WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewable power systems

  1. Renewable and efficient electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Gilbert M

    2013-01-01

    A solid, quantitative, practical introduction to a wide range of renewable energy systems-in a completely updated, new edition The second edition of Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems provides a solid, quantitative, practical introduction to a wide range of renewable energy systems. For each topic, essential theoretical background is introduced, practical engineering considerations associated with designing systems and predicting their performance are provided, and methods for evaluating the economics of these systems are presented. While the book focuses on

  2. Power electronics for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources......, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system....

  3. Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, U. M.; Lee, K. B.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources are increased because of the depletion of natural resources and the increasing pollution level from energy production. The wind energy and the solar energy are most widely used among the renewable energy sources. Power electronics is needed in almost all kinds...... of renewable energy system. It controls the renewable source and interfaces with the load effectively, which can be grid-connected or van work in stand-alone mode. In this presentation, overview of wind and photovoltaic energy systems are introduced. Next, the power electronic circuits behind the most common...

  4. Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik

    , one of them being the North East area with high share of wind power generation.The aim of this study is to investigate how renewable generations like wind power can contribute to the power system defence plans. This PhD project “Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans...

  5. Smart power systems and renewable energy system integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a wider spectrum of researches, developments, and case specific studies in the area of smart power systems and integration of renewable energy systems. The book will be for the benefit of a wider audience including researchers, postgraduate students, practicing engineers, academics, and regulatory policy makers. It covers a wide range of topics from fundamentals, and modelling and simulation aspects of traditional and smart power systems to grid integration of renewables; Micro Grids; challenges in planning and operation of a smart power system; risks, security, and stability in smart operation of a power system; and applied research in energy storage. .

  6. Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Kaushik; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Anca Daniela HANSEN; Abildgaard, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity of conventional controllable generations to minimum. In such operation hours, the system is typically more vulnerable to disturbances in general and major disturbances in particular. This was the case in the m...

  7. Power Electronics and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Sera, Dezso

    2007-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources......, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system....

  8. The RenewElec Project: Variable Renewable Energy and the Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apt, Jay

    2014-02-14

    Variable energy resources, such as wind power, now produce about 4% of U.S. electricity. They can play a significantly expanded role if the U.S. adopts a systems approach that considers affordability, security and reliability. Reaching a 20-30% renewable portfolio standard goal is possible, but not without changes in the management and regulation of the power system, including accurately assessing and preparing for the operational effects of renewable generation. The RenewElec project will help the nation make the transition to the use of significant amounts of electric generation from variable and intermittent sources of renewable power.

  9. Power Converters and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Chen, Zhe;

    2004-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and therefore a continuous demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective renewable...... energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface to the grid...... for the renewables and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of small and medium power conversion topologies are presented including their control (mainly for PV-systems). Finally wind turbine configuration and their control...

  10. Power Electronics and Reliability in Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke; Zhou, Dao

    2012-01-01

    Power Electronics are needed in almost all kind of renewable energy systems. It is used both for controlling the renewable source and also for interfacing to the load, which can be grid-connected or working in stand-alone mode. More and more efforts are put into making renewable energy systems...... better in terms of reliability in order to ensure a high availability of the power sources, in this case the knowledge of mission profile of a certain application is crucial for the reliability evaluation/design of power electronics. In this paper an overview on the power electronic circuits behind...... the most common converter configurations for wind turbine and photovoltaic is done. Next different aspects of improving the system reliability are mapped. Further on examples of how to control the chip temperature in different power electronic configurations as well as operation modes for wind power...

  11. International Conference on Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, L; Dash, Subhransu; Panigrahi, Bijaya

    2015-01-01

    The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in Proceedings of International Conference on Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Systems (ICPERES 2014) held at Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Chennai, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the broad area of Power Electronics and Renewable Energy. The book discusses wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of the emerging techniques. It presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of new applications and advanced technologies.

  12. Trends in Power Electronics and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Kerekes, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss trends of the most emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy and photovoltaics, which...... by means of power electronics are changing the future electrical infrastructure but also contributes steadily more to non-carbon based electricity production. Most focus is on the power electronics technologies used. In the case of photovoltaics transformer-less systems are discussed as they have...

  13. Design for Reliability of Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai

    2014-01-01

    Power electronics is the enabling technology for maximizing the power captured from renewable electrical generation, e.g., the wind and solar technology, and also for an efficient integration into the grid. Therefore, it is important that the power electronics are reliable and do not have too many...... failures during operation which otherwise will increase cost for operation, maintenance and reputation. Typically, power electronics in renewable electrical generation has to be designed for 20–30 years of operation, and in order to do that, it is crucial to know about the mission profile of the power...... electronics technology as well as to know how the power electronics technology is loaded in terms of temperature and other stressors relevant, to reliability. Hence, this chapter will show the basics of power electronics technology for renewable energy systems, describe the mission profile of the technology...

  14. Power electronics - The key technology for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng

    2014-01-01

    and effectively, energy conversion systems, currently based on power electronics technology, will again play an essential role in this energy paradigm shift. Using highly efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application, together with advanced control...... solutions, can pave the way for renewable energies. In light of this, some of the most emerging renewable energies, e.g. wind energy and photovoltaic, which by means of power electronics are changing character as a major part in the electricity generation, are explored in this paper. Issues like technology...... development, implementation, power converter technologies, control of the systems, and synchronization are addressed. Special focuses are paid on the future trends in power electronics for those systems like how to lower the cost of energy and to develop emerging power devices and better reliability tool....

  15. Power System Transformation toward Renewables: Investment Scenarios for Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We analyze distinctive investment scenarios for the integration of fluctuating renewables in the German power system. Using a combined model for dispatch, transmission, and investment, three different investment options are considered, including gas-fired power plants, pumped hydro storage, and transmission lines. We find that geographically optimized power plant investments dominate in the reference scenarios for 2024 and 2034. In scenarios with decreasedrenewable curtailment, storage and tr...

  16. Management of a power system based on renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronay Karoly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article main purpose is to highlight the main advantage of the hardware and software implementation for an energy management system based on renewable energy sources. By using implemented and dedicated hardware and software the evolution of energy production and consumption can be monitored. The advantages of such system are highlighted by the results obtained from experimental simulations. An experimental model for the power system based on renewable energy sources was implemented, where the actual status of the system in different situations when the equipments change their own statuses can be shown.

  17. Power electronics - key technology for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Kerekes, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss trends of the most emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics...... are changing and challenging the future electrical infrastructure but also contributes steadily more to non-carbon based electricity production. Most focus in the paper is on the power electronics technologies used. In the case of photovoltaics transformer-less systems are discussed as they have the potential...... as efficient as possible. Further, the emerging climate changes is arguing to find sustainable future solutions. Of many options, two major technologies will play important roles to solve parts of those future problems. One is to change the electrical power production from conventional, fossil based energy...

  18. Design of smart power grid renewable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Keyhani, Ali

    2011-01-01

    To address the modeling and control of smart grid renewable energy system into electric power systems, this book integrates three areas of electrical engineering: power system engineering, control systems engineering and power electronics  The approach to the integration of these three areas differs from classical methods. Due to complexity of this task, the author has decided to present the basic concepts, and then present a simulation test bed in matlab to use these concepts to solve a basic problem in development of smart grid energy system. Therefore, each chapter has three parts: first a

  19. Power fluctuation reduction methodology for the grid-connected renewable power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aula, Fadhil T.; Lee, Samuel C.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for eliminating the influence of the power fluctuations of the renewable power systems. The renewable energy, which is to be considered an uncertain and uncontrollable resource, can only provide irregular electrical power to the power grid. This irregularity creates fluctuations of the generated power from the renewable power systems. These fluctuations cause instability to the power system and influence the operation of conventional power plants. Overall, the power system is vulnerable to collapse if necessary actions are not taken to reduce the impact of these fluctuations. This methodology aims at reducing these fluctuations and makes the generated power capability for covering the power consumption. This requires a prediction tool for estimating the generated power in advance to provide the range and the time of occurrence of the fluctuations. Since most of the renewable energies are weather based, as a result a weather forecast technique will be used for predicting the generated power. The reduction of the fluctuation also requires stabilizing facilities to maintain the output power at a desired level. In this study, a wind farm and a photovoltaic array as renewable power systems and a pumped-storage and batteries as stabilizing facilities are used, since they are best suitable for compensating the fluctuations of these types of power suppliers. As an illustrative example, a model of wind and photovoltaic power systems with battery energy and pumped hydro storage facilities for power fluctuation reduction is included, and its power fluctuation reduction is verified through simulation.

  20. Renewable Energy Systems in the Power Electronics Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Teodorescu, Remus

    2005-01-01

    Power Electronics is still an emerging technology and its applications are increasing. The primary function is to convert electrical energy from one stage to another and it is used in many different applications. The power electronics curriculum is multidisciplinary covering fields like devices......, magnetics, electrical machines, power systems, analogue and digital control, materials, power converters, electronics, materials, thermal design and EMC. However, those fields may not be enough in order to give the students enough skills. It is also necessary to learn about systems and for the moment one...... of the most important area is renewable energy systems. This paper will discuss the basic courses for the power electronics curriculum. It will also discuss how to teach power electronic systems efficiently through a projectoriented and problem-based learning approach with Aalborg University in Denmark...

  1. Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); O' Sullivan, G. (Abacus Controls, Inc., Somerville, NJ (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Inverters installed in renewable hybrid energy systems are typically used in a stand-alone mode to supply ac power to loads from battery storage when the engine-generator is not being used. Similarities in topology and in the performance requirements of the standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system and the hybrid system suggest the UPS could be used in hybrid energy systems. Another alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby UPS hardware is the Bimode UPS. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for dc to ac inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous ac power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The measured operating and transfer characteristics of a bimode UPS in a utility system and in a hybrid system are presented. The applicability of the bimode UPS to hybrid systems and its compatibility in a PV/engine-generator hybrid system are given.

  2. Power Electronics and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Sera, Dezso

    2007-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources...

  3. Large Scale Integration of Renewable Power Sources into the Vietnamese Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Schyska, Bruno; Thanh Viet, Dinh; von Bremen, Lueder; Heinemann, Detlev; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The Vietnamese Power system is expected to expand considerably in upcoming decades. Power capacities installed are projected to grow from 39 GW in 2015 to 129.5 GW by 2030. Installed wind power capacities are expected to grow to 6 GW (0.8 GW 2015) and solar power capacities to 12 GW (0.85 GW 2015). This goes hand in hand with an increase of the renewable penetration in the power mix from 1.3% from wind and photovoltaics (PV) in 2015 to 5.4% by 2030. The overall potential for wind power in Vietnam is estimated to be around 24 GW. Moreover, the up-scaling of renewable energy sources was formulated as one of the priorized targets of the Vietnamese government in the National Power Development Plan VII. In this work, we investigate the transition of the Vietnamese power system towards high shares of renewables. For this purpose, we jointly optimise the expansion of renewable generation facilities for wind and PV, and the transmission grid within renewable build-up pathways until 2030 and beyond. To simulate the Vietnamese power system and its generation from renewable sources, we use highly spatially and temporally resolved historical weather and load data and the open source modelling toolbox Python for Power System Analysis (PyPSA). We show that the highest potential of renewable generation for wind and PV is observed in southern Vietnam and discuss the resulting need for transmission grid extensions in dependency of the optimal pathway. Furthermore, we show that the smoothing effect of wind power has several considerable beneficial effects and that the Vietnamese hydro power potential can be efficiently used to provide balancing opportunities. This work is part of the R&D Project "Analysis of the Large Scale Integration of Renewable Power into the Future Vietnamese Power System" (GIZ, 2016-2018).

  4. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  5. Power electronics for renewable and distributed energy systems a sourcebook of topologies, control and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kramer, William E

    2013-01-01

    While most books approach power electronics and renewable energy as two separate subjects, Power Electronics for Renewable and Distributed Energy Systems takes an integrative approach; discussing power electronic converters topologies, controls and integration that are specific to the renewable and distributed energy system applications. An overview of power electronic technologies is followed by the introduction of various renewable and distributed energy resources that includes photovoltaics, wind, small hydroelectric, fuel cells, microturbines and variable speed generation. Energy storage s

  6. Hot Thermal Storage in a Variable Power, Renewable Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    where cost effective, increase the utilization of distributed electric power generation through wind, solar, geothermal , and biomass renewable...molten salt. On a grid scale, off-peak electricity, converted by ohmic heating, and thermal energy from a concentrated solar power (CSP) plant ...heat energy originating from renewable sources explored. These heat sources are waste heat from the chilling plant , wind electric power from the wind

  7. Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Systems - Status and Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, the energy paradigms in many countries are experiencing significant change from fossil-based resources to cleaner renewables. It is expected that the scenario of highly penetrated renewables is going to be further enhanced. This requires that the production, distribution...... electronics in generation, transmission/distribution and end-user application, together with advanced controls, can pave the way for renewable energy resources. In view of this, some of the most promising renewable candidates like wind power and photovoltaic, which are becoming a significant part...

  8. Power quality analysis of hybrid renewable energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinchin W. Mosobi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid renewable energy sources consisting of solar photovoltaic, wind energy system, and a microhydro system is proposed in this paper. This system is suitable for supplying electricity to isolated locations or remote villages far from the grid supply. The solar photovoltaic system is modeled with two power converters, the first one being a DC-DC converter along with an maximum power point tracking to achieve a regulated DC output voltage and the second one being a DC-AC converter to obtain AC output. The wind energy system is modeled with a wind-turbine prime mover with varying wind speed and fixed pitch angle to drive an self excited induction generator (SEIG. Owing to inherent drooping characteristics of the SEIG, a closed loop turbine input system is incorporated. The microhydro system is modeled with a constant input power to drive an SEIG. The three different sources are integrated through an AC bus and the proposed hybrid system is supplied to R, R-L, and induction motor loads. A static compensator is proposed to improve the load voltage and current profiles; it also mitigates the harmonic contents of the voltage and current. The static synchronous compensator is realized by means of a three-phase IGBT-based current-controlled voltage source inverter with a self-supporting DC bus. The complete system is modeled and simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results obtained illustrate the feasibility of the proposed system and are found to be satisfactory.

  9. Design for Reliability of Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai

    2014-01-01

    Power electronics is the enabling technology for maximizing the power captured from renewable electrical generation, e.g., the wind and solar technology, and also for an efficient integration into the grid. Therefore, it is important that the power electronics are reliable and do not have too many...... failures during operation which otherwise will increase cost for operation, maintenance and reputation. Typically, power electronics in renewable electrical generation has to be designed for 20–30 years of operation, and in order to do that, it is crucial to know about the mission profile of the power...... and demonstrate how the power electronics is loaded under different stressors. Further, some systematic methods to design the power electronics technology for reliability will be given and demonstrated with two cases—one is a wind power and the other is photovoltaic application....

  10. Power System Study for Renewable Energy Interconnection in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askar, O. F.; Ramachandaramurthy, V. K.

    2013-06-01

    The renewable energy (RE) sector has grown exponentially in Malaysia with the introduction of the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) by the Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water. Photovoltaic, biogas, biomass and mini hydro are among the renewable energy sources which offer a lucrative tariff to incite developers in taking the green technology route. In order to receive the FIT, a developer is required by the utility company to perform a power system analysis which will determine the technical feasibility of an RE interconnection to the utility company's existing grid system. There are a number of aspects which the analysis looks at, the most important being the load flow and fault levels in the network after the introduction of an RE source. The analysis is done by modelling the utility company's existing network and simulating the network with the interconnection of an RE source. The results are then compared to the values before an interconnection is made as well as ensuring the voltage rise or the increase in fault levels do not violate any pre-existing regulations set by the utility company. This paper will delve into the mechanics of performing a load flow analysis and examining the results obtained.

  11. Design for micro-combined cooling, heating and power systems stirling engines and renewable power systems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    ‘Design for Micro-Combined Cooling, Heating & Power Systems’ provides a manual for the technical and structural design of systems for supplying decentralised energy in residential buildings. It presents the micro-combined cooling, heating & power systems Stirling engines & renewable energy sources (mCCHP-SE-RES) systems in an accessible manner both for the public at large, and for professionals who conceive, design or commercialise such systems or their components.  The high performance levels of these systems are demonstrated within the final chapter by the results of an experiment in which a house is equipped with a mCCHP-SE-RES system. The reader is also familiarized with the conceptual, technical and legal aspects of modern domestic energy systems; the components that constitute these systems; and advanced algorithms for achieving the structural and technical design of such systems. In residential buildings, satisfying demands of durable development has gradually evolved from necessity to...

  12. Power electronics for renewable energy systems, transportation and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowski, Mariusz; Al-Haddad, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Power Electronics for Renewable Energy, Transportation, and Industrial Applications combines state-of-the-art global expertise to present the latest research on power electronics and its application in transportation, renewable energy, and different industrial applications. This timely book aims to facilitate the implementation of cutting-edge techniques to design problems offering innovative solutions to the growing power demands in small- and large-size industries. Application areas in the book range from smart homes and electric and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PHEVs), to smart distribution and intelligence operation centers where significant energy efficiency improvements can be achieved through the appropriate use and design of power electronics and energy storage devices.

  13. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy; Zhang, Xiliang

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are ...

  14. Power system and market integration of renewable electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Georg

    2017-07-01

    This paper addresses problems of power generation markets that arise under high shares of intermittent generation. After discussing the economic fundamentals of wind and photovoltaic investments, the paper introduces the concept of the "Merit order effect of renewables". According to this concept electricity prices on wholesale power markets become smaller in periods during which large volumes of wind and photovoltaic generation is available and squeeze out relative expensive gas-fired power generation. The merit order effect of renewables has a couple of consequences. Among others it challenges the profitability of conventional power generation. If such generation capacities are still necessary, at least during a transitory period, a capacity mechanism may be put in place that generates an additional stream of income to the operators of conventional power generators. Another consequence of growing intermittent power generation is the need for concepts and technologies that deal with excess generation. Among these concepts are virtual and physical power storage capacities. In the last parts of the paper models are presented that are able to analyze these concepts from an economic point of view.

  15. Transmission needs across a fully renewable European power system

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Rolando A; Andresen, Gorm B; Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The residual load and excess power generation of 27 European countries with a 100% penetration of variable renewable energy sources are explored in order to quantify the benefit of power transmission between countries. Estimates are based on extensive weather data, which allows for modelling of hourly mismatches between the demand and renewable generation from wind and solar photovoltaics. For separated countries, balancing is required to cover around 24% of the total annual energy consumption. This number can be reduced down to 15% once all countries are networked together with uncon- strained interconnectors. The reduction represents the maximum possible benefit of transmission for the countries. The total Net Transfer Capacity of the unconstrained interconnectors is roughly twelve times larger than current values. However, constrained interconnector capacities six times larger than the current values are found to provide 97% of the maximum possible benefit of cooperation. This motivates a detailed investig...

  16. Optimal configuration of power generating systems in isolated island with renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Hayashi, Daisuke; Yona, Atsushi; Urasaki, Naomitsu [Faculty of Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara-cho, Nakagami, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Funabashi, Toshihisa [Meidensha Corporation, 36-2 Nihonbashi Hakozakicho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-8515 (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    In isolated islands, usually diesel generators supply electric power. However, there are problems, e.g., a lack of fossil fuel, environmental pollution etc. So, isolated island, e.g. Miyako island, installs renewable energy power production plants. However, renewable energy power production plants are very costly. This paper presents an optimal configuration of power system in isolated island installing renewable energy power production plants. The generating system consists of diesel generators, wind turbine generators, PV system and batteries. Using the proposed method, operation cost can be reduced about 10% in comparison with diesel generators only from simulation results. (author)

  17. Power system and market integration of renewable electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdmann Georg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses problems of power generation markets that arise under high shares of intermittent generation. After discussing the economic fundamentals of wind and photovoltaic investments, the paper introduces the concept of the “Merit order effect of renewables”. According to this concept electricity prices on wholesale power markets become smaller in periods during which large volumes of wind and photovoltaic generation is available and squeeze out relative expensive gas-fired power generation. The merit order effect of renewables has a couple of consequences. Among others it challenges the profitability of conventional power generation. If such generation capacities are still necessary, at least during a transitory period, a capacity mechanism may be put in place that generates an additional stream of income to the operators of conventional power generators. Another consequence of growing intermittent power generation is the need for concepts and technologies that deal with excess generation. Among these concepts are virtual and physical power storage capacities. In the last parts of the paper models are presented that are able to analyze these concepts from an economic point of view.

  18. A Review of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integration and combined utilization of renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly attractive. This paper is a review of hybrid renewable energy systems technologies for power generation, important issues and challenges in their design stage. Generation technology selection and unit sizing, System configurations and Energy management and control are discussed. Applications of hybrid energy systems, advantages of hybrid energy systems, issues and problems related to hybrid energy systems and an overview of energy storage technologies for renewable energy systems are presented. This paper also highlights the future trends of Hybrid energy systems, which represent a promising sustainable solution for power generation.

  19. Renewable Energy Powered Membrane Technology. 1. Development and Characterization of a Photovoltaic Hybrid Membrane System

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, Andrea; Broeckmann, A.; Richards, B.S.

    2007-01-01

    In isolated communities where potable water sources as well as energy grids are limited or nonexistent, treating brackish groundwater aquifers with small-scale desalination systems can be a viable alternative to existing water infrastructures. Given the unavailability of power in many such situations, renewable energy is an obvious solution to power such systems. However, renewable energy is an intermittent power supply and with regards to the performance of intermittently operated desalinati...

  20. Power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents power electronic conversion systems for wind and marine energy generation applications, in particular, direct drive generator energy conversion systems. Various topologies are presented and system design optimization and reliability are briefly discussed....

  1. The Evolution of Power System Planning with High Levels of Variable Renewable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of the Greening the Grid introduces the evolution of power system planning with high levels of variable renewable generation.

  2. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument...... for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are still very limited. Based on a least-cost and technology-rich power generation and transmission expansion model...... for China, this study examines the impacts of renewable energy quota system and carbon cap policy instruments on the future Chinese power sector. Various scenarios are examined toward 2030 and their future power generation mix, capacity installations and carbon emission are discussed. This study concludes...

  3. Dispatchable Renewable Energy Model for Microgrid Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Fred; Gentle, Jake P.; McJunkin, Timothy R.

    2017-04-01

    Over the years, many research projects have been performed and focused on finding out the effective ways to balance the power demands and supply on the utility grid. The causes of the imbalance could be the increasing demands from the end users, the loss of power generation (generators down), faults on the transmission lines, power tripped due to overload, and weather conditions, etc. An efficient Load Frequency Control (LFC) can assure the desired electricity quality provided to the residential, commercial and industrial end users. A simulation model is built in this project to investigate the contribution of the modeling of dispatchable energy such as solar energy, wind power, hydro power and energy storage to the balance of the microgrid power system. An analysis of simplified feedback control system with proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) controller was performed. The purpose of this research is to investigate a simulation model that achieves certain degree of the resilient control for the microgrid.

  4. A DSP based power electronics interface for alternative /renewable energy system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-28

    This report is an update on the research project involving the implementation of a DSP-based power electronics interface for alternate/renewable energy systems, that was funded by the Department of Energy under the Inventions and Innovations program.

  5. Integrating High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy into Electric Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As more variable renewable energy is integrated into electric power systems, there are a range of challenges and solutions to accommodating very high penetration levels. This presentation highlights some of the recent research in this area.

  6. Analysing Renewable Energy Source Impacts on Power System National Network Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Balaban

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact on renewable energy sources integrated into the Romanian power system on the electrical network operation considering the reduction of electricity consumption with respect to the 1990s. This decrease has led to increased difficulties in integrating the renewable energy sources into the power system (network reinforcements, as well as issues concerning the balance of production/consumption. Following the excess of certain proportions of the energy mix, intermittent renewable energy sources require the expansion of networks, storage, back-up capacities and efforts for a flexible consumption, in the absence of which renewable energy sources cannot be used or the grid can be overloaded. To highlight the difficulty of connecting some significant capacities installed in wind power plants and photovoltaic installation, the paper presents a case study for Dobrogea area that has the most installed capacity from renewable energy sources in operation.

  7. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lawler, J.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  8. Stochastic Modeling and Analysis of Power System with Renewable Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan

    to evaluate year-to-year variation of wind power generation through a sensitivity analysis and to forecast very short-term wind power through a model-based prediction method. The stochastic load model is established on the basis of a seasonal autoregressive moving average (ARMA) process. It is demonstrated...... that such a stochastic model can be used to simulate the effect of load management on the load duration curve. As CHP units are turned on and off by regulating power, CHP generation has discrete output and thus can be modeled by a transition matrix based discrete Markov chain. As the CHP generation has a strong diurnal...... that minimizes the expectation of power losses of a 69-bus distribution system by controlling the power factor of WTs. The optimization is subjected to the probabilistic constraints of bus voltage and line current. The algorithm combines a constrained nonlinear optimization algorithm and a Monte Carlo based PLF...

  9. A Review of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Ibrahim; Abul Khair

    2015-01-01

    Integration and combined utilization of renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly attractive. This paper is a review of hybrid renewable energy systems technologies for power generation, important issues and challenges in their design stage. Generation technology selection and unit sizing, System configurations and Energy management and control are discussed. Applications of hybrid energy systems, advantages of hybrid energy systems, issues and problems related to hybrid ...

  10. Curtailment in a Highly Renewable Power System and Its Effect on Capacity Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kies

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity factor of a power plant is the ratio of generation over its potential generation. It is an important measure to describe wind and solar resources. However, the fluctuating nature of renewable power generation makes it difficult to integrate all generation at times. Whenever generation exceeds the load, curtailment or storage of energy is required. With increasing renewable shares in the power system, the level of curtailment will further increase. In this work, the influence of the curtailment on the capacity factors for a highly renewable German power system is studied. An effective capacity factor is introduced, and the implications for the distribution of renewable power plants are discussed. Three years of highly-resolved weather data were used to model wind and solar power generation. Together with historical load data and a transmission model, a possible future German power system was simulated. It is shown that effective capacity factors for unlimited transmission are strongly reduced by up to 60% (wind and 70% (photovoltaics and therefore of limited value in a highly renewable power system. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that wind power benefits more strongly from a reinforced transmission grid than photovoltaics (PV does.

  11. Energy Production System Management - Renewable energy power supply integration with Building Automation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Joao [Centre of Mechatronics Engineering - CEM/Institut of Mechanical Engineering - IDMEC, University of Evora, R. Romao Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal); Martins, Joao [Centre of Technology and Systems/Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-06-15

    Intelligent buildings, historically and technologically, refers to the integration of four distinctive systems: Building Automation Systems (BAS), Telecommunication Systems, Office Automation Systems and Computer Building Management Systems. The increasing sophisticated BAS has become the ''heart and soul'' of modern intelligent buildings. Integrating energy supply and demand elements - often known as Demand-Side Management (DSM) - has became an important energy efficiency policy concept. Nowadays, European countries have diversified their power supplies, reducing the dependence on OPEC, and developing a broader mix of energy sources maximizing the use of renewable energy domestic sources. In this way it makes sense to include a fifth system into the intelligent building group: Energy Production System Management (EPSM). This paper presents a Building Automation System where the Demand-Side Management is fully integrated with the building's Energy Production System, which incorporates a complete set of renewable energy production and storage systems. (author)

  12. The Demand Side Management Potential to Balance a Highly Renewable European Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kies

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shares of renewables continue to grow in the European power system. A fully renewable European power system will primarily depend on the renewable power sources of wind and photovoltaics (PV, which are not dispatchable but intermittent and therefore pose a challenge to the balancing of the power system. To overcome this issue, several solutions have been proposed and investigated in the past, including storage, backup power, reinforcement of the transmission grid, and demand side management (DSM. In this paper, we investigate the potential of DSM to balance a simplified, fully renewable European power system. For this purpose, we use ten years of weather and historical load data, a power-flow model and the implementation of demand side management as a storage equivalent, to investigate the impact of DSM on the need for backup energy. We show that DSM has the potential to reduce the need for backup energy in Europe by up to one third and can cover the need for backup up to a renewable share of 67%. Finally, it is demonstrated that the optimal mix of wind and PV is shifted by the utilisation of DSM towards a higher share of PV, from 19% to 36%.

  13. Stability Enhancement of a Power System Containing High-Penetration Intermittent Renewable Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the transient stability enhancement of a power system containing large amounts of solar and wind generation in Japan. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster there has been an increasing awareness on the importance of a distributed architecture, based mainly on renewable generation, for the Japanese power system. Also, the targets of CO2 emissions can now be approached without heavily depending on nuclear generation. Large amounts of renewable generation leads to a reduction in the total inertia of the system because renewable generators are connected to the grid by power converters, and transient stability becomes a significant issue. Simulation results show that sodium-sulfur batteries can keep the system in operation and stable after strong transient disturbances, especially for an isolated system. The results also show how the reduction of the inertia in the system can be mitigated by exploiting the kinetic energy of wind turbines.

  14. A 100% renewable power system for Europe - Let the weather and physics decide!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Martin; Heide, Dominik; Rasmussen, Morten Grud

    The design of sustainable energy systems is no longer only the domain of politics, economics and engineering. Mathematical physics is able to contribute with its generic understanding of everything. A new modeling approach is presented and applied to design a fully renewable European power system....... This approach is based on weather data with good spatio-temporal resolution, which is first converted into wind and solar power generation and then used to derive estimates on the optimal mix between the renewable resources and the storage needs.......The design of sustainable energy systems is no longer only the domain of politics, economics and engineering. Mathematical physics is able to contribute with its generic understanding of everything. A new modeling approach is presented and applied to design a fully renewable European power system...

  15. Advanced superconducting power conditioning system with SMES for effective use of renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, T.; Tsuda, M.; Miyagi, D.; Amata, H.; Iwasaki, T.; Son, K.; Atomura, N.; Shintomi, T.; Makida, Y.; Takao, T.; Munakata, K.; Kajiwara, M.

    Since it is an urgent issue to reduce the global Carbon-dioxide in the world, renewable energy should be supplied as a large amount of the electric power. However, if a large amount of fluctuating renewable energy becomes more than adjustable amount of a utility grid capacity, instabilities such as frequency deviation might occur. We propose a system that is composed of SMES and FC-H2-Electrolyzer and also installed adjacent to Liquid Hydrogen station to cool down the SMES. Since the SMES has potentials of quick response and large I/O power, and Fuel Cell has potentials of slow response and steady power supplied from a large amount of hydrogen, we combine both storage devices and apply them to suppress the fluctuating power. We convert the fluctuating power to the constant power by using a developed prediction technology of Kalman filter to predict a trend of the fluctuating power. While the trend power should be supplied by FC or absorbed by the electrolyzer to produce hydrogen, the power difference between the renewable power and the trend power should be stored by the SMES. We simulate the power balance and analyze the required SMES capacity, design the concept of the SMES, and propose an operation algorithm for the SMES to estimate the electric efficiency of the system. It is found that the electric efficiency of the ASPCS can become greater than that of a pumped hydro-machine.

  16. Overview of Power Generation Sector of Bangladesh and Proposed Grid Connected Hybrid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Raju Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is the most usable form of energy, and one of the most crucial strategic issues for the sustainable development of a country. The projection of demand of electricity is an integral part of the planning process. Severe power crisis compelled the government to enter into contractual agreements for high-cost temporary solution such as rental power and small IPPS, on an emergency basis, most of these are diesel or liquid-fuel based. Load shading is an acute problem for the country. The country is confronting a simultaneous shortage of electricity. However, the country has substantial amount of renewable energy resources. The overview of power generation section of Bangladesh is presented; the potentiality of renewable energy sources in Bangladesh is discussed. Finally, a grid connected hybrid renewable energy system is proposed to overcome the problem of power crisis using sustainable clean energy at rural area.

  17. Renewables in future power systems implications of technological learning and uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    The book examines the future deployment of renewable power from a normative point of view. It identifies properties characterizing the cost-optimal transition towards a renewable power system and analyzes the key drivers behind this transition. Among those drivers, particular attention is paid to technological cost reductions and the implications of uncertainty. From a methodological perspective, the main contributions of this book relate to the field of endogenous learning and uncertainty in optimizing energy system models. The primary objective here is closing the gap between the strand of l

  18. A 100% renewable power system for Europe - Let the weather and physics decide!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Martin; Heide, Dominik; Rasmussen, Morten Grud;

    The design of sustainable energy systems is no longer only the domain of politics, economics and engineering. Mathematical physics is able to contribute with its generic understanding of everything. A new modeling approach is presented and applied to design a fully renewable European power system....... This approach is based on weather data with good spatio-temporal resolution, which is first converted into wind and solar power generation and then used to derive estimates on the optimal mix between the renewable resources and the storage needs....

  19. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  20. Redesign Electricity Market for the Next Generation Power System of Renewable Energy and Distributed Storage Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic time-series based method to simulate the volatility of intermittent renewable generation and distributed storage devices along timeline. The proposed method can calculate the optimal timeline for different electricity markets and power systems. In practice...

  1. DC Distributed Power Systems. Analysis, Design and Control for a Renewable Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Per

    2002-12-01

    Renewable energy systems are likely to become wide spread in the future due to environmental demands. As a consequence of the dispersed nature of renewable energy systems, this implies that there will be a distributed generation of electric power. Since most of the distributed electrical energy sources do not provide their electric power at line frequency and voltage, a DC bus is a useful common connection for several such sources. Due to the differences in output voltage among the sources, depending on both the type of source and their actual operating point, the sources are connected to the DC power system via power electronic converters. The intention behind the presented work is not to replace the existing AC power system, but to include local DC power systems. The AC and DC power systems are connected at some points in the network. The renewable energy sources are weak compared to the present hydro power and nuclear power plants, resulting in a need of power conditioning before the renewable energy is fed to the transmission lines. The benefit of such an approach is that power conditioning is applied on a central level, i.e. at the interface between the AC and DC power systems. The thesis starts with an overview of related work. Present DC transmission systems are discussed and investigated in simulations. Then, different methods for load sharing and voltage control are discussed. Especially, the voltage droop control scheme is examined thoroughly. Since the droop control method does not require any high-speed communication between sources and loads, this is considered the most suitable for DC distributed power systems. The voltage feed back design of the controller also results in a specification of the DC bus capacitors (equivalents to DC link capacitors of single converters) needed for filtering. If the converters in the DC distribution system are equipped with capacitors selected from this design criterion and if the DC bus impedance is neglected, the

  2. DC Distributed Power Systems. Analysis, Design and Control for a Renewable Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Per

    2002-12-01

    Renewable energy systems are likely to become wide spread in the future due to environmental demands. As a consequence of the dispersed nature of renewable energy systems, this implies that there will be a distributed generation of electric power. Since most of the distributed electrical energy sources do not provide their electric power at line frequency and voltage, a DC bus is a useful common connection for several such sources. Due to the differences in output voltage among the sources, depending on both the type of source and their actual operating point, the sources are connected to the DC power system via power electronic converters. The intention behind the presented work is not to replace the existing AC power system, but to include local DC power systems. The AC and DC power systems are connected at some points in the network. The renewable energy sources are weak compared to the present hydro power and nuclear power plants, resulting in a need of power conditioning before the renewable energy is fed to the transmission lines. The benefit of such an approach is that power conditioning is applied on a central level, i.e. at the interface between the AC and DC power systems. The thesis starts with an overview of related work. Present DC transmission systems are discussed and investigated in simulations. Then, different methods for load sharing and voltage control are discussed. Especially, the voltage droop control scheme is examined thoroughly. Since the droop control method does not require any high-speed communication between sources and loads, this is considered the most suitable for DC distributed power systems. The voltage feed back design of the controller also results in a specification of the DC bus capacitors (equivalents to DC link capacitors of single converters) needed for filtering. If the converters in the DC distribution system are equipped with capacitors selected from this design criterion and if the DC bus impedance is neglected, the

  3. Design for reliability in power electronics in renewable energy systems – status and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Advances in power electronics enable efficient and flexible interconnection of renewable sources, loads and electric grids. While targets concerning efficiency of power converters are within reach, recent research endeavors to predict and improve their reliability to ensure high availability, low......, the lifetime prediction of reliability-critical components IGBT modules is discussed in a 2.3 MW wind power converter. Finally, the challenges and opportunities to achieve more reliable power electronic converters are discussed....... maintenance costs, and herefore, low Levelized-Cost-of-Energy (LCOE) of renewable energy systems. This paper presents the prior-art Design for Reliability (DFR) process for power converters and addresses the paradigm shift to Physics-of-Failure (PoF) approach and mission profile based analysis. Moreover...

  4. Switch: a planning tool for power systems with large shares of intermittent renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fripp, Matthias

    2012-06-05

    Wind and solar power are highly variable, so it is it unclear how large a role they can play in future power systems. This work introduces a new open-source electricity planning model--Switch--that identifies the least-cost strategy for using renewable and conventional generators and transmission in a large power system over a multidecade period. Switch includes an unprecedented amount of spatial and temporal detail, making it possible to address a new type of question about the optimal design and operation of power systems with large amounts of renewable power. A case study of California for 2012-2027 finds that there is no maximum possible penetration of wind and solar power--these resources could potentially be used to reduce emissions 90% or more below 1990 levels without reducing reliability or severely raising the cost of electricity. This work also finds that policies that encourage customers to shift electricity demand to times when renewable power is most abundant (e.g., well-timed charging of electric vehicles) could make it possible to achieve radical emission reductions at moderate costs.

  5. Hydro power flexibility for power systems with variable renewable energy sources: an IEA Task 25 collaboration: Hydro power flexibility for power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas-Hernando, Daniel [Department of Energy Systems, SINTEF, Trondheim Norway; Farahmand, Hossein [Department of Electric Power Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim Norway; Holttinen, Hannele [Department of Energy Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Kiviluoma, Juha [Department of Energy Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Rinne, Erkka [Department of Energy Systems, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Söder, Lennart [Department of Electrical Engineering, KTH University, Stockholm Sweden; Milligan, Michael [Transmission and Grid Integration Group, National Renewable Energy Laboratory' s National Wind Technology Center, Golden CO USA; Ibanez, Eduardo [Transmission and Grid Integration Group, National Renewable Energy Laboratory' s National Wind Technology Center, Golden CO USA; Martínez, Sergio Martín [Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Automation and Communications, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete Spain; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio [Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Automation and Communications, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete Spain; Estanqueiro, Ana [National Laboratory of Energy and Geology - LNEG, Lisbon Portugal; Rodrigues, Luis [National Laboratory of Energy and Geology - LNEG, Lisbon Portugal; Carr, Luis [Research Association for Energy Economics (FfE GmbH), Munich Germany; van Roon, Serafin [Research Association for Energy Economics (FfE GmbH), Munich Germany; Orths, Antje Gesa [Energinet.dk, Fredericia Denmark; Eriksen, Peter Børre [Energinet.dk, Fredericia Denmark; Forcione, Alain [Hydro Quebec, Montréal Canada; Menemenlis, Nickie [Hydro Quebec, Montréal Canada

    2016-06-20

    Hydro power is one of the most flexible sources of electricity production. Power systems with considerable amounts of flexible hydro power potentially offer easier integration of variable generation, e.g., wind and solar. However, there exist operational constraints to ensure mid-/long-term security of supply while keeping river flows and reservoirs levels within permitted limits. In order to properly assess the effective available hydro power flexibility and its value for storage, a detailed assessment of hydro power is essential. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the weather-dependent hydrological cycle, regulation constraints on the hydro system, and uncertainty of internal load as well as variable generation (wind and solar), this assessment is complex. Hence, it requires proper modeling of all the underlying interactions between hydro power and the power system, with a large share of other variable renewables. A summary of existing experience of wind integration in hydro-dominated power systems clearly points to strict simulation methodologies. Recommendations include requirements for techno-economic models to correctly assess strategies for hydro power and pumped storage dispatch. These models are based not only on seasonal water inflow variations but also on variable generation, and all these are in time horizons from very short term up to multiple years, depending on the studied system. Another important recommendation is to include a geographically detailed description of hydro power systems, rivers' flows, and reservoirs as well as grid topology and congestion.

  6. Stochastic Optimization of Power System Operation in Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumbrava V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization process of the energy market structure determined significant changes in the electric utility industry, from both generating and transmission perspectives, and new generation technologies emerged, deeply influencing the industry profile. Nowadays, based on the governmental incentives and free access to the power systems, the share of renewable energy sources in the bulk power system generation is increasing. With respect to the classical fuel-based sources, the renewable energy sources (like photovoltaic and wind turbines have an intermittent character determined by the meteorological conditions. Their production cannot be known exactly, but can be forecasted with some degree of accuracy. Thus, within the power system, network measures must be adopted for ensuring its safe operation.

  7. Storage and balancing synergies in a fully or highly renewable pan-European power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Greiner, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Through a parametric time-series analysis of eight years of hourly data, we quantify the storage size and balancing energy needs for highly and fully renewable European power systems for different levels and mixes of wind and solar energy. By applying a dispatch strategy that minimizes...... that combined with a low-efficiency hydrogen storage and a level of balancing equal to what is today provided by storage lakes, it is sufficient to meet the European electricity demand in a fully renewable power system where the average power generation from combined wind and solar exceeds the demand by only...... the balancing energy needs for a given storage size, the interplay between storage and balancing is quantified, providing a hard upper limit on their synergy. An efficient but relatively small storage reduces balancing energy needs significantly due to its influence on intra-day mismatches. Furthermore, we show...

  8. Power Take-off System for Marine Renewable Devices, CRADA Number CRD-14-566

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-13

    Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC) proposes a project to develop and test innovative second-generation power take-off (PTO) components for the U.S. Department of Energy's 2013 FOA: Marine and Hydrokinetic System Performance Advancement, Topic Area 2 (Project). Innovative PTO components will include new and improved designs for bearings, couplings and a subsea electrical generator. Specific project objectives include the following: (1) Develop components for an advanced PTO suitable for MHK devices; (2) Bench test these components; (3) Assess the component and system performance benefits; (4) Perform a system integration study to integrate these components into an ORPC hydrokinetic turbine. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will participate on the ORPC lead team to review design of the generator and will provide guidance on the design. Based on inputs from the project team, NREL will also provide an economic analysis of the impacts of the proposed system performance advancements.

  9. Energy system modelling – interactions and synergies in a highly renewable Pan-European power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitemeyer Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is very likely that the European power supply system will be transformed in the next decades to a low carbon system based almost entirely on Renewable Energy Sources (RES. However, due to the natural fluctuations of the most powerful RES (wind and solar energy, it is also very likely that a significant amount of balancing and controllable backup power capacities will be required to ensure a stable grid operation. This implies high additional investments and operating costs. Therefore this work provides an overview of potential options and possibly more cost-effective alternatives to the installation of costly storage capacities, namely grid expansion, demand side management, an optimised mix between different RES as well as the use of overcapacities. Furthermore, the paper provides an approximation of the maximum RES penetration of the German electricity system in the absence of significant storage capacities. Our calculations show that from a numerical perspective on average approximately half of the load can be met by RES if flexible conventional power stations would provide the remaining electricity demand. However, in a 100% RES scenario a significant amount of storage capacities as well as limited overcapacities are required to ensure a reliable electricity supply.

  10. Energy system modelling - interactions and synergies in a highly renewable Pan-European power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitemeyer, Stefan; Kleinhans, David; Vogt, Thomas; Agert, Carsten

    2014-12-01

    It is very likely that the European power supply system will be transformed in the next decades to a low carbon system based almost entirely on Renewable Energy Sources (RES). However, due to the natural fluctuations of the most powerful RES (wind and solar energy), it is also very likely that a significant amount of balancing and controllable backup power capacities will be required to ensure a stable grid operation. This implies high additional investments and operating costs. Therefore this work provides an overview of potential options and possibly more cost-effective alternatives to the installation of costly storage capacities, namely grid expansion, demand side management, an optimised mix between different RES as well as the use of overcapacities. Furthermore, the paper provides an approximation of the maximum RES penetration of the German electricity system in the absence of significant storage capacities. Our calculations show that from a numerical perspective on average approximately half of the load can be met by RES if flexible conventional power stations would provide the remaining electricity demand. However, in a 100% RES scenario a significant amount of storage capacities as well as limited overcapacities are required to ensure a reliable electricity supply.

  11. A Robust Synchronization to Enhance the Power Quality of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the power grid requires high-quality power injection under various grid conditions. The synchronization method, usually a phase-locked loop (PLL) algorithm, is directly affecting the response of the grid-side converter of the RES....... This paper proposes a new PLL algorithm that uses an advanced decoupling network implemented in the stationary reference frame with limited requirements for processing time to enable a fast and accurate synchronization even under harmonic distorted voltage and low-voltage grid faults. The robust response...... of the proposed PLL is validated, and the effect of the proposed synchronization on the performance of the grid-connected renewable energy system is investigated. This investigation proves that the robust, accurate, and dynamic response of the new PLL can enhance the quality of the injected power from the RES...

  12. Achieving a 100% Renewable Grid: Operating Electric Power Systems with Extremely High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin; Johnson, Brian; Zhang, Yingchen; Gevorgian, Vahan; Denholm, Paul; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Hannegan, Bryan

    2017-03-01

    What does it mean to achieve a 100% renewable grid? Several countries already meet or come close to achieving this goal. Iceland, for example, supplies 100% of its electricity needs with either geothermal or hydropower. Other countries that have electric grids with high fractions of renewables based on hydropower include Norway (97%), Costa Rica (93%), Brazil (76%), and Canada (62%). Hydropower plants have been used for decades to create a relatively inexpensive, renewable form of energy, but these systems are limited by natural rainfall and geographic topology. Around the world, most good sites for large hydropower resources have already been developed. So how do other areas achieve 100% renewable grids? Variable renewable energy (VRE), such as wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, will be a major contributor, and with the reduction in costs for these technologies during the last five years, large-scale deployments are happening around the world.

  13. Control strategy for a distributed DC power system with renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurohane, Kyohei; Uehara, Akie; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi; Urasaki, Naomitsu [University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara-cho, Nakagami, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Funabashi, Toshihisa [Meidensha Corporation, 36-2 Nihonbashi-Hakozakicho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-8513 (Japan); Kim, Chul-Hwan [Sungkyunkwan University and NPT Center, Suwon City 440-746 (Korea)

    2011-01-15

    This paper deals with a DC-micro-grid with renewable energy. The proposed method is composed of a gearless wind power generation system, a battery, and DC loads in a DC distribution system. The battery helps to avoid the DC over-voltages by absorbing the power of the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) during line-fault. In addition, the control schemes presented in this paper including the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control and a pitch angle control for the gearless wind turbine generator. By means of the proposed method, high-reliable power can be supplied to the DC distribution system during the line-fault and stable power supply from the PMSG can be achieved after line-fault clearing. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined in a MATLAB/Simulink {sup registered} environment. (author)

  14. Hybrid Systems of Distributed Generation with Renewable Sources: Modeling and Analysis of Their Operational Modes in Electric Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gashimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to modeling and simulation of operational hybrid system modes of the distributed generation comprising conventional sources – modular diesel generators, gas-turbine power units; and renewable sources – wind and solar power plants. Operational modes of the hybrid system have been investigated under conditions of electrical connection with electric power system and in case of its isolated operation. As a consequence

  15. Seasonal shifting of surplus renewable energy in a power system located in a cold region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 changed Japan's strategy for reducing CO2 emissions. The government is now placing more emphasis on the development of nonCO2-emitting distributed generation systems such as wind, solar, and tidal power to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and guarantee electricity supply in the case of a natural disaster. This paper proposes a strategy for the exploitation of wind, solar, and tidal resources in a cold region in Japan by utilizing surplus energy from the summer and spring during winter. It also aims to determine the most favorable energy mix of these renewable sources and storage system types. The study is performed by calculating hourly demand and renewable energy supply for the city in one year, which is based on actual data of demand, solar irradiation, wind speeds, and tidal current speeds. The costs of the components of the renewable power plants and storage systems are considered, and different proportions of generation outputs are evaluated with different types of storage systems. According to results, the configuration containing the hydrogen storage system using organic chemical hydride methylcyclohexane (OCHM is the most economical but is still more expensive than one using a conventional generation system. Moreover, we confirm that the cost of CO2 emissions is the key element for leveling the playing field between conventional and renewable generation from an economic perspective. The cost of CO2 emissions to public health as well as those costs related to the interruption of services during a catastrophe must be carefully calculated with other issues from conventional power projects to perform a precise comparative evaluation between both types of generation systems.

  16. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 1. Development and characterization of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, A I; Broeckmann, A; Richards, B S

    2007-02-01

    In isolated communities where potable water sources as well as energy grids are limited or nonexistent, treating brackish groundwater aquifers with small-scale desalination systems can be a viable alternative to existing water infrastructures. Given the unavailability of power in many such situations, renewable energy is an obvious solution to power such systems. However, renewable energy is an intermittent power supply and with regards to the performance of intermittently operated desalination systems, only very limited experience exists, both with regards to efficiency as well as water quality. In this paper, this lack of knowledge is addressed by evaluating a system operated with varying parameters (pressure and flow) with constant power as a step toward defining a safe operating window, and they provide a basis for interpreting future data obtained with a renewable energy source. Field trials were performed on a brackish (5300 mg/L TDS; 8290 microS/cm) bore in Central Australia with a photovoltaic-powered membrane filtration (PV-membrane) system. Four nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes (BW30, ESPA4, NF90, TFC-S) and a number of operation parameter combinations (transmembrane pressure, feed flow, TFC-S) and operating parameters transmembrane pressure and feed flow were investigated to find the best operating conditions for maximum drinking water production and minimum specific energy consumption (SEC). The ESPA4 membrane performed best for this brackish source, producing 250 L/h of excellent drinking water (257 mg/L TDS; 400 microS/ cm) at an SEC of 1.2 kWh/m3. The issue of brine disposal or reuse is also discussed and the article compares the salinity of the produced brine with livestock water. Since the feedwater is disinfected physically using ultrafiltration (UF), the brine is free from bacteria and most viruses and hence can be seen more as a reusable product stream than a waste stream with a disposal problem.

  17. Power Electronics – Key Technology for Renewable Energy Systems – Status and Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    The energy paradigms in many countries (e.g. Germany and Denmark) have experienced a significant change from fossil-based resources to clean renewables in the past few decades. The scenario of highly penetrated renewables is going to be further enhanced. This requires that the production...... play an essential role. Using highly efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/ distribution and end-user application, together with advanced control solutions, can pave the way for renewable energies. In view of this, some of the most emerging renewable energies, e.g. wind...

  18. High-Efficiency Food Production in a Renewable Energy Based Micro-Grid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David; Meiners, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) systems can be used to produce high-quality, desirable food year round, and the fresh produce can positively contribute to the health and well being of residents in communities with difficult supply logistics. While CEA has many positive outcomes for a remote community, the associated high electric demands have prohibited widespread implementation in what is typically already a fully subscribed power generation and distribution system. Recent advances in CEA technologies as well as renewable power generation, storage, and micro-grid management are increasing system efficiency and expanding the possibilities for enhancing community supporting infrastructure without increasing demands for outside supplied fuels. We will present examples of how new lighting, nutrient delivery, and energy management and control systems can enable significant increases in food production efficiency while maintaining high yields in CEA. Examples from Alaskan communities where initial incorporation of renewable power generation, energy storage and grid management techniques have already reduced diesel fuel consumption for electric generation by more than 40% and expanded grid capacity will be presented. We will discuss how renewable power generation, efficient grid management to extract maximum community service per kW, and novel energy storage approaches can expand the food production, water supply, waste treatment, sanitation and other community support services without traditional increases of consumable fuels supplied from outside the community. These capabilities offer communities with a range of choices to enhance their communities. The examples represent a synergy of technology advancement efforts to develop sustainable community support systems for future space-based human habitats and practical implementation of infrastructure components to increase efficiency and enhance health and well being in remote communities today and tomorrow.

  19. Impact of forecast errors on expansion planning of power systems with a renewables target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Salvador; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of production forecast errors on the expansion planning of a power system and investigates the influence of market design to facilitate the integration of renewable generation. For this purpose, we propose a programming modeling framework to determine the generation...... and transmission expansion plan that minimizes system-wide investment and operating costs, while ensuring a given share of renewable generation in the electricity supply. Unlike existing ones, this framework includes both a day-ahead and a balancing market so as to capture the impact of both production forecasts...... and the associated prediction errors. Within this framework, we consider two paradigmatic market designs that essentially differ in whether the day-ahead generation schedule and the subsequent balancing re-dispatch are co-optimized or not. The main features and results of the model set-ups are discussed using...

  20. Optimal combination of energy storages for prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weitemeyer, Stefan; Siemer, Lars; Agert, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources require measures to balance power generation and load at all times. The utilisation of storage devices and backup power plants is widely suggested for this purpose, whereas the best combination is still to be found. In this work, we present a modelling approach to systematically study scenarios of future power supply systems with a high share of electricity originating from wind and solar resources. By considering backup as a subordinate source of electricity with energy-only costs, the approach is independent of the actual full-load hours of the backup power plants. Applying the approach to multi-year meteorological data for Germany, cost-optimised combinations of storage devices and backup power are identified. We find that even in scenarios with significant excess generation capacities there is a need for storage devices or backup power plants with discharging power on the same order as the average load to balance the system at all times. F...

  1. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell for natural gas/renewable hybrid power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Shi, Yixiang; Zheng, Yi; Cai, Ningsheng

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy (RE) is expected to be the major part of the future energy. Presently, the intermittence and fluctuation of RE lead to the limitation of its penetration. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) as the energy storage device can effectively store the renewable energy and build a bidirectional connection with natural gas (NG). In this paper, the energy storage strategy was designed to improve the RE penetration and dynamic operation stability in a distributed system coupling wind generators, internal combustion engine, RSOFC and lithium-ion batteries. By compromising the relative deviation of power supply and demand, RE penetration, system efficiency and capacity requirement, the strategy that no more than 36% of the maximum wind power output is directly supplied to users and the other is stored by the combination of battery and reversible solid oxide fuel cell is optimal for the distributed system. In the case, the RE penetration reached 56.9% and the system efficiency reached 55.2%. The maximum relative deviation of power supply and demand is also lower than 4%, which is significantly superior to that in the wind curtailment case.

  2. Stochastic Methods Applied to Power System Operations with Renewable Energy: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), Austin, TX (United States); Botterud, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Renewable energy resources have been rapidly integrated into power systems in many parts of the world, contributing to a cleaner and more sustainable supply of electricity. Wind and solar resources also introduce new challenges for system operations and planning in terms of economics and reliability because of their variability and uncertainty. Operational strategies based on stochastic optimization have been developed recently to address these challenges. In general terms, these stochastic strategies either embed uncertainties into the scheduling formulations (e.g., the unit commitment [UC] problem) in probabilistic forms or develop more appropriate operating reserve strategies to take advantage of advanced forecasting techniques. Other approaches to address uncertainty are also proposed, where operational feasibility is ensured within an uncertainty set of forecasting intervals. In this report, a comprehensive review is conducted to present the state of the art through Spring 2015 in the area of stochastic methods applied to power system operations with high penetration of renewable energy. Chapters 1 and 2 give a brief introduction and overview of power system and electricity market operations, as well as the impact of renewable energy and how this impact is typically considered in modeling tools. Chapter 3 reviews relevant literature on operating reserves and specifically probabilistic methods to estimate the need for system reserve requirements. Chapter 4 looks at stochastic programming formulations of the UC and economic dispatch (ED) problems, highlighting benefits reported in the literature as well as recent industry developments. Chapter 5 briefly introduces alternative formulations of UC under uncertainty, such as robust, chance-constrained, and interval programming. Finally, in Chapter 6, we conclude with the main observations from our review and important directions for future work.

  3. System Dynamic Model for the Accumulation of Renewable Electricity using Power-to-Gas and Power-to-Liquid Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberga, Andra; Timma, Lelde; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2015-12-01

    When the renewable energy is used, the challenge is match the supply of intermittent energy with the demand for energy therefore the energy storage solutions should be used. This paper is dedicated to hydrogen accumulation from wind sources. The case study investigates the conceptual system that uses intermitted renewable energy resources to produce hydrogen (power-to-gas concept) and fuel (power-to-liquid concept). For this specific case study hydrogen is produced from surplus electricity generated by wind power plant trough electrolysis process and fuel is obtained by upgrading biogas to biomethane using hydrogen. System dynamic model is created for this conceptual system. The developed system dynamics model has been used to simulate 2 different scenarios. The results show that in both scenarios the point at which the all electricity needs of Latvia are covered is obtained. Moreover, the methodology of system dynamics used in this paper is white-box model that allows to apply the developed model to other case studies and/or to modify model based on the newest data. The developed model can be used for both scientific research and policy makers to better understand the dynamic relation within the system and the response of system to changes in both internal and external factors.

  4. System Dynamic Model for the Accumulation of Renewable Electricity using Power-to-Gas and Power-to-Liquid Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumberga Andra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When the renewable energy is used, the challenge is match the supply of intermittent energy with the demand for energy therefore the energy storage solutions should be used. This paper is dedicated to hydrogen accumulation from wind sources. The case study investigates the conceptual system that uses intermitted renewable energy resources to produce hydrogen (power-to-gas concept and fuel (power-to-liquid concept. For this specific case study hydrogen is produced from surplus electricity generated by wind power plant trough electrolysis process and fuel is obtained by upgrading biogas to biomethane using hydrogen. System dynamic model is created for this conceptual system. The developed system dynamics model has been used to simulate 2 different scenarios. The results show that in both scenarios the point at which the all electricity needs of Latvia are covered is obtained. Moreover, the methodology of system dynamics used in this paper is white-box model that allows to apply the developed model to other case studies and/or to modify model based on the newest data. The developed model can be used for both scientific research and policy makers to better understand the dynamic relation within the system and the response of system to changes in both internal and external factors.

  5. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  6. Chance-Constrained AC Optimal Power Flow for Distribution Systems With Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DallAnese, Emiliano; Baker, Kyri; Summers, Tyler

    2017-09-01

    This paper focuses on distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources (RESs) and energy storage systems, and presents an AC optimal power flow (OPF) approach to optimize system-level performance objectives while coping with uncertainty in both RES generation and loads. The proposed method hinges on a chance-constrained AC OPF formulation where probabilistic constraints are utilized to enforce voltage regulation with prescribed probability. A computationally more affordable convex reformulation is developed by resorting to suitable linear approximations of the AC power-flow equations as well as convex approximations of the chance constraints. The approximate chance constraints provide conservative bounds that hold for arbitrary distributions of the forecasting errors. An adaptive strategy is then obtained by embedding the proposed AC OPF task into a model predictive control framework. Finally, a distributed solver is developed to strategically distribute the solution of the optimization problems across utility and customers.

  7. Design of grid tariffs in electricity systems with variable renewable energy and power to heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Bergaentzlé, Claire; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    Large shares of variable renewable energy (VRE), requires flexibility solutions are developed. Considerable flexibility potentials exist from large consumers, e.g. power-to-heat (P2H) in district heating (DH). However, the existing grid tariffs obliterate the price signals from the wholesale...... designs that facilitate more flexible energy demand of DH operators. This is illustrated by a case study of Denmark that clearly demonstrates that the introduction of innovative tariffs will improve the business case for flexible P2H technologies and increase the value of VRE. In this way larger...... flexibility potentials can be induced and larger shares of VRE become integrated in the energy systems....

  8. Power Electronics – The Key Technology for Renewable Energy System Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng; Ma, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The energy paradigms in many countries (e.g. Germany and Denmark) have experienced a significant change from fossil-based resources to clean renewables (e.g. wind turbines and photovoltaics) in the past few decades. The scenario of highly penetrated renewables is going to be further enhanced...... solutions makes the way for renewable energies. In light of this, some of the most emerging renewable energies, e.g. wind energy and photovoltaic, which by means of power electronics are changing character as a major part in the electricity generation, are explored in this presentation. Issues like...

  9. Modeling a drip irrigation system powered by a renewable energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoheiry, Ahmed M.

    Food production is a problem in many of the regions in the world. Today, the process of producing food is very dependent on energy. The dependency on fossil fuels causes the cost of producing crops to increase as the prices of fuel increases. Using a renewable energy sources to power an irrigation system is a mean of decreasing the dependency of food products on the prices of fuel and minimize the impact of the irrigation system on the environment. A model was developed to simulate and predict the performance of an irrigation system powered by a renewable energy source. Both solar energy and wind energy were considered for the modeling of the system. The solar energy was simulated using the difference between the maximum and the minimum daily temperatures as an indicator of the amount of clouds in the atmosphere. The model is a modification of earlier models and has the advantage of not needing to be calibrated for each new site. Results showed that a model that calibrates it self for the upper and the lower expected values of the solar radiation can be developed using metrological data such as the location of the site, the daily temperatures, and the minimum relative humidity. The wind energy was predicted using the power coefficient of the turbine and statistical representation of the daily wind speeds. The average hourly values of the wind speed were used for finding the distribution constants for the Weibull distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The results showed that the Weibull distribution is more accurate in predicting the expected power output of the turbine when the daily wind speed coefficient of variation (Cv) was less than 0.5. When the Cv is greater than 0.5 the Rayleigh distribution gives better results. A computer model was developed using Visual Basic to model the system and the resulting model was tested and used in comparing the economics of a traditional irrigation system and an irrigation system powered by solar panels. The system powered by

  10. A DSP based power electronics interface for alternate/renewable energy systems. Quarterly report 3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-31

    This report is an update on the research project involving the implementation of a DSP based power electronics interface for alternate/renewable energy systems that was funded by the Department of Energy under the Inventions and Innovations program 1998. The objective of this research is to develop a utility interface (dc to ac converter) suitable to interconnect alternate/renewable energy sources to the utility system. The DSP based power electronics interface in comparison with existing methods will excel in terms of efficiency, reliability and cost. Moreover DSP-based control provides the flexibility to upgrade/modify control algorithms to meet specific system requirements. The proposed interface will be capable of maintaining stiffness of the ac voltages at the point of common coupling regardless of variation in the input dc bus voltage. This will be achieved without the addition of any extra components to the basic interface topology but by inherently controlling the inverter switching strategy in accordance to the input voltage variation.

  11. Simulation of long term renewable energy feed-in for European power system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev; Späth, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Renewable energies already play a remarkable role in Europe as of today. It is expected that wind and solar amongst other renewables will contribute strongly to the future European energy generation. However, wind and solar generation facilities have due to the weather dependent nature of their resources highly fluctuating feed-in profiles. To overcome the mismatch between energy demand and generation it is important to study and understand the generation patterns and balancing potentials. The goal of the current work is to investigate how the feed-in time series from different renewable sources like on- and offshore wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, wave, hydro, geothermal and biomass power and combination of them look like in an European power supply system . The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (BMU) that investigates the requirements for cross-country grid extensions, usage of storage technologies and capacities, the development of new balancing technologies and the conceptual design of the future energy market which is suitable for high generation percentages of solar and wind. High temporally and spatially resolved long term weather data from COSMO-EU, MERRA and Meteosat (MFG/MSG) satellite data has been used to simulate feed-in from several types of renewable energy sources on a 7 x 7 km grid covering Europe. For wind speeds MERRA reanalysis data has been statistically downscaled to account for orography. Generation was aggregated on the country level and production patterns and their variations in time of different resources were investigated for the years ranging from 2002 to 2012. In a first step the quality of the simulated feed in time series has been investigated by comparison to real observations of wind power and PV generation. Furthermore, some sensitivity studies with respect to underlying assumptions like spatial distribution of wind and PV capacities, the chosen hub-height and wind power curve have been done and will be presented. While

  12. The effect of real-time pricing on load shifting in a highly renewable power system dominated by generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Brown, Tom; Schlachtberger, David; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The supply-demand imbalance is a major concern in the presence of large shares of highly variable renewable generation from sources like wind and photovoltaics (PV) in power systems. Other than the measures on the generation side, such as flexible backup generation or energy storage, sector coupling or demand side management are the most likely option to counter imbalances, therefore to ease the integration of renewable generation. Demand side management usually refers to load shifting, which comprises the reaction of electricity consumers to price fluctuations. In this work, we derive a novel methodology to model the interplay of load shifting and provided incentives via real-time pricing in highly renewable power systems. We use weather data to simulate generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics, as well as historical load data, split into different consumption categories, such as, heating, cooling, domestic, etc., to model a simplified power system. Together with renewable power forecast data, a simple market model and approaches to incorporate sector coupling [1] and load shifting [2,3], we model the interplay of incentives and load shifting for different scenarios (e.g., in dependency of the risk-aversion of consumers or the forecast horizon) and demonstrate the practical benefits of load shifting. First, we introduce the novel methodology and compare it with existing approaches. Secondly, we show results of numerical simulations on the effects of load shifting: It supports the integration of PV power by providing a storage, which characteristics can be described as "daily" and provides a significant amount of balancing potential. Lastly, we propose an experimental setup to obtain empirical data on end-consumer load-shifting behaviour in response to price incentives. References [1] Brown, T., Schlachtberger, D., Kies. A., Greiner, M., Sector coupling in a highly renewable European energy system, Proc. of the 15th International Workshop on

  13. Stochastic simulation of power systems with integrated renewable and utility-scale storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeilh, Yannick

    The push for a more sustainable electric supply has led various countries to adopt policies advocating the integration of renewable yet variable energy resources, such as wind and solar, into the grid. The challenges of integrating such time-varying, intermittent resources has in turn sparked a growing interest in the implementation of utility-scale energy storage resources ( ESRs), with MWweek storage capability. Indeed, storage devices provide flexibility to facilitate the management of power system operations in the presence of uncertain, highly time-varying and intermittent renewable resources. The ability to exploit the potential synergies between renewable and ESRs hinges on developing appropriate models, methodologies, tools and policy initiatives. We report on the development of a comprehensive simulation methodology that provides the capability to quantify the impacts of integrated renewable and ESRs on the economics, reliability and emission variable effects of power systems operating in a market environment. We model the uncertainty in the demands, the available capacity of conventional generation resources and the time-varying, intermittent renewable resources, with their temporal and spatial correlations, as discrete-time random processes. We deploy models of the ESRs to emulate their scheduling and operations in the transmission-constrained hourly day-ahead markets. To this end, we formulate a scheduling optimization problem (SOP) whose solutions determine the operational schedule of the controllable ESRs in coordination with the demands and the conventional/renewable resources. As such, the SOP serves the dual purpose of emulating the clearing of the transmission-constrained day-ahead markets (DAMs ) and scheduling the energy storage resource operations. We also represent the need for system operators to impose stricter ramping requirements on the conventional generating units so as to maintain the system capability to perform "load following'', i

  14. Systematic Evaluation of Stochastic Methods in Power System Scheduling and Dispatch with Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yishen [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Zhi [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, Cong [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), Austin, TX (United States); Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    As more wind power and other renewable resources are being integrated into the electric power grid, the forecast uncertainty brings operational challenges for the power system operators. In this report, different operational strategies for uncertainty management are presented and evaluated. A comprehensive and consistent simulation framework is developed to analyze the performance of different reserve policies and scheduling techniques under uncertainty in wind power. Numerical simulations are conducted on a modified version of the IEEE 118-bus system with a 20% wind penetration level, comparing deterministic, interval, and stochastic unit commitment strategies. The results show that stochastic unit commitment provides a reliable schedule without large increases in operational costs. Moreover, decomposition techniques, such as load shift factor and Benders decomposition, can help in overcoming the computational obstacles to stochastic unit commitment and enable the use of a larger scenario set to represent forecast uncertainty. In contrast, deterministic and interval unit commitment tend to give higher system costs as more reserves are being scheduled to address forecast uncertainty. However, these approaches require a much lower computational effort Choosing a proper lower bound for the forecast uncertainty is important for balancing reliability and system operational cost in deterministic and interval unit commitment. Finally, we find that the introduction of zonal reserve requirements improves reliability, but at the expense of higher operational costs.

  15. Integration of Renewable Energy Sources in Future Power Systems: The Role of Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Weitemeyer, Stefan; Vogt, Thomas; Agert, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Integrating a high share of electricity from non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources in a power supply system is a challenging task. One option considered in many studies dealing with prospective power systems is the installation of storage devices to balance the fluctuations in power production. However, it is not yet clear how soon storage devices will be needed and how the integration process depends on different storage parameters. Using long-term solar and wind energy power production data series, we present a modelling approach to investigate the influence of storage size and efficiency on the pathway towards a 100% RES scenario. Applying our approach to data for Germany, we found that up to 50% of the overall electricity demand can be met by an optimum combination of wind and solar resources without both curtailment and storage devices if the remaining energy is provided by sufficiently flexible power plants. Our findings show further that the installation of small, but highly efficient storage devic...

  16. Power marketing and renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Power marketing refers to wholesale and retail transactions of electric power made by companies other than public power entities and the regulated utilities that own the generation and distribution lines. The growth in power marketing has been a major development in the electric power industry during the last few years, and power marketers are expected to realize even more market opportunities as electric industry deregulation proceeds from wholesale competition to retail competition. This Topical Issues Brief examines the nature of the power marketing business and its relationship with renewable power. The information presented is based on interviews conducted with nine power marketing companies, which accounted for almost 54% of total power sales by power marketers in 1995. These interviews provided information on various viewpoints of power marketers, their experience with renewables, and their respective outlooks for including renewables in their resource portfolios. Some basic differences exist between wholesale and retail competition that should be recognized when discussing power marketing and renewable power. At the wholesale level, the majority of power marketers stress the commodity nature of electricity. The primary criteria for developing resource portfolios are the same as those of their wholesale customers: the cost and reliability of power supplies. At the retail level, electricity may be viewed as a product that includes value-added characteristics or services determined by customer preferences.

  17. Different Predictive Control Strategies for Active Load Management in Distributed Power Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Bindner, Henrik W.; Gehrke, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve a Danish energy supply based on 100% renewable energy from combinations of wind, biomass, wave and solar power in 2050 and to cover 50% of the Danish electricity consumption by wind power in 2020, it requires more renewable energy in buildings and industries (e.g. cold stores,...... of renewable energy sources, which could lead to reducing reinforcements in the future power systems.......In order to achieve a Danish energy supply based on 100% renewable energy from combinations of wind, biomass, wave and solar power in 2050 and to cover 50% of the Danish electricity consumption by wind power in 2020, it requires more renewable energy in buildings and industries (e.g. cold stores...... and residential sectors, based on dynamic power price and weather forecast, considering users’ comfort settings to meet an optimization objective, such as maximum profit or minimum energy consumption. Some field tests were carried out on a facility for intelligent, active and distributed power systems, which...

  18. Introduction to Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the state-of-the-arts developments of renewable energy are reviewed in respect to the installed power and market share, where wind power and photovoltaic power generation are the main focuses due to the fast growing speed and large share of installed capacity. Some basic principles...... of operation, mission profiles, as well as power electronics solutions and corresponding controls are discussed respectively in the case of wind power and photovoltaic power systems. Finally a few development trends for renewable energy conversions are also given from a power electronics point of view....... It is concluded that as the quick development of renewable energy, wind power and PV power both show great potential to be largely integrated into the power grid. Power electronics is playing essential role in both of the systems to achieve more controllable, efficient, and reliable energy production...

  19. Efficient Simulation Methods of Large Power Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Resources: Theory and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shayesteh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical energy is one of the most common forms of energy these days. Consequently, electric power system is an indispensable part of any society. However, due to the deregulation of electricity markets and the growth in the share of power generation by uncontrollable renewable energies such as wi

  20. The Cost-Optimal Distribution of Wind and Solar Generation Facilities in a Simplified Highly Renewable European Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; von Bremen, Lüder; Schyska, Bruno; Chattopadhyay, Kabitri; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2016-04-01

    The transition of the European power system from fossil generation towards renewable sources is driven by different reasons like decarbonisation and sustainability. Renewable power sources like wind and solar have, due to their weather dependency, fluctuating feed-in profiles, which make their system integration a difficult task. To overcome this issue, several solutions have been investigated in the past like the optimal mix of wind and PV [1], the extension of the transmission grid or storages [2]. In this work, the optimal distribution of wind turbines and solar modules in Europe is investigated. For this purpose, feed-in data with an hourly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 7 km covering Europe for the renewable sources wind, photovoltaics and hydro was used. Together with historical load data and a transmission model , a simplified pan-European power power system was simulated. Under cost assumptions of [3] the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for this simplified system consisting of generation, consumption, transmission and backup units is calculated. With respect to the LCOE, the optimal distribution of generation facilities in Europe is derived. It is shown, that by optimal placement of renewable generation facilities the LCOE can be reduced by more than 10% compared to a meta study scenario [4] and a self-sufficient scenario (every country produces on average as much from renewable sources as it consumes). This is mainly caused by a shift of generation facilities towards highly suitable locations, reduced backup and increased transmission need. The results of the optimization will be shown and implications for the extension of renewable shares in the European power mix will be discussed. The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (Wuppertal Institute, Next Energy, University of Oldenburg), that is financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, Fkz. 03SFF0439A). [1] Kies, A. et al.: Kies, Alexander, et al

  1. Optimal Hybrid Renewable Airport Power System: Empirical Study on Incheon International Airport, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoin Baek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to global energy problems (e.g., the oil crisis, the Fukushima accident, the Paris Agreement, the South Korean government has executed a strict renewable energy plan to decrease the country’s dependence on fossil fuel. Public facilities, such as international airports, which use substantial amounts of electricity, are the most in need of government regulation. In this study, we attempt to determine the optimal hybrid electricity generation system for South Korea’s largest airport: Incheon International Airport. In the analysis, we use three scenarios: the current load, 120% of the current load, and 140% of the current load, according to the plan to expand Incheon International Airport. According to the COE (cost of electricity and the NPC (net present cost of the result, it is economically feasible to completely cover the potential increase in the electric load with PV power. Government policy implications and limitations are discussed.

  2. Growing power : renewable natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotelko, M. [Highmark Renewables, Vegreville, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation described the sustainable production practices used at Alberta's Highland Feeders Ltd., one of Canada's largest cattle feeding operations. In particular, it presented an integrated manure utilization system (IMUS) technology developed by the Alberta Research Council and licensed to Highmark Renewables, a subsidiary of Highland Feeders. The rapidly expanding livestock industry in Canada presents challenges and opportunities for the proper treatment and use of large quantities of manure. With IMUS technology, methane gas produced by livestock operations can be harnessed to produce electricity, as demonstrated at Highmark Renewables' pilot plant which processes solid feedlot manure to produce electricity. The sustainable manure management process has major implications for intensive livestock operations. In addition to generating biogas for use in a cogeneration plant, the IMUS technology provides a value-added soil amendment. Raw manure is placed in a hopper and fed into anaerobic digester tanks. The dry solid by-product is a bio-based, nutrient rich fertilizer, while the liquid component can be recycled for irrigation water. The cogeneration plant will produce electricity for cattle feeding operations, with surplus power sold to the Alberta power grid. The benefits from IMUS include lower manure handling costs; protection of water resources; odour reduction; recycling of waste water; lower energy costs; and, value-added revenue from the sale of energy and bio-based fertilizer. tabs., figs.

  3. PROSPECTS OF RENEWED POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dizendorf A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the main types of wind and solar electric installations, and provides a comparative analysis of the renewable energy potential of the Krasnodar region. Currently, humankind cannot live without electricity. Production and consumption of electricity is constantly increasing and the cost of it is constantly becoming more expensive. The cost of oil production (to get oil out of the ground increases. The cost of electricity is going up because the cost of basic materials such as copper is at an unprecedented high. Such alternatives energy sources such as solar and wind are real solutions to these problems, moreover, the cost of "traditional" energy sources will only increase. To date, the most popular and invest renewable energy sources are the solar energy and the wind. The solar energy in the Krasnodar region is more profitable than wind, despite the fact that the production of solar installations is more expensive. But every year, the price of solar energy is being reduced and soon will be equal to the price of wind energy, and science and technology do not stand still, and considering the abundance of sunlight in the Krasnodar region, the solar installation will pay off much faster

  4. Integration of renewable energies and nuclear power into North African Energy Systems: An analysis of energy import and export effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supersberger, Nikolaus, E-mail: nikolaus.supersberger@giz.de [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy, P.O. Box 10 04 80, 42004 Wuppertal (Germany); Fuehrer, Laura, E-mail: laura.fuhrer@sciences-po.org [Sciences Po Paris, College Universitaire, Campus de Menton, du College Chemin du College, 06500 Menton (France)

    2011-08-15

    The North African countries Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt have been and are currently experiencing rapid growth in energy demand. This development confronts their political leaders with the question of how to expand or diversify their countries' generation capacities. In this context, renewable energies and nuclear power constitute options that have rarely been exploited so far in the region. This article analyzes the drawbacks and benefits of both alternatives, with a special focus on import and export dynamics. When attempting to make the strategic decision between renewables and atomic power, North African regional specifics and circumstances have to be taken into account. Hence, in a first step, the article characterizes the energy systems of the North African countries and presents scenarios for their future development. In a second step, it scrutinizes the energy challenges these states face in terms of domestic concerns and foreign affairs. Finally, a case study of Algeria is used to demonstrate how renewable energies, but not nuclear power, are able to respond to North African energy challenges. - Research Highlights: > Using nuclear power would require fuel imports over the entire operation time. > Hence, energy exporters (Algeria, Libya) would become dependent on fuel imports. > Renewable energies can make North African countries less fuel import dependent. > Nuclear technologies would have to be imported over the whole life cycle of plants. > Domestic production for renewables technologies could be established after a first phase of technology imports.

  5. The Optimization Model for Interregional Power System Planning considering Carbon Emissions Trading and Renewable Energy Quota Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Ju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the rapid construction of ultra-high-voltage (UHV transmission lines promotes interregional resource optimizing configuration and interregional power system planning. This paper analyzes external environment of interregional power system planning from geographical, technical, and policy environments. Then, the paper takes the minimum system investment cost as the optimization objective and constructs the optimization model of interregional power system planning considering carbon emissions trading (CET and renewable energy quota mechanism (REQ. Finally, this paper sets base scenario, carbon emissions trading scenario, renewable energy quota mechanism scenario, and comprehensive scenario for case simulation. The results show that interregional power system planning could connect power grids in different regions, enlarge wind power consumption space, and relieve the inconformity problem between power resource and load demand. CET and REQ can increase the installed proportion of clean energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but the cost of transmission lines construction and system reserve will increase correspondingly. The optimization effect of REQ on power system planning is better than CET. When they are both introduced, the power structure will reach the best, carbon dioxide emissions will achieve the minimum, and comprehensive benefits will become more balanced.

  6. Intelligent Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Energy Enhancement in Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiyanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV system is one of the promising renewable energy technologies. Although the energy conversion efficiency of the system is still low, but it has the advantage that the operating cost is free, very low maintenance and pollution-free. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT is a significant part of PV systems. This paper presents a novel intelligent MPPT controller for PV systems. For the MPPT algorithm, an optimized fuzzy logic controller (FLC using the Hopfield neural network is proposed. It utilizes an automatically tuned FLC membership function instead of the trial-and-error approach. The MPPT algorithm is implemented in a new variant of coupled inductor soft switching boost converter with high voltage gain to increase the converter output from the PV panel. The applied switching technique, which includes passive and active regenerative snubber circuits, reduces the insulated gate bipolar transistor switching losses. The proposed MPPT algorithm is implemented using the dSPACE DS1104 platform software on a DS1104 board controller. The prototype MPPT controller is tested using an agilent solar array simulator together with a 3 kW real PV panel. Experimental test results show that the proposed boost converter produces higher output voltages and gives better efficiency (90% than the conventional boost converter with an RCD snubber, which gives 81% efficiency. The prototype MPPT controller is also found to be capable of tracking power from the 3 kW PV array about 2.4 times more than that without using the MPPT controller.

  7. Probabilistic evaluation of reserve requirements of generating systems with renewable power sources: The Portuguese and Spanish cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Manuel; Lopes, Joao Pecas; Rosa, Mauro; Ferreira, Ricardo [INESC Porto, Fac. Engenharia Univ. do Porto., Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 378, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Leite da Silva, Armando; Sales, Warlley; Resende, Leonidas; Manso, Luiz [Federal University of Itajuba, UNIFEI (Brazil); Cabral, Pedro; Martins, Nuno [Rede Electrica Nacional, REN (Portugal); Ferreira, Marco [REN Servicos, S.A, Divisao de Planeamento de Longo Prazo, Rua Sa da Bandeira, 567-4 , 4000-437 Porto (Portugal); Artaiz, Carlos; Soto, Fernando; Lopez, Ruben [Red Electrica de Espana, REE (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents an application of probabilistic methodologies to evaluate the reserve requirements of generating systems with a large penetration of renewable energy sources. The idea is to investigate the behavior of reliability indices, including those from the well-being analysis, when the major portion of the renewable sources comes from wind power and other intermittent sources. A new simulation process to address operating reserve adequacy is introduced, and the correspondent reliability indices are observed. Case studies on the Portuguese and Spanish generating systems are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Feasibility Analysis and Simulation of Integrated Renewable Energy System for Power Generation: A Hypothetical Study of Rural Health Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the feasibility analysis and study of integrated renewable energy (IRE using solar photovoltaic (PV and wind turbine (WT system in a hypothetical study of rural health clinic in Borno State, Nigeria. Electrical power consumption and metrology data (such as solar radiation and wind speed were used for designing and analyzing the integrated renewable energy system. The health clinic facility energy consumption is 19 kWh/day with a 3.4 kW peak demand load. The metrological data was collected from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA website and used to analyze the performance of electrical generation system using HOMER program. The simulation and optimization results show that the optimal integrated renewable energy system configuration consists of 5 kW PV array, BWC Excel-R 7.5 kW DC wind turbine, 24 unit Surrette 6CS25P battery cycle charging, and a 19 kW AC/DC converter and that the PV power can generate electricity at 9,138 kWh/year while the wind turbine system can generate electricity at 7,490 kWh/year, giving the total electrical generation of the system as 16,628 kWh/year. This would be suitable for deployment of 100% clean energy for uninterruptable power performance in the health clinic. The economics analysis result found that the integrated renewable system has total NPC of 137,139 US Dollar. The results of this research show that, with a low energy health facility, it is possible to meet the entire annual energy demand of a health clinic solely through a stand-alone integrated renewable PV/wind energy supply.

  9. On the perspectives of wide-band gap power devices in electronic-based power conversion for renewable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos Araujo, Samuel

    2013-10-01

    The high breakdown field from WBG materials allows the construction of unipolar devices with very low specific chip resistance mainly characterized by very low conduction and switching losses, even at high blocking voltages. Suitable concepts for SiC and GaN range from traditional FET structures driven by a MOS interface or a PN-Junction, bipolar devices and even high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT). A detailed revision of the literature will be performed in this work with the objective of providing a broad overview of possible approaches, along with inherent advantages and limitations. In addition to this, a benchmarking of several SiC-based devices technologies rated for 1200 V and 1700 V will be performed against their state-of-the-art Silicon-counterparts. Concerning the application of wide band gap devices in renewable energy systems, a significant cost reduction potential can be obtained due to smaller expenditure with magnetic filters and cooling, alongside higher efficiency levels. These aspects will be discussed in details in order to identify constraints and bottlenecks at application level with special focus on photovoltaic and wind power systems.

  10. WAMS Based Intelligent Operation and Control of Modern Power System with large Scale Renewable Energy Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain

    power system with least dependence on conventional power plants. An important aspect of WAMS realization in a power system is optimal placement of expensive PMUs in order to realize cost effective and reliable grid state monitoring and control. Coupled with Real time digital simulator (RTDS) based...... of complex power systems. WAMS is rapidly being implemented in power systems across the globe and is seen a means to realize smart grid at transmission system level. This thesis (industrial PhD with kk-electronic) proposes WAMS based methods to intelligently control and operate large scale wind integrated...... to intermittent nature and lack of adequate controllability of wind generation, large scale integration of wind energy compromises the security of power system. Therefore, WAMS based security assessment has been proposed to assess the steady state and dynamic security of large scale wind integrated power system...

  11. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  12. Fundamental Properties of and Transition to a Fully Renewable Pan-European Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmussen M.G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a top-down stylized model to analyse the impact of a transition to a European power system based only on wind and solar power. Wind and solar power generation is calculated from high-resolution weather data and based on the country specific electricity demand alone, we introduce a model of the conventional power system that facilitates simple spatio-temporal modelling of its macroscopic behavior without direct reference to the underlying technological, economical, and political development in the system. Using this model, we find that wind and solar power generation can replace conventional power generation and power capacity to a large degree if power transmission across the continent is made possible.

  13. Capturing low-carbon power system dynamics : Interactions between intermittent renewables and power plants with CO2 capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Low-carbon power systems are needed by the year 2050 to meet climate change mitigation targets. This dissertation investigates the operational and economic feasibility of such future low-carbon power systems by simulating the Dutch and European power systems. Particular attention is paid to the impa

  14. Capturing low-carbon power system dynamics : Interactions between intermittent renewables and power plants with CO2 capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne-Sjoerd

    2015-01-01

    Low-carbon power systems are needed by the year 2050 to meet climate change mitigation targets. This dissertation investigates the operational and economic feasibility of such future low-carbon power systems by simulating the Dutch and European power systems. Particular attention is paid to the

  15. Fundamental properties of and transition to a fully renewable pan-European power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Rasmussen, Morten Grud; Rodriguez, Rolando A.;

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a top-down stylized model to analyse the impact of a transition to a European power system based only on wind and solar power. Wind and solar power generation is calculated from high-resolution weather data and based on the country specific electricity demand alone, we introduce a mo...

  16. STAND-ALONE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM BASED ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a promising direction, aimed at improving the operational and technical characteristics of the autonomous power supply systems, through the use of a part of their gas piston power plants, wind pow-er and solar photovoltaic installations

  17. Financing renewable energy for Village Power application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santibanez-Yeneza, G.

    1997-12-01

    When one talks of rural development, no doubt, the issue of rural energy is not far behind. As a significant component of any development strategy, rural energy is seen as the engine for growth that can bring about economic upliftment in the countryside. Many approaches to rural energy development have been tried. These approaches differ from country to country. But regardless of structure and approach, the goal remain essentially the same: to provide rural communities access to reliable energy services at affordable prices. In recent years, as global concern for the environment has increased, many governments have turned to renewable energy as a more environment friendly alternative to rural electrification. Technological advances in renewable energy application has helped to encourage this use. System reliability has improved, development costs have, to some extent been brought down and varied application approaches have been tried and tested in many areas. Indeed, there is huge potential for the development of renewable energy in the rural areas of most developing countries. At the rural level, renewable energy resources are almost always abundantly available: woodwaste, agricultural residues, animal waste, small-scale hydro, wind, solar and even sometimes geothermal resources. Since smaller scale systems are usually expected in these areas, renewable energy technologies can very well serve as decentralized energy systems for rural application. And not only for rural applications, new expansion planning paradigms have likewise led to the emergence of decentralized energy systems not only as supply options but also as corrective measures for maintaining end of line voltage levels. On the other hand, where renewable energy resource can provide significant blocks of power, they can be relied upon to provide indigenous power to the grids.

  18. Modeling and Simulation of Renewable Hybrid Power System using Matlab Simulink Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Dragoş Dumitru

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the modeling of a solar-wind-hydroelectric hybrid system in Matlab/Simulink environment. The application is useful for analysis and simulation of a real hybrid solar-wind-hydroelectric system connected to a public grid. Application is built on modular architecture to facilitate easy study of each component module influence. Blocks like wind model, solar model, hydroelectric model, energy conversion and load are implemented and the results of simulation are also presented. As an example, one of the most important studies is the behavior of hybrid system which allows employing renewable and variable in time energy sources while providing a continuous supply. Application represents a useful tool in research activity and also in teaching

  19. Different Predictive Control Strategies for Active Load Management in Distributed Power Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Bindner, Henrik W.; Gehrke, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    is built around a small power grid with renewable power generations (two wind turbines and solar panels), a vanadium battery for storage, EV-charging infrastructure for EVs, and an intelligent office building. The simulation and field tests demonstrated that GA-based and MPC-based predictive control......In order to achieve a Danish energy supply based on 100% renewable energy from combinations of wind, biomass, wave and solar power in 2050 and to cover 50% of the Danish electricity consumption by wind power in 2020, it requires more renewable energy in buildings and industries (e.g. cold stores...

  20. The flexibility requirements for power plants with CCS in a future energy system with a large share of intermittent renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A. S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; van den Broek, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34573260X; Seebregts, A.; Faaij, A. P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates flexibility issues of future low-carbon power systems. The short-term power system impacts of intermittent renewables are identified and roughly quantified based on a review of wind integration studies. Next, the flexibility parameters of three types of power plants with CO2

  1. Optimizing Capacities of Distributed Generation and Energy Storage in a Small Autonomous Power System Considering Uncertainty in Renewables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores real power generation planning, considering distributed generation resources and energy storage in a small standalone power system. On account of the Kyoto Protocol and Copenhagen Accord, wind and photovoltaic (PV powers are considered as clean and renewable energies. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA was used to determine the optimal capacities of wind-turbine-generators, PV, diesel generators and energy storage in a small standalone power system. The investment costs (installation, unit and maintenance costs of the distributed generation resources and energy storage and the cost of fuel for the diesel generators were minimized while the reliability requirement and CO2 emission limit were fulfilled. The renewable sources and loads were modeled by random variables because of their uncertainties. The equality and inequality constraints in the genetic algorithms were treated by cumulant effects and cumulative probability of random variables, respectively. The IEEE reliability data for an 8760 h load profile with a 150 kW peak load were used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  2. Integrating renewable energy sources in the Portuguese power system. New generation adequacy indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Nuno; Santos, Joana; Damas, Manuela [Redes Energeticas Nacionais (REN), Porto (Portugal). Studies and Innovation Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The penetration of intermittent energy sources in the Portuguese power system is growing significantly. The identification of possible solutions to maintain the operational reserve levels is necessary to preserve flexibility and security of electricity supply. In this context, the development of probabilistic tools is essential to calculate new generation adequacy indicators associated with the analysis of the operational reserve. In this paper, the mathematical model RESERVAS, is briefly described and is used to analyse the impact of integrating high levels of intermittent energy sources in the Portuguese power system. The presented results allow us to conclude that the electricity adequacy evaluation should be done using probabilistic indicators, which reflect the power system performance in the following areas: (i) Adequacy (evaluation of the available power to face the hourly electricity demand) and (ii) Security (evaluation of the operational reserve requirements through the deviations in the demand-supply balance that occur among all elementary periods). (orig.)

  3. Electrochemical storage systems for renewable power supply systems. Workshop; Elektrochemische Speichersysteme fuer regenerative Energieversorgungsanlagen. Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garche, J.; Hoehe, W. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Ulm (Germany); Stadermann, G. [eds.] [Forschungsverbund Sonnenenergie, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    This volume contains 26 contributions on batteries and PV systems. Vol. 1 discusses the following subjects: 1. Evaluation and assessment of the performance of battery systems in existing PV systems; 2. Status and prospects of storage systems; 3. Experience, requirements and markets; 4. Storage battery operation and assessment; 5. Systems engineering and operation of PV systems. [German] Dieser Band enthaelt 26 Beitraege zum aktuellen Stand der Batterien sowie der dazugehoerigen Systeme fuer Photovoltaik-Anlagen. Der Band ist in fuenf Themenbereiche unterteilt: 1. Auswertung und Bewertung des Betriebsverhaltens von Batteriesystemen in bestehenden PV-Anlagen; 2. Stand und Zukunft von Speichersystemen; 3.Erfahrungen, Anforderungen und Maerkte; 4. Speicher-Betriebsfuehrung und -Zustandsbestimmung; und 5. Systemtechnik und Betriebsfuehrung von PV-Systemen.

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hein, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  6. Addressing Palm Biodiesel as Renewable Fuel for the Indonesian Power Generation Sector: Java-Madura-Bali System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarianto Indrawan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy security defined as how to equitably provide available, affordable, reliable efficient, environmentally friendly, proactively governed and socially acceptable energy services to end user. It has in recent years taken attention of policymakers in different parts of the world. Formulating policy to improve energy security is mandatory, not only because of depleting fossil resource, but also implementing diversity of energy source since utilization abundant renewable energy resources can increase the security of energy supply. One of the abundant renewable energy resources in Indonesia is palm oil. This study analyses the utilization of palm biodiesel for Indonesian power generation sector in the Java-Madura-Bali (JAMALI system. Two scenarios were created by projecting the demand and environmental impact as well as GHG emissions reduction over the next 25 years. The first scenario subjects on current energy policy, while the second scenario is to substitute of fossil fuel which is still used in the JAMALI power generation system. Effect of palm biodiesel on emission of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, and Volatile Organic Compounds were estimated for each scenario. An externality analysis to complete the environmental analysis was conducted and resource analysis of palm oil plantation based biodiesel was also estimated. Finally, the economics feasibility of palm biodiesel in the power generation sector was analyzed.

  7. Hybrid PV/Wind Power Systems Incorporating Battery Storage and Considering the Stochastic Nature of Renewable Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulwasa Bakr

    Hybrid power generation system and distributed generation technology are attracting more investments due to the growing demand for energy nowadays and the increasing awareness regarding emissions and their environmental impacts such as global warming and pollution. The price fluctuation of crude oil is an additional reason for the leading oil producing countries to consider renewable resources as an alternative. Saudi Arabia as the top oil exporter country in the word announced the "Saudi Arabia Vision 2030" which is targeting to generate 9.5 GW of electricity from renewable resources. Two of the most promising renewable technologies are wind turbines (WT) and photovoltaic cells (PV). The integration or hybridization of photovoltaics and wind turbines with battery storage leads to higher adequacy and redundancy for both autonomous and grid connected systems. This study presents a method for optimal generation unit planning by installing a proper number of solar cells, wind turbines, and batteries in such a way that the net present value (NPV) is minimized while the overall system redundancy and adequacy is maximized. A new renewable fraction technique (RFT) is used to perform the generation unit planning. RFT was tested and validated with particle swarm optimization and HOMER Pro under the same conditions and environment. Renewable resources and load randomness and uncertainties are considered. Both autonomous and grid-connected system designs were adopted in the optimal generation units planning process. An uncertainty factor was designed and incorporated in both autonomous and grid connected system designs. In the autonomous hybrid system design model, the strategy including an additional amount of operation reserve as a percent of the hourly load was considered to deal with resource uncertainty since the battery storage system is the only backup. While in the grid-connected hybrid system design model, demand response was incorporated to overcome the impact of

  8. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  9. NREL and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Support of Ocean Renewable Power Company's TidGen™ Power System Technology Readiness Advancement Initiative Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LiVecchi, Al [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-07

    This document summarizes the tasks identified for National Laboratory technical support of Ocean Renewable Power Corporation (ORPC) DOE grant awarded under the FY10 Industry Solicitation DE-FOA-0000293: Technology Readiness Advancement Initiative. The system ORPC will deploy in Cobscook Bay, ME is known as the TidGen™ Power System. The Turbine Generator Unit (TGU) each have a rated capacity of 150 to 175 kW, and they are mounted on bottom support frames and connected to an onshore substation using an underwater power and control cable. This system is designed for tidal energy applications in water depths from 60 to 150 feet. In funding provided separately by DOE, National Laboratory partners NREL and SNL will provide in-kind resources and technical expertise to help ensure that industry projects meet DOE WWPP (Wind and Water Power Program) objectives by reducing risk to these high value projects.

  10. Profitable increases in cross border transmission capacities in a European power system with large shares of renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Wolfgang, Ove

    2012-07-01

    This report describes analyses of profitable increases in cross border capacities in Europe in a time perspective 2030-2050 for situations with large shares of renewables in the power system. The analysis reuses a lot of the methodology from the EU 7th Framework Programme project SUSPLAN. The analyses use the EMPS model (a European model for multi-area power market simulations) and a new investment algorithm on four scenarios Red (40.1 % RES-E in 2050, traditional technologies), Yellow (54 % RES-E in 2050, traditional technologies + extra PV), Green (69 % RES-E in 2050, mainly local and regional production) and Blue (72 % RES-E in 2050, large scale production far away from demand centers). The analyses show that for the four scenarios considerable increases in cross border connections will be necessary. The capacities are in all scenarios more than doubled in 2050 compared to the system in 2010 based on profitability criteria. The result varies from about 120 000 MW in new capacities to as much as 712 700 MW dependent on the volume and location of the new renewables. The increase of transmission capacities is much higher in Blue than in the other scenarios. Blue is dominated by large scale offshore wind production and import of solar based production from Africa. The Green has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions, a secure electricity system and the lowest electricity prices. High investments are required, but they are limited compared to a future like Blue. (Author)

  11. Fractional order fuzzy control of hybrid power system with renewable generation using chaotic PSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the operation of a hybrid power system through a novel fuzzy control scheme. The hybrid power system employs various autonomous generation systems like wind turbine, solar photovoltaic, diesel engine, fuel-cell, aqua electrolyzer etc. Other energy storage devices like the battery, flywheel and ultra-capacitor are also present in the network. A novel fractional order (FO) fuzzy control scheme is employed and its parameters are tuned with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm augmented with two chaotic maps for achieving an improved performance. This FO fuzzy controller shows better performance over the classical PID, and the integer order fuzzy PID controller in both linear and nonlinear operating regimes. The FO fuzzy controller also shows stronger robustness properties against system parameter variation and rate constraint nonlinearity, than that with the other controller structures. The robustness is a highly desirable property in such a scenario since many components of the hybrid power system may be switched on/off or may run at lower/higher power output, at different time instants.

  12. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    2011-01-01

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  13. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  14. Advanced Education Facilities for Power Electronics and Renewable Energy Systems at Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Lungeanu, Marian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    A new approach for the project- and problem-based learning method is achieved at Aalborg University. Two new laboratories called Flexible Drives System Laboratory (FDSL) and Green Power Laboratory (GPL) have been developed. A common feature is that these facilities are using entirely Simulink for...

  15. Multi-Fluid Geothermal Energy Systems: Using CO2 for Dispatchable Renewable Power Generation and Grid Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, T. A.; Bielicki, J. M.; Randolph, J.; Chen, M.; Hao, Y.; Sun, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract We present an approach to use CO2 to (1) generate dispatchable renewable power that can quickly respond to grid fluctuations and be cost-competitive with natural gas, (2) stabilize the grid by efficiently storing large quantities of energy, (3) enable seasonal storage of solar thermal energy for grid integration, (4) produce brine for power-plant cooling, all which (5) increase CO2 value, rendering CO2 capture to be commerically viable, while (6) sequestering huge quantities of CO2. These attributes reduce carbon intensity of electric power, and enable cost-competitive, dispatchable power from major sources of renewable energy: wind, solar, and geothermal. Conventional geothermal power systems circulate brine as the working fluid to extract heat, but the parasitic power load for this circulation can consume a large portion of gross power output. Recently, CO2 has been considered as a working fluid because its advantageous properties reduce this parasitic loss. We expand on this idea by using multiple working fluids: brine, CO2, and N2. N2 can be separated from air at lower cost than captured CO2, it is not corrosive, and it will not react with the formation. N2 also can improve the economics of energy production and enable energy storage, while reducing operational risk. Extracting heat from geothermal reservoirs often requires submersible pumps to lift brine, but these pumps consume much of the generated electricity. In contrast, our approach drives fluid circulation by injecting supplemental, compressible fluids (CO2, and N2) with high coefficients of thermal expansion. These fluids augment reservoir pressure, produce artesian flow at the producers, and reduce the parasitic load. Pressure augmentation is improved by the thermosiphon effect that results from injecting cold/dense CO2 and N2. These fluids are heated to reservoir temperature, greatly expand, and increase the artesian flow of brine and supplemental fluid at the producers. Rather than using

  16. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    are to be found when the electricity sector is combined with the heating and cooling sectors and/or the transportation sector. Moreover, the combination of electricity and gas infrastructures may play an important role in the design of future renewable energy systems. The paper illustrates why electricity smart......This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...... on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity...

  17. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...... on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity...... are to be found when the electricity sector is combined with the heating and cooling sectors and/or the transportation sector. Moreover, the combination of electricity and gas infrastructures may play an important role in the design of future renewable energy systems. The paper illustrates why electricity smart...

  18. Energisation of an MV electric boiler for load control in power systems with large share of renewables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth; Davidsen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The intermittence of some renewable energy sources, mainly wind and solar, leads to rapid power variations, which have to be controlled in order to maintain the system stable. Controllable loads, like MW range electric boilers, are a good solution for this problem, as the warmed water can be reused...... and trigger the ground fault protection. This paper uses field measurements made in a boiler installed in a power plant for the analysis of this issue. The measurements are used to design a simulation model of the electric arc, which is used to study different energisation scenarios: With/without isolating......, minimising energy losses. The boilers under analysis in this paper operate by increasing/decreasing the water level. Electric arcs appear between the electrodes and the water surface for a period of approximately 2s during the energisation. These arcs can be seen as faults to ground by the protections relays...

  19. Structure Optimization of Stand-Alone Renewable Power Systems Based on Multi Object Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Cho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for the size optimization of a stand-alone hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system while considering the following factors: total annual cost (TAC, loss of power supply probability (LPSP, and the fuel cost of the diesel generator required by the user. A new optimization algorithm and an object function (including a penalty method are also proposed; these assist with designing the best structure for a hybrid system satisfying the constraints. In hybrid energy system sources such as photovoltaic (PV, wind, diesel, and energy storage devices are connected as an electrical load supply. Because the power produced by PV and wind turbine sources is dependent on the variation of the resources (sun and wind and the load demand fluctuates, such a hybrid system must be able to satisfy the load requirements at any time and store the excess energy for use in deficit conditions. Therefore, reliability and cost are the two main criteria when designing a stand-alone hybrid system. Moreover, the operation of a diesel generator is important to achieve greater reliability. In this paper, TAC, LPSP, and the fuel cost of the diesel generator are considered as the objective variables and a hybrid teaching–learning-based optimization algorithm is proposed and used to choose the best structure of a stand-alone hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system. Simulation results from MATLAB support the effectiveness of the proposed method and confirm that it is more efficient than conventional methods.

  20. Application of voltage oriented control technique in a fully renewable, wind powered, autonomous system with storage capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondylis, Georgios P.; Vokas, Georgios A.; Anastasiadis, Anestis G.; Konstantinopoulos, Stavros A.

    2017-02-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the technological feasibility of a small autonomous network, with electricity storage capability, which is completely electrified by wind energy. The excess energy produced, with respect to the load requirements, is sent to the batteries for storage. When the energy produced by the wind generator is not sufficient, load's energy requirement is covered by the battery system, ensuring, however, that voltage, frequency and other system characteristics are within the proper boundaries. For the purpose of this study, a Voltage Oriented Control system has been developed in order to monitor the autonomous operation and perform the energy management of the network. This system manages the power flows between the load and the storage system by properly controlling the Pulse Width Modulation pulses in the converter, thus ensuring power flows are adequate and frequency remains under control. The experimental results clearly indicate that a stand-alone wind energy system based on battery energy storage system is feasible and reliable. This paves the way for fully renewable and zero emission energy schemes.

  1. Different types of maximum power point tracking techniques for renewable energy systems: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Shukla, Praveen; Mustafa, Rashid; Chatterji, S.; Mathew, Lini

    2016-03-01

    Global demand for electricity is increasing while production of energy from fossil fuels is declining and therefore the obvious choice of the clean energy source that is abundant and could provide security for development future is energy from the sun. In this paper, the characteristic of the supply voltage of the photovoltaic generator is nonlinear and exhibits multiple peaks, including many local peaks and a global peak in non-uniform irradiance. To keep global peak, MPPT is the important component of photovoltaic systems. Although many review articles discussed conventional techniques such as P & O, incremental conductance, the correlation ripple control and very few attempts have been made with intelligent MPPT techniques. This document also discusses different algorithms based on fuzzy logic, Ant Colony Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, artificial neural networks, Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Firefly, Extremum seeking control method and hybrid methods applied to the monitoring of maximum value of power at point in systems of photovoltaic under changing conditions of irradiance.

  2. Unit Sizing and Cost Analysis of Renewable Energy based Hybrid Power Generation System - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin AGARWAL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model is developed for optimal sizing and analysis of a PV-diesel-battery based hybrid power generation system with the objectives to minimize life cycle cost and CO2 emission, while maintaining the desired system autonomy. A case study of a boy’s hostel in Moradabad district is taken for analysis purposes. It has 91 rooms with a capacity of 3 boys in each room. The decision variables included in the optimization methodology are total PV area, number of PV modules of 600 Wp, diesel generator power, fuel consumption per year and number of 24 V and 150 Ah batteries. The simulation result shows that the PV percentage of 86 % and diesel penetration of 14 % gives the most optimized solution with minimum LCC of $110,547 and average CO2 emission of 28 kg/day. The developed model has been validated by comparing its results with earlier research work.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.24

  3. Demonstration and Verification of a Turbine Power Generation System Utilizing Renewable Fuel: Landfill Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    weight of the equipment and concrete pads. The heaviest integrated components (turbine, oxidizer, piping and supporting steel work) weigh about 25...DataTaker™ data logger and retrieved via cellular router on a weekly basis. Raw data were retrieved each week and appended into the ‘raw data’ tab of...Poster presentation 2010 ESTCP Symposium Poster presentation 2011 ESTCP Symposium Poster and presentation in renewable energy panel 2011 Exhibition

  4. Multiple timescale stochastic optimization with application to integrating renewable resources in power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangammanavar, Harsha

    The contribution of renewable resources to the energy portfolio across the world has been steadily increasing over the past few years. Several studies predict the continuation of this trend in the future leading to large scale integration of renewable resources into energy networks. A principal challenge associated with this is the intermittency and non-dispatchability of the renewable sources. This necessitates incorporation of faster reserves, storage devices and similar services operating alongside the slow ramping conventional generators in the energy network. To maintain the robustness of such a network, there are proposals to require hourly planning for some resources, and sub-hourly planning for others: an hourly scale may be used for conventional generator production levels and a sub-hourly scale for renewable generator levels and/or storage and transmission network utilization. This dissertation will present a multiple time scale stochastic programming formulation of the economic dispatch problem and algorithmic frameworks to tackle it. The first approach highlights the difference between hourly and sub-hourly planning of economic dispatch and uses the two-stage Stochastic Decomposition (SD) algorithm. The second framework combines three principal components: optimization, dynamic control and simulation. The conventional generator decisions are obtained iteratively by solving a regularized linear problem in the first stage of SD. For these first stage decisions, a policy for recommending the dispatch decisions is identified using an Approximate Dynamic Programming based controller. A vector autoregression based simulator is used to provide the sub-hourly wind generation scenarios. The performance of these algorithms was tested on the IEEE model energy networks and the Illinois energy network. The insights gained regarding the benefits of sub-hourly planning and role of operating reserves/storage in energy network with high renewable penetration will be

  5. Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

  6. Unified System-Level Modeling of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources and Energy Storage for Power System Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Koch, Stephan; Ulbig, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    in market-based operation. The design of operation strategies for up to 100 % renewable energy systems requires an explicit consideration of non-dispatchable generation and stor- age capacities, as well as the evaluation of operational performance in terms of energy eciency, reliability, environmental...... impact and cost. By abstracting from technology-dependent and physical unit properties, the modeling framework presented and extended in this pa- per allows the modeling of a technologically diverse unit portfolio with a unied approach, whilst establishing the feasibility of energy-storage consideration...

  7. Renewable energy powered membrane technology. 2. The effect of energy fluctuations on performance of a photovoltaic hybrid membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, B S; Capão, D P S; Schäfer, A I

    2008-06-15

    This paper reports on the performance fluctuations during the operation of a batteryless hybrid ultrafiltration--nanofiltration/reverse osmosis (UF-NF/RO) membrane desalination system powered by photovoltaics treating brackish groundwater in outback Australia. The renewable energy powered membrane (RE-membrane) system is designed to supply clean drinking water to a remote community of about 50 inhabitants. The performance of the RE-membrane system over four different solar days is summarized using four different NF membranes (BW30, NF90, ESPA4, TFC-S), and examined in more detail for the BW30 membrane. On an Australian spring day, the system produced 1.1 m3 of permeate with an average conductivity of 0.28 mS x cm(-1), recovering 28% of the brackish (8.29 mS x cm(-1) conductivity) feedwater with an average specific energy consumption of 2.3 kWh x m(-3). The RE-membrane system tolerated large fluctuations in solar irradiance (500--1200 W x m(-2)), resulting in only small increases in the permeate conductivity. When equipped with the NF90 (cloudy day) and ESPA4 (rainy day) membranes, the system was still able to produce 1.36 m(-3) and 0.85 m(-3) of good quality permeate, respectively. The TFC-S membrane was not able to produce adequate water quality from the bore water tested. It is concluded that batteryless operation is a simple and robust way to operate such systems under conditions ranging from clear skies to medium cloud cover.

  8. Renewable Energy Systems: Technology Overview and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are first discussed. A state-of-the-art review section covers the fundamentals of wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) systems. Schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system...... topologies are included. Also, the increasing role of power electronics is explained as an enabler for renewable energy integration and for future power systems and smart grids. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants......, including PV and concentrating solar power; wave energy; fuel cells; and storage with batteries and hydrogen, respectively. Recommended further readings on topics of electric power engineering for renewable energy are included in the final section....

  9. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...

  10. Demonstration and Verification of a Turbine Power Generation System Utilizing Renewable Fuel: Landfill Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The FP250 integrates a modified conventional micro-turbine ( Ingersoll Rand MT250, now manufactured by FlexEnergy Energy Systems) of proven design...conventional micro-turbine ( Ingersoll Rand MT250, now manufactured by Flex Energy Systems) of proven design with a proprietary gradual thermal oxidizer in

  11. Introduction to Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the state-of-the-arts developments of renewable energy are reviewed in respect to the installed power and market share, where wind power and photovoltaic power generation are the main focuses due to the fast growing speed and large share of installed capacity. Some basic principles...

  12. Communication Systems for Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, F Richard; Xiao, Weidong; Choudhury, Paul

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in renewable energy around the world. Since most renewable sources are intermittent in nature, it is a challenging task to integrate renewable energy resources into the power grid infrastructure. In this grid integration, communication systems are crucial technologies, which enable the accommodation of distributed renewable energy generation and play extremely important role in monitoring, operating, and protecting both renewable energy generators and power systems. In this paper, we review some communication technologies available for grid integration of renewable energy resources. Then, we present the communication systems used in a real renewable energy project, Bear Mountain Wind Farm (BMW) in British Columbia, Canada. In addition, we present the communication systems used in Photovoltaic Power Systems (PPS). Finally, we outline some research challenges and possible solutions about the communication systems for grid integration of renewable energy resources.

  13. Internet Renewable energy Information System (IRIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäurle, Britta; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur; Ménard, Lionel

    1999-01-01

    Even though the Internet is now a widely accessible data source, the unorganised flood of information makes a specific request e.g. for renewable energy products inefficient. In addition, existing databases on renewable energies are often old and incomplete. The objective of IRIS has been...... to organise and retrieve renewable energy product information on the Internet instead of collecting it manually. Updating coincides with the self interestself-interest of manufacturers to present their latest renewable energy products on their own HTML documents. IRIS is based on a set of powerful tools...... on biogas systems in order to become part of IRIS. IRIS has been developed in the context of the project „AVALANCHE" which is partly funded under the JOULE programme of the European Commission DGXII.Keywords: Renewable Energy Technologies - Electronic Commerce - Information System - META-tags...

  14. Modeling and Optimization of Renewable and Hybrid Fuel Cell Systems for Space Power and Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-14

    funded by a brazilian company partner (NILKO Metalurgia Ltda). The electrolyzer was purchased by the project from Proton Energy (USA). 3 rd year...partner (NILKO Metalurgia Ltda). The electrolyzer was purchased by the project from Proton Energy (USA) and adapted to the system with a DC-AC

  15. Using long term synthetic time series to assess the impact of meteorological extreme events on renewable energy systems: a case study of wind and hydro power in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höltinger, Stefan; Schmidt, Johannes; Weterlund, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic time series of renewable energy generation provide important inputs for energy system models that study the transition to low carbon energy systems. The coverage of national energy statistics is usually too short or temporal resolution too low - in particular if meteorological extreme events should be assessed. These extreme events may put high stress on power systems with very high shares of renewables and therefore have to be studied in detail. We use simulated time series of Swedish wind energy generation for a 35 year period based on MERRA reanalysis datasets. The simulation of hydropower generation is more complex and requires hydrological models that combine precipitation data with spatially explicit information on soil type and land cover to simulate river discharge. For this purpose, we use time series of daily river discharge that have been simulated using the open source model HYPE (HYdrological Predictions for the Environment). We compared the derived time series for wind and hydropower generation in the four Swedish bidding areas with respect to their long-term correlation, patterns of seasonality, and length and duration of extreme events. Preliminary results show that expanding wind power capacities could significantly reduce the overall variability of renewable energy generation. Furthermore, the frequency and duration of extreme production events in a combined wind-hydropower system is lower than in a hydropower system only. Further work will study the need for backup capacities in a future Swedish power system with very high shares of hydro, wind and solar power (>90%).

  16. Implementation of Renewable Energy Systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1997-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to a sustainable energy development. This has been substantiated by two official action plans from 1990 and 1996 with emphasis on energy efficiency and supply systems based on renewable energy. In year 2005, renewable energy...... sources are planned to cover 12-14% and in year 2030 about 35% of total Danish energy demand. This paper reviews the experiences with implementation of renewable energy in Denmark with a focus on wind power and biomass....

  17. Implementation of Renewable Energy Systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1997-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to a sustainable energy development. This has been substantiated by two official action plans from 1990 and 1996 with emphasis on energy efficiency and supply systems based on renewable energy. In year 2005, renewable energy...... sources are planned to cover 12-14% and in year 2030 about 35% of total Danish energy demand. This paper reviews the experiences with implementation of renewable energy in Denmark with a focus on wind power and biomass....

  18. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective...... renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...... to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid...

  19. Automation infrastructure and operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system based on renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziogou, Chrysovalantou; Ipsakis, Dimitris; Elmasides, Costas; Stergiopoulos, Fotis; Papadopoulou, Simira; Seferlis, Panos; Voutetakis, Spyros

    The design of the automation system and the implemented operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system in Greece are fully analyzed in the present study. A photovoltaic array and three wind generators serve as the system main power sources and meet a predefined load demand. A lead-acid accumulator is used to compensate the inherent power fluctuations (excess or shortage) and to regulate the overall system operation, based on a developed power management strategy. Hydrogen is produced by using system excess power in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer and is further stored in pressurized cylinders for subsequent use in a PEM fuel cell in cases of power shortage. A diesel generator complements the integrated system and is employed only in emergency cases, such as subsystems failure. The performance of the automatic control system is evaluated through the real-time operation of the power system where data from the various subsystems are recorded and analyzed using a supervised data acquisition unit. Various network protocols were used to integrate the system devices into one central control system managing in this way to compensate for the differences between chemical and electrical subunits. One of the main advantages is the ability of process monitoring from distance where users can perform changes to system principal variables. Furthermore, the performance of the implemented power management strategy is evaluated through simulated scenarios by including a case study analysis on system abilities to meet higher than expected electrical load demands.

  20. Stochastic power system operation

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines how to economically and reliably operate a power system with high levels of renewable generation which are stochastic in nature. It outlines the challenges for system operators, and suggests tools and methods for meeting this challenge, which is one of the most fundamental since large scale power networks were instituted. The Ireland power system, due to its nature and level of renewable generation, is considered as an example in this paper.

  1. Modeling Photovoltaic Module-Level Power Electronics in the System Advisor Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    Module-level power electronics, such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules, are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software. This paper extends the work completed at NREL that provided recommendations to model the performance of distributed power electronics in NREL’s popular PVWatts calculator [1], to provide similar guidelines for modeling these technologies in NREL's more complex System Advisor Model (SAM). Module-level power electronics - such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules-- are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software.

  2. Risoe energy report 5. Renewable energy for power and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2006-11-15

    The global energy policy scene today is dominated by three concerns, namely security of supply, climate change and energy for development and poverty alleviation. This is the starting point for Risoe Energy Report 5 that addresses status and trends in renewable energy, and gives an overview of global driving forces for transformation of the energy systems in the light of security of supply, climate change and economic growth. More specifically status and trends in renewable energy technologies, for broader applications in off grid power production (and heat) will be discussed. Furthermore the report will address wider introduction of renewable energy in the transport sector, for example renewable based fuels, hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell driven vehicles. (au)

  3. Modeling, Control, and Simulation of Battery Storage Photovoltaic-Wave Energy Hybrid Renewable Power Generation Systems for Island Electrification in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahidul Hoque Samrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV- wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions.

  4. Modeling, control, and simulation of battery storage photovoltaic-wave energy hybrid renewable power generation systems for island electrification in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Nahidul Hoque; Bin Ahmad, Norhafizan; Choudhury, Imtiaz Ahmed; Bin Taha, Zahari

    2014-01-01

    Today, the whole world faces a great challenge to overcome the environmental problems related to global energy production. Most of the islands throughout the world depend on fossil fuel importation with respect to energy production. Recent development and research on green energy sources can assure sustainable power supply for the islands. But unpredictable nature and high dependency on weather conditions are the main limitations of renewable energy sources. To overcome this drawback, different renewable sources and converters need to be integrated with each other. This paper proposes a standalone hybrid photovoltaic- (PV-) wave energy conversion system with energy storage. In the proposed hybrid system, control of the bidirectional buck-boost DC-DC converter (BBDC) is used to maintain the constant dc-link voltage. It also accumulates the excess hybrid power in the battery bank and supplies this power to the system load during the shortage of hybrid power. A three-phase complex vector control scheme voltage source inverter (VSI) is used to control the load side voltage in terms of the frequency and voltage amplitude. Based on the simulation results obtained from Matlab/Simulink, it has been found that the overall hybrid framework is capable of working under the variable weather and load conditions.

  5. Perspectives on renewable energy and Village Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, A.R.

    1997-12-01

    The author provides a brief overview of the role the Department of Energy has been playing in the area of renewable energy sources and their applications at a village level. Energy demand is rising sharply, and shortages are becoming more acute. Developing countries will present a large demand, and market opportunity over the next 40 years. Environmental concerns are a factor in the choice for what sources to promote and develop. The author touches on the features of renewable sources which makes them attractive to DOE for some applications, and what the goals of the department are in supporting this technology. Examples of applications at the level of village power are presented for both the US and abroad.

  6. Renewable power needs smart storage solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2010-10-24

    Ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus claimed that the only thing constant in life is change, a truth we must accept and even celebrate. Another truth we face today is a growing demand for more energy to help us power the kind and pace of change we’ve become accustomed to, while minimizing environmental consequences. Renewable energy--two words that often find themselves woven into environmentally conscious dialogue. And according to Dave Lucero, director of alternative energy storage at EaglePicher Technologies LLC, the Tri-Cities should be thinking about two more: energy storage. Lucero recently addressed the Tri-Cities Research District about tackling the persistent challenge of maximizing renewable energy, which is inherently variable due to changing weather patterns. Capturing that energy and making it available for later use is vital.

  7. Renewable Production of Water, Hydrogen, and Power From Ambient Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    PRODUCTION OF WATER , HYDROGEN, AND POWER FROM AMBIENT MOISTURE by Angel Aviles December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Garth V. Hobson Co-Advisor...AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RENEWABLE PRODUCTION OF WATER , HYDROGEN, AND POWER FROM AMBIENT MOISTURE 5. FUNDING...12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words ) This thesis developed a concept design and prototype system capable of increasing and

  8. External Benefit Evaluation of Renewable Energy Power in China for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available China’s renewable energy power has developed rapidly in recent years. Evaluating the external benefits of renewable energy power can provide a reference for the Chinese government to set diverse development goals and to implement differentiated supporting policies for different renewable energy power types, which can promote their sustainable development. In this paper, a hybrid MCDM method was applied to evaluate the external benefits of China’s renewable energy power. Firstly, the impacts of renewable energy power accessing the power grid for multiple stakeholders in the electric power system were analyzed. Secondly, the external benefit evaluation index system for renewable energy power was built from the economic, social and environmental factors, based on the concept of sustainability. Then, the basic theory of the hybrid MCDM method employed in this paper was introduced in two parts: the superiority linguistic ratings and entropy weighting method for index weight determination and the fuzzy grey relation analysis for ranking alternatives. Finally, the external benefits of wind power, solar PV power and biomass power were evaluated. Taking a regional electric power system as an example, the results show that PV power has the greatest external benefit, followed by wind power and biomass power. Therefore, more policies supporting PV power should be put in place to promote the harmonious and sustainable development of the whole renewable energy power industry.

  9. Renewable Energy Devices and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are firstly discussed. A state of the art review section covers fundamentals of wind turbines and PV systems. Included are schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system topologies...

  10. Southern African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines the ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested in cooperation with the South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Initial results from the System Planning and Test (SPLAT) model show that the share of renewable technologies in Southern Africa could increase from the current 10% to as much as 46% in 2030, with 20% of decentralised capacity coming from renewable sources and nearly 80% of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 being provided by renewable energy technologies. Deployment and export of hydropower from the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Inga hydropower project to the SADC region would significantly reduce average electricity generation costs. Analysis using SPLAT – along with a similar model developed for West Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  11. Power-to-Syngas - an enabling technology for the transition of the energy system? Production of tailored synfuels and chemicals using renewably generated electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foit, Severin; Eichel, Rüdiger-A; Vinke, Izaak C; de Haart, Lambertus G J

    2016-10-07

    Power-to-X concepts promise a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and simultaneously guaranteeing a safe energy supply even at high share of renewable power generation, thus becoming a cornerstone of a sustainable energy system. Power-to-Syngas, i.e. the electrochemical conversion of steam and carbon dioxide with the use of renewably generated electricity to syngas for the production of synfuels and high-value chemicals, offers an efficient technology to couple different energy-intense sectors, such as 'traffic and transportation' and 'chemical industry'. Consequently, co-electrolysis can be regarded as a key-enabling step for a transition of the energy system that offers additionally features of CO2-valorization and closed carbon cycles. In this Minireview, we outline and discuss advantages and current technical limitations of low- and high-temperature co-electrolysis. Advances in both, a fundamental understanding of the basic reaction schemes and in stable high-performance materials are essential to further promote co-electrolysis.

  12. Distributed-dispersed renewable energy systems and novel control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljankawey, Abdualah S.

    Renewable green-energy systems are re-emerging as viable economic alternative sources of environmentally safe power generation in place of conventional fossil fuels. In terms of power quality and safety, this research investigates a number of renewable green-energy (wind, photovoltaic and fuel cells) interface schemes and control strategies that ensure maximum energy utilization, voltage and frequency stabilization and minimum impact on the host electric grid systems. The research key objectives are to study efficient and robust renewable energy converter schemes with associated control strategies and validate their operations for both stand-alone and electric utility grid interfacing. The research work investigates both stand-alone and grid connected renewable green-energy utilization schemes with a number of power electronic converter topologies and robust control schemes for both dispersed and hybrid renewable energy systems. Different sample study systems and control strategies are digitally simulated and fully validated using the MATLAB-Simulink-SimPower environment.

  13. West African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines a ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested with assistance from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Initial results from the ECOWAS Renewable Energy Planning (EREP) model for continental ECOWAS countries show that the share of renewable technologies in the region could increase from the current 22% of electricity generation to as much as 52% in 2030, provided that the cost of these technologies continues to fall and fossil fuel prices continue to rise. In this scenario, nearly half of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 would be with renewable technologies. Analysis using EREP – along with a similar model developed for Southern Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  14. Techno-Economic Feasibility Study of Renewable Power Systems for a Small-Scale Plasma-Assisted Nitric Acid Plant in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Anastasopoulou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The expected world population growth by 2050 is likely to pose great challenges in the global food demand and, in turn, in the fertilizer consumption. The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations has forecasted that 46% of this projected growth will be attributed to Africa. This, in turn, raises further concerns about the sustainability of Africa’s contemporary fertilizer production, considering also its high dependence on fertilizer imports. Based on these facts, a novel “green” route for the synthesis of fertilizers has been considered in the context of the African agriculture by means of plasma technology. More precisely, a techno-economic feasibility study has been conducted for a small-scale plasma-assisted nitric acid plant located in Kenya and South Africa with respect to the electricity provision by renewable energy sources. In this study, standalone solar and wind power systems, as well as a hybrid system, have been assessed for two different electricity loads against certain economic criteria. The relevant simulations have been carried out in HOMER software and the optimized configurations of each examined renewable power system are presented in this study.

  15. Power Electronics, Energy Harvesting and Renewable Energies Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The research in the Power Electronics, Energy Harvesting and Renewable Energies Laboratory (PEHREL) is mainly focused on investigation, modeling, simulation, design,...

  16. Active Power Deficit Estimation in Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    following outage of SMs during cascading events. Therefore, the active power deficit following the disturbance/s may not be properly estimated by existing conventional System Frequency Response (SFR) methods in which the total inertia of the power system is required to be known. In this paper, the actual......The inertia of the power system is reduced in the presence of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) due to their low or even no contribution in the inertial response as it is inherently available in the Synchronous Machines (SMs). The total inertia of the grid becomes unknown or at least uncertain...... active power deficit is estimated independent of grid inertia, type and number of occurred cascading events after each Load Shedding (LS) stage using shed load amount, pre-shed and post-shed Rate of Change of Frequency (ROCOF). Numerical simulations conducted on IEEE 39 bus standard test system in Dig...

  17. Renewable Electricity Generation via Solar-Powered Methanol Reforming: Hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems Based on Novel Non-Concentrating, Intermediate-Temperature Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Daniel J.

    Tremendous research efforts have been conducted studying the capturing and conversion of solar energy. Solar thermal power systems offer a compelling opportunity for renewable energy utilization with high efficiencies and excellent cost-effectiveness. The goal of this work was to design a non-concentrating collector capable of reaching temperatures above 250 °C, use this collector to power methanol steam reforming, and operate a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell using the generated hydrogen. The study presents the construction and characterization of a non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature, fin-in-tube evacuated solar collector, made of copper and capable of reaching stagnation temperatures of 268.5 °C at 1000 W/m2 irradiance. The collector was used to power methanol steam reforming, including the initial heating and vaporization of liquid reactants and the final heating of the gaseous reactants. A preferential oxidation (PROX) catalyst was used to remove CO from simulated reformate gas, and this product gas was used to operate a PEM fuel cell. The results show 1) that the outlet temperature is not limited by heat transfer from the absorber coating to the heat transfer fluid, but by the amount of solar energy absorbed. This implicates a constant heat flux description of the heat transfer process and allows for the usage of materials with lower thermal conductivity than copper. 2) It is possible to operate a PEM fuel cell from reformate gas if a PROX catalyst is used to remove CO from the gas. 3) The performance of the fuel cell is only slightly decreased (~4%) by CO2 dilution present in the reformate and PROX gas. These results provide a foundation for the first renewable electricity generation via solar-powered methanol reforming through a hybrid PEM fuel cell system based on novel non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature solar collectors.

  18. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Douglas R; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-07-22

    The catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond to conversion rates approaching 0.8-1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) during a multiday (36 h total hours) CO2 electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 10(6) and 4 × 10(6) molCO2 molcatalyst(-1) were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies are sufficient

  19. Addressing Palm Biodiesel as Renewable Fuel for the Indonesian Power Generation Sector: Java-Madura-Bali System

    OpenAIRE

    Natarianto Indrawan; Muhammad Ery Wijaya

    2011-01-01

    Energy security defined as how to equitably provide available, affordable, reliable efficient, environmentally friendly, proactively governed and socially acceptable energy services to end user. It has in recent years taken attention of policymakers in different parts of the world. Formulating policy to improve energy security is mandatory, not only because of depleting fossil resource, but also implementing diversity of energy source since utilization abundant renewable energy resources can ...

  20. Potential for deserts to supply reliable renewable electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labordena, Mercè; Lilliestam, Johan

    2015-04-01

    To avoid dangerous climate change, the electricity systems must be decarbonized by mid-century. The world has sufficient renewable electricity resources for complete power sector decarbonization, but an expansion of renewables poses several challenges for the electricity systems. First, wind and solar PV power are intermittent and supply-controlled, making it difficult to securely integrate this fluctuating generation into the power systems. Consequently, power sources that are both renewable and dispatchable, such as biomass, hydro and concentrating solar power (CSP), are particularly important. Second, renewable power has a low power density and needs vast areas of land, which is problematic both due to cost reasons and due to land-use conflicts, in particular with agriculture. Renewable and dispatchable technologies that can be built in sparsely inhabited regions or on land with low competition with agriculture would therefore be especially valuable; this land-use competition greatly limits the potential for hydro and biomass electricity. Deserts, however, are precisely such low-competition land, and are at the same time the most suited places for CSP generation, but this option would necessitate long transmission lines from remote places in the deserts to the demand centers such as big cities. We therefore study the potential for fleets of CSP plants in the large deserts of the world to produce reliable and reasonable-cost renewable electricity for regions with high and/or rapidly increasing electricity demand and with a desert within or close to its borders. The regions in focus here are the European Union, North Africa and the Middle East, China and Australia. We conduct the analysis in three steps. First, we identify the best solar generation areas in the selected deserts using geographic information systems (GIS), and applying restrictions to minimize impact on biodiversity, soils, human heath, and land-use and land-cover change. Second, we identify

  1. Limiting biomass consumption for heating in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems while buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply even in 100% renewable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on how the heating sector can reduce its consumption of biomass, thus leaving biomass...... for other sectors, but while still enabling a 100% renewable energy system. The analyses of heating technologies shows that district heating (DH) systems are important in limiting the dependence on biomass and create cost effective solutions. DH systems are especially important in renewable energy systems...... with large amounts of fluctuating sources as it enables fuel efficient and low cost energy systems with thermal heat storages. DH increases the efficiency with the use of combined heat and power production (CHP), while reducing the biomass demand by enabling the use of other renewable resources such as large...

  2. Renewable Power for the Swedish Antarctic Station Wasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henryson, Mattias; Svensson, Martin [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2004-07-01

    As the debate on fossil fuel usage in Antarctica has been more and more highlighted, the participating countries, bound by the Antarctic treaty, have encouraged changes in their power systems. Some of the stations or research stations in Antarctica are very large, constituting smaller towns with all conceivable service, and hence very energy consuming. Focus is put on partly or completely replacing fossil fuelled energy with renewable energy such as wind and solar power, supported by either batteries or fuel cells. Today there are a number of both successful and unsuccessful installations of renewable energy systems in Antarctica. Implementing a power system in remote areas where continuous access is limited comprises great technical challenges and Antarctica fulfils by all means every difficulty involved. The objective of this thesis is to propose ways of meeting power and energy demands for the Swedish Antarctic Research Program (SWEDARP) under the strict environmental legislations by as far as possible utilising the free renewable energy resources. A new power system is aimed at supplying 1 kW of electric power for continuous monitoring and collection of research data. The station is manned for three months, which implies a need of an autonomous system with high reliability. The following was based on a technical viability and economical feasibility study. Results are based upon analyses and computer simulations (HOMER) on how each fundamental system component is expected to work in the harsh climate conditions found at the station Wasa in Antarctica. It was found that wind power has the greatest potential as primary energy source in Antarctica. Supported by appropriate batteries, a reliable and in many ways feasible system can be obtained. Nevertheless, for the chosen techniques to endure the harsh climate conditions, sufficient modifications and developments of each component are needed. Based on the analyses the survey results in a proposal for a final system

  3. Renewable Energy Zones: Delivering Clean Power to Meet Demand, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2016-05-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document describes the renewable energy zone concept that has emerged as a transmission planning tool to help scale up the penetration of solar, wind, and other resources on the power system.

  4. Demonstration system for renewable power supply in the Bernburg/Roschwitz vocational training schools. Final report; Demonstrationsanlage von regenerativen Energien fuer die Berufsbildenden Schulen Bernburg/Roschwitz. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerich; Strauss

    2002-03-01

    The vocational schools of the district of Bernburg, which have about 1000 students, have become a training center for renewable energy and environmental protection. The project 'SOLARIUS' is used especially for training heating systems experts, technical facilities experts and electrical engineering experts. Other schools are interested in using the systems for demonstration and teaching purposes, too. The system comprises a 12 m{sup 2} solar collector system for space and water heating; an 1.4 kWp PV system for electric power generation and power supply to the public grid; a 0.6 kW wind power system to support the PV system on cloudy but windy days; 5 kW air-to-water heat pumps for demonstration and also for auxiliary heating. [German] Die Berufsbildenden Schulen des Landkreises Bernburg, seit 1999 verantwortlich fuer die zentrale Ausbildung von zirka 1000 Lehrlingen der verschiedensten Berufsgruppen, haben sich zu einem Berufsschulzentrum fuer regenerative Energie und Umweltschutz entwickelt. Fachlehrer riefen das Projekt 'SOLARIUS' ins Leben, das vor allem in der Ausbildung von Heizungs- und Sanitaermonteuren sowie Elektrotechnikern genutzt wird. Verschiedene Gymnasien und Sekundarschulen haben ihr Interesse bekundet, die Demonstrationsanlage als Anschauungsobjekt zu nutzen. Folgende Anlagenkomponenten sollen bei der Demoanlage zum Einsatz gelangen: - 12 m{sup 2} Solarkollektoren zur Warmwasserbereitung und zur Heizungsunterstuetzung. - 1,4 kWp Photovoltaikanlage zur Energieerzeugung fuer elektrische Verbraucher in der Demoanlage bzw. zur Einspeisung in das oeffentliche Netz. - 0,6 kW Windkraftanlage zusaetzliche Unterstuetzung der Photovoltaikanlage bei sonnenschwachen, aber windstarken Tagen. - 5 kW Luft-/Wasser-Waermepumpen fuer demonstrativen Zweck und zur Heizungsunterstuetzung. Zur Zeit werden Heizung und Warmwasserbereitung der Berufsschule aus dem Fernwaermenetz der Stadtwerke Bernburg ueber eine Hausanschlussstation gespeist. Durch

  5. Policies for 100% Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2014-01-01

    The official Danish energy policy goal is both to increase the wind power share of electricity consumption from 33% in 2014 to 50% by 2020 and to have a 100% renewable energy based energy system by 2050. This is a huge technological change from stored, scarce and polluting fossil fuels...... to fluctuating, abundant and clean energy sources. “Stored” fossil fuels can be used when needed; fluctuating energy sources must be captured when available and transformed to meet the energy needs of society in the right amounts and at the right time. We are amidst this change. Renewable energy has come of age...... and is no longer a minor technology experimenting in the corner of the energy scene, but has become a large new technology taking away considerable market shares from the old fossil fuel technologies....

  6. Policies for 100% Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2014-01-01

    The official Danish energy policy goal is both to increase the wind power share of electricity consumption from 33% in 2014 to 50% by 2020 and to have a 100% renewable energy based energy system by 2050. This is a huge technological change from stored, scarce and polluting fossil fuels...... to fluctuating, abundant and clean energy sources. “Stored” fossil fuels can be used when needed; fluctuating energy sources must be captured when available and transformed to meet the energy needs of society in the right amounts and at the right time. We are amidst this change. Renewable energy has come of age...... and is no longer a minor technology experimenting in the corner of the energy scene, but has become a large new technology taking away considerable market shares from the old fossil fuel technologies....

  7. Renewable energy systems the choice and modeling of 100% renewable solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    How can society quickly convert to renewable energy? Can worldwide energy needs ever be met through 100% renewable sources? The answers to these questions rest largely on the perception of choice in the energy arena. It is of pivotal importance that engineers, researchers and policymakers understand what choices are available, and reasonable, when considering the design and deployment of new energy systems. The mission of this new book, written by one of the world's foremost experts in renewable power, is to arm these professionals with the tools and methodologies necessary to make smart choic

  8. The Treatment of Renewable Energy Certificates, EmissionsAllowances, and Green Power Programs in State Renewables PortfolioStandards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Edward A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2007-04-17

    Twenty-one states and the District of Columbia have adopted mandatory renewables portfolio standards (RPS) over the last ten years. Renewable energy attributes-such as the energy source, conversion technology, plant location and vintage, and emissions-are usually required to verify compliance with these policies, sometimes through attributes bundled with electricity, and sometimes with the attributes unbundled from electricity and traded separately as renewable energy certificates (RECs). This report summarizes the treatment of renewable energy attributes in state RPS rules. Its purpose is to provide a source of information for states considering RPS policies, and also to draw attention to certain policy issues that arise when renewable attributes and RECs are used for RPS compliance. Three specific issues are addressed: (1) the degree to which unbundled RECs are allowed under existing state RPS programs and the status of systems to track RECs and renewable energy attributes; (2) definitions of the renewable energy attributes that must be included in order to meet state RPS obligations, including the treatment of available emissions allowances; and (3) state policies on whether renewable energy or RECs sold through voluntary green power transactions may count towards RPS obligations.

  9. Improving long-term operation of power sources in off-grid hybrid systems based on renewable energy, hydrogen and battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Pablo; Torreglosa, Juan P.; Fernández, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents two novel hourly energy supervisory controls (ESC) for improving long-term operation of off-grid hybrid systems (HS) integrating renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic solar panels), hydrogen system (fuel cell, hydrogen tank and electrolyzer) and battery. The first ESC tries to improve the power supplied by the HS and the power stored in the battery and/or in the hydrogen tank, whereas the second one tries to minimize the number of needed elements (batteries, fuel cells and electrolyzers) throughout the expected life of the HS (25 years). Moreover, in both ESC, the battery state-of-charge (SOC) and the hydrogen tank level are controlled and maintained between optimum operating margins. Finally, a comparative study between the controls is carried out by models of the commercially available components used in the HS under study in this work. These ESC are also compared with a third ESC, already published by the authors, and based on reducing the utilization costs of the energy storage devices. The comparative study proves the right performance of the ESC and their differences.

  10. Energy System Analysis of 100 Per cent Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    renewable energy supply based on domestic resources is physically possible, and that the first step toward 2030 is feasible to Danish society. However, Denmark will have to consider to which degree the country shall rely mostly on biomass resources, which will involve the reorganisation of the present use......This paper presents the methodology and results of the overall energy system analysis of a 100 per cent renewable energy system. The input for the systems is the result of a project of the Danish Association of Engineers, in which 1600 participants during more than 40 seminars discussed...... the electricity supply and demand and to exchange electricity productions on the international electricity markets. The results are detailed system designs and energy balances for two energy target years: year 2050 with 100 per cent renewable energy from biomass and combinations of wind, wave and solar power...

  11. Renewable energy systems advanced conversion technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2012-01-01

    Energy conversion techniques are key in power electronics and even more so in renewable energy source systems, which require a large number of converters. Renewable Energy Systems: Advanced Conversion Technologies and Applications describes advanced conversion technologies and provides design examples of converters and inverters for renewable energy systems-including wind turbine and solar panel energy systems. Learn Cutting-Edge Techniques for Converters and Inverters Setting the scene, the book begins with a review of the basics of astronomy and Earth physics. It then systematically introduc

  12. Renewable Energy Laboratory for Lighting Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cristian, Dumitru

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the electric lighting is an important part of our lives and also represents a significant part of the electric power consumption. Alternative solutions such as renewable energy applied in this domain are thus welcomed. This paper presents a workstation conceived for the study of photovoltaic solar energy for lighting systems by students of power engineering and civil engineering faculty. The proposed system is realized to study the generated photovoltaic solar energy parameters for lighting systems. For an easier way to study the most relevant parameters virtual instrumentation is implemented. National Instruments LabWindows CVI environment is used as a platform for virtual instrumentation. For future developments remote communication feature intends to be added on which currently remote monitoring of solar photovoltaic energy and electric energy parameters are monitored.

  13. Power Flow Control of a Dual-Input Interleaved Buck/Boost Converter with Galvanic Isolation for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Zhang, Zhe; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    DC microgrids or nanogrids have attracted increasing research interest in recent years. Therefore, as a critical component, dc-dc converters with multiple inputs are required. In this paper, a dual-input interleaved buck/boost converter is proposed and its corresponding power flow control methods...

  14. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Report...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels 5a. CONTRACT...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented at the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held

  15. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  16. Design and Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controlled Uninterruptible Power Supply Integrating Renewable Solar Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo A. Beltran Jr.; Felicito S. Caluyo

    2014-01-01

    —The control and operation of electronic systems relies and depends on the availability of the power supply. Rechargeable batteries have been more pervasively used as the energy storage and power source for various electrical and electronic systems and devices, such as communication systems, electronic devices, renewable power systems, electric vehicles, etc. However, the rechargeable batteries are subjected to the availability of the external power source when ...

  17. Design and Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controlled Uninterruptible Power Supply Integrating Renewable Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo A. Beltran Jr.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available —The control and operation of electronic systems relies and depends on the availability of the power supply. Rechargeable batteries have been more pervasively used as the energy storage and power source for various electrical and electronic systems and devices, such as communication systems, electronic devices, renewable power systems, electric vehicles, etc. However, the rechargeable batteries are subjected to the availability of the external power source when it is drained out. Because of the concern of battery life, environmental pollution and a possible energy crisis, the renewable solar energy has received an increasing attention in recent years. A fuzzy logic control based grid tied uninterruptible power supply integrating renewable solar energy can be used for electrical and electronic systems to produce power generation. This paper presents the design and implementation of fuzzy logic control based grid tied uninterruptible power supply integrating the renewable solar power energy system. The uninterruptible power supply (UPS system is characterized by the rechargeable battery that is connected with the Photovoltaic Panel through the DC/DC converter, the utility AC through the AC/DC converter and the load is connected through the DC/AC converter. The whole operation is controlled by the fuzzy logic algorithm. A complete hardware prototype system model of the fuzzy logic control based on the grid tied uninterruptible power supply integrating with the renewable solar energy is designed and implemented. The operation and effectiveness of the proposed system is then demonstrated by the actual and real time implementation of the fuzzy logic control grid tied operation uninterruptible power supply integrating renewable solar energy connected to the rechargeable battery bank and a PIC microcontroller platform for fuzzy logic control and operation

  18. Smart grid and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical energy consumption continues growing and more applications relay on electricity. We can expect that more 60 % of all energy consumption will be converted and used as electricity. Therefore, it is a demand that production, distribution and use of electrical energy are done as effici...... sources, wind energy and photovoltaics. Then main focus is on the power electronics and control technology for wind turbines as they are the largest renewable power contributor, allowing their penetration into a SmartGrid to be even higher in the future....... conventional, fossil based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discus trends of the future grid infrastructure as well as the most emerging renewable energy...

  19. ETV/ESTCP Demonstration Plan - Demonstration and Verification of a Turbine Power Generation System Utilizing Renewable Fuel: Landfill Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Test and Quality Assurance Plan (TQAP) provides data quality objections for the success factors that were validated during this demonstration include energy production, emissions and emission reductions compared to alternative systems, economics, and operability, including r...

  20. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  1. Experimentation with a reverse osmosis plant powered by renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, L.; Gomez, A. [Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Univ., Las Palmas (Spain). Dept. of Process Engineering; Nuez, I. [Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Univ., Las Palmas (Spain). Dept. of Electronic and Automatic Engineering

    2006-07-01

    This paper described a set of tests conducted in a reverse osmosis plant powered by renewable energy sources. Variations on feed flow, reject flow, recovery and power consumption were investigated. The plant has a production of over 115 m{sup 3} per day. During the experiments, the plant was required to operate at variable loading conditions. An energy recovery system was then developed to operate effectively with the observed variable load conditions. The system was incorporated within the reject flow system and was comprised of a Pelton turbine matched to the axis of an asynchronous energy generator. The system was designed to avoid making changes to the actual hydraulic circuit of the plant. Recovery system failures did not necessitate plant stoppages during the testing period. Simulations conducted to assess the energy system showed that optimal performance of the plant was between 16 and 18 kW with a working pressure of between 57 to 67 bars. Results also suggested that installing the system in the evacuation brine line would maximize the use of kinetic energy. It was concluded that energy recovery systems are ideal for use in seawater installations where functioning pressure levels are high. 14 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  2. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitting country in the world. In this case...... system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy......, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously...

  3. The Development of the Renewable Energy Power Industry under Feed-In Tariff and Renewable Portfolio Standard: A Case Study of China’s Photovoltaic Power Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhuo Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the regulatory policies, feed-in tariffs (FIT and renewable portfolio standards (RPS are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy. In this paper, we synthetically consider various important factors with the analysis of the existing literature, and use system dynamics (SD to establish models of long-term development of the renewable energy power industry under FIT and RPS schemes. The model not only clearly shows the complex logical relationship between the factors but also reveals the process of coordination between the two policy tools in the development of the renewable energy power industry. In addition, as an example of development of renewable energy industry, the paper studies the development of China’s photovoltaic power industry under different scenarios. The models proposed in this paper can provide a reference for scholars to study development of the renewable energy power industry in different countries, thereby facilitating an understanding of the renewable energy power’s long-term sustainable development pattern under FIT and RPS schemes, and helping to provide references for policy-making institutions. The results show that in the perfect competitive market, the implementation of RPS can promote long-term and rapid development of China’s photovoltaic power industry given the constraints and actions of the mechanisms of RPS quota proportion, the TGC valid period, and fines, compared with FIT. At the end of the paper, policy implications are offered as references for the government.

  4. Preparation of Power Distribution System for High Penetration of Renewable Energy Part I. Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Regulation Pat II. Distribution Circuit Modeling and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshkbar Sadigh, Arash

    by simulation and experimental tests under various conditions considering all possible cases such as different amounts of voltage sag depth (VSD), different amounts of point-on-wave (POW) at which voltage sag occurs, harmonic distortion, line frequency variation, and phase jump (PJ). Furthermore, the ripple amount of fundamental voltage amplitude calculated by the proposed method and its error is analyzed considering the line frequency variation together with harmonic distortion. The best and worst detection time of proposed method were measured 1ms and 8.8ms, respectively. Finally, the proposed method has been compared with other voltage sag detection methods available in literature. Part 2: Power System Modeling for Renewable Energy Integration: As power distribution systems are evolving into more complex networks, electrical engineers have to rely on software tools to perform circuit analysis. There are dozens of powerful software tools available in the market to perform the power system studies. Although their main functions are similar, there are differences in features and formatting structures to suit specific applications. This creates challenges for transferring power system circuit models data (PSCMD) between different software and rebuilding the same circuit in the second software environment. The objective of this part of thesis is to develop a Unified Platform (UP) to facilitate transferring PSCMD among different software packages and relieve the challenges of the circuit model conversion process. UP uses a commonly available spreadsheet file with a defined format, for any home software to write data to and for any destination software to read data from, via a script-based application called PSCMD transfer application. The main considerations in developing the UP are to minimize manual intervention and import a one-line diagram into the destination software or export it from the source software, with all details to allow load flow, short circuit and

  5. Iceland's renewable power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverrisdottir, V.

    2000-07-01

    The base of Iceland's natural resource consists of the fish stocks in the sea surrounding the country, the land with its soil and vegetation, enormous quantity of hot and cold spring water and renewable energy resources - both geothermal and hydro. The clean environment of the country, on which food-processing and tourism are based, may also be regarded as one of our most important natural resources. At last but not least the utilization of these resources are based on the highly educated and civilized people living in the country. In terms of the population size, Iceland has considerable untapped reserves of renewable energy. Further harnessing of these reserves for economic and sustainable development is an important task for the future and will probably play a large role in maintaining a high standards of living in Iceland in the near future. In this address I would like to say a few words about Iceland's energy resources, how we have utilized them, the main environmental aspects of the future utilisation and the governmental energy policy. (orig.)

  6. Renewable energy technologies for the Indian power sector: mitigation potential and operational strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, D. [Centre de Sciences Humaines, New Delhi (India); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Inst. of Management, Vastrapur, Ahmedabad (India); Garg, A. [Winrock International India, New Delhi (India); Ramana, P.V. [Winrock International, Arlington, VA (United States)

    2002-12-01

    The future economic development trajectory for India is likely to result in rapid and accelerated growth in energy demand, with attendant shortages and problems. Due to the predominance of fossil fuels in the generation mix, there are large negative environmental externalities caused by electricity generation. The power sector alone has a 40 percent contribution to the total carbon emissions. In this context, it is imperative to develop and promote alternative energy sources that can lead to sustainability of the energy-environment system. There are opportunities for renewable energy technologies under the new climate change regime as they meet the two basic conditions to be eligible for assistance under UNFCCC mechanisms: they contribute to global sustainability through GHG mitigation; and, they conform to national priorities by leading to the development of local capacities and infrastructure. This increases the importance of electricity generation from renewables. Considerable experience and capabilities exist in the country on renewable electricity technologies. But a number of techno-economic, market-related, and institutional barriers impede technology development and penetration. Although at present the contribution of renewable electricity is small, the capabilities promise the flexibility for responding to emerging economic, socio-environmental and sustainable development needs. This paper discusses the renewable and carbon market linkages and assesses mitigation potential of power sector renewable energy technologies under global environmental intervention scenarios for GHG emissions reduction. An overall energy system framework is used for assessing the future role of renewable energy in the power sector under baseline and different mitigation scenarios over a time frame of 35 years, between 2000 to 2035. The methodology uses an integrated bottom-up modelling framework. Looking into past performance trends and likely future developments, analysis results

  7. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  8. Renewable Energy Solar Power Surges On

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID HENDRICKSON

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the increased focus and attention solar power is receiving around the world as a potentially significant energy alternative, it makes sense that China's solar enterprises are today doing big business and raking in massive profits. Among the most notable returns have been those of newcomer Suntech Power Holdings.

  9. The smoothing effect for renewable resources in an Afro-Eurasian power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutova, Maria; Kies, Alexander; Schyska, Bruno U.; von Bremen, Lueder

    2017-07-01

    Renewable power systems have to cope with highly variable generation. Increasing the spatial extent of an interconnected power transmission grid smooths the feed-in by exchange of excess energy over long distances and therefore supports renewable power integration. In this work, we investigate and quantify the balancing potential of a supergrid covering Europe, Africa and Asia. We use ten years of historical weather data to model the interplay of renewable generation and consumption and show that a pan-continental Afro-Eurasian supergrid can smooth renewable generation to a large extent and reduce the need for backup energy by around 50 %. In addition, we show that results for different weather years vary by up to approximately 50 %.

  10. Distributed High Efficiency Renewable Power Systems With Modules in Series Connection%新能源发电串联分布式高能效变换系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红飞; 孙凯; 邢岩

    2012-01-01

    针对光伏组件、热电发电机等新能源发电模块输出电压低的特点,以系统发电功率最大化为控制目标,研究模块串联分布式新能源发电系统中的高能效模块集成变换器拓扑及其控制策略.分析不同变换器类型对系统性能和发电设备输出特性的影响;综合考虑变换器变换效率和最大功率跟踪效率,提出引入直通工作模式实现变换器全电压范围最大功率输出的控制策略和实现方法;并提出具有直通模式的改进型升降压变换器拓扑,详细分析工作模式和设计实现.搭建由13个250W模块组成的串联分布式实验系统,验证了理论分析的正确性.%The renewable power module, such as the thermoelectric generator and PV panel, features low output voltage and low power. Aiming at maximum output power, a high energy efficiency module-integrated-converter (MIC) and its control strategy for series connected distributed (SCD) renewable power system were proposed. The system structure and characteristics of the SCD renewable power system were analyzed in detail. The influence of the MIC's topologies on the renewable source and SCD power system was presented. Considering both the conversion efficiency and maximum power point tracking efficiency of the MIC, by employing a direct-connection mode, maximum output power over full output voltage range of the MIC was achieved. A high efficiency, high reliable MIC for SCD photovoltaic grid-connected power system was proposed and analyzed in detail. A SCD power system composed of 13 250W modules were built and tested. Experimental results were given to verify the analysis.

  11. RE-Shaping. Shaping an effective and efficient European renewable energy market. D20 Report. Consistency with other EU policies, System and Market integration. A Smart Power Market at the Centre of a Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhoff, K.; Boyd, R.; Grau, T. [Climate Policy Initiative, German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany); Hobbs, B.; Newbery, D. [Electricity Policy Research Group, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Borggrefe, F. [University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Barquin, J.; Echavarren, F. [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Bialek, J.; Dent, C. [Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Con Hirschhausen, C. [Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kunz, F.; Weigt, H. [Technical University of Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Nabe, C.; Papaefthymiou, G. [Ecofys Germany, Berlin (Germany); Weber, C. [Duisberg-Essen University, Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. In the EU, at least 200 gigawatts (GWs) of new and additional renewable electricity sources may be needed by 2020. The aim of this report is to analyse whether the current electricity market and system design is consistent with such an ambitious target. Using an international comparison, we identify opportunities to improve the power market design currently in place across EU countries so as to support the large scale integration of renewable energy sources.

  12. Special issue on advancing grid-connected renewable generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    Renewables are heavily involved in power generation, as an essential component for today’s energy paradigm. Energy structure—both national and international—has been undergoing significant changes over the past few decades. For instance, in Denmark, power generation is shifting from fossil......-fuel-based to renewable-based in terms of energy sources, from centralized to decentralized in terms of architectures, and from sole to miscellaneous in terms of energy varieties [1]. In this energy evolution, the power electronic technology plays an enabling role in the integration and advancements of renewables......—such as wind turbine, photovoltaics, fuel cells, and other emerging energy systems. At the same time, various control strategies are necessary to guide the energy integration (i.e., to enhance the energy transition), and on the other hand, to flexibly, reliably, and efficiently utilize the energy. Tremendous...

  13. Power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  14. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, Per

    2007-01-01

    transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy......Governments worldwide aim at reducing CO2 emissions and expanding renewable energy. A key element in achieving such a goal is to use renewable energy in transport such as biofuels. However, efforts to promote single transport technologies and single fuels only represent a partial solution...

  15. Overview of village scale, renewable energy powered desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.E.

    1997-04-01

    An overview of desalination technologies is presented, focusing on those technologies appropriate for use in remote villages, and how they can be powered using renewable energy. Technologies are compared on the basis of capital cost, lifecycle cost, operations and maintenance complexity, and energy requirements. Conclusions on the appropriateness of different technologies are drawn, and recommendations for future research are given.

  16. Guide to purchasing green power. Renewable electricity, renewable energy certificates and on-site renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-09-30

    The Guide to Purchasing Green Power is intended for organizations that are considering the merits of buying green power as well as those that have decided to buy it and want help doing so. The Guide was written for a broad audience, including businesses, government agencies, universities, and all organizations wanting to diversify their energy supply and to reduce the environmental impact of their electricity use.The Guide provides an overview of green power markets and describes the necessary steps to buying green power. This section summarizes the Guide to help readers find the information they need.

  17. The renewable electric plant information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, K.

    1995-12-01

    This report explains the procedures used for creating the Renewable Electric Plant Information System (REPiS) database, describes the database fields, and summarizes the data. The REPiS database contains comprehensive information on grid-connected renewable electric generation plants in the United States. Originally designed in 1987 and updated in 1990, the database includes information through 1994. The report also illustrates ways of using the data for analysis is and describes how researchers validated the data.

  18. Renewable Power Options for Electrical Generation on Kaua'i: Economics and Performance Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Keller, J.; Kroposki, B.; Lilienthal, P.; Slaughter, R.; Glassmire, J.

    2011-11-01

    The Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) is working with a team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess the economic and technical feasibility of increasing the contribution of renewable energy in Hawaii. This part of the HCEI project focuses on working with Kaua'i Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) to understand how to integrate higher levels of renewable energy into the electric power system of the island of Kaua'i. NREL partnered with KIUC to perform an economic and technical analysis and discussed how to model PV inverters in the electrical grid.

  19. Model prediction for ranking lead-acid batteries according to expected lifetime in renewable energy systems and autonomous power-supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, J.; Sauer, D.U.; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2007-01-01

    system sizing and different battery technologies on battery lifetime. It is a tool for system designers and system operators to select appropriate batteries, to do a proper system design (sizing of the battery, power generators and loads), and to implement an optimized operation strategy (end......Predicting the lifetime of lead-acid batteries in applications with irregular operating conditions such as partial state-of-charge cycling, varying depth-of-discharge and different times between full charging is known as a difficult task. Experimental investigations in the laboratory are difficult...... into account are based on a detailed analysis and understanding of ageing processes in lead-acid batteries. The ' normal ' user can adapt the model to different battery types simply from the data sheet information on cycle lifetime and float lifetime. (C) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  20. The renewable energy targets of the Maghreb countries: Impact on electricity supply and conventional power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Bernhard, E-mail: brandb@uni-koeln.de [Institute of Energy Economics at the University of Cologne, Vogelsanger Strasse 321, 50827 Cologne (Germany); Zingerle, Jonas [Institute of Energy Economics at the University of Cologne, Vogelsanger Strasse 321, 50827 Cologne (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, the three countries of the North African Maghreb region, are showing increased efforts to integrate renewable electricity into their power markets. Like many other countries, they have pronounced renewable energy targets, defining future shares of 'green' electricity in their national generation mixes. The individual national targets are relatively varied, reflecting the different availability of renewable resources in each country, but also the different political ambitions for renewable electricity in the Maghreb states. Open questions remain regarding the targets' economic impact on the power markets. Our article addresses this issue by applying a linear electricity market optimization model to the North African countries. Assuming a competitive, regional electricity market in the Maghreb, the model minimizes dispatch and investment costs and simulates the impact of the renewable energy targets on the conventional generation system until 2025. Special emphasis is put on investment decisions and overall system costs. - Research Highlights: >Market simulation shows impact of RES-E penetration on the conventional power system of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. >Noticeable effects on dispatch and investments in fossil power plants. >Reduced utilization of base-load plants - stronger investments in flexible capacities. >Overall system costs can be decreased by optimizing the RES-E goals.

  1. Renewable Energy Essentials: Concentrating Solar Thermal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) is a re-emerging market. The Luz Company built 354 MWe of commercial plants in California, still in operations today, during 1984-1991. Activity re-started with the construction of an 11-MW plant in Spain, and a 64-MW plant in Nevada, by 2006. There are currently hundreds of MW under construction, and thousands of MW under development worldwide. Spain and the United States together represent 90% of the market. Algeria, Egypt and Morocco are building integrated solar combined cycle plants, while Australia, China, India, Iran, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Mexico, South Africa and the United Arab Emirates are finalising or considering projects. While trough technology remains the dominant technology, several important innovations took place over 2007-2009: the first commercial solar towers, the first commercial plants with multi-hour capacities, the first Linear Fresnel Reflector plants went into line.

  2. Towards Automated Provisioning and Emergency Handling in Renewable Energy Powered Datacenters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 王锐; 胡杨; 周睿晋; 刘铭; 刘成军; 袁景凌; 李涛; 钱德沛

    2014-01-01

    Designing eco-friendly system has been at the forefront of computing research. Faced with a growing concern about the server energy expenditure and the climate change, both industry and academia start to show high interest in computing systems powered by renewable energy sources. Existing proposals on this issue mainly focus on optimizing resource utilization or workload performance. The key supporting hardware structures for cross-layer power management and emergency handling mechanisms are often left unexplored. This paper presents GreenPod, a research framework for exploring scalable and dependable renewable power management in datacenters. An important feature of GreenPod is that it enables joint management of server power supplies and virtualized server workloads. Its interactive communication portal between servers and power supplies allows datacenter operators to perform real-time renewable energy driven load migration and power emergency handling. Based on our system prototype, we discuss an important topic: virtual machine (VM) workloads survival when facing extended utility outage and insuffcient onsite renewable power budget. We show that whether a VM can survive depends on the operating frequencies and workload characteristics. The proposed framework can greatly encourage and facilitate innovative research in dependable green computing.

  3. Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

  4. Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

  5. Pressure retarded osmosis as a controlling system for traditional renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carravetta, Armando; Fecarotta, Oreste; La Rocca, Michele; Martino, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a viable but still not diffused form of renewable energy (see Maisonneuve et al., 2015 for a recent literature review). In PRO, water from a low salinity feed solution permeates through a membrane into a pressurized, high salinity draw solution, giving rise to a positive pressure drop; then energy is obtained by depressurizing the permeate through a hydro-turbine and brackish water is discharged. Many technological, environmental and economical aspects are obstacles in the diffusion of PRO, like the vulnerability of the membranes to fouling, the impact of the brackish water on the local marine environment, the high cost of membranes, etc. We are interested in the use of PRO as a combined form of energy with other renewable energy source like solar, wind or mini hydro in water supply networks (WSN). For the wide diffusion of renewables one of the major concerns of commercial power companies is to obtain very stable form of energy to comply with prescriptions of electricity grid operators and with the instant energy demand curve. Renewables are generally very variable form of energy, for the influence of climatic conditions on available power, and of the fluctuation in water demand in WSN. PRO is a very flexible technology where with appropriate turbines and control system power can be varied continuously to compensate for variation of other source of energy. Therefore, PRO is suitable to be used as a balancing system for commercial power system. We will present a simulation of the performance of a PRO used in combination with three different renewables. In the first two scenarios PRO compensate the difference between energy demand and energy production of a solar power plant and hydro power plant in a WSN. In the third scenario PRO is used to compensate daily variation of energy production in a wind power plant. Standard curves of energy production and energy demand for southern Italy are used. In order to control PRO production an

  6. Renewable energy utilization and CO2 mitigation in the power sector: A case study in selected GMS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Pagnarith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative resource to substitute fossil fuels. Currently, the share of renewable energy inpower generation is very low. The selected Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS, namely, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand andVietnam is a region having abundant of renewable energy resources. Though these countries have a high potential of renewableenergy utilization, they are still highly dependent on the imported fossil fuels for electricity generation. The less contributionof renewable energy in the power sector in the region is due to the high cost of technologies. Renewable energytechnology cannot compete with the conventional power plant. However, in order to promote renewable energy utilizationand reduce dependency on imported fossil fuel as well as to mitigate CO2 emissions from the power sector, this study introducesfour renewable energy technologies, namely, biomass, wind, solar PV, and geothermal power, for substitution of conventionaltechnologies. To make the renewable energy competitive to the fossil fuels, incentives in terms of carbon credit of20$/ton-ne CO2 are taken into account. Results are analyzed by using the Long-Range Energy Alternative Planning System(LEAP modeling. Results of analyses reveal that in the renewable energy (RE scenario the biomass power, wind, solarphotovoltaics, and geothermal would contribute in electricity supply for 5.47 GW in the region, accounted for 3.5% in 2030.The RE scenario with carbon credits could mitigate CO2 emissions at about 36.0 million tonne at lower system cost whencompared to the business-as-usual scenario.

  7. Renewable power production in a Pan-Caribbean energy grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David

    The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are victims of geography and geopolitics. Lacking access to large fossil fuel reserves, they are forced to import fuel at prices they have no control over. Renewable energy resources, particularly wind, have the potential to help break the Caribbean dependency on fossil fuels and allow for increased development at the same time. Working from a sustainable development point of view, this project discusses the history of the area, the theoretical background for the idea of large scale renewable power production, the regional initiatives already in place that address both the cost of fossil fuels and the policy hurdles that need to be overcome to assist the region in gaining energy independence. Haiti is highlighted as a special case in the region and the potential use of several renewable resources are discussed, along with a potential business model based on the idea of the Internet. Power storage is covered, specifically the potential of battery operated vehicles to have a positive impact on the Caribbean region and other developing states. The role of government regulation and policy comes into play next, followed by a discussion on the need for developed states to change patterns of behavior in order to achieve sustainability. Finally, nuclear power and liquefied natural gas are reviewed and rejected as power options for the region.

  8. Recent Trends in Renewable Energy Resources for Power Generation in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Ho Noh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for renewable energy in recent decades has continued to increase, despite adverse economic conditions such as world economic recessions, trade disputes, and falls in gas and oil prices. During this period, the United States and Europe have led the development of renewable energy technologies, but now emerging countries such as China, Brazil, India, and the Republic of Korea are also been actively participating in developing and deploying renewable energy. For example, since 1989, the Korea Electric Power Corporation has built a well-known test site for the application of renewable energy resources, including 500 kW photovoltaic systems with smooth integration into power grids in the Gochang area. The main objects of this study are (1 to review the recent trends in renewable energy systems, including solar, wind, bioenergy, hydroelectric, and tidal power, for electric power generation developed in Korea and (2 to introduce the test sites in Korea. For this purpose, this study examines the current activities of industry and government in Korea and compares them with global trends.

  9. Vehicle-to-Grid Power in Danish Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems is often constrained by the variable nature of their output. This demands for the services of storing the electricity generated from most of the renewable energy sources. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power could use the inherent energy storage of electric...... vehicles and its quick response time to balance and stabilize a power system with fluctuating power. This paper outlines the use of battery electric vehicles in supporting large-scale integration of renewable energy in the Danish electric power systems. The reserve power requirements for a high renewable...... energy penetration could be met by an amount of V2G based electric vehicles less than 10% of the total vehicle need in Denmark. The participation of electric vehicle in ancillary services would earn significant revenues to the vehicle owner. The power balancing services of electric vehicles...

  10. Vehicle-to-Grid Power in Danish Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems is often constrained by the variable nature of their output. This demands for the services of storing the electricity generated from most of the renewable energy sources. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power could use the inherent energy storage of electric...... vehicles and its quick response time to balance and stabilize a power system with fluctuating power. This paper outlines the use of battery electric vehicles in supporting large-scale integration of renewable energy in the Danish electric power systems. The reserve power requirements for a high renewable...... energy penetration could be met by an amount of V2G based electric vehicles less than 10% of the total vehicle need in Denmark. The participation of electric vehicle in ancillary services would earn significant revenues to the vehicle owner. The power balancing services of electric vehicles...

  11. Impact of renewable power market penetration on coal power generation capacity growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ABDUL Majeed Aziz; R.Larry Grayson; VLADISLAV Kecojevic

    2011-01-01

    Since renewable energy sources are growing in importance, how well they can penetrate the energy market for power generation will be a very important factor in the role the coal industry will play in the future. This paper examined the displacement of coal power plant capacity from 2010 to 2050 by renewables with respect to three drivers assumed under various conditions: the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), Greenhouse Gas (GHG) policy, and varying plant capital cost cases. The results by 2050 illustrate that renewable market penetration captures anywhere from 1.9% to 6.4% of potential coal power generation capacity additions. Renewable power generation capacity additions is expected to outpace coal power plant additions by 89% with respect to ARRA in 2050, however with no GHG policy coal power generation capacity build-outs will outpace renewables by as high as 809%. Finally, coal power generation is still projected to be the largest single energy source contributor to the electricity market making up 28.0% of total available capacity, while renewables are expected to only make up 16.3% of total available capacity.

  12. Distributed renewable power from biomass and other waste fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The world population is continually growing and putting a burden on our fossil fuels. These fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are used for a variety of critical needs such as power production and transportation. While significant environmental improvements have been made, the uses of these fuels are still causing significant ecological impacts. Coal power production efficiency has not improved over the past thirty years and with relatively cheap petroleum cost, transportation mileage has not improved significantly either. With the demand for these fossil fuels increasing, ultimately price will also have to increase. This presentation will evaluate alternative power production methods using localized distributed generation from biomass, municipal solid waste and other waste sources of organic materials. The presentation will review various gasification processes that produce a synthetic gas that can be utilized as a fuel source in combustion turbines for clean and efficient combined heat and power. This fuel source can produce base load renewable power. In addition tail gases from the production of bio-diesel and methanol fuels can be used to produce renewable power. Being localized can reduce the need for long and costly transmission lines making the production of fuels and power from waste a viable alternative energy source for the future.

  13. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional...... conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its...... of renewable energy. Meanwhile, the insurance of power system stability through reduction of power gradients is of major importance even at lower penetration levels and some form of energy storage therefore seems unavoidable. A variety of technologies are available for storage of energy in the power system...

  14. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional...... conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its...... of renewable energy. Meanwhile, the insurance of power system stability through reduction of power gradients is of major importance even at lower penetration levels and some form of energy storage therefore seems unavoidable. A variety of technologies are available for storage of energy in the power system...

  15. A Flexible Power Electronics Configuration for Coupling Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Filippini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A combination of series, parallel and multilevel power electronics has been investigated as a potential interface for two different types of renewable energy sources and in order to reach higher power levels. Renewable energy sources are typically dispersed in a territory, and sources, like wind and solar, allow small to medium-scale generation of electricity. The configuration investigated in this article aims at adapting the coupling solution to the specific generation characteristics of the renewable energy source to make it fit the electrical network. The configuration consists of a combination of three-phase multilevel converters and single-phase inverters, which are designed to provide flexibility, high power quality and high efficiency. A detailed analysis and simulation is performed to identify the properties in conjunction with the electrical grid requirements and the potential challenges encountered during operation. An optimized operation example of wind generation combined with solar PV generation is presented to exemplify the flexibility and benefits of the proposed configuration.

  16. Incorporating Charging/Discharging Strategy of Electric Vehicles into Security-Constrained Optimal Power Flow to Support High Renewable Penetration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyungsung An; Kyung-Bin Song; Kyeon Hur

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to improve the operational efficiency and security of electric power systems at high renewable penetration by exploiting the envisioned controllability or flexibility of electric vehicles (EVs...

  17. Easy Solar Photovoltaic Panel as Renewable Energy System Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaivani D/O Ramachandran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar power is energy from the sun that is converted into electrical energy. Solar energy is the abundant renewable energy source available, and the Malaysia has some of the richest solar resources in the world. Electric energy is becoming one of the source energy which is required daily. However, electric power outages always happened. Easy Solar Photovoltaic Panel as Renewable Energy System Device isimplemented as an electric power source by using solar as a help and support. It is used by providing charge through solar panel from sunlight. Then, the charge is flowing through the solar controller to charges battery that will flow to the load. Since energy that obtained from the battery are shaped in direct current (DC, then the inverter used to change direct current (DC to alternating current (AC for purpose of using device or application that using alternating current (AC to operate.

  18. Examining the Small Renewable Energy Power (SREP) Program in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Drupady, Ira Martina [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2011-11-15

    The Small Renewable Energy Power (SREP) Program was the premier policy mechanism implemented by the national government to promote small-scale renewable electricity in Malaysia from 2001 to 2010. However, it managed meet less than 3 percent of its original goal by 2005. This study investigates what happened. More specifically, using a qualitative semi-structured interview approach with data presented in a narrative format, it answers the following five questions: (1) What are the primary energy policy and security challenges facing Malaysia? (2) What were the drivers behind the SREP in Malaysia? (3) What were the major benefits arising from the SREP? (4) What were the significant challenges to implementation? (5) What lessons or insights does the SREP offer for the study of energy policy design and implementation more generally? We find that the SREP failed to achieve its targets due to capacity caps, a lengthy approval process, lack of monitoring, exclusion of stakeholders, and few (if any) pre-feasibility studies. Other factors explaining its poor performance include opposition from the national utility Tenaga Nasional Berhad and electricity tariffs unmatched with true production costs. - Highlights: > The Small Renewable Energy Power Program aimed to install 500 MW by 2005. > It installed only 12 MW by December 2005. > This study investigates why the SREP failed to achieve its targets.

  19. Micro-financing of renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunse, Maike; Wallbaum, Holger [triple innova (Germany); Dienst, Carmen [Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environment, Energy (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    While improved energy services have many quality of life benefits like lighting or television, the productive use of electricity can also help to reduce poverty, leading to increased profitability and productivity for micro, small and medium enterprises, and small industries. The remoteness of rural locations usually makes it difficult to expand electricity supply through a centralised grid system. Therefore people living in off-grid regions often rely on expensive fossil fuels like diesel and kerosene. People in remote areas often do not have the financial background to afford the initial costs for renewable energy applications. Micro-financing of renewable energy systems is a possible answer to provide financial services and support productive activities in a sustainable manner for low-income people. There are various types of microfinance institutions (MFIs), ranging from local cooperatives, NGOs, credit unions, private commercial banks and non-bank financial institutions as well as parts of state-owned banks.To underline the benefits of micro financing renewable energy systems, good practice projects of local microfinance activities are presented. These projects have been identified in the course of WISIONS, an initiative of the Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environment and Energy with support of ProEvolution, a Swiss-based foundation. The two different approaches of the project support on one side the realisation of new project ideas (SEPS - Sustainable Energy Project Support) and on the other spread successful examples (PREP - Promotion of Resource Efficiency Projects). Through the PREP field of action, good practices in energy and resource efficiency are spread worldwide through the Internet and brochures. In the 5th PREP-brochure of WISIONS on 'Microfinance and Renewable Energy' five good-practice examples are shown that link this promising financing system with modern and sustainable renewable energy technologies.

  20. Green power grids: how energy from renewable sources affects network and markets

    CERN Document Server

    Mureddu, Mario; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources, fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and introducing new criticalities that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations causing an increased request of conventional energy sources oriented to balance energy requests on short notices. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources and to their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies among the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations on the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players behavior. Our model is a data-d...

  1. Electricity Storage and Renewables for Island Power. A Guide for Decision Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komor, P.; Glassmire, J. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Energy is a key issue for sustainable development. In island and remote communities, where grid extension is difficult and fuel transportation and logistics are challenging and costly, renewable energy is emerging as the energy supply solution for the 21st century, ensuring reliable and secure energy supply in such communities. The deployment of renewable energy technologies is increasing globally, supported by rapidly declining prices and government policies and strategies in many countries, resulting in renewable energy solutions being the most cost-effective option in many markets today. For example, in 2011 the Special Report of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation showed that approximately 50% of new electricity generation capacity added globally between 2008 and 2009 came from renewable energy sources. Therefore, the future of renewables as the base energy source for islands and remote communities looks very bright. However, as the share of renewables in power supply increases, the natural variability of some renewable energy sources must be tackled appropriately to ensure continuous availability and efficient use of the energy generated. Successful strategies to manage this variability can encompass a range of measures, such as a balanced supply technology portfolio, geographical spread of supply, better forecasting tools, demand-side management and appropriate storage solutions. Traditionally, large scale electricity storage systems were based on pumped hydropower installations. New solutions are emerging, including affordable and long-lasting batteries. This technology field is developing rapidly and prices are falling. IRENA has developed this report as a practical guide to the available energy storage solutions and their successful applications in the context of islands communities. The report also includes various best practice cases and different scenarios and strategies. It is

  2. Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 3: Solar-Power Microgrids and Atmospheric Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    maximum ambient ( panel ) temperature of 25 °C. The solar photovoltaic (PV) panel would be mounted on a pole, and for maximum solar energy input, would...designers often use averaged azimuth and elevation angles for the panel orientation. This choice presumes the power system design is not constrained by...ARL-TR-7797 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Atmospheric Renewable Energy Research, Volume 3: Solar -Power Microgrids and

  3. Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Teodorescu, Remus

    2006-01-01

    the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...... electronics is changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. By that wind power is also getting an added value in the power system operation....

  4. Optimised Hybrid Integrated Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arun Sandilya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid integrated renewable energy system for an isolated small community, where grid extension is considered uneconomical. This paper proposed cost optimization through dynamic matching between load and proper equipment sizing. The Matlab based computer program developed for determining the most cost effective energy source to supply required load any given time of the day. Integrated system based on green energy utilization and rural electricity development.

  5. Design and Modeling of Grid Connected Hybrid Renewable Energy Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kishore Reddy,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a design and modeling of grid connected hybrid renewable energy power generation. The energy system having a photo voltaic (PV panel, Srg wind turbine and fuel cell (sofc for continuous power flow management. Fuel cells (storage & generating are added to ensure uninterrupted power supply due to the discontinuous nature of solar and wind resources. Renewable energy generated during times of plenty can be stored for use during periods when sufficient electricity is not available. But storing this energy is a difficult task: batteries and similar technologies perform well over short timescales, but over periods of weeks or months a different approach is necessary. Energy storage in the form of hydrogen is one such possibility: excess electricity is fed into an electrolyser to split water into its constituent parts, oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen is then used in fuel cells to produce electricity when needed which will overcome the problem of storage. This work is mainly concentrated on the design, analysis and modelling of Fuel cells and Analysis and modelling of Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG in the application of Wind Energy Generation and pv cell. Also an effective approach is proposed in this thesis to ensure renewable energy diversity and effective utilization. The pv cell, wind and fuel cell renewable energy system is digitally simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK software environment and fully validated for efficient energy utilizations and enhanced interface power quality under different operating conditions and load excursions

  6. A Study on Renewable Power Pricing Mechanism and Price Incentive Policies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The basic framework of price policies for promoting renewable power development in China is introduced.The background,concept and implementation of price policies,focused on wind power,biomass power and solar power,are summarized in the article.The experiences and lessons of implementation of these price policies are analyzed.It is concluded that reasonable price policy is quite effective for promoting renewable power development.According to the requirement of China's renewable power development,the suggestions for improving renewable power pricing mechanism and price incentive policies are proposed.

  7. Power quality in power systems and electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of this must-have reference covers power quality issues in four parts, including new discussions related to renewable energy systems. The first part of the book provides background on causes, effects, standards, and measurements of power quality and harmonics. Once the basics are established the authors move on to harmonic modeling of power systems, including components and apparatus (electric machines). The final part of the book is devoted to power quality mitigation approaches and devices, and the fourth part extends the analysis to power quality solutions for renewable

  8. Renewable energy for professional applications: a guide to implementing off-grid power supplies in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paish, O.; Oldach, R.

    2002-09-01

    These guidelines are intended to help those considering renewable energy systems to supply power to off-grid applications without access to the UK mains electricity network. The guidelines consider: examples of renewable energy systems used applications with a low power demand in the UK; renewable energy technologies relevant to off-grid applications (solar photovoltaics, wind generators, micro-hydro turbines and hybrid systems); nine steps for project implementation; defining and optimising the load application; estimating energy resources when using solar energy, wind power and hydro power; general rules of thumb when choosing a power source; system components such as batteries, inverters, support structure and civil works; basic system sizing calculations; developing a specification and contacting suppliers; checking equipment, installation and commissioning; legal and other non-technical issues; operating issues such as maintenance and safety; and selected case studies from the UK.

  9. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

  10. A Game Theoretical Approach Based Bidding Strategy Optimization for Power Producers in Power Markets with Renewable Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a competitive electricity market with substantial involvement of renewable electricity, maximizing profits by optimizing bidding strategies is crucial to different power producers including conventional power plants and renewable ones. This paper proposes a game-theoretic bidding optimization method based on bi-level programming, where power producers are at the upper level and utility companies are at the lower level. The competition among the multiple power producers is formulated as a non-cooperative game in which bidding curves are their strategies, while uniform clearing pricing is considered for utility companies represented by an independent system operator. Consequently, based on the formulated game model, the bidding strategies for power producers are optimized for the day-ahead market and the intraday market with considering the properties of renewable energy; and the clearing pricing for the utility companies, with respect to the power quantity from different power producers, is optimized simultaneously. Furthermore, a distributed algorithm is provided to search the solution of the generalized Nash equilibrium. Finally, simulation results were performed and discussed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed non-cooperative game-based bi-level optimization approach.

  11. Renewable Energy in Danish Municipalities - an Evaluation of The Planning Framework for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    Wind power is a maturing technology that in a number of countries is likely to contribute a major share to fully renewable energy systems. Denmark has a comparably long history of wind power development and is planning to continue expanding the existing capacity. If a large-scale penetration...... of Denmark, and more specifically to concrete wind power projects in the region of Northern Jutland. The results suggest although certain elements in the legislation have been improved, the feasibility of wind power projects cannot be guaranteed, and there is a tendency to exclude smaller turbines from...

  12. Risk management of non-renewable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Muruva, Hari Prasad

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the basic concepts of risk and reliability with detailed descriptions of the different levels of probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants (both internal and external). The book also maximizes readers insights into time dependent risk analysis through several case studies, whilst risk management with respect to non renewable energy sources is also explained. With several advanced reactors utilizing the concept of passive systems, the reliability estimation of these systems are explained in detail with the book providing a reliability estimation of components through mechanistic model approach. This book is useful for advanced undergraduate and post graduate students in nuclear engineering, aerospace engineering, industrial engineering, reliability and safety engineering, systems engineering and applied probability and statistics. This book is also suitable for one-semester graduate courses on risk management of non renewable energy systems in all conventional engineering bran...

  13. Renewable energy for sustainable electrical energy system in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallah, Subhash; Bansal, N.K. [Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra 182320, Jammu and Kashmir (India)

    2010-08-15

    Present trends of electrical energy supply and demand are not sustainable because of the huge gap between demand and supply in foreseeable future in India. The path towards sustainability is exploitation of energy conservation and aggressive use of renewable energy systems. Potential of renewable energy technologies that can be effectively harnessed would depend on future technology developments and breakthrough in cost reduction. This requires adequate policy guidelines and interventions in the Indian power sector. Detailed MARKAL simulations, for power sector in India, show that full exploitation of energy conservation potential and an aggressive implementation of renewable energy technologies lead to sustainable development. Coal and other fossil fuel (gas and oil) allocations stagnated after the year 2015 and remain constant up to 2040. After the year 2040, the requirement for coal and gas goes down and carbon emissions decrease steeply. By the year 2045, 25% electrical energy can be supplied by renewable energy and the CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by 72% as compared to the base case scenario. (author)

  14. Control and power electronics technology in renewable energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As the cut-in point of research on control and power electronics technology used in renewable energy, this paper does not aim to analyze particular theories or tech-nologies in this field, but, instead, is to go back to the fountainhead of the issue to illustrate the essential concepts in this field, which are usually neglected and may become bottle-neck of the research. Research experiences have shown that con-fusion and trouble may be created if researchers do not understand these essential concepts well.

  15. Five Indisputable Facts on Modern Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holttinen, Hannele [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland; Helman, Udi [Helman Analytics; Summers, Kate [Pacific Hydro; Bakke, Jordan [Midcontinent Independent System Operator

    2017-08-01

    This presentation overviews five indisputable facts about modern power systems: Fact one: The grid can handle more renewable generation than previously thought. Fact two: Geographic and resource diversity provide additional reliability to the system. Fact three: Wind and solar forecasting provide significant value. Fact four: Our electric power markets were not originally designed for variable renewables -- but they could be adapted. Fact five: Modern power electronics are creating new sources of essential reliability services.

  16. Optimizing the U.S. Electric System with a High Penetration of Renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, B. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2013-12-01

    As renewable energy generators are increasingly being installed throughout the U.S., there is growing interest in interconnecting diverse renewable generators (primarily wind and solar) across large geographic areas through an enhanced transmission system. This reduces variability in the aggregate power output, increases system reliability, and allows for the development of the best overall group of renewable technologies and sites to meet the load. Studies are therefore needed to determine the most efficient and economical plan to achieve large area interconnections in a future electric system with a high penetration of renewables. This research quantifies the effects of aggregating electric load together with diverse renewable generation throughout the ten Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regions in the contiguous U.S. A deterministic linear program has been built in AMPL (A Mathematical Programming Language) to solve for the least-cost organizational structure and system (generators, transmission, and storage) for a highly renewable electric grid. The analysis will 1) examine a highly renewable 2006 electric system, including various sensitivity cases and additional system components such as additional load from electric vehicles, and 2) create a 'roadmap' from the existing 2006 system to a highly renewable system in 2030, accounting for projected price and demand changes and generator retirements based on age and environmental regulations. Ideally, results from this study will offer insight for a federal renewable energy policy (such as a renewable portfolio standard) and how to best organize U.S. regions for transmission planning.

  17. Multifunctional Voltage Source Inverter for Renewable Energy Integration and Power Quality Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundame...

  18. The role of district heating in future renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Möller, Bernd; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2010-01-01

    heating options, including district heating as well as individual heat pumps and micro CHPs (Combined Heat and Power). The study includes almost 25 per cent of the Danish building stock, namely those buildings which have individual gas or oil boilers today and could be substituted by district heating...... or a more efficient individual heat source. In such overall perspective, the best solution will be to combine a gradual expansion of district heating with individual heat pumps in the remaining houses. Such conclusion is valid in the present systems, which are mainly based on fossil fuels, as well......Based on the case of Denmark, this paper analyses the role of district heating in future Renewable Energy Systems. At present, the share of renewable energy is coming close to 20 per cent. From such point of departure, the paper defines a scenario framework in which the Danish system is converted...

  19. Replacing coal power in Canada with renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadlock, C.; Kansal, V.; Kegel, M. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    At present, coal represents 19 per cent of Canada's energy production and is responsible for 80 per cent of the energy industry's greenhouse gases (GHG). It has been estimated that GHG emission levels can be reduced by 14 per cent if coal power is replaced with a cleaner energy source. This paper suggested that, due to dwindling natural gas reserves, renewable energy sources should be considered as an economically viable substitute for coal. A breakdown of energy production in Canada in 2002 was presented, along with details of Canadian emissions. The total capacity and annual generation of emissions from coal were presented, as well as additional sources of pollution, such as transboundary pollution. Various government incentives for renewable energy source development were discussed. Wind energy costs were examined along with geothermal energy, tidal energy, biomass energy, and solar energy. Rebate programs were reviewed. The gradual elimination of coal as an energy source was examined by region. Details of alternative energy methods were presented, along with their associated costs. Costs were compared to coal production and did not include any government subsidies. It was concluded that the majority of renewable resources in Canada are competitive with coal prices and in some cases cheaper. However, the resources cannot meet the electricity demands of all regions. It was suggested that wind energy is often an excellent alternative to meeting demand, but that wind power is the only natural resource that actually costs more than coal. An incentive program similar to that of Denmark was proposed, whereby the subsidy decreases every 2 years to keep in line with projected technological improvements and rising energy rates. 37 refs., 9 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. Consideration on a Low Power Solar Energy Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Marusca

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the implementation of a low powersolar energy renewable source. To optimize theconversion efficiency of the solar irradiance intoelectrical energy an embedded system was designed. Theembedded system can accomplish the maximum powerpoint tracking by evaluation the output voltage andcurrent of the photovoltaic panels and calculate a propercommand for the DC-DC converter of the renewablesource. The key device in this system is a midrange 8 bitmicrocontroller that consists of acquisition, commandand control integrated hardware resources.

  1. High Efficiency Bi-Directional Converter Used For Renewable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Desal Raja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Isolated bi-directional converter for renewable system. Voltage stress and current stress was decreses in switches. Power flows in both side. The proposed converter three phase ac voltage to dc voltage, dc voltage to three phase a.c voltage and synchronous the two voltage source. Silicon carbide diodes and bi-directional switches Mosfet’s are used for decreases the switching loss. LC Series resonant converter connected to the high efficiency. This converter power conversion control by the output voltage information.

  2. The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

    2013-06-15

    would both create large numbers of jobs and increase economic growth. - RE-relevant sectors are labor-intensive and can create a significant number of jobs in MENA and internationally. - MENA industry has already acquired local manufacturing capacity in a number of RE components. It can greatly expand this industry capability by focusing on the components that have the potential to be manufactured locally in the short term. - A market-friendly approach to industrial policy can help maximize the local benefits of desert power for RE-generating countries in a sustainable way. EIDP is the first report that fully integrates the three key renewable generation technologies - Wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies - into a region-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The report provides transparency on the job impacts of a transition to renewable energy by fully detailing all assumptions and background, including a detailed overview of MENA's current and (projected) future industry capabilities. It also differentiates between direct and indirect employment effects. Finally, the combination of a quantitative economic model and a market-oriented, qualitative approach to policy support aims to promote discussion and debate with a wide range of stakeholders: from policy-makers to economists and from industry to civil society. Dii's report, ''Desert Power 2050'', shows the desirability and feasibility of a secure and stable power system for EUMENA based almost entirely on renewables. ''Desert Power 2050'', like Dii's country studies and reference projects, aims to promote the creation of markets for Wind, PV, and CSP in MENA. The second part of this report, ''Desert Power: Getting Started'', demonstrates specific pathways for enabling such markets in the coming years. It is generally assumed that a large number of jobs and a significant increase in economic

  3. Smoothing effect for spatially distributed renewable resources and its impact on power grid robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Motoki; Hirata, Yoshito; Fujiwara, Naoya; Tanaka, Gouhei; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we show that spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs greatly influences the robustness of the power grids against large fluctuations of the effective power. First, we evaluate the spatial correlation among renewable energy outputs. We find that the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs depends on the locations, while the influence of the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs on power grids is not well known. Thus, second, by employing the topology of the power grid in eastern Japan, we analyze the robustness of the power grid with spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs. The analysis is performed by using a realistic differential-algebraic equations model. The results show that the spatial correlation of the energy resources strongly degrades the robustness of the power grid. Our results suggest that we should consider the spatial correlation of the renewable energy outputs when estimating the stability of power grids.

  4. Representation of variable renewable energy sources in TIMER, an aggregated energy system simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Harmen Sytze (H S.).; van Vuuren, Detlef (D P.).|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X

    2017-01-01

    The power system is expected to play an important role in climate change mitigation. Variable renewable energy (VRE) sources, such as wind and solar power, are currently showing rapid growth rates in power systems worldwide, and could also be important in future mitigation strategies. It is

  5. Comparison study between a Renewable Energy Supply System and a supergrid for achieving 100% from renewable energy sources in Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    Numerous efforts have been done for achieving the maximum penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the autonomous grids of Greek islands, which never exceeded 10%, despite the exceptional wind and solar potential. Large fluctuations on demand during summer, winter, and 24-h period...... in combination with the technical restrictions of diesel generators of the existing conventional power stations are a major concern of power supply system. Reversing the roles of diesel generators and wind farms (WFs), to use WF as the basic energy source and diesel generators as stand-by system changed in fact...... the stochastic behavior of wind energy to the demand, to provide the system with guaranteed power. This Wind–Hydro Plants in combination with the most adequate RES forming an Renewable Energy Supply System (RESS), increase further the economical penetration of RES into autonomous grids up to 90% or even 100...

  6. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Here, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energyplanning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system...... is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production of food. The integration of the transport with the energy system is crucial as is a multi-pronged strategy. Short term solutions have to consider...

  7. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoglund, Annika [Dep. of Industrial Economics, Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedts vaeg 30, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael [Div. of Electricity, Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Uppsala University, Aangstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Rehn, Alf [Dep. of Business Administration, Aabo Akademi University, Henriksgatan 7FIN-20500 Aabo (Finland); Lindahl, Marcus [Div. of Industrial Management, Uppsala University, Aangstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-15

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO{sub 2} neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable

  8. Rethinking the Future Grid: Integrated Nuclear Renewable Energy Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Boardman, R.; Ruth, M.; Zinaman, O.; Forsberg, C.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet both grid demand and thermal energy needs in the industrial sector. One concept under consideration by the DOE-NE and DOE-EERE is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a 'hybrid system' that is capable of apportioning thermal and electrical energy to first meet the grid demand (with appropriate power conversion systems), then utilizing excess thermal and, in some cases, electrical energy to drive a process that results in an additional product.

  9. Heating technologies for limiting biomass consumption in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    district heating enables the use of combined heat and power production (CPH) and other renewable resources than biomass such as large-scale solar thermal, large-heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat etc. which is important for reducing the biomass consumption. Where the energy density......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems and buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply also in 100% renewable energy systems. The analyses of heating technologies show that district heating systems are especially important in limiting...... the dependence on biomass resources and to create cost effective systems. District heating systems are especially important in renewable energy systems with large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy sources as it enables fuel efficient and lower cost energy systems with thermal heat storages. And also...

  10. Stockholm Power Tech. Power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The proceedings from this symposium is presented in six volumes: Invited speakers` sessions; Power systems; Power electronics; High-voltage technology; Electrical machines and drives; and Information and control systems. This report covers the power systems volume. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 141 of the 145 papers in this volume

  11. Renewable energy systems a smart energy systems approach to the choice and modeling of 100% renewable solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In this new edition of Renewable Energy Systems, globally recognized renewable energy researcher and professor, Henrik Lund, sets forth a straightforward, comprehensive methodology for comparing different energy systems' abilities to integrate fluctuating and intermittent renewable energy sources. The book does this by presenting an energy system analysis methodology and offering a freely available accompanying software tool, EnergyPLAN, which automates and simplifies the calculations supporting such a detailed comparative analysis. The book provides the results of more than fifteen comprehensive energy system analysis studies, examines the large-scale integration of renewable energy into the present system, and presents concrete design examples derived from a dozen renewable energy systems around the globe. Renewable Energy Systems, Second Edition also undertakes the socio-political realities governing the implementation of renewable energy systems by introducing a theoretical framework approach aimed at ...

  12. Can Australia Power the Energy-Hungry Asia with Renewable Energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Gulagi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement points out that countries need to shift away from the existing fossil-fuel-based energy system to limit the average temperature rise to 1.5 or 2 °C. A cost-optimal 100% renewable energy based system is simulated for East Asia for the year 2030, covering demand by power, desalination, and industrial gas sectors on an hourly basis for an entire year. East Asia was divided into 20 sub-regions and four different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage grid connection, and additional demand sectors: power, desalination, industrial gas, and a renewable-energy-based synthetic natural gas (RE-SNG trading between regions. The integrated RE-SNG scenario gives the lowest cost of electricity (€52/MWh and the lowest total annual cost of the system. Results contradict the notion that long-distance power lines could be beneficial to utilize the abundant solar and wind resources in Australia for East Asia. However, Australia could become a liquefaction hub for exporting RE-SNG to Asia and a 100% renewable energy system could be a reality in East Asia with the cost assumptions used. This may also be more cost-competitive than nuclear and fossil fuel carbon capture and storage alternatives.

  13. 78 FR 37324 - Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 51 and 54 RIN 3150-AI42 Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant..., Supplement 1 (RG 4.2S1), ``Preparation of Environmental Reports for Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal... reports that are submitted with the application for the renewal of a nuclear power plant operating...

  14. 78 FR 46255 - Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AI42 Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant... environmental effect of renewing the operating license of a nuclear power plant. Compliance with the provisions... nuclear power plant. This document is necessary to clarify and correct the revisions made to the......

  15. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  16. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Many countries - reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems - are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  17. Adapting AC Lines to DC Grids for Large-Scale Renewable Power Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Marene Larruskain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, governments of different countries are nowadays promoting the use of clean energies in order to achieve sustainable energy systems. In this scenario, since the installed capacity is continuously increasing, renewable sources can play an important role. Notwithstanding that, some important problems may appear when connecting these sources to the grid, being the overload of distribution lines one of the most relevant. In fact, renewable generation is usually connected to the nearest AC grid, although this HV system may not have been designed considering distributed generation. In the particular case of large wind farms, the electrical grid has to transmit all the power generated by wind energy and, as a consequence, the AC system may get overloaded. It is therefore necessary to determine the impact of wind power transmission so that appropriate measures can be taken. Not only are these measures influenced by the amount of power transmitted, but also by the quality of the transmitted power, due to the output voltage fluctuation caused by the highly variable nature of wind. When designing a power grid, although AC systems are usually the most economical solution because of its highly proven technology, HVDC may arise in some cases (e.g. offshore wind farms as an interesting alternative, offering some added values such as lower losses and better controllability. This way, HVDC technology can solve most of the aforementioned problems and has a good potential for future use. Additionally, the fast development of power electronics based on new and powerful semiconductor devices allow the spread of innovative technologies, such as VSC-HVDC, which can be applied to create DC grids. This paper focuses on the main aspects involved in adapting the existing overhead AC lines to DC grids, with the objective of improving the transmission of distributed renewable energy to the centers of consumption.

  18. Operational flexibility and economics of power plants in future low-carbon power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; van den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Seebregts, Ad; Faaij, André

    2015-01-01

    Future power systems will require large shares of low-carbon generators such as renewables and power plants with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) to keep global warming below 2. °C. Intermittent renewables increase the system-wide demand for flexibility and affect the operation of thermal power plan

  19. Operational flexibility and economics of power plants in future low-carbon power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; van den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Seebregts, Ad; Faaij, André

    2015-01-01

    Future power systems will require large shares of low-carbon generators such as renewables and power plants with Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) to keep global warming below 2. °C. Intermittent renewables increase the system-wide demand for flexibility and affect the operation of thermal power

  20. Novel Polymers for High Efficiency Renewable and Portable Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-30

    systems with frontier orbital levels (HOMOs and LUMOs) and morphologies systematically investigated and optimized for high efficiency photoelectric and...of polymer-dye covalently linked systems that could efficiently convert light/heat into electrical power. Therefore, frontier orbital matching...force between the polymer and dye would result in weaker PL quenching and optoelectronic device power conversion efficiency , this experimentally

  1. Large scale renewable power generation advances in technologies for generation, transmission and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the issues of integrating large-scale renewable power generation into existing grids. The issues covered in this book include different types of renewable power generation along with their transmission and distribution, storage and protection. It also contains the development of medium voltage converters for step-up-transformer-less direct grid integration of renewable generation units, grid codes and resiliency analysis for large-scale renewable power generation, active power and frequency control and HVDC transmission. The emerging SMES technology for controlling and int

  2. Wind power in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The second edition of the highly acclaimed Wind Power in Power Systems has been thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the latest challenges associated with increasing wind power penetration levels. Since its first release, practical experiences with high wind power penetration levels have significantly increased. This book presents an overview of the lessons learned in integrating wind power into power systems and provides an outlook of the relevant issues and solutions to allow even higher wind power penetration levels. This includes the development of standard wind turbine sim

  3. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Many countries—reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems—are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  4. Regulation of Renewable Energy Sources to Optimal Power Flow Solutions Using ADMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yijian [Iowa State University; Hong, Mingyi [Iowa State University; Dhople, Sairaj [University of Minnesota; Xu, Zi [Shanghai University

    2017-07-03

    This paper considers power distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources (RESs), and develops a distributed optimization method to steer the RES output powers to solutions of AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The design of the proposed method leverages suitable linear approximations of the AC-power flow equations, and is based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). Convergence of the RES-inverter output powers to solutions of the OPF problem is established under suitable conditions on the stepsize as well as mismatches between the commanded setpoints and actual RES output powers. In a broad sense, the methods and results proposed here are also applicable to other distributed optimization problem setups with ADMM and inexact dual updates.

  5. Regulation of Renewable Energy Sources to Optimal Power Flow Solutions Using ADMM: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yijian; Hong, Mingyi; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj; Xu, Zi

    2017-03-03

    This paper considers power distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources (RESs), and develops a distributed optimization method to steer the RES output powers to solutions of AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The design of the proposed method leverages suitable linear approximations of the AC-power flow equations, and is based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). Convergence of the RES-inverter output powers to solutions of the OPF problem is established under suitable conditions on the stepsize as well as mismatches between the commanded setpoints and actual RES output powers. In a broad sense, the methods and results proposed here are also applicable to other distributed optimization problem setups with ADMM and inexact dual updates.

  6. Buying Renewable Electric Power in Montgomery County, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cember, Richard P.

    2008-08-01

    From mid-August 2007 until mid-August 2008, my home electricity supply was 100% wind-generated. My experience in switching to wind-generated electric power may be of interest to fellow AGU members for three reasons. First, Montgomery County, Md., where I live, is one of the few jurisdictions in the United States that has both an electric power tax and a renewable energy credit. The county is therefore a case study in price-based public policy for greenhouse gas emissions control. Second, I was surprised by the comparatively small price difference (or ``price premium'') between wind-generated and conventionally generated power in the county, and I believe that Eos readers will be similarly surprised. Third, because so many U.S. federal agencies concerned with Earth science are based in the Washington, D. C., area, a high concentration of AGU members live in Montgomery County and may be personally interested in evaluating the price of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the generation of their own residential electricity.

  7. Wind Power: A Renewable Energy Source for Mars Transit Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Kohout, Lisa; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Martian environment presents significant design challenges for the development of power generation systems. Nuclear-based systems may not be available due to political and safety concerns. The output of photovoltaics are limited by a solar intensity of 580 W/sqm as compared to 1353 W/sqm on Earth. The presence of dust particles in the Mars atmosphere will further reduce the photovoltaic output. Also, energy storage for a 12-hour night period must be provided. In this challenging environment, wind power generation capabilities may provide a viable option as a Martian power generation system. This paper provides an analysis of the feasibility of such a system.

  8. The potential of renewables versus natural gas with CO2 capture and storage for power generation under CO2 constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Berghout, Niels|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328201057; Rubin, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    The costs of intermittent renewable energy systems (IRES) and power storage technologies are compared on a level playing field to those of natural gas combined cycle power plants with CO2 capture and storage (NGCC-CCS). To account for technological progress over time, an "experience curve

  9. The potential of renewables versus natural gas with CO2 capture and storage for power generation under CO2 constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Broek, Machteld; Berghout, Niels; Rubin, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    The costs of intermittent renewable energy systems (IRES) and power storage technologies are compared on a level playing field to those of natural gas combined cycle power plants with CO2 capture and storage (NGCC-CCS). To account for technological progress over time, an "experience curve

  10. The potential of renewables versus natural gas with CO2 capture and storage for power generation under CO2 constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Broek, Machteld; Berghout, Niels; Rubin, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    The costs of intermittent renewable energy systems (IRES) and power storage technologies are compared on a level playing field to those of natural gas combined cycle power plants with CO2 capture and storage (NGCC-CCS). To account for technological progress over time, an "experience

  11. The Development of the Renewable Energy Power Industry under Feed-In Tariff and Renewable Portfolio Standard: A Case Study of China’s Photovoltaic Power Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuzhuo Zhang; Xingang Zhao; Yi Zuo; Lingzhi Ren; Ling Wang

    2017-01-01

    ...) are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy...

  12. How to develop renewable power in China? A cost-effective perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

    2014-01-01

    To address the problems of climate change and energy security, Chinese government strived to develop renewable power as an important alternative of conventional electricity. In this paper, the learning curve model is employed to describe the decreasing unit investment cost due to accumulated installed capacity; the technology diffusion model is used to analyze the potential of renewable power. Combined with the investment cost, the technology potential, and scenario analysis of China social development in the future, we develop the Renewable Power Optimization Model (RPOM) to analyze the optimal development paths of three sources of renewable power from 2009 to 2020 in a cost-effective way. Results show that (1) the optimal accumulated installed capacities of wind power, solar power, and biomass power will reach 169000, 20000, and 30000 MW in 2020; (2) the developments of renewable power show the intermittent feature; (3) the unit investment costs of wind power, solar power, and biomass power will be 4500, 11500, and 5700 Yuan/KW in 2020; (4) the discounting effect dominates the learning curve effect for solar and biomass powers; (5) the rise of on-grid ratio of renewable power will first promote the development of wind power and then solar power and biomass power.

  13. How to Develop Renewable Power in China? A Cost-Effective Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Gang Cong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To address the problems of climate change and energy security, Chinese government strived to develop renewable power as an important alternative of conventional electricity. In this paper, the learning curve model is employed to describe the decreasing unit investment cost due to accumulated installed capacity; the technology diffusion model is used to analyze the potential of renewable power. Combined with the investment cost, the technology potential, and scenario analysis of China social development in the future, we develop the Renewable Power Optimization Model (RPOM to analyze the optimal development paths of three sources of renewable power from 2009 to 2020 in a cost-effective way. Results show that (1 the optimal accumulated installed capacities of wind power, solar power, and biomass power will reach 169000, 20000, and 30000 MW in 2020; (2 the developments of renewable power show the intermittent feature; (3 the unit investment costs of wind power, solar power, and biomass power will be 4500, 11500, and 5700 Yuan/KW in 2020; (4 the discounting effect dominates the learning curve effect for solar and biomass powers; (5 the rise of on-grid ratio of renewable power will first promote the development of wind power and then solar power and biomass power.

  14. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  15. Solar belt and wind farm oasis. Which portion have renewable energy sources at the power generation in Chile?; Sonnenguertel und Windparkoasen. Welchen Anteil haben Erneuerbare Energien an der Stromerzeugung in Chile?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarzua, Tatiana [DGS, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the portion of renewable energies at the power generation in Chile. The technically usable potential of renewable energy sources (hydroelectric power plants, photovoltaic systems, wind power plant, geothermal power plants, biogas plants, ocean energy systems) as well as the already approved photovoltaic systems are presented.

  16. Converters for Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2015-01-01

    Power electronics technology has become the enabling technology for the integration of distributed power generation systems (DPGS) such as offshore wind turbine power systems and commercial photovoltaic power plants. Depending on the applications, a vast array of DPGS-based power converter...... presents an overview of the power converters for the DPGS, mainly based on wind turbine systems and photovoltaic systems, covering a wide range of applications. Moreover, the modulation schemes and interfacing power filters for the power converters are also exemplified. Finally, the general control...... topologies has been developed and more are coming into the market in order to achieve an efficient and reliable power conversion from the renewables. In addition, stringent demands from both the distribution system operators and the consumers have been imposed on the renewable-based DPGS. This article...

  17. Multifunctional Voltage Source Inverter for Renewable Energy Integration and Power Quality Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NingYi Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity.

  18. Multifunctional voltage source inverter for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, NingYi; Lam, Chi-Seng; Zhang, WenChen

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity.

  19. Renewable Energy Based Floating Power Generator (Rivers and Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. J.R.Gandhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a stand alone, (river and canal water stream floating power generator system for village electrification, agriculture water pumping, bridge street lights and such other utilities. The system is the unique one of its kind as per our knowledge and various surveys. The physical structure of the system is made of the non corrosive and unbreakable materials like mild steel, fiber glass etc. It works, as it rotates in the water flow. It does not require any kind of the external electric grid power for its working. As the water flows, the specially designed blades of the system rotate in the direction of the flow and ultimately the consistent power is generated, this power can be used directly or it may be stored in battery and the utilized as and when required. No permanent installation, No pollution and environment friendly floating Pico turbine. The observations taken from the sight are tabulated and accordingly results are discussed.

  20. Identifying The Most Applicable Renewable Energy Systems Of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Mousavi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available These years because of energy crisis all of country try to find a new way to reduce energy consumptions and obtain maximum use of renewable energy. Iran also is not an exception of this progress. Renewable energy is energy that is provided by renewable sources such as the sun or wind. In general renewable energies are not adaptable to every single community. Because of location and special climate conditions of Iran most applicable renewable energy systems in Iran are solar and wind energy. Main purpose of this paper is to review and identify most applicable renewable energy systems of Iran and also review on traditional and current methods that utilized to obtain maximum use of these renewable energies.

  1. Flexibility requirements for fossil-fired power plants to support the growth of the share of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Lars; Fruth, Mathias [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Pfaff, Imo [E.ON New Build and Technology GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    The planned increase of renewable generation in Germany to more than 100,000 MW of installed capacity within the next decade will result in significant changes to the existing electrical energy system. Fossil-fired power plants will remain inevitable to guarantee supply security. The maximum, securely available power plant capacity probably has to correspond to current level. This power plant park has to meet more stringent requirements in order to support the further extension of renewables-based generation. However, economic incentives, like e.g. necessary reward of flexible operation, are being missing. (orig.)

  2. Integration of stochastic generation in power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaefthymiou, G.

    2007-01-01

    Stochastic Generation is the electrical power production by the use of an uncontrollable prime energy mover, corresponding mainly to renewable energy sources. For the large-scale integration of stochastic generation in power systems, methods are necessary for the modeling of power generation

  3. Integration of stochastic generation in power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaefthymiou, G.

    2007-01-01

    Stochastic Generation is the electrical power production by the use of an uncontrollable prime energy mover, corresponding mainly to renewable energy sources. For the large-scale integration of stochastic generation in power systems, methods are necessary for the modeling of power generation uncerta

  4. Integration of stochastic generation in power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaefthymiou, G.

    2007-01-01

    Stochastic Generation is the electrical power production by the use of an uncontrollable prime energy mover, corresponding mainly to renewable energy sources. For the large-scale integration of stochastic generation in power systems, methods are necessary for the modeling of power generation uncerta

  5. The Power Purchase Optimization Model in China considering the Renewable Energy Risks under Different Risk Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiu He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the strategic target of energy conservation and emission reduction, China is vigorously developing its large-scale and distributed renewable energy power generation industry, dominated by wind power and photovoltaic power generation. In the new situation of renewable energy power interconnection, the grid company in China must fully consider the risks caused by renewable energy when making power purchase optimization decisions. This paper sets up a power purchasing model considering the risks of the renewable energy power interconnection and testifies to the effectiveness of the model through a case study. On this basis, this paper puts forward several reasonable suggestions to help the grid company make power purchase decisions under different risk preferences.

  6. Seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar power in a future, highly renewable Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Bremen, Lueder von; Greiner, Martin

    2010-01-01

    behaviors are able to counterbalance each other to a certain extent to follow the seasonal load curve. The best point of counterbalancing represents the seasonal optimal mix between wind and solar power generation. It leads to a pronounced minimum in required stored energy. For a 100% renewable Europe......The renewable power generation aggregated across Europe exhibits strong seasonal behaviors. Wind power generation is much stronger in winter than in summer. The opposite is true for solar power generation. In a future Europe with a very high share of renewable power generation those two opposite...... the seasonal optimal mix becomes 55% wind and 45% solar power generation. For less than 100% renewable scenarios the fraction of wind power generation increases and that of solar power generation decreases....

  7. Power Electronics Control of Wind Energy in Distributed Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  8. Optimal bidding strategy of wind farms for joint operation with other ‎renewable resources in power market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein parastegari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal operation and bidding strategy of renewable units are two important problems of the restructured power market. In this paper, a new method for the joint operation of wind, photovoltaic and pump-storage units in day ahead power market is studied to increase the profit of joint units. In this study, artificial neural network is used to predict the wind power generation of wind farms. Since, there are uncertainties in energy and reserve prices, wind and photovoltaic power generation, the optimal operation of joint units can be modeled as a stochastic optimization problem. For this purpose, uncertainties of parameters are modeled by scenario tree method. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on the renewable energy resources (wind farms, photovoltaic and pump-storage units of the modified IEEE 118 bus test system. Results of the proposed joint operation of renewable resources confirm that the value of expected profit increases in comparison with uncoordinated operation (UO of units.

  9. Smoothing effect for spatially distributed renewable resources and its impact on power grid robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Motoki; Fujiwara, Naoya; Tanaka, Gouhei; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we show that spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs greatly influences the robustness of power grids. First, we propose a new index for the spatial correlation among renewable energy outputs. We find that the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs in a short time-scale is as weak as that caused by independent random variables and that in a long time-scale is as strong as that under perfect synchronization. Then, by employing the topology of the power grid in eastern Japan, we analyze the robustness of the power grid with spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs. The analysis is performed by using a realistic differential-algebraic equations model and the result shows that the spatial correlation of the energy resources strongly degrades the robustness of the power grid. Our result suggests that the spatial correlation of the renewable energy outputs should be taken into account when estimating the stability of power grids.

  10. Efficient thermal desalination technologies with renewable energy systems: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Yoo, ChangKyoo [Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Due to the current fossil fuel crisis and associated adverse environmental impacts, renewable energy sources (RES) have drawn interest as alternatives to fossil fuels for powering water desalination systems. Over the last few decades the utility of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and wind to run desalination processes has been explored. However, the expansion of these technologies to larger scales is hampered by techno-economic and thermo-economic challenges. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of renewable energy-powered thermal desalination systems (RE-PTD) to compare their productivity and efficiency through thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses. We performed a comparative study using published data to classify RE-PTD systems technologies on the basis of the energy collection systems that they use. Among RE-PTD systems, solar energy powered-thermal desalination systems demonstrate high thermo-environ-economic efficiency to produce fresh water to meet various scales of demand.

  11. The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

    2013-06-15

    would both create large numbers of jobs and increase economic growth. - RE-relevant sectors are labor-intensive and can create a significant number of jobs in MENA and internationally. - MENA industry has already acquired local manufacturing capacity in a number of RE components. It can greatly expand this industry capability by focusing on the components that have the potential to be manufactured locally in the short term. - A market-friendly approach to industrial policy can help maximize the local benefits of desert power for RE-generating countries in a sustainable way. EIDP is the first report that fully integrates the three key renewable generation technologies - Wind, solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) technologies - into a region-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The report provides transparency on the job impacts of a transition to renewable energy by fully detailing all assumptions and background, including a detailed overview of MENA's current and (projected) future industry capabilities. It also differentiates between direct and indirect employment effects. Finally, the combination of a quantitative economic model and a market-oriented, qualitative approach to policy support aims to promote discussion and debate with a wide range of stakeholders: from policy-makers to economists and from industry to civil society. Dii's report, ''Desert Power 2050'', shows the desirability and feasibility of a secure and stable power system for EUMENA based almost entirely on renewables. ''Desert Power 2050'', like Dii's country studies and reference projects, aims to promote the creation of markets for Wind, PV, and CSP in MENA. The second part of this report, ''Desert Power: Getting Started'', demonstrates specific pathways for enabling such markets in the coming years. It is generally assumed that a large number of jobs and a significant increase in economic

  12. Development Track of Renewable Power Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Jianchao; Tan Zhongfu; Zhao Jianbao; Li Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ Introduction Within the context of deeper global energy shortage and increasingly more polluted environment, countries throughout the world have been actively developing renewable energy sources to replace the fossil fuel, enhance the energy supply efficiency and relieve the environmental pollution. The renewable energy sources consist of hydropower and new energy sources, which are not defined exactly the same in different countries.

  13. Power flow tracing in a simplified highly renewable European electricity network

    CERN Document Server

    Tranberg, Bo; Rodriguez, Rolando A; Andresen, Gorm B; Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The increasing transmission capacity needs in a future energy system raise the question how associated costs should be allocated to the users of a strengthened power grid. In contrast to straightforward oversimplified methods, a flow tracing based approach provides a fair and consistent nodal usage and thus cost assignment of transmission investments. This technique follows the power flow through the network and assigns the link capacity usage to the respective sources or sinks using a diffusion-like process, thus taking into account the underlying network structure and injection pattern. As a showcase, we apply power flow tracing to a simplified model of the European electricity grid with a high share of renewable wind and solar power generation, based on long-term weather and load data with an hourly temporal resolution.

  14. A New Energy Management Technique for PV/Wind/Grid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozdal Mengi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent energy management system (IEMS for maintaining the energy sustainability in renewable energy systems (RES is introduced here. It consists of wind and photovoltaic (PV solar panels are established and used to test the proposed IEMS. Since the wind and solar sources are not reliable in terms of sustainability and power quality, a management system is required for supplying the load power demand. The power generated by RES is collected on a common DC bus as a renewable green power pool to be used for supplying power to loads. The renewable DC power bus is operated in a way that there is always a base power available for permanent loads. Then the additional power requirement is supplied from either wind or PV or both depending upon the availability of these power sources. The decision about operating these systems is given by an IEMS with fuzzy logic decision maker proposed in this study. Using the generated and required power information from the wind/PV and load sides, the fuzzy reasoning based IEMS determines the amount of power to be supplied from each or both sources. Besides, the IEMS tracks the maximum power operating point of the wind energy system.

  15. Comprehensive Evaluation of Coordination Development for Regional Power Grid and Renewable Energy Power Supply Based on Improved Matter Element Extension and TOPSIS Method for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Xu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the background of exhaustion of the traditional fossil energy sources, developing renewable energy has become a strategic choice for China to achieve energy sustainable utilization and energy security. The coordination between renewable energy generation and the traditional power grid is a problem that needs to be solved in the development of the power grid. The three sectors of power generation, transmission, distribution, and scheduling are considered comprehensively in this paper and an evaluation index system for the development of renewable energy and traditional power grid is designed. The traditional method of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) is improved using the idea of matter element extension, and mathematical model of comprehensive evaluation is constructed. Combined with the development index data of a regional power grid and renewable energy sources in Ningxia province, this paper applied the evaluation model to empirical research. The results show that the model meets the real situation of development of the regional power grid and renewable energy generation and has certain reference and promotion significance.

  16. Robust power system frequency control

    CERN Document Server

    Bevrani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition of the industry standard reference on power system frequency control provides practical, systematic and flexible algorithms for regulating load frequency, offering new solutions to the technical challenges introduced by the escalating role of distributed generation and renewable energy sources in smart electric grids. The author emphasizes the physical constraints and practical engineering issues related to frequency in a deregulated environment, while fostering a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and robust control techniques. The resulting control strategi

  17. Design of a mediated enzymatic fuel cell to generate power from renewable fuel sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Seyda; Kilic, Muhammet Samet

    2016-01-01

    The present work reported a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) based on newly synthesized Poly(pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid-co-3-thiophene acetic acid) film containing glucose oxidase and laccase effectively wired by p-benzoquinone incorporated into the copolymer structure. The resulting system generated a power density of 18.8 µW/cm(2) with 30 mM of glucose addition at +0.94 V at room temperature. Improvements to maximize the power output were ensured with step-by-step optimization of electrode fabrication design and operational parameters for operating the system with renewable fuel sources. We demonstrated that the improved fuel cell could easily harvest glucose produced during photosynthesis to produce electrical energy in a simple, renewable and sustainable way by generating a power density of 10 nW/cm(2) in the plant leaf within 2 min. An EFC for the first time was successfully operated in municipal wastewater which contained glycolytic substances to generate electrical energy with a power output of 3.3 µW/cm(2).

  18. Power Quality Improvement at Distribution Level for Grid Connected Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Syed Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The non-linear load current harmonics may result in voltage harmonics and can create a serious PQ problem in the power system network. Active power filters (APF are extensively used to compensate the load current harmonics and load unbalance at distribution level. This results in an additional hardware cost. However, in this project it has incorporated the features of APF in the conventional inverter interfacing renewable with the grid, without any additional hardware cost. Here, the main idea is the maximum utilization of inverter rating which is most of the time underutilized due to intermittent nature of RES. The grid-interfacing inverter can effectively be utilized to perform the four important functions they are to transfer active power harvested from the renewable resources (wind, solar, etc., load reactive power demand support, current harmonics compensation at PCC and current unbalance and neutral current compensation in case of 3-phase 4-wire system. Moreover, with adequate control of grid-interfacing inverter, all the four objectives can be accomplished either individually or simultaneously. The PQ constraints at the PCC can therefore be strictly maintained within the utility standards without additional hardware cost. With such a control, the combination of grid-interfacing inverter and the 3-phase 4-wire linear/non-linear unbalanced load at point of common coupling appears as balanced linear load to the grid. This new control concept is demonstrated with extensive MATLAB/Simulink simulation studies

  19. Cross-border versus cross-sector interconnectivity in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In the transition to renewable energy systems, fluctuating renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, plays a large and important role. This creates a challenge in terms of meeting demands, as the energy production fluctuates based on weather patterns. To utilise high amounts of fluctuating...... renewable energy, the energy system has to be more flexible in terms of decoupling demand and production. This paper investigates two potential ways to increase flexibility. The first is the interconnection between energy systems, for instance between two countries, labelled as cross-border interconnection....... The results show that while both measures increase the system utilisation of renewable energy and the system efficiency, the cross-sector interconnection gives the best system performance. To analyse the possible interaction between cross-sector and cross-border interconnectivity, two main aspects have...

  20. Can renewable energy replace nuclear power in Korea? An economic valuation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Ho [Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology, Korea Technology Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Woo Jin [Graduate School of Information, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hwan; Lee, Sang Yong Tom [School of Business, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    This paper studies the feasibility of renewable energy as a substitute for nuclear and energy by considering Korean customers' willingness to pay (WTP). For this analysis, we use the contingent valuation method to estimate the WTP of renewable energy, and then estimate its value using ordered logistic regression. To replace nuclear power and fossil energy with renewable energy in Korea, an average household is willing to pay an additional 102,388 Korean Won (KRW) per month (approx. US $85). Therefore, the yearly economic value of renewable energy in Korea is about 19.3 trillion KRW (approx. US $16.1 billion). Considering that power generation with only renewable energy would cost an additional 35 trillion KRW per year, it is economically infeasible for renewable energy to be the sole method of low-carbon energy generation in Korea.

  1. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael [Div. of Electricity, Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Uppsala University, Angstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Skoglund, Annika [Dep. of Industrial Economics, Royal Institute of Technology Lindstedts vaeg 30, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Rehn, Alf [Dep. of Business Administration, Abo Akademi University, Henriksgatan 7 FIN-20500 Abo (Finland); Lindahl, Marcus [Div. of Industrial Management, Uppsala University, Box 534, Angstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-15

    Environmental concerns have increasingly led to the installation of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) despite the fact that they are recognized as expensive. Innovative efforts within the area are beset with difficulties, and they are at risk of producing misdirected or insignificant improvements in terms of the cost effectiveness of total energy conversion systems. This paper investigates how RETs can be evaluated, in terms of economy and engineering solutions, by studying the fundamental physics of renewable energy sources and how it matches with the RETs. This match is described by the ''Degree of Utilization''. The findings indicate that new innovations should focus on the possible number of full loading hours. RETs that are correctly matched to their energy source generate a higher amount of electric energy and have a higher potential of becoming more competitive. In cases where this aspect has been ignored, leading to relatively small degrees of utilization, it can be understood as an engineering mismatch between installed power, converted energy, and the fundamental physics of the renewable energy sources. Since there is a strong and possibly biased support for so-called mature RETs and already existing solutions, a clarification of how fundamental physical laws affect the cost of investments and payback of investments is needed. The present paper is part I out of II and it focuses on the difference between power and energy and the physics of different energy sources and their utilization. (author)

  2. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mureddu

    Full Text Available The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  3. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  4. Use of hybrid renewable energy systems for small communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandoc Georgeta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present how the sizing of a hybrid renewable energy system is done for a community of three hundred and five households located in a Delta, starting from the optimization of hybrid energy system for a single household. The methodology used in solving this problem is based on multiple options. The first option consists in determined energy needs, maximum power consumption in cold season and in adapting the solution for the production of electricity by a hybrid plant. The second option consists of energy needs resulted in average consumption of electricity in warm season and in adapting the solution for the production of electricity from a hybrid plant. In conjunction with the demand for electricity for the entire community one will get energy demand by aggregating household level (kWh/household. The novelty of this approach lies in the method used by these hybrid systems for obtaining electricity in small communities, isolated from this case study. Based on the results obtained the method can be expanded the implementation of these projects that use hybrid renewable energy systems.

  5. Implications of renewable energy technologies in the Bangladesh power sector. Long-term planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Alam Hossain

    2010-10-04

    Bangladesh is facing daunting energy challenges: Security concerns over growing fuel imports, limited domestic energy resources for power generation, and projected demands for electricity that will exceed domestic supply capabilities within a few years. By acknowledging the potential of renewable energy resources, the country could possibly meet its unprecedented energy demand, thus increasing electricity accessibility for all and enhancing energy security through their advancement. The integration of renewable energy technologies in the power sector through national energy planning would, therefore, be a step in the right direction, not only for sustainable development of the country but also as part of Bangladesh's responsibility toward the global common task of environmental protection. This study estimates the potential of renewable energy sources for power generation in Bangladesh from the viewpoint of different promising available technologies. Future long-term electricity demand in Bangladesh is projected based on three economic growth scenarios. The energy planning model LEAP is applied to forecast the energy requirements from 2005 to 2035. Different policy scenarios, e.g., accelerated renewable energy production, null coal import, CO2 emission reduction targets and carbon taxes in the power sector from 2005 to 2035 are explored. The analyses are based on a long-term energy system model of Bangladesh using the MARKAL model. Prospects for the power sector development of the country are identified, which ensure energy security and mitigate environmental impacts. The technical potential of grid-connected solar photovoltaic and wind energy are estimated at 50174 MW and 4614 MW, respectively. The potential of energy from biomass and small hydro power plants is estimated at 566 MW and 125 MW, respectively. Total electricity consumption was 18 TWh in 2005 and is projected to increase about 7 times to 132 TWh by 2035 in the low GDP growth scenario. In the

  6. Transient stability and control of renewable generators based on Hamiltonian surface shaping and power flow control. Part II, analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Wilson, David Gerald

    2010-11-01

    The swing equations for renewable generators connected to the grid are developed and a wind turbine is used as an example. The swing equations for the renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generators system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and non-conservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. The first step is to analyze the system as a conservative natural Hamiltonian system with no externally applied non-conservative forces. The Hamiltonian surface of the swing equations is related to the Equal-Area Criterion and the PEBS method to formulate the nonlinear transient stability problem. This formulation demonstrates the effectiveness of proportional feedback control to expand the stability region. The second step is to analyze the system as natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. The time derivative of the Hamiltonian produces the work/rate (power flow) equation which is used to ensure balanced power flows from the renewable generators to the loads. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is applied to the power flow equations to determine the stability boundaries (limit cycles) of the renewable generators system and enable design of feedback controllers that meet stability requirements while maximizing the power generation and flow to the load. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of renewable generators systems are determined based on the concepts of Hamiltonian systems, power flow, exergy (the maximum work that can be extracted from an energy flow) rate

  7. Multi-port power electronic interface for renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei

    Energy intensive products and services are penetrating people's daily life as well as different sectors of industry during recent decades. Further effort to improve efficiency, reduce green house gas and hazardous particle emission lead to the emergence of the "more electric" concept in several industries including transportation. This trend, however, burdens the aging power system and existing local power networks. To offer a remedy to the problem and a smooth transition to a more reliable, more diverse, and more efficient power grid of the future, the concept of Multi-port Power Electronic Interface (MPEI) for localized power processing is introduced in this dissertation, which interfaces and manages various sources, loads and storages. Different means of integrating multiple sources and storages into the existing power system are studied and evaluated; the six phase-leg structure is chosen to interface five sources/loads: fuel cell, wind turbine, solar cell, battery and utility grid. Partitioning of source-interface and load-interface on a system level as well as analysis and modeling on small signal level are performed. A novel control structure for source-interface is proposed in the design, which forms Controlled Quasi Current Source (CQCS) during the load sharing operation and offers several salient advantages: • Inherent average current-mode control. • Easy share of steady state current/power. • Share of load dynamics for better source protection. Local control loops for various input ports are designed based on linearized system model; controller performance is tuned to accommodate the characteristics of different sources. To maintain a sustainable operation, different modes of operation are defined for MPEI; detailed state-transition with associated events are also defined in each operation mode. Prototype of MPEI is built and control system is implemented digitally in a digital signal processor; steady state and transient performance of MPEI is

  8. Current Harmonics Compensation in Microgrids Exploiting the Power Electronics Interfaces of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Bouloumpasis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method of current harmonic reduction in a distorted distribution system. In order to evaluate the proposed method a grid with high-order current harmonics is assumed. The reduction of current distortion is feasible due to the pulse modulation of an active filter, which consists of a buck-boost converter connected back-to-back to a polarity swapping inverter. For a practical application, this system would be the power electronic interface of a Renewable Energy Source (RES and therefore it changes a source of harmonics to a damping harmonics system. Using the proposed method, the current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD of the grid is reduced below the acceptable limits and thus the general power quality of the system is improved. Simulations in the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform and experiments have been performed in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Renewable power sources. Data to compare; Sources renouvelables d'electricite. Des chiffres pour comparer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Multon, B. [Ecole Normale Superieure, 94 - Cachan (France)

    2003-05-01

    This article makes a status of production, growth and cost data for the different renewable energy sources used for power generation in order to give some elements of comparison between the different fossil, nuclear and renewable energy sources (total installed power, annual growth rate, load factor, service life, power of generator units, investment cost, fuel and maintenance costs, production costs and evolution costs). (J.S.)

  10. Faults and Diagnosis Systems in Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo-Beum; Choi, Uimin

    2014-01-01

    efforts have been put into making these systems better in terms of reliability in order to achieve high power source availability, reduce the cost of energy and also increase the reliability of overall systems. Among the components used in power converters, a power device and a capacitor fault occurs most......A power converter is needed in almost all kinds of renewable energy systems and drive systems. It is used both for controlling the renewable source and for interfacing with the load, which can be grid-connected or working in standalone mode. Further, it drives the motors efficiently. Increasing...... frequently. Therefore, it is important to monitor the power device and capacitor fault to increase the reliability of power electronics. In this chapter, the diagnosis methods for power device fault will be discussed by dividing into open- and short-circuit faults. Then, the condition monitoring methods...

  11. Step by Step Design of a High Order Power Filter for Three-Phase Three-Wire Grid-connected Inverter in Renewable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, when designing an LCL-filter, a three-phase inverter is simplified as a single-phase inverter for analysis and the output phase voltage is used to calculate the inverter-side current harmonics and to design inverter-side inductor. However, for a three-phase three-wire grid-tied sys......Traditionally, when designing an LCL-filter, a three-phase inverter is simplified as a single-phase inverter for analysis and the output phase voltage is used to calculate the inverter-side current harmonics and to design inverter-side inductor. However, for a three-phase three-wire grid...... method of the high order power filter is introduced. Simulations are carried out to verify the accuracy and the validity of the proposed methods through a 6 kW, 380V/50 Hz grid-connected inverter model with three different types of high order power filters....

  12. Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Secondary Product Market Analysis Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Wesley Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    In order to properly create a program surrounding the development of any technological concept it is necessary to fully understand the market in which it is being developed. In the case of Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems (HES), there are two economic markets in which it must be able to participate in: the electricity market and the secondary product market associated with the specific system. The purpose of the present report is to characterize the secondary product market in the U.S. and to provide recommendations for further developing the HES program. While HESs have been discussed in depth in many other reports, it is helpful to discuss them briefly in the present work [REF]. The concept of the HES can be deduced to a system, featuring a combination of a nuclear power plant, a renewable energy source, and an industrial manufacturing plant . The system is designed in a fashion that allows it either to produce electricity or to manufacture a secondary product as needed. The primary benefit of this concept lies in its ability to maximize economic performance of the integrated system and to manufacture products in a carbon-free manner. A secondary benefit is the enhanced supply-side flexibility gained by allowing the HES to economically provide grid services. A key tenant to nuclear power plant economics in today’s electricity market is their ability to operate at a very high capacity factor. Unfortunately, in regions with a high penetration of renewable energy, the carbon free energy produced by nuclear power may not be needed at all times. This forces the nuclear power plant to find a user for its excess capacity. This may include paying the electric grid to find a user, releasing energy to the environment by ‘dumping steam’, or reducing power. If the plant is unable to economically or safely do any of these actions, the plant is at risk of being shutdown. In order to allow for nuclear power plants to continue to contribute carbon free

  13. Development Track of Renewable Power Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Within the context of deeper global energy shortage and increasingly more polluted environment,countries throughout the world have been actively developing renewable energy sources to replace the fossil fuel,

  14. Renewable Energy and Inter-Island Power Transmission (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, V.

    2011-05-01

    This presentation summarizes recent findings pertaining to inter-island connection of renewable and other energy sources, in particular, as these findings relate cable options, routing, specifications, and pros and cons.

  15. Limitation of fusion power plant installation on future power grids under the effect of renewable and nuclear power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Shutaro, E-mail: takeda.shutarou.55r@st.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Sakurai, Shigeki [Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Future power grids would be unstable due to renewable and nuclear power sources. • Output interruptions of fusion plant would cause disturbances to future grids. • Simulation results suggested they would create limitations in fusion installation. • A novel diagram was presented to illustrate this suggested limitation. - Abstract: Future power grids would be unstable because of the larger share of renewable and nuclear power sources. This instability might bring some additional difficulties to fusion plant installation. Therefore, the authors carried out a quantitative feasibility study from the aspect of grid stability through simulation. Results showed that the more renewable and nuclear sources are linked to a grid, the greater disturbance the grid experiences upon a sudden output interruption of a fusion power plant, e.g. plasma disruption. The frequency deviations surpassed 0.2 Hz on some grids, suggesting potential limitations of fusion plant installation on future grids. To clearly show the suggested limitations of fusion plant installations, a novel diagram was presented.

  16. Organizational precedents for ownership and management of decentralized renewable-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, R.; Silversmith, J.A.

    1981-03-01

    Three existing organizational types that meet the decentralization criteria of local consumer ownership and control - cooperatives, Rural Electric Cooperatives, and municipal utilities - are examined. These three organizational precedents are analyzed in terms of their histories, structures, legal powers, sources of capital, and social and political aspects. Examples of related experiments with renewable energy technologies are given, and inferences are drawn regarding the organizations' suitability as vehicles for future implementation of decentralized renewable energy systems.

  17. Second life battery energy storage system for enhancing renewable energy grid integration

    OpenAIRE

    Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin; Saez-de Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej; Rodríguez Cortés, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Connecting renewable power plants to the grid must comply with certain codes and requirements. One requirement is the ramp rate constraint, which must be fulfilled in order to avoid penalties. As this service becomes compulsory with an increased grid penetration of renewable, all possible solutions must be explored especially that large battery energy storage systems are still expensive solutions. Thus, in order to make battery investment economic viable, the use of second life batteries is i...

  18. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  19. Power management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2007-10-02

    A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

  20. Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with 50% Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Foosnæs, Anders; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    . This paper analyse the potential for using EVs in Denmark and identify the benefits of the electric power system with high wind power generation by intelligent charging of the EVs. Based on the analysis important technology gabs are identified, and the corresponding research and development initiatives...... will be an important balancing measure to enable the Danish government’s energy strategy, which implies 50% wind power penetration in the electric power system. An EV will be a storage device for smoothing power fluctuations from renewable resources especially wind power and provide valuable system services...... for a reliable power system operation. Cost-benefit analysis shows that intelligent bidirectional charging – vehicle to grid (V2G) – provides a socio-economic profit of 150 million Euro/year in the Danish electric power system in 2025 assuming that 15% of the Danish road transport need is supplied by electricity...

  1. 77 FR 58181 - Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Power Resources, Inc., Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project; License Renewal Request, Opportunity...-415- 4737, or by email to pdr.resource@nrc.gov . The ADAMS accession number for each document... is referenced. The Smith Ranch Highland Uranium Project license renewal request is...

  2. RETHINKING THE FUTURE GRID: INTEGRATED NUCLEAR-RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.M. Bragg-Sitton; R. Boardman

    2014-12-01

    The 2013 electricity generation mix in the United States consisted of ~13% renewables (hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal), 19% nuclear, 27% natural gas, and 39% coal. In the 2011 State of the Union Address, President Obama set a clean energy goal for the nation: “By 2035, 80 percent of America’s electricity will come from clean energy sources. Some folks want wind and solar. Others want nuclear, clean coal and natural gas. To meet this goal we will need them all.” The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) recognize that “all of the above” means that we are called to best utilize all available clean energy sources. To meet the stated environmental goals for electricity generation and for the broader energy sector, there is a need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere. New energy systems must be capable of significantly reducing environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both hydrocarbon resources and clean energy generation sources. The U.S. DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options, to meet both grid demand and thermal energy needs in the industrial sector. A concept being advanced by the DOE-NE and DOE-EERE is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of apportioning thermal and electrical energy to first meet the grid demand (with appropriate power conversion systems), then utilizing excess thermal and, in some cases, electrical energy to drive a process that results in an additional product. For the purposes of the present work, the hybrid system would

  3. Rankings, Diversity and the Power of Renewal in Science. a Comparison between Germany, the UK and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Richard; Schäfer, Len Ole

    2014-01-01

    Rankings are part and parcel of the neoliberal agenda in science aiming at increasing the competitive allocation of funds among universities. This article focuses on the decreasing power of renewal in science as a result of this agenda particularly because of its increasingly consolidated stratification of the academic system into élite and mass…

  4. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U. S. Virgin Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Olis, D.; Gevorgian, V.; Warren, A.; Butt, R.; Lilienthal, P.; Glassmire, J.

    2011-09-01

    This report focuses on the economic and technical feasibility of integrating renewable energy technologies into the U.S. Virgin Islands transmission and distribution systems. The report includes three main areas of analysis: 1) the economics of deploying utility-scale renewable energy technologies on St. Thomas/St. John and St. Croix; 2) potential sites for installing roof- and ground-mount PV systems and wind turbines and the impact renewable generation will have on the electrical subtransmission and distribution infrastructure, and 3) the feasibility of a 100- to 200-megawatt power interconnection of the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (WAPA), and British Virgin Islands (BVI) grids via a submarine cable system.

  5. Transforming Power Systems through Global Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-04-01

    Ambitious and integrated policy and regulatory frameworks are crucial to achieve power system transformation. The 21st Century Power Partnership -- a multilateral initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial -- serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with energy efficiency and grid modernization.

  6. Transforming Power Systems Through Global Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-01

    Ambitious and integrated policy and regulatory frameworks are crucial to achieve power system transformation. The 21st Century Power Partnership -- a multilateral initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial -- serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with energy efficiency and grid modernization.

  7. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Cho, K. J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Ferraris, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Balkus, Ken [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Chabal, Yves [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Gnade, Bruce [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Rotea, Mario [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Vasselli, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  8. Conditions for a 100% Renewable Energy Supply System in Japan and South Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    2017-01-01

    renewable energy have proposed the use of photovoltaic power as the main source of electricity supply, in combination with diurnal battery storage and supplemented by other renewable sources such as wind, hydro, and geothermal power. Here, an alternative approach is explored, with wind and derived hydrogen...... full renewable energy reliance, and then for possible synergetic effects of connecting the Korean and the Japanese energy systems, in order to be able to better cope with the intermittency of renewable energy source flows.......In the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident, alternative energy paths have been discussed for Japan, but except for a few studies the assumption is usually made that Japan is too densely populated to be suited for a near-100% sustainable, indigenous energy provision. The studies emphasizing...

  9. Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Miller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small generation rates of kinetic energy to maintain the high wind velocities, and it is this generation rate that will ultimately limit the potential use of jet streams as a renewable energy resource. Here we estimate the maximum limit of jet stream wind power by considering extraction of kinetic energy as a term in the free energy balance of kinetic energy that describes the generation, depletion, and extraction of kinetic energy. We use this balance as the basis to quantify the maximum limit of how much kinetic energy can be extracted sustainably from the jet streams of the global atmosphere as well as the potential climatic impacts of its use. We first use a simple thought experiment of geostrophic flow to demonstrate why the high wind velocities of the jet streams are not associated with a high potential for renewable energy generation. We then use an atmospheric general circulation model to estimate that the maximum sustainable extraction from jet streams of the global atmosphere is about 7.5 TW. This estimate is about 200-times less than previous estimates and is due to the fact that the common expression for instantaneous wind power 12 ρv3 merely characterizes the transport of kinetic energy by the flow, but not the generation rate of kinetic energy. We also find that when maximum wind power is extracted from the jet streams, it results in significant

  10. Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Miller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small generation rates of kinetic energy to maintain the high wind velocities, and it is this generation rate that will ultimately limit the potential use of jet streams as a renewable energy resource. Here we estimate the maximum limit of jet stream wind power by considering extraction of kinetic energy as a term in the free energy balance of kinetic energy that describes the generation, depletion, and extraction of kinetic energy. We use this balance as the basis to quantify the maximum limit of how much kinetic energy can be extracted sustainably from the jet streams of the global atmosphere as well as the potential climatic impacts of its use. We first use a simple thought experiment of geostrophic flow to demonstrate why the high wind velocities of the jet streams are not associated with a high potential for renewable energy generation. We then use an atmospheric general circulation model to estimate that the maximum sustainable extraction from jet streams of the global atmosphere is about 7.5 TW. This estimate is about 200-times less than previous estimates and is due to the fact that the common expression for instantaneous wind power ½ ρ v3 merely characterizes the transport of kinetic energy by the flow, but not the generation rate of kinetic energy. We also find that when maximum wind power is extracted from the jet streams, it results in significant climatic impacts due to a substantial increase of heat transport across the jet streams in the upper atmosphere. This results in upper atmospheric temperature differences of >20 °C, greater atmospheric stability

  11. An Optimization Framework for Investment Evaluation of Complex Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Olave-Rojas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the role of renewable energies in existing power systems is one of the most crucial challenges that society faces today. However, the high variability of their generation potential and the temporal disparity between the demand and the generation potential represent technological and operational gaps that burden the massive incorporation of renewable sources into power systems. Energy storage technologies are an alternative to tackle this gap; nonetheless, their incorporation within large-scale power grids calls for decision-making tools that ensure an appropriate design and sizing of power systems that exploit the benefits of incorporating storage facilities along with renewable generation power. In this paper, we present an optimization framework for aiding the evaluation of the strategic design of complex renewable power systems. The developed tool relies on an optimization problem, the generation, transmission, storage energy location and sizing problem, which allows one to compute economically-attractive investment plans given by the location and sizing of generation and storage energy systems, along with the corresponding layout of transmission lines. Results on a real case study (located in the central region of Chile, characterized by carefully-curated data, show the potential of the developed tool for aiding long-term investment planning.

  12. Energy Efficient Optical Networks with Minimized Non-Renewable Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Dong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the Information and Communication Technology (ICT industry is responsible for about 2% of the global emission of CO2 and this percentage is expected to increase as the internet expands in bandwidth and reach. In this paper we propose a hybrid-power IP over WDM network where renewable energy is used to reduce the CO2 emission of IP over WDM networks. A Linear Programming (LP model and a novel heuristic are developed to minimize the non-renewable power consumption in the “hybrid-power” IP over WDM network. The performance of the network is studied considering two topologies, the NSFNET and the USNET. Compared with routing in the electronic layer, the results show that routing in the optical layer coupled with using renewable energy significantly reduces the CO2 emissions of the IP over WDM network by up to 73% for the NSFNET and 69% for the USNET, and the proposed heuristic has little impact on the QoS. We also develop an LP model to identify the impact of the location of nodes employing renewable energy on the non-renewable power consumption of the network. The results show that the optimum location of nodes employing renewable energy is determined according to the output power of the renewable energy sources and the power consumption of the nodes.

  13. Life-cycle analysis of renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    1994-01-01

    An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants......An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants...

  14. USING REGIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURSES FOR HEATING SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study analyzed the possibility and conditions for the effective operation of heating systems during the transition of the heat-generating capacity to biofuels energy. The straw of cereal crops, which are prevailing in Dnipro region, is used for this. The main purpose is scientific calculation of opportunities and cost of specific measures for such a transition. As an example it was taken the boiler-room of campus at Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan (DNURT that consumes natural gas. Methodology. The work analyses the legislative base of Ukraine, which promotes the using of renewable energy sources as fuel, as well as the incentive mechanisms for the development of this trend. The paper identifies opportunities of Prydniprovsk region to ensure straw supply for the boiler-room. Cost parameters of cargo transportation on the territory of Ukraine in 2016, which depend on the distance and the size of the trucks, are analysed. These indicators, as well as indicators related to its purchase, are considered together with energy potential of using the straw as fuel. Findings. With existing in Ukraine (as of 2016 the grain yielding capacity in the agriculture and cost indicators in the field of transportations, the transition of capacity share to biofuel is sufficiently profitable. The thermal power unit cost can be reduced fourfold. Originality. For the first time it is proposed to use the new integrated approaches to assess the cost of thermal power unit boiler with its transition to the use of renewable energy sources. The authors also proposed a new logistics delivery of these sources to the place of their application. From a technical and cost points of view it was determined the optimal order of capacity transfer for new renewable sources of energy in a given region depending on the structure of areas under crops and their productivity. Originality. The introduction of the

  15. Operation Strategy for a Power Grid Supplied by 100% Renewable Energy at a Cold Region in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an operation strategy for a power system supplied from 100% renewable energy generation in Kitami City, a cold region in Japan. The main goal of this work is the complete elimination of the CO2 emissions of the city while keeping the power frequency within prescribed limits. Currently, the main energy related issue in Japan is the reduction of CO2 emissions without depending on nuclear generation. Also, there is a need for the adoption of distributed generation architecture in order to permit local autonomous operation of the system by the local generation of power. As a solution, this paper proposes a strategy to eliminate CO2 emissions that considers digital simulations using past hourly meteorological data and demand for one year. Results shows that Kitami City can be supplied entirely by renewable generation, reducing its CO2 emission to zero while keeping the quality of its power grid frequency within permitted limits.

  16. AUTONOMOUS WIND POWER INSTALLATIONS AND SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvitko A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the main advantages and disadvantages of renewable energy sources. It is shown, that in general, the use of renewable energy in the world has acquired real momentum and stable growth trend. An interesting fact is that the greatest application was currently the most mutable and unstable form of energy - wind. The total global installed capacity of large wind turbines, according to various estimates, is approximately 20 GW. This is because the specific investment in wind power is lower than with most other forms of renewable energy. The article presents features of the design and operation of modern wind power stations. It is shown that when choosing wind power plants and stations we must take into account the following main parameters and factors: the average value of amount of electricity consumed by power consumers on a monthly basis; power generator; uptime in the absence wind or when weak wind. The study shows block-circuit solutions of different options of energy systems made using wind power plants. We have also disclosed prospects of development wind energy and considered the advantages and the features of the choice of the main functional units of wind power stations which will increase the effectiveness of predesign work on the creation of high-performance systems of electrosupply with combined power supply systems based on renewable energy sources

  17. The impact of monsoon intraseasonal variability on renewable power generation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, C. M.; Turner, A. G.; Brayshaw, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    India is increasingly investing in renewable technology to meet rising energy demands, with hydropower and other renewables comprising one-third of current installed capacity. Installed wind-power is projected to increase 5-fold by 2035 (to nearly 100GW) under the International Energy Agency's New Policies scenario. However, renewable electricity generation is dependent upon the prevailing meteorology, which is strongly influenced by monsoon variability. Prosperity and widespread electrification are increasing the demand for air conditioning, especially during the warm summer. This study uses multi-decadal observations and meteorological reanalysis data to assess the impact of intraseasonal monsoon variability on the balance of electricity supply from wind-power and temperature-related demand in India. Active monsoon phases are characterized by vigorous convection and heavy rainfall over central India. This results in lower temperatures giving lower cooling energy demand, while strong westerly winds yield high wind-power output. In contrast, monsoon breaks are characterized by suppressed precipitation, with higher temperatures and hence greater demand for cooling, and lower wind-power output across much of India. The opposing relationship between wind-power supply and cooling demand during active phases (low demand, high supply) and breaks (high demand, low supply) suggests that monsoon variability will tend to exacerbate fluctuations in the so-called demand-net-wind (i.e., electrical demand that must be supplied from non-wind sources). This study may have important implications for the design of power systems and for investment decisions in conventional schedulable generation facilities (such as coal and gas) that are used to maintain the supply/demand balance. In particular, if it is assumed (as is common) that the generated wind-power operates as a price-taker (i.e., wind farm operators always wish to sell their power, irrespective of price) then investors in

  18. IT-Enabled Integration of Renewables: A Concept for the Smart Power Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter Thilo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide utilisation of information and communication technologies is hoped to enable a more efficient and sustainable operation of electric power grids. This paper analyses the benefits of smart power grids for the integration of renewable energy resources into the existing grid infrastructure. Therefore, the concept of a smart power grid is analysed, and it is shown that it covers more than for example, time-of-use energy tariffs. Further, the communication technologies used for smart grids are discussed, and the challenge of interoperability between the smart grid itself and its active contributors such as functional buildings is shown. A significant share of electrical energy demand is and will be constituted by large functional buildings that are mostly equipped with automation systems and therefore enable a relatively simple IT integration into smart grids. This large potential of thermal storages and flexible consumption processes might be a future key to match demand and supply under the presence of a high share of fluctuating generation from renewables.

  19. Energy system analysis of 100% renewable energy systems-The case of Denmark in years 2030 and 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    for two energy target years: year 2050 with 100% renewable energy from biomass and combinations of wind, wave and solar power; and year 2030 with 50% renewable energy, emphasising the first important steps on the way. The conclusion is that a 100% renewable energy supply based on domestic resources......This paper presents the methodology and results of the overall energy system analysis of a 100% renewable energy system. The input for the systems is the result of a project of the Danish Association of Engineers, in which 1600 participants during more than 40 seminars discussed and designed...... is physically possible, and that the first step towards 2030 is feasible to Danish society. However, Denmark will have to consider to which degree the country shall rely mostly on biomass resources, which will involve the reorganisation of the present use of farming areas, or mostly on wind power, which...

  20. An overview of renewable energy in Spain. The small hydro-power case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, G.M. [Universidad de Granada (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Civil; Lopez, M. del Mar Serrano [Institute for the Diversification and Saving of the Energy, Madrid (Spain). Hydroelectric Department; Gamez, M. del Carmen Rubio; Ondina, A.M. [Universidad de Granada (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Civil, Ingenieria de la Construccion

    2005-10-01

    Development of hydroelectric energy, a renewable source of power, is guaranteed and maintained by the Plan of Promotion of the Renewable Energies 1999-2010 (PLAFER). This is arrived at by means of a definition and establishment of a series of power objectives in which an increase in the hydroelectric sector in anticipated. This study corresponds to a revision of the present situation of the mini-hydraulic energy, it is expected of evolution, and development in Spain. (author)

  1. Renewable energy systems in Mexico: Installation of a hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Ronald C.

    1993-05-01

    Sandia has been providing technical leadership on behalf of DOE and CORECT on a working level cooperative program with Mexico on renewable energy (PROCER). As part of this effort, the Sandia Design Assistance Center (DAC) and the solar energy program staff at Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, recently reached agreement on a framework for mutually beneficial technical collaboration on the monitoring and field evaluation of renewable energy systems in Mexico, particularly village-scale hybrid systems. This trip was made for the purpose of planning the details for the joint installation of a data acquisition system (DAS) on a recently completed PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid system in the village of Xcalac on the Southeast coast of the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The DAS installation will be made during the week of March 15, 1993. While in Mexico, discussions were also held with personnel from.the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Solar Energy Laboratory and several private sector companies with regard to renewable energy project activities and technical and educational support needs in Mexico.

  2. Optimal mix of renewable power generation in the MENA region as a basis for an efficient electricity supply to europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamwi Alaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable Energy sources are gaining importance in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. The purpose of this study is to quantify the optimal mix of renewable power generation in the MENA region, taking Morocco as a case study. Based on hourly meteorological data and load data, a 100% solar-plus-wind only scenario for Morocco is investigated. For the optimal mix analyses, a mismatch energy modelling approach is adopted with the objective to minimise the required storage capacities. For a hypothetical Moroccan energy supply system which is entirely based on renewable energy sources, our results show that the minimum storage capacity is achieved at a share of 63% solar and 37% wind power generations.

  3. Operation Strategy for a Power Grid Supplied by 100% Renewable Energy at a Cold Region in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Morel; Shin’ya Obara; Yuta Morizane

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an operation strategy for a power system supplied from 100% renewable energy generation in Kitami City, a cold region in Japan. The main goal of this work is the complete elimination of the CO2 emissions of the city while keeping the power frequency within prescribed limits. Currently, the main energy related issue in Japan is the reduction of CO2 emissions without depending on nuclear generation. Also, there is a need for the adoption of distributed generation architectur...

  4. 风—光—沼可再生能源分布式发电系统电源规划%Power Source Planning of Wind-PV-Biogas Renewable Energy Distributed Generation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艺玮; 杨苹; 郭红霞; 吴捷

    2012-01-01

    To effectively improve the reliability and economy of distributed generation system (DGS) composed of renewable energy resources such as wind energy, solar energy and biogas energy, firstly the features of generation systems based on wind energy, solar energy and biogas energy respectively as well as the structural feature of generation system mixed with wind, solar and biogas energy resources were researched and analyzed, on this basis mathematical models of optimized objective functions of DGS composed of renewable energy resources and their constraint conditions were built. Secondly, due to the adoption of the selection operator, the improved adaptive crossover operator and the mutation operator in the elitist strategy of the improved adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA), to achieve better global search ability and stronger robustness, the improved AGA was utilized to optimize the expansion generation planning for distributed DGS. Finally, taking a load center with load amount of 300kW in Guangdong region, China as experimental platform, the simulation for the optimization and solution of a generation expansion planning of a distributed DGS composed of wind farm, PV generation and biogas generation were performed to determine the optimum configuration of power resources. The effectiveness and effectiveness of the proposed method were verified by simulation results that could be available for reference to the expansion generation planning for DGS composed of other types of renewable energy resources.%为了有效提高风—光—沼混合可再生能源分布式发电系统的可靠性和经济性,首先研究分析了风、光、沼各发电电源特点以及该分布式发电系统结构特征,并以此为基础建立了其系统电源规划的优化目标函数和约束条件函数等数学模型.由于改进的自适应遗传算法使用最优保存策略进化模型的选择算子、改进的自适应交叉算子和变异算子,来获得较优的全局搜

  5. The system architecture for renewable synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva

    To overcome and eventually eliminate the existing heavy fossil fuels in the transport sector, there is a need for new renewable fuels. This transition could lead to large capital costs for implementing the new solutions and a long time frame for establishing the new infrastructure unless a suitab...

  6. Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    Advances in power electronics enable efficient and flexible processing of electric power in the application of renewable energy sources, electric vehicles, adjustable-speed drives, etc. More and more efforts are devoted to better power electronic systems in terms of reliability to ensure high...... on a 2.3 MW wind power converter is discussed with emphasis on the reliability critical components IGBTs. Different aspects of improving the reliability of the power converter are mapped. Finally, the challenges and opportunities to achieve more reliable power electronic systems are addressed....

  7. Review of Power System Stability with High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    analyzing methods and stability improvement approaches. With increasing wind power penetration, system balancing and the reduced inertia may cause a big threaten for stable operation of power systems. To mitigate or eliminate the wind impacts for high wind penetration systems, although the practical......This paper presents an overview of researches on power system stability with high wind power penetration including analyzing methods and improvement approaches. Power system stability issues can be classified diversely according to different considerations. Each classified issue has special...... and reliable choices currently are the strong outside connections or sufficient reserve capacity constructions, many novel theories and approaches are invented to investigate the stability issues, looking forward to an extra-high penetration or totally renewable resource based power systems. These analyzing...

  8. Nevada Renewable Energy Training Project: Geothermal Power Plant Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim, Nichols [Truckee Meadows Community College, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-04-29

    The purpose of this project was to develop and institute a training program for certified geothermal power plant operators (GPO). An advisory board consisting of subject matter experts from the geothermal energy industry and academia identified the critical skill sets required for this profession. A 34-credit Certificate of Achievement (COA), Geothermal Power Plant Operator, was developed using eight existing courses and developing five new courses. Approval from the Nevada System of Higher Education Board of Regents was obtained. A 2,400 sq. ft. geothermal/fluid mechanics laboratory and a 3,000 sq. ft. outdoor demonstration laboratory were constructed for hands-on training. Students also participated in field trips to geothermal power plants in the region. The majority of students were able to complete the program in 2-3 semesters, depending on their level of math proficiency. Additionally the COA allowed students to continue to an Associate of Applied Science (AAS), Energy Technologies with an emphasis in Geothermal Energy (26 additional credits), if they desired. The COA and AAS are stackable degrees, which provide students with an ongoing career pathway. Articulation agreements with other NSHE institutions provide students with additional opportunities to pursue a Bachelor of Applied Science in Management or Instrumentation. Job placement for COA graduates has been excellent.

  9. Soft computing in green and renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Iowa Bioeconomy Inst.; US Department of Energy, Ames, IA (United States). Ames Lab; Kalogirou, Soteris [Cyprus Univ. of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Sciences and Engineering; Khaitan, Siddhartha Kumar (eds.) [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Soft Computing in Green and Renewable Energy Systems provides a practical introduction to the application of soft computing techniques and hybrid intelligent systems for designing, modeling, characterizing, optimizing, forecasting, and performance prediction of green and renewable energy systems. Research is proceeding at jet speed on renewable energy (energy derived from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides, rain, geothermal heat, biomass, hydrogen, etc.) as policy makers, researchers, economists, and world agencies have joined forces in finding alternative sustainable energy solutions to current critical environmental, economic, and social issues. The innovative models, environmentally benign processes, data analytics, etc. employed in renewable energy systems are computationally-intensive, non-linear and complex as well as involve a high degree of uncertainty. Soft computing technologies, such as fuzzy sets and systems, neural science and systems, evolutionary algorithms and genetic programming, and machine learning, are ideal in handling the noise, imprecision, and uncertainty in the data, and yet achieve robust, low-cost solutions. As a result, intelligent and soft computing paradigms are finding increasing applications in the study of renewable energy systems. Researchers, practitioners, undergraduate and graduate students engaged in the study of renewable energy systems will find this book very useful. (orig.)

  10. Next-Generation Shipboard DC Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Sulligoi, Giorgio; Cuzner, Rob

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, more and more evidence suggests that the global energy system is on the verge of a drastic revolution. The evolutionary development in power electronic technologies, the emerging high-performance energy storage devices, as well as the ever increasing penetration of renewable energy...... sources (RES) are commonly recognized as the major driven force of the revolution, the outburst of customer electronics and new kinds of household electronics is also powering this change. In this context, dc power distribution technologies have made a comeback and keep gaining a commendable increase......, aerospace/aircraft power systems, as well as maritime power systems....

  11. Economic and technological aspects of the market introduction of renewable power technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worlen, Christine M.

    Renewable energy, if developed and delivered with appropriate technologies, is cleaner, more evenly distributed, and safer than conventional energy systems. Many countries and several states in the United States promote the development and introduction of technologies for "green" electricity production. This dissertation investigates economic and technological aspects of this process for wind energy. In liberalized electricity markets, policy makers use economic incentives to encourage the adoption of renewables. Choosing from a large range of possible policies and instruments is a multi-criteria decision process. This dissertation evaluates the criteria used and the trade-offs among the criteria, and develops a hierarchical flow scheme that policy makers can use to choose the most appropriate policy for a given situation. Economic incentives and market transformation programs seek to reduce costs through mass deployment in order to make renewable technologies competitive. Cost reduction is measured in "experience curves" that posit negative exponential relationships between cumulative deployment and production cost. This analysis reveals the weaknesses in conventional experience curve analyses for wind turbines, and concludes that the concept is limited by data availability, a weak conceptual foundation, and inappropriate statistical estimation. A revised model specifies a more complete set of economic and technological forces that determine the cost of wind power. Econometric results indicate that experience and upscaling of turbine sizes accounted for the observed cost reduction in wind turbines in the United States, Denmark and Germany between 1983 and 2001. These trends are likely to continue. In addition, future cost reductions will result from economies of scale in production. Observed differences in the performance of theoretically equivalent policy instruments could arise from economic uncertainty. To test this hypothesis, a methodology for the

  12. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R.; Cho, K. J.; Ferraris, John; Balkus, Ken; Chabal, Yves; Gnade, Bruce; Rotea, Mario; Vasselli, John

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. Significant accomplishments are detailed in each section. Those particularly noteworthy include: • Transition metal silicate cathodes with 2x higher storage capacity than commercial cobalt oxide cathodes were demonstrated. • MnO₂ nanowires, which are a promising replacement for RuO₂, were synthesized • PAN-based carbon nanofibers were prepared and characterized with an energy density 30-times higher than current ultracapacitors on the market and comparable to lead-acid batteries • An optimization-based control strategy for real-time power management of battery storage in wind farms was developed and demonstrated. • PVDF films were developed with breakdown strengths of > 600MVm⁻¹, a maximum energy density of approximately 15 Jcm⁻³, and an average dielectric constant of 9.8 (±1.2). Capacitors made from these films can support a 10-year lifetime operating at an electric field of 200 MV m⁻¹. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  13. Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems: Foundational Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsberg, Charles [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Collins, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere to systems that can drastically reduce environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both hydrocarbon resources and clean energy generation sources. Thus, DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options. A concept being advanced by the DOE Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that produces new energy currency for the combined electricity grid, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation energy sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of providing the right type of energy, at the right time, in the right place. At the direction of DOE-NE and DOE-EERE leadership, project leads at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have identified and engaged stakeholders in discussing integrated energy systems that would optimize renewable and nuclear energy integration on a region-by-region basis. Subsequent work will entail conduct of technical, economic, environmental and socio-political evaluations of the leading integrated system options based on a set of criteria established with stakeholder input. The Foundational Workshop for Integrated Nuclear – Renewable Energy Systems was organized around the following objectives: 1. Identify and refine priority region-specific opportunities for integrated nuclear-renewable energy systems in the U.S.; 2. Select Figures of Merit (FOM) to rank and prioritize candidate systems; 3. Discuss enabling technology development needs; 4. Identify analysis requirements, capabilities and gaps to estimate FOM for

  14. 100% Renewable energy systems, climate mitigation and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad Mathiesen, Brian; Lund, Henrik; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2011-01-01

    that implementing energy savings, renewable energy and more efficient conversion technologies can have positive socio-economic effects, create employment and potentially lead to large earnings on exports. If externalities such as health effects are included, even more benefits can be expected. 100% Renewable energy...... systems will be technically possible in the future, and may even be economically beneficial compared to the business-as-usual energy system. Hence, the current debate between leaders should reflect a combination of these two main challenges....

  15. Definition of a remuneration system for heat from renewable resources; Ausgestaltung einer Einspeiseverguetung fuer erneuerbare Waerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R.; Ott, W.; Philippen, D.; Umbricht, A.

    2009-06-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with proposals for a remuneration system for heat obtained from renewable resources. Local and regional district heating systems cover around three percent of Swiss heating needs. The authors estimate that, if these systems were to be operated completely using renewable resources such as biomass, ambient heat and the renewable portion of heat from waste incineration, around seven per cent of needs could be met. Further, around 10,000 heating systems with a power of more than 350 kW could be operated with renewables. A further potential for the use of renewable heating resources can be found in wastewater treatment plants and industrial waste heat. Various obstacles and restraints on the use of renewable resources in the heating area are discussed. The idea of providing a cost-covering remuneration system for heat is discussed and compared with that for renewable electricity. The proposed system is discussed, which would provide investment subsidies, risk-coverage and project development subsidies. The report discusses the results of a market analysis and the differences to be found between the markets for electricity and heat. Existing promotional programs are noted and the aims of a possible remuneration system are discussed. A concept for a promotion program for renewable heat generation and the use of waste heat is introduced. The installations to be promoted and the amount of remuneration to be paid out are discussed. Finally, the costs and the effects of the proposed promotion scheme are discussed. A comprehensive appendix provides details on the proposed system and provides information on market volume, energy resources, networks and infrastructure, providers of heat energy, heat consumers and general conditions as far as factors such as pricing and legislation are concerned. Finally, the 'Climate Cent' foundation is commented on.

  16. Energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Areewan Kajorndech; Dulpichet Rerkpreedapong

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage systems have been widely employed to attain several benefits, such as reliability improvement, stabilization of power systems connected with renewable energy resources, economic benefits and etc. To achieve the above objectives, the appropriate and effective control strategies for energy storage systems are needed to be developed. This research proposes energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems equipped with a limited size of energy storage system ...

  17. Power Electronics and Controls for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use power electronics to achieve high efficiency in power generation, transmission/distribution and utilization. This paper discuss trends of the most promising renewable energy sources, wind energy, which ,integrated with power...... electronics, is changing the future electrical infrastructure and also contributes steadily to non-carbon based electricity production. The paper’s focus is on the power electronics technologies used in wind turbine systems....

  18. Technical and economic viability of electric power plants on the basis of renewable energy resources regarding hierarchical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balzannikov Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with power stations working on the basis of non-renewable energy resources and finite resources which will inevitably come to depletion in the future. These installations produce considerable negative impact on the environment, including air pollution. It is noted that considerable amounts of emissions of harmful substances accounts for the share of small thermal installations which aren’t always considered in calculations of pollution. The author specifies that emission reduction of harmful substances should be achieved due to wider use of environmentally friendly renewable energy resources. It is recommended to use hierarchical structure with the priority of ecological and social conditions of the region for technical and economic viability of consumers’ power supply systems and installations, based on renewable energy resources use. At the same time the author suggests considering federal, regional and object levels of viability. It is recommended to consider the main stages of lifecycle of an object for object level: designing, construction, operation, reconstruction of an object and its preservation. The author shows the example of calculation of power plant efficiency, based on renewable energy resources during its reconstruction, followed by power generation increase.

  19. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  20. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    Many countries--reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems--are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy (RE) on the grid. Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Colorado and Texas), for example, have effectively integrated variable RE utilizing diverse approaches. Analysis of the results from these case studies reveals a wide range of mechanisms that can be used to accommodate high penetrations of variable RE (e.g., from new market designs to centralized planning). Nevertheless, the myriad approaches collectively suggest that governments can best enable variable RE grid integration by implementing best practices in five areas of intervention: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations.

  1. RESRO: A spatio-temporal model to optimise regional energy systems emphasising renewable energies

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    RESRO (Reference Energy System Regional Optimization) optimises the simultaneous fulfilment of the heat and power demand in regional energy systems. It is a mixed-integer program realised in the modelling language GAMS. The model handles information on geographically disaggregated data describing heat demand and renewable energy potentials (e.g. biomass, solar energy, ambient heat). Power demand is handled spatially aggregated in an hourly time resolution within 8 type days. The major idea is...

  2. Hydrogen Energy Storage (HES) and Power-to-Gas Economic Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Joshua

    2015-07-30

    This presentation summarizes opportunities for hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas and presents the results of a market analysis performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to quantify the value of energy storage. Hydrogen energy storage and power-to-gas systems have the ability to integrate multiple energy sectors including electricity, transportation, and industrial. On account of the flexibility of hydrogen systems, there are a variety of potential system configurations. Each configuration will provide different value to the owner, customers and grid system operator. This presentation provides an economic comparison of hydrogen storage, power-to-gas and conventional storage systems. The total cost is compared to the revenue with participation in a variety of markets to assess the economic competitiveness. It is found that the sale of hydrogen for transportation or industrial use greatly increases competitiveness. Electrolyzers operating as demand response devices (i.e., selling hydrogen and grid services) are economically competitive, while hydrogen storage that inputs electricity and outputs only electricity have an unfavorable business case. Additionally, tighter integration with the grid provides greater revenue (e.g., energy, ancillary service and capacity markets are explored). Lastly, additional hours of storage capacity is not necessarily more competitive in current energy and ancillary service markets and electricity markets will require new mechanisms to appropriately compensate long duration storage devices.

  3. Renewable energy power generation projects started construction in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On March 19, the construction of a 10-MW photovoltaic power plant and a 1 000-kW new type geothermal power generation project were started by Guodian Longyuan Group in Yanbajing Town, Dangxiong County of Tibet.

  4. Colorado's Prospects for Interstate Commerce in Renewable Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Colorado has more renewable energy potential than it is ever likely to need for its own in-state electricity consumption. Such abundance may suggest an opportunity for the state to sell renewable power elsewhere, but Colorado faces considerable competition from other western states that may have better resources and easier access to key markets on the West Coast. This report examines factors that will be important to the development of interstate commerce for electricity generated from renewable resources. It examines market fundamentals in a regional context, and then looks at the implications for Colorado.

  5. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  6. Proportional derivative based stabilizing control of paralleled grid converters with cables in renewable power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Resonant interactions of grid-connected converters with each other and with cable capacitance are challenging the stability and power quality of renewable energy sources based power plants. This paper addresses the instability of current control of converters with the multiple resonance frequenci...

  7. Distributed Power-Generation Systems and Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng; Yang, Dongsheng

    2017-01-01

    penetration degree of renewable energy, among which wind and solar photovoltaics are typical sources. The integration level of the DPGS into the grid plays a critical role in developing sustainable and resilient power systems, especially with highly intermittent renewable energy resources. To address...... for the DPGS to consolidate the integration. In light of the above, this paper reviews the power-conversion and control technologies used for DPGSs. The impacts of the DPGS on the distributed grid are also examined, and more importantly, strategies for enhancing the connection and protection of the DPGS...

  8. Sizing of Energy Storage Systems for Output Smoothing of Renewable Energy Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy sources (RESs), such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power generation, have the characteristics of random fluctuation and intermittence. The output of RESs should be smoothed to inhibit the adverse effects of RESs fluctuations on the power grid. The energy storage system (ESS) is playing a more and more important role in the application of RESs due to its discharge/charge characteristic. Therefore, the optimal planning and design of ESS is of vital importance because of the expensive cost of ESS.

  9. Optimizing the U.S. Electric System with a High Penetration of Renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, B. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2012-12-01

    As renewable energy generators are increasingly being installed throughout the U.S., there is growing interest in interconnecting diverse renewable generators (primarily wind and solar) across large geographic areas through an enhanced transmission system. This reduces variability in the aggregate power output, increases system reliability, and allows for the development of the best overall group of renewable technologies and sites to meet the load. Studies are therefore needed to determine the most efficient and economical plan to achieve large area interconnections in a future electric system with a high penetration of renewables. This research quantifies the effects of aggregating electric load and, separately, electric load together with diverse renewable generation throughout the ten Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regions in the contiguous U.S. The effects of aggregating electric load alone -- including generator capacity capital cost savings, load energy shift operating cost savings, reserve requirement cost savings, and transmission costs -- were calculated for various groupings of FERC regions using 2006 data. Transmission costs outweighed cost savings due to aggregation in nearly all cases. East-west transmission layouts had the highest overall cost, and interconnecting ERCOT to adjacent FERC regions resulted in increased costs, both due to limited existing transmission capacity. Scenarios consisting of smaller aggregation groupings had the lowest overall cost. This analysis found no economic case for further aggregation of load alone within the U.S., except possibly in the West and Northwest. If aggregation of electric load is desired, then small, regional consolidations yield the lowest overall system cost. Next, the effects of aggregating electric load together with renewable electricity generation are being quantified through the development and use of an optimization tool in AMPL (A Mathematical Programming Language). This deterministic

  10. Electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weedy, B M; Jenkins, N; Ekanayake, J B; Strbac, G

    2012-01-01

    The definitive textbook for Power Systems students, providing a grounding in essential power system theory while also focusing on practical power engineering applications. Electric Power Systems has been an essential book in power systems engineering for over thirty years. Bringing the content firmly up-to-date whilst still retaining the flavour of Weedy's extremely popular original, this Fifth Edition has been revised by experts Nick Jenkins, Janaka Ekanayake and Goran Strbac. This wide-ranging text still covers all of the fundamental power systems subjects but is now e

  11. Limitations on hydrogen production in a renewable regenerative energy system due to thermal transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergen, A.; Djilali, N.; Pitt, L.; Rowe, A.; Wild, P. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems

    2007-07-01

    The integrated renewable energy experiment (IRENE) was developed to aid in the development of simulation tools for renewable energy-based distributed residential-scale hydrogen systems. This study focused on evaluating the interactions between system components that influence hydrogen production. The principal components of IRENE included a controllable input power source, power conversion elements; AC load devices; a hydrogen storage system; a fuel cell loop; and, a control and data acquisition system. The system was fully instrumented to measure mass and energy flows between system elements. A simplified power conditioning unit was used to allow throttling of the current to the electrolyser by passively reducing the input voltage. Power transfer to the electrolyser was limited at low bus voltages. A power input profile was used to validate the modelling electrolyser step function response predictions with IRENE's experimental data. Preliminary experimental results showed that some modelling assumptions made for renewable hydrogen systems over-estimate hydrogen production capabilities. Values obtained were between 10 to 20 per cent lower than values typically reported in the literature. It was concluded that the thermal characteristics and bus limiting interactions should be considered if accurate modelling of hydrogen production capacity is required. 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  12. On-Site Renewable Energy and Green Buildings: A System-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghamdi, Sami G; Bilec, Melissa M

    2016-05-03

    Adopting a green building rating system (GBRSs) that strongly considers use of renewable energy can have important environmental consequences, particularly in developing countries. In this paper, we studied on-site renewable energy and GBRSs at the system level to explore potential benefits and challenges. While we have focused on GBRSs, the findings can offer additional insight for renewable incentives across sectors. An energy model was built for 25 sites to compute the potential solar and wind power production on-site and available within the building footprint and regional climate. A life-cycle approach and cost analysis were then completed to analyze the environmental and economic impacts. Environmental impacts of renewable energy varied dramatically between sites, in some cases, the environmental benefits were limited despite the significant economic burden of those renewable systems on-site and vice versa. Our recommendation for GBRSs, and broader policies and regulations, is to require buildings with higher environmental impacts to achieve higher levels of energy performance and on-site renewable energy utilization, instead of fixed percentages.

  13. The Potential of Renewable Energy Systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the prospective of renewable energy in the process of sustainable development in China. Along with the high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand....... Such sustainable energy strategy typical involves three technologies issue: energy conservation, efficiency improvement and replacement fossil fuel by renewable energy sources. Denmark is an example of such strategy can be implemented and it shows the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system...... as well as reduce environmental pollution. To ensure energy security and mitigate climate changes the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable possibility...

  14. Generic Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm for Combined Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Brezet

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm which originally was dedicated only to photovoltaic (PV systems [1] are extended towards a Model and Algorithm suitable for combined systems which are a result of integration of two or more renewable energy sources into one. The systems under investigation will range from mobile portable devices up to the large renewable energy system conceivably to be applied at the Afsluitdijk (Closure- dike in the north of the Netherlands. This Afsluitdijk is the major dam in the Netherlands, damming off the Zuiderzee, a salt water inlet of the North Sea and turning it into the fresh water lake of the IJsselmeer. The energy chain of power supplies based on a combination of renewable energy sources can be modeled by using one generic Energy Matching Model as starting point.

  15. Generic Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm for Combined Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Kan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Energy Matching Model and Figure of Matching Algorithm which originally was dedicated only to photovoltaic (PV systems [1] are extended towards a Model and Algorithm suitable for combined systems which are a result of integration of two or more renewable energy sources into one. The systems under investigation will range from mobile portable devices up to the large renewable energy system conceivably to be applied at the Afsluitdijk (Closure- dike in the north of the Netherlands. This Afsluitdijk is the major dam in the Netherlands, damming off the Zuiderzee, a salt water inlet of the North Sea and turning it into the fresh water lake of the IJsselmeer. The energy chain of power supplies based on a combination of renewable energy sources can be modeled by using one generic Energy Matching Model as starting point.

  16. Power System Planning: Emerging Practices Suitable for Evaluating the Impact of High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report explores the impact of high-penetration renewable generation on electric power system planning methodologies and outlines how these methodologies are evolving to enable effective integration of variable-output renewable generation sources.

  17. Review of the Optimal Design on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuan-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid renewable energy systems, combining various kinds of technologies, have shown relatively high capabilities to solve reliability problems and have reduced cost challenges. The use of hybrid electricity generation/storage technologies is reasonable to overcome related shortcomings. While the hybrid renewable energy system is attractive, its design, specifically the determination of the size of PV, wind, and diesel power generators and the size of energy storage system in each power station, is very challenging. Therefore, this paper will focus on the system planning and operation of hybrid generation systems, and several corresponding topics and papers by using intelligent computing methods will be reviewed. They include typical case studies, modeling and system simulation, control and management, reliability and economic studies, and optimal design on a reliable hybrid generation system.

  18. Towards a Danish power system with 50% wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Gordon, Mark; Lind, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    The new Danish Energy Strategy implies 50% wind power penetration for the Danish electric power system by 2025. Accordingly, it is the vision to develop the Danish electric power system into world's best renewable based electricity system, and many research and development activities have taken...

  19. Design, analysis, operation, and advanced control of hybrid renewable energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Zachary S.

    Because using non-renewable energy systems (e.g., coal-powered co-generation power plants) to generate electricity is an unsustainable, environmentally hazardous practice, it is important to develop cost-effective and reliable renewable energy systems, such as photovoltaics (PVs), wind turbines (WTs), and fuel cells (FCs). Non-renewable energy systems, however, are currently less expensive than individual renewable energy systems (IRESs). Furthermore, IRESs based on intermittent natural resources (e.g., solar irradiance and wind) are incapable of meeting continuous energy demands. Such shortcomings can be mitigated by judiciously combining two or more complementary IRESs to form a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES). Although previous research efforts focused on the design, operation, and control of HRESs has proven useful, no prior HRES research endeavor has taken a systematic and comprehensive approach towards establishing guidelines by which HRESs should be designed, operated, and controlled. The overall goal of this dissertation, therefore, is to establish the principles governing the design, operation, and control of HRESs resulting in cost-effective and reliable energy solutions for stationary and mobile applications. To achieve this goal, we developed and demonstrated four separate HRES principles. Rational selection of HRES type: HRES components and their sizes should be rationally selected using knowledge of component costs, availability of renewable energy resources, and expected power demands of the application. HRES design: by default, the components of a HRES should be arranged in parallel for increased efficiency and reliability. However, a series HRES design may be preferred depending on the operational considerations of the HRES components. HRES control strategy selection: the choice of HRES control strategy depends on the dynamics of HRES components, their operational considerations, and the practical limitations of the HRES end-use. HRES data

  20. Techno-Economic Optimization of a Sustainable Energy System for a 100% Renewables Smart House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile Simion; Blarke, Morten; Trifa, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    , and hot tap water demand, balancing fluctuating wind power and both solar power and solar thermal supply utilizing advanced heat pump and both electro-chemical electricity storage, and hot and cold thermal storages. Our research is basically concerned with the question of how to design 100 % renewable...... for a sustainable energy system for a 100% renewables based Smart House (SH). We have devised and analysed an innovative high-efficiency approach to residential energy supply. The analysis involves detailed technical specifications and considerations for providing optimal supply of electricity, heating, cooling...... technical and economic challenges. One such challenge is the discontinuity, or intermittency, of generation, as most renewable energy resources depend on the climate, which is why their use requires complex design, planning and control optimization strategies. This paper presents a model and optimization...

  1. HVDC transmission power conversion applications in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chan-Ki; Jang, Gil-Soo; Lim, Seong-Joo; Lee, Seok-Jin

    2009-01-01

    HVDC is a critical solution to several major problems encountered when trying to maintain systemic links and quality in large-scale renewable energy environments. HDVC can resolve a number of issues, including voltage stability of AC power networks, reducing fault current, and optimal management of electric power, ensuring the technology will play an increasingly important role in the electric power industry. To address the pressing need for an up-to-date and comprehensive treatment of the subject, Kim, Sood, Jang, Lim and Lee have collaborated to produce this key text and reference.  Combin

  2. Optimisation and Integration of Hybrid Renewable Energy Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, E. L. V.; MacA Gray, E.

    2017-07-01

    This paper discusses renewable energy system concepts and integration techniques, and reviews modelling and optimization techniques for hybrid renewable energy systems for electricity provision. A proposal to use design criteria that are not limited to performance- and cost-related factors is introduced and forms a background to the following discussion. Optimization techniques in relation to constraints, reliability analysis and algorithms are discussed as well as software tools available for modelling/simulation, component sizing and optimization. The focus is on systems incorporating hydrogen, but the ideas presented have general relevance.

  3. 100% Renewable Energy Systems in Project Future Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2009-01-01

    , create employment and potentially lead to large earnings on exports. If externalities such as health effects etc. are included, even more benefits can be expected. 100 per cent renewable energy systems will be technically possible in the future, and may even be economically beneficial compared...... energy system by the year 2050 are presented. Two short term transition target years in the process towards this goal are analysed for 2015 and 2030. The analyses reveal that implementing energy savings, renewable energy and more efficient conversion technologies can have positive socioeconomic effects...... to the business-as-usual energy system. Hence the current debate between leaders should reflect a combination of these two main challenges....

  4. Power system relaying

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Stanley H; Niemira, James K

    2013-01-01

    The previous three editions of Power System Relaying offer comprehensive and accessible coverage of the theory and fundamentals of relaying and have been widely adopted on university and industry courses worldwide. With the third edition, the authors have added new and detailed descriptions of power system phenomena such as stability, system-wide protection concepts and discussion of historic outages. Power System Relaying, 4th Edition continues its role as an outstanding textbook on power system protection for senior and graduate students in the field of electric power engineering and a refer

  5. Smart Energy Systems for coherent 100% renewable energy and transport solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Conolly, David

    2015-01-01

    (such as wind, solar, wave power and low value heat sources) to utilise new sources of flexibility such as solid, gaseous, and liquid fuel storage, thermal storage and heat pumps and battery electric vehicles. Smart Energy Systems also enable a more sustainable and feasible use of bioenergy than......The hypothesis of this paper is that in order to identify least cost solutions of the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources into current or future 100% renewable energy supplies one has to take a Smart Energy Systems approach. This paper outline why and how to do so. Traditionally......, significant focus is put on the electricity sector alone to solve the renewable energy integration puzzle. Smart grid research traditionally focuses on ICT, smart meters, electricity storage technologies, and local (electric) smart grids. In contrast, the Smart Energy System focuses on merging the electricity...

  6. Analysis of performance with variable stroke of a torque based renewable micro hydro power generation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahbubul; Rahman, Md. Shad; Sultan, Rasel A.; Naif, M. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    The most important addition of modern science is renewable energy. And the most useful and the most cheaply renewable power generation source is Hydropower. Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. This is called Hydroelectric power or Hydropower. Hydropower is considered a renewable energy resource because it uses the earth's water cycle to generate electricity. Water evaporates from the earth's surface, forms clouds, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean. As far as Bangladesh is concerned, only a small fraction of electricity is generated by hydropower. The government has set a target of meeting 5 per cent of the electricity demand by 2015 by utilizing renewable energy and 10 per cent by the year 2020. Currently, renewable energies contribute to less than 1 per cent of the country's total electricity generation. The aim of our analysis is to demonstrate and observe the hydropower of our country in micro-scale by our experimental setup which is completely new in concept. This paper consists results of our findings and we find larger the number of stroke higher the rpm correspondingly higher efficiency. We find maximum rpm for 2stroke when fixed fly wheel weight was 18Kg and water was 10liter. It might help in case of utilizing this renewable energy potential at high scale.

  7. Shipboard electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2011-01-01

    Shipboard Electrical Power Systems addresses new developments in this growing field. Focused on the trend toward electrification to power commercial shipping, naval, and passenger vessels, this book helps new or experienced engineers master cutting-edge methods for power system design, control, protection, and economic use of power. Provides Basic Transferable Skills for Managing Electrical Power on Ships or on LandThis groundbreaking book is the first volume of its kind to illustrate optimization of all aspects of shipboard electrical power systems. Applying author Mukund Patel's rare combina

  8. Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of license renewal applications for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, J.; Kim, T.J.; Reynolds, S.

    1991-08-01

    The Environmental Standard Review Plan for the Review of License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (ESRP-LR) is to be used by the NRC staff when performing environmental reviews of applications for the renewal of power reactor licenses. The use of the ESRP-LR provides a framework for the staff to determine whether or not environmental issues important to license renewal have been identified and the impacts evaluated and provides acceptance standards to help the reviewers comply with the National Environmental Policy Act.

  9. Optimal configuration assessments of hybrid renewable power supply for rural healthcare facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanre Olatomiwa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed optimal configurations of hybrid renewable system for rural health clinic (RHC application in three grid-unconnected rural villages in Nigeria. The RHC consist of an emergency room, consulting room, nurse/injection room, male ward, female ward, a delivery room and a laboratory with average total daily energy consumption of 15.5 kWh and 2.75 kW peak demand. The assessment of configurations that optimally meet the daily load demand with zero loss of power supply probability (LPSP was carried out using HOMER software, by considering three energy resources; photovoltaic (PV, wind and diesel with battery energy storage. The result obtained revealed hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system as the most cost-effective configuration for powering rural health clinic in both Maiduguri and Enugu sites, while that of Iseyin site was found to be hybrid PV/diesel/battery system. In all the sites, the selected optimal configuration is far better than the conventional diesel stand-alone system in terms of cost and emission reduction.

  10. Introducing a computer program devoted to renewable integration assessment of multi-field solar photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, M.A.C.; Arroba, J.P.; Ibanez, J.C.; Criado, J.A.R. [Ciudad Univ., Madrid (Spain)

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of this paper are to present a computer program devoted to the simulation of solar photovoltaic power plants, namely the assessment of their power generation technical potential. The most general configuration of a former program devoted to single-field photovoltaic generators has been extended and updated to multi-field systems. This program is also intended to provide capabilities in order to assess the integration of renewable energy resources. Mainly solar and wind energy systems will be considered, as well as pumped-storage stations, of which an example is included.

  11. Renewables within the German Electricity System - Experiences and Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kaltschmitt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades renewable sources of energy as an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuel energy have gained more and more importance within the German electricity system. Their share has increased from less than 4 % to roughly one third of the gross electricity production in the last 25 years. Against this background, the goal of this paper is to present briefly the current status of the use of renewables within the German electricity system, to assess selected developments taking place during this development process as well as to identify given challenges and needs as well as necessary actions to pave the road for a further use of renewable sources of energy within the German electricity provision system. The political driver for the latter is the overarching goal to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions which has been confirmed within the Paris agreement signed by the end of 2015.

  12. A Stochastic Calculus for Network Systems with Renewable Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Kui; Marinakis, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    We consider the performance modeling and evaluation of network systems powered with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy. Such energy sources largely depend on environmental conditions, which are hard to predict accurately. As such, it may only make sense to require the network systems to support a soft quality of service (QoS) guarantee, i.e., to guarantee a service requirement with a certain high probability. In this paper, we intend to build a solid mathematical foundation to help better understand the stochastic energy constraint and the inherent correlation between QoS and the uncertain energy supply. We utilize a calculus approach to model the cumulative amount of charged energy and the cumulative amount of consumed energy. We derive upper and lower bounds on the remaining energy level based on a stochastic energy charging rate and a stochastic energy discharging rate. By building the bridge between energy consumption and task execution (i.e., service), we study the QoS guarantee under...

  13. On the reliability of a renewable multiple cold standby system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderperre E. J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a general reliability analysis of a renewable multiple cold standby system attended by a single repairman. Our analysis is based on a refined methodology of queuing theory. The particular case of deterministic failures provides an explicit exact result for the survival function of the duplex system.

  14. Suppressing the non-Gaussian statistics of Renewable Power from Wind and Solar

    CERN Document Server

    Anvari, M; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi; Wächter, M; Milan, P; Heinemann, D; Peinke, Joachim; Lorenz, E

    2015-01-01

    The power from wind and solar exhibits a nonlinear flickering variability, which typically occurs at time scales of a few seconds. We show that high-frequency monitoring of such renewable powers enables us to detect a transition, controlled by the field size, where the output power qualitatively changes its behaviour from a flickering type to a diffusive stochastic behaviour. We find that the intermittency and strong non-Gaussian behavior in cumulative power of the total field, even for a country-wide installation still survives for both renewable sources. To overcome the short time intermittency, we introduce a time-delayed feedback method for power output of wind farm and solar field that can change further the underlying stochastic process and suppress their strong non- gaussian fluctuations.

  15. Risk factors during construction of power plants using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nefedova Lyudmila Veniaminovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider main characteristics of modern development of renewable energy sources (RES. It is dedicated that there are some technical and economic barriers to the widespread use of renewable energy. For example, RES are inconstancy in time and space and have low density of energy flow. High capital intensity and cost price, long-term construction, a considerable degree of different kinds of risk, lack of competitiveness with hydrocarbon species generation in the existing regulatory environment are also inherent to RES. The role of the regulatory framework is shown according to perspective plans of construction of power plants using renewable energy sources. The main requirements which are applied to measures of state support of construction industry of renewable energy development are formulated. Current condition of construction industry of RES in Russia is assessed. The problems of risks which arise during construction of renewable energy facilities according to results of practical use of RES are discussed. And it is rather important to use stage assessment for the construction phase of the project during risk analysis of construction of alternative energy sources. The main groups of RES risks are described. The importance of regulatory and resource risks for effective development of renewable energy in Russia according to the method of strategic planning with the identification of the adverse effects of gradation factors are determined. The analysis of financial risks types and methods of its management during construction power generation projects based on different types of renewable energy resources are made. In the end of the article the authors make a conclusion, that the development of projects for the construction of power plants with the use of innovative technical solutions to ensure minimal risks to the environment and safe operation in various climatic conditions is a priority.

  16. Wireless power transfer system

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of recent wireless power transfer systems. The issue of wireless power transfer is to achieve a highly efficient system with small positioning errors of the facilities setting. Several theories have been presented to obtain precise system design. This paper presents a summary of design theory for short range power transfer systems and detailed formulations based on a circuit model and an array of infinitesimal dipoles. In addition to these theories, this paper in...

  17. The integration of renewable energies into the electricity systems of North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    How can renewable energy sources be efficiently integrated into the North African electricity systems? By using techno-economic modeling methods, this book explores optimized electricity system expansion pathways until the year 2030 for the five North African countries - Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt. The results indicate that renewable energy integration is actually a viable business case for the entire region, if wind and solar capacities are properly planned in conjunction with the conventional generation system and under consideration of the country-specific electricity supply-/demand patterns. Further aspects featured in this publication are the impact of renewable power on the transnational electricity transmission system and the question how decision making processes about renewable energy strategies can be improved in the North African context. The book is a contribution to the scientific literature about energy issues in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), but also seeks to address political and industrial practitioners concerned with the development of the region's renewable energy future.

  18. Wind power and micro-hydro generation: proceedings of the East Midland Universities Renewable Energy Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twidell, J. [De Montfort Univ., Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1995-07-01

    This document introduces the proceedings of the East Midland Universities Renewable Energy Group, a forum for young post-graduate students. The conference included papers on wind power and small-scale hydroelectric power as sources for electric power, including theoretical investigations of wind turbine structures and control and analysis of electric motors adapted as generators for micro-hydro sets, the strategy for micro-hydro developments and the integration of wind and photovoltaic power, backed up by combined heat and power plant. (UK)

  19. A holistic approach towards optimal planning of hybrid renewable energy systems: Combining hydroelectric and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Panagiotis; Bouziotas, Dimitris; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower with pumped storage is a proven technology with very high efficiency that offers a unique large-scale energy buffer. Energy storage is employed by pumping water upstream to take advantage of the excess of produced energy (e.g. during night) and next retrieving this water to generate hydro-power during demand peaks. Excess energy occurs due to other renewables (wind, solar) whose power fluctuates in an uncontrollable manner. By integrating these with hydroelectric plants with pumped storage facilities we can form autonomous hybrid renewable energy systems. The optimal planning and management thereof requires a holistic approach, where uncertainty is properly represented. In this context, a novel framework is proposed, based on stochastic simulation and optimization. This is tested in an existing hydrosystem of Greece, considering its combined operation with a hypothetical wind power system, for which we seek the optimal design to ensure the most beneficial performance of the overall scheme.

  20. Fault tolerant aggregation for power system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Gehrke, Oliver; Kullmann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Exploiting the flexibility in distributed energy resources (DER) is seen as an important contribution to allow high penetrations of renewable generation in electrical power systems. However, the present control infrastructure in power systems is not well suited for the integration of a very large...... number of small units. A common approach is to aggregate a portfolio of such units together and expose them to the power system as a single large virtual unit. In order to realize the vision of a Smart Grid, concepts for flexible, resilient and reliable aggregation infrastructures are required...

  1. Message passing for integrating and assessing renewable generation in a redundant power grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdeborova, Lenka [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    A simplified model of a redundant power grid is used to study integration of fluctuating renewable generation. The grid consists of large number of generator and consumer nodes. The net power consumption is determined by the difference between the gross consumption and the level of renewable generation. The gross consumption is drawn from a narrow distribution representing the predictability of aggregated loads, and we consider two different distributions representing wind and solar resources. Each generator is connected to D consumers, and redundancy is built in by connecting R {le} D of these consumers to other generators. The lines are switchable so that at any instance each consumer is connected to a single generator. We explore the capacity of the renewable generation by determining the level of 'firm' generation capacity that can be displaced for different levels of redundancy R. We also develop message-passing control algorithm for finding switch sellings where no generator is overloaded.

  2. Message passing for integrating and assessing renewable generation in a redundant power grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdeborova, Lenka [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    A simplified model of a redundant power grid is used to study integration of fluctuating renewable generation. The grid consists of large number of generator and consumer nodes. The net power consumption is determined by the difference between the gross consumption and the level of renewable generation. The gross consumption is drawn from a narrow distribution representing the predictability of aggregated loads, and we consider two different distributions representing wind and solar resources. Each generator is connected to D consumers, and redundancy is built in by connecting R {le} D of these consumers to other generators. The lines are switchable so that at any instance each consumer is connected to a single generator. We explore the capacity of the renewable generation by determining the level of 'firm' generation capacity that can be displaced for different levels of redundancy R. We also develop message-passing control algorithm for finding switch sellings where no generator is overloaded.

  3. Renewables Deals. Mergers and acquisitions activity in renewable power and related clean technology. 2012 outlook and 2011 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    Renewables Deals is our annual analysis of deal activity in the renewable power and related clean technology sectors. We publish our outlook on the prospects for dealmaking in the year ahead. We also take a look at what's been happening in the last 12 months and in the different main markets around the world. This year for the first time, we open our report with our discussion of the outlook for the year ahead and identify some of the main themes we expect to be at work. Looking ahead, the sector is undergoing a growing maturity and consolidation phase. This evolution inclines us to believe that deal flow will remain significant in 2012. In part, though, this will depend on how the Eurozone crisis unfolds. We assume a continuation of a 'rolling uncertainty' scenario affecting the Eurozone and wider world sentiment. But, if there are significant adverse events that turn Eurozone 'rolling uncertainty' into deeper crisis, deal flow is likely to be dampened.

  4. Power quality improvement of unbalanced power system with distributed generation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Chen, Zhe; Excell, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a power electronic system for improving the power quality of the unbalanced distributed generation units in three-phase four-wire system. In the system, small renewable power generation units, such as small PV generator, small wind turbines may be configured as single phase...... generation units. The random nature of renewable power sources may result in significant unbalance in the power network and affect the power quality. An electronic converter system is proposed to correct the system unbalance and harmonics so as to deal with the power quality problems. The operation...... and control of the converter are described. Simulation results have demonstrated that the system can effectively correct the unbalance and enhance the system power quality....

  5. Geometry of power flows and convex-relaxed power flows in distribution networks with high penetration of renewables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhao, Haoran

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energies are increasingly integrated in electric distribution networks and will cause severe overvoltage issues. Smart grid technologies make it possible to use coordinated control to mitigate the overvoltage issues and the optimal power flow (OPF) method is proven to be efficient in th...... profile of the feasible sub-injection (injection of nodes excluding the root/substation node) region...

  6. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Harold T.

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  7. Communication Systems and Study Method for Active Distribution Power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mu; Chen, Zhe

    Due to the involvement and evolvement of communication technologies in contemporary power systems, the applications of modern communication technologies in distribution power system are becoming increasingly important. In this paper, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO....... The suitability of the communication technology to the distribution power system with active renewable energy based generation units is discussed. Subsequently the typical possible communication systems are studied by simulation. In this paper, a novel method of integrating communication system impact into power...... system simulation is presented to address the problem of lack of off-shelf research tools on the power system communication. The communication system is configured and studied by the OPNET, and the performance of an active distribution power system integrated with the communication system is simulated...

  8. Comparison between hybrid renewable energy systems in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham El Khashab

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates RE sources applications at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, besides a simulation using HOMER software to three proposed systems newly erected in Yanbu Industrial College Renewable Energy (RE lab. The lab represents a hybrid system, composed of PV, wind turbine, and Fuel cell systems. The cost of energy is compared in the three systems to have an actual estimation for RE in developing countries. The climatic variations at Yanbu that is located on the west coast of Saudi Arabia are considered.

  9. Small-Scale Renewable Energy Systems in the Development of Distributed Generation in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodkowska-Miszczuk Justyna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale renewable energy systems in the context of the development of distributed generation, are discussed for the case of Poland. A distributed energy system is efficient, reliable and environmentally friendly, and is one of the most recent trends in the development of the energy sector in Poland. One of the important dimensions of this process is the creation of micro- and small-power producers based on renewable, locally-available energy sources. It is clear that the development of small-scale renewable energy producers takes place in two ways. One of these is through small hydropower plants, which are the aftermath of hydropower development in areas traditionally associated with water use for energy purposes (northern and western Poland. The second is through other renewable energy sources, mainly biogas and solar energy and located primarily in southern Poland, in highly urbanized areas (e.g. Śląskie Voivodship. In conclusion, the development of small-scale renewable energy systems in Poland is regarded as a good option with respect to sustainable development.

  10. Integration of Renewable Energy for the Harmonic Current and Reactive Power Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Shaker, Hamid Reza; Mehrasa, Majid;

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a control technique for multilevel converter topologies base on Direct Lyapunov Control Method (DLCM) for integration of Renewable Energy Resources (RER) into the power grid. The compensation of variations in reference current components is considered properly in this control...

  11. 75 FR 76055 - Nebraska Public Power District Cooper Nuclear Station; Notice of Issuance of Renewed Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Docket No. 50-298; NRC-2008-0617] Nebraska Public Power District Cooper Nuclear Station; Notice of... operator of the Cooper Nuclear Station (CNS). Renewed facility operating license No. DPR-46...

  12. Optimization in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Geraldo R.M. da [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses, partially, the advantages and the disadvantages of the optimal power flow. It shows some of the difficulties of implementation and proposes solutions. An analysis is made comparing the power flow, BIGPOWER/CESP, and the optimal power flow, FPO/SEL, developed by the author, when applied to the CEPEL-ELETRONORTE and CESP systems. (author) 8 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Optimal Operation of the Integrated Electrical and Heating Systems to Accommodate the Intermittent Renewable Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinghua; Fang, Jiakun; Zeng, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The integration of electrical and heating systems has great potential to enhance the flexibility of power systems to accommodate more renewable power such as the wind and solar. This study was to investigate an optimal way to integrate the energy of both systems in urban areas. The amount of energy...... conversion between the electrical system and heating system was optimally decided so that the demand within both systems could be met at the least operational cost. Besides, the best node to join with the electrical system and heating system was chosen by consideration of the energy transmission loss....... The mathematic formulation of the optimization problem was detailed as a large-scale non-linear program (LSNLP) in this paper. A decomposition-coordination algorithm was proposed to solve this LSNLP. At last, a 6-bus electrical power system with 31-node heating transmission system was studied to demonstrate...

  14. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System Market Analysis Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2016-06-09

    This presentation describes nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs), states their potential benefits, provides figures for the four tightly coupled N-R HESs that NREL is currently analyzing, and outlines the analysis process that is underway.

  15. Electric power emergency management mechanism considering the access of new energy and renewable energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoqun; Ma, Longfei; Gong, Cheng; Jiao, Ran; Shi, Rui; Chi, Zhongjun; Ding, Yifeng

    2017-01-01

    Scholars at home and abroad have had a thorough research about the theory system and the frame of emergency management on the background of traditional grid, but for the improvement of the emergency mechanism when new energy and renewable energy access the grid, more work should be done. This paper will summarize the predecessors' work on emergency management, discuss the impact of emergency management while new energy and renewable energy access the grid and some suggestions are given.

  16. Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

  17. Control analysis of renewable energy system with hydrogen storage for residential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, A.; Agbossou, K.

    The combination of an electrolyzer and a fuel cell can provide peak power control in a decentralized/distributed power system. The electrolyzer produces hydrogen and oxygen from off-peak electricity generated by the renewable energy sources (wind turbine and photovoltaic array), for later use in the fuel cell to produce on-peak electricity. An issue related to this system is the control of the hydrogen loop (electrolyzer, tank, fuel cell). A number of control algorithms were developed to decide when to produce hydrogen and when to convert it back to electricity, most of them assuming that the electrolyzer and the fuel cell run alternatively to provide nominal power (full power). This paper presents a complete model of a stand-alone renewable energy system with hydrogen storage controlled by a dynamic fuzzy logic controller (FLC). In this system, batteries are used as energy buffers and for short time storage. To study the behavior of such a system, a complete model is developed by integrating the individual sub-models of the fuel cell, the electrolyzer, the power conditioning units, the hydrogen storage system, and the batteries. An analysis of the performances of the dynamic fuzzy logic controller is then presented. This model is useful for building efficient peak power control.

  18. Promotion of direct marketing and supply on demand of electric power from renewable energy sources. Final report; Foerderung der Direktvermarktung und der bedarfsgerechten Einspeisung von Strom aus Erneuerbaren Energien. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-06-23

    The study investigates the promotion of direct marketing and supply on demand of electric power from renewable energy sources in Germany. the study shows that renewable energy sources are a good option for facing the challenges of the future. However, the potential is often left unused because of a lack of incentives in the current pricing system. To solve this problem, the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety authorized two studies that are to enable or improve the utilization of the integration potentials of the renewable energy sources. Two model proposals based on these studies are presented here. The model proposing a bonus for combined-cycle power plants is to ensure supply on demand of electric power from renewables with the aid of integrated power storage systems. However, it is found that this model will not generate significant effects for power supply on demand. The second model proposes financial incentives; it will work well for renewable power supply systems that can be controlled, e.g. bioenergy, run-of-river power plants with power storage, and biogas plants. On the other hand, supply-dependent technologies like wind power, photovoltaic power, run-of-river power plants without power storage, and geothermal power plants with very low variable cost, the goal is not fully reached. In contrast to the first model, the market incentives model will enhance the integration of renewable energy sources in the competitive market by largely eliminating market risks. (orig./RHM)

  19. The physics of power systems operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohler C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the operation of power systems from the point of view of physics. Physicists imagine things, rather than in terms of impedances and circuits, in terms of fields and energy conversions. The account is concrete and simple. The use of alternating current entails the issue of reactive power. Reactive power consists of energy that oscillates between electrical and magnetic fields, it flows on top of the active power which carries the useful energy. The control of active and reactive power is essential for the power system’s reliable operation. The frequency of a power system is the same everywhere. The stability of the frequency indicates that generation and demand of active power are equal, a decline in frequency indicates a lack of generation relative to the demand. Adapting the electrical power injected into the system is the way of frequency control. Because of the parasitic inductances and capacitances of overhead lines, cables, and transformers, the voltage at different locations of the power system depends on the load. The voltage is regulated by the combined action of generator excitation, transformer tap changers and series compensation in order to provide consumers with a stable voltage supply. The integration of solar cells and wind turbines into the power system poses some challenges. But the power system is able to accommodate large amounts of fluctuating renewable power generation if the right complementary measures are taken.

  20. Market Power and Investment in Renewable Electricity Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Rune Ramsdal; Misir, Nihat

    while incurring lower investment costs. We additionally find that highly convex investment cost greatly diminishes the impact of market power on the investment decisions. Furthermore, for both the strategic firm and the social planner, fixed baseload generation is preferable during low installed...... approach to evaluate the investment decisions. In our paper we do not only focus on the differences in costs for different technologies but also on the differences in operation of those technologies and how those differences impact the optimal investment decisions. In our model, the one-time investment...... of installed capacity in the market. In the numerical results, we find that the strategic firm tends to invest at a higher demand trigger level and lower capacity compared to the social planner for both the baseload and peakload investment cases. Hence, the strategic firm is expected to invest at a later date...

  1. Design and Implementation of a Power Converter to Process Renewable Energy for Step-down Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study a power converter to process renewable energy is proposed, which can not only process solar energy but deal with wind power. The proposed converter is derived from two series modified forwards to step down voltage for charger system or dc distribution application, so as called Modified-Forward Dual-Input Converter (MFDIC. The MFDIC mainly contains an upper Modified Forward (MF, a lower MF, a common output inductor and a DSP-based system controller. The upper and lower MFs can operate individually or simultaneously to accommodate the variation of atmospheric conditions. Since the MFDIC can process renewable power with interleaved operation, the ripple of output current is suppressed significantly and thus better performance is achieved. In the MFDIC only a common output inductor is needed, instead of two separated inductors, so that the volume of the converter is reduced significantly. To draw maximum power from PV panel and wind turbine, perturb-and-observe method is adopted to achieve the feature of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT. The MFDIC is constructed, designed, analyzed, simulated and tested. Simulations and practical measurements have demonstrated the validity and the feasibility of the proposed dual-input converter.

  2. Foundations for Protecting Renewable-Rich Distribution Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brahma, Sukumar [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Ranade, Satish [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    High proliferation of Inverter Interfaced Distributed Energy Resources (IIDERs) into the electric distribution grid introduces new challenges to protection of such systems. This is because the existing protection systems are designed with two assumptions: 1) system is single-sourced, resulting in unidirectional fault current, and (2) fault currents are easily detectable due to much higher magnitudes compared to load currents. Due to the fact that most renewables interface with the grid though inverters, and inverters restrict their current output to levels close to the full load currents, both these assumptions are no longer valid - the system becomes multi-sourced, and overcurrent-based protection does not work. The primary scope of this study is to analyze the response of a grid-tied inverter to different faults in the grid, leading to new guidelines on protecting renewable-rich distribution systems.

  3. Impacts of Federal Tax Credit Extensions on Renewable Deployment and Power Sector Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trieu Mai, Wesley Cole, Eric Lantz, Cara Marcy, and Benjamin Sigrin

    2016-02-01

    The report examines the impacts of the tax credit extensions under two distinct natural gas price futures, as the price of natural gas has been a key factor influencing the economic competitiveness of new renewable energy development. The analysis finds that, in both natural gas price cases, tax credit extensions can spur renewable capacity investments at least through the early 2020s, and can help lower CO2 emissions from the U.S. electricity system. Federal tax credits for renewable energy, particularly the wind production tax credit (PTC) and the solar investment tax credit (ITC), have offered financial incentives for renewable energy deployment over the last two decades in the United States. In December 2015, the wind and solar tax credits were extended by five years from their prior scheduled expiration dates, but ramp down in tax credit value during the latter years of the five-year period.

  4. Power Systems integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    Power systems integration in large flexible space structures is discussed with emphasis upon body control. A solar array is discussed as a typical example of spacecraft configuration problems. Information on how electric batteries dominate life-cycle costs is presented in chart form. Information is given on liquid metal droplet generators and collectors, hot spot analysis, power dissipation in solar arrays, solar array protection optimization, and electromagnetic compatibility for a power system platform.

  5. Energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areewan Kajorndech

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems have been widely employed to attain several benefits, such as reliability improvement, stabilization of power systems connected with renewable energy resources, economic benefits and etc. To achieve the above objectives, the appropriate and effective control strategies for energy storage systems are needed to be developed. This research proposes energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems equipped with a limited size of energy storage system in order to improve reliability and save energy costs by determining an optimal charging schedule of the energy storage system. Simulation results demonstrate the benefits of energy storage system applications under the different control strategies.

  6. Power system state estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2012-01-01

    State estimation is one of the most important functions in power system operation and control. This area is concerned with the overall monitoring, control, and contingency evaluation of power systems. It is mainly aimed at providing a reliable estimate of system voltages. State estimator information flows to control centers, where critical decisions are made concerning power system design and operations. This valuable resource provides thorough coverage of this area, helping professionals overcome challenges involving system quality, reliability, security, stability, and economy.Engineers are

  7. Wide Area Measurement Based Security Assessment & Monitoring of Modern Power System: A Danish Power System Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thøgersen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Power System security has become a major concern across the global power system community. This paper presents wide area measurement system (WAMS) based security assessment and monitoring of modern power system. A new three dimensional security index (TDSI) has been proposed for online security...... monitoring of modern power system with large scale renewable energy penetration. Phasor measurement unit (PMU) based WAMS has been implemented in western Danish Power System to realize online security monitoring and assessment in power system control center. The proposed security monitoring system has been...

  8. Hybrid renewable energy system using doubly-fed induction generator and multilevel inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Eshita

    The proposed hybrid system generates AC power by combining solar and wind energy converted by a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The DFIG, driven by a wind turbine, needs rotor excitation so the stator can supply a load or the grid. In a variable-speed wind energy system, the stator voltage and its frequency vary with wind speed, and in order to keep them constant, variable-voltage and variable-frequency rotor excitation is to be provided. A power conversion unit supplies the rotor, drawing power either from AC mains or from a PV panel depending on their availability. It consists of a multilevel inverter which gives lower harmonic distortion in the stator voltage. Maximum power point tracking techniques have been implemented for both wind and solar power. The complete hybrid renewable energy system is implemented in a PSIM-Simulink interface and the wind energy conversion portion is realized in hardware using dSPACE controller board.

  9. 77 FR 38742 - Non-Power Reactor License Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Docket ID NRC-2011-0087. NRC's Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS): You may access publicly available documents online in the NRC Library at http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/adams.html . To... solutions, integration with the NRC's strategic goals, and related technical and ] regulatory clarity...

  10. Net employment effects of an extension of renewable-energy systems in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegelmann, Arko; Mohr, Markus; Unger, Hermann [Ruhr-University Bochum, Dept. for Nuclear and New Energy Systems, Bochum (Germany)

    2000-04-01

    Renewable-energy potential exists in the Federal Republic of Germany to a great extent, but is barely used as yet. A change in the power-supply structure seems to be too risky with regard to finance and the sensitive labour market. Nevertheless, an extension of renewable energy systems in the German state North-Rhine Westphalia would lead to improved employment prospects. (Author)

  11. Exploitation of Renewable Energy--A Strategic Choice for Sustainable Development of Power Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Dabing

    2005-01-01

    Since China is being faced with the pressure of energy shortage and environmental conservation, the power industry in China has to actively develop the renewable energy for electricity generation while raising the utilization efficiency of conventional energy. In view of such facts, China Guodian Corporation decided on a development strategy of giving priority to green power, such as wind power. Based on the national planning of wind power development, the corporation set out its own target of installing wind power capacity of 1500 MW by the end of 2010, and is adopting appropriate measures including promoting the localization of wind turbines and developing hydropower, thermal power and wind power simultaneously. Moreover, it put some relevant suggestions.

  12. RESRO: A spatio-temporal model to optimise regional energy systems emphasising renewable energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadocha S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available RESRO (Reference Energy System Regional Optimization optimises the simultaneous fulfilment of the heat and power demand in regional energy systems. It is a mixed-integer program realised in the modelling language GAMS. The model handles information on geographically disaggregated data describing heat demand and renewable energy potentials (e.g. biomass, solar energy, ambient heat. Power demand is handled spatially aggregated in an hourly time resolution within 8 type days. The major idea is to use a high-spatial, low-temporal heat resolution and a low-spatial, hightemporal power resolution with both demand levels linked with each other. Due to high transport losses the possibilities for heat transport over long distances are unsatisfying. Thus, the spatial, raster-based approach is used to identify and utilise renewable energy resources for heat generation close to the customers as well as to optimize district heating grids and related energy flows fed by heating plants or combined heat and power (CHP plants fuelled by renewables. By combining the heat and electricity sector within the model, it is possible to evaluate relationships between these energy fields such as the use of CHP or heat pump technologies and also to examine relationships between technologies such as solar thermal and photovoltaic facilities, which are in competition for available, suitable roof or ground areas.

  13. 100% Renewable energy systems, climate mitigation and economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik [Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University (Denmark); Karlsson, Kenneth [Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark)

    2011-02-15

    Greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are generally considered costly with world leaders often engaging in debate concerning the costs of mitigation and the distribution of these costs between different countries. In this paper, the analyses and results of the design of a 100% renewable energy system by the year 2050 are presented for a complete energy system including transport. Two short-term transition target years in the process towards this goal are analysed for 2015 and 2030. The energy systems are analysed and designed with hour-by-hour energy system analyses. The analyses reveal that implementing energy savings, renewable energy and more efficient conversion technologies can have positive socio-economic effects, create employment and potentially lead to large earnings on exports. If externalities such as health effects are included, even more benefits can be expected. 100% Renewable energy systems will be technically possible in the future, and may even be economically beneficial compared to the business-as-usual energy system. Hence, the current debate between leaders should reflect a combination of these two main challenges. (author)

  14. Expert Opinion Analysis on Renewable Hydrogen Storage Systems Potential in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Astiaso Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the several typologies of storage technologies, mainly on different physical principles (mechanical, electrical and chemical, hydrogen produced by power to gas (P2G from renewable energy sources complies with chemical storage principle and is based on the conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy by means of the electrolysis of water which does not produce any toxic or climate-relevant emission. This paper aims to pinpoint the potential uses of renewable hydrogen storage systems in Europe, analysing current and potential locations, regulatory framework, governments’ outlooks, economic issues, and available renewable energy amounts. The expert opinion survey, already used in many research articles on different topics including energy, has been selected as an effective method to produce realistic results. The obtained results highlight strategies and actions to optimize the storage of hydrogen produced by renewables to face varying electricity demand and generation-driven fluctuations reducing the negative effects of the increasing share of renewables in the energy mix of European Countries.

  15. Power system engineering planning, design, and operation of power systems and equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Schlabbach, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    With its focus on the requirements and procedures of tendering and project contracting, this book enables the reader to adapt the basics of power systems and equipment design to special tasks and engineering projects, e.g. the integration of renewable energy sources.

  16. Tribological design constraints of marine renewable energy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert J K; Bahaj, AbuBakr S; Turnock, Stephen R; Wang, Ling; Evans, Martin

    2010-10-28

    Against the backdrop of increasing energy demands, the threat of climate change and dwindling fuel reserves, finding reliable, diverse, sustainable/renewable, affordable energy resources has become a priority for many countries. Marine energy conversion systems are at the forefront of providing such a resource. Most marine renewable energy conversion systems require tribological components to convert wind or tidal streams to rotational motion for generating electricity while wave machines typically use oscillating hinge or piston within cylinder geometries to promote reciprocating linear motion. This paper looks at the tribology of three green marine energy systems, offshore wind, tidal and wave machines. Areas covered include lubrication and contamination, bearing and gearbox issues, biofouling, cavitation erosion, tribocorrosion, condition monitoring as well as design trends and loading conditions associated with tribological components. Current research thrusts are highlighted along with areas needing research as well as addressing present-day issues related to the tribology of offshore energy conversion technologies.

  17. Integration of a vanadium-redox-flow-battery into a hybrid renewable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, L.; Grahn, J.; Kluge, A.; Boggasch, E.; Kuehl, L. [Ostfalia Univ. of Applied Science, Wolfenbuettel (Germany). Inst. of Energy Optimized Systems EOS

    2012-07-01

    Today's renewable energy systems, like wind turbines or solar power plants, are depending on weather conditions (windy or sunny days). In order to compensate these fluctuations of energy production it is necessary to store produced energy by using one of several options which are available at this time. The planned substitution of nuclear power issues a challenge to Germany and its energy-politics. This paper deals with the efforts of Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences to alleviate a part of the most important problem of this century. Ostfalia's compares of different energy storages will give a help to develop efficient energy management strategies for hybrid systems.

  18. Discovery of Power-Law Growth in the Self-Renewal of Heterogeneous Glioma Stem Cell Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiya Sugimori

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer stem cells (CSCs drive tumorigenesis. This suggests that CSCs should make ideal therapeutic targets. However, because CSC populations in tumors appear heterogeneous, it remains unclear how CSCs might be effectively targeted. To investigate the mechanisms by which CSC populations maintain heterogeneity during self-renewal, we established a glioma sphere (GS forming model, to generate a population in which glioma stem cells (GSCs become enriched. We hypothesized, based on the clonal evolution concept, that with each passage in culture, heterogeneous clonal sublines of GSs are generated that progressively show increased proliferative ability.To test this hypothesis, we determined whether, with each passage, glioma neurosphere culture generated from four different glioma cell lines become progressively proliferative (i.e., enriched in large spheres. Rather than monitoring self-renewal, we measured heterogeneity based on neurosphere clone sizes (#cells/clone. Log-log plots of distributions of clone sizes yielded a good fit (r>0.90 to a straight line (log(% total clones = k*log(#cells/clone indicating that the system follows a power-law (y = xk with a specific degree exponent (k = -1.42. Repeated passaging of the total GS population showed that the same power-law was maintained over six passages (CV = -1.01 to -1.17. Surprisingly, passage of either isolated small or large subclones generated fully heterogeneous populations that retained the original power-law-dependent heterogeneity. The anti-GSC agent Temozolomide, which is well known as a standard therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, suppressed the self-renewal of clones, but it never disrupted the power-law behavior of a GS population.Although the data above did not support the stated hypothesis, they did strongly suggest a novel mechanism that underlies CSC heterogeneity. They indicate that power-law growth governs the self-renewal of heterogeneous

  19. Power Electronics System Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Milosavljevic, Ivana

    1999-01-01

    This work investigates communication issues in high-frequency power converters. A novel control communication network (Power Electronics System Network or PES Net) is proposed for modular, medium and high-power, converters. The network protocol, hardware and software are designed and implemented. The PES Net runs at 125 Mb/s over plastic optical fiber allowing converter switching frequencies in excess of 100 kHz. Communication control is implemented in a fie...

  20. A novel integrated renewable energy system modelling approach, allowing fast FPGA controller prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Ruiz, Alberto Parera; Cirstea, Marcian

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a new holistic approach to the modeling of integrated renewable energy systems. The method is using the DK5 modeling/design environment from Celoxica and is based on the new Handel-C programming language. The goal of the work carried out was to achieve a combined model...... of a photovoltaic energy system and a wind power system, which would allow an optimized holistic digital control system design, followed by rapid prototyping of the controller into a single Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Initially, the system was simulated using Matlab / Simulink, to create a reference...

  1. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Anvari, M; Wächter, M; Milan, P; Lorenz, E; Heinemann, D; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi; Peinke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of {\\it seconds} and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-li...

  2. Smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.; Menendez, Michael; Minei, Brenden; Wong, Kyle; Gabrick, Caton; Thornton, Matsu; Ghorbani, Reza

    2016-04-01

    This paper explains the development of smart nanogrid systems for disaster mitigation employing deployable renewable energy harvesting, or Deployable Disaster Devices (D3), where wind turbines and solar panels are developed in modular forms, which can be tied together depending on the needed power. The D3 packages/units can be used: (1) as a standalone unit in case of a disaster where no source of power is available, (2) for a remote location such as a farm, camp site, or desert (3) for a community that converts energy usage from fossil fuels to Renewable Energy (RE) sources, or (4) in a community system as a source of renewable energy for grid-tie or off-grid operation. In Smart D3 system, the power is generated (1) for consumer energy needs, (2) charge storage devices (such as batteries, capacitors, etc.), (3) to deliver power to the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is larger than consumption and storage recharge needs, or (4) to draw power from the network when the smart D3 nano-grid is tied to the network and when the power generation is less than consumption and storage recharge needs. The power generated by the Smart D3 systems are routed through high efficiency inverters for proper DC to DC or DC to AC for final use or grid-tie operations. The power delivery from the D3 is 220v AC, 110v AC and 12v DC provide proper power for most electrical and electronic devices worldwide. The power supply is scalable, using a modular system that connects multiple units together. This are facilitated through devices such as external Input-Output or I/O ports. The size of the system can be scaled depending on how many accessory units are connected to the I/O ports on the primary unit. The primary unit is the brain of the system allowing for smart switching and load balancing of power input and smart regulation of power output. The Smart D3 systems are protected by ruggedized weather proof casings allowing for operation

  3. Modelling and control of hybrid renewable energy system connected to AC grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Younsi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of new control and supervision method for the optimum operation of hybrid renewable energy system (HRES connected to AC grid. The hybrid system consists of wind generator (WG, diesel generator (DG, and flywheel energy storage system (FESS. These subsystems are based on permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM which are controlled by sliding mode control. A supervisor control is designed to determine the energy transfer type of flywheel energy storage system (charging / discharging / no transfer energy, to take decision on diesel generators ON/OFF status, and to determine the reference powers for these two subsystems. The supervisor inputs are the power requested by AC grid, the power generated by wind generator, and the energy stored in flywheel. The objectives of the control and supervision for hybrid renewable energy system are to satisfy the power requested by AC grid, to manage the energy transfer between hybrid system and AC grid, to optimize the use of wind energy, and to reduce fuel of diesel generator. The system is simulated with Matlab – Simulink software and it gave good results.

  4. Impacts of Federal Tax Credit Extensions on Renewable Deployment and Power Sector Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marcy, Cara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Federal tax credits for renewable energy (RE) have served as one of the primary financial incentives for RE deployment over the last two decades in the United States. In December 2015, the wind power production tax credit and solar investment tax credits were extended for five years as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2016. This report explores the impact that these tax credit extensions might have on future RE capacity deployment and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The analysis examines the impacts of the tax credit extensions under two distinct natural gas price futures as natural gas prices have been key factors in influencing the economic competitiveness of new RE development. The analysis finds that, in both natural gas price futures, RE tax credit extensions can spur RE capacity investments at least through the early 2020s and can help lower emissions from the U.S. electricity system. More specifically, the RE tax credit extensions are estimated to drive a net peak increase of 48-53 GW in installed RE capacity in the early 2020s -- longer term impacts are less certain. In the longer term after the tax credits ramp down, greater RE capacity is driven by a combination of assumed RE cost declines, rising fossil fuel prices, and other clean energy policies such as the Clean Power Plan. The tax credit extension-driven acceleration in RE capacity development can reduce fossil fuel-based generation and lower electric sector CO2 emissions. Cumulative emissions reductions over a 15-year period (spanning 2016-2030) as a result of the tax credit extensions are estimated to range from 540 to 1420 million metric tonnes CO2. These findings suggest that tax credit extensions can have a measurable impact on future RE deployment and electric sector CO2 emissions under a range of natural gas price futures.

  5. Lunar Solar Power System and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    Five of the six billion people on Earth produce less than 2,500 per year per person of Gross World Product (GWP). GWP growth is severely limited by the high cost, low availability and reliability, environmental damages, and political uncertainties of conventional fossil, nuclear, and terrestrial renewable power systems. In 2000 the World Energy Council challenged all decision makers to enable the equivalent of 6.7 kWt per person of thermal power within two generations. This implies 67 TWt, or approx.20 to 30 TWe, of sustainable electric power by 2050. Twenty-five power systems were reviewed to select which could: (1) sustainably provide 20 TWe to consumers; (2) profitably sell electricity for less than 0.01 per kWe-h; (3) be environmentally neutral, even nurturing; and (4) use understood technologies. The analyses indicated that only the Lunar Solar Power (LSP) System could meet these requirements within the 21st Century.

  6. Statistical Modeling of Controllable Heat Pump Water Heaters Considering Customers' Convenience and Uncertainty and its Application to Frequency Control in Power System with a Large Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Gunjikake, Yasutoshi; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Tada, Yasuyuki

    Nowadays, electric power systems confront many problems, such as environmental issues, aging infrastructures, energy security, and quality of electricity supply. The smart grid is a new concept of a better future grid, which enables us to solve the mentioned problems with Information and Communication Technology (ICT). In this research, a number of Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs), one of the energy efficient-use customer equipment, and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) are considered as controllable equipment for the frequency control. The utilization of customer equipment such as HPWH for power system control is one of the key elements in the concept of Ubiquitous Power Grid, which was proposed by our research group as a smart grid in Japanese context. The frequency control using a number of HPWHs with thermal storage of hot water tank is evaluated. Moreover, a novel statistical modeling of controllable HPWHs taking into account customers' convenience and uncertainty is proposed.

  7. Renewable energy systems the earthscan expert guide to renewable energy technologies for home and business

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Dilwyn

    2013-01-01

    This book is the long awaited guide for anyone interested in renewables at home or work. It sweeps away scores of common misconceptions while clearly illustrating the best in renewable and energy efficiency technologies. A fully illustrated guide to renewable energy for the home and small business, the book provides an expert overview of precisely which sustainable energy technologies are appropriate for wide-spread domestic and small business application. The sections on different renewable energy options provide detailed descriptions of each technology along with case studies, installatio

  8. Renewable energy for new millennium. Training by multimedia systems; Energias renovables para el nuevo milenio. Ensenanza a traves de sistemas multimedia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenar, A.; Peire, J.; Castro, M.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this article is to present the multimedia application RENEC (Renewable Energies for the New Century). Its teaching basis, the content, are the Renewable Energies, reinforced by powerful support to the information offered by current multimedia systems, the container. It's about a research project and the development of a multimedia product that tries to bring the knowledge of renewable energies to the society in the most simple, rigorous and pleasant way. (Author)

  9. Energy Flexibility in the Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Energy flexibility can address the challenges of large scale integration of renewable energy resources and thereby increasing imbalance in the power system. Flexible power system can provide reliable supply, low electricity cost and sustainability. Various situations and factors influence...... the adoption of the flexibility solutions, such as flexible electricity generation, demand-response, and electricity storage. This paper tries to analyze the current energy flexibility solutions and the factors that can influence the energy flexibility adoption. This paper takes Philippines as case study...... to provide an overview of the current condition of the Philippines’ power system and discuss the energy flexibility in the Philippines’ power system. A further discussion and recommendation is conducted in the end of the paper....

  10. THE CONCEPT OF UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have revealed the main reasons for interruptions in power supply to consumers of electricity. To improve the reliability and the efficiency of power supply for responsible consumers, we have proposed to develop energy efficient combined energy-saving systems for uninterrupted power supply with use of renewable energy sources. The article lists major principles of the development of such systems; it shows the necessity of constructing a generalized schema that contains the possible types and the sources of electric power converters. It also reveals the modern requirements to systems of uninterrupted energy supply. To improve the operational and technical characteristics of the uninterruptible power supply, it has been proposed to use a new circuitry that includes a contactless power generators, the direct frequency converters used to stabilize the voltage and frequency of the current generators of wind turbines, static converters made with the use of single-phase transformers with rotating magnetic field, universal static converters that can operate in the regimes of known types of converters. The article presents features of the modular construction of systems of uninterrupted energy supply and optimization of their structural decisions on key performance criteria. It shows the algorithm of synthesis of structural designs of combined systems of uninterrupted power supply. An important step for further research with the aim of improving operational and technical characteristics of the combination of uninterrupted power supply systems is the mathematical modeling of physical processes in power circuits of the system in both normal and emergency modes of operation

  11. Geothermal Power Growth 1995–2013—A Comparison with Other Renewables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislaus Rybach

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on global statistical data the current status of deep geothermal resource utilization for electricity generation is presented. Particular attention is paid to growth rates. The rates are compared with those of other renewable energies (biomass, hydro, solar photovoltaic (PV, wind. Whereas wind and solar PV exhibit annual growth rates of 25%–30% since 2004, geothermal growth is only about 5% per year. Geothermal electricity production (in TW∙h/yr was higher until 2011 than from solar PV, but is now clearly falling behind. So far the global geothermal electricity generation is provided nearly entirely by hydrothermal resources, which exist only under specific geologic conditions. Further development (=increasing production capacity based on this resource type alone will therefore hardly accelerate to two-digit (>10% per year growth rates. Faster growth can only be achieved by using the ubiquitous petrothermal resources, provided that the key problem will be solved: establishing a universally applicable technology. This would enable to create, at any requested site, feasible and efficient deep heat exchangers for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS power plants—irrespective of the local subsurface conditions. Goals and challenges of this technology are addressed.

  12. Linkages from DOE's Solar Photovoltaic R&D to Commercial Renewable Power from Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruegg, Rosalie [TIA Consulting Inc., Emerald Isle, NC (United States); Thomas, Patrick [1790 Analytics LLC., Haddonfield, NJ (United States)

    2011-04-01

    DOE's Solar Photovoltaic R&D Subprogram promotes the development of cost-effective systems for directly converting solar energy into electricity for residential, commercial, and industrial applications. This study was commissioned to assess the extent to which the knowledge outputs of R&D funded by the DOE Solar PV subprogram are linked to downstream developments in commercial renewable power. A second purpose was to identify spillovers of the resulting knowledge to other areas of application. A third purpose was to lend support to a parallel benefit-cost study by contributing evidence of attribution of benefits to DOE.

  13. A technical and economic analysis of one potential pathway to a 100% renewable energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Connolly

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines how an existing energy system can be transformed into a 100% renewable energy system. The transition is divided into a number of key stages which reflect key radical technological changes on the supply side of the energy system. Ireland is used as a case study,but in reality this reflects many typical energy systems today which use power plants for electricity, individual boilers for heat, and oil for transport. The seven stages analysed are 1 reference, 2 introduction of district heating, 3 installation of small and large-scale heat pumps,4 reducing grid regulation requirements, 5 adding flexible electricity demands and electric vehicles, 6 producing synthetic methanol/DME for transport, and finally 7 using synthetic gas to replace the remaining fossil fuels. For each stage, the technical and economic performance of the energy system is calculated. The results indicate that a 100% renewable energy system can provide the same end-user energy demands as today’s energy system and at the same price. Electricity will be the backbone of the energy system, but the flexibility in today’s electricity sector will be transferred from the supply side of the demand side in the future. Similarly, due to changes in the type of spending required in a 100% renewable energy system, this scenario will result in the creation of 100,000 additional jobs in Ireland compared to an energy system like today’s. These results are significant since they indicate that the transition to a 100% renewable energy system can begin today, without increasing the cost of energy in the short- or long-term, if the costs currently forecasted for 2050 become a reality.

  14. Ruled-based control of off-grid desalination powered by renewable energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Serna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A rule-based control is presented for desalination plants operating under variable, renewable power availability. This control algorithm is based on two sets of rules: first, a list that prioritizes the reverse osmosis (RO units of the plant is created, based on the current state and the expected water demand; secondly, the available energy is then dispatched to these units following this prioritized list. The selected strategy is tested on a specific case study: a reverse osmosis plant designed for the production of desalinated water powered by wind and wave energy. Simulation results illustrate the correct performance of the plant under this control.

  15. Reliability/Cost Evaluation on Power System connected with Wind Power for the Reserve Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Cha, Seung-Tae; Shin, Je-Seok;

    2012-01-01

    Wind power is ideally a renewable energy with no fuel cost, but has a risk to reduce reliability of the whole system because of uncertainty of the output. If the reserve of the system is increased, the reliability of the system may be improved. However, the cost would be increased. Therefore...... the reserve needs to be estimated considering the trade-off between reliability and economic aspects. This paper suggests a methodology to estimate the appropriate reserve, when wind power is connected to the power system. As a case study, when wind power is connected to power system of Korea, the effects...

  16. Wind power in modern power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, wind power is experiencing a rapid growth, and large-scale wind turbines/wind farms have been developed and connected to power systems. However, the traditional power system generation units are centralized located synchronous generators with different characteristics compared...... with wind turbines. This paper presents an overview of the issues about integrating large-scale wind power plants into modern power systems. Firstly, grid codes are introduced. Then, the main technical problems and challenges are presented. Finally, some possible technical solutions are discussed....

  17. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). Sources of flexibility exist--and can be enhanced--across all of the physical and institutional elements of the power system, including system operations and markets, demand side resources and storage; generation; and transmission networks. Accessing flexibility requires significant planning to optimize investments and ensure that both short- and long-time power system requirements are met.

  18. Optimal Placement and Sizing of Renewable Distributed Generations and Capacitor Banks into Radial Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, renewable types of distributed generation in the distribution system have been much appreciated due to their enormous technical and environmental advantages. This paper proposes a methodology for optimal placement and sizing of renewable distributed generation(s (i.e., wind, solar and biomass and capacitor banks into a radial distribution system. The intermittency of wind speed and solar irradiance are handled with multi-state modeling using suitable probability distribution functions. The three objective functions, i.e., power loss reduction, voltage stability improvement, and voltage deviation minimization are optimized using advanced Pareto-front non-dominated sorting multi-objective particle swarm optimization method. First a set of non-dominated Pareto-front data are called from the algorithm. Later, a fuzzy decision technique is applied to extract the trade-off solution set. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is tested on the standard IEEE 33 test system. The overall results reveal that combination of renewable distributed generations and capacitor banks are dominant in power loss reduction, voltage stability and voltage profile improvement.

  19. 77 FR 131 - Charter Renewal for the National Park System Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... National Park Service Charter Renewal for the National Park System Advisory Board AGENCY: Department of the... renew the charter for the National Park System Advisory Board, in accordance with section 14(b) of the... reauthorized legislatively within 2 years of the date of the renewal charter, the Board will revert to...

  20. Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2009-01-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, has routinely demonstrated gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This final report summarizes the results of the technology development work conducted at the PSDF through January 31, 2009. Twenty-one major gasification test campaigns were completed, for a total of more than 11,000 hours of gasification operation. This operational experience has led to significant advancements in gasification technologies.

  1. Pathways to Decarbonization. Natural Gas and Renewable Energy. Lessons Learned from Energy System Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, Jacquelyn [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Camila [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Ensuring the resilience, reliability, flexibility, and affordability of the U.S. electric grid is increasingly important as the country addresses climate change and an aging infrastructure. State and federal policy and actions by industry, non-profits, and others create a dynamic framework for achieving these goals. Three principle low-carbon generation technologies have formed the basis for multiple scenarios leading toward a low-carbon, resilient, and affordable power system. While there is no “silver bullet,” one avenue identified by key stakeholders is the opportunity to invest in natural gas (NG) and renewable resources, both of which offer abundant domestic resource bases and contribute to energy independence, carbon mitigation, and economic growth. NG and renewable electricity (RE) have traditionally competed for market share in the power sector, but there is a growing experience base and awareness for their synergistic use (Cochran et al. 2014). Building upon these observations and previous work, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA), in collaboration with the Center for the New Energy Economy and the Gas Technology Institute, convened a series of workshops in 2014 to explore NG and RE synergies in the U.S. power sector. This report captures key insights from the workshop series, Synergies of Natural Gas and Renewable Energy: 360 Degrees of Opportunity, as well as supporting economic valuation analyses conducted by JISEA researchers that quantify the value proposition of investing in NG and RE together as complements.

  2. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems: 2016 Technology Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Suk Kim, Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cetiner, M. Sacit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, T. Jay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Qualls, A. Lou [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    renewable technologies will aid in achieving reduced GHG emissions, it also presents new challenges to grid management that must be addressed. These challenges primarily derive from the fundamental characteristics of variable renewable generators, such as wind and solar: non-dispatchability, variable production, and reduced electromechanical inertia. This document presents a preliminary research and development (R&D) plan for detailed dynamic simulation and analysis of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HES), coupled with integrated energy system design, component development, and integrated systems testing. N-R HES are cooperatively-controlled systems that dynamically apportion thermal and/or electrical energy to provide responsive generation to the power grid.

  3. Ac-dc Bus-interface Bi-directional Converters in Renewable Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Dong

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation covers several issues related to the ac-dc bus-interface bi-directional converters in renewable energy systems. The dissertation explores a dc-electronic distribution system for residential and commercial applications with a focus on the design of an ac-dc bi-directional converter for such application. This converter is named as the â Energy Control Centerâ due to its unique role in the system. First, the impact of the unbalanced power from the ac grid, especially the ...

  4. SUNIST Microwave Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Songlin; Yang Xuanzong; Feng Chunhua; Wang Long; Rao Jun; Feng Kecheng

    2005-01-01

    Experiments on the start-up and formation of spherical tokamak plasmas by electron cyclotron heating alone without ohmic heating and electrode discharge assisted electron cyclotron wave current start-up will be carried out on the SUNIST (Sino United Spherical Tokamak) device.The 2.45 GHz/100 kW/30 ms microwave power system and 1000 V/50 A power supply for electrode discharge are ready for experiments with non-inductive current drive.

  5. Scenarios for a Nordic Power System without Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Nilsson, Måns; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents scenarios for power production without greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden by 2050. The Nordic region already has a high share of renewables in its power production portfolio (about 60% in 2010), and possibilities for further deployment are very...... profitable investments in transmission grids with particular focus on the interconnections between the Nordic region and Continental Europe - Technical simulations of the power system with focus on balancing of large shares of non-dispatchable renewable resources in a future system. - Assess impacts...

  6. Renewal of the waterpipe system at Norrköping

    OpenAIRE

    Kalm, Rickard

    2007-01-01

    The work with renewal of the water pipe system in Norrköpings municipality has during the last couple years been intensified due to disturbances in the pipe network. My task was to connect disturbances with their geographic position in a database and use the database to establish a priority list for measures. This paper will only examine the water pipe system and the disturbances that are depending on reports of leak in the pipes. The already existing database that was supposed to be the inpu...

  7. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  8. TidGen Power System Commercialization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Christopher R. [President & CEO; McEntee, Jarlath [VP Engineering & CTO

    2013-12-30

    ORPC Maine, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (collectively ORPC), submits this Final Technical Report for the TidGen® Power System Commercialization Project (Project), partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-EE0003647). The Project was built and operated in compliance with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) pilot project license (P-12711) and other permits and approvals needed for the Project. This report documents the methodologies, activities and results of the various phases of the Project, including design, engineering, procurement, assembly, installation, operation, licensing, environmental monitoring, retrieval, maintenance and repair. The Project represents a significant achievement for the renewable energy portfolio of the U.S. in general, and for the U.S. marine hydrokinetic (MHK) industry in particular. The stated Project goal was to advance, demonstrate and accelerate deployment and commercialization of ORPC’s tidal-current based hydrokinetic power generation system, including the energy extraction and conversion technology, associated power electronics, and interconnection equipment capable of reliably delivering electricity to the domestic power grid. ORPC achieved this goal by designing, building and operating the TidGen® Power System in 2012 and becoming the first federally licensed hydrokinetic tidal energy project to deliver electricity to a power grid under a power purchase agreement in North America. Located in Cobscook Bay between Eastport and Lubec, Maine, the TidGen® Power System was connected to the Bangor Hydro Electric utility grid at an on-shore station in North Lubec on September 13, 2012. ORPC obtained a FERC pilot project license for the Project on February 12, 2012 and the first Maine Department of Environmental Protection General Permit issued for a tidal energy project on January 31, 2012. In addition, ORPC entered into a 20-year agreement with Bangor Hydro Electric

  9. Charging Scheduling of Electric Vehicles with Local Renewable Energy under Uncertain Electric Vehicle Arrival and Grid Power Price

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tian; Chen, Wei; Han, Zhu; Cao, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, we consider delay-optimal charging scheduling of the electric vehicles (EVs) at a charging station with multiple charge points. The charging station is equipped with renewable energy generation devices and can also buy energy from power grid. The uncertainty of the EV arrival, the intermittence of the renewable energy, and the variation of the grid power price are taken into account and described as independent Markov processes. Meanwhile, the charging energy for each EV is rand...

  10. Problems of effective use of new constructions of electric power installations, based on renewable energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balzannikov Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays hydraulic and power installations can be defined as power installations that are well-designed in terms of construction and technology and working on renewable energy resources (RER. However wide use of such power stations is interfered by their low performance in comparison with thermal stations, using organic fuel. The purpose of the conducted research in this article is – search of ways to increase the competitiveness of power stations, using RER, in comparison with traditional power stations. In order to achieve the specified purpose the authors solved the following tasks: they analyzed and developed new constructive solutions of the power stations using RER; they developed the power-economic viability method for the choice of key parameters of the power stations working on RER. The researchers also gained the set objectives, using theoretical and experimental methods of calculation connected with physical modeling, the theoretical analysis and use of an economic case of the made decisions. Thus, carried-out analysis of designs of the power stations, based on RER allowed to develop a method of efficiency enhancement of these installations and to solve a problem of wider use of power stations as a part of the installations working on RER. The provided technical solutions of power stations that give the chance to develop new suggestions for improvement of designs of power stations, based on RER and to promote development of recommendations about their competitive recovery. As a result it will allow to create conditions for production of the effective national power stations, based on RER, and cumulative scientific and technical potential, that can be used for further development of nonconventional wind power and hydropower both in Russia, and abroad.

  11. Hybrid Geo-Energy Systems for Energy Storage and Dispatchable Renewable and Low-Carbon Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, Thomas; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Ogland-Hand, Jonathan; Hao, Yue; Sun, Yunwei; Randolph, Jimmy; Saar, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Three primary challenges for energy systems are to (1) reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) being emitted to the atmosphere, (2) increase the penetration of renewable energy technologies, and (3) reduce the water intensity of energy production. Integrating variable renewable energy sources (wind, sunlight) into electric grids requires advances in energy storage approaches, which are currently expensive, and tend to have limited capacity and/or geographic deployment potential. Our approach uses CO2, that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, to generate electricity from geothermal resources, to store excess energy from variable (wind, solar photovoltaic) and thermal (nuclear, fossil, concentrated solar power) sources, and to thus enable increased penetration of renewable energy technologies. We take advantage of the enormous fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface to harvest, store, and dispatch energy. Our approach uses permeable geologic formations that are vertically bounded by impermeable layers to constrain pressure and the migration of buoyant CO2 and heated brine. Supercritical CO2 captured from fossil power plants is injected into these formations as a cushion gas to store pressure (bulk energy), provide an heat efficient extraction fluid for efficient power conversion in Brayton Cycle turbines, and generate artesian flow of brine -- which can be used to cool power plants and/or pre-heated (thermal storage) prior to re-injection. Concentric rings of injection and production wells create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO2, and thermal energy. The system is pressurized and/or heated when power supply exceeds demand and depressurized when demand exceeds supply. Time-shifting the parasitic loads from pressurizing and injecting brine and CO2 provides bulk energy storage over days to months, whereas time-shifting thermal-energy supply provides dispatchable power and addresses seasonal mismatches between supply and demand. These

  12. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable and distributed energy systems could provide a solution to the burning issue of reliable and clean supply of energy, having in mind current state and future predictions for population growth and fossil fuel scarcity. Hybrid renewable energy systems are novelty in Serbia and warrant further detailed research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES for electricity and heat supply of a typical household in Serbia, as well as the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system. The influence of feed-in tariff change on the value of the investment is analyzed. Small, grid-connected hybrid system (for energy supply of a standard household, consisting of geothermal heat pump for heating/cooling, solar photovoltaic panels and small wind turbine for power supply is analyzed as a case study. System analysis was conducted with the help of RETScreen software. Results of techno-economics analysis have shown that investing in geothermal heat pump and photovoltaic panels is cost-effective, while that is not the case with small wind turbine.

  13. Stochastic analysis and simulation of hydrometeorological processes for optimizing hybrid renewable energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsekouras, Georgios; Ioannou, Christos; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2013-04-01

    The drawbacks of conventional energy sources including their negative environmental impacts emphasize the need to integrate renewable energy sources into energy balance. However, the renewable sources strongly depend on time varying and uncertain hydrometeorological processes, including wind speed, sunshine duration and solar radiation. To study the design and management of hybrid energy systems we investigate the stochastic properties of these natural processes, including possible long-term persistence. We use wind speed and sunshine duration time series retrieved from a European database of daily records and we estimate representative values of the Hurst coefficient for both variables. We conduct simultaneous generation of synthetic time series of wind speed and sunshine duration, on yearly, monthly and daily scale. To this we use the Castalia software system which performs multivariate stochastic simulation. Using these time series as input, we perform stochastic simulation of an autonomous hypothetical hybrid renewable energy system and optimize its performance using genetic algorithms. For the system design we optimize the sizing of the system in order to satisfy the energy demand with high reliability also minimizing the cost. While the simulation scale is the daily, a simple method allows utilizing the subdaily distribution of the produced wind power. Various scenarios are assumed in order to examine the influence of input parameters, such as the Hurst coefficient, and design parameters such as the photovoltaic panel angle.

  14. A Multi-Functional Power Electronic Converter in Distributed Generation Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    of the converter interfacing a wind power generation unit is also given. The power electronic interface performs the optimal operation in the wind turbine system to extract the maximum wind power, while it also plays a key role in a hybrid compensation system that consists of the active power electronic converter...... and passive filters connected to each distorting load or distributed generation (DG) unit. The passive filters are distributely located to remove major harmonics and provide reactive power compensation. The active power electronic filter corrects the system unbalance, removes the remaining harmonic components......, and damps the possible harmonic resonance. Simulation results demonstrate that the converter system can transfer the real power by following a desired reference power for a variable speed wind power conversion system to effectively extract the renewable energy and also enhance the power quality...

  15. Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    availability, long lifetime, sufficient robustness, low maintenance cost and low cost of energy. However, the reliability predictions are still dominantly according to outdated models and terms, such as MIL-HDBK-217F handbook models, Mean-Time-To-Failure (MTTF), and Mean-Time-Between-Failures (MTBF......Advances in power electronics enable efficient and flexible processing of electric power in the application of renewable energy sources, electric vehicles, adjustable-speed drives, etc. More and more efforts are devoted to better power electronic systems in terms of reliability to ensure high......). A collection of methodologies based on Physics-of-Failure (PoF) approach and mission profile analysis are presented in this paper to perform reliability-oriented design of power electronic systems. The corresponding design procedures and reliability prediction models are provided. Further on, a case study...

  16. Added values of photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-15

    The structure, ownership and operation of electricity systems around the world are changing in response to industry restructuring, the availability of new technologies and increasing environmental awareness. At the same time, many countries have yet to provide basic energy services for their populations, particularly in areas not served by the electricity grid. Large-scale, central power generation and distribution which characterized the electricity industry for much of the 20{sup th} century is being challenged by new technologies, which are cleaner, faster to deploy and better matched to local requirements. Higher values are being placed on ancillary services, such as power system reliability and voltage stability, so that a simple comparison of energy cost is no longer appropriate as a measure of competitiveness. Solar photovoltaic electricity is unique amongst the new energy sources for the wide range of energy and non-energy benefits which can be provided, while the use of photovoltaic power systems as an integral part of a building provides the greatest opportunity for exploiting non-energy benefits and for adding value to the photovoltaic power system. This report documents the potential added values or non-energy benefits photovoltaic power systems can provide, the current state of market development and the key barriers faced by renewable energy technologies generally and photovoltaic power systems in particular. Means by which non-energy benefits may be used to overcome barriers to the use of photovoltaic power systems are then discussed, with specific attention to the use of building integrated photovoltaics. (author)

  17. Transition to 100% renewable energy systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Hvelplund, Frede; Karnø, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    The world is faced with urgent and complex climate problems manifested by increasing global warming due to emission of greenhouse gases. A major part of the greenhouse gases arise in the form of CO2 from combustion of fossil fuels. So far, however, international negotiations aiming at commitments...... the commercial market can offer. As a consequence, it is proposed that the balance between the commercial market and societal planning is shifted to the advantage of societal planning. It is an extra benefit from the proposed transition to a renewable energy system that it significantly improves the Danish...

  18. The Realization of a Discrete-Time Deterministic Regulator for Energy Renewable Multivariable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OBINABO, EDWIN CHUKWUDI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an optimal control law for a linear constant energy renewal multivariable system supplying power to protection and signaling circuits for switchgears and substation operations. The energy storage mechanism creates a control source that dictates the frequency of the pow er supply voltage. The entire analysis was based essentially on the use of a vector of inputs and outputs, and a matrix of operations characterizing the storage mechanism, assuming the system is both controllable and observable under arbitrary state feedback. The property of the output regulator which was desirable from the view point of feedback control design was clarified.

  19. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari, M.; Lohmann, G.; Wächter, M.; Milan, P.; Lorenz, E.; Heinemann, D.; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza; Peinke, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of seconds and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-like power spectra and q-exponential probability density functions. Using the estimated potential shape of power time series, we quantify the jumpy or diffusive dynamic of the power. Finally we propose a time delayed feedback technique as a control algorithm to suppress the observed short term non-Gaussian statistics in spatially strong correlated and intermittent renewable sources.

  20. Renewable energy perspectives for the North African electricity systems: a comparative analysis of model-based scenario studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, B.; Blok, Kornelis

    2015-01-01

    Prospects for the integration of power markets and the expansion of renewable energy have recently triggered a number of publications dealing with transformation scenarios of the North African electricity systems. This paper compares five studies using economic electricity supply- and demand models