017-07-01

    Gravitational water vortex power plant is a green technology that generates electricity from alternative or renewable energy source. In the vortex power plant, water is introduced into a circular basin tangentially that creates a free vortex and energy is extracted from the free vortex by using a turbine. The main advantages of this type of power plant is the generation of electricity from ultra-low hydraulic pressure and it is also environmental friendly. Since the hydraulic head requirement is as low as 1m, this type of power plant can be installed at a river or a stream to generate electricity for few houses. It is a new and not well-developed technology to harvest electricity from low pressure water energy sources. There are limited literatures available on the design, fabrication and physical geometry of the vortex turbine and generator. Past researches focus on the optimization of turbine design, inlets, outlets and basin geometry. However, there are still insufficient literatures available for the technology to proceed beyond prototyping stage. The maximum efficiency obtained by the researchers are approximately 30% while the commercial companies claimed about 50% of efficiency with 500W to 20kW of power generated. Hence, the aim of this paper is to determine the gap in the vortex power plant technology development through past works and a set of research recommendations will be developed as efforts to accelerate the development of GWVPP.

  15. Designing an energy planning concept for enhancing the dissemination of renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    2014-01-01

    This paper stresses the need for adapting a sustainable energy planning concept, which can support the implementation of renewable energy in developing countries; exemplified by a Vietnamese case. Many developing countries heavily rely on fossil fuel resources and will face energy supply security...... challenges in the future. At the same time their policies on renewable energy, tools and action plans supporting renewables are weak. Thus, to support a local dissemination of renewable energy we suggest applying the sustainable energy planning concept to speed up the utilization of renewables in developing...... countries, while relevant policies, tools and plans etc. simultaneously are being deployed, enhancing the framework conditions for renewable energy implementation...

  16. Designing an energy planning concept for enhancing the dissemination of renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    This paper stresses the need for adapting a sustainable energy planning concept, which can support the implementation of renewable energy in developing countries; exemplified by a Vietnamese case. Many developing countries heavily rely on fossil fuel resources and will face energy supply security...... challenges in the future. At the same time their policies on renewable energy, tools and action plans supporting renewables are weak. Thus, to support a local dissemination of renewable energy we suggest applying the sustainable energy planning concept to speed up the utilization of renewables in developing...... countries, while relevant policies, tools and plans etc. simultaneously are being deployed, enhancing the framework conditions for renewable energy implementation...

  17. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  18. A compact versatile matrix converter to integrate various energy resources to utility network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng;

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a multi-inputs versatile matrix converter (VMC) to integrate various energy resources and energy storages to a power grid. The VMC is developed based on a traditional indirect matrix converter (IMC) and a nineswitch converter. The six input terminals provide flexibility...... for the connection of two three-phase AC sources or one threephase AC and three DC sources, which make it possible to integrate both DC and AC renewable sources in a single gridtied power electronics interface. The control and modulation schemes are proposed to extract the commanded current from the input AC...

  19. The Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    crude oil production is also changing rapidly (Fig. 4) and additional uncertainty is expected. On the other hand, the fact that fossil fuel resources...day 02 59 42 04 m Figure 4. Top companies in crude oil production in 1972 versus 1995, in million barrels per day. Original data taken from DOE...to Refineries 14.2 Crude Oil Stock Changes, Losses, and Unaccounted for (Net) 0.3 Crude Oil Production 6.5 Unfinished Oils, Blending Components, and

  20. Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-01-01

    In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP) was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological pr...

  1. A LINEAR PROGRAMMING METHOD TO ENHANCE RESOURCE UTILIZATION CASE OF ETHIOPIAN APPAREL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegn Tesfaye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ethiopian industrial development strategy is characterized by export-led and labor intensive industrialization. The country is emerging as the most important investment destination in its apparel sector. Thought this sector is expected to generate more income from the export market, its export earnings remain trivial mainly due to the inefficient organizational resource utilization. One of the competent techniques that help companies to efficiently improve the use of their resources to increase their profit is linear programming. In apparel manufacturing firms, efficient use of materials such as fabrics and sewing threads and processing time at different stages of production as well as minimization of labor and materials cost are necessary to enhance their profitability. Cutting, sewing, and finishing operations deserve more attention for apparel process optimization. However, the issue of proper resource allocation remains an unsolved problem within the Ethiopian apparel industry. The aim of this research is to devise efficient resource utilization mechanism for Ethiopian apparel sector to improve their resource utilization and profitability, taking one of the garment factories engaged in the export market as a case study. Five types of products the company is currently producing, the amount of resources employed to produce each unit of the products, and the value of profit per unit from the sale of each products have been collected from the case company. The monthly availability of resources utilized and the monthly production volume of the five products have also been collected from the company. The data gathered was mathematically modeled using a linear programming technique, and solved using MS-Excel solver. The findings of the study depicts that all of the organizational resources are severely underutilized. This research proved that the resource utilization of the case company can be improved from 46.41% of the current resource

  2. Is Sustainablity Possible in Protected Areas in Mexico? Deer as an Example of a Renewable Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gallina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, Mexico’s National Commission of Protected Areas (CONANP was created to encourage the protection, management and restoration of natural and cultural resources and their conservation. Protected areas were recently increased by more than 3 million hectares, for a current total of more than 25 million hectares, corresponding to 174 protected areas that cover 12.90% of the country’s surface area. The information obtained by research helps us understand both biodiversity and ecological processes, as well as the social and economic phenomena that influence the use of ecosystems. In Mexico there are four species of deer: white-tailed deer, mule deer, red brocket and brown brocket. These ungulates have been an important part of the diet of indigenous people and rural communities, and represent an important resource for sport and trophy hunting. We found the best deer populations in protected areas; these can therefore maintain the gene pool and serve as source populations for other areas. These populations are also useful from a research perspective. People living in some protected areas continue to use natural resources such as deer, and also receive economic inputs to develop ecotourism programs, and support from the government for the environmental services derived from conserving biodiversity.

  3. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  4. Utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources on the rural-urban fringe in botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkambwe, Musisi; Sekhwela, Mogodisheng B M

    2006-02-01

    This article examines the utilization characteristics and importance of woody biomass resources in the rural-urban fringe zones of Botswana. In the literature for Africa, attention has been given to the availability and utilization of biomass in either urban or rural environments, but the rural-urban fringe has been neglected. Within southern Africa, this neglect is not justified; the rural-urban fringe, not getting the full benefits available in urban environments in Botswana, has developed problems in woody biomass availability and utilization that require close attention. In this article, socioeconomic data on the importance of woody biomass in the Batlokwa Tribal Territory, on the rural-urban fringe of Gaborone, Botswana, were collected together with ecologic data that reveal the utilization characteristics and potential for regrowth of woody biomass. The analysis of these results show that local woody biomass is very important in the daily lives of communities in the rural-urban fringe zones and that there is a high level of harvesting. However, there is no effort in planning land use in the tribal territory to either conserve this resource or provide alternatives to its utilization. The future of woody biomass resources in Botswana's rural-urban fringe is uncertain. The investigators recommend that a comprehensive policy for the development of the rural-urban fringe consider the importance of this resource. The neglect of this resource will have far-reaching implications on the livelihoods of residents as well as the environment in this zone.

  5. Resource utilization after implementing a hospital-wide standardized feeding tube placement pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Morgan K; Li, Christopher I; Foti, Jeffrey L; Leu, Michael G; Wahbeh, Ghassan T; Shaw, Dennis; Libby, Arlene K; Melzer, Lilah; Goldin, Adam B

    2016-10-01

    Children requiring gastrostomy/gastrojejunostomy tubes (GT/GJ) are heterogeneous and medically complex patients with high resource utilization. We created and implemented a hospital-wide standardized pathway for feeding device placement. This study compares hospital resource utilization before and after pathway implementation. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing outcomes through one year of follow-up for consecutive groups of children undergoing GT/GJ placement prepathway (n=298, 1/1/2010-12/31/2011) and postpathway (n=140, 6/1/2013-7/31/2014) implementation. We determined the change in the rate of hospital resource utilization events and time to first event. Prior to implementation, 145 (48.7%) devices were placed surgically, 113 (37.9%) endoscopically and 40 (13.4%) using image guidance. After implementation, 102 (72.9%) were placed surgically, 23 (16.4%) endoscopically and 15 (10.7%) using image guidance. Prior to implementation, 174/298 (58.4%) patients required additional hospital resource utilization compared to 60/143 (42.0%) corresponding to a multivariate adjusted 38% reduced risk of a subsequent feeding tube related event. Care of tube-feeding dependent patients is spread among multiple specialists leading to variability in the preoperative workup, intraoperative technique and postoperative care. Our study shows an association between implementation of a standardized pathway and a decrease in hospital resource utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization: Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacic, J. D.; Dreesen, D.; Mockler, T.

    2000-01-01

    There are two principal factors that control the economics and ultimate utilization of space resources: 1) space transportation, and 2) space resource utilization technologies. Development of space transportation technology is driven by major government (military and civilian) programs and, to a lesser degree, private industry-funded research. Communication within the propulsion and spacecraft engineering community is aided by an effective independent professional organization, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The many aerospace engineering programs in major university engineering schools sustain professional-level education in these fields. NASA does an excellent job of public education in space science and engineering at all levels. Planetary science, a precursor and supporting discipline for space resource utilization, has benefited from the establishment of the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) which has served, since the early post-Apollo days, as a focus for both professional and educational development in the geosciences of the Moon and other planets. The closest thing the nonaerospace engineering disciplines have had to this kind of professional nexus is the sponsorship by the American Society of Civil Engineers of a series of space engineering conferences that have had a predominantly space resource orientation. However, many of us with long-standing interests in space resource development have felt that an LPI-like, independent institute was needed to focus and facilitate both research and education on the specific engineering disciplines needed to develop space resource utilization technologies on an on-going basis.

  7. Comparative Cost-Benefit Analysis of Renewable Energy Resource Trade Offs for Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Palms Fully Operational Energy Products Minus Outlier ........81  Figure 18.  MCAS Beaufort Fully Operational Energy Projects...vast forests , agricultural waste in the large agricultural areas, and manure and other animal by-products. According to the Energy Information...total costs for wind turbines captured in an NREL report (NREL/TP- 500-40566) minus the utilities and insurance costs, which are assumed costs for our

  8. Imperfect Competition and Common Resource Exploitation--An Analysis of Renewable Resource Management with Non-use Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This article analyzes the importance of non-use values in the management of natural resources with a model of imperfect competition. By constucting a framework of duopolistic exploiters, the incorporation of non-use values based on self-interest and altruistic motives appears to be significant for determining the degree of inefficiency caused by the problem of common property at the non-cooperative Nash equilibrium. It is found that when the non-use value placed by the altruist exploiter is bounded by that placed by the pure selfinterest exploiter ,the effect of market power is dominated by the effect of common exploitation. In this case.the exploiters' harvesting strategy will response in the same direction to the change of each other's harvesting at the non-cooperative Nash equilibrium. In contrast ,when the non-use value placed by the altruist is substantially larger or smaller than that placed by the self-interest exploiter,one exploiter's increase in harvesting will lead to a decrease in harvesting of the other exploiter at the non-cooperative Nash equilibrium.

  9. NREL’s Controllable Grid Interface Saves Time and Resources, Improves Reliability of Renewable Energy Technologies; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) controllable grid interface (CGI) test system at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is one of two user facilities at NREL capable of testing and analyzing the integration of megawatt-scale renewable energy systems. The CGI specializes in testing of multimegawatt-scale wind and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as energy storage devices, transformers, control and protection equipment at medium-voltage levels, allowing the determination of the grid impacts of the tested technology.

  10. The German energy market. 2014 yearbook. Data and facts on conventional and renewable energy resources; Energiemarkt Deutschland. Jahrbuch 2014. Daten und Fakten zu konventionellen und erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [RWE AG, Essen (Germany). Allgemeine Wirtschaftspolitik/Wissenschaft; RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Technologie der Energierohstoffe; World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources

    2014-07-01

    The present book provides an overview of the energy market of the German Federal Republic. Its main emphasis is on structures of demand and supply in the markets for crude oil, brown coal, hard coal, natural gas and electricity. A special chapter has been dedicated to renewable energy resources. Another focal area are the price formation mechanisms for oil, coal, natural gas and electricity. The development of energy demand is analysed, differentiating between the sectors industry, transport, households and trade/industry/services. The book addresses the international climate protection treaties, the legal framework for climate protection activities at the European level and the implementation of trade in greenhouse gas emission permits in Germany. It presents current forecasts and scenarios, thus pointing out possible perspectives in the German energy market. It also discusses the framework conditions for Germany's energy policy. The energy markets are portrayed through facts and figures compiled in a total of 125 tables and 148 diagrams. Details of ownership of more than 100 utility companies are made transparent. The chapter on energy in the coalition agreement of 27 November 2013 between the Christian Democratic Union, Christian Social Union and the Social Democratic Party is documented verbatim. Rounding off the publication is a detailed glossary that will facilitate the reader's understanding of complex matters in the field of energy economy.

  11. Migrant labor supply in a booming non-renewable resource economy: Cure and transmission mechanism for de-industrialization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulle, Grant Mark

    This paper challenges the determinism that booming resource economies suffer from de-industrialization, the "Dutch Disease". For several decades, economists have attempted to explain how a sudden surge in mineral and energy extraction affects an economy's output and employment from an aggregate and sectoral perspective. Economic theory shows that a "boom" in mineral and energy production is welfare enhancing to the economy experiencing it. However, the phenomenon also induces inter-sectoral adjustments among non-renewable resource (NRR), traditional traded, and non-traded industries that tend to crowd out traditional export sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing. In turn, this paper asks two fundamental questions: 1) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments wrought by a boom in NRR production be mitigated in the resource-abundant economy experiencing it; 2) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments be exported to a neighboring non-resource economy by movements in migrant labor supply? The theoretical model and empirical estimation approach presented in this paper introduces an endogenous migrant labor supply response to booms in NRR output to test the extent traditional tradable sectors shrink in the NRR-abundant economy during the boom and if such effects are exported to a neighboring jurisdiction. Using data at the U.S. county level, the empirical results show that booming economies experience positive and statistically significant rates of real income and traded sector job growth during the boom, attributable to the influx of migrant labor. By contrast, little evidence is found that non-booming counties adjacent to the booming counties experience declines in income or job growth because of labor supply outflows. Instead, the results suggest the larger the number of potential "donor" counties that can supply labor to the booming economies, the more likely the transmission of booming economy effects, namely evidence of de-industrialization, is diffused across all of the

  12. International partnerships in renewable energy: Promoting climate challenge partnerships by small U.S. utilities. Fourth project report, October 1997--March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    In 1997, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) received a grant from the Department of Energy (DOE) to implement a program to promote the participation of NRECA members in the President`s Climate Challenge Action Plan. NRECA had been in discussions with Salt River Project (SRP) and the Arizona Electric Power Cooperative (AEPCO) to pursue the opportunity of supporting a small solar energy rural electrification project in Sonora prior to the signature of this agreement. When the Climate Challenge project was approved, an agreement between NRECA, SRP, and AEPCO was reached to implement the Sonora project with funding from DOE, SRP, and AEPCO. This periodic report will summarize the results of the Sonora solar electrification project. While other Climate Challenge activities were also underway during this reporting period, due to the impact of this project it was decided to provide an in-depth report of this single project. Information directly relevant to the actions taken on this project is provided in Annexes 1 and 2. The goals of the Sonora Solar Electrification project were the following: (1) demonstrate the willingness and ability of US electric utilities to undertake a climate challenge project using renewable energy technologies; (2) select one or more communities distant from the electric grid with sufficient interest and resources to accept and sustain rural electric service using solar photovoltaic energy; (3) organize a payment system that would provide for the long-term technical and institutional viability of the project; (4) train users to operate the solar home systems safely and within proper operating parameters; (5) train local technicians to maintain the solar home systems; (6) procure and install high quality equipment at affordable costs; and (7) ascertain market conditions for expansion of program in the future.

  13. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Alzheimer's - resources Anorexia nervosa - resources Arthritis - resources Asthma and allergy - resources Autism - resources Blindness - resources BPH - resources Breastfeeding - resources Bulimia - resources Burns - resources Cancer - resources Cerebral ...

  14. Production of green biodegradable plastics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from renewable resources of agricultural residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahman, Yaser; Ugwu, Charles U

    2014-08-01

    This work describes potential opportunities for utilization of agro-industrial residues to produce green biodegradable plastics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). Wheat straws were examined with good efficacy of carbon substrates using Cupriavidus necator. Production was examined in separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) in the presence and absence of WS hydrolysis enzymes, and in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with enzymes. Results showed that production of PHB in SSF was more efficient in terms of viable cell count, cell dry weight, and PHB production and yield compared to those of SHF and glucose-control cultures. While glucose control experiment produced 4.6 g/L PHB; SSF produced 10.0 g/L compared to 7.1 g/L in SHF when utilizing enzymes during WS hydrolysis. Results showed that most of sugars produced during the hydrolysis were consumed in SHF (~98 %) compared to 89.2 % in SSF. Results also demonstrated that a combination of glucose and xylose can compensate for the excess carbon required for enhancing PHB production by C. necator. However, higher concentration of sugars at the beginning of fermentation in SHF can lead to cell inhibition and consequently catabolite repressions. Accordingly, results demonstrated that the gradual release of sugars in SSF enhanced PHB production. Moreover, the presence of sugars other than glucose and xylose can eliminate PHB degradation in medium of low carbon substrate concentrations in SSF.

  15. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  16. Dismounted complex blast injuries: patterns of injuries and resource utilization associated with the multiple extremity amputee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mark; Waterman, Scott; Dunne, James; D'Alleyrand, Jean-Claude; Andersen, Romney C

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this report is to analyze the resource utilization and injury patterns of complex dismounted blast injuries. A retrospective review of U.S. service members injured in combat between 2007 and 2010 was conducted. Data analyzed included age, injury mechanism, amputated limbs, number and type of associated injuries, blood products utilized, intensive care unit length of stay (ILOS), hospital length of stay (HLOS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS). Patients were stratified based on the number of amputations. Sixty-three patients comprised the multiple extremity amputation (MEA) group. Ninety-eight percent sustained injuries from an improvised explosive device (IED) and 96% were dismounted. The ISS, number of surgical encounters, blood products utilized and ILOS were all clinically significantly different than controls. Care of multiple extremity amputees involves the utilization of significant resources. This knowledge may better help surgeons and administrators allocate assets at hospitals, both military and civilian, who care for this complex and challenging patient population.

  17. Human Resource Utilization and Internal Efficiency in State-Owned Universities in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A.Y. Abdulkareem; Fasasi, Y. A.; O.P. Akinnubi

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between human resource utilization and internal efficiency in Nigerian state universities. It was a descriptive survey research. Stratified random sampling technique was adopted for selecting 6 out of 12 state-owned universities. Also, 572 lecturers were sampled from Humanities and Science Faculties of the institutions. They responded to “Human Resource Checklist” (HRC) and “Internal Efficiency Checklist” (IEC) designed by the researchers and validated by ...

  18. [Significance and utilization of "RECHS" (Resource Center for Health Science) focusing on the importance of human bio-resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuo, Yushi; Matsunami, Hidetoshi; Takemura, Masao; Saito, Kuniaki

    2011-12-01

    The Resource Center for Health Science (RECHS) has initiated a project based on the development and utilization of Bio-Resources/Database (BR/DB), comprising personal health records(PHR), such as health/medical records of the health of individuals, physically consolidated with bio-resources, e.g. serum, urine etc. taken from the same individuals. This is characterized as analytical alterations of BR/DB annually collected from healthy individuals, targeting 100,000, but not as data dependent on the number of unhealthy individuals so far investigated. The purpose is to establish a primary defense for the improvement of QOL by applying BR/DB to analysis by epidemiology and clinical chemistry. Furthermore, it also contributes to the construction of a PHR system planned as a national project. The RECHS coordinating activities are fully dependent on as many general hospitals as possible on the basis of regional medical services, and academia groups capable of analyzing BR/DB.

  19. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  20. Studies of the Kaneda Reaction in the Synthesis of Oocydin A/Haterumalide NA and Polyurethanes from Renewable Resources: Polyols from Soybean Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Amanda L.

    This thesis is broken down into two main projects. First, studies of the Kaneda reaction in the synthesis of oocydin A/haterumalide NA and, second, polyurethanes from renewable resources: polyols from soybean oil. In Chapter I, the stereoselectivity of the Kaneda reaction was studied. The driving interest stemmed from the hypothesis that one epimer of an acyclic precursor could give the desired bicyclic core of oocydin A/haterumalide NA. In Chapter II, the work toward new polyols from soybean oil is discussed. Renewable content in polyurethanes on the market is still low because of economics and performance. Our ideas for new polyol systems are presented.