WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewable industrial wastes

  1. Recycled water reuse permit renewal application for the materials and fuels complex industrial waste ditch and industrial waste pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Name, No

    2014-10-01

    This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  2. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Name

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  3. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    of the system industry has to inform at the planning stage and afterwards in yearly reports on their waste arising and how the waste is managed. If available such information is very helpful in obtaining information about that specific industry. However, in many countries there is very little information......Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...

  4. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  5. The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Rass-Hansen, J.; Marsden, Charlotte Clare

    2008-01-01

    The possibilities for establishing a renewable chemicals industry featuring renewable resources as the dominant feedstock rather than fossil resources are discussed in this Concept. Such use of biomass can potentially be interesting from both an economical and ecological perspective. Simple...... per kilogram of desired product to illustrate in which processes the use of renewable resources lead to the most substantial reduction of CO2 emissions. The steps towards a renewable chemicals industry will most likely involve intimate integration of biocatalytic and conventional catalytic processes...... and educational tools are introduced to allow initial estimates of which chemical processes could be viable. Specifically, fossil and renewables value chains are used to indicate where renewable feedstocks can be optimally valorized. Additionally, C factors are introduced that specify the amount of CO2 produced...

  6. The policy effects of feed-in tariff and renewable portfolio standard: A case study of China's waste incineration power industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-Gang, Zhao; Yu-Zhuo, Zhang; Ling-Zhi, Ren; Yi, Zuo; Zhi-Gong, Wu

    2017-06-15

    Among the regulatory policies, feed-in tariffs (FIT) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy. This paper uses system dynamics (SD) to establish models of long-term development of China's waste incineration power industry under FIT and RPS schemes, and provides a case study by using scenario analysis method. The model, on the one hand, not only clearly shows the complex logical relationship between the factors but also assesses policy effects of the two policy tools in the development of the industry. On the other hand, it provides a reference for scholars to study similar problems in different countries, thereby facilitating an understanding of waste incineration power's long-term sustainable development pattern under FIT and RPS schemes, and helping to provide references for policy-making institutions. The results show that in the perfect competitive market, the implementation of RPS can promote long-term and rapid development of China's waste incineration power industry given the constraints and actions of the mechanisms of RPS quota proportion, the TGC valid period, and fines, compared with FIT. At the end of the paper, policy implications are offered as references for the government. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Agriculture/municipal/industrial waste management and resource recovery feasibility study : renewable energy clusters and improved end-use efficiency : a formula for sustainable development[Prepared for the North Okanagan Waste to Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-15

    The North Okanagan Waste to Energy Consortium initiated a study that evaluated the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of a proposed biomass to renewable energy eco-system, using the technologies of anaerobic digestion (AD), cogeneration and hydroponics in a centralized waste treatment and recovery facility. The Okanagan Valley is well suited for the demonstration plant because of its concentration of food producers and processors and abundance of rich organic waste stream. The agricultural, municipal and industrial waste management consortium consisted of a dairy farm, 5 municipalities and local waste handlers. The consortium proposed to combine several organic waste streams such as dairy manure, slaughterhouse offal and source separated municipal solid waste (MSW) to produce biogas in an anaerobic digester. The methane would be processed into renewable energy (heat and electricity) for a hydroponics barley sprout operation. It is expected that the synergies resulting from this project would increase productivity, end-use efficiency and profitability. This study reviewed the basics of AD technology, technological options and evaluated several technology providers. The type and quantity of waste available in the area was determined through a waste audit and analysis. The potential to market the system by-products locally was also reviewed as well as the general economic viability of a centralized system. The study also evaluated site selection, preliminary design and costing, with reference to proximity to feedstock and markets, access to roads, impacts on neighbours and insurance of minimal environmental impact. 84 refs., 82 figs., 10 appendices.

  8. RENEWABLE ENERGY BETWEEN AGRICULTURE AND INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana GROSU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present the evolution of renewable energy in the entire world, including Moldova and Romania as states that tend to reach their micro- and macro-economic objectives. One of the most important goal remains thedevelopment of renewable energy from agricultural waste and so the energy coming from natural sources such assolar, wind or water without air pollution. As a conclusion, the solution to obtain this renewable energy is to attractfinancial resources from EU or USA investors.

  9. An Investigation into Spent Coffee Waste as a Renewable Source of Bioactive Compounds and Industrially Important Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damhan S. Scully

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional coffee brewing techniques generate vast quantities of spent espresso grounds (SEGs rich in lignocellulose and valuable bioactives. These bioactive compounds can be exploited as a nutraceutical or used in a range of food products, while breakdown of lignocellulose generates metabolizable sugars that can be used for the production of various high-value products such as biofuels, amino acids and enzymes. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose in SEGs following a hydrothermal pretreatment. A maximum reducing sugar yield was obtained at the following optimized hydrolysis conditions: 4.97 g of pretreated SEGs, 120 h reaction time, and 1246 and 250 µL of cellulase and hemicellulase, respectively. Industrially important sugars (glucose, galactose and mannose were identified as the principal hydrolysis products under the studied conditions. Total flavonoids (p = 0.0002, total polyphenols (p = 0.03 and DPPH free-radical scavenging activity (p = 0.004 increased significantly after processing. A 14-fold increase in caffeine levels was also observed. This study provides insight into SEGs as a promising source of industrially important sugars and polyphenols.

  10. An Investigation into Spent Coffee Waste as a Renewable Source of Bioactive Compounds and Industrially Important Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Damhan S.; Jaiswal, Amit K.; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen

    2016-01-01

    Conventional coffee brewing techniques generate vast quantities of spent espresso grounds (SEGs) rich in lignocellulose and valuable bioactives. These bioactive compounds can be exploited as a nutraceutical or used in a range of food products, while breakdown of lignocellulose generates metabolizable sugars that can be used for the production of various high-value products such as biofuels, amino acids and enzymes. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose in SEGs following a hydrothermal pretreatment. A maximum reducing sugar yield was obtained at the following optimized hydrolysis conditions: 4.97 g of pretreated SEGs, 120 h reaction time, and 1246 and 250 µL of cellulase and hemicellulase, respectively. Industrially important sugars (glucose, galactose and mannose) were identified as the principal hydrolysis products under the studied conditions. Total flavonoids (p = 0.0002), total polyphenols (p = 0.03) and DPPH free-radical scavenging activity (p = 0.004) increased significantly after processing. A 14-fold increase in caffeine levels was also observed. This study provides insight into SEGs as a promising source of industrially important sugars and polyphenols.

  11. Insight into the applications of palm oil mill effluent: A renewable utilization of the industrial agricultural waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-06-15

    Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most intricate environmental turmoil for the 21st century. Today, the percolation of palm oil mill effluents into the waterways and ecosystems, remain a fastidious concern towards the public health and food chain interference. With the innovation of palm oil residue into a high valuable end commodity, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of palm oil mill effluent industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of palm oil mill effluent in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. (author)

  12. Industrial wastes for firing Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhanXuanye; LuGuansheng; Gaojun

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the feasibility on utilizing high-calcium industrial wastes in firing brick. In China, industrial wastes with over 10% calcium oxide is not regarded as raw materials for producing brick, so it is limited to use industrial wastes. The paper gives out the ideas that high-calcium industrial wastes can be used to produce fired brick by good raw material preparation process and proper methods.

  13. EXOPOLYSACCHARIDES SYNTHESIS ON INDUSTRIAL WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.P.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Data from the literature and our own studies on the synthesis of microbial exopolysaccharides on various industrial waste (food industry, agricultural sector, biodiesel production, etc. are reviewed here. Utilization of industrial waste to obtain exopolysaccharides will solve not only the problem of secondary raw materials accumulation, but also will reduce the costs of the biosynthesis of practically valuable metabolites. In addition, some kinds of waste have a number of advantages compared to traditional carbohydrate substrates: aside from environmental health benefits, there are technological ones, like the presence of growth factors. There is also no need to use anti-foam substances and substrate sterilization in the latter case.

  14. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Report...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels 5a. CONTRACT...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented at the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held

  15. Industrial Performance of the Renewable Resources Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Promoting the development of renewable resources industry is an effective way to solve the problems of resources shortage and environmental pollution in China. In this paper, studies have found that “market structure” and “ownership structure”, namely “double structure”, is an important explanatory variable that affects industrial performance according to the “structure-conduct-performance” paradigm. Literature reviews have shown that large state-owned enterprises are playing an important role in improving the industrial performance because of the advantage in technology and capital. However, this paper analyzed the performance of China’s renewable resource industry from two aspects—the overall industrial development and the listed companies, from which two conclusions have drawn: (1 Above a designated size, private enterprises have the greatest contribution, while the contribution of state-owned and foreign-funded enterprises is different; (2 The main reason for the high positive growth rate of total factor productivity between 2009 and 2013 is the rapid growth of technological progress such as the improvement of production processes and manufacturing skills, rather than the promotion of management, system, or polices.

  16. Renewable hydrogen and carbon nanotubes from biodiesel waste glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfei; Wang, Zichun; Williams, Paul T; Huang, Jun

    2013-09-25

    In this report, we introduce a novel and commercially viable method to recover renewable hydrogen and carbon nanotubes from waste glycerol produced in the biodiesel process. Gas-phase catalytic reforming converts glycerol to clean hydrogen fuel and by replacing the problematical coke formed on the catalyst with high value carbon nanotubes, added value can be realised. Additional benefits of around 2.8 kg CNTs from the reforming of 1 tonne of glycerol and the production of 500 Nm(3) H2 could have a considerable impact on the economics of glycerol utilization. Thereby, the contribution of this research will be a significant step forward in solving a current major technical and economic challenge faced by the biofuels industry.

  17. Solid waste as renewable source of energy. Current and future possibility in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taqiy Eddine, Boukelia; Salah, Mecibah Med [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Mechanical Dept.

    2012-11-01

    Algeria has created a green momentum by launching an ambitious program to develop renewable energies and promote energy efficiency. Solid waste is one of most important sources of biomass potential in Algeria, which can be used as renewable energy sources. With economic development and the evolution of population, the quantity of solid waste is increasing rapidly in Algeria; according to the National Cadastre for Solid Waste Generation, the overall generation of municipal solid waste was more than 10.3 million tons per year, and the amount of industrial solid waste, including non-hazardous and inert industrial waste was 2,547,000 tons per year, with a stock quantity of 4,483,500 tons. The hazardous waste generated amounts to 325,100 tons per year; the quantities of waste in stock and awaiting a disposal solution amount to 2,008,500 tons. Healthcare waste reaches to 125,000 tons per year. The management of solid waste and its valorization is based on the understanding of solid waste composition by its categories and physicochemical characteristics. Elimination is the solution applied to 97% of waste produced in Algeria. Wastes are disposed in the following ways: open dumps (57%), burned in the open air in public dumps or municipal uncontrolled ones (30%), and controlled dumps and landfill (10%). On the other side, the quantities destined for recovery are too low: only 2% for recycling and 1% for composting. Waste to energy is very attractive option for elimination solid waste with energy recovery. In this paper, we give an overview for this technology, including its conversion options and its useful products (such as electricity, heat and transportation fuel), and waste to energy-related environmental issues and its challenges. (orig.)

  18. Waste Management in Industrial Construction: Investigating Contributions from Industrial Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa A. R. U. Freitas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for effective construction waste management is growing in importance, due to the increasing generation of construction waste and to its adverse impacts on the environment. However, despite the numerous studies on construction waste management, recovery of construction waste through Industrial Symbiosis and the adoption of other inter-firm practices, comprised within Industrial Ecology field of study, have not been fully explored. The present research aims to investigate Industrial Ecology contributions to waste management in industrial construction. The waste management strategies adopted in two industrial construction projects in Brazil are analyzed. The main waste streams generated are identified, recycling and landfilling diversion rates are presented and waste recovery through Industrial Symbiosis is discussed. A SWOT analysis was carried out. Results demonstrate that 9% of the waste produced in one of the projects was recovered through Industrial Symbiosis, while in the other project, waste recovery through Industrial Symbiosis achieved the rate of 30%. These data reveal Industrial Symbiosis’ potential to reduce landfilling of industrial construction wastes, contributing to waste recovery in construction. In addition, results show that industrial construction projects can benefit from the following synergies common in Industrial Ecology place-based approaches: centralized waste management service, shared waste management infrastructure and administrative simplification.

  19. Clinker Production from Wastes of Cellulose and Granite Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassoni, Délio Porto; de Cássia, Alvarenga Rita; Pedrotti, Leonardo; Mendes, Beatryz

    This work present a belite cement based made from two industrial waste types. Binary mixtures were prepares using waste from rock cutting and polishing industries and waste from cellulose industry (named grits), in diferente proportions. The mixed raw materials were burned at a temperature of 950 °C in an electric oven for 30 minutes and then cooled at a rate of 70 °C per minute. The mineralogical composition of the material obtained was studied by means of XRD techniques, confirming the dominance of dicalcium silicate. Mixed mortars produced with the new material, in full replacement of Portland cement, showed satisfactory performance for use in construction works. This research shows that it is possible to obtain hydraulic binders from industrial waste, at lower temperatures than the required for the consumption of non-renewable resources and energy.

  20. Industrial fermentation of renewable diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Patrick J; Gardner, Timothy S

    2011-06-01

    In commodity chemicals, cost drives everything. A working class family of four drives up to the gas pumps and faces a choice of a renewable diesel or petroleum diesel. Renewable diesel costs $0.50 more per gallon. Which fuel do they pick? Petroleum diesel will be the winner every time, unless the renewable fuel can achieve cost and performance parity with petrol. Nascent producers of advanced biofuels, including Amyris, LS9, Neste and Solazyme, aim to deliver renewable diesel fuels that not only meet the cost challenge, but also exceed the storage, transport, engine performance and emissions properties of petroleum diesel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Advancing the Renewable Industry in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparby, Michael [Agricultural Utilization Research Inst., Waseca, MN (United States); Doering, Alan [Agricultural Utilization Research Inst., Waseca, MN (United States); Timmerman, Denny [Agricultural Utilization Research Inst., Waseca, MN (United States); Chester-Jones, Hugh [Univ. of Minnesota, Waseca, MN (United States). Southern Research and Outreach Center; Ziegler, David [Univ. of Minnesota, Waseca, MN (United States). Southern Research and Outreach Center; Vetsch, Jeffrey [Univ. of Minnesota, Waseca, MN (United States). Southern Research and Outreach Center; Jaderborg, J. P. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Paulus, D. M. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Fink, R. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Diez-Gonzalez, F. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Crawford, G. I. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); DiCostanzo, A. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States); Drouillard, Jim [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2012-09-28

    This report deals with seven topics: 1. "Utilizing Ash Wastes as a Nutrient Source for Corn": As forms of gasification and combustion grow in the area of renewable energy in Minnesota the question arises regarding the utilization/application of the ash co product produced from these processes. Currently there are four facilities in Minnesota producing an ash co product (three ethanol facilities and one combusting biomass to produce energy). These ash wastes are generated from using ethanol by-products as a fuel or heating source for fermentation. Other ash wastes from agricultural sources include turkey litter ash. When applied to agricultural fields, ash wastes can be a source of nutrients for agricultural crops. Chemical analyses of ash wastes vary, but 200 to 300 lb of P2O5 and K2O per ton of ash is typical. The value of ash wastes as a fertilizer has increased because commercial fertilizer prices have increased significantly over the last few years. Specifically: Compaction/Agglomeration research- Research included development of an appropriate product for use in current delivery systems by densifying the ash into the form of pellets or briquettes which may reduce fertilizer input cost to farmers. The initiative addresses the use of phosphorus and potassium from co-firing or gasification processes as a fertilizer source. 2. "Use of Glycerol as a Corn Replacement in Calf Starter Diets": Glycerol is a sugar alcohol by-product of bio-diesel production. About 1 gallon of glycerin is produced for every 10 gallons of bio-diesel of which the glycerol content may vary between 63 and almost 100%. There is some uncertainty of the exact energy value of glycerol as an ingredient for animal feed but it has been successfully used as a replacement for corn up to 10% of the diet dry matter for lactating dairy cows. There is a lack of information on incorporating glycerol into diets for pre- and post weaned dairy heifer calves which has the

  2. Electronic waste disassembly with industrial waste heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengjun; Wang, Jianbo; Chen, Haiyian; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhang, Mingxin; Zang, Hongbin; Hu, Jiukun

    2013-01-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are resource-rich but hazardous, demanding innovative strategies for post-consumer collection, recycling, and mining for economically precious constituents. A novel technology for disassembling electronic components from WPCBs is proposed, using hot air to melt solders and to separate the components and base boards. An automatic heated-air disassembling equipment was designed to operate at a heating source temperature at a maximum of 260 °C and an inlet pressure of 0.5 MPa. A total of 13 individual WPCBs were subjected to disassembling tests at different preheat temperatures in increments of 20 °C between 80 and 160 °C, heating source temperatures ranging from 220 to 300 °C in increments of 20 °C, and incubation periods of 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 min. For each experimental treatment, the disassembly efficiency was calculated as the ratio of electronic components released from the board to the total number of its original components. The optimal preheat temperature, heating source temperature, and incubation period to disassemble intact components were 120 °C, 260 °C, and 2 min, respectively. The disassembly rate of small surface mount components (side length ≤ 3 mm) was 40-50% lower than that of other surface mount components and pin through hole components. On the basis of these results, a reproducible and sustainable industrial ecological protocol using steam produced by industrial exhaust heat coupled to electronic-waste recycling is proposed, providing an efficient, promising, and green method for both electronic component recovery and industrial exhaust heat reutilization.

  3. THE MANAGEMENET OF MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria PĂTRĂȘ COIU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main aspects regarding the municipal and industrial waste.A waste tabular structure, the international symbols of their collection and treatment, and thecodes of the waste main types are also exposed. The European objectives on wastemanagement and on population education regarding the waste recovery and recycling withdirect impact on environment protection are focuse.

  4. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  5. Solid waste as renewable source of energy: current and future possibility in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Hamad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste holds the greatest potential as biomass source in Libya. The rapid expansion of industry has led to increased urbanization and growing population. These factors have dramatically increased the amount of MSW (municipal solid waste generated in Libya. However, issues related to environmentally sound MSW management—including waste decrease and clearance—have not been addressed sufficiently. This study presents an overview on solid waste that can be used as a source of bioenergy in Libya including MSW, ISW (industrial solid waste, and HSW (health care wastes as biomass sources. The management of solid waste and valorization is based on an understanding of MSW׳s composition and physicochemical characteristics. The results show that organic matter represents 59% of waste, followed by paper–cardboard 12%, plastic 8%, miscellaneous 8%, metals 7%, glass 4%, and wood 2%. The technology of WTE (waste-to-energy incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in Libya. This paper provides an overview of this technology, including both its conversion options and its useful products (e.g., electricity, heat, greenhouse gas emissions. The WTE benefits and the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in Libya are discussed. It also demonstrates that Libya could become an exporter of hydrogen in lieu of oil and natural gas.

  6. Industrial waste and pollution in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgormaa, L. [Minstry of Nature and Environment, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    1996-12-31

    This paper very briefly outlines hazardous waste management issues, including regulations, in Mongolia. Air, water, and soil pollutants are identified and placed in context with climatic, social, and economic circumstances. The primary need identified is technology for the collection and disposal of solid wastes. Municipal waste problems include rapid urbanization and lack of sanitary landfills. Industrial wastes of concern are identified from the mining and leather industries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Generating Renewable Electricity from Food Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mydin M.A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mini biogas power plant (MBPP was first used and launched in Malaysia by Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. USM with the collaboration with Enerbon Sdn Bhd had set up this mini biogas power plant as an education and research and development tools to professionals and researchers and at the same time giving opportunities to people who are interested with this system to witness and experience it themselves by looking at how this mini biogas power plant works. There are 2 main objectives of this study being carried out; firstly to determine whether food wastes (canteen and cafeterias wastes can produce methane gas (biogas that can generate heat and electricity and secondly to establish how much methane gas (biogas can be produced with the certain amount of the feedstock. It should be pointed out that this MBPP can generate 600kW electricity per day as this system can generate electricity about 25kW/h. The methane produced per day is approximately 180 cubic metres. The higher the wastes, the higher the amount of methane gas produced. The cow dung is used to increase the bacteria in the tank; the methane gas production will be higher if the bacteria breed.

  8. The utilization of renewable resources in German industrial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Rainer; Hirth, Thomas; Liese, Andreas; Nordhoff, Stefan; Puls, Jürgen; Pulz, Otto; Sell, Dieter; Syldatk, Christoph; Ulber, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Renewable resources will be an increasingly important issue for the chemical industry in the future. In the context of white biotechnology, they represent the intersection point of agriculture and the chemical industry. The scarcity and related increase in the price of fossil resources make renewable resources an interesting alternative. If one considers the production of bulk chemicals, it is evident that for this area besides the C sources, sugar and starch, new sources of raw materials must be opened up. One possible solution is to utilize lignocellulose both for materials and energy. This article discusses this interesting prospective for the future, particularly from the point of view of the German industry.

  9. Multi criteria analysis in the renewable energy industry

    CERN Document Server

    San Cristóbal Mateo, José Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Decision makers in the Renewable Energy sector face an increasingly complex social, economic, technological, and environmental scenario in their decision process. Different groups of decision-makers become involved in the process, each group bringing along different criteria therefore, policy formulation for fossil fuel substitution by Renewable Energies must be addressed in a multi-criteria context. Multi Criteria Analysis in the Renewable Energy Industry is a direct response to the increasing interest in the Renewable Energy industry which can be seen as an important remedy to many environmental problems that the world faces today. The multiplicity of criteria and the increasingly complex social, economic, technological, and environmental scenario makes multi-criteria analysis a valuable tool in the decision-making process for fossil fuel substitution. The detailed chapters explore the use of the Multi-criteria decision-making methods and how they provide valuable assistance in reaching equitable and accept...

  10. Peak Waste? The Other Side of the Industrial Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern industrial cycle is mainly based on non-renewable mineral resources extracted from the Earth’s crust. After being processed and transformed into commodities, the products of mining become manufactured products which go through the economic system and are then discarded in the form of gaseous, liquid or solid waste. Eventually, the mass of the output in the form of waste must balance the input in the form of minerals. A large number of model studies have been performed on the first phase of the cycle—the production of mineral commodities—often with a specific interest in fossil fuels, with the objective of determining the future prospects of production. However, very few model studies of this kind have been performed about the future trends of waste generation. In this paper, we examine models of the industrial cycle compared to historical trends in municipal solid waste generation for different regions of the world. We show that waste generation in developed countries goes in parallel with the trends of industrial production and that several regions are showing a declining trend which may be interpreted in terms of “peaking” just as it is often done for the production of fossil fuels. Therefore, the “waste problem” in terms of increasing amounts of waste to be processed and disposed may not be so urgent as it is commonly perceived.

  11. Renewable raw materials in the field of industry; Nachwachsende Rohstoffe in der Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, D.

    2006-07-01

    Being used to the practiced processing of raw materials for many decades the industry had to tap the advantage of renewable raw materials again. Conventional processing methods had to be changed and to be newly developed. This has been a rewarding task considering the ecological advantages but also considering the interesting markets for products based upon renewable raw materials. Today the German industry above all the chemical industry again processes agricultural and forestal raw materials to a considerable extent. Ten percent of the raw materials processed by the chemical industry are renewable. The wood processing industry is an important economic sector that achieves a value creation with the raw material wood exceeding the value creation of other industries by far. This brochure gives an overview of the possible substances, which are processed from renewable raw materials in Germany and it shows the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play for the industry nowadays. (orig.)

  12. Waste minimization in chromium plating industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenzel, Ines

    2005-01-01

    Chromic acid is a strong oxidizing agent and plays an important role in metal finishing and plating industry. Chromate containing waste effluents are toxic and carcinogen and their treatment is chemical, energy and cost intensive. Therefore, waste prevention and waste treatment are in the focus of a

  13. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-01-01

    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  14. Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-06-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in China. This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented. Currently, only approximately 13% of MSW generated in China is disposed in WTE facilities. With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, L D; Houk, V S; Hughes, T J

    1998-06-01

    In excess of several million pounds of genotoxic and/or carcinogenic industrial wastes are released into the U.S. environment each year. Chemical characterization of these waste materials can rarely provide an adequate assessment of their genotoxicity and potential hazard. Bioassays do not require prior information about chemical composition and can effectively assess the genotoxicity of complex waste materials. The most commonly used genotoxicity assay has been the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Results with this system have shown that the genotoxic potency of industrial wastes can vary over 10 orders of magnitude, from virtually nondetectable to highly potent. Industries employing similar industrial processes generally release wastes of similar potency. Extremely high potency wastes include those from furazolidone and nitrofurfural production. Pulp and paper mills, steel foundries, and organic chemical manufacturing facilities also discharge wastes of noteworthy potency. Treatment and remediation of some wastes, such as pulp and paper mill effluents, have been shown to reduce or eliminate genotoxicity. However, in other cases, treatment and remediation have been shown to enhance genotoxicity, such as for fungal treatment of oils. Analyses of samples collected from areas known to receive industrial wastes and effluents have shown that genotoxins can accumulate in the receiving environment and have adverse effects on indigenous biota. The evaluation of hazardous wastes and effluents by genotoxicity assays may provide data useful not only for hazard identification but for comparative risk assessment.

  16. Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleaner production for solid waste management in leather industry. ... are generated which include wastewater effluents, solid wastes, and hazardous wastes. ... industries discharge wastes into the environment without any proper treatment.

  17. Landfills, Hazardous Waste - WASTE_INDUSTRIAL_IDEM_IN: Industrial Waste Sites in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — WASTE_INDUSTRIAL_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains industrial waste site locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department of Environmental...

  18. Beyond petrochemicals: The renewable chemicals industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennestrøm, P.N.R.; Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Christensen, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    From petroleum to bioleum: Since biomass is a limited resource, it is necessary to consider its best use. The production of select chemicals from biomass, rather than its use as fuel, could effectively replace the use of petroleum in the chemical industry, but the inherent functionality of biomass...

  19. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Javeria; Hussain, Sabir; Iqbal, Muhammad Javid; Nadeem, Habibullah; Qasim, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Hafeez, Farhan

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60°C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.

  20. Animal and industrial waste anaerobic digestion: USA status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D. [Resource Development Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Pollutants from unmanaged animal and bio-based industrial wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing wastes may contribute to global climate change. One waste management system prevents pollution and converts a disposal problem into a new profit center. Case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes is a commercially available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel. Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities to properly dispose of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Beyond the farm, extension of the anaerobic digestion process to recover methane has considerable potential for certain classified industries - with a waste stream characterization similar to livestock manures. More than 35 example industries have been identified, and include processors of chemicals, fiber, food, meat, milk, and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries already recover methane for energy. This status report examines some current opportunities for recovering methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal and industrial wastes in the US. Case studies of operating digesters, including project and maintenance histories, and the operator`s {open_quotes}lessons learned,{close_quotes} are included as a reality check. Factors necessary for successful projects, as well as a list of reasons explaining why some anaerobic digestion projects fail, are provided. The role of management is key; not only must digesters be well engineered and built with high-quality components, they must also be sited at facilities willing to incorporate the uncertainties of a new technology. Anaerobic digestion can provide monetary benefits and mitigate possible pollution problems, thereby sustaining development while maintaining environmental quality.

  1. BIOSYNTHESIS OF SURFACTANTS ON INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirog T. P.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature and own experimental data on the synthesis of microbial surfactants of different chemical nature (rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, manozylerythritollipids, lipopeptides at various waste (vegetable oil and fat, sugar, dairy industry, agriculture, forestry, biodiesel, as well as waste — fried vegetable oils are presented. Most suitable substrates for the synthesis of microbial surfactants are oil containing waste that, unlike, for example, lignocellulose, whey, technical glycerol do not require pre-treatment and purification. Replacing traditional substrates for the biosynthesis of surfactant with industrial waste will help to reduce the cost of technology by several times, dispose of unwanted waste, solve the problem of storage or disposal of large amounts of waste from the food industry, agricultural sector and companies that produce biodiesel, which spent large amount of energy and money for such needs

  2. Principles of biotechnological treatment of industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roig, M.G.; Martin Rodriguez, M.J.M.; Cachaza, J.M. (Univ. de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica); Mendoza Sanchez, L. (C/Sol Oriente, Salamanca (Spain). Estudios y Proyectos); Kennedy, J.F. (Univ. of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Research Lab. for the Chemistry of Bioactive Carbohydrates and Proteins)

    1993-07-01

    This review includes current information on biodegradation processes of pollutants, digestor biocenosis and bioadditives, sludge production, measurement of pollution, and advances regarding biotechnological treatment of a series of specific industrial effluents. It was foreseen in 1980 that biotechnology would foster the creation of new industries with low energy requirements. This is because the growth of microorganisms provides a renewable source of energy.

  3. Engineering industrial yeast for renewable advanced biofuels applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a candidate for the next-generation biocatalyst development due to its unique genomic background and robust performance in fermentation-based production. In order to meet challenges of renewable and sustainable advanced biofuels conversion including ...

  4. Committee on renewable resources for industrial materials (Corrim)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert W. Meyer; Carol B. Ovens

    1976-01-01

    In recent years major emphasis has been placed on nonrenewable resources in relation to potential national problems that may arise from possible changes in materials supply or utilization. Renewable resources, however, have received disproportionately small attention in spite of their current importance as industrial raw materials and their potential for the future. In...

  5. Strategies for promoting renewables in a new electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes strategies for promoting renewable resources in an era characterized by competitive pressures in the electric industry. It begins with a background section to describe the perspective from which I am writing and the nature of the pressures confronting renewables in 1996. Then, the paper turns to a discussion of the regulatory and other options to promote renewables in this environment. The major conclusion of the paper is that there is no {open_quotes}magic bullet{close_quotes} to guide the development of renewables through the developing competitive era within the electric industry. Indeed, it appears that the job can get done only through a combination of different measures at all levels of government. The author believes that among the most effective measures are likely to be: a national renewable resources generation standard; conditions attached to restructuring events; regional interstate compacts; regional risk-sharing consortia supported by federal and state tax and fiscal policy; and state {open_quotes}systems benefits charges;{close_quotes}

  6. Distributed renewable power from biomass and other waste fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The world population is continually growing and putting a burden on our fossil fuels. These fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are used for a variety of critical needs such as power production and transportation. While significant environmental improvements have been made, the uses of these fuels are still causing significant ecological impacts. Coal power production efficiency has not improved over the past thirty years and with relatively cheap petroleum cost, transportation mileage has not improved significantly either. With the demand for these fossil fuels increasing, ultimately price will also have to increase. This presentation will evaluate alternative power production methods using localized distributed generation from biomass, municipal solid waste and other waste sources of organic materials. The presentation will review various gasification processes that produce a synthetic gas that can be utilized as a fuel source in combustion turbines for clean and efficient combined heat and power. This fuel source can produce base load renewable power. In addition tail gases from the production of bio-diesel and methanol fuels can be used to produce renewable power. Being localized can reduce the need for long and costly transmission lines making the production of fuels and power from waste a viable alternative energy source for the future.

  7. Power electronics for renewable energy systems, transportation and industrial applications

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowski, Mariusz; Al-Haddad, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Power Electronics for Renewable Energy, Transportation, and Industrial Applications combines state-of-the-art global expertise to present the latest research on power electronics and its application in transportation, renewable energy, and different industrial applications. This timely book aims to facilitate the implementation of cutting-edge techniques to design problems offering innovative solutions to the growing power demands in small- and large-size industries. Application areas in the book range from smart homes and electric and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PHEVs), to smart distribution and intelligence operation centers where significant energy efficiency improvements can be achieved through the appropriate use and design of power electronics and energy storage devices.

  8. Perspective on opportunities in industrial biotechnology in renewable chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Brent; Nelson; Winters, Paul

    2012-02-01

    From biomass to renewable chemicals: while industrial biotechnology offers a clear value proposition, a number of hurdles need to be addressed to fully realize the commercial potential of bio-based products and chemicals over the coming decade. A review of an early roadmap for biological production of chemicals from renewable sugars reveals a focus on those that would provide co-products for integrated biorefineries producing biofuels and bioenergy. A growing number of companies are now focusing on specialty chemicals as an entry point to build the bio-based economy. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Spatial distribution of China׳s renewable energy industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Liang; Liang, Hanwei; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2016-01-01

    China applies no efforts to promote the development of renewable energy (REE) so as to enhance China׳s energy security and address climate change. National top-down support scheme and the local renewable energy industry (REEI) development are the two important and intervened countermeasures...... for promoting REEI development in China. Considering China׳s vast regional disparity, the review on the spatial distribution of REEI in provincial level is critical and enlightening for future appropriate policy-making, while to date, there has been few related studies. With this circumstance, this paper made...

  10. New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

  11. Identification and Waste Reduction on Rubber Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputri, K.; Sari, R. M.; Rizkya, I.; Siregar, I.

    2017-03-01

    Lots of activities in production process can be lead to waste activities. The waste may cause a degree of efficiency of an industry to be low. This research was conducted in the rubber industry. In the rubber industry has been a decline in the level of efficiency. Decreased levels of efficiency occurs because many inefficient activities that take place during the production process. Activities that were not contributed to the value of the product lead to waste during the production process. Identification by the activity is a way to minimize the waste that occurs so that the efficiency of the production process can be improved. Process activity mapping in the rubber industry used to identify the activities that take place on the floor of production in order to reduce waste and propose improvements that can be done to improve efficiency. The total waste that occurs in crumb rubber industry amounted to 94 minutes or 1.56 hours. For the proposed improvements in order to reduce waste are based on two activities, such as transport and unnecessary motion. Transport activities proposed use of material handling in their daily activities and to unnecessary motion by doing a variety of work on the operator.

  12. [Industrial exploitation of renewable resources: from ethanol production to bioproducts development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Plants, which are one of major groups of life forms, are constituted of an amazing number of molecules such as sugars, proteins, phenolic compounds etc. These molecules display multiple and complementary properties involved in various compartments of plants (structure, storage, biological activity etc.). The first uses of plants in industry were for food and feed, paper manufacturing or combustion. In the coming decades, these renewable biological materials will be the basis of a new concept: the "biorefiner" i.e. the chemical conversion of the whole plant to various products and uses. This concept, born in the 90ies, is analogous to today's petroleum refinery, which produces multiple fuels and derivative products from petroleum. Agriculture generates lots of co-products which were most often wasted. The rational use of these wasted products, which can be considered as valuable renewable materials, is now economically interesting and will contribute to the reduction of greenhouse has emissions by partially substituting for fossil fuels. Such substructures from biological waste products and transforming them into biofuels and new industrial products named "bioproducts". These compounds, such as bioplastics or biosurfactants, can replace equivalent petroleum derivatives. Towards that goal, lots of filamentous fungi, growing on a broad range of vegetable species, are able to produce enzymes adapted to the modification of these type of substrates. The best example, at least the more industrially developed to date, is the second generation biofuel technology using cellulose as a raw material. The process includes an enzymatic hydrolysis step which requires cellulases secreted from Trichoderma fungal species. This industrial development of a renewable energy will contribute to the diversification of energy sources used to transport and to the development of green chemistry which will partially substitute petrochemicals.

  13. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  14. Lignin as a renewable aromatic resource for the chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselink, R.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Valorization of lignin plays a key role in the further development of lignocellulosic biorefinery processes for biofuels and biobased materials production. Today’s increased demand for alternatives to fossil carbon-based products expands the interest and the need to create added value to the unconverted lignin fraction. The aim of the research was to study the potential of lignin to become a renewable aromatic resource for the chemical industry. Lignin can be considered as an abundantly...

  15. Industrial Water Waste, Problems and the Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alif Noor Anna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the long term development in Indonesia has changed agricultural sector to the industrial sector. This development can apparently harm our own people. This is due to the waste that is produced from factories. The waste from various factories seems to have different characteristics. This defference encourages us to be able to find out different of methods of managing waste so that cost can be reduced, especially in water treatment. In order that industrial development and environmental preservation can run together in balance, many institutions involved should be consider, especially in the industrial chain, the environment, and human resource, these three elements can be examined in terms of their tolerance to waste.

  16. Guide for Industrial Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Guide is to provide facility managers, state and tribal regulators, and the interested public with recommendations and tools to better address the management of land-disposed, non-hazardousindustrial wastes.

  17. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  18. Hazardous waste minimization challenge in autocomponent industry, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, L.; Moersidik, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    Modern industries have managed their hazardous waste through hazardous waste management with End of Pipe approach. As part of the most robust industry, autocomponent industry have to manage their hazardous waste from production process. To meet sustainable manufacturing, waste minimization is required. Hazardous waste minimization in practice is relatively difficult to implemented. This paper explore hazardous waste management and waste minimization activity in one of autocomponent industry in Indonesia. Hazardous waste minimization regulation also explain in this paper. Regarding waste minimization implementation there were some obstacle such as lack of awareness and knowledge, lack of time and economic factor

  19. High temperature absorption compression heat pump for industrial waste heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Lars; Horntvedt, B.; Nordtvedt, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Heat pumps are currently receiving extensive interest because they may be able to support the integration of large shares of fluctuating electricity production based on renewable sources, and they have the potential for the utilization of low temperature waste heat from industry. In most industries......, the needed temperature levels often range from 100°C and up, but until now, it has been quite difficult to find heat pump technologies that reach this level, and thereby opening up the large-scale heat recovery in the industry. Absorption compression heat pumps can reach temperatures above 100°C......, and they have proved themselves a very efficient and reliable technology for applications that have large temperature changes on the heat sink and/or heat source. The concept of Carnot and Lorenz efficiency and its use in the analysis of system integration is shown. A 1.25 MW system having a Carnot efficiency...

  20. The Development of the Renewable Energy Power Industry under Feed-In Tariff and Renewable Portfolio Standard: A Case Study of China’s Photovoltaic Power Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuzhuo Zhang; Xingang Zhao; Yi Zuo; Lingzhi Ren; Ling Wang

    2017-01-01

    ...) are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy...

  1. The dynamic interaction between combustible renewables and waste consumption and international tourism: the case of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim; Apergis, Nicholas

    2015-08-01

    This paper employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds methodological approach to investigate the relationship between economic growth, combustible renewables and waste consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and international tourism for the case of Tunisia spanning the period 1990-2010. The results from the Fisher statistic of both the Wald test and the Johansen test confirm the presence of a long-run relationship among the variables under investigation. The stability of estimated parameters has been tested, while Granger causality tests recommend a short-run unidirectional causality running from economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption to CO2 emissions, a bidirectional causality between economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption and unidirectional causality running from economic growth and combustible renewables and waste consumption to international tourism. In the long-run, the error correction terms confirm the presence of bidirectional causality relationships between economic growth, CO2 emissions, combustible renewables and waste consumption, and international tourism. Our long-run estimates show that combustible renewables and waste consumption increases international tourism, and both renewables and waste consumption and international tourism increase CO2 emissions and output. We recommend that (i) Tunisia should use more combustible renewables and waste energy as this eliminates wastes from touristic zones and increases the number of tourist arrivals, leading to economic growth, and (ii) a fraction of this economic growth generated by the increase in combustible renewables and waste consumption should be invested in clean renewable energy production (i.e., solar, wind, geothermal) and energy efficiency projects.

  2. Anaerobic codigestion of dairy manure and food manufacturing waste for renewable energy generation in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Matthew J.

    Anaerobic digestion is a microbiological process that converts biodegradable organic material into biogas, consisting primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. Anaerobic digestion technologies have been integrated into wastewater treatment facilities nationwide for many decades to increase the economic viability of the treatment process by converting a waste stream into two valuable products: biogas and fertilizer. Thus, anaerobic digestion offers potential economic and environmental benefits of organic waste diversion and renewable energy generation. The use of biogas has many applications, including cogeneration, direct combustion, upgrading for conversion to feed a fuel cell, and compression for injection into the natural gas grid or for vehicular use. The potential benefits of waste diversion and renewable energy generation are now being realized by major organic waste generators in New York State, in particular the food manufacturing and dairy industries, thus warranting an analysis of the energy generation potential for these waste products. Anaerobic codigestion of dairy manure and food-based feedstocks reflects a cradle-to- cradle approach to organic waste management. Given both of their abundance throughout New York State, waste-to-energy processes represent promising waste management strategies. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the current technical and economic feasibility of anaerobically codigesting existing dairy manure and food manufacturing waste feedstocks in New York State to produce high quality biogas for renewable energy generation. The first element to determining the technical feasibility of anaerobic codigestion potential in New York State was to first understand the feedstock availability. A comprehensive survey of existing organic waste streams was conducted. The key objective was to identify the volume and composition of dairy manure and liquid-phase food manufacturing waste streams available in New York State to make

  3. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  4. Renewable generation and storage project industry and laboratory recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, N.H.; Butler, P.C.; Cameron, C.P.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies is planning a series of related projects that will seek to improve the integration of renewable energy generation with energy storage in modular systems. The Energy Storage Systems Program and the Photovoltaics Program at Sandia National Laboratories conducted meetings to solicit industry guidance and to create a set of recommendations for the proposed projects. Five possible projects were identified and a three pronged approach was recommended. The recommended approach includes preparing a storage technology handbook, analyzing data from currently fielded systems, and defining future user needs and application requirements.

  5. Industrial bioconversion of renewable resources as an alternative to conventional chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, Th; Vorlop, K-D

    2004-12-01

    There are numerous possibilities for replacing chemical techniques with biotechnological methods based on renewable resources. The potential of biotechnology (products, technologies, metabolic pathways) is for the most part well known. Often the costs are still the problem. Biotechnological advances have the best chances for replacing some fine chemicals. While the raw material costs are less of a consideration here, the environmental benefit is huge, as chemical-technical processes often produce a wide range of undesirable/harmful by-products or waste. In the case of bulk chemicals (<1 US dollar/kg) the product price is affected mainly by raw material costs. As long as fossil raw materials are still relatively inexpensive, alternatives based on renewable resources cannot establish themselves. Residues and waste, which are available even at no cost in some cases, are an exception. The introduction of new technologies for the efficient use of such raw materials is currently being promoted. The utilisation of residual wood, plant parts, waste fat, and crude glycerol, for example, provides great potential. For industrial chemicals (2-4 US dollars/kg), process and recovery costs play a greater role. Here, innovative production technologies and product recovery techniques (e.g. on-line product separation) can increase competitiveness.

  6. Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogués, J M

    2008-07-01

    Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building.

  7. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-14

    This document consists of page replacements for the Y-12 industrial waste landfill. The cover page is to replace the old page, and a new set of text pages are to replace the old ones. A replacement design drawing is also included.

  8. Energetic and chemical use of waste material and renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, C.; Houmoeller, A.P. [ELSAM, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The paper will begin with a summary of the Danish energy policies from the mid-1970s and until today when the focus is on national self-sufficiency and combined heat and power - including industrial combined heat and power and renewable energies with emphasis on wind turbines and biofuels. The planning conditions of the Danish electricity utilities will be discussed, i.e. 20 per cent CO{sub 2} reduction by 2005, continuous reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, and finally the conversion of 5 per cent of the fuel from coal to straw and wood chips. Afterwards, the status of biofuels in Denmark will be described with emphasis on resources and prices. The main biofuel in Denmark is surplus production from agriculture - straw or other biofuels with straw-like properties. (orig./GL)

  9. Utilization of biodiesel waste as a renewable resource for activated carbon. Application to environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-12-15

    Stepping into the new globalized and paradigm shifted era, a huge revolution has been undergone by the oil palm industry. From a humble source of the edible oil, today oil palm has demonstrated a wide variety of uses, almost by every part of its plant. With the price of the crude petroleum hitting record height every other day, the feasibility of palm oil and oil palm biomass as renewable substitutes for the production of biodiesel has been proposed. Lately, its development has received various criticisms, mainly hinges on the huge generation of solid residues which are currently no profitable use. In view of the aforementioned reason, this paper presents a state-of-the-art review of oil palm industry, its fundamental background studies, propagation and industrial applications. Moreover, the recent developments on the preparation of activated carbons from oil palm waste, its major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expansion of oil palm waste in the field of adsorption science represents a potentially viable and powerful tool, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental conservation. (author)

  10. Biogas, as a renewable energy source, produced during the anaerobic digestion of organic waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying alternative sources of energy is a matter of urgency, since conventional energy sources are becoming exhausted. Renewable energy sources, such as biogas, can be generated from organic waste, through the anaerobic digestion (AD...

  11. Does industrial waste taxation contribute to reduction of landfilled waste? Dynamic panel analysis considering industrial waste category in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasao, Toshiaki

    2014-11-01

    Waste taxes, such as landfill and incineration taxes, have emerged as a popular option in developed countries to promote the 3Rs (reduce, reuse, and recycle). However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of waste taxes. In addition, quite a few studies have considered both dynamic relationships among dependent variables and unobserved individual heterogeneity among the jurisdictions. If dependent variables are persistent, omitted variables cause a bias, or common characteristics exist across the jurisdictions that have introduced waste taxes, the standard fixed effects model may lead to biased estimation results and misunderstood causal relationships. In addition, most existing studies have examined waste in terms of total amounts rather than by categories. Even if significant reductions in total waste amounts are not observed, some reduction within each category may, nevertheless, become evident. Therefore, this study analyzes the effects of industrial waste taxation on quantities of waste in landfill in Japan by applying the bias-corrected least-squares dummy variable (LSDVC) estimators; the general method of moments (difference GMM); and the system GMM. In addition, the study investigates effect differences attributable to industrial waste categories and taxation types. This paper shows that industrial waste taxes in Japan have minimal, significant effects on the reduction of final disposal amounts thus far, considering dynamic relationships and waste categories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Final report on the potential of local biofuels development to the Environmental and Renewable Industries Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-31

    There is significant interest in renewable and sustainable energy technologies, particularly biofuels, because of the growing crisis in the agricultural and forestry sectors, rising fuel prices, dwindling energy supply and growing awareness of the impact of traditional energy resources on the environment. Biofuels represent a possible opportunity to move towards a sustainable bio-economy in which agricultural and forestry products, co-products, and waste materials are utilized to produce energy. This report discussed the policy context for biofuels. The key local drivers for biofuel development in Prince Edward Island (PEI) were presented. These include rising energy prices; dependence on fossil fuels; climate change; and agricultural industry challenges. Biofuel policies and initiatives in a federal context, in central and western Canada, in New England, and in Atlantic Canada were also addressed. Prince Edward Island feedstocks such as forestry, agriculture, marine-based, and waste resources were examined. The report also identified the biofuel potential in PEI with reference to biocombustibles; pure plant oils; biodiesel; ethanol; and biogas. Last, the report outlined several biofuel projects, proposal, and initiatives and presented conclusions and recommendations. Several appendices were also included on resource materials; federal funding programs; Canadian renewable fuel standards and tax incentives; and the PEI biofuels evaluation framework. It was concluded that biomass feedstocks such as wood, cereals, straw, grasses, and crop residues offer significant potential for space and water heating applications and electricity generation. refs., tabs.

  13. Waste energy boosts tomato industry at distillery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColl, J.

    1989-04-01

    A trial project aimed at using waste hot water from the cooling process at a Scottish whisky distillery to heat a glasshouse for tomato production is described. Later developments have involved the installation of a waste heat boiler to make use of the heat from the still burner flue gases. Steam from the boiler is used within the distillery and to supplement the glasshouse system. The payback within the distillery industry has been excellent, but tomato production, though continuing, was adversely affected by severe cutbacks in distillery production in the early eighties. Recently further significant savings have been made in the distillery industry by the installation of a regenerative burner in one of the stills and thermo-compressors in the cooling tower condensers to produce low pressure steam which can be fed back into the system. (U.K.).

  14. Renewable Energy Production from DoD Installation Solid Wastes By Anaerobic Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-06

    have required more sustainable use of energy . Renewable Energy Production From DoD Installation Solid Wastes by Anaerobic Digestion 9 June 2016...Schafer, P., D. Trueblood, K. Fonda, and C. Lekven. 2007. Grease Processing for Renewable Energy , Profit, Sustainability , and Environmental Enhancement...Demirul. 2013. Ammonia inhibition in anaerobic digestion: A review . Process Biochemistry 48: 901-911. Renewable Energy Production From DoD

  15. Biosynthesis of lovastatin using agro-industrial wastes as carrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    60, and Aspergillus niger GCBL-45 and determine whether solid- or liquid-state ... Results: Aspergillus flavus GCBL-60 was a superior lovastatin-producing strain ... such as low energy requirements, less waste water ... renewable resources. O.

  16. Microbial production of specialty organic acids from renewable and waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Microbial production of organic acids has become a fast-moving field due to the increasing role of these compounds as platform chemicals. In recent years, the portfolio of specialty fermentation-derived carboxylic acids has increased considerably, including the production of glyceric, glucaric, succinic, butyric, xylonic, fumaric, malic, itaconic, lactobionic, propionic and adipic acid through innovative fermentation strategies. This review summarizes recent trends in the use of novel microbial platforms as well as renewable and waste materials for efficient and cost-effective bio-based production of emerging high-value organic acids. Advances in the development of robust and efficient microbial bioprocesses for producing carboxylic acids from low-cost feedstocks are also discussed. The industrial market scenario is also reviewed, including the latest information on the stage of development for producing these emerging bio-products via large-scale fermentation.

  17. Renewable resources in industry. Industrial use of agricultural and wood raw materials in Germany. 3. compl. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Dietmar

    2010-11-17

    The ''Action Plan for the Industrial Use of Renewable Resources'' that was adopted by the German Federal Government in 2009 is an important impulse for promoting the industrial use of renewable resources parallel to their use for energy generation. The Action Plan sets forth a broad vision, not only for a significant and sustainable increase in the proportion of biomass used in industry but also for an improvement in the efficiency of biomass use in ensuring Germany's raw material supplies while taking into account the objectives and requirements of sustainability strategies. It also aims to secure and advance Germany's role as an international leader in the industrial use of renewable resources. This brochure provides an overview of the possible industrial uses of renewable resources in Germany and illustrates the important role that agricultural raw materials and wood already play in today's industry. (orig.)

  18. A review of recovery of metals from industrial waste

    OpenAIRE

    U.U. Jadhav; H. Hocheng

    2012-01-01

    Due to rapid industrialization the demand for heavy metals is ever increasing, but the reserves of high-grade ores are diminishing. Therefore there is a need to explore alternative sources of heavy metals. The rapid industrialization generates a variety of industrial wastes. These industrial wastes possess toxic elements such as heavy metals. Improper disposal of these wastes becomes a key factor in metal contamination and thus when leached into atmosphere cause serious environmental problem....

  19. Industrial wastes 1985-1994; Industrieel afval 1985-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzenga, H.E.; Smit, J.R.K.; Verhagen, H.

    1996-02-01

    Figures on the amounts of industrial waste in the Netherlands for the years 1985 and 1990-1994 are presented. In addition, the developments of industrial waste during the period 1985-1994 are analyzed. This report can be considered as a background document on the title topic to the `Environmental Balance 1995`. The data and analysis are given for both the total amount of industrial waste and the amounts per industrial sector of issue. Furthermore, the amounts reused, incinerated, landfilled or discharged are also incorporated into the findings. The composition (for materials) has also been analysed. Separate consideration is given to hazardous waste and the `priority waste streams`. 81 refs.

  20. The Development of the Renewable Energy Power Industry under Feed-In Tariff and Renewable Portfolio Standard: A Case Study of China’s Photovoltaic Power Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhuo Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the regulatory policies, feed-in tariffs (FIT and renewable portfolio standards (RPS are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy. In this paper, we synthetically consider various important factors with the analysis of the existing literature, and use system dynamics (SD to establish models of long-term development of the renewable energy power industry under FIT and RPS schemes. The model not only clearly shows the complex logical relationship between the factors but also reveals the process of coordination between the two policy tools in the development of the renewable energy power industry. In addition, as an example of development of renewable energy industry, the paper studies the development of China’s photovoltaic power industry under different scenarios. The models proposed in this paper can provide a reference for scholars to study development of the renewable energy power industry in different countries, thereby facilitating an understanding of the renewable energy power’s long-term sustainable development pattern under FIT and RPS schemes, and helping to provide references for policy-making institutions. The results show that in the perfect competitive market, the implementation of RPS can promote long-term and rapid development of China’s photovoltaic power industry given the constraints and actions of the mechanisms of RPS quota proportion, the TGC valid period, and fines, compared with FIT. At the end of the paper, policy implications are offered as references for the government.

  1. Waste-to-energy: A way from renewable energy sources to sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, Richa [Babasaheb BhimRao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P. (India); Tyagi, V.V.; Pathak, Ashish [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, 110016 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Nowadays, energy is key consideration in discussions of sustainable development. So, sustainable development requires a sustainable supply of clean and affordable renewable energy sources that do not cause negative societal impacts. Energy sources such as solar radiation, the winds, waves and tides are generally considered renewable and, therefore, sustainable over the relatively long term. Wastes and biomass fuels are usually viewed as sustainable energy sources. Wastes are convertible to useful energy forms like hydrogen (biohydrogen), biogas, bioalcohol, etc., through waste-to-energy technologies. In this article, possible future energy utilization patterns and related environmental impacts, potential solutions to current environmental problems and renewable energy technologies and their relation to sustainable development are discussed with great emphasis on waste-to-energy routes (WTERs). (author)

  2. BIOMASS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, M. Murtala

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide demand for cleaner burning fuels and ‘clean’ chemicals has been increasing from the global issues of environmental concern. This lead to a greater utilization of renewable resources to replace the old and existing fossil based feedstock for liquid fuels and chemicals. The ability to re-grow harvested biomass and recapture the carbon emitted to the atmosphere through photosynthesis allows the possibility of carbon neutrality encouraged the use of biomass. Moreso, the unstable rise of oil prices, the negative effects of petroleum on the environment and the advantages of biomass towards sustainability of resources accelerated the development and utilization of unused biomass. This paper reviewed some of the potentials of biomass as a source of chemicals for industrial applications. Pyrolysis is considered to be one of the most employed technologies for the conversion of biomass into bio-oil, char and gases. The utilization of biomass for chemical manufacture can significantly eliminate the harmful effects of fossil based chemicals on the environment.

  3. Report: integrated industrial waste management systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxin; Roberts, Peter

    2007-06-01

    Various models of urban sustainable development have been introduced in recent years and some of these such as integrated waste management have been proved to be of particular value. Integrated industrial waste management systems include all the administrative, financial, legal, planning and engineering functions involved in solutions to the problems of industrial waste. Even though the pace of the improvement made to China's industrial waste management capacity is impressive, China has been unable to keep up with the increasing demand for waste management. This paper will evaluate the application of integrated industrial waste management systems in promoting urban sustainable development in the context of three case study cities in China (positive case, average case and negative case) by identifying and accessing the factors that affect the success or failure of integrated industrial waste management systems.

  4. Analytical chemistry of industrial waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lur' e, Yu.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    This book gives a detailed account of modern methods of analyzing waste water from industrial enterprises. It describes methods of analyzing both water which is formed directly in one or another technical process, and water which has come through purifying structures, where it has been purified by various chemical, physical-chemical and biochemical methods. Many new methods are presented which have been published in recent years and which have undergone massive testing in Soviet and foreign laboratories. The book is intended for workers of chemical-analytical laboratories of chemical, metallurgic and other sectors of industry, production of various organic products and also for workers of water inspection, sanitary-epidemiology stations and water-purifying structures.

  5. Policy Changes and Economic Logic of Industrial Land Renewal in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng; Degao; Lu; Hongmin

    2016-01-01

    The change in the policy of industrial land renewal in many mega-cities is the result of a game between government and market.The principle of government policy-making is to balance its long-term benefits(tax revenue) and short-term benefits(land revenue).The policy of industrial land renewal is made to achieve this balance.And the renewal policy is gradually improved in terms of spatial indicators,self-ownership proportion,holding periods,and land management.And it can influence the industrial park typology.The industrial park typology has gone through three generations,from land sale-oriented,building sale-oriented,to park sale-oriented.The paper explains the changes of the industrial land renewal policies in Shanghai,and takes the construction of industrial parks in different periods as an example to explore the impact of policy changes on park forms and typologies.

  6. Challenges in packaging waste management in the fast food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnio, Teija [Digita Oy, P.O. Box 135, FI-00521 Helsinki (Finland); Haemaelaeinen, Anne [Department of Energy and Environmental Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2008-02-15

    The recovery of solid waste is required by waste legislation, and also by the public. In some industries, however, waste is mostly disposed of in landfills despite of its high recoverability. Practical experiences show that the fast food industry is one example of these industries. A majority of the solid waste generated in the fast food industry is packaging waste, which is highly recoverable. The main research problem of this study was to find out the means of promoting the recovery of packaging waste generated in the fast food industry. Additionally, the goal of this article was to widen academic understanding on packaging waste management in the fast food industry, as the subject has not gained large academic interest previously. The study showed that the theoretical recovery rate of packaging waste in the fast food industry is high, 93% of the total annual amount, while the actual recovery rate is only 29% of the total annual amount. The total recovery potential of packaging waste is 64% of the total annual amount. The achievable recovery potential, 33% of the total annual amount, could be recovered, but is not mainly because of non-working waste management practices. The theoretical recovery potential of 31% of the total annual amount of packaging waste cannot be recovered by the existing solid waste infrastructure because of the obscure status of commercial waste, the improper operation of producer organisations, and the municipal autonomy. The research indicated that it is possible to reach the achievable recovery potential in the existing solid waste infrastructure through new waste management practices, which are designed and operated according to waste producers' needs and demands. The theoretical recovery potential can be reached by increasing the consistency of the solid waste infrastructure through governmental action. (author)

  7. Characteristics and management of infectious industrial waste in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mei-Chuan; Lin, Jim Juimin

    2008-11-01

    Infectious industrial waste management in Taiwan is based on the specific waste production unit. In other countries, management is based simply on whether the producer may lead to infectious disease. Thus, Taiwan has a more detailed classification of infectious waste. The advantage of this classification is that it is easy to identify the sources, while the disadvantage lies in the fact that it is not flexible and hence increases cost. This study presents an overview of current management practices for handling infectious industrial waste in Taiwan, and addresses the current waste disposal methods. The number of small clinics in Taiwan increased from 18,183 to 18,877 between 2003 and 2005. Analysis of the data between 2003 and 2005 showed that the majority of medical waste was general industrial waste, which accounted for 76.9%-79.4% of total medical waste. Infectious industrial waste accounted for 19.3%-21.9% of total medical waste. After the SARS event in Taiwan, the amount of infectious waste reached 19,350 tons in 2004, an increase over the previous year of 4000 tons. Waste minimization was a common consideration for all types of waste treatment. In this study, we summarize the percentage of plastic waste in flammable infectious industrial waste generated by medical units, which, in Taiwan was about 30%. The EPA and Taiwan Department of Health have actively promoted different recycling and waste reduction measures. However, the wide adoption of disposable materials made recycling and waste reduction difficult for some hospitals. It has been suggested that enhancing the education of and promoting communication between medical units and recycling industries must be implemented to prevent recyclable waste from entering the incinerator.

  8. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Waste Vegetable Oil Biodiesel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  9. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  10. Phytotoxicity of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Surindra; Singh, Deepika

    2011-08-01

    This work demonstrates the phytotoxicity screening of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry waste (HPIW) using seed bioassay method. The composted industrial waste should be tested at lab scale prior to recommendation for land application. HPIW was mixed with soil to produce four treatments: T(1) (1:1), T(2) (1:2), T(3) (1:3), and T(4) (1:0) for toxicity screening using Pisum sativum seeds. After 72 h relative seed germination (RSG), relative root growth (RRG) and germination index (GI) were recorded. Seedlings were observed for further plant growth and tissue biochemistry (chlorophyll, soluble sugar, starch, carotenoid, and protein) estimation. RSG, RRG, and GI values were better in T(1) and T(2) than others. GI was in the ranges of 36.62 % (T(4)) to 170.38 % (T(2)). The seedling growth and biochemical parameters were better in seedling obtained from potting media containing low proportion of HPIW (i.e., T(1) and T(2)). Results clearly suggested that composted HPIW may be utilized effectively for crop production after dilution under sustainable farming system program.

  11. Hazardous and Industrial Wastes Management: a Case Study of Khazra Industrial Park, Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Increasing hazardous industrial wastes and lack of necessary regulations for management of them have led to serious problems in some parts of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the situation of collection, transportation, recycling, and disposal of hazardous industrial wastes in the Khazra Industrial Park of Kerman, Iran. Materials & Methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study that was done using questionnaires and local visits during year 2009. In this questionnaire, some information about the industrial wastes, production, storage on site , collection, transformation, sorting, recycling, and disposal were recorded. Results:   In the Khazra Industrial Park, 71,600 kg/day of different industrial waste is produced. The biggest proportion of waste includes metals, and construction and demolition waste which are about 16,500 tons a year. The smallest proportion is non-iron metal waste, which is produced at a rate of 8 tons per year. 88.7 percent of the active industries at the Khazra Industrial Park produce solid industrial waste. Most of the industrial units do not use a united and coordinated system for storing waste and have no specific place for temporary storage inside the industrial park. The majority of industrial waste collection, which is about 59.8%, is done by private contractors. The industrial units transfer their waste separately, and just 9 industrial units recycle their waste. Disposal of these wastes is mainly done by selling to trading agencies. Each day, 3 tons of hazardous industrial waste is produced in this park. The highest production belongs to the oil factory (Keyhan Motor. Conclusions: According to the results, the Khazra Industrial Park needs a unified system for storing, transporting and collecting the sorted waste, and it also needs to have a transportation station with basic facilities. The wastes of most industrial units at the Khazra Industrial Park have the

  12. Solid domestic wastes as a renewable resource: European experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridland, V. S.; Livshits, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ways in which different types of solid domestic wastes, such as wastepaper, crushed glass, plastics and worn-out tires, can be efficiently included into the production, raw-material, and energy balances of the national economy are shown taking Germany and other European countries an example. Methods for recycling these solid domestic wastes and application fields of the obtained products are discussed.

  13. INDUSTRIAL WASTE MANAGEMENT TO IMPROVE ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Perfilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Disposal of industrial waste to improve the environmental safety by means of recycling and reusing in the manufacture of building materials.Materials and methods. We made a selection of new optimum compositions of fiber-concretes using industrial carbon black from heat generating productions, glass fibers, plasticizers, activated mixing water produced using an ultrasonic unit.Results. New fiber-reinforced concrete compositions were developed using carbon black as an additive. As a result of the processing of the experimental data, it has been revealed that introduction of carbon black as an additive contributed to the increase of the strength characteristics of nearly all fiber-reinforced concrete compositions. It has been found that microparticles of carbon black accumulate the products of hydration of portlandcement-hydrosilicate calcium on the surface and contribute to the formation of a solid microarming concrete structure.Conclusions. The use of industrial carbon black in fibrous concrete mixture using restructured water improves its rheological properties, reduces its segregation and improves the homogeneity of the concrete. Recycling and re-using carbon black in the production of building materials will improve the environmental ecology.

  14. Renewable energy resources in a restructured electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen, P.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper highlights a conference presentation addressing changes in the residential energy sector in view of the increasing competitiveness of the energy market. Renewable energy characteristics are briefly outlined, and capacity and generation data for non-hydroelectric power in 1994 are listed. A review of critical factors in renewables development and policy responses to market impediments is made. Current market barriers are identified, and proposals for Federal policies are made. 17 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. Bioremediation of Industrial Waste Through Enzyme Producing Marine Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaperumal, P; Kamala, K; Rajaram, R

    2017-01-01

    Bioremediation process using microorganisms is a kind of nature-friendly and cost-effective clean green technology. Recently, biodegradation of industrial wastes using enzymes from marine microorganisms has been reported worldwide. The prospectus research activity in remediation area would contribute toward the development of advanced bioprocess technology. To minimize industrial wastes, marine enzymes could constitute a novel alternative in terms of waste treatment. Nowadays, the evidence on the mechanisms of bioremediation-related enzymes from marine microorganisms has been extensively studied. This review also will provide information about enzymes from various marine microorganisms and their complexity in the biodegradation of comprehensive range of industrial wastes.

  16. A zero waste vision for industrial networks in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, T; Williams, I D

    2012-03-15

    'ZeroWIN' (Towards Zero Waste in Industrial Networks--www.zerowin.eu) is a five year project running 2009-2014, funded by the EC under the 7th Framework Programme. Project ZeroWIN envisions industrial networks that have eliminated the wasteful consumption of resources. Zero waste is a unifying concept for a range of measures aimed at eliminating waste and challenging old ways of thinking. Aiming for zero waste will mean viewing waste as a potential resource with value to be realised, rather than as a problem to be dealt with. The ZeroWIN project will investigate and demonstrate how existing approaches and tools can be improved and combined to best effect in an industrial network, and how innovative technologies can contribute to achieving the zero waste vision. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Logistic paradigm for industrial solid waste treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Grabara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that industrial waste are a growing problem, both economic and environmental as their number is increasing every year, it is important to take measures to correctly dealing wi th industrial waste. This article presents the descriptive model of logistics processes concerning the management of industrial waste. In this model the flow of waste begins in the place of production and ends at their disposal. The article presents the concept of logistics model in graphical form together with an analysis of individual processes and their linkages, and opportunities to improve flow of industrial waste streams. Furthermore, the model allows for justification of the relevance of use logistics and its processes for waste management

  18. 40 CFR 35.925-15 - Treatment of industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of industrial wastes. 35.925... § 35.925-15 Treatment of industrial wastes. That the allowable project costs do not include (a) costs of interceptor or collector lines constructed exclusively, or almost exclusively, to serve...

  19. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems designed for energy conservation through the recovery, storage, and reuse of industrial process waste heat are reviewed. Consideration is given to systems developed for primary aluminum, cement, the food processing industry, paper and pulp, and primary iron and steel. Projected waste-heat recovery and energy savings are listed for each category.

  20. Utilization of waste heat from energy conversion and industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.R.; Hamilton, R.W.

    The laws of thermodynamics state that no process of energy transformation can take place with perfect efficiency--some waste heat is always produced. The generation of waste heat from energy conversion and industrial processes are discussed. First-law and second-law efficiencies are defined. After listing the amounts of waste heat produced, some technological options for reducing waste heat or using it for other purposes, such as district heating, are described.

  1. The lessons learned from the development of the wind energy industry that might be applied to marine industry renewables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrad, Andrew

    2012-01-28

    This paper considers the early experiences of the development of wind turbines and the wind energy industry in order to try and identify lessons learned that could now be applied to the developing marine renewables technology and industry. It considers both political and commercial incentives and engineering development.

  2. U.S. Renewable Energy Policy and Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ella

    2015-10-01

    From 2005 to 2014, wind and solar power generation has seen an almost tenfold increase in the United States. Such rapid development is the result of a variety of federal and state, top-down and bottom-up drivers, as well as the macro-environment of cost-reduction globally and early adoption in Europe. This presentation, prepared for a meeting with China National Renewable Energy Center and National Energy Administration (of China), is a summary of some of the key drivers for renewable energy deployment in the United States.

  3. Development potential of e-waste recycling industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Yang, Jie; Liu, Lili

    2015-06-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) recycling industries in China have been through several phases from spontaneous informal family workshops to qualified enterprises with treatment fund. This study attempts to analyse the development potential of the e-waste recycling industry in China from the perspective of both time and scale potential. An estimation and forecast of e-waste quantities in China shows that, the total e-waste amount reached approximately 5.5 million tonnes in 2013, with 83% of air conditioners, refrigerators, washing machines, televisions sand computers. The total quantity is expected to reach ca. 11.7 million tonnes in 2020 and 20 million tonnes in 2040, which indicates a large increase potential. Moreover, the demand for recycling processing facilities, the optimal service radius of e-waste recycling enterprises and estimation of the profitability potential of the e-waste recycling industry were analysed. Results show that, based on the e-waste collection demand, e-waste recycling enterprises therefore have a huge development potential in terms of both quantity and processing capacity, with 144 and 167 e-waste recycling facilities needed, respectively, by 2020 and 2040. In the case that e-waste recycling enterprises set up their own collection points to reduce the collection cost, the optimal collection service radius is estimated to be in the range of 173 km to 239 km. With an e-waste treatment fund subsidy, the e-waste recycling industry has a small economic profit, for example ca. US$2.5/unit for television. The annual profit for the e-waste recycling industry overall was about 90 million dollars in 2013.

  4. Legal boundary conditions of the waste management and energy industry; Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen der Abfall- und Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brahms, Florian [Maslaton Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    The legal framework of waste and energy management was subject to significant transformations which find their legal link of the national state objective to protect the natural resources for future generations in Article 20a of the German constitution. The waste law as well as the energy law aim at the efficient use of resources to protect the environment and smooth the way for a CO{sub 2}-neutral society. After the accident at Fukushima on 11 March 2011 the legislator enacted a number of laws that have a lasting impact on the energy industry and that the operators of biomass plants have to adapt to. At the same time, renewable energies have achieved a remarkable market share under the German Renewable Energy Act, so that market and system integration has also moved into the foreground of the legislation. For electricity produced from the fermentation of biowaste, the German Renewable Energy Act 2012 already provides that the fixed feed-in compensation for installations with an electrical power over 750 kW commissioned after 31 December 2013 no longer exists. The waste legislation is characterized in particular by its relation to European laws, although the definition of the term ''waste'' still causes demarcation difficulties. The Biowaste Ordinance was comprehensively amended in April 2012 in consideration of a number of European regulations. (orig.)

  5. 30 CFR 285.116 - Requests for information on the state of the offshore renewable energy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... offshore renewable energy industry. 285.116 Section 285.116 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER... the state of the offshore renewable energy industry, including the identification of...

  6. Plant Test of Industrial Waste Disposal in a Cement Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳生; 韩杰; 等

    2003-01-01

    Destruction of industrial waste in cement rotary kilins(CRKs) is an alternative technology for the treatment of certain types of industrial waste(IW).In this paper,three typical types of industrial wastes were co-incinerated in the CRK at Beijing Cement Plant to determine the effects of waste disposal(especially solid waste disposal )on the quality of clinker and the concentration of pollutants in air emission.Experimental results show that(1) waste disposal does not affect the quality of clinker and fly ash,and fly ash after the IW disposal can still be used in the cement production,(2) heavy metals from IW are immobilized and stabilized in the clinker and cement,and (3) concentration of pollutants in air emission is far below than the permitted values in the China National Standard-Air Pollutants Emission Standard(GB 16297-1996).

  7. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horttanainen, M; Teirasvuo, N; Kapustina, V; Hupponen, M; Luoranen, M

    2013-12-01

    For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50-60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential of waste heat in Croatian industrial sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bišćan Davor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste heat recovery in Croatian industry is of the highest significance regarding the national efforts towards energy efficiency improvements and climate protection. By recuperation of heat which would otherwise be wasted, the quantity of fossil fuels used for production of useful energy could be lowered thereby reducing the fuel costs and increasing the competitiveness of examined Croatian industries. Another effect of increased energy efficiency of industrial processes and plants is reduction of greenhouse gases i.e. the second important national goal required by the European Union (EU and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. Paper investigates and analyses the waste heat potential in Croatian industrial sector. Firstly, relevant industrial sectors with significant amount of waste heat are determined. Furthermore, significant companies in these sectors are selected with respect to main process characteristics, operation mode and estimated waste heat potential. Data collection of waste heat parameters (temperature, mass flow and composition is conducted. Current technologies used for waste heat utilization from different waste heat sources are pointed out. Considered facilities are compared with regard to amount of flue gas heat. Mechanisms for more efficient and more economic utilization of waste heat are proposed. [Acknoledgment. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the UNITY THROUGH KNOWLEDGE FUND (UKF of the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia and the World Bank, under the Grant Agreement No. 89/11.

  9. The true cost of renewables: An analytic response to the coal industry`s attack on renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B G; Wan, Yih-huei

    1995-10-01

    In April 1995, the Center for Energy and Economic Development (CEED), an umbrella organization of pro-coal interests, released a report entitled Energy Choices in a Competitive Era: The Role of Renewable and Traditional Energy Resources in America`s Electric Generation Mix. The report purports to show that a very modest growth in the use of renewable energy in the U.S. power sector would entail unaffordable costs for the nation`s electricity ratepayers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to review the assumptions contained in the report, which was prepared for CEED by Resource Data International, Inc. (RDI). The NREL analysis finds that the conclusions of the CEED/RDI study are based on faulty data and assumptions regarding the comparative economics of coal and renewable energy development. After correcting these errors, NREL finds that a modest growth path of renewable resource development would essentially cost the nation little more than projected electricity market costs for coal-fired generation, even before considering the environmental benefits that would accompany this development.

  10. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  12. Remediation of AMD using industrial waste adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Nuur Hani Bte; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan

    2016-11-01

    The study investigates the characteristic of industrial waste as adsorbents and its potential as heavy metals absorbents in AMD samples. The AMD sample was collected from active mine pond and the pH was measured in situ. The metal contents were analyzed by ICP-MS. The AMD water was very acidic (pH< 3.5), and the average heavy metals content in AMD were high especially in Fe (822.029 mg/l). Fly ash was found to be the most effective absorbent material containing high percentage of CaO (57.24%) and SiO2 (13.88%), followed by ladle furnace slag containing of high amount of CaO (51.52%) and Al2O3 (21.23%), while biomass ash consists of SiO2 (43.07%) and CaO (12.97%). Tank analysis display a huge changes due to pH value change from acidity to nearly neutral phases. After 50 days, fly ash remediation successfully increase the AMD pH values from pH 2.57-7.09, while slag change from acidity to nearly alkaline phase from pH 2.60-7.3 and biomass has change to pH 2.54-6.8. Fly ash has successfully remove Fe, Mn, Cu, and Ni. Meanwhile, slag sample displays as an effective adsorbent to adsorb more Pb and Cd in acid mine drainage.

  13. Aluminum extraction from aluminum industrial wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste from the Egyptian Aluminum Company (Egyptalum), was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum sulfate alum (Al2(SO4)3·12H2O) and ammonium aluminum alum {(NH4)2SO4AL2 (SO4)3·24H2O}. This was carried out in two processes. The first involves leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of aluminum sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purified aluminum dross tailings thus produced. This was carried out in an autoclave. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on pressure leaching and extraction processes were studied in order to specify the optimum conditions to be applied in the bench scale production as well as the kinetics of leaching process.

  14. 2016 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafferty, Kara Grace [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, Modification 1, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016.

  15. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed.

  16. Arsenic in industrial waste water from copper production technological process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of arsenic in industrial waste water is of a great importance for environment. Discharge of untreated waste water from a copper production process results in serious pollution of surface water, which directly affects flora and fauna, as well as humans. There is a need for efficient and environmentally acceptable treament of waste waters containing heavy metals and arsenic. The paper presents an analyisis of the waste water from The Copper Smelter which is discharged into the Bor river. The expected arsenic content in treated waste water after using HDS procedure is also presented.

  17. Mitigation of Metal Ion Pollution from Industrial Waste Water Using Waste Wool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapat, Garima; Purohit, Praveen

    A study on the adsorption of copper (II) ions from the aqueous solution on waste wool had been carried out to analyze the adsorption capacity of waste wool, thereby aiming towards mitigation of metal ion pollution in industrial waste water. The effect of varying concentration of copper ions and varying time period, was studied on fixed weight of waste wool. The initial and final concentration of copper ions was measured by conductometric and spectrophotometric methods. Adsorption data were modeled with the langmuir and freundlich adsorption isotherms. The isotherm and first order equation were found to be applicable. Removal of metal ions using industrial waste wool is found to be favourable. Thus the work can be extended to study various physico-chemical parameters for removal of copper (II) ions from industrial effluents using waste wool. A later work can be involved where the waste wool adsorption parameter can be further utilized for composite ceramic products.

  18. Microbial keratinases: industrial enzymes with waste management potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amit; Singh, Hukum; Anwar, Shahbaz; Chattopadhyay, Anirudha; Tiwari, Kapil K; Kaur, Surinder; Dhilon, Gurpreet Singh

    2017-06-01

    Proteases are ubiquitous enzymes that occur in various biological systems ranging from microorganisms to higher organisms. Microbial proteases are largely utilized in various established industrial processes. Despite their numerous industrial applications, they are not efficient in hydrolysis of recalcitrant, protein-rich keratinous wastes which result in environmental pollution and health hazards. This paved the way for the search of keratinolytic microorganisms having the ability to hydrolyze "hard to degrade" keratinous wastes. This new class of proteases is known as "keratinases". Due to their specificity, keratinases have an advantage over normal proteases and have replaced them in many industrial applications, such as nematicidal agents, nitrogenous fertilizer production from keratinous waste, animal feed and biofuel production. Keratinases have also replaced the normal proteases in the leather industry and detergent additive application due to their better performance. They have also been proved efficient in prion protein degradation. Above all, one of the major hurdles of enzyme industrial applications (cost effective production) can be achieved by using keratinous waste biomass, such as chicken feathers and hairs as fermentation substrate. Use of these low cost waste materials serves dual purposes: to reduce the fermentation cost for enzyme production as well as reducing the environmental waste load. The advent of keratinases has given new direction for waste management with industrial applications giving rise to green technology for sustainable development.

  19. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak, E-mail: burak.demirel@boun.edu.tr; Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  20. Recycling of ash from mezcal industry: a renewable source of lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Guerrero, L; Flores, J; Kharissov, B I

    2010-10-01

    Agave bagasse is a byproduct generated in the mezcal industry. Normally it is burned to reduce its volume, then a byproduct is generated in the form of residual ash, which can contaminate the water in rivers and lakes near the production places called "mezcaleras". This report details measurements of the Agave Salmiana fiber transformation after the burning process. The wasted ash was heated at 950°C, and then hydrolyzed. The compounds were indentified using the X-ray diffraction. The images obtained by scanning electron microscope showed all the morphological transformations of the lime through the whole process. Thermal, elemental and morphological characterization of the agave bagasse were done. Experiments showed that 16% of ash was produced in the burning process of agave bagasse (450°C), and 66% of the ash remains after heating (950°C) in the form of calcium oxide. The results show an important renewable source of calcium compounds, due to the high production of agave based beverages in México. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental impacts of waste management in the hospitality industry: Creating a waste management plan for Bergvik Kartano

    OpenAIRE

    Adigwe, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Many hospitality industries find it difficult to control or manage solid wastes, such as food, containers, paper, cardboard and scrap metals, which are waste generated on a daily basis depending on the industry. Most hospitality industries tend to lag behind when it comes to the collection of waste. Only a fraction of the¬¬ waste collected receives proper disposal. When waste is not collected sufficiently and the disposal is inappropriate the waste can accumulate and cause water, land and air...

  2. Toward zero waste production in the paint industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    effective treatment different solids content in the wastewater requires different dosage levels of the coagulant. ... Although the type of waste generated by different industries varies .... were raised due to biological and product contamination.

  3. Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste to wealth: Industrial raw materials potential of peels of Nigerian sweet orange ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... of orange peels with a view to establishing their raw material potentials.

  4. Biomass fuel based on wastes from the paper industry

    OpenAIRE

    Budzyń Stanisław; Tora Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Wastes from paper industry are mostly combustible. It is possible to recycle them with energy recovery. These wastes have a high moisture content (up to 60%) and thus a small calorific value. An alternative to waste incineration is the production of solid recovered fuel. The benefits are: easy adjustment of the physical and chemical properties of the fuel (via the change of proportions of ingredients), low moisture and high calorific value. The study involved the following types of cellulose ...

  5. Industrial waste needs assessment. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radel, R.J.; Willis, M.P. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    In January of 1992 a team was put together to begin the process of assessing the industrial waste needs of the Tennessee Valley. The team consisted of representatives from the various TVA Resource Group organizations. This initial team recommended as a starting point in the process a two-phase market research effort. A second team was then commissioned to conduct the first phase of this market research effort. The first phase of that marketing effort is now complete. This report contains an analysis of the data obtained through interviews of more than 168 individuals representing a similar number of organizations. A total of 37 TVA Resource Group employees were involved in the contact process from various organizations. In addition, the appendices provide summaries of the data used in designing the process and the reports of the Contact Coordinators (who were responsible for a series of visits). As a result of the data analysis, the Review Team makes the following recommendations: 1. Publish this report and distribute to the new management within TVA Resource Group as well as to all those participating as contacts, visitors, and contact coordinators. 2. The Resource Group management team, or management teams within each of the respective organizations within Resource Group, appoint Phase 2 assessement teams for as many of the problem areas listed in Table III as seem appropriate. We further recommend that, where possible, cross-organizational teams be used to examine individual problem areas. 3. Make this report available within Generating and Customer Groups, especially to the Customer Service Centers. 4. Establish a process to continue follow up with each of the contacts made in this assessment.

  6. Industrial applications study. Volume II. Industrial data base. Final report. [Waste heat recovery and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence W.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet

    1976-12-01

    An initial evaluation of the waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector is presented. The scope of this initial phase addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, the methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment were established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated.

  7. Production of Renewable Natural Gas from Waste Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Suresh, S.; Arisutha, S.

    2013-03-01

    Biomass energy is expected to make a major contribution to the replacement of fossil fuels. Methane produced from biomass is referred to as bio-methane, green gas, bio-substitute natural gas or renewable natural gas (RNG) when it is used as a transport fuel. Research on upgrading of the cleaned producer gas to RNG is still ongoing. The present study deals with the conversion of woody biomass into fuels, RNG using gasifier. The various effects of parameters like temperature, pressure, and tar formation on conversion were also studied. The complete carbon conversion was observed at 480 °C and tar yield was significantly less. When biomass was gasified with and without catalyst at about 28 s residence time, ~75 % (w/w) and 88 % (w/w) carbon conversion for without and with catalyst was observed. The interest in RNG is growing; several initiatives to demonstrate the thermal-chemical conversion of biomass into methane and/or RNG are under development.

  8. Renewable raw materials new feedstocks for the chemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Ulber, Roland; Hirth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges facing the chemical industry is the transition to sustainable operations. Industries are taking initiatives to reduce resource intensities or footprints, and by adopting safer materials and processes. Such efforts need to be supported by techniques that can quantify the broad economic and environmental implications of industrial operations, retrofi t options and provide new design alternatives. This contemporary overview focuses on cradle-to-grave life cycle assessments of existing or conceptual processes for producing valueadded fuels, chemicals, and/or material

  9. Evaluation of solid waste recycling in Khazra Industrial estate, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Overall, our findings suggest that the total amount and the variety of waste generated, and the availability of waste-recycling units in the park hinder the establishment of any recycling and processing units in the Khazra Industrial Park as they are not economically efficient. Therefore if the park development plans get going and by using economic initiatives, the foundation of processing and recycling units in this industrial park is recommended and will have economic and environmental benefits.

  10. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T

    2014-01-01

    Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW+DPW+MW+SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added), respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  11. Amelioration of acidic soil using various renewable waste resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, improvement of acidic soil with respect to soil pH and exchangeable cations was attempted for sample with an initial pH of approximately 5. Acidic soil was amended with various waste resources in the range of 1 to 5 wt.% including waste oyster shells (WOS), calcined oyster shells (COS), Class C fly ash (FA), and cement kiln dust (CKD) to improve soil pH and exchangeable cations. Upon treatment, the soil pH was monitored for periods up to 3 months. The exchangeable cations were measured after 1 month of curing. After a curing period of 1 month, a maize growth experiment was conducted with selected-treated samples to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. The treatment results indicate that in order to increase the soil pH to a value of 7, 1 wt.% of WOS, 3 wt.% of FA, and 1 wt.% of CKD are required. In the case of COS, 1 wt.% was more than enough to increase the soil pH value to 7 because of COS's strong alkalinity. Moreover, the soil pH increases after a curing period of 7 days and remains virtually unchanged thereafter up to 1 month of curing. Upon treatment, the summation of cations (Ca, Mg, K, and Na) significantly increased. The growth of maize is superior in the treated samples rather than the untreated one, indicating that the amelioration of acidic soil is beneficial to plant growth, since soil pH was improved and nutrients were replenished.

  12. Solid recovered fuel production from biodegradable waste in grain processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliopova, Irina; Staniskis, Jurgis Kazimieras; Petraskiene, Violeta

    2013-04-01

    Management of biodegradable waste is one of the most important environmental problems in the grain-processing industry since this waste cannot be dumped anymore due to legal requirements. Biodegradable waste is generated in each stage of grain processing, including the waste-water and air emissions treatment processes. Their management causes some environmental and financial problems. The majority of Lithuanian grain-processing enterprises own and operate composting sites, but in Lithuania the demand for compost is not given. This study focused on the analysis of the possibility of using biodegradable waste for the production of solid recovered fuel, as a local renewable fuel with the purpose of increasing environmental performance and decreasing the direct costs of grain processing. Experimental research with regard to a pilot grain-processing plant has proven that alternative fuel production will lead to minimizing of the volume of biodegradable waste by 75% and the volume of natural gas for heat energy production by 62%. Environmental indicators of grain processing, laboratory analysis of the chemical and physical characteristics of biodegradable waste, mass and energy balances of the solid recovered fuel production, environmental and economical benefits of the project are presented and discussed herein.

  13. Exploitation of Food Industry Waste for High-Value Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    A growing global population leads to an increasing demand for food production and the processing industry associated with it and consequently the generation of large amounts of food waste. This problem is intensified due to slow progress in the development of effective waste management strategies and measures for the proper treatment and disposal of waste. Food waste is a reservoir of complex carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nutraceuticals and can form the raw materials for commercially important metabolites. The current legislation on food waste treatment prioritises the prevention of waste generation and least emphasises disposal. Recent valorisation studies for food supply chain waste opens avenues to the production of biofuels, enzymes, bioactive compounds, biodegradable plastics, and nanoparticles among many other molecules.

  14. International Data Base for the U.S. Renewable Energy Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1986-05-01

    The International Data Base for the US Renewable Energy Industry was developed to provide the US renewable energy industry with background data for identifying and analyzing promising foreign market opportunities for their products and services. Specifically, the data base provides the following information for 161 developed and developing countries: (1) General Country Data--consisting of general energy indicators; (2) Energy Demand Data--covering commercial primary energy consumption; (3) Energy Resource Data--identifying annual average insolation, wind power, and river flow data; (4) Power System Data--indicating a wide range of electrical parameters; and (5) Business Data--including currency and credit worthiness data.

  15. Renewable Electricity Use by the U.S. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gorham, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-20

    The information and communication technology (ICT) sector continues to witness rapid growth and uptake of ICT equipment and services at both the national and global levels. The electricity consumption associated with this expansion is substantial, although recent adoptions of cloudcomputing services, co-location data centers, and other less energy-intensive equipment and operations have likely reduced the rate of growth in this sector. This paper is intended to aggregate existing ICT industry data and research to provide an initial look at electricity use, current and future renewable electricity acquisition, as well as serve as a benchmark for future growth and trends in ICT industry renewable electricity consumption.

  16. Industrial Scale Energy Systems Integration; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark

    2015-07-28

    The industrial sector consumes 25% of the total energy in the U.S. and produces 18% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy Systems Integration (ESI) opportunities can reduce those values and increase the profitability of that sector. This presentation outlines several options. Combined heat and power (CHP) is an option that is available today for many applications. In some cases, it can be extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed. extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed.

  17. Technological Proposals for Recycling Industrial Wastes for Environmental Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Romero-Hermida

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A two-fold objective is proposed for this research: removing hazardous and unpleasant wastes and mitigating the emissions of green house gasses in the atmosphere. Thus, the first aim of this work is to identify, characterize and recycle industrial wastes with high contents of calcium or sodium. This involves synthesizing materials with the ability for CO2 sequestration as preliminary work for designing industrial processes, which involve a reduction of CO2 emissions. In this regard, phosphogypsum from the fertilizer industry and liquid wastes from the green olive and bauxite industries have been considered as precursors. Following a very simple procedure, Ca-bearing phosphogypsum wastes are mixed with Na-bearing liquid wastes in order to obtain a harmless liquid phase and an active solid phase, which may act as a carbon sequestration agent. In this way, wastes, which are unable to fix CO2 by themselves, can be successfully turned into effective CO2 sinks. The CO2 sequestration efficiency and the CO2 fixation power of the procedure based on these wastes are assessed.

  18. Potential uses of Waste Sludge in Construction Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Johnson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste generation and management is becoming a global challenge resulting into increased environmental concern. Waste management and recycle into a sustainable construction materials as proved to be an alternative for waste disposal helping out in the area of environmental pollution and economic. In recent years various type of waste has been used/reused in the development of sustainable construction materials. This study reviews various attempts that have been made to use sludge from different plants in construction industry. The mechanical and physical properties of the products, the environmental effect of the products and possible recommendations for future research was presented in the review.

  19. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  20. Waste heat utilization in industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichsel, M.; Heitmann, W.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is given of new developments in heat exchangers and heat pumps. With respect to practical applications, internal criteria for plant operation are discussed. Possibilities of government support are pointed out. Waste heat steam generators and waste heat aggregates for hot water generation or in some cases for steam superheating are used. The possibilities of utilization can be classified according to the economic improvements and according to their process applications, for example, gascooling. Examples are presented for a large variety of applications.

  1. Review on Chemical treatment of Industrial Waste Water | Sahu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review on Chemical treatment of Industrial Waste Water. ... used and lot of wastewater generated from industries due their processes and washing purpose. A large number of chemicals are used for the production of potable water and ... powdered activated carbon (PAC) can remove taste and odour compounds and micro ...

  2. Industrial Marketing in Sport: Understanding Season Ticket Renewal Across Account Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton J. Warren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first to extend industrial (or business-to-business marketing principles to the market for traditional season tickets. In doing so, a three-dimensional characterization of the season ticket holder (STH is developed and provides a new foundation upon which market segmentation and ticket sales initiatives can be built. This study then uses this new framework to segment and examine the key renewal factor differences across STH account types. Specifically, group differences on perceived venue related and non-venue related barriers to renewal, overall product quality, and account representative relationship quality are analyzed. This study finds business-to-consumer (B2C accounts are more concerned with product quality and typical barriers to purchase as they consider renewing their account for the following season than business-to-business (B2B accounts. Additionally, this study finds B2C accounts report higher levels of intention to renew than B2B accounts.

  3. The Economic Potential of Three Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Providing Thermal Energy to Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). Previous reports provided results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. This report builds that analysis with a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario providing the basis in which the N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems were included that convert electricity to heat, thus allowing the renewable energy subsystem to generate heat and benefit from that revenue stream. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector's evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources.

  4. Industrial applications study. Volume IV. Industrial plant surveys. Final report. [Waste heat recovery and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence M.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet

    1977-01-01

    An initial evaluation of the waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector is presented. The scope of this initial phase addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, the methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment were established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated. This study represents an important first step in the evaluation of waste heat recovery potential.

  5. THE REPLACEMENT-RENEWAL OF INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENTS. THE MAPI FORMULAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meo Colombo Carlotta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the production has been found to be an economical means for satisfying human wants, this process requires a complex industrial organization together with a large investment in equipments, plants and productive systems. These productive systems are employed to alter the physical environment and create consumer goods. As a result, they are consumed or become obsolete, inadequate, or otherwise candidates for replacement. When replacement is being considered, two assets must be evaluated: the present asset, the defender and its potential replacement, the challenger. Since the success of an industrial organization depends upon profit, replacement should generally occur if an economic advantage will result. Whatever the reason leading to the consideration of replacement, the analysis and decisions must be based upon estimates of what will occur in the future. In this paper we present the Mapi algorithm as a procedure for evaluating investments or for analyzing replacement opportunities.

  6. Guideline for implementing Co-generation based on biomass waste from Thai industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybaek, R.

    2005-07-01

    Due to the large-scale industrial development in Thailand the consumption of energy - primarily based on fossil fuels - has increased enormously, even though the economic growth has slowed down since the economic crisis in 1997. It is, therefore, important to reduce the environmental impact of this energy consumption, which can be achieved by energy conservation, higher efficiency in the production of energy, or by the use of different kinds of renewable energy. This thesis seeks to develop new strategies for the use of waste heat as a part of the industrial process heat, which can be supplied to industries by a district-heating network. By substituting process heat - produced by electricity or by boilers using fossil fuel in individual industries - with process heat, produced by a co-generation plant - using the industries own biomass waste as fuel - process heat can be supplied to industries participating in a small scale district heating network. Thus, an Industrial Materials Network can be created, which is environmentally as well as economically beneficial for both industry and society. On the basis of a case study of the industrial area, Navanakorn Industrial Promotion Zone in Thailand, such initiatives for efficient materials and energy uses have been conducted and proved successful, and industries - as well as local and national governmental agencies, NGOs and branch organizations etc. - have shown interest in supporting the implementation of such scheme. In this thesis, a Guideline for large-scale implementation of Industrial Materials Network in Thailand was developed. By following a series of actions, the Guideline defines the initiatives that must be taken in order to ensure correct implementation. Chronologically, the emphasis of the Guideline is on pointing to relevant stakeholders who can pursue the implementation, and then appropriate areas and types of industries for Industrial Materials Network implementation. Thereafter, guidance for the

  7. The Renewal of Mature Industries: An Examination of the Revival of the Dutch Beer Brewing Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Kroezen (Jochem J.)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractMany mature industries have recently experienced a remarkable revival. Yet, other important industries appear to remain impervious to change. While the evolution of industries is an important topic in the industrial organization and organizational sociology literature, theorists

  8. The Renewal of Mature Industries: An Examination of the Revival of the Dutch Beer Brewing Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Kroezen (Jochem J.)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Many mature industries have recently experienced a remarkable revival. Yet, other important industries appear to remain impervious to change. While the evolution of industries is an important topic in the industrial organization and organizational sociology literature,

  9. The Renewal of Mature Industries: An Examination of the Revival of the Dutch Beer Brewing Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Kroezen (Jochem J.)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractMany mature industries have recently experienced a remarkable revival. Yet, other important industries appear to remain impervious to change. While the evolution of industries is an important topic in the industrial organization and organizational sociology literature, theorists stru

  10. Release of Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On July 31, 2012, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology released the Tire Retread- ing lndustry Access Conditions and Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Condi- tions with the No. 32 announcement of 2012. The state will lay a foundation for realizing the green, safe, efficient, eco-friendly and energy saving tar- gets in the "12th Five-year Plan" of the industry by raising access conditions, regulating industrial development order, strengthening environmental protection, promoting corporate optimizing and up- grading, improving resources comprehensive utiliza- tion technology and management level and guiding the "harmless recycling and eco-friendly utiliza- tion" of the industry.

  11. Stakeholder analysis for industrial waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, Oliver; Harvey, Joan; Tollin, Nicola

    2009-02-01

    Stakeholder approaches have been applied to the management of companies with a view to the improvement of all areas of performance, including economic, health and safety, waste reduction, future policies, etc. However no agreement exists regarding stakeholders, their interests and levels of importance. This paper considers stakeholder analysis with particular reference to environmental and waste management systems. It proposes a template and matrix model for identification of stakeholder roles and influences by rating the stakeholders. A case study demonstrates the use of these and their ability to be transferred to other circumstances and organizations is illustrated by using a large educational institution.

  12. Food waste generation and industrial uses: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Francesca; Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello

    2015-11-01

    Food waste is made up of materials intended for human consumption that are subsequently discharged, lost, degraded or contaminated. The problem of food waste is currently on an increase, involving all sectors of waste management from collection to disposal; the identifying of sustainable solutions extends to all contributors to the food supply chains, agricultural and industrial sectors, as well as retailers and final consumers. A series of solutions may be implemented in the appropriate management of food waste, and prioritised in a similar way to waste management hierarchy. The most sought-after solutions are represented by avoidance and donation of edible fractions to social services. Food waste is also employed in industrial processes for the production of biofuels or biopolymers. Further steps foresee the recovery of nutrients and fixation of carbon by composting. Final and less desirable options are incineration and landfilling. A considerable amount of research has been carried out on food waste with a view to the recovery of energy or related products. The present review aims to provide an overview of current debate on food waste definitions, generation and reduction strategies, and conversion technologies emerging from the biorefinery concept.

  13. From applied microbiology to biotechnology: science, medicine and industrial renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bud, Robert

    2010-09-20

    In the late 1970s politicians and civil servants were acutely aware of the chronic decline of the manufacturing sector as a source of employment in Britain. At a time of fear of mass unemployment, sources of new work were urgently sought. Biotechnology had been promoted by visionaries since the early twentieth century. With oil prices soaring, its potential to produce substitutes for petroleum derivatives seemed newly attractive. At the beginning of 1976, John Bu'Lock at Manchester brought the attention of the new President of the Royal Society, Lord Todd, to the developments in enzyme and fermentation technologies. Both the Society and government began to take biotechnology seriously. In 1979 the Society organized a groundbreaking meeting, 'New horizons in industrial microbiology'. In parallel, John Ashworth, the chief scientist of the government think-tank the Central Policy Review Staff, prompted by American developments in genetic engineering, its commercial exploitation and regional development, led thinking among government officials. The Spinks enquiry into biotechnology was consequently formed in 1979 as a collaborative enterprise of the Advisory Council for Applied Research and Development, the Advisory Board for the Research Councils and the Royal Society. The recommendations for far-reaching collaboration between research councils, government and industry were not fully implemented. However, even the limited implementation led to new models of science that would be significant in the emergence of a reconstruction of science.

  14. Plates made with solid waste from the recycled paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrini, M; Gohr Pinheiro, I; Valle, J A B

    2010-02-01

    The results of assays carried out on plates used in the construction industry, manufactured entirely with solid wastes of a recycled paper plant, are presented and compared with the results obtained using agglomerated wood and plywood plates. Previous results had shown that wastes are composed essentially of polymers when these wastes are generated by recycled paper produced with the "waved type II" shavings. These solid wastes were placed in a mold that was heated and pressed with a hydraulic press in order to obtain the plates. The waste-produced plates were submitted to tests for humidity, swelling, water absorption, density, modulus of rupture-static bending, modulus of elasticity and direct screw withdrawal. These same assays had been carried out on two types of commercial wood plates, agglomerated wood and plywood, in order to compare the results with those obtained with the waste plate. Waste plates had similar behavior to the agglomerated wood plate, but it was possible to distinguish greater flexibility in the waste-produced plate and a significant difference in the tests for swelling and water absorption which showed the waste plate had a better performance than the agglomerated wood and plywood plates.

  15. Solid waste management in the hospitality industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirani, Sanaa I; Arafat, Hassan A

    2014-12-15

    Solid waste management is a key aspect of the environmental management of establishments belonging to the hospitality sector. In this study, we reviewed literature in this area, examining the current status of waste management for the hospitality sector, in general, with a focus on food waste management in particular. We specifically examined the for-profit subdivision of the hospitality sector, comprising primarily of hotels and restaurants. An account is given of the causes of the different types of waste encountered in this sector and what strategies may be used to reduce them. These strategies are further highlighted in terms of initiatives and practices which are already being implemented around the world to facilitate sustainable waste management. We also recommended a general waste management procedure to be followed by properties of the hospitality sector and described how waste mapping, an innovative yet simple strategy, can significantly reduce the waste generation of a hotel. Generally, we found that not many scholarly publications are available in this area of research. More studies need to be carried out on the implementation of sustainable waste management for the hospitality industry in different parts of the world and the challenges and opportunities involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Techno-Economic Simulation Approach in Preparation of Employing Renewable Energies for Process Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jun Hyung; Lee, Soo bin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lee, In-Beum

    2016-11-21

    The energy system of process industry are faced with a new unprecedented challenge. Renewable energies should be incorporated but single of them cannot meet its energy demand of high degree and a large quantity. This paper investigates a simulation framework to compute the capacity of multiple energy sources including solar, wind power, diesel and batteries. The framework involves actual renewable energy supply and demand profile generation and supply demand matching. Eight configurations of different supply options are evaluated to illustrate the applicability of the proposed framework with some remarks.

  17. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  18. Bioconversion of renewable resources into lactic acid: an industrial view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, A K; Chaudhari, A B; Kothari, R M

    2011-03-01

    Lactic acid, an anaerobic product of glycolysis, can be theoretically produced by synthetic route; however, it is commercially produced by homo-fermentative batch mode of operations. Factors affecting its production and strategies improving it are considered while devising an optimized protocol. Although a hetero-fermentative mode of production exists, it is rarely used for commercial production. Attempts to use Rhizopus sp. for lactic acid production through either hetero-fermentative or thermophilic conditions were not economical. Since almost 70% of the cost of its production is accounted by raw materials, R & D efforts are still focused to find economically attractive agri-products to serve as sources of carbon and complex nitrogen inputs to meet fastidious nutrient needs for microbial growth and lactic acid production. Therefore, need exists for using multi-pronged strategies for higher productivity. Its present production and consumption scenario is examined. Its optically active isomers and chemical structure permit its use for the production of several industrially important chemicals, health products (probiotics), food preservatives, and bio-plastics. In addition, its salts and esters appear to have a variety of applications.

  19. Principles of biotechnological treatment of industrial wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, M G; Martín Rodriguez, M J; Cachaza, J M; Mendoza Sánchez, L; Kennedy, J F

    1993-01-01

    This review includes current information on biodegradation processes of pollutants, digestor biocenosis and bioadditives, sludge production, measurement of pollution, and advances regarding biotechnological treatment of a series of specific industrial effluents.

  20. Barriers on the propagation of renewable energy sources and sustainable solid waste management practices in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boemi, Sn; Papadopoulos, Am; Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, S

    2010-11-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES), excluding large hydroelectric plants, currently produce 4.21% of total electricity production in Greece. Even when considering the additional production from large hydroelectric plants, which accounts for some 7.8%, the distance to be covered towards the objective of 20% electricity produced from RES by 2010 and respectively towards 20% of total energy production by 2020 is discouraging. The potential, however, does exist; unfortunately so do serious barriers. On the other hand, solid waste management (SWM) is an issue that generates continuously increasing interest due to the extra amounts of solid waste generated; the lack of existing disposal facilities with adequate infrastructure and integrated management plans, also often accompanied by legislative and institutional gaps. However, socio-economic and public awareness problems are still met in the planning and implementation of RES and SWM projects, together with the lack of a complete national cadastre and a spatial development master plan, specifying areas eligible for RES and SWM development. Specific barriers occur for individual RES and the on-going inclusion of waste-derived renewable energy in the examined palette further increases the complexity of the entire issue. The consolidated study of this broad set of barriers was a main task of the present study which was carried out within the frame of a Hellenic-Canadian research project; the main results will be discussed herein.

  1. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  2. Renewable generation technology choice and policies in a competitive electricity supply industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    Renewable energy generation technologies have lower externality costs but higher private costs than fossil fuel-based generation. As a result, the choice of renewables in the future generation mix could be affected by the industry's future market-oriented structure because market objectives based on private value judgments may conflict with social policy objectives toward better environmental quality. This research assesses how renewable energy generation choices would be affected in a restructured electricity generation market. A multi-period linear programming-based model (Resource Planning Model) is used to characterize today's electricity supply market in the United States. The model simulates long-range (2000-2020) generation capacity planning and operation decisions under alternative market paradigms. Price-sensitive demand is used to simulate customer preferences in the market. Dynamically changing costs for renewables and a two-step load duration curve are used. A Reference Case represents the benchmark for a socially-optimal diffusion of renewables and a basis for comparing outcomes under alternative market structures. It internalizes externality costs associated with emissions of sulfur dioxide (SOsb2), nitrous oxides (NOsbx), and carbon dioxide (COsb2). A Competitive Case represents a market with many generation suppliers and decision-making based on private costs. Finally, a Market Power Case models the extreme case of market power: monopoly. The results suggest that the share of renewables would decrease (and emissions would increase) considerably in both the Competitive and the Market Power Cases with respect to the Reference Case. The reduction is greater in the Market Power Case due to pricing decisions under existing supply capability. The research evaluates the following environmental policy options that could overcome market failures in achieving an appropriate level of renewable generation: COsb2 emissions tax, SOsb2 emissions cap, renewable

  3. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  4. Pie waste - A component of food waste and a renewable substrate for producing ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Margaret; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jayanthi, Singaram; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-04-01

    Sugar-rich food waste is a sustainable feedstock that can be converted into ethanol without an expensive thermochemical pretreatment that is commonly used in first and second generation processes. In this manuscript we have outlined the pie waste conversion to ethanol through a two-step process, namely, enzyme hydrolysis using commercial enzyme products mixtures and microbial fermentation using yeast. Optimized enzyme cocktail was found to be 45% alpha amylase, 45% gamma amylase, and 10% pectinase at 2.5mg enzyme protein/g glucan produced a hydrolysate with high glucose concentration. All three solid loadings (20%, 30%, and 40%) produced sugar-rich hydrolysates and ethanol with little to no enzyme or yeast inhibition. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process mass balance was carried out using pie waste on a 1000g dry weight basis that produced 329g ethanol at 20% solids loading. This process clearly demonstrate how food waste could be efficiently converted to ethanol that could be used for making biodiesel by reacting with waste cooking oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Export support of renewable energy industries, grant number 1, deliverable number 3. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-14

    The United States Export Council for Renewable Energy (US/ECRE), a consortium of six industry associations, promotes the interests of the renewable energy and energy efficiency member companies which provide goods and services in biomass, geothermal, hydropower, passive solar, photovoltaics, solar thermal, wind, wood energy, and energy efficiency technologies. US/ECRE`s mission is to catalyze export markets for renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies worldwide. Under this grant, US/ECRE has conducted a number of in-house activities, as well as to manage activities by member trade associations, affiliate organizations and non-member contractors and consultants. The purpose of this document is to report on grant coordination and effectiveness.

  6. Analytical characterization of an industrial waste treated by gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, M.D.; Larsen, D.W.; Manahan, S.E. [University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    1999-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that an effective general treatment for hazardous wastes is sorption of the waste onto a specially prepared, macroporous coal char followed by gasification of the mixture in reverse mode. In the present study, an industrial waste comprised of styrene manufacturing and petroleum byproducts was gasified, and the waste, coal, virgin char, and char/waste mixture (before and after gasification) were examined by various instrumental methods, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and ultimate and proximate analyses, to determine which methods give useful information. The composition of the waste was found to be 38% water, 27% inorganic, and 35% organic. NMR showed that the organic components are a mixture of aliphatic and olefinic/aromatics. About 8% of the sludge is chromatographable and GC/MS revealed the presence of aromatics and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Solid-state NMR showed that the sludge components are strongly immobilized on the char up to a 1:1 (wt:wt) ratio. SEM results showed changes in the char macroporous surface as waste is incorporated by the char and as the mixture is subsequently gasified. In addition, a portion of the elemental content of the char surface was revealed by energy dispersive (EDAX) measurements. IR photoaccoustic spectroscopy showed that peaks attributable to aqueous and organic fractions of the waste disappear upon gasification. 19 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Toward zero waste to landfill: an effective method for recycling zeolite waste from refinery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homchuen, K.; Anuwattana, R.; Limphitakphong, N.; Chavalparit, O.

    2017-07-01

    One-third of landfill waste of refinery plant in Thailand was spent chloride zeolite, which wastes a huge of land, cost and time for handling. Toward zero waste to landfill, this study was aimed at determining an effective method for recycling zeolite waste by comparing the chemical process with the electrochemical process. To investigate the optimum conditions of both processes, concentration of chemical solution and reaction time were carried out for the former, while the latter varied in term of current density, initial pH of water, and reaction time. The results stated that regenerating zeolite waste from refinery industry in Thailand should be done through the chemical process with alkaline solution because it provided the best chloride adsorption efficiency with cost the least. A successful recycling will be beneficial not only in reducing the amount of landfill waste but also in reducing material and disposal costs and consumption of natural resources as well.

  8. Screening of agro-industrial wastes for citric acid bioproduction by Aspergillus niger NRRL 2001 through solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Gurpreet S; Brar, Satinder K; Kaur, Surinder; Verma, Mausam

    2013-05-01

    The citric acid (CA) industry is currently struggling to develop a sustainable and economical process owing to high substrate and energy costs. Increasing interest in the replacement of costly synthetic substrates by renewable waste biomass has fostered research on agro-industrial wastes and screening of raw materials for economical CA production. The food-processing industry generates substantial quantities of waste biomass that could be used as a valuable low-cost fermentation substrate. The present study evaluated the potential of different agro-industrial wastes, namely apple pomace (AP), brewer's spent grain, citrus waste and sphagnum peat moss, as substrates for solid state CA production using Aspergillus niger NRRL 2001. Among the four substrates, AP resulted in highest CA production of 61.06 ± 1.9 g kg(-1) dry substrate (DS) after a 72 h incubation period. Based on the screening studies, AP was selected for optimisation studies through response surface methodology (RSM). Maximum CA production of 312.32 g kg(-1) DS was achieved at 75% (v/w) moisture and 3% (v/w) methanol after a 144 h incubation period. The validation of RSM-optimised parameters in plastic trays resulted in maximum CA production of 364.4 ± 4.50 g kg(-1) DS after a 120 h incubation period. The study demonstrated the potential of AP as a cheap substrate for higher CA production. This study contributes to knowledge about the future application of carbon rich agro-industrial wastes for their value addition to CA. It also offers economic and environmental benefits over traditional ways used to dispose off agro-industrial wastes. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Ellison

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn and metalloids (As and Se in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in “clean” water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se. Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions.

  10. Growth and metal bioconcentration by conspecific freshwater macroalgae cultured in industrial waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Michael B; de Nys, Rocky; Paul, Nicholas A; Roberts, David A

    2014-01-01

    The bioremediation of industrial waste water by macroalgae is a sustainable and renewable approach to the treatment of waste water produced by multiple industries. However, few studies have tested the bioremediation of complex multi-element waste streams from coal-fired power stations by live algae. This study compares the ability of three species of green freshwater macroalgae from the genus Oedogonium, isolated from different geographic regions, to grow in waste water for the bioremediation of metals. The experiments used Ash Dam water from Tarong power station in Queensland, which is contaminated by multiple metals (Al, Cd, Ni and Zn) and metalloids (As and Se) in excess of Australian water quality guidelines. All species had consistent growth rates in Ash Dam water, despite significant differences in their growth rates in "clean" water. A species isolated from the Ash Dam water itself was not better suited to the bioremediation of that waste water. While there were differences in the temporal pattern of the bioconcentration of metals by the three species, over the course of the experiment, all three species bioconcentrated the same elements preferentially and to a similar extent. All species bioconcentrated metals (Cu, Mn, Ni, Cd and Zn) more rapidly than metalloids (As, Mo and Se). Therefore, bioremediation in situ will be most rapid and complete for metals. Overall, all three species of freshwater macroalgae had the ability to grow in waste water and bioconcentrate elements, with a consistent affinity for the key metals that are regulated by Australian and international water quality guidelines. Together, these characteristics make Oedogonium a clear target for scaled bioremediation programs across a range of geographic regions.

  11. The impact of industrial waste of Venezuelan marine water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Frank [Bechtel Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Guarino, Carmen [Guarino Engineers, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Arias, Marlene [Ministerio del Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Renovables, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1993-12-31

    The Puerto Cabello-Marron coastal area of Venezuela is an ideal location for industries that require large land areas, water, marine transportation, minimum habitation, cooling water, etc. However, mercury spills have produced concern in the entire coastal zone. The area was investigated and negative impacts were identified. Consequently, recommendations for waste water management were proceeded. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Power from industrial waste waters; Energie aus Industrieabwaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vith, Christian; Fischer, Peter; Wunsch, Michael; Koeppl, Stefan [Hager und Elsaesser GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Strongly loaded industrial waste waters contain an interesting energy potential. Even if high nitrogen concentrations are present beside a high organic freight, an ideal field of deployment results for the anaerobic pre-treatment. An energy-optimized processing can consist of a combination of fermentation gas production by means of methanization and a nitrogen release by means of deammonification.

  13. Industrial Waste Reduction Program annual report, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s Industrial Waste Reduction Program (IWRP) sponsors the development, demonstration, and deployment of technologies that offer a significant opportunity to reduce waste generation, improve productivity, and enhance environmental performance in US industry. The program emphasizes technology-driven solutions that are economically beneficial and environmentally sound. Its goal is to improve the energy efficiency and competitiveness of private industry by cost-effectively reducing waste. Industry, universities, national laboratories and other government agencies are working cooperatively to meet this goal. The IWRP emphasizes the timely commercialization of new technologies that can produce measurable energy, environmental, and economic benefits. All projects are substantially cost-shared with private companies to foster the commercialization process. The program is proud to claim four successfully commercialized technologies that have begun generating benefits. The current IWRP portfolio boasts 32 projects in progress. Funding for the IWRP has grown from $1.7 million in 1990 to $13 million in 1994. New companies join the program each year, reaping the benefits of working cooperatively with government. New technologies are expected to reach commercial success in fiscal year (FY) 1994, further increasing the benefits already accrued. Future Annual Reports will also include projects from the Waste Utilization and Conversion Program. Descriptions of the program`s 32 active projects are organized in this report according these elements. Each project description provides a brief background and the major accomplishments during FY 1993.

  14. An evaluation of waste control measures in construction industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of waste control measures in construction industry in Nigeria. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... as the factor that leads to design variation with relative importance index value of 3.97; cost of construction ...

  15. Renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sectors of European Union member states: a panel data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Hélde Araujo; De Melo Faria, Alexandre Magno; Fuinhas, José Alberto; Marques, António Cardoso

    2017-06-15

    In the last two decades, there has been a rich debate about the environmental degradation that results from exposure to solid urban waste. Growing public concern with environmental issues has led to the implementation of various strategic plans for waste management in several developed countries, especially in the European Union. In this paper, the relationships were assessed between economic growth, renewable energy extraction and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the waste sector. The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis was analysed for the member states of the European Union, in the presence of electricity generation, landfill and GHG emissions for the period 1995 to 2012. The results revealed that there is no inverted-U-shaped relationship between income and GHG emissions in European Union countries. The renewable fuel extracted from waste contributes to a reduction in GHG, and although the electricity produced also increases emissions somewhat, they would be far greater if the waste-based generation of renewable energy did not take place. The waste sector needs to strengthen its political, economic, institutional and social communication instruments to meet its aims for mitigating the levels of pollutants generated by European economies. To achieve the objectives of the Horizon 2020 programme, currently in force in the countries of the European Union, it will be necessary to increase the share of renewable energy in the energy mix.

  16. Development of a Neural Network-Based Renewable Energy Forecasting Framework for Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soobin; Ryu, Jun-Hyung; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lee, In-Beum

    2016-06-25

    This paper presents a neural network-based forecasting framework for photovoltaic power (PV) generation as a decision-supporting tool to employ renewable energies in the process industry. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated by comparing its performance against other methodologies such as linear and nonlinear time series modelling approaches. A case study of an actual PV power plant in South Korea is presented.

  17. Industrial Program of Waste Management - Cigeo Project - 13033

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butez, Marc [Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra, 1-7, rue Jean Monnet 92298 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Bartagnon, Olivier; Gagner, Laurent [AREVA NC Tour AREVA 1 place de la Coupole 92084 Paris La Defense (France); Advocat, Thierry; Sacristan, Pablo [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, CEA-SACLAY 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Beguin, Stephane [Electricite de France - EDF, Division Combustible Nucleaire, 1, Place Pleyel Site Cap Ampere93282 Saint Denis (France)

    2013-07-01

    The French Planning Act of 28 June 2006 prescribed that a reversible repository in a deep geological formation be chosen as the reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. It also entrusted the responsibility of further studies and design of the repository (named Cigeo) upon the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), in order for the review of the creation-license application to start in 2015 and, subject to its approval, the commissioning of the repository to take place in 2025. Andra is responsible for siting, designing, implementing, operating the future geological repository, including operational and long term safety and waste acceptance. Nuclear operators (Electricite de France (EDF), AREVA NC, and the French Commission in charge of Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies (CEA) are technically and financially responsible for the waste they generate, with no limit in time. They provide Andra, on one hand, with waste packages related input data, and on the other hand with their long term industrial experiences of high and intermediate-level long-lived radwaste management and nuclear operation. Andra, EDF, AREVA and CEA established a cooperation agreement for strengthening their collaborations in these fields. Within this agreement Andra and the nuclear operators have defined an industrial program for waste management. This program includes the waste inventory to be taken into account for the design of the Cigeo project and the structural hypothesis underlying its phased development. It schedules the delivery of the different categories of waste and defines associated flows. (authors)

  18. Renewable energy production by photoelectrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using WO3 photoanodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Dimitrios; Dracopoulos, Vassilios; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2017-03-22

    The present work has studied renewable hydrogen production by photoelectrocatalytic degradation of model organic substances representing biomass derived organic wastes. Its purpose was to show that renewable energy can be produced by consuming wastes. The study has been carried out by employing nanoparticulate WO3 photoanodes in the presence of ethanol, glycerol or sorbitol, i.e. three substances which are among typical biomass products. In these substances, the molecular weight and the number of hydroxyl groups increases from ethanol to sorbitol. The photocurrent produced by the cell was the highest in the presence of ethanol, smaller in the case of glycerol and further decreased in the presence of sorbitol. The photocurrent was roughly the double of that produced in the absence of an organic additive thus demonstrating current doubling phenomena. Hydrogen was produced only under illumination and was monitored at two forward bias, 0.8 and 1.6V vs Ag/AgCl. Hydrogen production rates followed the same order as the photocurrent thus indicating that hydrogen production by reduction of protons mainly depends on the current flowing through the external circuit connecting photoanode with cathode. The maximum solar-to-hydrogen efficiency reached by the present system was 2.35%.

  19. Efficiency Research on Meat Industry Waste Water Treatment Applying the Method of Dissolved Air Flotation

    OpenAIRE

    Valentinas Gerasimovas; Robertas Urbanavičius

    2012-01-01

    To protect environment from industrial pollution, strict requirements for waste water treatment are imposed. The purpose of research is to establish an optimal ratio of saturated liquid and meat industry waste water. Research included JCC “Traidenis” waste water treatment system installed in JSC “BHJ Baltic”. Investigations into treated waste water indicated that an optimal ratio of waste water and saturated liquid was 2/1 under duration time of 8 minutes. Efficient waste water treatment made...

  20. Present and future of industrial wastes management. Presente y futuro de la gestion de residuos industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuez, J.F.; Puente, F.

    1993-01-01

    Review of production of industrial wastes in the main industrialized countries, treatment techniques (physical-chemical, thermal and biological) and analysis of the particular situation in Spain. (Author)

  1. Methods for recovering precious metals from industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, L.; Heput, T.; Ardelean, E.

    2016-02-01

    The accelerated rate of industrialization increases the demand for precious metals, while high quality natural resources are diminished quantitatively, with significant operating costs. Precious metals recovery can be successfully made from waste, considered to be secondary sources of raw material. In recent years, concerns and interest of researchers for more increasing efficient methods to recover these metals, taking into account the more severe environmental protection legislation. Precious metals are used in a wide range of applications, both in electronic and communications equipment, spacecraft and jet aircraft engines and for mobile phones or catalytic converters. The most commonly recovered precious metals are: gold from jewellery and electronics, silver from X- ray films and photographic emulsions, industrial applications (catalysts, batteries, glass/mirrors), jewellery; platinum group metals from catalytic converters, catalysts for the refining of crude oil, industrial catalysts, nitric acid manufacturing plant, the carbon-based catalyst, e-waste. An important aspect is the economic viability of recycling processes related to complex waste flows. Hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are the most important ways of processing electrical and electronic equipment waste. The necessity of recovering precious metals has opened new opportunities for future research.

  2. Chemical waste treatment and recovery laboratory: an alternative for industrial waste of southern Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Tavares da Costa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript consisted to obtain data, such as costs, equipments and investments necessary for the implementation of a Waste Treatment and Recovery Laboratory at UNIFAL-MG, campus II in Alfenas. In order to give support for the implementation and operation of this laboratory, in a way to guarantee a sustainable investment from the economic point of view, the EVTE was applied. This work was performed following the steps: identification and quantification of the wastes, EVTE elaboration, draft of the physical laboratory architecture and the analysis of the potential financial resources. It was verified that the implementation and management of the Chemical Waste Treatment Laboratory get to support an initial waste volume of 372 L/month and 3.5 kg/month of inorganic salts, beyond other industrial wastes from the neighborhood region. The implementation and maintenance of this laboratory are economic viable depending on the treated, recovered and recycled waste volume as well as on the provided service for the industry client. It is necessary to highlight the environmental benefits, especially due to the chemical waste disposal reduction, the academic formation opportunity and the social awareness promoted by the action of the laboratory. It can be add on the principle related to the Sustainable Logistic Plan in the Federal Public Administration.JEL-Code | Q01; QR3; L65.

  3. The management of industrial wastes in hydrology; La gestion des dechets industriels en hydrologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbaz-Seboun, V.

    1998-07-08

    The industrial wastes are made of different kind of wastes: the inert wastes, the banal wastes (municipal wastes), the special wastes containing noxious elements with respect to human health and environment, and the radioactive wastes. Each industry generates its own effluents (sludges from water treatment plants and leachates from rubbish dumps). The main water pollutions are due to the fermentescible organic matters, nitrates and heavy metals from the industrial waste waters. The aim of the public water agencies is to better protect the environment and to give help to the industrialists in the management of their wastes: reduction at the source, selective collection, valorization, transportation and processing. Non-valorizable wastes must be processed: physico-chemical and biological processing (bio-filtering, coagulation-flocculation, membranes and industrial gases), incineration (organic wastes), disposal in class 1 technical burial centres after stabilization (ultimate wastes). Since July 2002, only the ultimate wastes will be disposed off and all class 2 and 3 dumps must have been rehabilitated. This work is divided into 2 parts: part 1 gives a presentation of the different types of industrial wastes and of their management (origin of wastes, effluents, heavy metals, environmental impact, legal aspects, wastes management, valorization). The second part describes the different processes for the treatment of industrial wastes (conventional processes, physico-chemical and biological processes, incineration, tipping, processing of radioactive wastes). (J.S.)

  4. Determination of renewable energy yield from mixed waste material from the use of novel image analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagland, S T; Dudley, R; Naftaly, M; Longhurst, P J

    2013-11-01

    Two novel techniques are presented in this study which together aim to provide a system able to determine the renewable energy potential of mixed waste materials. An image analysis tool was applied to two waste samples prepared using known quantities of source-segregated recyclable materials. The technique was used to determine the composition of the wastes, where through the use of waste component properties the biogenic content of the samples was calculated. The percentage renewable energy determined by image analysis for each sample was accurate to within 5% of the actual values calculated. Microwave-based multiple-point imaging (AutoHarvest) was used to demonstrate the ability of such a technique to determine the moisture content of mixed samples. This proof-of-concept experiment was shown to produce moisture measurement accurate to within 10%. Overall, the image analysis tool was able to determine the renewable energy potential of the mixed samples, and the AutoHarvest should enable the net calorific value calculations through the provision of moisture content measurements. The proposed system is suitable for combustion facilities, and enables the operator to understand the renewable energy potential of the waste prior to combustion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Large-scale renewal of electric facility for industrial waterworks; Kogyo yosui denki setsubi no daikibo renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-29

    The receiving/transformation, power and supervisory control facilities were renewed for Tomo industrial waterworks of Bureau of Public Utilities, Gunma Prefecture. (1) The receiving/transformation facility adopts 6kV 2-circuit power receiving and 2-circuit power supply to every facility for easy maintenance and stable power supply. (2) The power facility adopts PWM converter type inverters for water supply pumps as harmonics control measures, and a CC300M control center (including IPMAT-L) for power circuit to reduce relays as much as possible. The instrumentation facility adopts alarm setting by CRT supervisory control equipment to eliminate various troublesome changes of setting. (3) The supervisory control facility adopts the EIC integrated system composed of an operator station micronet-OPS8000 and a process control station UNISEQUE ADC4000. Like the power supply system, the 2-circuit system is adopted for I/O of common information to prevent various risks. Switching of automatic control modes and setting of various parameters are easily possible systematically on CRT screens. (translated by NEDO)

  6. Biomass fuel based on wastes from the paper industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzyń Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastes from paper industry are mostly combustible. It is possible to recycle them with energy recovery. These wastes have a high moisture content (up to 60% and thus a small calorific value. An alternative to waste incineration is the production of solid recovered fuel. The benefits are: easy adjustment of the physical and chemical properties of the fuel (via the change of proportions of ingredients, low moisture and high calorific value. The study involved the following types of cellulose wastes: - Belmer - the rejects from recovered paper, Krofta - deinking sludge, sludge - wastewater treatment sludge, bark - the rejects from virgin pulps. The results of investigations of waste produced in one of the biggest Polish paper mill - are shown. Following aspects were investigated: energy properties, content of carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, chlorine and nitrogen, chemical composition of ash. Authors proposed two formulas of the biomass fuel. The properties of the fuel such as the content of carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, chlorine or nitrogen, the chemical composition of the ash were investigated. Due to the fact that the combustion of the biomass fuel is preferred in view of law regulations (zero CO2 emission, green certificates the content of biodegradable fraction was examined. It has been shown that the fuel is a biomass one. Fuel from waste can be a substitute for approx. 25% of primary fuel (coal used by the paper mill.

  7. Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1993-12-31

    With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

  8. 2014 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2013 through October 31, 2014. The report contains the following information; Facility and system description; Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; Groundwater monitoring data; Status of special compliance conditions; Noncompliance issues; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2014 reporting year, an estimated 10.11 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  9. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  10. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  11. 2010 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Frederick

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from May 1, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2010 partial reporting year, an estimated 3.646 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  12. 2012 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2011 through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2012 reporting year, an estimated 11.84 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  13. 2011 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Frederick

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000160-01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Facility and system description; (2) Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates; (3) Groundwater monitoring data; (4) Status of special compliance conditions; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 reporting year, an estimated 6.99 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 13 million gallons per year. Using the dissolved iron data, the concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the Ground Water Quality Rule Primary and Secondary Constituent Standards.

  14. Renewable Energy Sources in the Function of Sustainable Business in Tourism and Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljerka Cerović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trends on the international tourist market are recording numerous changes almost on a daily basis, regarding the development of ecological tourist offer. Modern tourists are becoming more and more aware of the necessity of applying the principles of sustainable development in everyday life, so the same preferences are being expressed during their stay in their chosen tourist destination. The management of ecologically oriented tourist destination must pay special attention to the use of renewable energy sources, and in its micro-environment encourage an approach to business according to modern ecological standards. The implementation of renewable energy sources in tourism and hospitality industry aims at ensuring the improvement of business, profiling of an ecologically responsible tourist destination, repositioning of the current tourist offer on the international tourist market and achieving competitive advantages and conquest of a specific tourist segment of ecologically-oriented consumers. The aim of the research is to point out the advantages which sustainable development and application of renewable energy sources has on business development in tourism and hospitality industry, with a goal of improving competitive advantages and positive effect on the environment

  15. Enhancement of insulating properties of brick clay by renewable agricultural wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor Bánhidi

    2008-01-01

    The use of agricultural wastes (byproducts) in various segments of brick and tile industry is increasing continuously. These additives, which are previously mixed into the raw or compound clay, start to ignite during the firing process, providing extra thermal energy inside the product and decreasing the required external energy need. Besides this effect, the combustion of additives increases the porosity of the final product resulting in enhanced thermal insulation properties. In this paper ...

  16. Management of food industry waste employing vermicomposting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, V K; Suthar, S; Yadav, Anoop

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports the vermicomposting of food industry sludges (FIS) mixed with different organic wastes employing Eisenia fetida. A total of 10 vermicomposting units containing different wastes combinations were established. After 15 weeks significant increase in total nitrogen (N(total)) (60-214%), total available phosphorous (P(avail)) (35.8-69.6%), total sodium (Na(total)) (39-95%), and total potassium (K(total)) (43.7-74.1%), while decrease in pH (8.45-19.7%), total organic carbon (OC(total)) (28.4-36.1%) and C:N ratio (61.2-77.8%) was recorded. The results indicated that FIS may be converted into good quality manure by vermicomposting if spiked with other organic wastes in appropriate quantities.

  17. Investigation of Dielectric Properties of Industrial Waste Reinforced Particulate Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kumar Nimmagadda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental awareness today motivates the worldwide researchers on the studies of industrial waste reinforced polymer composites. Rapid industrialization has resulted in the generation of huge quantity of solid and liquid wastes such as sugar, paper and pulp, fruit and food processing, distilleries, dairies, and poultries. The redundancy of industrial waste and government regulations have prompted researchers to try for industrial waste reinforced composites. Being low cost, ease of manufacturing, and high mechanical and other properties, an industrial waste represents a good alternative to the most common composites. In the present study, industrial wastes collected from different industries are used as particulate reinforcement in unsaturated polyester matrix and also in polypropylene and investigated dielectric properties. Results reveal that coupling agent treated composites produce improved dielectric strength due to improvement in compatibility between matrix and reinforcement interface. Results also reveal that industrial waste reinforced in polypropylene has more dielectric strength as compared to reinforcement in polyester.

  18. Compatibilized blends and value added products from leather industry waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartore, Luciana; Di Landro, Luca

    2014-05-01

    Blends based on poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and hydrolyzed proteins (IP), derived from waste products of the leather industry, have been obtained by reactive blending and their chemical physical properties as well as mechanical and rheological behavior were evaluated. The effect of vinyl acetate content and of transesterification agent addition to increase interaction between polymer and bio-based components were considered. These blends represent a new type of biodegradable material and resulted promising for industrial application in several fields such as packaging and agriculture as transplanting or mulching films with additional fertilizing action of IP.

  19. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  20. Preparation of clinker from paper pulp industry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruberri, Leire H; Seabra, M P; Labrincha, J A

    2015-04-01

    The production of paper pulp by the Kraft method generates considerable amounts of wastes. Namely, lime mud generated in the recovery circuit of chemical reagents, biological sludge from the wastewater treatment of wood digestion process and fly ash collected in the fluidized bed combustor used to generate electricity from biomass burning. The final destination of such wastes is an important concern, since environmental regulations are becoming stricter regarding their landfill. Driven by this fact, industries are looking for more sustainable solutions, such as the recycling in distinct products. This work tested these wastes as secondary raw materials to produce clinker/cement that was then experienced in mortar formulations. The first step involved the residues detailed characterization and a generated amounts survey. Then, specific but simple steps were suggested, aiming to facilitate transport and manipulation. Distinct blends were prepared and fired in order to get belitic and Portland clinkers. The Portland clinkers were processed at lower temperatures than the normally used in the industry due to the presence of mineralizing impurities in some wastes. Belite-based cements were used to produce mortars that developed satisfactory mechanical strength and did not reveal signs of deterioration or durability weaknesses.

  1. Cogeneration from poultry industry wastes: Indirectly fired gas turbine application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, M. [University of Bologna, DIEM, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Cherubini, F. [University of Bologna, DIEM, 40136 Bologna (Italy); De Pascale, A. [University of Bologna, DIEM, 40136 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: andrea.depascale@mail.ing.unibo.it; Peretto, A. [University of Bologna, DIEM, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Elmegaard, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2006-08-15

    The availability of wet biomass as waste from a lot of industrial processes, from agriculture and farms and the need to meet the environmental standards force to investigate all options in order to dispose this waste. The possible treatments usually strongly depend on biomass characteristics, namely water content, density, organic content, heating value, etc. In particular, some of these wastes can be burnt in special plants, using them as energy supply for different processes. The study carried out with this paper is concerned with the promising utilization of the organic wastes from an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant, which can consist of an indirectly fired gas turbine. Moreover, a steam turbine plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences in terms of energy savings/production and of return of the investments.

  2. Supercritical Extraction of Lycopene from Tomato Industrial Wastes with Ethane

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Rui L.; Cristino, Ana F.; Nobre, Beatriz P.; Luisa Gouveia; António F. Palavra; Patricia G. S. Matos

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of all-E-lycopene from tomato industrial wastes (mixture of skins and seeds) was carried out in a semi-continuous flow apparatus using ethane as supercritical solvent. The effect of pressure, temperature, feed particle size, solvent superficial velocity and matrix initial composition was evaluated. Moreover, the yield of the extraction was compared with that obtained with other supercritical solvents (supercritical CO2...

  3. Supercritical Extraction of Lycopene from Tomato Industrial Waste with Ethane

    OpenAIRE

    Nobre, Beatriz P.; Gouveia, L.; Patricia G. S. Matos; Cristino, Ana F.; António F. Palavra; Mendes, Rui L.

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of all-E-lycopene from tomato industrial wastes (mixture of skins and seeds) was carried out in a semi-continuous flow apparatus using ethane as supercritical solvent. The effect of pressure, temperature, feed particle size, solvent superficial velocity and matrix initial composition was evaluated. Moreover, the yield of the extraction was compared with that obtained with other supercritical solvents (supercritical CO2 and a near critical mixture of ethane and p...

  4. Hot particles in industrial waste and mining tailings

    CERN Document Server

    Selchau-Hansen, K; Freyer, K; Treutler, C; Enge, W

    1999-01-01

    Industrial waste was studied concerning its radioactive pollution. Using known properties of the solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 we found among a high concentration of more or less homogeneously distributed single alpha-tracks discrete spots of very high enrichments of alpha-particles created by so called hot particles. We will report about the alpha-activity, the concentration of hot particles and about their ability to be air borne.

  5. Economic growth, combustible renewables and waste consumption, and CO₂ emissions in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2015-10-01

    This paper uses panel cointegration techniques and Granger causality tests to examine the dynamic causal link between per capita real gross domestic product (GDP), combustible renewables and waste (CRW) consumption, and CO2 emissions for a panel of five North African countries during the period 1971-2008. Granger causality test results suggest short- and long-run unidirectional causalities running from CO2 emissions and CRW consumption to real GDP and a short-run unidirectional causality running from CRW to CO2 emissions. The results from panel long-run fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) and dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) estimates show that CO2 emissions and CRW consumption have a positive and statistically significant impact on GDP. Our policy recommendations are that these countries should use more CRW because this increases their output, reduces their energy dependency on fossil energy, and may decrease their CO2 emissions.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF WASTE TREATMENT AND ENERGY RECOVERY FROM DAIRY INDUSTRIAL WASTE BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Kothari, Virendra Kumar, and Vineet Veer Tyagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste treatment with simultaneous energy generation was studied in anaerobic digester using dairy industry waste (sludge, influent as substrate. No pretreatment or solid liquid separation was applied. Batch fermentation experiments were performed with three different substrates at organic pollution load (OPL under mesophilic range of temperature (30_+C. Experimental data evidence the effectiveness of waste on both the removal efficiency in terms of substrate degradation and biogas yield, particularly at higher loading rates. Among the three substrates evaluated, alternative substrates showed comparatively effective performance in comparison to conventional one. However, COD removal efficiency was also found to be effective in operated environment. The described process provides the dual benefit of waste treatment with simultaneous green energy generation in the form of biogas utilizing it as substrate.

  7. Protein recovery from dairy industry wastes with aerobic biofiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheatley, A.D.; Mitra, R.I.; Hawkes, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to improve the economics of effluent treatment by the recovery of single cell protein. Field observations showed that acidic strong wastes, such as those from the dairy industry, produced a predominantly fungal biomass. Mixtures of dairy waste and domestic sewage did not produce fungal films. The most common fungi isolated were Fusarium and Geotrichum, but the species was affected by local conditions, i.e. creamery, yoghurt, milk or cheese wastes and the load to the plant. Batch culture was used to determine the growth requirements of Fusarium and Geotrichum and continuous culture, on vertical and horizontal fixed films, to determine growth and sloughing at different organic loads. The fungi grew well on acidic strong wastes which would discourage other organisms. A 1 cubic metre/hour pilot plant was built to treat the wastes from cheese, butter and cream production. The plant was run at pH 4-5 and at between 5 and 10 kg of BOD/day/cubic metres. BOD removal was between 30 and 50% and biomass production between 0.1 and 0.5 kg of dry solids/day. The filamentous fungal growth was separated from the tower effluent by an inclined screen. The amino acid content of the product was similar to other single-cell protein. Feeding trials are being carried out. (Refs. 14).

  8. DISPOSAL OF AGRO-INDUSTRIALS WASTES AS SOIL AMENDMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mekki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the fertilizing potential of three agro-industrial wastes (Compost (C, Dehydrated Manures (DM and Digestate (D on soil properties, on seeds germination and the plants growth. Results showed that the addition of wastes modified several soil properties as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Water Retention Capacity (WRC and Soil Organic Matter (SOM. Hence, SOM increase from 1.5% in unamended soil to 2, 2.3 and to 3.1% in soils amended with (D, with (DM and with (C respectively. A fast SOM biodegradation was illustrated in presence of compost where we noted a decrease of 20% of initial organic matter content. Besides, wastes improve strongly microbial and respirometric soil activities mainly in presence of DM and D. These same wastes stimulate seeds germination of two standard plants species (Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum and Alfalfa (Medicago sativa. The growth levels of three cultivated plants species (Wheat (Triticum durum, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and Alfalfa (Medicago sativa were enhanced in presence of wastes than those irrigated with water.

  9. Toward Sustainability in Concrete Industry by Using Of Solid Wastes from Palm Oil Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pordesari Alireza Javadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the most important construction materials is concrete. By the advances of the industries in the urban areas, concrete is considered as one of the highest demands. As a result, the large amount of unprocessed materials is needed for making concrete. In the meantime, the agricultural wastes and solid material disposal are giving serious damages to the environment. As a result, by employing the agricultural wastes as a cementitious material, the undesirable impacts of the concrete industry to the environment will be dramatically decreased. That’s because the source of these newly developed concretes is both reliable and environmental friendly. In this study, the utilization of agricultural wastes as a complementary cementitious material for producing the concrete is explained. In addition, it discusses the possibility of deploying the agricultural wastes by considering their engineering, physical and chemical properties. In addition, the successful use of agricultural wastes from oil palm industry such as oil palm shell, palm oil fuel ash and palm oil fibre in the concrete mixture was reported.

  10. Determinants of merger and acquisition activity in the renewable energy industry in the United States of America

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    For the past few decades, the renewable energy industry has grown and expanded its influence and competitiveness in global markets. This thesis analysis whether certain factors related to the energy industry are conducive to mergers and acquisitions. Using regression analysis, it concludes that solar industry growth, power industry growth, and crude oil prices have no impact on M&A activity on the given timeframe.

  11. Waste effectiveness of the construction industry: Understanding the impediments and requisites for improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi, SO; Oyedele, LO; Bilal, M; Akinade, OO; Alaka, HA; Owolabi, HA; Kadiri, KO

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Construction industry contributes a large portion of waste to landfill, which in turns results in environmental pollution and CO2 emission. Despite the adoption of several waste management strategies, waste reduction to landfill continues seeming an insurmountable challenge. This paper explores factors impeding the effectiveness of existing waste management strategies, as well as strategies for reducing waste intensiveness of the construction industry....

  12. Waste and innovation. How waste companies and government can interact to stimulate innovation in the Dutch waste industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bree, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis answers the question how government and Dutch waste companies can interact in such a way that innovation is stimulated. The author has developed a method to determine the potential for self-regulation and self-control of a company or an industry. This method is based upon the measurement

  13. Enablers towards establishing and growing South Africa's waste to electricity industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsterdam, Heinrich; Thopil, George Alex

    2017-10-01

    In South Africa the electricity generation mix is relatively un-diverse whereas globally the transformation of the sector is advancing rapidly. Coal remains the predominant fuel source and limited success has to date been achieved in the renewable energy sector. The electricity generation sector is therefore hindered from moving towards an electricity generation landscape where alternative fuel sources is utilised. This research is aimed at gaining insight into the enablers that led towards an increasing trend (observed globally) in exploiting waste as a fuel for electricity generation, and to outline the presence of obstacles that hinder separation of waste for electricity use in the South African context. Furthermore it is an attempt at informing what appropriate interventions (operational and policy) may be considered suitable for South Africa to overcome these barriers in order to enable a sustainable South African waste to electricity (WTE) Industry. Findings show that numerous barriers to a WTE exists in the South African context, however overcoming these barriers is not as simple as adopting the European model with the aim to modify the electricity generation mix and waste management landscape. Selected enablers deemed appropriate in the South African context are adapted from the European model, and are greatly influenced by the prevailing socio-economic status of South Africa. Primary enablers identified were, (i) government support is needed especially in the form of subsidisation for green energy, (ii) increase landfill costs through the implementation of a landfill tax, (iii) streamline the process for Independent Private Power Producers (IPPPs) to connect to the national grid with off-take guaranteed and the inclusion of WTE into an electricity roadmap (effectively government's strategy). The proposed enabling interventions would help in overcoming the barriers for a South African WTE industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of waste materials, non-refined materials, and renewable energy in in situ remediation and their sustainability benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favara, Paul; Gamlin, Jeff

    2017-04-05

    In the ramp-up to integrating sustainability into remediation, a key industry focus area has been to reduce the environmental footprint of treatment processes. The typical approach to integrating sustainability into remediation projects has been a top-down approach, which involves developing technology options and then applying sustainability thinking to the technology, after it has been conceptualized. A bottom-up approach allows for systems thinking to be included in remedy selection and could potentially result in new or different technologies being considered. When using a bottom-up approach, there is room to consider the utilization of waste materials, non-refined materials, and renewable energy in remediation technology-all of which generally have a smaller footprint than processed materials and traditional forms of energy. By integrating more systems thinking into remediation projects, practitioners can think beyond the traditional technologies typically used and how technologies are deployed. To compare top-down and bottom-up thinking, a traditional technology that is considered very sustainable-enhanced in situ bioremediation-is compared to a successful, but infrequently deployed technology-subgrade biogeochemical reactors. Life Cycle Assessment is used for the evaluation and shows the footprint of the subgrade biogeochemical reactor to be lower in all seven impact categories evaluated, sometimes to a significant degree. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A comprehensive review on pre-treatment strategy for lignocellulosic food industry waste: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Rajeev; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulose is a generic term used to describe plant biomass. It is the most abundant renewable carbon resource in the world and is mainly composed of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. Most of the food and food processing industry waste are lignocellulosic in nature with a global estimate of up to 1.3 billion tons/year. Lignocellulose, on hydrolysis, releases reducing sugars which is used for the production of bioethanol, biogas, organic acids, enzymes and biosorbents. However, structural conformation, high lignin content and crystalline cellulose hinder its use for value addition. Pre-treatment strategies facilitate the exposure of more cellulose and hemicelluloses for enzymatic hydrolysis. The present article confers about the structure of lignocellulose and how it influences enzymatic degradation emphasising the need for pre-treatments along with a comprehensive analysis and categorisation of the same. Finally, this article concludes with a detailed discussion on microbial/enzymatic inhibitors that arise post pre-treatment and strategies to eliminate them.

  16. Evaluation of Practicing sustainable Industrial Solid Waste Minimization by Manufacturing Firms in Malaysia: Strengths and Weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Shadi Kafi; Bakri Ishak, Mohd; Mohamed, Ahmad Fariz

    2016-09-13

    Malaysia is facing an increasing trend in industrial solid waste generation due to industrial development.Thus there is a paramount need in taking a serious action to move toward sustainable industrial waste management. The main aim of this study is to assess practicing solid waste minimization by manufacturing firms in Shah Alam industrial state, Malaysia. This paper presents a series of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis regarding the level and effects of practicing waste minimization methods, and seriousness of barriers preventing industries from practicing waste minimization methods. For this purpose the survey questions were designed such that both quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (semi-structures interview) data were collected concurrently. Analysis showed that, the majority of firms (92%) dispose their wastes rather than practice other sustainable waste management options. Also waste minimization methods such as segregation of wastes, on-site recycle and reuse, improve housekeeping and equipment modification were found to have significant contribution in waste reduction (pmanufacturing firms as the main aim of this research. Implications This manuscript critically analysis waste minimization practices by manufacturing firms in Malaysia. Both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis were conducted to formulate SWOT and TOWS matrix in order to recommend policies and strategies for improvement of solid waste minimization by manufacturing industries. The results contribute to the knowledge and the findings of this study provide a useful baseline information and data on industrial solid waste generation and waste minimization practice.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES USING CROP PLANT ASSAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Alice Teacă

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution has a harmful action on bioresources, including agricultural crops. It is generated through many industrial activities such as mining, coal burning, chemical technology, cement production, pulp and paper industry, etc. The toxicity of different industrial wastes and heavy metals excess was evaluated using crop plant assays (germination and hydroponics seedlings growth tests. Experimental data regarding the germination process of wheat (from two cultivars and rye seeds in the presence of industrial wastes (thermal power station ash, effluents from a pre-bleaching stage performed on a Kraft cellulose – chlorinated lignin products or chlorolignin, along with use of an excess of some heavy metals (Zn and Cu are presented here. Relative seed germination, relative root elongation, and germination index (a factor of relative seed germination and relative root elongation were determined. Relative root elongation and germination index were more sensitive indicators of toxicity than seed germination. The toxic effects were also evaluated in hydroponics experiments, the sensitivity of three crop plant species, namely Triticum aestivum L. (wheat, Secale cereale (rye, and Zea mays (corn being compared. Physiological aspects, evidenced both by visual observation and biometric measurements (mean root, aerial part and plant length, as well as the cellulose and lignin content were examined.

  18. A survey of economic indices of plastic wastes recycling industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Hassanpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous small recycling units of plastic wastes have been currently constructed heedless to study of economic indices in Iran. Pay attention to the prominent performance of the industrial sector for economic development and its priority for fortifying other sectors to implement job opportunities, survey of the economic indices beckon the stakeholders and industries owners. The main objective of this study was a survey of economic indices in small recycling unit of plastic wastes. Therefore, the practice of computing the economic indices was performed using empirical equations, professional experiences and observations in site of the industry in terms of sustainability performance. Current study had shown the indices values such as value-added percent, profit, annual income, breakeven point, value-added, output value, data value, variable cost of good unit and production costs were found 62%, $ 366558, $ 364292.6, $ 100.34, $ 423451.25, $ 255335.75, $ 678787, $ 389.65 and $ 314494.4 respectively. The breakeven point about 15.93%, the time of return on investment about 1.12 (13.7 months were represented that this industry slightly needs long time to afford the employed capital and starts making a profit.

  19. The use of commercial and industrial waste in energy recovery systems - A UK preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupa, Christopher J; Ricketts, Lois J; Sweetman, Andy; Herbert, Ben M J

    2011-08-01

    With 2020 energy targets set out by the EU fast approaching, the UK is trying to source a higher proportion of its energy from renewable resources. Coupled with this, a growing population and increasing trends in consumer demand have resulted in national waste loads increasing. A possible solution to both issues is energy-from-waste (EfW) technologies. Many studies have focused on municipal solid waste (MSW) as a potential feedstock, but appear to overlook the potential benefits of commercial and industrial waste (C&IW). In this study, samples of C&IW were collected from three North West waste management companies and Lancaster University campus. The samples were tested for their gross and net calorific value, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, and also elemental composition to determine their suitability in EfW systems. Intra-sample analysis showed there to be little variation between samples with the exception two samples, from waste management site 3, which showed extensive variation with regards to net calorific value, ash content, and elemental analysis. Comparisons with known fuel types revealed similarities between the sampled C&IW, MSW, and refuse derived fuel (RDF) thereby justifying its potential for use in EfW systems. Mean net calorific value (NCV) was calculated as 9.47MJ/kg and concentrations of sulphur, nitrogen, and chlorine were found to be below 2%. Potential electrical output was calculated using the NCV of the sampled C&IW coupled with four differing energy generation technologies. Using a conventional incinerator with steam cycle, total electrical output was calculated as 24.9GWh, based on a plant operating at 100,000tpa. This value rose to 27.0GWh when using an integrated gasification combined cycle. A final aspect of this study was to deduce the potential total national electrical output if all suitable C&IW were to be used in EfW systems. Using incineration coupled with a steam turbine, this was determined to be 6TWh, 1.9% of

  20. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Sen, R.K. [Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  1. Assessment of pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.K.; Fassbender, L.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Sen, R.K. (Sen (R.K.) and Associates, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the first phase of a study undertaken to define a role for the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Division of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) in developing waste minimization technologies for the industrial sector. The report describes the results of an industrial waste characterization based mainly on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 1989 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database. IN addition, it contains the results of interviews with personnel from trade associations, environmental advocacy groups, federal agencies, and industrial firms regarding pre-competitive research and development needs for industrial waste minimization. Recommendations for future AIC waste minimization activities are provided.

  2. Ecotoxicity of waste water from industrial fires fighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobes, P.; Danihelka, P.; Janickova, S.; Marek, J.; Bernatikova, S.; Suchankova, J.; Baudisova, B.; Sikorova, L.; Soldan, P.

    2012-04-01

    As shown at several case studies, waste waters from extinguishing of industrial fires involving hazardous chemicals could be serious threat primary for surrounding environmental compartments (e.g. surface water, underground water, soil) and secondary for human beings, animals and plants. The negative impacts of the fire waters on the environment attracted public attention since the chemical accident in the Sandoz (Schweizerhalle) in November 1986 and this process continues. Last October, special Seminary on this topic has been organized by UNECE in Bonn. Mode of interaction of fire waters with the environment and potential transport mechanisms are still discussed. However, in many cases waste water polluted by extinguishing foam (always with high COD values), flammable or toxic dangerous substances as heavy metals, pesticides or POPs, are released to surface water or soil without proper decontamination, which can lead to environmental accident. For better understanding of this type of hazard and better coordination of firemen brigades and other responders, the ecotoxicity of such type of waste water should be evaluated in both laboratory tests and in water samples collected during real cases of industrial fires. Case studies, theoretical analysis of problem and toxicity tests on laboratory model samples (e.g. on bacteria, mustard seeds, daphnia and fishes) will provide additional necessary information. Preliminary analysis of waters from industrial fires (polymer material storage and galvanic plating facility) in the Czech Republic has already confirmed high toxicity. In first case the toxicity may be attributed to decomposition of burned material and extinguishing foams, in the latter case it can be related to cyanides in original electroplating baths. On the beginning of the year 2012, two years R&D project focused on reduction of extinguish waste water risk for the environment, was approved by Technology Agency of the Czech Republic.

  3. Problems of placement of industrial wastes in landfills in the industrial city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEPANOV Evgeniy Georgievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the anthropogenic transformation of the environment increases when production wastes and consumption are placed in landfills. Hygienic condition of the areas with high population density and developed industry is determined by the increased amount of household and industrial waste, mainly deposited in the numerous landfills. This situation is studied on the example of landfills used for industrial wastes produced by the enterprises JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat», JSC «Salavatsteklo», located in the city of Salavat of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The sources of industrial pollution in Salavat have been analyzed. One should note that the city-forming enterprise is the JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat» which share of the total amount of wastes generated in the city per year is 80%. Another company which contributes significantly to this process is the JSC «Salavatsteklo». To study the possible migration of contaminants to the aquifer an observation well has been made at the landfill site. The research of the water obtained from the observation well at the polygon identified maximum allowable concentrations for chemical oxygen demand (COD, phenol and oil products. The groundwater occurrence modes have been studied. The migration of the chemicals contained in the body of the landfill, to groundwater, has been revealed. That leads to contamination of surface water. Laboratory studies of water objects in the zone of influence of industrial waste landfill in Romodanovskomu career have been performed. It was determined that excess of maximum permissible concentration of benzene, and the presence of toluene, lead, phenol indicates the pollution of groundwater by substances stored in landfills Romanovskogo career, both by infiltration and subsequent migration to groundwater of adjacent aquifers and through surface runoff and infiltration from snowmelt and rainwater.

  4. Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T.E. [Pacific Energy Group, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

  5. Waste survey - landfill disposability of furniture industrial wastes from varnishing processes; Huonekaluteollisuuden maalaamokaappijaetteiden kaatopaikkakelpoisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaajasaari, K.; Kulovaara, M.; Joutti, A.; Schulz, E. [Pirkanmaan Ympaeristoekeskus, Tampere (Finland)

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to screen the environmental hazard of eight different furniture industrial wastes in context of their landfill disposal. These wastes are resulting from the varnishing process of furniture manufacture. Four of these materials were collected from a dry varnishing processes and the other four residues from a wet varnishing processes. We wanted to classify these industrial wastes according to their leaching and ecotoxicological properties to evaluate if these kind of materials could be disposed off to a non-hazardous landfill. Leaching properties of residues were determined with European standard draft prEN 12457-2 method. The toxicity measurement of the leaching tests eluates from furniture industrial residues was carried out with a plant (the onion Allium cepa root elongation test), bacteria (the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri assay) and enzyme inhibition (the reverse electron transport, RET, assay). Chemical concentrations of TOC, formaldehyde and solvents in solid wastes and their leaching test eluates were measured simultaneously. The results showed that dry residues contained high amount of formaldehyde which will leach out from the wastes a long time period if wastes are in contact with water at landfill conditions. Furthermore, the water leachable substances in dry residues resulted very high acute toxicity. Toxicity test results confirmed the conclusions drawn from the chemical data as well in wet residues. Two of the wet residues with the highest solvent concentrations were clearly toxic, while the other two wet residues had the smallest concentrations of the harmful substances and only slight acute toxicity. The biggest problems in context of landfill disposability are connected to a high liquid content of wet residues (over 70 %). (orig.)

  6. Mutagenic potential of fine wastes from dimension stone industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Luara Louzada; Tonon, Camila Bruschi; Nunes, Erika Takagi; Braga, Adriane Cristina Araújo; Neves, Mirna Aparecida; de Oliveira David, José Augusto

    2016-03-01

    The industrial treatment of dimension stones, such as marbles and granites, includes a stage of plate polishing, in which resins and abrasives are used, producing a fine grained waste with high moisture content. These wastes pass through decantation tanks in order to separate the solid and liquid phases. Until now, there is no knowledge about the mutagenic effects that this effluent can cause to organisms exposed to it. Thus, this study evaluated the mutagenic potential of dimension stone polishing wastes in onion root cells and fish erythrocytes. The onion seeds were germinated in Petri dishes with filter paper moistened in the liquid phase of the effluent. After germination, the onion roots were prepared for analysis of chromosomal aberrations in meristematic cells. The fishes were exposed during 72h to the solid phase of the effluent diluted in pure groundwater. Blood samples were used for counting of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities. The onion seeds had similar germination and mitotic index in all treatments. However, it was observed in the seeds exposed to the polishing waste, numbers significantly higher of micronucleus, nuclear buds and other chromosomal aberrations when compared with the negative control. The fishes exposed to the waste showed numbers significantly higher of micronucleus when compared with the negative control. The fishes from all treatments showed significant increase in nuclear abnormalities when compared to the negative control. We concluded that the analysed wastes have mutagenic potential at the studied conditions; this effect can be related to the high content of phenolic compounds identified in the samples.

  7. A proposed framework of food waste collection and recycling for renewable biogas fuel production in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Kok Sin; Lo, Irene M C

    2016-01-01

    Hong Kong is experiencing a pressing need for food waste management. Currently, approximately 3600 tonnes of food waste are disposed of at landfills in Hong Kong daily. The landfills in Hong Kong are expected to be exhausted by 2020. In the long run, unavoidable food waste should be sorted out from the other municipal solid waste (MSW) and then valorized into valuable resources. A simple sorting process involving less behavioural change of residents is, therefore, of paramount importance in order to encourage residents to sort the food waste from other MSW. In this paper, a sustainable framework of food waste collection and recycling for renewable biogas fuel production is proposed. For an efficient separation and collection system, an optic bag (i.e. green bag) can be used to pack the food waste, while the residual MSW can be packed in a common plastic bag. All the wastes are then sent to the refuse transfer stations in the conventional way (i.e. refuse collection vehicles). At the refuse transfer stations, the food waste is separated from the residual MSW using optic sensors which recognize the colours of the bags. The food waste in the optic bags is then delivered to the proposed Organic Waste Treatment Facilities, in which biogas is generated following the anaerobic digestion technology. The biogas can be further upgraded via gas upgrading units to a quality suitable for use as a vehicle biogas fuel. The use of biogas fuel from food waste has been widely practiced by some countries such as Sweden, France, and Norway. Hopefully, the proposed framework can provide the epitome of the waste-to-wealth concept for the sustainable collection and recycling of food waste in Hong Kong.

  8. Industrial wastes guide for Alsace; Guide des dechets de l`entreprise Alsace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This guide is aimed for industrial plant managers and gives comprehensive information on industrial waste management: effects of wastes on the environment (water, air, soil), waste processing limitations in Alsace, new regulations, taxes and incentives concerning waste processing in France, and references of national and regional (Alsace) administration and industrial agencies that are related with pollution abatement and control and waste management. The different types of wastes are reviewed, from papers to toxic solvents, with information given on volumes, processes, operators, processing equipment and equipment distributors

  9. Fostering a Renewable Energy Technology Industry: An InternationalComparison of Wind Industry Policy Support Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Joanna; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-11-15

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in twelve countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which in turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry.

  10. Fostering a Renewable Energy Technology Industry: An InternationalComparison of Wind Industry Policy Support Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Joanna; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-11-15

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in twelve countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which in turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry.

  11. Renewal strategies for old industrial areas in the post-industrial age——Take "Zurich-West" in Switzerland as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong; ZHANG SiWei

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyses the renewal planning of "Zurich-West", an old industrial area. It points out that systematic and comprehensive target orientation, extensive collaboration in argumen-tation and decision-making, and the design ideas of coexistence and integration are the key to its success. Considering the status quo of China's old industrial district remodeling, the paper offers some suggestions.

  12. Renewable energy annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as data on US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, ethanol, and biodiesel); municipal solid waste; geothermal; wind; and solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic). The first chapter of the report provides an overview of renewable energy use and capability from 1992 through 1996. It contains renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as descriptive text. Chapter 2 presents current (through 1996) information on the US solar energy industry. A glossary of renewable energy terms is also included. 15 figs., 42 tabs.

  13. An industrial ecology approach to municipal solid waste management: I. Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be viewed as a feedstock for industrial ecology inspired conversions of wastes to valuable products and energy. The industrial ecology principle of symbiotic processes using waste streams for creating value-added products is applied to MSW, with e...

  14. An industrial ecology approach to municipal solid waste management: I. Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) can be viewed as a feedstock for industrial ecology inspired conversions of wastes to valuable products and energy. The industrial ecology principle of symbiotic processes using waste streams for creating value-added products is applied to MSW, with e...

  15. Optimum Resource Allocation and Eliminating Waste Inside Food Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandru Nagarajan Sathiyabama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to allocate optimum resources for wrapping section and suggesting a suitable method that need to be in place for successful elimination of waste inside the food industry wrapping section. It also includes identifying the main reasons for various types of wastages inside wrapping section and cost of all the wastages. The paper is based on the observation and research using the approach of lean tools and techniques. The methodology used for evaluating data is value stream mapping and some statistical SPSS tools for analysis. Data’s are real and are gathered from three different production shifts inside a food industry wrapping section. The main reasons for wastages inside the wrapping section are highlighted. Finally, the paper was concluded by estimating total cost of wastages and recommended suitable way to save the wastage costs. The need of change of jaws inside the wrapping machines, regular maintenance of all machines throughout the industry and training the personnel are recommended. The possible methods along with its benefits to reduce waste, operators, improve productivity and business growth was also highlighted.

  16. Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: A survey of recent literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Samar, P.; Cox, H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in industrialized countries currently process wastewater sludge in large digesters. Codigestion of organic wastes with municipal wastewater sludge can...... wastewater sludge, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, and cattle manure (CAM) are the main wastes most often used in codigestion processes. Wastes that are codigested with these main wastes are wood wastes. industrial organic wastes, and farm wastes. These are referred to in this survey......Codigestion of organic wastes is a technology that is increasingly being applied for simultaneous treatment of several solid and liquid organic wastes. The main advantages of this technology are improved methane yield because of the supply of additional nutrients from the codigestates and more...

  17. Microbial Anaerobic Digestion (Bio-Digesters as an Approach to the Decontamination of Animal Wastes in Pollution Control and the Generation of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden Makaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications.

  18. Microbial Anaerobic Digestion (Bio-Digesters) as an Approach to the Decontamination of Animal Wastes in Pollution Control and the Generation of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Mamphweli, Sampson N.; Meyer, Edson L.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications. PMID:24048207

  19. Microbial anaerobic digestion (bio-digesters) as an approach to the decontamination of animal wastes in pollution control and the generation of renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-09-17

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken down into simpler molecules in the absence of oxygen by the concerted activities of four sets of metabolically linked microorganisms. This process occurs in an airtight chamber (biodigester) via four stages represented by hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. The microbial population and structure can be identified by the combined use of culture-based, microscopic and molecular techniques. Overall, the process is affected by bio-digester design, operational factors and manure characteristics. The purpose of anaerobic digestion is the production of a renewable energy source (biogas) and an odor free nutrient-rich fertilizer. Conversely, if animal wastes are accidentally found in the environment, it can cause a drastic chain of environmental and public health complications.

  20. Glass phase in municipal and industrial waste incineration bottom ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafał Kowalski, Piotr; Michalik, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Waste incineration bottom ash is a material with rising significance in waste streams in numerous countries. Even if some part of them is now used as raw materials the great amount is still landfilled. High temperature of thermal processes (>1000°C) together with fast cooling results in high content of glass in bottom ash. Its chemical composition is influenced by various factors like composition of raw wastes and used incineration technique. Most of bottom ash grains are composed of glass with large amount of mineral phases and also metallic constituents embedded into it. Glass susceptibility for alteration processes together with the characteristics of glass-based grains can bring environmental risk in time of improper or long term storage on landfill site. In this study bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal and industrial (including hazardous and medical) wastes were studied to determine glass content, its chemical composition with emphasis on metal content (especially potentially hazardous) and its relations to metallic components of grains. Samples were collected from two thermal treatment plants in Poland. Qualitative and quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used for determination of mineral composition of studied samples. Rietveld method and addition of internal standard for determination of amorphous phase content were used. Scanning electron microscopy fitted with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) were used for detailed analysis of glass and glass associated phases. Waste incineration bottom ash is a multi-components material rich in amorphous phase. It dominant part is represented by Si-rich glass. It is a main component of bottom ash grains but it contains minerals present in large quantities and also various forms of metallic elements. Glass within grains is often porous and cracked. In bottom ashes from thermal treatment of municipal wastes ~ 45-55 wt % of amorphous phase were present, mostly in form of glass with high

  1. Study of Utilization of Pulp and Paper Industry Wastes in Production of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Fatemeh Seyyedalipour ,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the increasing amount of wastes is a concerning reality and the environmental aspects has become a major priority. Following this worry, the purpose of this study was to investigate the using of pulp and paper industry wastes in various concrete mixes containing various contents of the waste to reduce environmental effects of these wastes disposal. The discussion includes pulp and paper industry waste management which have recently received considerable attention and considers grit, dregs, ash, and fiber. The concrete mixes prepared with adequate amount of these wastes, cement, aggregate and water compared in terms of some tests especially strength with the conventional concrete. At the end, the advantages and disadvantages of the use of pulp and paper industry wastes in concrete formulations as an alternative to landfill disposal were discussed. The research on use of pulp and paper industry wastes can be further carried out in concrete manufacturing as a new recycled material.

  2. [Problems of soils pollution with solid industrial waste in Kazakhstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebeneva, O V; Sakiev, K Z; Otarbaeva, M B; Zhanbasinova, N M

    2014-01-01

    The problem of recycling and disposal of solid waste from metallurgical, energy and petrochemical industries is becoming more acute problem for Kazakhstan. Violations of hygiene requirements concerning the placement and operation of landfills increase the area of contaminated soil and can become a threat to environmental safety of the population in industrial centers. The research was aimed to evaluate soil contamination in the cities and towns of Kazakhstan Republic and to mark out health risk areas. Five localities with especially high levels of soil contamination were revealed. Visualization of ecological contamination on individual urban areas gives to ecologists a tool to analyze and solve medical ecology problems. The results of soil contamination mapping can contribute earmarking of funds by local authorities to carry out measures for optimizing the environment.

  3. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  4. Laboratory scale studies on removal of chromium from industrial wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Chromium being one of the major toxic pollutants is discharged from electroplating and chrome tanning processes and is also found in the effluents of dyes, paint pigments, manufacturing units etc. Chromium exists in aqueous systems in both trivalent (Cr 3+) and hexavalent (Cr 6+) forms. The hexavalent form is carcinogenic and toxic to aquatic life, whereas Cr3+ is however comparatively less toxic. This study was undertaken to investigate the total chromium removal from industrial effluents by chemical means in order to achieve the Pakistan NEQS level of 1 mg/L by the methods of reduction and precipitation. The study was conducted in four phases.In phase I, the optimum pH and cost effective reducing agent among the four popular commercial chemicals was selected. As a result, pH of 2 was found to be most suitable and sodium meta bisulfate was found to be the most cost effective reducing agent respectively. Phase II showed that lower dose of sodium meta bisulfate was sufficient to obtain 100 % efficiency in reducing Cr6+ to Cr3+, and it was noted that reaction time had no significance in the whole process. A design curve for reduction process was established which can act as a tool for treatment of industrial effluents.Phase III studies indicated the best pH was 8.5 for precipitation of Cr 3+ to chromium hydroxide by using lime. An efficiency of 100 % was achievable and a settling time of 30 minutes produced clear effluent. Finally in Phase IV actual waste samples from chrome tanning and electroplating industries, when precipitated at pH of 12 gave 100 % efficiency at a settling time of 30 minutes and confirmed that chemical means of reduction and precipitation is a feasible and viable solution for treating chromium wastes from industries.

  5. Potential of municipal solid waste for renewable energy production and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Changkook

    2010-02-01

    Energy from waste (EfW) for nonrecyclable wastes is a suitable method of waste management and is important for renewable energy production. South Korea currently recycles 57% of household waste and landfills 26%. The remaining 17% is incinerated, mainly for heat production. In this study, the potential for energy production and reduction of corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) in Korea was estimated without accounting for the lifecycle impact of waste management. The properties of the MSW were established from data available in national-scale waste surveys and reports. The potential of EfW for GHG emission reduction was calculated considering (1) the direct release of anthropogenic carbon, nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4); and (2) the reduction in indirect GHG emissions by fossil fuel displacement. CH4 emissions from landfilling were also estimated from biogenic carbon in waste. Applying the resulting emission factors to various EfW cases suggests that the current level of GHG emissions is significant but can be substantially reduced by increased use of EfW. A net reduction in GHG emissions can be achieved only by EfW with combined heat and power (CHP).

  6. Disintegration-wave method of recovery of industrial waste iron and steel industry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Vasechkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational use of raw materials and waste is one of the most important factors determining the effectiveness of any processing enterprise. Industrial wastes of mining and metallurgical industries are a valuable source of many elements. However, little activity of the mineral and inconsistent chemical and phase composition of the waste reduce their attractiveness for use as a secondary raw material, and the presence of heavy metals and water-soluble compounds is a serious environmental threat. Fractional excretion of elements that make up the slag can be carried out with the help of their recovery by disintegration-wave method. The paper presents a machine-hardware circuits for the implementation of recovery process of slag and disintegrator design. In conducting research on the example of slag samples of the enterprises in Stavropol and Krasnoyarsk territories, it was found out that the observed enrichment of slags on the composition of iron takes place, its physical and chemical activity increases and persists for a long period of time. These facts were noted in the study of the microstructure and the results of spectral analysis of the initial slags and subjected to recovery by disintegration-wave method. The results analysis led to the conclusion about the possibility of waste recovery of mining and metallurgical industries with by disintegration-wave method. Resulting in the processing materials with enhanced activity of the mineral part and certain chemical and phase composition, can be used as raw material for the production of metallurgical, cement and other industries.

  7. Study on durability of high performance concrete with industrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyaraj R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term performance of structures has become vital to the economies of all nations. Concrete has been the major instrument for providing stable and reliable Infrastructure. Deterioration, long term poor performance, and inadequate resistance to hostile environment, coupled with greater demands for more sophisticated architectural form, led to the accelerated research into the microstructure of cements and concretes and more elaborate codes and standards. As a result, innovations of supplementary materials and composites have been developed.In other side, India has an enormous growth in the steel and copper industries. The following are major by products from these industries: copper slag - a by-product of copper refinery, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS - a by-product in the manufacture of iron in steel industry. If they are not disposed off properly, they may cause environmental hazards to the surrounding area. Considering the long term performance and stability of structures, this study suggests replacing some percentage of fine aggregate with copper slag and some percentage of cement with GGBS to develop high performance concrete. This paper presents an experimental investigation to assess the durability parameters of high performance concrete with the industrial wastes. Durability parameters such as water absorption and chloride penetration are to be studied.

  8. An Industrial Ecology Approach to Municipal Solid Waste ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste provides abundant opportunities for industrial ecology-based symbiotic use. Energy production, economics, and environmental aspects are analyzed for four alternatives based on different technologies: incineration with energy recovery, gasification, anaerobic digestion, and fermentation. In these cases electricity and ethanol are the products considered, but other products and attempts at symbiosis can be made. The four technologies are in various states of commercial development. To highlight their relative complexities some adjustable parameters which are important for the operability of each process are discussed. While these technologies need to be considered for specific locations and circumstances, generalized economic and environmental information suggests relative comparisons for newly conceptualized processes. The results of industrial ecology-based analysis suggest that anaerobic digestion may improve seven emission categories, while fermentation, gasification, and incineration successively improve fewer emissions. A conceptual level analysis indicates that gasification, anaerobic digestion, and fermentation alternatives lead to positive economic results. In each case the alternatives and their assumptions need further analysis for any particular community. Presents information useful for analyzing the sustainability of alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste.

  9. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass production potential, excellent nitrogen usage efficiency, wide adaptability, drought resistance, and water lodging tolerance and salinity resistance. The ability to withstand severe drought conditions and its high water usage efficiency make sorghum a good renewable feedstock suitable for cultivation in arid regions, such as the southern US and many areas in Africa and Asia. Sorghum varieties include grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, and biomass sorghum. Grain sorghum, having starch content equivalent to corn, has been considered as a feedstock for ethanol production. Its tannin content, however, may cause problems during enzyme hydrolysis. Sweet sorghum juice contains sucrose, glucose and fructose, which are readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and hence is a good substrate for ethanol fermentation. The enzyme invertase, however, needs to be added to convert sucrose to glucose and fructose if the juice is used for production of industrial chemicals in fermentation processes that employ microorganisms incapable of metabolizing sucrose. Biomass sorghum requires pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to generate fermentable sugars to be used in the subsequent fermentation process. This report reviews the current knowledge on bioconversion of sorghum to fuels and chemicals and identifies areas that deserve further studies.

  10. Methodology for industrial solid waste management: implementation to sludge management in Asturias (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Fernández, José M; Palacios, Henar Morán; Alvarez Cabal, José V; Martínez Huerta, Gemma M

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays, the industry produces an enormous amount of solid waste that has very negative environmental effects. Owing to waste variety and its scattered sites of production, selecting the most proper solid waste treatment is difficult. Simultaneously, social concern about environmental sustainability rises every day and, as a consequence, improvement on waste treatment systems is being demanded. However, when a waste treatment system is being designed, not only environmental but also technical and economic issues should be considered. This article puts forward a methodology to provide industrial factories with an easy way to identify, evaluate and select the most suitable solid waste treatment.

  11. Exploitation of Renewable Energy--A Strategic Choice for Sustainable Development of Power Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Dabing

    2005-01-01

    Since China is being faced with the pressure of energy shortage and environmental conservation, the power industry in China has to actively develop the renewable energy for electricity generation while raising the utilization efficiency of conventional energy. In view of such facts, China Guodian Corporation decided on a development strategy of giving priority to green power, such as wind power. Based on the national planning of wind power development, the corporation set out its own target of installing wind power capacity of 1500 MW by the end of 2010, and is adopting appropriate measures including promoting the localization of wind turbines and developing hydropower, thermal power and wind power simultaneously. Moreover, it put some relevant suggestions.

  12. Design and Characterization of Renewable Bioasphalt Containing Damar Resin, Fly Ash, Wasted Cooking Oil and Latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, A.; Djumari; Legowo, S. J.; Widiharjo, B.; Zai, A. K. S.; Pradana, A. A. W.; Rusadi, I. P.; Permana, A.

    2017-02-01

    Dasphalt is one alternative of bioasphalt, made from materials that can be renewed as a substitute for conventional asphalt. Dasphalt inspired from jabung made of damar resin, brick powder and wasted cooking oil. Jabung have the same character with conventional asphalt. Research has been conducted by the characteristics of jabung but there are still many shortcomings, softening point and ductility values are not qualify. In this research the brick powder will be replaced by fly ash, as fly ash has a finer grain so that it can become a better absorbent. The resin will act as a natural resin for dasphalt, wasted cooking oil will be a mixed solvent. Use of additional polymers latex, is expected to improve the elasticity of dasphalt in ductility test. The purpose of this study was to determine the nature of the modification dasphalt properties in accordance with the specifications of asphalt penetration test and find the optimal composition of dasphalt. This research method is done by direct testing in the laboratory. In the present study that became the basic composition of the resin is resin (100g pure resin+ 350g resin packaging or powder), fly ash (150g) and wasted cooking oil (205g) and latex were mixed at temperatures below 150°C. While variations of latex starting from 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%. Several asphalt characterization are performed include penetration tests, test softening point, ductility test, flash point test, specific gravity test, affinity test and solubility test. Dasphalt modification achieved optimum composition of resin (100g pure resin or resin chunk + 350Gr packaging), Fly Ash powder (150g), cooking oil (205g), and latex 4%, ductility increased from 63.5 cm to 119.5 cm, the value of the flash point was originally at temperature of 240°C to 260°C, dasphalt penetration from 68.2 dmm to 43 dmm, and the value of density decreases to 1.01 g/cm3 to 0.99 g/cm3. Dasphalt modifications meet some of the specifications and could be categorized as

  13. Object-oriented industrial solid waste identification using HJ satellite imagery: a case study of phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhuo; Shen, Wenming; Xiao, Rulin; Xiong, Wencheng; Shi, Yuanli; Chen, Baisong

    2012-10-01

    The increasing volume of industrial solid wastes presents a critical problem for the global environment. In the detection and monitoring of these industrial solid wastes, the traditional field methods are generally expensive and time consuming. With the advantages of quick observations taken at a large area, remote sensing provides an effective means for detecting and monitoring the industrial solid wastes in a large scale. In this paper, we employ an object-oriented method for detecting the industrial solid waste from HJ satellite imagery. We select phosphogypsum which is a typical industrial solid waste as our target. Our study area is located in Fuquan in Guizhou province of China. The object oriented method we adopted consists of the following steps: 1) Multiresolution segmentation method is adopted to segment the remote sensing images for obtaining the object-based images. 2) Build the feature knowledge set of the object types. 3) Detect the industrial solid wastes based on the object-oriented decision tree rule set. We analyze the heterogeneity in features of different objects. According to the feature heterogeneity, an object-oriented decision tree rule set is then built for aiding the identification of industrial solid waste. Then, based on this decision tree rule set, the industrial solid waste can be identified automatically from remote sensing images. Finally, the identified results are validated using ground survey data. Experiments and results indicate that the object-oriented method provides an effective method for detecting industrial solid wastes.

  14. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from industrial waste cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambiraj, S.; Ravi Shankaran, D.

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to develop a simple and low-cost method for the production of high-performance cellulose nanomaterials from renewable and sustainable resources. Here, cellulose microcrystals (CMCs) were prepared by controlled acidic and basic hydrolysis of cotton from textile industry wastes. The resulted CMCs were further converted into cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with high crystallinity by acidic hydrolysis. The physicochemical characteristics and morphological feature of CMCs and CNCs were studied by various analytical techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fluorescence spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The isolated CNCs possess a needle-like morphological structure with the longitudinal and lateral dimensions of 180 ± 60 nm, 10 ± 1 nm, respectively. The AFM result reveals that the CNCs have a high aspect ratio of 40 ± 14 nm and the average thickness of 6.5 nm. The XRD and TEM analysis indicate that the synthesized CNCs possess face-centered cubic crystal structure. Preliminary experiments were carried out to fabricate CNCs incorporated poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film. The results suggest that the concept of waste to wealth could be well executed from the prepared CNCs, which have great potential for various applications including bio-sensors, food packaging and drug delivery applications.

  15. 2013 Annual Industrial Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (WRU-I-0160-01, formerly LA 000160 01), for the wastewater reuse site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond from November 1, 2012 through October 31, 2013. The report contains the following information: • Facility and system description • Permit required effluent monitoring data and loading rates • Groundwater monitoring data • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts During the 2013 reporting year, an estimated 9.64 million gallons of wastewater were discharged to the Industrial Waste Ditch and Pond which is well below the permit limit of 17 million gallons per year. The concentrations of all permit-required analytes in the samples from the down gradient monitoring wells were below the applicable Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s groundwater quality standard levels.

  16. Nitrogen Sources Screening for Ethanol Production Using Carob Industrial Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, S; Constantino, A; Rodrigues, F; Rodrigues, B; Lima-Costa, M E

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, bioethanol production is one of the most important technologies by the necessity to identify alternative energy resources, principally when based on inexpensive renewable resources. However, the costs of 2nd-generation bioethanol production using current biotechnologies are still high compared to fossil fuels. The feasibility of bioethanol production, by obtaining high yields and concentrations of ethanol, using low-cost medium, is the primary goal, leading the research done today. Batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of high-density sugar from carob residues with different organic (yeast extract, peptone, urea) and inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate) was performed for evaluating a cost-effective ethanol production, with high ethanol yield and productivity. In STR batch fermentation, urea has proved to be a very promising nitrogen source in large-scale production of bioethanol, reaching an ethanol yield of 44 % (w/w), close to theoretical maximum yield value and an ethanol production of 115 g/l. Urea at 3 g/l as nitrogen source could be an economical alternative with a great advantage in the sustainability of ethanol production from carbohydrates extracted from carob. Simulation studies, with experimental data using SuperPro Design software, have shown that the bioethanol production biorefinery from carob wastes could be a very promising way to the valorization of an endogenous resource, with a competitive cost.

  17. An evaluation of the impact of state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) on retail, commercial, and industrial electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puram, Rakesh

    The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular mechanism for states to promote renewable energy and its popularity has spurred a potential bill within Congress for a nationwide Federal RPS. While RPS benefits have been touted by several groups, it also has detractors. Among the concerns is that RPS standards could raise electricity rates, given that renewable energy is costlier than traditional fossil fuels. The evidence on the impact of RPS on electricity prices is murky at best: Complex models by NREL and USEIA utilize computer programs with several assumptions which make empirical studies difficult and only predict slight increases in electricity rates associated with RPS standards. Recent theoretical models and empirical studies have found price increases, but often fail to comprehensively include several sets of variables, which in fact could confound results. Utilizing a combination of past papers and studies to triangulate variables this study aims to develop both a rigorous fixed effects regression model as well as a theoretical framework to explain the results. This study analyzes state level panel data from 2002 to 2008 to analyze the effect of RPS on residential, commercial, and industrial electricity prices, controlling for several factors including amount of electricity generation from renewable and non-renewable sources, customer incentives for renewable energy, macroeconomic and demographic indicators, and fuel price mix. The study contrasts several regressions to illustrate important relationships and how inclusions as well as exclusion of various variables have an effect on electricity rates. Regression results indicate that the presence of RPS within a state increases the commercial and residential electricity rates, but have no discernable effect on the industrial electricity rate. Although RPS tends to increase electricity prices, the effect has a small impact on higher electricity prices. The models also indicate that jointly all

  18. Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: A survey of recent literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatriste-Mondragon, Felipe; Samar, P.; Cox, H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    wastewater sludge, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, and cattle manure (CAM) are the main wastes most often used in codigestion processes. Wastes that are codigested with these main wastes are wood wastes. industrial organic wastes, and farm wastes. These are referred to in this survey...... as codigestates. The literature provides many laboratory studies (batch assays and bench-scale digesters) that assess the digestibility of codigestates and evaluate the performance and monitoring of codigestion, inhibition of digestion by codigestates, the design of the process (e.g., single-stage or two...

  19. Enhancement of insulating properties of brick clay by renewable agricultural wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Bánhidi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of agricultural wastes (byproducts in various segments of brick and tile industry is increasing continuously. These additives, which are previously mixed into the raw or compound clay, start to ignite during the firing process, providing extra thermal energy inside the product and decreasing the required external energy need. Besides this effect, the combustion of additives increases the porosity of the final product resulting in enhanced thermal insulation properties. In this paper the effect of some common agricultural wastes (sawdust, rice-peel and seed-shell on the thermal properties of brick clay products was investigated. The brick samples were prepared from the mixture of the yellow and gray clay in the ratio of 4:1, water content was between 15.57-16.67 wt.% and the pore-forming additives in concentrations 0, 4 and 7 wt.%. To measure the steady state thermal conductivity of the clay mixtures, samples with dimensions of 300×300×50 mm were prepared. Drying and firing were performed using the industrial partner’s standard procedures. Precise thermal conductivity data was measured, using a RAPID‑K type static thermal conductivity instrument. The results showed that increasing the quantity of agricultural byproducts in the clay mixture significantly decreases the thermal conductivity of the final products, while only a minor reduction in the mechanical strength was observed. It was found that the most efficient byproduct additive was the sunflower seed‑shell. With the addition of only 7 wt.% seed‑shell to the basic clay the thermal conductivity decreased from 0,27 W/m·K to 0,17 W/m·K (i.e. ~36%.

  20. Vermicomposting as an advanced biological treatment for industrial waste from the leather industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ramom R; Bontempi, Rhaissa M; Mendonça, Giovane; Galetti, Gustavo; Rezende, Maria Olímpia O

    2016-01-01

    The leather industry (tanneries) generates high amounts of toxic wastes, including solid and liquid effluents that are rich in organic matter and mineral content. Vermicomposting was studied as an alternative method of treating the wastes from tanneries. Vermicompost was produced from the following tannery residues: tanned chips of wet-blue leather, sludge from a liquid residue treatment station, and a mixture of both. Five hundred earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were added to each barrel. During the following 135 days the following parameters were evaluated: pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), C:N ratio, and chromium content as Cr (III) and Cr (VI). The results for pH, TOC and OM contents showed decreases in their values during the composting process, whereas values for CEC and total nitrogen rose, indicating that the vermicompost reached maturity. For chromium, at 135 days, all values of Cr (VI) were below the detectable level. Therefore, the Cr (VI) content had probably been biologically transformed into Cr (III), confirming the use of this technique as an advanced biological treatment. The study reinforces the idea that vermicomposting could be introduced as an effective technology for the treatment of industrial tannery waste and the production of agricultural inputs.

  1. Renewable Energy Production from Waste to Mitigate Climate Change and Counteract Soil Degradation - A Spatial Explicit Assessment for Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraxner, Florian; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Leduc, Sylvain; Fuss, Sabine; Aoki, Kentaro; Yamagata, Yoshiki

    2014-05-01

    Waste production from urban areas is growing faster than urbanization itself, while at the same time urban areas are increasingly contributing substantial emissions causing climate change. Estimates indicate for urban residents a per capita solid waste (MSW) production of 1.2 kg per day, subject to further increase to 1.5 kg beyond 2025. Waste water and sewage production is estimated at about 260 liters per capita and day, also at increasing rates. Based on these figures, waste - including e.g. MSW, sewage and animal manure - can generally be assumed as a renewable resource with varying organic components and quantity. This paper demonstrates how new and innovative technologies in the field of Waste-to-Green Products can help in various ways not only to reduce costs for waste treatment, reduce the pressure on largely overloaded dump sites, and reduce also the effect of toxic materials at the landfill site and by that i.e. protect the groundwater. Moreover, Waste-to-Green Products can contribute actively to mitigating climate change through fossil fuel substitution and carbon sequestration while at the same time counteracting negative land use effects from other types of renewable energy and feedstock production through substitution. At the same time, the co-production and recycling of fertilizing elements and biochar can substantially counteract soil degradation and improve the soil organic carbon content of different land use types. The overall objective of this paper is to assess the total climate change mitigation potential of MSW, sewage and animal manure for Japan. A techno-economic approach is used to inform the policy discussion on the suitability of this substantial and sustainable mitigation option. We examine the spatial explicit technical mitigation potential from e.g. energy substitution and carbon sequestration through biochar in rural and urban Japan. For this exercise, processed information on respective Japanese waste production, energy demand

  2. Entrepreneurial Judgment and Value Capture, the Case of the Nascent Offshore Renewable Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truls Erikson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship may be regarded as the mechanism of change towards sustainability. Any entrepreneur that seeks to start a new venture in an emerging industry will face resource and time constraints. The question we raise here is how the entrepreneur should prioritize use of time and resources to increase likeliness of success. To address this question we depart from a theoretical perspective of entrepreneurship seen as judgment, and bridges it over to entrepreneurship seen as co-creation. In other words, we combine the subjective with the intersubjective, and explore the effects of the actions successful green technology entrepreneurs in the emerging offshore renewable energy industry make in building their new ventures in nascent markets. Inspired by earlier studies on market entry, combined with new ways to understand new venture emergence, we find that independent entrepreneurs benefit from leapfrogging typical stages in the technology development process and rather devote time and efforts on resource acquisition. We also find that the most important value-capturing, decision-making heuristics are those related to “hybrid governance”. We discuss implications for theory, practice, and policy.

  3. Codigestion of organic industrial wastes; Codigestion de dechets organiques industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glauser, M.; DuPasquier, A.

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate possibilities of the production of biogas from the process of codigestion of industrial organic waste with purification station sludges or with liquid manure. The most interesting waste will be selected from its potential energy value, from the fact that the ways of its elimination are unsatisfactory, and by checking whether its codigestion is not well known yet. Fifteen types of waste products have been examined, of which seven have been studied with more details. Among these, five have not been retained (peelings or spoilt vegetables, coffee-grounds, waste from the manufactory of condiments, contains of cattle paunch,'Marc' of grapes), mainly because of their small production or their satisfactory elimination. The two remaining waste products, the 'Marc' of fruits and the whey, are materials that are worth further study because they are produced in great quantity and for the following reasons: (i) the proportions of blending of fruit's Marc as well as the limits of charges to respect in order to optimise their codigestion, from the biological as well as the energetic point of view, are not well known; (ii) the whey represents an important energetic potential in Switzerland. If for today it doesn't give much problem of elimination, it could give some in a middle term. (author) [French] Cette etude a pour but d'evaluer les possibilites de production de biogaz en Suisse par la codigestion de dechets organiques d'origine industrielle avec des boues de station d'epuration ou des purins. Elle vise a selectionner les dechets les plus interessants du point de vue energetique, dechets pour lesquels les filieres d'elimination sont peu satisfaisantes ou dont la codigestion est mal connue. Quinze types de dechets ont ete examines: legumes, fruits, champignons, brasserie, abattoirs, fromagerie, raisin, industrie sucriere, the et cafe, condiments, papier, cereales, industrie

  4. Multi-level lobbying in the EU: The case of the Renewables Directive and the German energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ydersbond, Inga Margrete

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the lobbying strategies employed by the interest organizations of Germany's energy industries in the process leading up to the EU's Renewable Energy Directive. How did they lobby, and what does this reveal about their perceptions of power relations in the EU? This report focuses on the most controversial part of the Directive: legal prescriptions for support mechanisms to increase the production of renewable energy in Europe. The utilities and the renewables industries disagreed deeply, with the utilities industry favouring an EU-wide green certificate scheme, while the renewables industry pressed for national feed-in tariffs. Nine interest organizations representing these sectors, five German and four at the EU level, serve as cases in this study. Expectations as to lobbying behaviour based on the two theories/theory perspectives of liberal intergovernmentalism (LI) and multi-level governance (MLG) are formulated and tested in a most-likely case design. Result: observations are better described by the MLG perspective than by LI.(auth)

  5. Renewal strategies for old industrial areas in the post-industrial age——Take "Zurich-West" in Switzerland as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyses the renewal planning of "Zurich-West" ,an old industrial area. It points out that systematic and comprehensive target orientation,extensive collaboration in argumentation and decision-making,and the design ideas of coexistence and integration are the key to its success. Considering the status quo of China’s old industrial district remodeling,the paper offers some suggestions.

  6. Alkaline subcritical water gasification of dairy industry waste (Whey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangrat, Rattana; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2011-05-01

    The near-critical water gasification of dairy industry waste in the form of Whey, a product composed of mixtures of carbohydrates (mainly lactose) and amino acids such as glycine and glutamic acid, has been studied. The gasification process involved partial oxidation with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of NaOH. The reactions were studied over the temperature range from 300°C to 390°C, corresponding pressures of 9.5-24.5 MPa and reaction times from 0 min to 120 min. Hydrogen production was affected by the presence of NaOH, the concentration of H(2)O(2), temperature, reaction time and feed concentration. Up to 40% of the theoretical hydrogen gas production was achieved at 390°C. Over 80% of the Whey nitrogen content was found as ammonia, mainly in the liquid effluent.

  7. EMISSION AND TRENDS IN RECLAIMING WASTE HEAT IN INDUSTRIAL INSTALATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Hys

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of waste heat emission in a typical industrial installation. On the basis of the process monitoring system, periodic analyses of fumes composition, installation process manual and the conducted measurements of the heat fluxes from individual sources emitting heat on the way of natural convection from the devices’ coats and forced convection in the fumes flux were calculated. According to the authors the heat of temperature 140–155 °C and surface power density 860–970 W/m2 emitted by devices’ covers can be reclaimed in ORC techniques, Peltier’s modules and the systems realising Stirling cycle. Part of the waste heat included in fumes, which makes c.a. 76% of the total emission from the installation, should be returned to the process of fuel oxidation, what will reduce the emission by c.a. 18% and the volume of consumed fuel by c.a. 25 m3 CH4/h, according to the presented calculations.

  8. Characterisation of keratin biomass from butchery and wool industry wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccola, Marina; Aluigi, Annalisa; Tonin, Claudio

    2009-12-01

    The chemical and structural characteristics of wool and horn-hoof were compared with the aim of better addressing possible exploitation of protein biomasses available as waste from textile industry and butchery. Amino acid analysis showed that wool has a higher amount of cystine and a lower amount of the amino acids that favour α-helix formation than horn-hoof. The difference in the α-helix content is confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Electrophoresis separation patterns showed two characteristic protein fractions related to low-sulphur proteins (between 60,000 and 45,000 Da) in wool, while different low-sulphur proteins are present in horn-hoof. These data are partially confirmed by DSC analyses that showed different endothermic peaks at temperatures higher than 200 °C in the horn-hoof thermograms, probably due to denaturation of α-keratins at different molecular weights. Moreover, wool keratin was more hygroscopic and showed a higher extractability with reducing agents than horn-hoof. On the basis of these results, waste wool is a more suitable source than horn-hoof for uses involving protein extraction, but application can be envisaged also in surfactant foams for fire extinguishers and slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of solid wastes of cane sugar industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    The cane sugar manufacturing industry generates large quantities of lignocellulosic solid wastes, namely bagasse and cachaza. Bagasse is the fibrous residue of the cane after extracting the juice. Cachaza is the filter cake of the precipitated insoluble sugars. This research investigates the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of bagasse and cachaza to produce methane. Two rations of bagasse-cachaza mix as substrates were investigated. The first one was 8:1 which represents the average ratio of bagasse and cachaza produced in a raw sugar mill. The second ratio investigated was 2.4:1 which represents the proportion of bagasse and cachaza wastes after 70% of the bagasse is burned in sugar mill boilers. An acclimated microbial culture for this substrate was developed. Organic Loading-Detention Time relationships were established for an optimum system. Pre-treatment techniques of the substrate were investigated as a means of enhancing the digestibility of the cellulosic substrate. Recirculation of the filtrate was evaluated as a method for increasing solids retention time without increasing hydraulic detention time. The kinetics of the digestion process for bagasse-cachaza mixed substrate was investigated and growth constants were determined. The bionutritional characteristics of the substrate used for the digestion were evaluated. Based on the results obtained, mass balances and preliminary economic analysis of the digestion system were developed.

  10. Waste Management, Treatment, and Disposal for the Food Processing Industry. Special Circular 113.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This publication contains information relating to waste prevention, treatment and disposal, and waste product utilization. Its primary purpose is to provide information that will help the food industry executive recognize waste problems and make wise management decisions. The discussion of the methods, techniques, and the state-of-the-art is…

  11. Waste Management, Treatment, and Disposal for the Food Processing Industry. Special Circular 113.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This publication contains information relating to waste prevention, treatment and disposal, and waste product utilization. Its primary purpose is to provide information that will help the food industry executive recognize waste problems and make wise management decisions. The discussion of the methods, techniques, and the state-of-the-art is…

  12. Strategy of Construction and Demolition Waste Management after Chemical Industry Facilities Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkinova, I. N.; Batrakova, G. M.; Vaisman, Ya I.

    2017-06-01

    Mixed waste products are generated in the process of irrelevant industrial projects’ removal if conventional techniques of their demolition and dismantling are applied. In Russia the number of unused chemical industry facilities including structures with high rate of wear is growing. In removing industrial buildings and production shops it is used conventional techniques of demolition and dismantling in the process of which mixed waste products are generated. The presence of hazardous chemicals in these wastes makes difficulties for their use and leads to the increasing volume of unutilized residues. In the process of chemical industry facilities’ removal this fact takes on special significance as a high level of hazardous chemicals in the waste composition demands for the realization of unprofitable measures aimed at ensuring environmental and industrial safety. The proposed strategy of managing waste originated from the demolition and dismantling of chemical industry facilities is based on the methodology of industrial metabolism which allows identifying separate material flows of recycled, harmful and ballast components, performing separate collection of components during removal and taking necessary preventive measures. This strategy has been tested on the aniline synthesis plant being in the process of removal. As a result, a flow of 10 wt. %, subjected to decontamination, was isolated from the total volume of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste). The considered approach allowed using the resource potential of more than 80wt. % of waste and minimizing the disposed waste volume.

  13. Transporting industrial waste heat. The potential of using the existing sewer system.

    OpenAIRE

    Niphuis, Sander

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The industry in the Netherlands consumes large amounts of energy for the production of heat. After the industrial processes, a substantial share of this heat is degraded to waste heat. In general, this waste heat is just being discharged to surro

  14. Transporting industrial waste heat. The potential of using the existing sewer system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niphuis, Sander

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The industry in the Netherlands consumes large amounts of energy for the production of heat. After the industrial processes, a substantial share of this heat is degraded to waste heat. In general, this waste heat is just being discharged to surro

  15. Investigation of Industrial Waste Management in Industries Located Between Tehran and Karaj Zone in 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    M Karimaee; M. R Gohari; R Nabizade; A Jonidi; Farzadkia, M.; Karami, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In recent years, poor industrial waste managements have created many crises in human societies. The aim of this study was to investigate industrial waste management located between Tehran and Karaj zone in 2009-2010.Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive and sectional which was done by site visits, (Iranian environmental protection organization)  use of questionnaires, database production and results analysis. The questionnaire consisted of 45 questio...

  16. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM BOILER OF LARGE-SCALE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Prateep Pattanapunt; Kanokorn Hussaro; Tika Bunnakand; Sombat Teekasap

    2013-01-01

    Many industrial heating processes generate waste energy in textile industry; especially exhaust gas from the boiler at the same time reducing global warming. Therefore, this article will present a study the way to recovery heat waste from boiler exhaust gas by mean of shell and tube heat exchanger. Exhaust gas from boiler dyeing process, which carries a large amount of heat, energy consumptions could be decrease by using of waste-heat recovery systems. In this study, using ANASYS simulation p...

  17. Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.

    1980-11-01

    The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

  18. Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste.

  19. Palm Olein as Renewable Raw Materials for Industrial and Pharmaceutical Products Applications: Chemical Characterization and Physicochemical Properties Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darfizzi Derawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm olein (POo is widely produced as edible oil in tropical countries. POo is considered as renewable raw material for the new industrial and pharmaceutical products synthesis based on its characterization. Palm olein was good on its viscosity index, oxidative stability, and flash and fire point. POo contained unsaturated triacylglycerols (TAGs: POO (33.3%; POP (29.6% which plays an important role in chemical modification process to produce new industrial products. The double bond was detected on 1H-NMR (5.3 ppm and 13C-NMR (130 ppm spectra. The chemical compositions of POo were tested by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and gas chromatography (GC techniques. This unsaturated oil is potentially to be used as renewable raw materials in chemical modification process to synthesise polyols, polyurethane, and biolubricant for industrial and pharmaceutical products application.

  20. Organic wastes and the industrial technologies of their coprocessing with coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Buchtele

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of solid waste in the Czech Republic was a round 40 Mt in 2000 – 2002 yearly. The organic compounds in the municipal waste (plastics, polymers, paper, wood, textile and in the agricultural and forest waste (biomass are mainly burned and partially landfilled. New industrial waste processes and their heat conversion in mixtures with coal allow an economical and energetically a more efficient utilization. They also open the way to the production of liquid fuels and chemicals.

  1. Study of Polyolefines Waste Thermo-Destruction in Large Laboratory and in Industrial Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    life time as a useable product. Recycling of polymer waste , mainly polyolefines, which constitute 60% of them, on the technological lines operating...consumption of waste plastic input – quantity of obtained liquid and gaseous product per a month – quantity of industrial waste received per a month. In...preparation of material for thermo-destruction process (cleaning and drying) allowed reduce the amount of water for recycling ( waste ) collected at the

  2. Thermal destruction of wastes containing polychlorinated naphthalenes in an industrial waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Noma, Yukio; Sakai, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-02

    A series of verification tests were carried out in order to confirm that polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) contained in synthetic rubber products (Neoprene FB products) and aerosol adhesives, which were accidentally imported into Japan, could be thermally destroyed using an industrial waste incinerator. In the verification tests, Neoprene FB products containing PCNs at a concentration of 2800 mg/kg were added to industrial wastes at a ratio of 600 mg Neoprene FB product/kg-waste, and then incinerated at an average temperature of 985 °C. Total PCN concentrations were 14 ng/m(3)N in stack gas, 5.7 ng/g in bottom ash, 0.98 ng/g in boiler dust, and 1.2 ng/g in fly ash. Destruction efficiency (DE) and destruction removal efficiency (DRE) of congener No. 38/40, which is considered an input marker congener, were 99.9974 and 99.9995 %, respectively. The following dioxin concentrations were found: 0.11 ng-TEQ/m(3)N for the stack gas, 0.096 ng-TEQ/g for the bottom ash, 0.010 ng-TEQ/g for the boiler dust, and 0.072 ng-TEQ/g for the fly ash. Since the PCN levels in the PCN destruction test were even at slightly lower concentrations than in the baseline test without PCN addition, the detected PCNs are to a large degree unintentionally produced PCNs and does not mainly stem from input material. Also, the dioxin levels did not change. From these results, we confirmed that PCNs contained in Neoprene FB products and aerosol adhesives could be destroyed to a high degree by high-temperature incineration. Therefore, all recalled Neoprene FB products and aerosol adhesives containing PCNs were successfully treated under the same conditions as the verification tests.

  3. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  4. Study on Composition and Generation of Food Waste in Makanan Ringan Mas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Kadir Aeslina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste management is a major problem for most food premises in Malaysia. This study was conducted at one of the Small Medium Industries (SMIs called Makanan Ringan Mas Industry that is located in Parit Kuari Darat, Parit Raja, Johor. This premise generates food waste almost every day including processed food waste (chips and coconut candy and raw food waste (banana peels, tapioca peels, breadfruit peels and grated coconut. The objective of the study was to determine the waste generation and composition of food waste generated by the premise. Food waste collected from the premise once a week and tested for moisture content and density. The results demonstrated that Makanan Ringan Mas Industry generated more raw food waste compared to processed food waste. Banana peels recorded the highest amount at 27.15kg per month compared to other food waste. To conclude, banana peels were found to be the highest component in the food waste composition by Makanan Ringan Mas Industry whereas breadfruit peels were found to be the lowest.

  5. Report: future industrial solid waste management in pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ), Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarani, Babak; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Alavi; Mokhtarani, Nader; Khaledi, Hossein Jomeh

    2006-06-01

    The Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ) is located in the south of Iran, on the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf. This area was established in 1998 for the utilization of south Pars field oil and gas resources. This field is one of the largest gas resources in the world and contains about 6% of the total fossil fuels known. Petrochemical industries, gas refineries and downstream industries are being constructed in this area. At present there are three gas refineries in operation and five more gas refineries are under construction. In this study, different types of solid waste including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the environmental impact. In the first stage, the types and amounts of industrial waste in PSEEZ were evaluated by an inventory. The main types of industrial waste are oil products (fuel oil, light oil, lubricating oil), spent catalysts, adsorbents, resins, coke, wax and packaging materials. The waste management of PSEEZ is quite complex because of the different types of industry and the diversity of industrial residues. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. Recently a design has been prepared for a disposal site in PSEEZ for the industrial waste that cannot be reused or recycled. The total surface area of this disposal site where the industrial waste should be tipped for the next 20 years was estimated to be about 42 000 m2.

  6. Identifying industrial best practices for the waste minimization of low-level radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, V.

    1996-04-01

    In US DOE, changing circumstances are affecting the management and disposal of solid, low-level radioactive waste (LLW). From 1977 to 1991, the nuclear power industry achieved major reductions in solid waste disposal, and DOE is interested in applying those practices to reduce solid waste at DOE facilities. Project focus was to identify and document commercial nuclear industry best practices for radiological control programs supporting routine operations, outages, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The project team (DOE facility and nuclear power industry representatives) defined a Work Control Process Model, collected nuclear power industry Best Practices, and made recommendations to minimize LLW at DOE facilities.

  7. Recycling and recovering waste water in the surface treatment industry; Reciclaje y recuperacion de las aguas residuales en la industria de tratamientos de superficies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujadas, A. [USF/Sation (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    The article begins with an introduction to the problems of contaminated waste produced in surface treatment lines and goes on to compare and evaluate the different techniques for cutting down the amount of water required to will down the products while maintaining the optimum quality of the finish. Different types of plant, equipment and technology for use with galvanic lines to reduce water consumption to a minimum are described. Particular attention is given to all the techniques which allow a reduction to be made in disposing of rundown batches by completed recycling them or partially recovering them. The purpose of the article is to provide an overview of the large number of possibilities for reducing, recovering, simplifying and even elimination the dumping of contaminated waste in the surface treatment industry. The eventual aim of all this is to simplify or renew the need for having a waste water treatment plant and to minimize the waste generated. (Author) 5 refs.

  8. Solid waste management practices in wet coffee processing industries of Gidabo watershed, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsido, Mihret D; Li, Meng

    2016-07-01

    The financial and social contributions of coffee processing industries within most coffee export-based national economies like Ethiopia are generally high. The type and amount of waste produced and the waste management options adopted by these industries can have negative effects on the environment. This study investigated the solid waste management options adopted in wet coffee processing industries in the Gidabo watershed of Ethiopia. A field observation and assessment were made to identify whether the operational characteristics of the industries have any effect on the waste management options that were practiced. The investigation was conducted on 125 wet coffee processing industries about their solid waste handling techniques. Focus group discussion, structured questionnaires, key informant interview and transect walks are some of the tools employed during the investigation. Two major types of wastes, namely hull-bean-pulp blended solid waste and wastewater rich in dissolved and suspended solids were generated in the industries. Wet mills, on average, released 20.69% green coffee bean, 18.58% water and 60.74% pulp by weight. Even though these wastes are rich in organic matter and recyclables; the most favoured solid waste management options in the watershed were disposal (50.4%) and industrial or household composting (49.6%). Laxity and impulsive decision are the driving motives behind solid waste management in Gidabo watershed. Therefore, to reduce possible contamination of the environment, wastes generated during the processing of red coffee cherries, such as coffee wet mill solid wastes, should be handled properly and effectively through maximisation of their benefits with minimised losses.

  9. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Trends in the development of industrially assimilated renewable energy: the problem of resource restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhegorodtsev, R. M.; Ratner, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of the development of wind and solar energy and potential resource restrictions of the dissemination of these technologies of energy generation associated with intensive use of rare earth metals and some other mineral resources are presented. The technological prospects of various directions of decisions of the problem of resource restrictions, including escalating of volumes of extraction and production of necessary mineral components, creating substitutes of scarce materials and development of recycling are considered. The bottlenecks of each of the above-mentioned decisions were founded. Conclusions are drawn on the prospects of development of the Russian high-tech sectors of the economy in the context of the most probable decisions of the problem of resource restrictions of wind and solar energy. An increase in extraction and production of rare earth metals and some other materials, stimulation of domestic research and development (R&D) to create the permanent magnets of new types and new technologies of wind-powered generation, and reduction of the resource-demand and technology development of recycling the components of power equipment are the most prospective directions of progress. The innovations in these directions will be in demand on the European, Chinese, and North American markets in the near decades due to the end of the life cycle (approximately 30 years) of wind and solar energy projects started at the turn of the 20th-21st centuries (the beginning of exponential growth in plants). The private investors and relevant regional and federal government agencies can use the qualitative characteristics of the dynamics of industrially assimilated renewable energy to choose the most promising investment orientations in energy projects and selection of the most economically sound development methods of energy and related industries.

  11. Quantitative Characterization of Aqueous Byproducts from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Municipal Wastes, Food Industry Wastes, and Biomass Grown on Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddi, Balakrishna; Panisko, Ellen; Wietsma, Thomas; Lemmon, Teresa; Swita, Marie; Albrecht, Karl; Howe, Daniel

    2017-01-27

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a viable thermochemical process for converting wet solid wastes into biocrude which can be hydroprocessed to liquid transportation fuel blendstocks and specialty chemicals. The aqueous byproduct from HTL contains significant amounts (20 to 50%) of the feed carbon, which must be used to enhance economic sustainability of the process on an industrial scale. In this study, aqueous fractions produced from HTL of industrial and municipal waste were characterized using a wide variety of analytical approaches. Organic chemical compounds present in these aqueous fractions were identified using two-dimensional gas chromatography equipped with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Identified compounds include organic acids, nitrogen compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Conventional gas chromatography and liquid chromatography methods were employed to quantify the identified compounds. Inorganic species, in the aqueous stream of hydrothermal liquefaction of these aqueous byproducts, also were quantified using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The concentrations of organic chemical compounds and inorganic species are reported, and the significance of these results is discussed in detail.

  12. Renewables-to-reefs? - Decommissioning options for the offshore wind power industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Katie; Christie, Nikki; Burdon, Daryl; Atkins, Jonathan P; Barnes, Richard; Elliott, Michael

    2015-01-15

    The offshore wind power industry is relatively new but increasing globally, hence it is important that the whole life-cycle is managed. The construction-operation-decommissioning cycle is likely to take 20-30 years and whilst decommissioning may not be undertaken for many years, its management needs to be addressed in both current and future marine management regimes. This can be defined within a Drivers-Activities-Pressures-State Changes-Impacts (on human Welfare)-Responses framework. This paper considers the main decommissioning options - partial or complete removal of all components. A SWOT analysis shows environmental and economic benefits in partial as opposed to complete removal, especially if habitat created on the structures has conservation or commercial value. Benefits (and repercussions) are defined in terms of losses and gains of ecosystem services and societal benefits. The legal precedents and repercussions of both options are considered in terms of the 10-tenets of sustainable marine management. Finally a 'renewables-to-reefs' programme is proposed.

  13. Energy conservation and use of renewable energies in the bio-industries 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, F.

    1982-01-01

    The proceedings are presented of the Second International Seminar on Energy Conservation and the Use of Renewable Energies in the Bio-industries. Of 106 papers presented, the following 5 are of particular forestry interest: Brewbaker, J.L.; MacDicken, K.; Beldt, R. van den. Tropical nitrogen-fixing fuelwood trees. 108-119 (Refs. 15). Farnham, R.S.; Garton, S.; Louis, K.A.; Read, P.E. Propagating and establishing bioenergy plantations. 274-283 (Refs. 14). Salix and Alnus spp. in the marginal wetlands of northern Minnesota, USA. Kio, P.R.O. Factors and policies affecting forest resources use and conservation in Africa. 425-432 (Refs. 9), including discussion of the causes and consequences of deforestation. Plumptre, R.A.; Sandells, A. Construction, performance and economics of simple solar timber drying kilns. 577-586 (Refs. 11). Yermanos, D.M. Jojoba - outlook for maximizing oil production. 738-748 (Refs. 1). It describes experiments on seed and oil yields of Simmondsia chinensis in California.

  14. Recycling industrial waste in brick manufacture. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreola, F.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing accumulation of industrial waste speaks to the need to seek cost-effective disposal methods. Brick manufacture would appear to be particularly promising in this regard. The present study analyzes the possibility of recycling the sludge generated in porcelain tile polishing, as well as coal, steel and municipal incinerator ash to make a special type of facing brick whose properties readily accommodate a full analysis of all the problems deriving from the incorporation of residue in its manufacture. Physical-chemical, mechanical and structural analyses were performed on bricks made with varying percentages of the different types of waste considered. This first paper reports the results of the physical arid technological characterization of the products; the second part of the research will address their chemical, mechanical and structural properties.

    El continuo aumento de la cantidad de residuos (desechos que se generan en los procesos industriales induce a buscar nuevos métodos alternativos a la disposición final que sean altamente eficientes y a bajo costo. La industria manufac turera de ladrillos resulta muy prometedora desde este punto de vista. En este trabajo ha sido investigada la posibilidad de usar distintos residuos industriales, entre ellos barros de pulido del gres porcelánico. cenizas de carbón, cenizas de acerías y de incinerador municipal para la fabricación de ladrillos de exteriores. Fueron analizados los problemas que podrían derivar al introducir estos residuos en la pasta. En particular, en esta primera parte del trabajo se muestran los resultados derivados de la introducción de los residuos considerados, en distintos porcentajes, sobre las propiedades físicas y tecnológicas del producto final. En la segunda parte se desarrollarán los efectos causados sobre las propiedades químicas, mecánicas y microestructurales.

  15. Distributed Waste to Energy Conversion: A Piece of the DOD’s Renewable Energy Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    waste. Municipal solid waste (MSW) is an ever-present burden that, when properly managed, can become a negativecost fuel . MSW generation at DoD...FOR A CHANGING WORLD GEM Downdraft Gasification in a Nutshell Air Feed Waste or Biomass Feed Air Feed Air Feed Producer Gas Inert Ash Removal Solid ...installations is estimated to be on the order of 3000 tons per day, thus representing an abundant alternative fuel source. Introduction of waste to energy

  16. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gulghane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different characteristics are created at all the stages of construction. Construction industries have a larger part in contributing environmental problems. The economic and environmental benefits must be gained from construction waste minimization. This paper presents a review on systematically investigation of the management of construction materials and construction waste, material management techniques, control of construction waste and existing situation of construction management and construction waste in the industry.

  17. Production of Enzymes From Agricultural Wastes and Their Potential Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathiraja, S; Suriya, J; Krishnan, M; Manivasagan, P; Kim, S-K

    Enzymatic hydrolysis is the significant technique for the conversion of agricultural wastes into valuable products. Agroindustrial wastes such as rice bran, wheat bran, wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, and corncob are cheapest and plentifully available natural carbon sources for the production of industrially important enzymes. Innumerable enzymes that have numerous applications in industrial processes for food, drug, textile, and dye use have been produced from different types of microorganisms from agricultural wastes. Utilization of agricultural wastes offers great potential for reducing the production cost and increasing the use of enzymes for industrial purposes. This chapter focuses on economic production of actinobacterial enzymes from agricultural wastes to make a better alternative for utilization of biomass generated in million tons as waste annually. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Prototype of Industrial Waste Water Treatment Using Electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Boriboonsuksri Phonnipha; Jun-krob Natth

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a construct of electrocoagulation waste water treatment system. The system consists of reactor tank, skimmer, cyclone tank and sediment tank. Waste water is feed into reactor tank. The electrochemical reaction is made emulsification to waste water. The contaminants are removed from waste water and can be divided to two kinds: light weight suspensions be floating up and another be sediment. The flocculants are skim out and the sediments are pumped out to sludge container. A...

  19. Waste Not, Want Not: Analyzing the Economic and Environmental Viability of Waste-to-Energy (WTE) Technology for Site-Specific Optimization of Renewable Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, K.; Milford, J.; Simpkins, T.

    2013-02-01

    Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology burns municipal solid waste (MSW) in an environmentally safe combustion system to generate electricity, provide district heat, and reduce the need for landfill disposal. While this technology has gained acceptance in Europe, it has yet to be commonly recognized as an option in the United States. Section 1 of this report provides an overview of WTE as a renewable energy technology and describes a high-level model developed to assess the feasibility of WTE at a site. Section 2 reviews results from previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of WTE, and then uses an LCA inventory tool to perform a screening-level analysis of cost, net energy production, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and conventional air pollution impacts of WTE for residual MSW in Boulder, Colorado. Section 3 of this report describes the federal regulations that govern the permitting, monitoring, and operating practices of MSW combustors and provides emissions limits for WTE projects.

  20. Codigestion of manure and industrial organic waste at centralized biogas plants: process imbalances and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on process imbalances in Danish centralized biogas plants treating manure in combination with industrial waste. Collection of process data from various full-scale plants along with a number of interviews showed that imbalances occur frequently. High concentrations...... conditions) and high fractions of industrial waste in the feedstock was also observed. The process imbalances and suboptimal conditions are mainly allowed to occur due to 1) inadequate knowledge about the waste composition, 2) inadequate knowledge about the waste degradation characteristics, 3) inadequate...

  1. Engineering Scoping Study of Thermoelectric Generator Systems for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, Terry [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Choate, William T. [BCS, Inc., Laurel, MD (United States)

    2006-11-01

    This report evaluates thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems with the intent to: 1) examine industrial processes in order to identify and quantify industrial waste heat sources that could potentially use TEGs; 2) describe the operating environment that a TEG would encounter in selected industrial processes and quantify the anticipated TEG system performance; 3) identify cost, design and/or engineering performance requirements that will be needed for TEGs to operate in the selected industrial processes; and 4) identify the research, development and deployment needed to overcome the limitations that discourage the development and use of TEGs for recovery of industrial waste heat.

  2. Industrial wastes and public health: some historical notes, Part I, 1876-1932.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, J A

    1985-09-01

    This article has focused on the relatively low priority accorded industrial wastes compared to human wastes by the public health community in the period from 1876 through 1932. The critical reason for this prioritization was the potential for acute health effects from human wastes as compared with the belief that industrial wastes had only indirect effects. State departments of health normally only responded to industrial wastes when they endangered the potable nature of water supplies or interfered with water and sewage treatment processes. Within the public health community, however, a relatively small group of interdisciplinary professionals argued for attention to the indirect health effects of industrial wastes and their impacts on the total stream environment. In conjunction with other groups interested in clean streams--such as sportsmen and manufacturers who required high quality process water--they pushed for a broader state legislative mandate in regard to pollution control. Some states created new bureaus or boards with responsibility for industrial wastes and the larger stream environment but the attack on industrial pollution remained limited in this period. The final significant development regarding industrial pollution and public health concerned the formulation by Streeter-Phelps of the Public Health Service of a theory of stream purification with a set of general quantitative indicators. This application was of particular importance in regard to the high-oxygen consuming nature of organic industrial wastes and the wide variety of effluents that existed. Industrial wastes constituted what Harvey Brooks, in his essay "Science Indicators and Science Priorities" calls a very "messy" research problem--one that does "not lend itself to elegant and widely applicable generalizations."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Obtaining a sulfoaluminate belite cement by industrial waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkhadiri, L.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Sulfoaluminate belite clinkers by burning raw at moderate temperatures near 1250 °C were synthesized. The used mixtures were made by calcium carbonate blended to two industrial wastes: low calcium fly ash and phosphogypsum. The clinkers were characterised by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and free lime. The hydraulic behaviour of the obtained cements, by adequate clinkers with 7% of added gypsum, was followed by XRD, scaning electronic microscopy (SEM, FTIR and NMR.

    Los clínkeres belíticos de sulfoaluminatos se obtienen por cocción de crudos a temperaturas moderadas, hacia 1.250 ºC. Esos crudos se componen de carbonato de calcio mezclados con dos subproductos industriales: cenizas volantes pobres en óxido de calcio y fosfoyeso. Los clínkeres obtenidos se caracterizaron a través de Difracción de Rayos X (DRX, Espectroscopia Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier (FTIR y por la determinación de CaO libre. El comportamiento hidráulico de los cementos elaborados de los clínkeres con el 7% de yeso se estudió por DRX, Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (SEM, FTIR y Resonancia Magnética Nuclear (RMN

  4. Supercritical extraction of lycopene from tomato industrial wastes with ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Beatriz P; Gouveia, Luisa; Matos, Patricia G S; Cristino, Ana F; Palavra, António F; Mendes, Rui L

    2012-07-11

    Supercritical fluid extraction of all-E-lycopene from tomato industrial wastes (mixture of skins and seeds) was carried out in a semi-continuous flow apparatus using ethane as supercritical solvent. The effect of pressure, temperature, feed particle size, solvent superficial velocity and matrix initial composition was evaluated. Moreover, the yield of the extraction was compared with that obtained with other supercritical solvents (supercritical CO₂ and a near critical mixture of ethane and propane). The recovery of all-E-lycopene increased with pressure, decreased with the increase of the particle size in the initial stages of the extraction and was not practically affected by the solvent superficial velocity. The effect of the temperature was more complex. When the temperature increased from 40 to 60 °C the recovery of all-E-lycopene increased from 80 to 90%. However, for a further increase to 80 °C, the recovery remained almost the same, indicating that some E-Z isomerization could have occurred, as well as some degradation of lycopene. The recovery of all-E-lycopene was almost the same for feed samples with different all-E-lycopene content. Furthermore, when a batch with a higher all-E-lycopene content was used, supercritical ethane and a near critical mixture of ethane and propane showed to be better solvents than supercritical CO₂ leading to a faster extraction with a higher recovery of the carotenoid.

  5. Desulphurization of hot metal and nickel pig iron using waste materials from the aluminum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.D.; McLean, A. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Hasegawa, M.; Iwase, M. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Energy Science and Technology, Ferrous Metallurgy Research Group; Ren, M.L.; Zhang, D.F. [China Aluminum Co. Ltd., Shandong (China)

    2009-07-01

    The aluminium and steel industries are both energy-intensive and have significant impacts on the environment. The desulphurization of hot metal and nickel pig iron using waste materials from the aluminium industry was evaluated in this study. A simple processing technique using dross and white mud was developed to desulphurize hot metals. Waste materials with a high oxide content were combined with an aluminium instant reduction method and then used for hot metal desulphurization. The presence of nickel in the hot metals showed a negative effect on the desulphurization process as the nickel reduced carbon solubility in an iron-based metal solution. It was concluded that the use of waste slags and solids residuals from the aluminium industry within the steel industry will reduce the disposal of waste and provide significant economic benefits to both industries. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 12 figs.

  6. The challenges and opportunities facing renewable energy industries : public education and technical training[Conceptual framework for developing a national renewable energy training strategy for the college and institute sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robitaille, L. [Association of Canadian Community Colleges, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Renewable Energy Program

    2004-02-20

    Renewable energy technologies will play a major role in Canada's energy sector, with growth rates estimated at 10 to 25 per cent annually. The Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) conducted a survey to determine how many renewable energy technology, post-secondary training courses exist in Canada. The survey examined the current status and future outlook of the renewable energy industries and assessed the training needs of the industry. The factors driving renewable energy market growth include environmental and energy policies, plus a range of incentives from federal and provincial governments. Market development will influence the rate of growth of the renewable energy industries. It was noted that existing renewable energy training programs are limited in scope and in effectiveness, and must be improved throughout Canada to meet the special training needs of the industry. Better strategies must be developed for technicians already working in the field and in remote locations. In addition, it was emphasized that consumer awareness should be increased to demonstrate the benefits of renewable energy technologies. 30 refs., 6 tabs., 2 appendices.

  7. Summary of technical information and agreements from Nuclear Management and Resources Council industry reports addressing license renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, C.; Lee, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Reactor Program Management; Chopra, O.K.; Ma, D.C.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In about 1990, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) submitted for NRC review ten industry reports (IRs) addressing aging issues associated with specific structures and components of nuclear power plants ad one IR addressing the screening methodology for integrated plant assessment. The NRC staff had been reviewing the ten NUMARC IRs; their comments on each IR and NUMARC responses to the comments have been compiled as public documents. This report provides a brief summary of the technical information and NUMARC/NRC agreements from the ten IRs, except for the Cable License Renewal IR. The technical information and agreements documented herein represent the status of the NRC staffs review when the NRC staff and industry resources were redirected to address rule implementation issues. The NRC staff plans to incorporate appropriate technical information and agreements into the draft standard review plan for license renewal.

  8. Assessment of industrial hazardous waste practices, storage and primary batteries industries. Final report, Apr--Sep 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCandless, L.C.; Wetzel, R.; Casana, J.; Slimak, K.

    1975-01-01

    This report, which covers battery manufacturing operations, is one of a series of several studies which examine land-destined wastes from selected industries. The battery industry is divided into two groups by the Bureau of Census: Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 3691 Storage Batteries (such as lead--acid automobile batteries) and SIC 3692 Primary Batteries (such as carbon--zinc flashlight batteries). The battery industry was studied because heavy metals such as mercury, cadmium, zinc, and lead are used in some of its manufacturing processes. These metals can be toxic in certain concentrations and forms. The potentially hazardous wastes destined for land disposal from the battery industry consist of industrial processing wastes, reject cells, and sludges from water pollution control devices. The amount of sludges destined for land disposal is expected to experience a large short term increase as water effluent guidelines are implemented. The impact of water effluent guidelines on land disposal of wastes is the largest single factor in determining future trends for this industry.

  9. Negotiated destination for industrial solid wastes; Destinos negociados para residuos solidos industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, M.; Kuranishi, V. H.

    1999-07-01

    Executed as a cooperative activity between the graduate school and the industrial complex, this study develops an empirical model for industrial waste management in the Uberlandia region. The present situation is defined through the collection of data and information at the municipal landfill and the main waste sources. Pioneer companies are identified who have implemented their Environmental Management System through the use of widely available management tools. As the most significant result, the study points to the need for only one landfill in the municipality that takes cares of household and industrial waste. (Author) 21 refs.

  10. Economic screening of renewable energy technologies: Incineration, anaerobic digestion, and biodiesel as applied to waste water scum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Erik; Addy, Min; Ma, Huan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-12-01

    In the U.S., the total amount of municipal solid waste is continuously rising each year. Millions of tons of solid waste and scum are produced annually that require safe and environmentally sound disposal. The availability of a zero-cost energy source like municipal waste scum is ideal for several types of renewable energy technologies. However, the way the energy is produced, distributed and valued also contributes to the overall process sustainability. An economic screening method was developed to compare the potential energy and economic value of three waste-to-energy technologies; incineration, anaerobic digestion, and biodiesel. A St. Paul, MN wastewater treatment facility producing 3175 "wet" kilograms of scum per day was used as a basis of the comparison. After applying all theoretically available subsidies, scum to biodiesel was shown to have the greatest economic potential, valued between $491,949 and $610,624/year. The incineration of scum yielded the greatest reclaimed energy potential at 29billion kilojoules/year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Industrial waste materials and by-products as thermal energy storage (TES) materials: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández, A. Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of potential materials for thermal energy storage (TES) have been identify depending on the implemented TES method, Sensible, latent or thermochemical. In order to improve the efficiency of TES systems more alternatives are continuously being sought. In this regard, this paper presents the review of low cost heat storage materials focused mainly in two objectives: on the one hand, the implementation of improved heat storage devices based on new appropriate materials and, on the other hand, the valorisation of waste industrial materials will have strong environmental, economic and societal benefits such as reducing the landfilled waste amounts, reducing the greenhouse emissions and others. Different industrial and municipal waste materials and by products have been considered as potential TES materials and have been characterized as such. Asbestos containing wastes, fly ashes, by-products from the salt industry and from the metal industry, wastes from recycling steel process and from copper refining process and dross from the aluminium industry, and municipal wastes (glass and nylon) have been considered. This work shows a great revalorization of wastes and by-product opportunity as TES materials, although more studies are needed to achieve industrial deployment of the idea.

  12. Planning for integrated solid waste management at the industrial park level: a case of Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yong; Zhu, Qinghua; Haight, Murray

    2007-01-01

    Industrial parks play a significant role in the production and use of goods and services. The proper management of solid waste is a major challenge for industrial parks due to the large quantity of wastes and the variability of waste characteristics from these types of developments. Therefore, integrated solid waste management has become very crucial to the industrial park managers. Such an approach requires industrial park managers to assess the overall use of resources, and to seek waste reduction, reuse and recycling opportunities both at the individual company level and among different tenant companies. The adoption of this method can bring both economic and environmental benefits. This paper introduces the planning efforts of a real case in China. It first presents the basic information on Tianjin Economic Development Area (TEDA), and then introduces its current practices on solid waste management. The main focus of this paper is to describe how to plan an integrated solid waste management system at TEDA. Benefits and challenges are all identified and analyzed. The experiences and methods from this case study should be applied in other industrial parks so as to improve the overall eco-efficiency of the whole industrial park.

  13. Converting campus waste into renewable energy - a case study for the University of Cincinnati.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qingshi; Zhu, Chao; McAvoy, Drew C

    2015-05-01

    This paper evaluates the implementation of three waste-to-energy projects at the University of Cincinnati: waste cooking oil-to-biodiesel, waste paper-to-fuel pellets and food waste-to-biogas, respectively. The implementation of these waste-to-energy (WTE) projects would lead to the improvement of campus sustainability by minimizing waste management efforts and reducing GHG emissions via the displacement of fossil fuel usage. Technical and economic aspects of their implementation were assessed and the corresponding GHG reduction was estimated. Results showed that on-site implementation of these projects would: (1) divert 3682L (974 gallons) of waste cooking oil to 3712L (982 gallons) of biodiesel; (2) produce 138tonnes of fuel pellets from 133tonnes of waste paper (with the addition of 20.75tonnes of plastics) to replace121tonnes of coal; and (3) produce biogas that would be enough to replace 12,767m(3) natural gas every year from 146tonnes of food waste. The economic analysis determined that the payback periods for the three projects would be 16months for the biodiesel, 155months for the fuel pellet, and 74months for the biogas projects. The reduction of GHG emission from the implementation of the three WTE projects was determined to be 9.37 (biodiesel), 260.49 (fuel pellets), and 11.36 (biogas) tonnes of CO2-eq per year, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Generation in Bangladesh: Possible Scenarios to Generate Renewable Electricity in Dhaka and Chittagong City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nazmul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased generation of methane (CH4 from municipal solid wastes (MSW alarms the world to take proper initiative for the sustainable management of MSW, because it is 34 times stronger than carbon dioxide (CO2. Mounting land scarcity issue around the world brands the waste to energy (WtE strategy for MSW management in urban areas as a promising option, because WtE not only reduces the land pressure problem, but also generates electricity, heat, and green jobs. The goal of this study is to evaluate the renewable electricity generation potential and associated carbon reduction of MSW management in Bangladesh using WtE strategies. The study is conducted in two major cities of Bangladesh: Dhaka and Chittagong. Six different WtE scenarios are evaluated consisting of mixed MSW incineration and landfill gas (LFG recovery system. Energy potential of different WtE strategy is assessed using standard energy conversion model and subsequent GHGs emissions models. Scenario A1 results in highest economic and energy potential and net negative GHGs emission. Sensitivity analysis by varying MSW moisture content reveals higher energy potential and less GHGs emissions from MSW possessing low moisture content. The study proposes mixed MSW incineration that could be a potential WtE strategy for renewable electricity generation in Bangladesh.

  15. Direct and indirect generation of waste in the Spanish paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Peñalver, Soraya María; Rodríguez Molina, Mercedes; Camacho Ballesta, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The paper industry has a relatively high degree of reliance on suppliers when compared to other industries. Exploring the role of the paper industry in terms of consumption of intermediate inputs from other industries may help to understand how the production of paper does not only generate waste by itself but also affects the amount of waste generated by other industries. The product Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a useful analytical tool to examine and assess environmental impacts over the entire life cycle of a product "from cradle to grave" but it is costly and time intensive. In contrast, Economic Input Output Life Cycle Assessment Models (IO-LCA) that combine LCA with Input-Output analysis (IO) are more accurate and less expensive, as they employ publicly available data. This paper represents one of the first Spanish studies aimed at estimating the waste generated in the production of paper by applying IO-LCA. One of the major benefits is the derivation of the contribution of direct and indirect suppliers to the paper industry. The results obtained show that there was no direct relationship between the impact on output and the impact on waste generation exerted by the paper industry. The major contributors to waste generation were the mining industry and the forestry industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL SOLID WASTES IN AMMONIA UNIT OF RAZI PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX AND FEASIBILITY OF WASTE MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fakheri Raouf, R. Nabizadeh and N. Jafarzadeh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Petrochemical industries are considered as strategic and important sectors in economic development of Iran. Razi petrochemical factory is one of complex in Iran, established in 1970 with 100 hectare. In this research, the possibility of waste minimization in the ammonia unit of Razi petrochemical complex with about 1000 tons per year was studied for a period of 18 months from September 2003 to April 2005. More than 20 site visits were conducted and the required information was collected. Factors such as industrial solid wastes quality and quantity, sources of generation, production period and the present management practice, were studied. Petrochemical solid wastes were classified based on the recommended method of the United Nations and appropriate policies were suggested for waste minimization. The collected results of this study show production of 185 tons of industrial solid wastes from 45 sources which contained 68.5% catalysts, 10.25% metal barrels, 18.61% aluminum ball, 2.62% plastic barrels and 0.02% paper. 93.3% of these wastes were generated as the result of catalysts change, 3.3% as the result of using chemicals and oils, 1.7% as the result of methanol solution amid application, and 1.1% because of aluminum ball changes. Based on the UNEP methods, the ammonia unit wastes classified as 19/7%hazadrous and 87,12% non hazardous. At present 87.12% of these wastes are being dumped in the area and 12.88% are sold. Proposed procedures for waste minimization contain 68.5% reuse and recycling and 31.5% recycling.

  17. Renewal of mature industry in an old industrial region: regional innovation policy and the co-evolution of institutions and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Coenen, Lars; Moodysson, Jerker; Martin , Hanna

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to further insights on the potentials and barriers for industrial renewal in locked-in regions and industries. To do so, the paper analyzes the Swedish policy program ‘Biorefinery of the Future’ (BioF). This initiative is geared to develop a strong regional innovation environment for forestry-based biorefinery development in the area of Örnköldsvik and Umeå in Northern Sweden. Theoretically, the paper draws on concepts from evolutionary economic geography regard...

  18. Some aspects of the analysis of raw material losses and use of the woodworking industries waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsyuk, Nadiуa Yevhenivna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problem of the elimination of losses and the mostefficient use of wood waste. In particular, the author pays special attention to the issues of reducingcosts of raw wood materials and more efficient use of secondary materials. The influence ofmethods of waste while wood processing on increasing the use of forestry return waste is described.A sample of classification factors affecting the losses of wood and waste use is set. The scheme ofmovement of raw-material resources and companies’ wood waste is described within the effectivewaste control in the industry under consideration. The distribution of wood industry wastesaccording to the economic content is proposed. The system of synthetic and analytical accountingof production waste within the general plan of accounts and itemization of the production wastecost used as secondary raw material in the reports is proposed for their proper accountingtreatment.

  19. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  20. Banal industrial waste: the charms of banality; Les DIB: les charmes de la banalite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernier, J.

    1997-11-01

    Waste from shops or craftsmen's workshops, tyres, worn out vehicles or computers, plastic bins, beetroot pulp... all these different kinds of waste sum up into one single family: banal industrial waste which 1992 law considers as household garbage. The limits of this family being rather hazy, no wonder its assessment is problematic and its management can not be reduced to a mere technical problem. (author)

  1. Recovery of precious metals from industrial wastes using membrane separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jin Ki; Lee, Jae Chun; Youn, In Ju [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of the research is to develop a membrane technology for the recovery of Au by the concentration of used cyanide solution. Au and Ag have been widely used in various advanced technology due to their excellent physical and chemical properties. In most of their application, they were electrodeposited in the cyanide solution. The solution was also used as an etchant for the decorative gold alloys such as 14 K and 18 K. Due to the expanding related industry, the amount of used cyanide solution has been greatly increased. The used solution normally contains about 1-3 g/1 of Au. Due to their high prices various separation method has been developed and commercialized for long time. The concentration method which removes water offers various advantages like the reduction of used solution, the needless of additional cyanide, and the increase in the recovery rate. The main objective of the study was laid in the development of an economical recovery process for precious metals including Au from used cyanide solution. To achieve this goal related processes were reviewed comprehensively focussing on the membrane process and the concentration process. The feasibility of membrane process was evaluated by the measurement of separation efficiency and concentration efficiency of cyanide. In addition, various CN analysis was compared in order to develop a simple and routine procedure for future experiment. The process does not require additional cyanide and thus prevents further environmental contamination. It is economical because the recovery can be increased by the concentration of the solution during the recovery process. In addition, it can be applied to other metals waste system due to the reduced recovery process by concentration. The used water can also be reused. (author). 23 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Use of waste ash from palm oil industry in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangchirapat, Weerachart; Saeting, Tirasit; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Kiattikomol, Kraiwood; Siripanichgorn, Anek

    2007-01-01

    Palm oil fuel ash (POFA), a by-product from the palm oil industry, is disposed of as waste in landfills. In this study, POFA was utilized as a pozzolan in concrete. The original size POFA (termed OP) was ground until the median particle sizes were 15.9 microm (termed MP) and 7.4 microm (termed SP). Portland cement Type I was replaced by OP, MP, and SP of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by weight of binder. The properties of concrete, such as setting time, compressive strength, and expansion due to magnesium sulfate attack were investigated. The results revealed that the use of POFA in concretes caused delay in both initial and final setting times, depending on the fineness and degree of replacement of POFA. The compressive strength of concrete containing OP was much lower than that of Portland cement Type I concrete. Thus, OP is not suitable to be used as a pozzolanic material in concrete. However, the replacement of Portland cement Type I by 10% of MP and 20% of SP gave the compressive strengths of concrete at 90 days higher than that of concrete made from Portland cement Type I. After being immersed in 5% of magnesium sulfate solution for 364 days, the concrete bar mixed with 30% of SP had the same expansion level as that of the concrete bar made from Portland cement Type V. The above results suggest that ground POFA is an excellent pozzolanic material and can be used as a cement replacement in concrete. It is recommended that the optimum replacement levels of Portland cement Type I by MP and SP are 20% and 30%, respectively.

  3. Supercritical Extraction of Lycopene from Tomato Industrial Wastes with Ethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui L. Mendes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction of all-E-lycopene from tomato industrial wastes (mixture of skins and seeds was carried out in a semi-continuous flow apparatus using ethane as supercritical solvent. The effect of pressure, temperature, feed particle size, solvent superficial velocity and matrix initial composition was evaluated. Moreover, the yield of the extraction was compared with that obtained with other supercritical solvents (supercritical CO2 and a near critical mixture of ethane and propane. The recovery of all-E-lycopene increased with pressure, decreased with the increase of the particle size in the initial stages of the extraction and was not practically affected by the solvent superficial velocity. The effect of the temperature was more complex. When the temperature increased from 40 to 60 °C the recovery of all-E-lycopene increased from 80 to 90%. However, for a further increase to 80 °C, the recovery remained almost the same, indicating that some E-Z isomerization could have occurred, as well as some degradation of lycopene. The recovery of all-E-lycopene was almost the same for feed samples with different all-E-lycopene content. Furthermore, when a batch with a higher all-E-lycopene content was used, supercritical ethane and a near critical mixture of ethane and propane showed to be better solvents than supercritical CO2 leading to a faster extraction with a higher recovery of the carotenoid.

  4. Cleaning dusty gas wastes in the coking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreikov, E.I.; Anan' ina, L.P.; Zhilina, N.B.; Malysheva, N.V.; Zaidenberg, M.A.; Borodin, V.I.; Lisachenko, A.S.

    1986-02-01

    Gas wastes in coking industry contain coal and semicoke dust covered with tarry substances which prevent them being cleaned on the fixed bed of a catalyst. The paper examines whether it is possible to clean dusty gases of this type using a fluidized bed catalyst. Laboratory experiments using a continuous-flow reactor (diameter 0.02 m, height 0.2 m) and a gas supply rate of 9.6 x 10/sup -2/ m/sup 3//h are described. A mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons (concentration in gas phase - 3 g/m/sup 3/) was oxidized and the degree of conversion of the hydrocarbons was assessed by the amount of CO/sub 2/ found in the test reactor in comparison with that found in a control reactor with an AP-56 catalyst at 500 C; the CO/sub 2/ content was determined by chromatography. Dust content in the air at the fluidized bed was 6.5 g/m/sup 3/ and the amount of tar on the dust surfaces was 8%. Copper-vanadium oxide catalyst was found to work best at 450-550 C; higher temperatures reduce conversion rate (e.g. 3 hours at 720 C gave only 89% conversion). Volatile and tarry substances are absorbed, the amount of CO/sub 2/ in the gases increases and coal particles are converted to semicoke. The resulting dry dust is easier to collect in a dust collector. A pilot run at Khar'kov experimental coking plant resulted in 97.8% of hydrocarbons being romoved as well as 96% of CO. 3 references.

  5. ISO 14001 adoption and industrial waste generation: the case of Swedish manufacturing firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobel, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Adoption of environmental management systems (EMSs) based on ISO 14001 has constituted one of the most important developments in sustainable industry management in recent years. Previous research on the impact of EMSs has relied heavily on corporate representatives' subjective perception of benefits. Moreover, studies tend to focus on the systems' impact on firms' overall environmental performance, not distinguishing between the differences in different environmental aspects. This study aims to contribute knowledge about the influence of certified EMSs on industrial waste generation based on objective industrial waste data derived from mandatory annual environmental reports. The study focuses on changes in waste generation over a period of 12 years and includes both ISO 14001-certified firms (66 firms) and non-certified firms (50 firms). Consideration is given to the improvement efforts in the firms before EMS adoption. Analysis has been carried out using statistical methods for three different industrial waste parameters: hazardous waste, waste to landfill and the total amounts of waste. The results indicate that the certified EMSs have no statistically significant effect on any of the three waste parameters.

  6. Waste reduction possibilities for manufacturing systems in the industry 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, P.; Illés, B.; Dobos, P.

    2016-11-01

    The industry 4.0 creates some new possibilities for the manufacturing companies’ waste reduction for example by appearance of the cyber physical systems and the big data concept and spreading the „Internet of things (IoT)”. This paper presents in details the fourth industrial revolutions’ more important achievements and tools. In addition there will be also numerous new research directions in connection with the waste reduction possibilities of the manufacturing systems outlined.

  7. Proposed Model For Industrial Waste Management Practices and Its Impact on Organisational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Noviyanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to environment protection issue, waste management becomes one of important factors in maintaining organization sustainability. In developed country, a growing number of companies began to integrate the pro environment practices, such as waste management practices, into their business strategy. In contrast, the implementation of waste management practices by business organizations in developing country, like Indonesia, is still rare. Waste generated by industries is greater than the capacity to manage this volume of waste. This poses a problem that leads to improper disposal of waste and pollution. This study aims to design a research model which investigates the relation of institutional environment including cognitive, regulatory, and normative element; manager environmental attitudes, worker environmental attitudes, environmental policy, strategic waste management practices, and financial performance.

  8. POSSIBILITIES FOR WASTE WATER UTITLIZATION FROM CANNING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kraevska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste waters from the different processing sectors (branch, activities of the canning factories was investigated. It was established that the greatest organic pollution is a result of the production of frozen half-fried potatoes. The possibilities of reducing of the organic pollution by cultivating fungi of the genus Aspergillus and Trichoderma in the waste waters was studied.

  9. Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf as a waste by-product of table olive and olive oil industry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet

    2017-08-11

    Research into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. Since leaves represent around 10% of the total weight of olives arriving at the mill, it is worth obtaining high added-value compounds from those materials for the preparation of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional food ingredients or cosmeceuticals. In this review article, olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf is reviewed as being a potential inexpensive, renewable and abundant source of biophenols. The importance of this agricultural and industrial waste is emphasised by means of describing its availability, nutritional and therapeutic effects and studies conducted on this field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Sustainable waste management in the Indian mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, V P; Shekdar, A V

    2005-08-01

    One of the important sectors that contribute to the national economy is the mining sector. During the mining of minerals and ores, waste materials in the form of overburden are generated. As these are not useful to the mine owners, they may be inappropriately disposed of into the environment, posing serious threat to the environment in the form of land degradation, water and air pollution. The present paper discusses the existing status of waste generation, its characteristics and the disposal methods being adopted in India. Impacts associated with waste disposal practices together with preventive measures for waste disposal are also discussed. Finally, strategies for improvements in existing waste management and for incorporating the same in the overall development plan for the mines are suggested.

  11. Identifying potential environmental impacts of waste handling strategies in textile industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacout, Dalia M M; Hassouna, M S

    2016-08-01

    Waste management is a successful instrument to minimize generated waste and improve environmental conditions. In spite of the large share of developing countries in the textile industry, limited information is available concerning the waste management strategies implemented for textiles on those countries and their environmental impacts. In the current study, two waste management approaches for hazardous solid waste treatment of acrylic fibers (landfill and incineration) were investigated. The main research questions were: What are the different impacts of each waste management strategy? Which waste management strategy is more ecofriendly? Life cycle assessment was employed in order to model the environmental impacts of each waste streaming approach separately then compare them together. Results revealed that incineration was the more ecofriendly approach. Highest impacts of both approaches were on ecotoxicity and carcinogenic potentials due to release of metals from pigment wastes. Landfill had an impact of 46.8 % on human health as compared to 28 % by incineration. Incineration impact on ecosystem quality was higher than landfill impact (68.4 and 51.3 %, respectively). As for resources category, incineration had a higher impact than landfill (3.5 and 2.0 %, respectively). Those impacts could be mitigated if state-of-the-art landfill or incinerator were used and could be reduced by applying waste to energy approaches for both management systems In conclusion, shifting waste treatment from landfill to incineration would decrease the overall environmental impacts and allow energy recovery. The potential of waste to energy approach by incineration with heat recovery could be considered in further studies. Future research is needed in order to assess the implementation of waste management systems and the preferable waste management strategies in the textile industry on developing countries.

  12. Critical analysis of pyrolysis process with cellulosic based municipal waste as renewable source in energy and technical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Manu; Tardio, James; Venkata Mohan, S

    2013-11-01

    To understand the potential of cellulosic based municipal waste as a renewable feed-stock, application of pyrolysis by biorefinery approach was comprehensively studied for its practicable application towards technical and environmental viability in Indian context. In India, where the energy requirements are high, the pyrolysis of the cellulosic waste shows numerous advantages for its applicability as a potential waste-to-energy technology. The multiple energy outputs of the process viz., bio-gas, bio-oil and bio-char can serve the two major energy sectors, viz., electricity and transportation. The process suits best for high bio-gas and electrical energy production when energy input is satisfied from bio-char in form of steam (scheme-1). The bio-gas generated through the process shows its direct utility as a transportation fuel while the bio-oil produced can serve as fuel or raw material to chemical synthesis. On a commercial scale the process is a potent technology towards sustainable development. The process is self-sustained when operated on a continuous mode.

  13. On the causal links between health indicator, output, combustible renewables and waste consumption, rail transport, and CO2 emissions: the case of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi

    2016-08-01

    This study employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach and Granger causality test to investigate the short- and long-run relationships between health indicator, real GDP, combustible renewables and waste consumption, rail transport, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for the case of Tunisia, spanning the period of 1990-2011. The empirical findings suggest that the Fisher statistic of the Wald test confirm the existence of a long-run relationship between the variables. Moreover, the long-run estimated elasticities of the ARDL model provide that output and combustible renewables and waste consumption have a positive and statistically significant impact on health situation, while CO2 emissions and rail transport both contribute to the decrease of health indicator. Granger causality results affirm that, in the short-run, there is a unidirectional causality running from real GDP to health, a unidirectional causality from health to combustible renewables and waste consumption, and a unidirectional causality from all variables to CO2 emissions. In the long-run, all the computed error correction terms are significant and confirm the existence of long-run association among the variables. Our recommendations for the Tunisian policymakers are as follows: (i) exploiting wastes and renewable fuels can be a good strategy to eliminate pollution caused by emissions and subsequently improve health quality, (ii) the use of renewable energy as a main source for national rail transport is an effective strategy for public health, (iii) renewable energy investment projects are beneficial plans for the country as this contributes to the growth of its own economy and reduce energy dependence, and (iii) more renewable energy consumption leads not only to decrease pollution but also to stimulate health situation because of the increase of doctors and nurses numbers.

  14. Industrial Waste Heat Recovery - Potential Applications, Available Technologies and Crosscutting R&D Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc, North Potomac, MD (United States); Nimbalkar, Sachin U. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to explore key areas and characteristics of industrial waste heat and its generation, barriers to waste heat recovery and use, and potential research and development (R&D) opportunities. The report also provides an overview of technologies and systems currently available for waste heat recovery and discusses the issues or barriers for each. Also included is information on emerging technologies under development or at various stages of demonstrations, and R&D opportunities cross-walked by various temperature ranges, technology areas, and energy-intensive process industries.

  15. THE TECHNOLOGY OF ALKALINE FHOSPHORUS FERTILIZER ON THE BASIS OF VARIOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuziakhmetov, R.К.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of experiments on the processing of low-grade Vyatka-Kama phosphate (VKP for alkaline phosphoric fertilizer using different industrial wastes are presented in this paper. It was found that it was available to get the thermal phosphate (TP with the content of 15-18 % of the digestible P2O5 [P2О5(dig] on the basis of sulfate-soda mixture – SSM (waste alumina production and organic sludge (waste of some of the industries of petrochemical synthesis.

  16. Renewable resources in the chemical industry--breaking away from oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, Stefan; Höcker, Hans; Gebhardt, Henrike

    2007-12-01

    Rising prices for fossil-based raw materials suggest that sooner or later renewable raw materials will, in principle, become economically viable. This paper examines this widespread paradigm. Price linkages like those seen for decades particularly in connection with petrochemical raw materials are now increasingly affecting renewable raw materials. The main driving force is the competing utilisation as an energy source because both fossil-based and renewable raw materials are used primarily for heat, electrical power and mobility. As a result, prices are determined by energy utilisation. Simple observations show how prices for renewable carbon sources are becoming linked to the crude oil price. Whether the application calls for sugar, starch, virgin oils or lignocellulose, the price for the raw material rises with the oil price. Consequently, expectations regarding price trends for fossil-based energy sources can also be utilised for the valuation of alternative processes. However, this seriously calls into question the assumption that a rising crude oil price will favour the economic viability of alternative products and processes based on renewable raw materials. Conversely, it follows that these products and processes must demonstrate economic viability today. Especially in connection with new approaches in white biotechnology, it is evident that, under realistic assumptions, particularly in terms of achievable yields and the optimisation potential of the underlying processes, the route to utilisation is economically viable. This makes the paradigm mentioned at the outset at least very questionable.

  17. Construction waste management based on industrial management models: a Swedish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenis, Jan

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes a methodology for estimating the true internal costs of construction waste, aimed at promoting environmentally friendly waste management. The study employs cost-benefit analysis, contribution margin analysis, the polluter-pays principle and a mathematical model: the model for Efficient Use of Resources for Optimal Production Economy (EUROPE), which has been introduced previously by the author for assigning industrial costs to waste. The calculations are performed on construction waste created in a case study of a building project. Moreover, waste is regarded as, in a business sense, having the same basic status as any normal industrial product, namely the 'equality principle'. Application of the methodology is suggested to create incentives for environmental and profitability improvement in construction companies and other types of industrial sectors. The results of the case study show the generation of construction waste to substantially decrease the final operating income, due to the internal shadow price cost it creates. This paper is intended to reduce the gap between the choice of waste management procedures and their economic impact, the overall objective being to accomplish an improved industrial environmental situation.

  18. Immobilization technologies for the management of hazardous industrial waste using granite waste (case study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasheen, Mohamed R.; Ashmawy, Azza M.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Moniem, Shimaa M. Abdel [National Research Centre, Giza (Egypt)

    2016-03-15

    Full characterization of granite waste sludge (GWS) was accomplished by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Xray fluorescence (XRF) for identification of its phase and chemical composition. Different leaching tests were conducted to determine the efficiency of the GWS for metal stabilization in hazardous sludge. The leaching of the metals from stabilized contaminated sludge was decreased as the GWS amount increased. Only 15% of GWS was sufficient for stabilization of all metal ions under investigation. The main reason for metal immobilization was attributed to the aluminosilicates or silicates matrix within the GWS, which can transform the metals in the form of their insoluble hydroxides or absorbed in the stabilized matrix. Also, solidification/stabilization technique was used for remediation of contaminated sludge. Compressive strength test after curing for 28 days was used for measuring the effectiveness of remediation technique; it was found to be 1.88MPa. This indicated that the remediated sludge was well solidified and safe to be used as a raw substance for roadway blocks. Therefore, this huge amount of by-product sludge derived from the granite cutting industry, which has a negative environmental impact due to its disposal, can be utilized as a binder material for solidification/stabilization of hazardous sludge.

  19. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebilcox, G. J.; Lundberg, W. L.

    1981-03-01

    The canning segment of the food processing industry is a major energy user within that industry. Most of its energy demand is met by hot water and steam and those fluids, in addition to product cooling water, eventually flow from the processes as warm waste water. To minimize the possibility of product contamination, a large percentage of that waste water is sent directly to factory drains and sewer systems without being recycled and in many cases the thermal energy contained by the waste streams also goes unreclaimed and is lost from further use. Waste heat recovery in canning facilities can be performed economically using systems that employ thermal energy storage (TES). A project was proposed in which a demonstration waste heat recovery system, including a TES feature, would be designed, installed and operated.

  20. Transesterification reaction of the fat originated from solid waste of the leather industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işler, Asli; Sundu, Serap; Tüter, Melek; Karaosmanoğlu, Filiz

    2010-12-01

    The leather industry is an industry which generates a large amount of solid and liquid wastes. Most of the solid wastes originate from the pre-tanning processes while half of it comes from the fleshing step. Raw fleshing wastes which mainly consist of protein and fat have almost no recovery option and the disposal is costly. This study outlines the possibility of using the fleshing waste as an oil source for transesterification reaction. The effect of oil/alcohol molar ratio, the amount of catalyst and temperature on ester production was individually investigated and optimum reaction conditions were determined. The fuel properties of the ester product were also studied according to the EN 14214 standard. Cold filter plugging point and oxidation stability have to be improved in order to use the ester product as an alternative fuel candidate. Besides, this product can be used as a feedstock in lubricant production or cosmetic industry.

  1. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulten Izmirlioglu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO4·7H2O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH2PO4 and CaCl2·2H2O had a significantly negative effect (p-value < 0.05. Using response surface methodology, a medium consisting of 40.4 g/L (dry basis industrial waste potato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO4·7H2O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production.

  2. A Study on the Evaluation of Industrial Solid Waste Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approaches in Some Industries in Aba, South Eastern Nigeria. Ajero, C.M.U ..... industries have not had any formal medical check up. .... It is a common knowledge that in Aba, small scale .... Engineering International Conference. University of ...

  3. Public scandal about the nuclear waste treatment industry. Der Atommuellskandal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The events leading to the public scandal are summarized into three main items: (1) Accusation for taking bribe in the form of money and in kind. (2) Suspicion of false labelling of radioactive waste. (3) Suspicion of offense against the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The survey in hand is intended to prepare a sober judgement of the situation by: stating the facts and their significance in terms of safety; explaining the various types of radioactive wastes, their treatment and the quantities involved; explaining the legal provisions for transport of radioactive materials; discussing the problem of nuclear waste management in terms of quantity. The lesson to be drawn is that controls and further means of quality assurance are required to make the pathways of radioactive wastes are pellucid and verifiable. (orig./HSCH).

  4. Utilizing waste heat from metal industry for drying of organic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Dobric, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Growing generation of organic waste is a real problem all over the world. This is specifically expressed in the developed countries because the amounts of the waste are larger. Therefore, it implies problem connected with organic waste disposal. In the modern society it is prohibited to dump the waste on landfills. It was necessary to find the solution how to deal with this situation.One of the options is delivering of the organic waste to the burning facilities. In this way it is possible to...

  5. Utilizing waste heat from metal industry for drying of organic waste

    OpenAIRE

    Dobric, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Growing generation of organic waste is a real problem all over the world. This is specifically expressed in the developed countries because the amounts of the waste are larger. Therefore, it implies problem connected with organic waste disposal. In the modern society it is prohibited to dump the waste on landfills. It was necessary to find the solution how to deal with this situation.One of the options is delivering of the organic waste to the burning facilities. In this way it is possible to...

  6. Lancashire and Yorkshire Renewable Energy Planning Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The central aims of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Renewable Energy Planning Study (LYREPS) are to: identify renewable energy resources in the region and evaluate the opportunities for their deployment; promote a local-level development plan policy framework for the utilisation of renewable energy sources which is fully integrated with established land use and economic development strategies in the region. The availability of the following resources was investigated: landfill gas; municipal and industrial wastes; animal slurry; biomass; straw; active solar; passive solar design; photovoltaics; hydro; and wind. (author)

  7. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  8. Towards sets of hazardous waste indicators. Essential tools for modern industrial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Peter J; Granados, Asa

    2002-01-01

    Decision-makers require useful tools, such as indicators, to help them make environmentally sound decisions leading to effective management of hazardous wastes. Four hazardous waste indicators are being tested for such a purpose by several countries within the Sustainable Development Indicator Programme of the United Nations Commission for Sustainable Development. However, these indicators only address the 'down-stream' end-of-pipe industrial situation. More creative thinking is clearly needed to develop a wider range of indicators that not only reflects all aspects of industrial production that generates hazardous waste but considers socio-economic implications of the waste as well. Sets of useful and innovative indicators are proposed that could be applied to the emerging paradigm shift away from conventional end-of-pipe management actions and towards preventive strategies that are being increasingly adopted by industry often in association with local and national governments. A methodological and conceptual framework for the development of a core-set of hazardous waste indicators has been developed. Some of the indicator sets outlined quantify preventive waste management strategies (including indicators for cleaner production, hazardous waste reduction/minimization and life cycle analysis), whilst other sets address proactive strategies (including changes in production and consumption patterns, eco-efficiency, eco-intensity and resource productivity). Indicators for quantifying transport of hazardous wastes are also described. It was concluded that a number of the indicators proposed could now be usefully implemented as management tools using existing industrial and economic data. As cleaner production technologies and waste minimization approaches are more widely deployed, and industry integrates environmental concerns at all levels of decision-making, it is expected that the necessary data for construction of the remaining indicators will soon become available.

  9. Combustion Technology for Incinerating Wastes from Air Force Industrial Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    waste for energy (not recycling cement kiln dust for clinker ) to be distinguishable from a commercial hazardous waste incinerator in -" its potential...ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10 PROGRAM ELEMENT . PROJECT, TASK . National Bureau of Standards AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Washington D.C. 20234 PE 63723F JON...high temperature combustion zone transit time which significantly exceeds fuel droplet burnout and mixing times, and (4) employing afterburners

  10. POPs as hazardous waste and appearance in the industry

    OpenAIRE

    Alili, Agron; Karakaseva, Snezana; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Hazardous waste is waste, which is consist from composition or concentration of hazardous substances which can cause hazards on environmental and people health and have one or more hazardous properties, such as explosive, reactive (oxidizing), flammability, irritability, toxicity, infectivity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, reproduction toxicity, ecotoxicity and discharge properties of toxic gases in contact with water, air od acid, determined in accordance with this law or other regulatin, w...

  11. Industrial waste exchange: a mechanism for saving energy and money

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    Although considerable savings of both energy and money are possible through waste exchange, several major impediments limit the number of actual exchanges that take place. These impediments include the lack of economical separation technology, the small quantities of material available at each site, restrictive or uncertain regulation, and lack of knowledge on the part of potential waste users. None of these barriers is insurmountable if appropriate action is taken.

  12. Biomass and waste as a renewable and sustainable energy source in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Schirmer, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Due to Vietnam’s economic development its energy demand will continue to rise by 12–16% annually over the next few years. The government has realized that supply problems in the energy sector pose a significant threat to further development. Therefore, it is making concerted efforts to modernize the existing energy sector and expand the generating structure. There are ambitious expansion plans in the field of renewable energy sources, too. Owing to its very high potential, biomass could play ...

  13. Development of renewable energies in the building industry and in the industry in general; Developpement des energies renouvelable dans le batiment et l'industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This third issue of the international DERBI conference has permitted to decipher the international actuality of renewable energies, to position the French national projects in this thriving context, and to discover the recent technological innovations. Californian companies were invited to this conference for a comparison of the policies in favor of renewable energy sources on both sides of the Atlantic ocean. This document gathers the transparencies presented at this conference and dealing with technologies, products, projects and realization in the following domains: solar cooling, biomass power plants, photovoltaic power plants and advances in photovoltaic engineering, solar thermal energy, thermodynamic solar power plants, architecture, renewable energies and the Eco-Building European project, biofuels, wood fuels, wind power and small wind power, geothermal energy. Presentations deal also with the financing of renewable energy projects, the competencies, employment and training, the numerical dimension, and the automation in the renewable energies domain. (J.S.)

  14. Separation of metals from incineration wastes using mineral industry processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheizer, G. [Universite de Technologie, Aix-la-Chapelle (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The incineration of municipal wastes in Federal Republic of Germany produced about 2.7 to 2.8 millions of tons of solid wastes in 1993 which still contain huge amounts of mineral and organic pollutants. Ashes represent the largest part of wastes with about 2.4 millions of tons. Vitrification is an innovative treatment technique which allows a 90% reduction of the waste volume, the complete removal of the organic matter content, and the storage of these waste in an environmentally neutral form. However, metals must be extracted from the ashes prior to the vitrification process. Most metals fall into the 2.4-2.7 g/cm{sup 3} and > 3 g/cm{sup 3} density ranges. The lighter fraction corresponds to aluminium particles and alloys, while the high density fraction is enriched in copper, copper alloys and more particularly in brass. The treatment process, after drying, consist in the use of high intensity magnetic separation devices (permanent neodymium-bore-iron magnets) for the removal of ferrous particles, and in the use of Foucault currents separation devices for non-magnetic metals. At the pilot-scale, the distribution of the processed wastes corresponds to: 62.6 % of non-metallized ashes, 35.5 % of magnetic products, and 1.9% of non-magnetic products. The possible recycling of the metal fraction must be demonstrated by further studies. (J.S.). Abstract only.

  15. Rising critical emission of air pollutants from renewable biomass based cogeneration from the sugar industry in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S. K.; Ohara, T.; Beig, G.; Kurokawa, J.; Nagashima, T.

    2015-09-01

    In the recent past, the emerging India economy is highly dependent on conventional as well as renewable energy to deal with energy security. Keeping the potential of biomass and its plentiful availability, the Indian government has been encouraging various industrial sectors to generate their own energy from it. The Indian sugar industry has adopted and made impressive growth in bagasse (a renewable biomass, i.e. left after sugercane is crushed) based cogeneration power to fulfil their energy need, as well as to export a big chunk of energy to grid power. Like fossil fuel, bagasse combustion also generates various critical pollutants. This article provides the first ever estimation, current status and overview of magnitude of air pollutant emissions from rapidly growing bagasse based cogeneration technology in Indian sugar mills. The estimated emission from the world’s second largest sugar industry in India for particulate matter, NOX, SO2, CO and CO2 is estimated to be 444 ± 225 Gg yr-1, 188 ± 95 Gg yr-1, 43 ± 22 Gg yr-1, 463 ± 240 Gg yr-1 and 47.4 ± 9 Tg yr-1, respectively in 2014. The studies also analyze and identify potential hot spot regions across the country and explore the possible further potential growth for this sector. This first ever estimation not only improves the existing national emission inventory, but is also useful in chemical transport modeling studies, as well as for policy makers.

  16. Renewable fuels as feedstocks in industrial organic chemistry; Nachwachsende Rohstoffe als Feedstock in der industriellen organischen Chemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, J.

    1995-10-01

    Fossil fuels are used in the chemical industry for providing process energy but primarily as chemical feedstocks. In view of the necessity ofsaving fossil resources and reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, the author investigates inhowfar renewable fuels may serve as substitutes for the fossil carbon carriers now used in the chemical industry. He starts with a bibliographic research which also takes account of studies on the uses of biomass for power generation. On this basis, an outline of current production processes (including specific data for cultivation and processing), production volumes and consumption structures is given for the main types of renewable raw materials (sugar, starch, cellulose and vegetable fats and oils). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Fossile Energietraeger werden in der chemischen Industrie ausser zur Bereitstellung von Prozessenergie vor allem nichtenergetisch, d.h. als chemische Rohstoffe (sog. Feedstock), eingesetzt. Angesichts der Notwendigkeit, die fossilen Rohstoffvorraete zu schonen und die anthropogenen Klimagasemissionen zu vermindern, stellt sich die Frage, inwieweit nachwachsende Rohstoffe die im Chemiesektor fuer nichtenergetische Zwecke eingesetzten fossilen Kohlenstofftraeger ersetzen koennen. Im Rahmen der Studienarbeit soll zunaechst eine Literaturrecherche zu diesem Themenkomplex durchgefuehrt werden, wobei auch Untersuchungen zur energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse zu beruecksichtigen sind. Auf dieser Basis soll fuer die Haupttypen nachwachsender Rohstoffe (Zucker, Staerke, Cellulose und pflanzliche Fette/Oele) ein Ueberblick zu den heutigen Produktionsverfahren (inkl. Anbau- und verarbeitungsspezifischer Daten), Produktionsmengen und Verbrauchsstrukturen gegeben werden. (orig./SR)

  17. Solid recovered fuels in the cement industry with special respect to hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomanetz, Erwin

    2012-04-01

    Cements with good technical properties have been produced in Europe since the nineteenth century and are now worldwide standardized high-quality mass products with enormous production numbers. The basic component for cement is the so-called clinker which is produced mainly from raw meal (limestone plus clay plus sands) in a rotary kiln with preheater and progressively with integrated calciner, at temperatures up to 1450 °C. This process requires large amounts of fossil fuels and is CO₂-intensive. But most CO₂ is released by lime decomposition during the burning process. In the 1980s the use of alternative fuels began--firstly in the form of used oil and waste tyres and then increasingly by pre-conditioned materials from commercial waste and from high calorific industrial waste (i.e. solid recovered fuel (SRF))--as well as organic hazardous waste materials such as solvents, pre-conditioned with sawdust. Therefore the cement industry is more and more a competitor in the waste-to-energy market--be it for municipal waste or for hazardous waste, especially concerning waste incineration, but also for other co-incineration plants. There are still no binding EU rules identifying which types of SRF or hazardous waste could be incinerated in cement kilns, but there are some well-made country-specific 'positive lists', for example in Switzerland and Austria. Thus, for proper planning in the cement industry as well as in the waste management field, waste disposal routes should be considered properly, in order to avoid surplus capacities on one side and shortage on the other.

  18. Environmental justice implications of industrial hazardous waste generation in India: a national scale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Pratyusha; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2016-12-01

    While rising air and water pollution have become issues of widespread public concern in India, the relationship between spatial distribution of environmental pollution and social disadvantage has received less attention. This lack of attention becomes particularly relevant in the context of industrial pollution, as India continues to pursue industrial development policies without sufficient regard to its adverse social impacts. This letter examines industrial pollution in India from an environmental justice (EJ) perspective by presenting a national scale study of social inequities in the distribution of industrial hazardous waste generation. Our analysis connects district-level data from the 2009 National Inventory of Hazardous Waste Generating Industries with variables representing urbanization, social disadvantage, and socioeconomic status from the 2011 Census of India. Our results indicate that more urbanized and densely populated districts with a higher proportion of socially and economically disadvantaged residents are significantly more likely to generate hazardous waste. The quantity of hazardous waste generated is significantly higher in more urbanized but sparsely populated districts with a higher proportion of economically disadvantaged households, after accounting for other relevant explanatory factors such as literacy and social disadvantage. These findings underscore the growing need to incorporate EJ considerations in future industrial development and waste management in India.

  19. Waste Generation and Recycling: Comparison of Conventional and Industrialized Building Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawshan A. Begum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the Malaysian construction industry, there is a pressing issue of minimizing construction waste, which cause significant impacts on the environment. With the increasing demand for major infrastructure projects, commercial buildings and housing development programmers, a large amount of construction waste is being produced. Adoption of prefabrication and industrialized building systems is now a priority in the industry and also an important means of reducing waste. Approach: Discussion of the prefabrication adoption were based on a comprehensive review of literatures and studies that contained data, information, findings and evidences related to prefabrication and industrial building systems in Malaysia. This study also highlighted a comparative study of material wastage and recycling based on two project sites e.g., conventional and prefabrication construction. Results: In the Malaysia construction industry, adoption of prefabrication and IBS is strongly encouraged to reduce construction time as well as the industry’s dependency on foreign workers. In addition, this study confirms that a huge amount of material wastage can be reduced by the adoption of prefabrication. This study also revealed that the rates of reused and recycled waste materials are relatively higher in projects that adopt prefabrication. Conclusion: Thus, the adoption of prefabrication and IBS has potential in the reduction of huge waste generation and management problems in the construction sector of Malaysia although there are some challenges in the adoption of prefabrication.

  20. National economic models of industrial water use and waste treatment. [technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. G.; Calloway, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of air emission and solid waste restrictions on production costs and resource use by industry is investigated. A linear program is developed to analyze how resource use, production cost, and waste discharges in different types of production may be affected by resource limiting policies of the government. The method is applied to modeling ethylene and ammonia plants at the design stage. Results show that the effects of increasingly restrictive wastewater effluent standards on increased energy use were small in both plants. Plant models were developed for other industries and the program estimated effects of wastewater discharge policies on production costs of industry.

  1. Characterization and thermal behaviour of textile waste from the industrial city of Aleppo in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majanny, Abdulkader; Nassour, Abdallah; Gose, Sven; Scholz, Reinhard; Nelles, Michael

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the present waste management practices in the industrial city Alsheikh Najjar of Aleppo, mainly with regard to textile waste materials, and provides some insights into future prospects. As a first exploration for energy recovery from textile waste materials, the thermal behaviour of seven different types of textile waste were studied by thermogravimetry. There were assorted differential thermogravimetry peaks found over a particular range of temperatures. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out to identify the pyrolysis products such as gas, liquid, and solid residues known as char. In a subsequent analysis, the combustion behaviour of textile waste was determined and analysed. Typical parameters - reaction front velocity, ignition rate - were considered for the evaluation of the combustion behaviour and the results were compared with values observed for waste wood.

  2. Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villet, R.H.

    1980-04-01

    To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

  3. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass product...

  4. Biorefinery approach for cassava-based industrial wastes: Current status and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Xie, Li; Yin, Zhixuan; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Zhou, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Cassava, an important food crop, has been extensively employed as raw materials for various agri-industries to produce starch, bioethanol and other biobased products/chemicals. These cassava-based industries also generate large quantities of wastes/residues, rich in organic matter and suspended solids, and pose significant environmental issues. Their complex biochemical composition with high organic content endows them with a great potential for bioconversion into value-added products via biorefinery thereby providing economic and environmental sustainability to cassava industries. This state-of-the-art review covers the source, composition and characteristics of cassava industrial wastes and residues, and their bioconversion into value-added products, mainly biofuels (ethanol and butanol), biogas, biosurfactant, organic acids and other valuable biochemicals among others. This paper also outlines future perspectives with respect to developing more effective and efficient bioconversion processes for converting the cassava wastes and residues into high-value products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Putting renewables and energy efficiency to work: How many jobs can the clean energy industry generate in the US?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max; Kammen, Daniel M. [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall 3050, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States); Patadia, Shana [Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An analytical job creation model for the US power sector from 2009 to 2030 is presented. The model synthesizes data from 15 job studies covering renewable energy (RE), energy efficiency (EE), carbon capture and storage (CCS) and nuclear power. The paper employs a consistent methodology of normalizing job data to average employment per unit energy produced over plant lifetime. Job losses in the coal and natural gas industry are modeled to project net employment impacts. Benefits and drawbacks of the methodology are assessed and the resulting model is used for job projections under various renewable portfolio standards (RPS), EE, and low carbon energy scenarios We find that all non-fossil fuel technologies (renewable energy, EE, low carbon) create more jobs per unit energy than coal and natural gas. Aggressive EE measures combined with a 30% RPS target in 2030 can generate over 4 million full-time-equivalent job-years by 2030 while increasing nuclear power to 25% and CCS to 10% of overall generation in 2030 can yield an additional 500,000 job-years. (author)

  6. Nasreya: a treatment and disposal facility for industrial hazardous waste in Alexandria, Egypt: phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Adham R; Kock, Per; Nadim, Amani

    2005-04-01

    A facility for the treatment and disposal of industrial hazardous waste has been established in Alexandria, Egypt. Phase I of the facility encompassing a secure landfill and solar evaporation ponds is ready to receive waste, and Phase II encompassing physico-chemical treatment, solidification, and interim storage is underway. The facility, the Nasreya Centre, is the first of its kind in Egypt, and represents the nucleus for the integration, improvement and further expansion of different hazardous waste management practices and services in Alexandria. It has been developed within the overall legal framework of the Egyptian Law for the Environment, and is expected to improve prospects for enforcement of the regulatory requirements specified in this law. It has been developed with the overall aim of promoting the establishment of an integrated industrial hazardous waste management system in Alexandria, serving as a demonstration to be replicated elsewhere in Egypt. For Phase I, the Centre only accepts inorganic industrial wastes. In this respect, a waste acceptance policy has been developed, which is expected to be reviewed during Phase II, with an expansion of the waste types accepted.

  7. Synergy of fuzzy AHP and Six Sigma for capacity waste management in Indian automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Rathi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Capacity waste management is highly essential because under utilization of capacity is often referred to as a major reason for lower productivity among industries around the world. For better estimation of capacity and its utilization and then for its improved management; newer techniques are being devised in industrial sector. The current case of capacity waste problem has been taken up as a Six Sigma project, where we try to analyze critical factors responsible for the capacity waste. Decisions on critical factor selection in analysis phase of Six Sigma are always very crucial. The paper discusses an approach for selection of capacity waste factors at an automotive industry using fuzzy logic based AHP method. The fuzzy AHP is a well recognized tool to undertake the fuzziness of the data involved in choosing the preferences of the different decision variables engaged in the process of capacity waste factors selection. In this context, we have explored six crucial parameters for selection of capacity waste factors. Final ranking is calculated through priority vector thus obtained and it is seen that conveyor malfunction is found to be the key factor for capacity waste among all alternatives at the selected site.

  8. Volumes of common industrial wastes: a study report; Dechets industriels banals: quel tonnage? rapport d`etude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The total common industrial waste volume production in France has been evaluated, taking into consideration all the industrial and commercial sectors and the following materials: glass, metals, plastics, rubber, textiles, papers, cardboard, wood, leather, organic matters, building wastes, mixtures. Results are presented for the various regions of France, as a function of enterprise size, waste type and destination; data are also given concerning packaging materials, and waste collection and processing. Comparisons are made with data from other information sources and calculations

  9. Enhanced Bio-Ethanol Production from Industrial Potato Waste by Statistical Medium Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmirlioglu, Gulten; Demirci, Ali

    2015-10-15

    Industrial wastes are of great interest as a substrate in production of value-added products to reduce cost, while managing the waste economically and environmentally. Bio-ethanol production from industrial wastes has gained attention because of its abundance, availability, and rich carbon and nitrogen content. In this study, industrial potato waste was used as a carbon source and a medium was optimized for ethanol production by using statistical designs. The effect of various medium components on ethanol production was evaluated. Yeast extract, malt extract, and MgSO₄·7H₂O showed significantly positive effects, whereas KH₂PO₄ and CaCl₂·2H₂O had a significantly negative effect (p-valueindustrial waste potato, 50 g/L malt extract, and 4.84 g/L MgSO₄·7H₂O was found optimal and yielded 24.6 g/L ethanol at 30 °C, 150 rpm, and 48 h of fermentation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that industrial potato waste can be used effectively to enhance bioethanol production.

  10. Development of sustainable waste management toward zero landfill waste for the petrochemical industry in Thailand using a comprehensive 3R methodology: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usapein, Parnuwat; Chavalparit, Orathai

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable waste management was introduced more than ten years ago, but it has not yet been applied to the Thai petrochemical industry. Therefore, under the philosophy of sustainable waste management, this research aims to apply the reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R) concept at the petrochemical factory level to achieve a more sustainable industrial solid waste management system. Three olefin plants in Thailand were surveyed for the case study. The sources and types of waste and existing waste management options were identified. The results indicate that there are four sources of waste generation: (1) production, (2) maintenance, (3) waste treatment, and (4) waste packaging, which correspond to 45.18%, 36.71%, 9.73%, and 8.37% of the waste generated, respectively. From the survey, 59 different types of industrial wastes were generated from the different factory activities. The proposed 3R options could reduce the amount of landfill waste to 79.01% of the amount produced during the survey period; this reduction would occur over a period of 2 years and would result in reduced disposal costs and reduced consumption of natural resources. This study could be used as an example of an improved waste management system in the petrochemical industry. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Management approaches to integrated solid waste in industrialized zones in Jordan: a case of Zarqa City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrayyan, Bassam; Hamdi, Moshrik R

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to recognize the difficulties experienced in managing waste and to understand the reasons for those difficulties, especially in developing countries such as Jordan. Zarqa is a Governorate located in central Jordan, which has 2874 registered industries, making up more than 52% of the total industries in the country. Zarqa Governorate suffers from serious solid waste problems. These problems arise from an absence of adequate policies, facilitating legislation, and an environmentally enthused public, which therefore have a negative impact on the environment and health. Solid waste generation in Zarqa Governorate has increased exponentially and has polluted natural resources and the environment. A significant change in municipal solid waste generation was evident between the years 1994 and 2000. The Zarqa Governorate generated 482 tons/day in 2002 with a per capita rate of 0.44 kg/cap-day [Consulting Engineers, 2002, Feasibility study for the treatment of industrial wastewater in Zarqa Governorate. A project funded by METAP and Zarqa Chamber of Industry. Unpublished report]. This manuscript assesses the current operational and management practices of solid waste in the Zarqa Governorate; and evaluates the associated issues of solid waste collection, storage, transport, disposal and recycling in developing countries. The lack of techniques, financial funds and awareness among public and private sectors form an obstacle for achieving a successful environmental program. Several options are proposed to address management goals. Although Jordan became the first country in the Middle East to adopt a national environmental strategy; waste disposal is still largely uncontrolled and large quantities of waste go uncollected. Ensuring proper management of solid wastes, enforcing regulations, and implementing proper environmental awareness programs that will enhance the public understanding and achieve greater efficiency, are the findings of this study.

  12. ENERGY RECOVERY FROM WASTE IN THE ASPECT OF ELECTRICITY AND HEAT QUALIFICATIONS AS COMING FROM RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND PARTICIPATION IN THE SYSTEM OF EMISSIONS TRADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Wasielewski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the qualification of heat and electricity produced in plants using waste as a fuel. It also concerns the issues related with the possibilities of participation in the system of emissions trading. The basis for such considerations is the content of biodegradable fraction in waste, which is treated as “biomass”, based on the definitions set out in relevant legislation. It is necessary to determine content of biodegradable fraction in waste in order to establish the purposes. Two ways of settling share of energy from renewable energy sources were introduced. The first, was based on direct measurement of the share of biodegradable fraction in the tested waste. On the other hand, the second is involved with certain types of waste. Thus, the share of biodegradable fraction is determined by flat-rate value. An applicable auction system does not guarantee the financial support for electricity produced from renewable energy sources, even if it is classified so. A company selling heat to end users is obliged to purchase the heat from renewable energy sources, including thermal treatment plants using municipal waste. The maximum level that the company is obliged to purchase is equal to the customers’ demand. Both the municipal waste incineration and hazardous waste incineration plants are exempted from the obligations provided in the Act on system of emission trading. This applies only to the waste incineration plants, which incinerate only the municipal waste or hazardous waste and the plants which are processing waste, not producing of heat. When an installation uses alternative fuel, it is not automatically excluded from participation in the system of emission trading. For biodegradable fraction of alternative fuel, the emission factor equal to 0 can be used. For the remaining alternative fuels, an emission factor determined on the basis of laboratory tests must be assigned. In order to demonstrate that an alternative fuel

  13. Integrated waste and water management in mining and metallurgical industries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.K.C.CHAN; S.BOUZALAKOS; A.W.L.DUDENEY

    2008-01-01

    Extractive operations usually co-produce large quantities of unmarketable materials (mineral wastes),most of which are conventionally discarded to dumps (coarse material) and tailings ponds (fines).Escalating cost and regulation worldwide highlight an increasing need for reduction and re-use of such wastes.The present paper introduces a new integrated waste management scheme for solids and water.The scheme was exemplified by novel treatment of synthetic waste and process water linked to the biohydrometallurgical processing of metal sulphide flotation concentrates.Bioleaching of sulphide concentrate leads to two types of solid waste:a ferrihydrite/gypsum precipitate from neutralisation of the bioleach liquor and un-leached gangue.The paper indicates that,depending upon the minor components involved,the solid phases in admixture might be usefully distributed among three types of product:conventional underground backfill,cemented civil engineering backfill (particularly controlled low strength material or CLSM) and manufactured soil.It emphasizes CLSM containing simulated mineral waste,showing that such material can exhibit the required characteristics of strength,porosity and permeability.When toxic components,e.g.,arsenic from refractory gold ore,are present,encapsulation will be required.Process water is typically recycled as far as possible,although any excess should be treated before re-use or discharge.The paper also highlights treatment by reverse osmosis (one of the few methods able to generally remove dissolved components),particularly showing that arsenic in oxidation state +6 can be readily removed for discharge (<50×10-12 As),although additional ion exchange is needed for potable water (<10×10-12 As).

  14. Filamentous fungi isolated from Brazilian semiarid tolerant to metallurgical industry wastes: an ex situ evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Manoel Rodrigues da Silva Júnior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of metallurgical industry wastes on the semiarid soil microbiota using physico-chemical and microbiological parameters, highlighting the filamentous fungi assembly. Soil samples were collected in an area of industrial waste deposit contaminated with lead and mixed with natural soil (control soil in seven different concentrations (0, 7.5, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 100%. The results showed alterations on the physico-chemical properties of the soil treated with industrial wastes, with a gradate increase of the soil's pH (5.6-10.4 and electrical conductivity (0.3-14.7 dS m-1 and also reduction of organic matter (7.0-1.8%. The use of microbiological parameters (fungal richness and diversity, CO2emission, and the carbon on the microbial biomass enabled the identification of alterations on the microbial community due to stress caused by the exposure to industrial wastes, despite the presence of Thielavia, Chaetomium and Aspergillus tolerant to high concentrations of the scoria. Therefore, these filamentous fungi could be used in biomonitoring and bioremediation studies in the soils contaminated by industrial wastes.

  15. Utilization of industrial dairy waste as microalgae cultivation medium : a potential study for sustainable energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmayani, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Putra, R. H.

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae is one of biodiesel resources and call as third generation biofuel. Biodiesel is one alternative energy that being developed. So study about resource of biodiesel need a development, for the example is development the basic material such as microalgae. In this paper we explain the potential use of dairy waste from industry as a cultivation medium of microalgae for biodiesel production. Dairy waste from dairy industry contains 34.98% protein, 4.42% lactose, 9.77% fiber, 11.04% fat, 2.33% calcium, 1.05% phosfor, and 0.4 % magnesium, meaning that the dairy waste from dairy industry has a relatively high nutrient content and complete from a source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as macro nutrients. The method in this paper is literature review to resulting a new conclusion about the potency of waste water from dairy industry as microalgae cultivation medium. Based on the study, the dairy waste from dairy industry has potency to be used as cultivation medium of Botryococcus braunii in the production of biodiesel, replacing the conventional cultivation medium.

  16. An evaluation of waste control measures in construction industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    Hence, this research assesses the forms, causes and factors incidental to waste and ... between materials specified during design and those procured for use at sites. .... projects; there was the use of questionnaires that covered a wide ... computed from the analysis of the rating indicated by the ..... The survey showed that.

  17. Modern technologies of waste utilization from industrial tire production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimov, Yusuf; Gilmanshin, Iskander; Gilmanshina, Suriya

    2016-06-01

    The innovative technology of waste tire production recovery from JSC "Nizhnekamskshina", which determines the possibility of obtaining a new type of composite material in the form fiber filled rubber compound (FFRC) as the raw material, production of rubber products with high technical and operational characteristics.

  18. Coffee Area (Subak Abian Tri Guna Karya Kintamani Bangli Based Waste Management Potential to Generate Renewable Energy Sources and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INyoman Sucipta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali island has 5.632.86 km2 area with a total area of 36.298 hectares of coffee farm in 2004with production 3.696.206 15386.405 tons of Arabica coffee and Robusta coffee produces tonsof waste is high enough. The results of the proximate analysis of robusta coffee waste containingprotein, crude fiber and fat is high at 6.67 to 12.43% crude protein, fiber kasar11,05-21,40%, fat1.04 to 1.07%, while the calcium 0 , 21 to 0.34% and 0.02-0.07% phosfor.Materials (coffee waste inserted through the container revenue in accordance with thetreatment, then allowed to ferment anaerobically for 35 days, if the bio-gas already formed inlarge volume, then the bio-gas flow from the inner tube to cleaners tube which then exits througha gas hose. Bio-gas has started to form when the water in the U manometer and hose materialspointer moves upward.Parameters measured were the temperature of the fermentation medium was measured with athermometer scale 0-100oC. Volume of bio-gas can be shown on the hose raw material pointerwas the changes of the surface of raw material height multiplied by its width. Gasbio pressureinside the bioreactor was measured using a manometer U scaleD 3-3 cm. gasbio production wasmeasured by thermik properties of the gas or through the ideal gas equation (Sutanto, 1982.Technical analysis measured through the strength of materials, dimensions and weight. Thecontent of gasbio is observed from methanogenic process is methane gas, and of the hydrolysisand acidification processes was carbon dioxide gas using a Shimadzu GC-7A kromatograf modelChemical analysis of coffee waste and bio-gas as byproduct was crude fiber, nitrogen, fattyacids, calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc as well ascaffeine using atomic spetrophotometes.Handling of coffee waste using region-based bioreactors (Subak Abian Tri to workKintamani Bangli generate renewable energy, a source of nutrients and bioactive and spawned aculture of energy

  19. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  20. Renewable Energy Production from DoD Installation Solid Wastes by Anaerobic Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    with AD? NO Assess local conditions YES WWTP willing to partner? YES WWTP costs less than current practice ? YES Develop stakeholder buy-in...Solid-Waste- Management -Policy- and-Guidelines.pdf. DoD. 2010. Defense Environmental Programs Annual Report to Congress - Fiscal Year 2009...Intentionally Left Blank This report was prepared under contract to the Department of Defense Environmental Security Technology Certification Program

  1. Use of Information System and lean manufacturing to reduce the waste in the process industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kumar Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce the work of information technology in the process industry. In the industry the time is used as the money. So here the main task is to save time. In the industry the maximum time spent due to the waste. Lean Manufacturing is a term that is used to reduce the waste from the industry. It also use the information system in the form of Kanban. Lean principles and techniques have been applied in a wide variety of organizations, from make-to-stock to engineer-to-order industries, and even in typical service sectors, such as healthcare. In order to apply lean principles in various areas, variants were developed of well known techniques, such as Kanban, Kaizen, SMED, and 5S. Here the discrete and continuous manufacturing benefits are distinguished by the value stream mapping. Here the Value stream mapping is used to first map the current state and then used to identify sources of waste and to identify lean tools to try to eliminate this waste. The future state map is then developed for a system with lean tools applied to it. This thesis focuseson the development of a simulation model of the industry.

  2. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gulghane; Prof P. V. Khandve

    2015-01-01

    In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different...

  3. A Study of the Environmental Performance on Hazardous Waste Management of the Semiconductor and Electronics Industries in Selected Industrial Estates in Luzon, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Genandrialine L. Peralta

    2003-01-01

    In the Philippines, the semiconductor and electronic industry contributes about 70% of export earnings. More than half of the companies inside industrial estates in the country are semiconductor and electronic firms. These firms are among the major contributors of hazardous wastes released through different media, notably solid and semi-solid wastes. The environmental performance indicator, amount of hazardous waste generated per employee, was selected in this study since it is the main envir...

  4. Distribution of 137Cs Radionuclide in Industrial Wastes Effluents of Gresik, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs was measured from industrial waste effluent of Gresik to Gresik Sea in east Java, Indonesia. The activity of 37Cs detected at all stations was much lower than in northeast Japan both before and after NPP Fukushima accident. This indicated that in Gresik industrials waste did not consist of 137Cs. The lowest activity 137Cs occurred at the station nearest to the industrial waste effluent that contained some particle ions that were able to scavenge 137Cs and then precipate this radionuclide. Furthermore, the greatest 137Cs occured at the station that has high current speeds that stirred up sediment to release 137Cs in seawater as a secondary source. The lowest salinity did not effect on the activity of 137Cs even though the lowest salinity and activity 137Cs occured at the same station

  5. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  6. TRANSPORT PLANNING MODEL FOR WIDE AREA RECYCLING SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE PLASTIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Hisashi; Koizumi, Akira; Mogi, Satoshi

    To date, the majority of industrial waste plastic generated in an urban city has been processed into landfill. However, it is now necessary to actively utilize that plastic as a useful resource to create a recycling society with a low environment influence. In order to construct a reasonable recycling system, it is necessary to address the "transportation problem," which means determining how much industrial waste plastic is to be transported to what location. With the goal of eliminating landfill processing, this study considers a transport planning model for industrial waste plastic applying linear programming. The results of running optimized calculations under given scenarios clarified not only the possibilities for recycle processing in the Metropolitan area, but also the validity of wide area recycling system.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF ECO-FRIENDLY CONCRETE USING INDUSTRIAL WASTE – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present in India, about 960 million metric tons of solid was te is being generated annually as byproducts during industrial, mining, municipal, agricultural and other processes. Advances in solid waste management resulted in alter native construction materials as a substitute to traditional materials like bricks, blocks, tiles, aggregates, ceramics, cement, lime, soil, timber and paint. To safeguard th e environment, efforts are being made for recycling different wastes and to utilize th em in value added applications. The cement industries have been making significan t progress in reducing carbon dioxide (CO 2 emissions through improvements in process technology and enhancements in process efficiency, but further improvements ar e limited because CO 2 production is inherent to the basic process of calcinations of limestone. In the past two decades, various investigations have been conducted on industri al wastes like flyash, blast furnace slag, Silica fume, rice husks and other industria l waste materials to act as cement replacements .This paper consist of a review extensively conducted on publications related to utilization of waste materials as cemen t replacement with an intention to develop a process so as to produce an eco-friendly concrete having similar or higher strength and thus simultaneously providing a remedy t o environmental hazards resulting from waste material disposal.

  8. Patterns of waste generation, treatment and disposal in the chemical and allied industries in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei-Wusu Achaw

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and degradation in urban Ghana has been on the increase as a result of the nations drive towards industrialization, a generally weak regulatory regime, and a lack of capacity to manage the environment. This situation is affecting the well-being and livelihood of affected communities. As part of an effort to address the issue, a thirteen (13 item questionnaire was designed and distributed to seventy (70 companies in the chemical and allied industry to solicit and analyze data and information on the their waste management situation. Forty-seven, representing 67.1%, of the distributed questionnaires were completed and returned. The responses were analyzed using tables, percentages and bar charts. The results revealed that while 80.9% of the respondents generate waste as a result of the operation of the plants, 23.3% directly dump their waste into the environment without any prior treatment. Only one company was found that incinerate its waste, and only four (8.5% had comprehensive waste water treatment plants. The low numbers of companies treating the waste they generate prior to disposal means that the chemical and allied industry is contributing to the environmental pollution and degradation in the country.

  9. Binational management of hazardous waste: The maquiladora industry at the US-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Diane M.; Sanchez, Roberto; Glaze, William H.; Mazari, Marisa

    1990-07-01

    Foreign-owned industry in the form of assembly plants, termed maquiladora, has become very important in Mexico to the extent that it represents the second largest source of foreign exchange and is a valuable source for employment and regional development. The economic prosperity gained from the rapid growth of the maquiladora industry has been accompanied by increased environmental and human health risks associated with generation of hazardous waste. Diversification of industry has resulted in the predomination of those sectors that likely use hazardous substances. The Mexicali-Calexico border region was selected to demonstrate the potential for environmental and health risks associated with the generation of hazardous waste. Estimates for the generation of hazardous waste were obtained from 34 maquiladora plants in Mexicali, represented by the electronic and electrical equipment and parts, mechanical and transportation equipment, and toys and sporting equipment sectors. Repeated detection of volatile organic compounds in the New River at the US-Mexico border suggests that hazardous waste from the printed circuit board industry in Mexicali is not being disposed of in a proper manner. Potential adverse health effects, such as carcinogenic and mutagenic responses associated with the detected volatiles, are discussed. US and Mexico national legislation and the Binational Environmental Agreement were examined for their adequacy to ensure proper management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry. Environmental policy options are presented that focus on: (1) increased environmental accountability of US parent companies for their maquiladora assembly plants in Mexico; and (2) more integration between US Customs and border states with the US Environmental Protection Agency to improve the binational management of hazardous waste generated by the maquiladora industry.

  10. Industrial Waste Management Evaluation Model Version 3.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    IWEM is a screening level ground water model designed to simulate contaminant fate and transport. IWEM v3.1 is the latest version of the IWEM software, which includes additional tools to evaluate the beneficial use of industrial materials

  11. Effects of Wastes from the Brewing Industry in Lightweight Aggregates Manufactured with Clay for Green Roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina D. Farías

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of sieved wastes generated from the brewing industry on lightweight aggregates manufactured with clay. Sludge from a wastewater treatment plant, bagasse and diatomaceous earth were used to obtain the samples. These wastes are usually dumped in landfills, but the current increase in restrictions on dumping and interest in improving the environment make our proposal for gaining value from these wastes a significant contribution. Laboratory tests show that the new aggregate has low bulk density and increased water absorption and porosity. The thermographic camera results provide evidence that new aggregates have significant insulating properties and are suitable for use on green roofs.

  12. Microbial Anaerobic Digestion (Bio-Digesters) as an Approach to the Decontamination of Animal Wastes in Pollution Control and the Generation of Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E.; Sampson N. Mamphweli; Meyer, Edson L.; Anthony I. Okoh; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    With an ever increasing population rate; a vast array of biomass wastes rich in organic and inorganic nutrients as well as pathogenic microorganisms will result from the diversified human, industrial and agricultural activities. Anaerobic digestion is applauded as one of the best ways to properly handle and manage these wastes. Animal wastes have been recognized as suitable substrates for anaerobic digestion process, a natural biological process in which complex organic materials are broken d...

  13. Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in industrial zones, case study of Shahroud, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid, Nazemi; Roudbari, Aliakbar; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar

    2014-01-14

    The aim of the study was to design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern in Shahroud industrial zone, evaluates the results and determine possible performance problems. This cross - sectional study was carried out for 4 years in Shahroud industrial zone and the implementation process included:1- Qualitative and quantitative analysis of all solid waste generated in the city, 2- determine the current state of solid waste management in the zone and to identify programs conducted, 3- Design and implementation of integrated solid wastes management pattern including design and implementation of training programs, laws, penalties and incentives and explain and implement programs for all factories and 4- The monitoring of the implementation process and determine the results. Annually, 1,728 tons of solid wastes generated in the town including 1603 tons of industrial wastes and 125 tons of municipal wastes. By implementing this pattern, the two separated systems of collection and recycling of domestic and industrial wastes was launched in this zone. Also consistent with the goals, the amount of solid wastes generated and disposed in 2009 was 51.5 and 28.6 kg per 100 million Rials production, respectively. Results showed that implementation of pattern of separated collection, training programs, capacity building, providing technical services, completing chain of industries and strengthening the cooperation between industrial estate management and industrial units could greatly reduce the waste management problems.

  14. Development of protein enriched shrimp croquette from shrimp industry wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, M.; Rahman, M.L.; Nowsad Alam, A.K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Protein fortified and tasty shrimp croquette was developed from different component parts of shrimp wastes by using a combination of vegetables (potato, Colocasia, green banana, green papaya and spinach), spices (green chili, onion, garlic, turmeric, red pepper and ginger) and other ingredients (salt, wheat flour, egg, sugar and milk powder). The ingredients were mixed with variable quantities of shrimp shell powder (3, 5 and 10%), shaped and covered with egg and bread crumb. Proximate compos...

  15. Bioconversion of herbal industry waste into vermicompost using an epigeic earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Mamta; Kumar, Sudhir; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Ravikanth, K

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of bioconversion of industrial herbal waste to vermicompost using Eudrilus eugeniae. Vermibeds were made using a mixture of herbal waste and cowdung (1 : 1) in comparison with the use of cowdung alone as substrate, resulting in vermicomposts 1 and 2, respectively. Different parameters were studied and it was observed that the nutrient profile of vermicompost 1 strongly influenced the growth of pea (Pisum sativum) and marigold plant (Tagetus erectus). The dry and fresh weight of shoots and roots, number of flowers, total yield in terms of fruit showed significant increase with vermicompost 1. Furthermore, vermicompost 1 (herbal waste and cow dung as substrate) resulted in a significant reduction in TOC by 58% in comparison with vermicompost 2 (cowdung as substrate). The C : N ratio was less than 20 in vermicompost 1 as well as in vermicompost 2, which indicated an advanced degree of stabilization and mineralization. The ability of earthworms to survive, grow and breed in the vermibed fed with the herbal waste indicates the sustainability and efficiency of a heterogeneous kind of organic waste. The results of the study suggested that bulk industrial herbal waste can be utilized as a substrate for vermicomposting and this can be proposed as an alternative for waste disposal in a clean green manner, promoting the concept of organic farming.

  16. In vivo genotoxic effects of industrial waste leachates in mice following oral exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Saurabh; Chauhan, Lalit K S; Dhawan, Alok; Murthy, Ramesh C; Gupta, Shrawan K

    2006-06-01

    Contamination of ground water by industrial waste poses potential health hazards for man and his environment. The improper disposal of toxic wastes could allow genotoxic chemicals to percolate into ground waters, and these contaminated ground waters may produce toxicity, including mutation and eventually cancer, in exposed individuals. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo genotoxic potential of leachates made from three different kinds of industrial waste (tannery waste, metal-based waste, and waste containing dyes and pigments) that are disposed of in areas adjoining human habitation. Three different doses of test leachates were administered by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days to Swiss albino mice; their bone marrow cells were examined for chromosome aberrations (CAs), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs), and DNA damage using the alkaline Comet assay. Exposure to the leachates resulted in significant (P dye-waste leachate produced weaker genotoxic responses. The cytogenetic abnormalities and DNA damage produced by the leachates indicate that humans consuming water contaminated with these materials are at increased risk of developing adverse health consequences.

  17. Utilization of Industrial Waste Material in GSB Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Arun Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available India has series of steel plant clusters located along its length and breadth of the territory. Several million metric tons of iron and steel are produced in these plants annually. Along with the production of iron and steel, huge quantities of solid wastes like blast furnace slag and steel slag as well as other wastes such as flue dust, blast furnace sludge, and refractories are also being produced in these plants. These solid wastes can be used as non-traditional/non-conventional aggregates in pavement construction due to acute scarcity of traditional/conventional road construction materials. A study was conducted to investigate the possibility of using Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS with various blended mixes of traditional/conventional aggregates in subbase layer with different percentages. This study also presents the result of experimental investigation on the influence of Rice husk ash (RHA on the index properties of Red soil which is used as filler material in subbase layer.

  18. Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

  19. Study of the pyrolisis of municipal solid waste for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolysis experiments of municipal solid waste (MSW) are carried out in a semi-batch reactor under inert nitrogen atmosphere. Slow pyrolysis – characterized by long residence time (2 hours), heating rate of 4°C/min with sand acted as heat transfer medium- is performed at 550°C. Fast pyrolysis - characterized by short residence time (few minutes), high heating rate with sand acted as heat transfer medium- is performed at 450, 480, 510 and 550°C and different input transfer rates (12 or 24g mat...

  20. Challenges for Australia's Bio/Nanopharma Policies: trade deals, public goods and reference pricing in sustainable industrial renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas A

    2007-06-01

    Industrial renewal in the bio/nanopharma sector is important for the long term strength of the Australian economy and for the health of its citizens. A variety of factors, however, may have caused inadequate attention to focus on systematically promoting domestic generic and small biotechnology manufacturers in Australian health policy. Despite recent clarifications of 'springboarding' capacity in intellectual property legislation, federal government requirements for specific generic price reductions on market entry and the potential erosion of reference pricing through new F1 and F2 categories for the purposes of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) assessments, do not appear to be coherently designed to sustainably position this industry sector in 'biologics,' nanotherapeutics and pharmacogenetics. There also appears to have been little attention paid in this context to policies fostering industry sustainability and public affordability (as encouraged by the National Medicines Policy). One notable example includes that failure to consider facilitating mutual exchanges on regulatory assessment of health technology safety and cost-effectiveness (including reference pricing) in the context of ongoing free trade negotiations between Australia and China (the latter soon to possess the world's largest generic pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity). The importance of a thriving Australian domestic generic pharmaceutical and bio/nano tech industry in terms of biosecurity, similarly appears to have been given insufficient policy attention.Reasons for such policy oversights may relate to increasing interrelationships between generic and 'brand-name' manufacturers and the scale of investment required for the Australian generics and bio/nano technology sector to be a significant driver of local production. It might also result from singularly effective lobbying pressure exerted by Medicines Australia, the 'brand-name' pharmaceutical industry association, utilising

  1. Study of Material Used in Nanotechnology for the Recycling of Industrial Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi, L.; Fertikh, N.; Toubal, A.

    The objective of our study is to recycle the industrial waste water of a industrial Complex after treatment by the bioprocess MBR (membrane bioreactor). In order to apply this bioprocess, the water quality in question was first of all studied. To characterize this industrial waste water, a series of physicochemical analysis was carried out according to standardized directives and methods. Following-up the water quality to meet the regulatory requirements with rejection of this industrial waste water, a study was done thanks to the permanently monitoring of the following relevant parameters(P): the flow, the potential of hydrogen (pH), the total suspended solids(TSS), the turbidity (Turb), the chemical oxygen demand (COD),the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), the Kjeldahl total nitrogen (KTN) and ammonia (NH4+), the total phosphorus (Ptot), the fluorine (F), the oils (O), the fats (F) and the phenols (Ph). According to collected information, it was established the sampling rates to which the quality control was done, the selected analytical methods were validated by the control charts and the analysis test number was determined by the Cochran test. The results of the quality control show that some rejected water contents are not in the Algerian standards, but, in our case, the objective is the preoccupation for a standard setting of these industrial water parameters so as to recycle it. The process adopted by MBR for waste water treatment is being studied, first in the development of the experimental characterizing of the reactor and the selected membrane.

  2. Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Arcy, Daniel [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    This baseline report examines the solid waste generated by the U.S. electric power industry, including both waste streams resulting from electricity generation and wastes resulting from the decommissioning of power plants. Coal and nuclear plants produce large volumes of waste during electricity generation, and this report describes the policies and procedures for handling these materials. Natural gas and oil-fired power plants face similar waste challenges. Renewables considered in this baseline report include hydropower, wind and solar.

  3. Application of poultry processing industry waste: a strategy for vegetation growth in degraded soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Carla Danielle Vasconcelos; Pontes Filho, Roberto Albuquerque; Artur, Adriana Guirado; Costa, Mirian Cristina Gomes

    2015-02-01

    The disposal of poultry processing industry waste into the environment without proper care, can cause contamination. Agricultural monitored application is an alternative for disposal, considering its high amount of organic matter and its potential as a soil fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of poultry processing industry waste to improve the conditions of a degraded soil from a desertification hotspot, contributing to leguminous tree seedlings growth. The study was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a randomized blocks design and a 4 × 2 factorial scheme with five replicates. The treatments featured four amounts of poultry processing industry waste (D1 = control 0 kg ha(-1); D2 = 1020.41 kg ha(-1); D3 = 2040.82 kg ha(-1); D4 = 4081.63 kg ha(-1)) and two leguminous tree species (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit). The poultry processing industry waste was composed of poultry blood, grease, excrements and substances from the digestive system. Plant height, biomass production, plant nutrient accumulation and soil organic carbon were measured forty days after waste application. Leguminous tree seedlings growth was increased by waste amounts, especially M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth, with height increment of 29.5 cm for the waste amount of 1625 kg ha(-1), and L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit, with maximum height increment of 20 cm for the waste amount of 3814.3 kg ha(-1). M. caesalpiniaefolia Benth had greater initial growth, as well as greater biomass and nutrient accumulation compared with L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. However, belowground biomass was similar between the evaluated species, resulting in higher root/shoot ratio for L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Soil organic carbon did not show significant response to waste amounts, but it did to leguminous tree seedlings growth, especially L. leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. Poultry processing industry waste contributes to leguminous tree seedlings growth

  4. Packaging waste recycling in Europe: is the industry paying for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Nuno Ferreira; Ferreira, Sandra; Cabral, Marta; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes and examines the schemes established in five EU countries for the recycling of packaging waste. The changes in packaging waste management were mainly implemented since the Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste entered into force. The analysis of the five systems allowed the authors to identify very different approaches to cope with the same problem: meet the recovery and recycling targets imposed by EU law. Packaging waste is a responsibility of the industry. However, local governments are generally in charge of waste management, particularly in countries with Green Dot schemes or similar extended producer responsibility systems. This leads to the need of establishing a system of financial transfers between the industry and the local governments (particularly regarding the extra costs involved with selective collection and sorting). Using the same methodological approach, the authors also compare the costs and benefits of recycling from the perspective of local public authorities for France, Portugal and Romania. Since the purpose of the current paper is to take note of who is paying for the incremental costs of recycling and whether the industry (i.e. the consumer) is paying for the net financial costs of packaging waste management, environmental impacts are not included in the analysis. The work carried out in this paper highlights some aspects that are prone to be improved and raises several questions that will require further research. In the three countries analyzed more closely in this paper the industry is not paying the net financial cost of packaging waste management. In fact, if the savings attained by diverting packaging waste from other treatment (e.g. landfilling) and the public subsidies to the investment on the "recycling system" are not considered, it seems that the industry should increase the financial support to local authorities (by 125% in France, 50% in Portugal and 170% in Romania). However, in France and

  5. Maternal residential proximity to waste sites and industrial facilities and conotruncal heart defects in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Peter H; Brender, Jean D; Suarez, Lucina; Zhan, F Benjamin; Mistry, Jatin H; Scheuerle, Angela; Moody, Karen

    2009-07-01

    Most studies of the relationship between maternal residential proximity to sources of environmental pollution and congenital cardiovascular malformations have combined heart defects into one group or broad subgroups. The current case-control study examined whether risk of conotruncal heart defects, including subsets of specific defects, was associated with maternal residential proximity to hazardous waste sites and industrial facilities with recorded air emissions. Texas Birth Defects Registry cases were linked to their birth or fetal death certificate. Controls without birth defects were randomly selected from birth certificates. Distances from maternal addresses at delivery to National Priority List (NPL) waste sites, state superfund waste sites, and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) facilities were determined for 1244 cases (89.5% of those eligible) and 4368 controls (88.0%). Living within 1 mile of a hazardous waste site was not associated with risk of conotruncal heart defects [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.54, 1.27]. This was true whether looking at most types of defects or waste sites. Only truncus arteriosus showed statistically elevated ORs with any waste site (crude OR: 2.80, 95% CI 1.19, 6.54) and with NPL sites (crude OR: 4.63, 95% CI 1.18, 13.15; aOR 4.99, 95% CI 1.26, 14.51), but the latter was based on only four exposed cases. There was minimal association between conotruncal heart defects and proximity to TRI facilities (aOR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.91, 1.33). Stratification by maternal age or race/ethnic group made little difference in effect estimates for waste sites or industrial facilities. In this study population, maternal residential proximity to waste sites or industries with reported air emissions was not associated with conotruncal heart defects or its subtypes in offspring, with the exception of truncus arteriosus.

  6. Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; P, Kumaran; M, Jayakumar

    2013-06-01

    One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane - a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

  7. Metal Extraction Processes for Electronic Waste and Existing Industrial Routes: A Review and Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khaliq

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The useful life of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE has been shortened as a consequence of the advancement in technology and change in consumer patterns. This has resulted in the generation of large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste that needs to be managed. The handling of e-waste including combustion in incinerators, disposing in landfill or exporting overseas is no longer permitted due to environmental pollution and global legislations. Additionally, the presence of precious metals (PMs makes e-waste recycling attractive economically. In this paper, current metallurgical processes for the extraction of metals from e-waste, including existing industrial routes, are reviewed. In the first part of this paper, the definition, composition and classifications of e-wastes are described. In the second part, separation of metals from e-waste using mechanical processing, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are critically analyzed. Pyrometallurgical routes are comparatively economical and eco-efficient if the hazardous emissions are controlled. Currently, pyrometallurgical routes are used initially for the segregation and upgrading of PMs (gold and silver into base metals (BMs (copper, lead and nickel and followed by hydrometallurgical and electrometallurgical processing for the recovery of pure base and PMs. For the recycling of e-waste in Australia, challenges such as collection, transportation, liberation of metal fractions, and installation of integrated smelting and refining facilities are identified.

  8. Research and Development Financing in the Renewable Energy Industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel de Oliveira Gavira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the Brazilian government has put many public policies in place in order to create a favourable environment to promote energy efficiency and clean energy. In this paper we discuss the use of research and development financing support by the clean energy industry in Brazil. To do so, we carried out an empirical research analysing secondary data from legislation, literature case studies, and public and industry reports in order to determine if the companies of the clean energy industry have public financial support to research and development. Our ongoing research shows that, despite incentives to stimulate the dissemination of clean energy, the participation of some of the clean energy is very small (especially solar. We believe that the contributions of this study will assist policy makers, and the whole industry, to improve clean energy research and development investments in Brazil.

  9. Energy from Waste--clean, efficient, renewable: transitions in combustion efficiency and NOx control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, M H; Halter, R; Sigg, A; Brosch, B; Gehrmann, H J; Keunecke, M

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally EfW (Energy from Waste) plants apply a reciprocating grate to combust waste fuel. An integrated steam generator recovers the heat of combustion and converts it to steam for use in a steam turbine/generator set. This is followed by an array of flue gas cleaning technologies to meet regulatory limitations. Modern combustion applies a two-step method using primary air to fuel the combustion process on the grate. This generates a complex mixture of pyrolysis gases, combustion gases and unused combustion air. The post-combustion step in the first pass of the boiler above the grate is intended to "clean up" this mixture by oxidizing unburned gases with secondary air. This paper describes modifications to the combustion process to minimize exhaust gas volumes and the generation of noxious gases and thus improving the overall thermal efficiency of the EfW plant. The resulting process can be coupled with an innovative SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction) technology to form a clean and efficient solid waste combustion system. Measurements immediately above the grate show that gas compositions along the grate vary from 10% CO, 5% H(2) and 0% O(2) to essentially unused "pure" air, in good agreement with results from a mathematical model. Introducing these diverse gas compositions to the post combustion process will overwhelm its ability to process all these gas fractions in an optimal manner. Inserting an intermediate step aimed at homogenizing the mixture above the grate has shown to significantly improve the quality of combustion, allowing for optimized process parameters. These measures also resulted in reduced formation of NO(x) (nitrogenous oxides) due to a lower oxygen level at which the combustion process was run (2.6 vol% O(2,)(wet) instead of 6.0 vol% O(2,)(wet)). This reduction establishes optimal conditions for the DyNOR™ (Dynamic NO(x) Reduction) NO(x) reduction process. This innovative SNCR technology is adapted to situations typically

  10. Energy from Waste: Reuse of Compost Heat as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Irvine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-vessel tunnel composting facility in Scotland was used to investigate the potential for collection and reuse of compost heat as a source of renewable energy. The amount of energy offered by the compost was calculated and seasonal variations analysed. A heat exchanger was designed in order to collect and transfer the heat. This allowed heated water of 47.3oC to be obtained. The temperature could be further increased to above 60oC by passing it through multiple tunnels in series. Estimated costs for installing and running the system were calculated. In order to analyse these costs alternative solar thermal and ground source heat pump systems were also designed. The levels of supply and economic performance were then compared. A capital cost of £11,662 and operating cost of £1,039 per year were estimated, resulting in a cost of £0.50 per kWh for domestic water and £0.10 per kWh for spatial heat. Using the heat of the compost was found to provide the most reliable level of supply at a similar price to its rivals.

  11. Roadmap VNMI (Association of the Dutch Metallurgical Industry). Input of renewable energy; Roadmap VNMI. Inzet van hernieuwbare energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, A.J.; Luxembourg, S.L.; Seebregts, A.J.; Lensink, S.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    To reach energy efficient production of metals and metal products, the Dutch metal manufacturers are considering using renewable electricity in the production processes, as part of their agreement (Covenant) with the Dutch government to introduce more efficient and sustainable production processes. Use of renewable electricity is a part of this Covenant. The Dutch association of metals industry (VNMI) commissioned ECN to provide insight in the expected cost and benefit developments of a switch to the renewable electricity options solar, wind and biomass in both the short term and the long term. In addition, a new concept for subsidising renewable electricity, the so-called 'DAAN' concept, has been analysed. Results of this research show that until 2020, apart from profitable conditions for onshore wind and co-firing of biomass, the production costs of renewable electricity are higher than the electricity price, resulting in higher costs than benefits. Though uncertainty increases, extrapolation of the results shows that for the period 2020-2030 the production costs of onshore wind will be lower than the expected electricity price. Until that time, subsidies will remain necessary to bridge the gap between costs and benefits. A successful switch to renewable electricity depends on these subsidies and their conditions. A new concept for subsidising renewable electricity, which has been proposed by individual companies within the sector, i.e. the 'DAAN' concept, has been analysed and quantified with scenario modelling. In this concept, the current premium feed-in tariff structure is combined with a long-term, fixed power sales price, which effectively results in a feed-in tariff variant. The potential increasing costs for the Dutch government depend on the applied power sales price in combination with the applied price scenarios and are mitigated by the participating companies by offering the so-called Carbon Leakage compensation. In this analysis

  12. Report on the project for spread/promotion of technology for the industrial waste optimized treatment in the Asian region (International Symposium `98); Asia chiiki sangyo haikibutsu tekiseika shori gijutsu nado fukyu sokushin jigyo (symposium kaisai) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In Japan and Asian countries, the optimized treatment of industrial waste is the problem with the economic growth. Border-crossing movement of the waste for promotion of the renewable use is also a problem. Therefore, the International Symposium `98 on the industrial waste problem in the Asian region was held. China, Thailand, the Philippines and Korea were invited to Japan to give lectures. MITI of Japan reported on the present situation of Japan and the cooperation with Asian countries. The industrial circle reported on efforts for environmental protection measures to be taken, the industrial waste problem at companies which advanced into Asian countries, effects of the Basel Convention on recycling activities, Japan`s role in Asia, etc. In the panel discussion, promotion of cooperation for recycling technology and Japan`s support for formulating strategy on the industrial waste were requested to Japan, and the construction of an Asian area network was proposed. Concerning the cooperative system between governments and private companies, it was concluded that it was necessary to discuss it considering the actual state of each country. Importance of recycle and information exchange was realized again. 10 refs., 15 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Industrial hazardous waste management in Turkey: current state of the field and primary challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Güray

    2010-05-15

    A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey reported in 2004 was 1.195 million tons, which accounted for 7% of the total industrial solid waste (ISW) generated by the manufacturing industry, and for nearly 4.9% of the total solid waste generated in the country. The HW generated by the top five manufacturing product categories--basic metals, chemicals and chemical products, food and beverages, coke and refined petroleum, motor vehicles and trailers--accounted for 89.0% of total industrial HW. 21% of the HW generated in 2004 was recycled or reused, and 6% was sold or donated, whereas 73% was sent to ultimate disposal. 67% of the HW sent to ultimate disposal was disposed of at municipal landfills. The total capacity of the existing regional HW facilities is 212,500 tons/year, which accounts for about 24% of the HW to be disposed. Turkey has identified the HW problem in the country and enacted legislation, designated a lead agency, and promulgated rules and regulations. Several new initiatives are planned for improving HW management nationally; however, some HWM problems will be persistent due to previous and existing industrial development plans. These development policies led to the concentration of industry in regions marked by precious agricultural fields and high population density. This occurred because the government previously exhibited a default prioritization towards industrial development, leading to insufficient implementation of regulations on HW generators. Some of the problems may also be rooted in other countries that allow illegal trans boundary HW movements despite international regulations. Copyright (c

  14. Experimental Investigation in Developing Low Cost Concrete from Paper Industry Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sirinivasan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over 300 million tones of industrial wastes are being produced per annum by chemical and agricultural process in India. These materials pose problems of disposal and health hazards. The wastes like phosphogypsum, fluorogypsum and red mud contain obnoxious impurities which adversely affect the strength and other properties of building materials based on them. Out of several wastes being produced at present, the use of phosphogypsum, fluorogypsum, lime sludge, hypo sludge, red mud, and mine tailing is of paramount significance to protect the environment. Paper making generally produces a large amount of solid waste. Paper fibers can be recycled only a limited number of times before they become too short or weak to make high quality paper. It means that the broken, low-quality paper fibers are separated out to become waste sludge. All the inks, dyes, coatings, pigments, staples and ”stickies” (tape, plastic films, etc. are also washed off the recycled fibers to join the waste solids. The shiny finish on glossy magazine-type paper is produced using a fine kaolin clay coating, which also becomes solid waste during recycling. This paper mill sludge consumes a large percentage of local landfill space for each and every year. Worse yet, some of the wastes are land spread on cropland as a disposal technique, raising concerns about trace contaminants building up in soil or running off into area lakes and streams. Some companies burn their sludge in incinerators, contributing to our serious air pollution problems. To reduce disposal and pollution problems emanating from these industrial wastes, it is most essential to develop profitable building materials from them. Keeping this in view, investigations were undertaken to produce low cast concrete by blending various ratios of cement with hypo sludge. This project is concerned with experimental investigation on strength of concrete and optimum percentage of the partial replacement by replacing cement

  15. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 4: anaerobic digestion for biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  16. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part II: Economic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; Pascale, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist...

  17. Utilization of biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste: Energy, economic and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublin, Andrea; Schneider, Daniel Rolph; Džodan, Janko

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste is of significant interest in order to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Using of material and energy potentials of agro-industrial waste, in the framework of technical, economic, and ecological possibilities, contributes in increasing the share of energy generated from renewable energy sources. The paper deals with the benefits arising from the utilization of biogas produced by co-digestion of whey and cow manure. The advantages of this process are the profitability of the plant and the convenience in realizing an anaerobic digestion plant to produce biogas that is enabled by the benefits from the sale of electric energy at favorable prices. Economic aspects are related to the capital cost (€ 2,250,000) of anaerobic digestion treatment in a biogas plant with a 300 kW power and 510 kW heating unit in a medium size farm (450 livestock units). Considering the optimum biogas yield of 20.7 dm(3) kg(-1) of wet substrate and methane content in the biogas obtained of 79%, the anaerobic process results in a daily methane production of 2,500 kg, with the maximum power generation of 2,160,000 kWh y(-1) and heat generation of 2,400,000 kWh y(-1) The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period for implementation of profitable anaerobic digestion process is evaluated. Ecological aspects related to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission reduction are assessed.

  18. Low-temperature catalytic gasification of wet industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D C; Neuenschwander, G G; Baker, E G; Sealock, Jr, L J; Butner, R S

    1991-04-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are in progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for treating a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. This report describes a test program which used a continuous-feed tubular reactor. This test program is an intermediate stage in the process development. The reactor is a laboratory-scale version of the commercial concept as currently envisioned by the process developers. An energy benefit and economic analysis was also completed on the process. Four conceptual commercial installations of the TEES process were evaluated for three food processing applications and one organic chemical manufacturing application. Net energy production (medium-Btu gas) was achieved in all four cases. The organic chemical application was found to be economically attractive in the present situation. Based on sensitivity studies included in the analysis, the three food processing cases will likely become attractive in the near future as waste disposal regulations tighten and disposal costs increase. 21 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates producing bacteria from pulp, paper, and cardboard industry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuwal, Anish Kumari; Singh, Gulab; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Goyal, Varsha; Yadav, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236 g/L and 4.042 g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production.

  20. Isolation and Screening of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Producing Bacteria from Pulp, Paper, and Cardboard Industry Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Kumari Bhuwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236 g/L and 4.042 g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production.

  1. Isolation and Screening of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Producing Bacteria from Pulp, Paper, and Cardboard Industry Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuwal, Anish Kumari; Singh, Gulab; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Goyal, Varsha; Yadav, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236 g/L and 4.042 g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production. PMID:24288534

  2. Regulatory Promotion of Waste Wood Reused as an Energy Source and the Environmental Concerns about Ash Residue in the Industrial Sector of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of the utilization of energy derived from waste wood in Taiwan, a highly industrialized country with a high dependence (over 99% on imported energy. The discussion focuses on the status of waste wood generation and its management over the past decade. Findings show that the quantities of biomass waste collected for reuse purposes in the industrial sectors of Taiwan has exhibited an increasing trend, from about 4000 tons in 2001 to over 52,000 tons in 2010. Although waste wood can be reused as a fuel and raw material for a variety of applications based on regulatory promotion, the most commonly used end use is to directly utilize it as an auxiliary fuel in industrial utilities (e.g., boilers, heaters and furnaces for the purpose of co-firing with coal/fuel oil. The most progressive measure for promoting biomass-to-power is to introduce the feed-in tariff (FIT mechanism according to the Renewable Energy Development Act passed in June 2009. The financial support for biomass power generation has been increasing over the years from 0.070 US$/kWh in 2010 to 0.094 US$/kWh in 2012. On the other hand, the environmental regulations in Taiwan regarding the hazard identification of wood-combusted ash (especially in filter fly-ash and its options for disposal and utilization are further discussed in the paper, suggesting that waste wood impregnated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA and other copper-based preservatives should be excluded from the wood-to-energy system. Finally, some recommendations for promoting wood-to-energy in the near future of Taiwan are addressed.

  3. Ternary liquid-liquid equilibria for the phenolic compounds extraction from artificial textile industrial waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardhyanti, Dewi Selvia; Prasetiawan, Haniif; Hermawan, Sari, Lelita Sakina

    2017-03-01

    Liquid waste in textile industry contains large amounts of dyes and chemicals which are capable of harming the environment and human health. It is due to liquid waste characteristics which have high BOD, COD, temperature, dissolved and suspended solid. One of chemical compound which might be harmful for environment when disposed in high concentration is phenol. Currently, Phenol compound in textile industrial waste has reached 10 ppm meanwhile maximum allowable phenol concentration is not more than 0.2 ppm. Otherwise, Phenol also has economic value as feedstock of plastic, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Furthermore, suitable method to separate phenol from waste water is needed. In this research, liquid - liquid extraction method was used with extraction time for 70 minutes. Waste water sample was then separated into two layers which are extract and raffinate. Thereafter, extract and raffinate were then tested by using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer to obtained liquid - liquid equilibrium data. Aim of this research is to study the effect of temperature, stirring speed and type of solvent to obtain distribution coefficient (Kd), phenol yield and correlation of Three-Suffix Margules model for the liquid - liquid extraction data equilibrium. The highest extraction yield at 80.43 % was found by using 70% methanol as solvent at extraction temperature 50 °C with stirring speed 300 rpm, coefficient distribution was found 216.334. From this research it can be concluded that Three-Suffix Margules Model is suitable to predict liquid - liquid equilibrium data for phenol system.

  4. A Mathematical Model for the Industrial Hazardous Waste Location-Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Boyer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology progress is a cause of industrial hazardous wastes increasing in the whole world . Management of hazardous waste is a significant issue due to the imposed risk on environment and human life. This risk can be a result of location of undesirable facilities and also routing hazardous waste. In this paper a biobjective mixed integer programing model for location-routing industrial hazardous waste with two objectives is developed. First objective is total cost minimization including transportation cost, operation cost, initial investment cost, and cost saving from selling recycled waste. Second objective is minimization of transportation risk. Risk of population exposure within bandwidth along route is used to measure transportation risk. This model can help decision makers to locate treatment, recycling, and disposal centers simultaneously and also to route waste between these facilities considering risk and cost criteria. The results of the solved problem prove conflict between two objectives. Hence, it is possible to decrease the cost value by marginally increasing the transportation risk value and vice versa. A weighted sum method is utilized to combine two objectives function into one objective function. To solve the problem GAMS software with CPLEX solver is used. The problem is applied in Markazi province in Iran.

  5. 26 CFR 17.1 - Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste disposal facilities; temporary rules. 17.1 Section 17.1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... UNDER 26 U.S.C. 103(c) § 17.1 Industrial development bonds used to provide solid waste...

  6. The potential of agro-industrial residues and municipal solid waste for production of biogas and electricity in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivaisi, A.K. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Botany Dept., Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper gives an overview of the energy demands in Tanzania, and highlights the current serious shortage of electricity. Government strategy to alleviate the problem include exploitation of the country`s big natural gas reserves for power generation, and utilization of the renewable energies such as solar, wind and biogas. Important agro-industrial residues and municipal solid wastes with large potentials for anaerobic converstion into biogas and electricity have been identified and quantified. Tanzania is estimated to generate about 615,000 organic matter from coffee, sisal, sugar and cereal residues and households in main towns are estimated to generate about 600,000 tons of organic matter annually. Laboratory scale determinations of methane yields from the residues gave 400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sisal pulp; 400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sisal production wastewater; 400 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of Robusta coffee solid waste, 350 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sugar processing wastewater; 250 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of sugar filter mat, 450 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS maize bran and 300 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/ton VS of mixed household waste. Based on these results the estimated total annual potential electricity production from these residues is 1.4 million MW. The total oil substitution from these residues has been estimated at 0.35 million tonnes crude diesel oil per annum equivalent to 2% of the total energy consumption in Tanzania. Case studies onthe coffee and sisal processing factories indicate that exploitation of the residues for the production of electricity on site these factories is feasible. Utilization of agro-industrial residues and municipal waste for biogas production has enormous potential for reduction of environmental pollution. The potential substitution of fossil fuel with biogas represents an annual reduction in the net CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere of approximately 1.3 million tonnes. By treating the residues in controlled

  7. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

    2006-04-01

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and

  8. Potential industrial applications for fluidized-bed waste heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.; Lytton, M.; Rao, C.

    1979-12-01

    Information was developed on potential applications of Fluidized-Bed Waste Heat Recovery Systems (FWHRS) in US industries that will assist the DOE in their decision to plan and participate in a demonstration project of the FWHRS. The study included a review of the literature and personal contacts (via telephone) with industry personnel with the objective to identify a limited number of applications. Technical and economic assessments for specific applications were accomplished by developing generalized design, performance, and cost parameters that could be applied based on selected critical characteristics of each potential application of the FWHR system. Waste energy streams identified included flue gas and off-gas from boilers, furnaces, and kiln. Utilization of the waste energy recovered included electric power generation, preheating combustion air and boiler feedwater, and drying. A course of action is recommended to DOE regarding generic users for demonstration projects.

  9. Metal Recovery from Industrial Solid Waste — Contribution to Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxiang

    Increased demand of metals has driven the accelerated mining and metallurgical production in recent years, causing fast depletion of primary metals resources. On the contrary, the mining and metallurgical industry generates large amount of solid residues and waste such as tailings, slags, flue dust and leach residues, with relative low valuable metal contents. On the other hand, end-of-life (EoL) consumer products form another significant resources. The current technology and processes for primary metals production are not readily applicable for direct metals extraction from these waste materials, and special adaptation and tailor-made processes are required. In the present paper, various solid waste resources are reviewed, and current technologies and R&D trends are discussed. The recent research at author's group is illustrated for providing potential solutions to future resource problems, including metal recovery from MSW incinerator bottom ashes, zinc recovery from industrial ashes and residues, and rare earth metals recovery from EoL permanent magnets.

  10. DETERMINATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICITY CHARACTERISTICS OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTE FROM LANDFILL LEACHATE (CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dal Molin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental toxicity of hazardous industrial waste from landfill leachate of the one industrial solid waste center from the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The physical and chemical characteristics, as well as the ecotoxicity with Daphnia magna and toxicity and mutagenicity with Allium cepa were determined. The results of the row leachate sample indicated that the physical and chemical characteristics are compatible with the limit values imputed for treated wastewaters. Absence of acute ecotoxicity was also detected, however a significant (P<0.01 larger frequency of micronuclei was verified when compared with the results of the negative control, suggesting a genotóxico effect of this wast, although not significant alterations in the mitotic index and root growth was observed.

  11. HOW TO USE SOLID WASTE OF OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN CERAMIC BRICKS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvinovа T. A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the recycling problem of solid waste of oil and gas industry is observed. We have developed the bases of resource saving technology for minimizing exhausted sorbents and catalysts pollution with their using as silica-containing additives in raw mix for production of ceramic bricks of standard quality

  12. Development of a vacuum crystallizer for the concentration of industrial waste water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, A.C.; Verschuur, R.-J.; Schreurs, B.; Scholz, R.; Jansens, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Freeze concentration has proven to be a viable technology for the concentration of hazardous industrial waste waters before incineration. Owing to the relatively high investment cost of the technology, its applicability has been limited until now. This paper investigates the feasibility of a vacuum

  13. Status and direction of waste minimization in the chemical and petrochemical industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englande Junior, A.J. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    1993-12-31

    This paper presents an evaluation of the status and direction of toxic/hazardous waste reduction in chemical and petrochemical industries from an international perspective. In almost all cases studied savings have resulted. The importance of pollution prevention by `clean technologies` instead of remediation is stressed. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Minimization of industrial wastes in Sasieta (Spain); Minimizacion de residuos industriales en la mancomunidad Sasieta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enparantza, E.

    1998-10-01

    Since 1995 eighteen companies located in the community of Sasiet (Gipuzkoa, Spain) committed to minimize the industrial wastes of their productive processes. The initiative was promoted for Department of Environment of the Basque Government. The objectives of this project are minimize the generation of residuals and manage correctly those that are generated. (Author)

  15. New application notion of pipeline transport--integrated in industry solid waste innocuous and efficient disposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; ZHAO Xue-yi; WANG Xing; PAN Yue; ZHANG Na; WU Yu-jing; WU Miao

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve transport problems of industry solid, firstly, a new application notion of pipeline transport was presented, that is to say, combining pretreatment and transport with disposal techniques of industry solid waste. Secondly, the integrated disposal and transport system for industry solid waste was introduced, in particular, the operating principles, equipment set-up, key technology and technical parameters. Next, this paper illustrated the application of this integrated system. Such as it can transport coal sludge with sufficiently high solids content ( about 72%~77%) and high apparent viscosity Generally, the transport distance is about 1 000 m. This system has been successfully used in innocuous disposition and efficient utilization of other industrial byproducts or solid wastes, such as city sludge and paper making waste. The integrated system causes no pollution to the environment for its complete seal and realizes protecting the environment,conserving the energy, promoting the development of cycling economic. Finally, the paper discussed the research works that were needed for studying such pipeline transport system and narrates the relevant condition and application status.

  16. Development of a Vacuum Crystallizer for the Freeze Concentration of Industrial Waste Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, A.C.; Verschuur, R.-J.; Schreurs, B.; Scholz, R.; Jansens, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Freeze concentration has proven to be a viable technology for the concentration of hazardous industrial waste waters before incineration. Owing to the relatively high investment cost of the technology, its applicability has been limited until now. This paper investigates the feasibility of a vacuum

  17. FORMATION OF CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS IN A HAZARDOUS-WASTE-FIRING INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research examined the potential for emissions of polychlorinated diebnzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from industrial boilers that cofire hazardous waste. PCDD/F emissions were sampled from a 732 kW (2.5 x 106 Btu/h), 3-pass, firetube boiler using #2 fuel oil cofired wit...

  18. Industrial Safety. MAS-123. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

    This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to promote and monitor the industrial safety program at their plant. The following topics are covered in the module's individual sections:…

  19. Stabilization of APC residues from waste incineration with ferrous sulfate on a semi-industrial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtorp, Kasper; Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2002-01-01

    A stabilization method for air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) involving mixing of the residue with water and FeSO4 has been demonstrated on a semi-industrial scale on three types of APC residues: a semidy (SD) APC residue, a fly ash (FA), and an FA...

  20. Investigation of hydrogenase molecular marker to optimize hydrogen production from organic wastes and effluents of agro-food industries [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years policy makers have started looking for alternatives to fossil fuels, not only to counter the threat of global warming, but also to reduce the risk of overdependence on imported oil and gas supplies. By contrast with hydrocarbon fuels, hydrogen (H2, whether burned directly or used in fuel cells, is intrinsically a clean energy vector with near zero emission. However the main current method of producing hydrogen, steam reforming of methane, involves the release of large quantities of greenhouse gases. So although hydrogen already accounts for around 2% of world consumption of energy, its more widespread adoption is limited by several challenges. Therefore new processes are investigated, especially those using renewable raw material, e.g. woods and organic wastes, and/or involving microorganisms. Indeed, for some algae and bacteria, the generation of molecular hydrogen is an essential part of their energy metabolism. The approach with the greatest commercial potential is fermentative hydrogen generation (dark fermentation by bacteria from the Clostridium genus. This biological process, as a part of the methane-producing anaerobic digestion process, is very promising since it allows the production of hydrogen from a wide variety of renewable resources such as carbohydrate waste from the agricultural and agro-food industries or processed urban waste and sewage. To date most publications on hydrogen production by Clostridium strains have focused on the effects of operating parameters (such as temperature, pH, dilution rate, etc.. We now need to extend this knowledge by identifying and monitoring the various different metabolic agents involved in high H2 activity. Consequently the aim of this research at the CWBI in the University of Liege is to investigate the role of [Fe] hydrogenases, the key enzymes that remove excess electrons accumulating during fermentation. Clostridium butyricum CWBI1009, the strain used for these investigations

  1. Industrial Waste Treatment in Ammonia Plant%合成氨生产的三废治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汝志山

    2013-01-01

      Describe the sources and characteristics of the industrial waste , including waste water , waste gas and industrial residue . Take the appropriate treatment , and some economic benefits are achieved .%  介绍合成氨生产三废(废水、废气、废渣)的来源及特性,采取相应的治理措施后,取得了一定的效益。

  2. PYROLYSIS AND GASIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL AND INDUSTRIAL WASTES BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Paolucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gasification could play an important role in the treatment of municipal solid wastes. However, some problems may arise when using unsorted materials due to the difficulties of obtaining a feed with consistent physical characteristics and chemical properties. To overcome this problem, a new type of gasifier consisting of three stages, namely a pyrolytic stage followed by gasification and a reforming stage, was considered. Theoretical calculations made on the proposed gasification scheme shows better performance than a previously studied two-stage gasifier because of its ability of reaching the same final temperature of the syngas with a lower oxygen injection and a better oxygen partition ratio between the stages. The reduced amount of oxygen allows to obtain an improved syngas quality with higher return in the final products, such as hydrogen, electricity and so on.

  3. New Quebec renewable energy organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, D.; Salaff, S.

    1998-04-01

    The recent formation of the Quebec Association for the Production of Renewable Energy (l`Association quebecoise de la production d`energie renouvelable - AQPER) was announced. The Association is becoming the centre of the Quebec private electricity generation industry. By communicating the industry`s message to the public the organization gives much needed visibility to renewable resources, new forms of energy and sustainable development. The new group is an outgrowth of the former Quebec Association of Private Hydroelectricity Producers. In its new reincarnation, the organization represents all forms of renewables, small and medium hydro, wind, solar, forest and agricultural biomass and urban waste. With deregulation of the electricity market, specifically the creation of the Regie de l`energie` in Quebec, the wider role is a welcome boost for renewable energy development in the province. In one of its first actions the AQPER recommended that all hydroelectric sites up to 50 MW be reserved for development exclusively by the private sector, in conformity with the Quebec energy policy announced in 1996.

  4. INDUSTRIAL WASTE MANAGEMENT AND TOXIC EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Căpăţînă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable development became a strategic objective for all mankind, it includes the idea of human development and it ensures continuity, without depletion beyond the affordability and regeneration of ecosystems. The waste is remnants of various natures (organic, inorganic, solid, liquid, gaseous, etc. resulting from various industrial processes, agricultural activities, street, railway or water transport, household activities and housework. In accordance with art. 1 - Directive 75/442 C.E. of 15. 07. 1975 it is considered as waste any substance or object whose holder discards, intends or is required to throw. Regardless the action to be taken, a final waste will remain in the last stage of waste decomposition.

  5. Glasses obtained from industrial wastes; Vidros obtidos a partir de residuos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoluzzi, D.; Oliveira Fillho, J.; Uggioni, E. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia de Materiais; Bernardin, A.M., E-mail: amb@unesc.ne [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Tijucas, SC (Brazil). Tecnologia em Ceramica

    2009-07-01

    This paper deals with the study of the vitrification mechanism as an inertization method for industrial wastes contaminated with heavy metals. Ashes from coal (thermoelectric), wastes from mining (fluorite and feldspar) and plating residue were used to compose vitreous systems planed by mixture design. The chemical composition of the wastes was determined by XRF and the formulations were melted at 1450 deg C for 2h using 10%wt of CaCO{sub 3} (fluxing agent). The glasses were poured into a mold and annealed (600 deg C). The characteristic temperatures were determined by thermal analysis (DTA, air, 20 deg C/min) and the mechanical behavior by Vickers microhardness. As a result, the melting temperature is strongly dependent on silica content of each glass, and the fluorite residue, being composed mainly by silica, strongly affects Tm. The microhardness of all glasses is mainly affected by the plating residue due to the high iron and zinc content of this waste. (author)

  6. Low-energy treatment of colourant wastes using sponge biofilters for the personal care product industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammad, S Z; Zealand, A; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Armstrong, D V; Graham, D W

    2013-02-01

    Four trickling biofilter designs were assessed as low-energy alternatives to aerobic activated sludge (AS) for the treatment of personal care product industry wastes. The designs included partially submerged packed-media and sponge reactors with and without active aeration. Partial submergence was used to reduce active aeration needs. Simulated colourant wastes (up to COD=12,480 mg/L, TN=128 mg/L) were treated for 201 days, including wastes with elevated oxidant levels. COD and TN removal efficiencies were always >79% and >30% (even without aeration). However, aerated sponge reactors consistently had the highest removal efficiencies, especially for TN (∼60%), and were most tolerant of elevated oxidants. This study shows sponge biofilters have great potential for treating colourant wastes because they achieve high treatment efficiencies and reduce energy use by >40% relative to AS systems.

  7. Effect of an industrial chemical waste on the uptake of cations by green oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORTENSIA RADULESCU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate, obtained as a waste in the industrial manufacture of magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide from dolomites, can be applied in agriculture. The appreciable amounts of calcium and magnesium in this waste, together with impurities such as iron, zinc, manganese, chromium and copper compounds can be useful in soil amendment and plant nutrition. This paper presents preliminary results of the testing of several waste doses on soil, pursuing their effect on the uptake of cations by green oat (Avena sativa L.. The obtained results show an increase in the amount of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper found in green oat plants, as well as a decrease of the content of iron and manganese with increasing waste dose. These results may be explained by lower absorptions of iron andmanganese because of the antagonistic effect created by high amounts of calcium and magnesium, as well as by the presence of copper and zinc.

  8. Opportunities, perspectives and limits in lactic acid production from waste and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Dragana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In line with the goals of sustainable development and environmental protection today great attention is directed towards new technologies for waste and industrial by-products utilization. Waste products represent potentially good raw material for production other valuable products, such as bioethanol, biogas, biodiesel, organic acids, enzymes, microbial biomass, etc. Since the first industrial production to the present, lactic acid has found wide application in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. In recent years, the demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably owing to its potential use as a monomer for the production of poly-lactic acid (PLA polymers which are biodegradable and biocompatible with wide applications. Waste and industrial by-products such are whey, molasses, stillage, waste starch and lignocellulosic materials are a good source of fermentable sugars and many other substances of great importance for the growth of microorganisms, such as proteins, minerals and vitamins. Utilization of waste products for production of lactic acid could help to reduce the total cost of lactic acid production and except the economic viability of the process offers a solution of their disposal. Fermentation process depends on chemical and physical nature of feedstocks and the lactic acid producer. This review describes the characteristics, abilities and limits of microorganisms involved in lactic acid production, as well as the characteristics and types of waste products for lactic acid production. The fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production are summarized and compared. In order to improve processes and productivity, fed-batch fermentation, fermentation with immobilized cell systems and mixed cultures and opportunities of open (non-sterilized fermentation have been investigated.

  9. Pyrolysis mechanism for recycle renewable resource from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-15

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly consist of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrates. In this study, a novel pyrolysis model and a pyrolysis mechanism to recover the reusable resource from polarizing film of waste LCD panels was proposed. Polarizing film and its major components, such as cellulose triacetate (TAC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were pyrolyzed, respectively, to model the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis process mainly generated a large ratio of oil, a few gases and a little residue. Acetic acid was the main oil product and could be easily recycled. The pyrolysis mechanism could be summarized as follows: (i) TAC, the main component of polarizing film, was heated and generated active TAC with a low polymerization, and then decomposed into triacetyl-d-glucose. (ii) Some triacetyl-d-glucose generated triacetyl-d-mannosan and its isomers through an intramolecular dehydration, while most triacetyl-d-glucose generated the main oil product, namely acetic acid, through a six-member cyclic transition state. (iii) Meanwhile, other products formed through a series of bond cleavage, dehydration, dehydrogenation, interesterification and Diels-Alder cycloaddition. This study could contribute significantly to understanding the polarizing film pyrolysis performance and serve as guidance for the future technological parameters control of the pyrolysis process.

  10. Cork - a renewable raw material: forecast of industrial potential and development priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana; Bordado, João

    2015-02-01

    This article aims to report the main applications of cork material from ancient times until nowadays, describing its industrial potential for other applications under study. It is also described the cork origin, the extraction process and the relationship between composition and cellular structure with properties.

  11. APPLICATIONS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TO WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, W. L.; Christenson, James A.

    1979-07-31

    A project is discussed in which the possibilities for economical waste heat recovery and utilization in the food industry were examined. Waste heat availability and applications surveys were performed at two manufacturing plants engaged in low temperature (freezing) and high temperature (cooking, sterilizing, etc.) food processing. The surveys indicate usable waste heat is available in significant quantities which could be applied to existing, on-site energy demands resulting in sizable reductions in factory fuel and energy usage. At the high temperature plant, the energy demands involve the heating of fresh water for boiler make-up, for the food processes and for the daily clean-up operation. Clean-up poses an opportunity for thermal energy storage since waste heat is produced during the one or two production shifts of each working day while the major clean-up effort does not occur until food production ends. At the frozen food facility, the clean-up water application again exists and, in addition, refrigeration waste heat could also be applied to warm the soil beneath the ground floor freezer space. Systems to recover and apply waste heat in these situations were developed conceptually and thermal/economic performance predictions were obtained. The results of those studies indicate the economics of waste heat recovery can be attractive for facilities with high energy demand levels. Small factories, however, with relatively low energy demands may find the economics marginal although, percentagewise, the fuel and energy savings are appreciable.

  12. Challenges facing use of energy in the tourism and hospitality industry in Zimbabwe and policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy and tourism development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marunda, E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the various challenges facing use of energy for sustainable tourism development in Zimbabwe on the backdrop of Zimbabwe’s reliance mainly on non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels and wood whilst very little use is being made of the abundant renewable sources of energy for instance the sun and wind technologies. It is based on the research carried out with the objective of establishing policies that can promote the sustainable use of renewable energy sources in the country. The findings reveal that stakeholders in the tourism and hospitality industry are largely in favour of formulating and expanding policies that encourage use of solar and wind technologies, at the same time mitigating environmental degradation. The article summarises the findings and duly recommends policies than can be used in Zimbabwe to promote the sustainable use of renewable energy employing solar and wind among others for tourism development.

  13. Greening Industrial Production through Waste Recovery: "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources" in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junming; Chertow, Marian R

    2016-03-01

    Using nonhazardous wastes as inputs to production creates environmental benefits by avoiding disposal impacts, mitigating manufacturing impacts, and conserving virgin resources. China has incentivized reuse since the 1980s through the "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources (CUR)" policy. To test whether and to what extent environmental benefits are generated, 862 instances in Jiangsu, China are analyzed, representing eight industrial sectors and 25 products that qualified for tax relief through CUR. Benefits are determined by comparing life cycle inventories for the same product from baseline and CUR-certified production, adjusted for any difference in the use phase. More than 50 million tonnes of solid wastes were reused, equivalent to 51% of the provincial industrial total. Benefits included reduction of 161 petajoules of energy, 23 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent, 75 000 tonnes of SO2 equivalent, 33 000 tonnes of NOX, and 28 000 tonnes of PM10 equivalent, which were 2.5%-7.3% of the provincial industrial consumption and emissions. The benefits vary substantially across industries, among products within the same industry, and when comparing alternative reuse processes for the same waste. This first assessment of CUR results shows that CUR has established a firm foundation for a circular economy, but also suggest additional opportunities to refine incentives under CUR to increase environmental gain.

  14. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part II: Economic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; Pascale, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    of a Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine (Part I). Moreover a Steam Turbine Plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences...... an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist...

  15. Removal of Aluminum from Water and Industrial Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Ghashghaiee pour

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to introduce a procedure to remove Aluminum ions from drinking water and industrial effluents by using active carbon with different grading as absorbent. Absorption of Aluminum ions were discussed in different conditions of Aluminum concentration, contact time, impact of electrolytes and pH on Aluminum ions absorbency. Both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms used to investigate the adsorption. Thermodynamics relations governing process, such as specification of ( , ( and the enthalpy of adsorption, were calculated, which showed that Aluminum absorption on active carbon is an endothermic and spontaneous process.

  16. Wear Behavior of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite Prepared from Industrial Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Francis Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With an increase in the population and industrialization, a lot of valuable natural resources are depleted to prepare and manufacture products. However industrialization on the other hand has waste disposal issues, causing dust and environmental pollution. In this work, Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite is prepared by reinforcing 10 wt% and 20 wt% of wet grinder stone dust particles an industrial waste obtained during processing of quarry rocks which are available in nature. In the composite materials design wear is a very important criterion requiring consideration which ensures the materials reliability in applications where they come in contact with the environment and other surfaces. Dry sliding wear test was carried out using pin-on-disc apparatus on the prepared composites. The results reveal that increasing the reinforcement content from 10 wt% to 20 wt% increases the resistance to wear rate.

  17. Feasibility study of the Portland cement industry waste for the reduction of energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardo, Ana Carla de Souza Masselli; Junqueira, Mateus Augusto F. Chaib; Jorge, Ariosto Bretanha; Silva, Rogerio Jose da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Institute of Mechanical Engineering]. E-mails: anacarlasz@unifei.edu.br; mateus_afcj@yahoo.com.br; ariosto.b.jorge@unifei.edu.br; rogeriojs@unifei.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    The Portland cement industry demand a high specific consumption of energy for the production of the clinker. The energy consumption for clinker production varies between 3000 and 5300 kJ/kg of produced clinker. The clinker is produced by blending of different raw materials in order t o achieve precise chemical proportions of lime, silica, alumina and iron in the finished product and by burning them at high temperatures. The Portland cement is a mixture of clinker, gypsum and other materials. Due to need of high temperatures, tradition ally the fuels used in the cement industry are mineral coal, fuel oil, natural gas and petroleum coke. The fuel burning in high temperature leads to the formation of the pollutant thermal NOx. The level of emissions of this pollutant is controlled by environmental law, thus the formation of pollutants in process need be controlled. Moreover, industrial waste has been used by Portland cement industries as a secondary fuel through a technique called co -processing. Materials like waste oils, plastics, waste tyres and sewage sludge are often proposed as alternative fuels for the cement industry. The residues can be introduced as secondary fuel or secondary raw material. For energy conservation in the process, mineralizers are added during the process production of the clinker. The mineralizers promote certain reactions which decrease the temperature in the kiln and improve the quality of the clinker. The adequate quantity of constituents in production process is complex, for maintain in controlled level, the quality of final product, the operational conditions of kiln, and the pollutant emissions. The purpose of the present work is to provide an analysis of an optimal production point through of the optimization technique considering, the introduction of the fuels, industrial wastes as secondary fuels, and raw materials, for the reduction of energy in the process of Portland cement production. (author)

  18. POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

  19. Food waste in the Swiss food service industry - Magnitude and potential for reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Alexandra; Buchli, Jürg; Göbel, Christine; Müller, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Food losses occur across the whole food supply chain. They have negative effects on the economy and the environment, and they are not justifiable from an ethical point of view. The food service industry was identified by Beretta et al. (2013) as the third largest source of food waste based on food input at each stage of the value added chain. The total losses are estimated 18% of the food input, the avoidable losses 13.5%. However, these estimations are related with considerable uncertainty. To get more reliable and detailed data of food losses in this sector, the waste from two companies (in the education and business sectors) was classified into four categories (storage losses, preparation losses, serving losses, and plate waste) and seven food classes and measured for a period of five days. A questionnaire evaluated customer reaction, and a material flow analysis was used to describe the mass and monetary losses within the process chain. The study found that in company A (education sector) 10.73% and in company B (business sector) 7.69% of the mass of all food delivered was wasted during the process chain. From this, 91.98% of the waste in company A and 78.14% in company B were classified as avoidable. The highest proportion of waste occurred from serving losses with starch accompaniments and vegetables being the most frequently wasted items. The quantities of waste per meal were 91.23 g (value CHF 0.74) and 85.86 g (value CHF 0.44) for company A and company B, respectively. The annual loss averaged 10.47 tonnes (value CHF 85,047) in company A and 16.55 tonnes (value CHF 85,169) in company B. The customer survey showed that 15.79% (n=356) of the respondents in company A and 18.32% (n=382) in company B produced plate waste. The main causes of plate waste cited were 'portion served by staff too large' and 'lack of hunger'. Sustainable measures need to be implemented in the food service industry to reduce food waste and to improve efficiency.

  20. Silicon carbide recovered from photovoltaic industry waste as photocatalysts for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Hu, Yu; Zeng, Hongmei; Zhong, Lin; Liu, Kewei; Cao, Hongmei; Li, Wei; Yan, Hongjian

    2017-05-05

    In recent years, the focus on creating a dependable and efficient means to recycle or recover the valuable parts from the waste material has drawn significantly attention as an environmentally friendly way to deal with the industrial wastes. The silicon carbide (SiC) crystalline is one of reusable material in the slurry wastes generated during wafer slicing. Here we report the use of recovered SiC from the slurry wastes as photocatalysts to produce hydrogen in the presence of Na2SO3-Na2S as electron donor. The recovered SiC were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra (XPS), UV-vis (UV-vis) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The morphology of SiC loaded with 1wt% Pt as cocatalyst by thermal-reduction method was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results reveal that the recovered SiC is mainly consist of 3C-SiC, 6H-SiC and some silicon oxycarbides on the surface of the SiC. The highest hydrogen production rate is 191.8μmolh(-1)g(-1). This study provides a way to recycle crystalline SiC from the discharged waste in the photovoltaic industry and reuse it as photocatalyst to yield hydrogen with the advantage of low energy consumption, low pollution and easy operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk Reduction from Minimization of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Waste Materials Within the U.S. Industrial Solid Waste Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study addressed three questions of interest in national-scale solid and hazardous waste management decision-making within the United States: 1) can we quantify the reduction in risk to human and ecological receptors resulting from the reduction of certain industrial waste s...

  2. Poly β-hydroxybutyrate production by Bacillus subtilis NG220 using sugar industry waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulab; Kumari, Anish; Mittal, Arpana; Yadav, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj K

    2013-01-01

    The production of poly β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Bacillus subtilis NG220 was observed utilizing the sugar industry waste water supplemented with various carbon and nitrogen sources. At a growth rate of 0.14 g h(-1) L(-1), using sugar industry waste water was supplemented with maltose (1% w/v) and ammonium sulphate (1% w/v); the isolate produced 5.297 g/L of poly β-hydroxybutyrate accumulating 51.8% (w/w) of biomass. The chemical nature of the polymer was confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and GC-MS spectroscopy whereas thermal properties were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry. In biodegradability study, when PHB film of the polymer (made by traditional solvent casting technique) was subjected to degradation in various natural habitats like soil, compost, and industrial sludge, it was completely degraded after 30 days in the compost having 25% (w/w) moisture. So, the present study gives insight into dual benefits of conversion of a waste material into value added product, PHB, and waste management.

  3. Poly β-Hydroxybutyrate Production by Bacillus subtilis NG220 Using Sugar Industry Waste Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulab Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of poly β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB by Bacillus subtilis NG220 was observed utilizing the sugar industry waste water supplemented with various carbon and nitrogen sources. At a growth rate of 0.14 g h−1 L−1, using sugar industry waste water was supplemented with maltose (1% w/v and ammonium sulphate (1% w/v; the isolate produced 5.297 g/L of poly β-hydroxybutyrate accumulating 51.8% (w/w of biomass. The chemical nature of the polymer was confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and GC-MS spectroscopy whereas thermal properties were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry. In biodegradability study, when PHB film of the polymer (made by traditional solvent casting technique was subjected to degradation in various natural habitats like soil, compost, and industrial sludge, it was completely degraded after 30 days in the compost having 25% (w/w moisture. So, the present study gives insight into dual benefits of conversion of a waste material into value added product, PHB, and waste management.

  4. Poly β-Hydroxybutyrate Production by Bacillus subtilis NG220 Using Sugar Industry Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulab; Kumari, Anish; Mittal, Arpana; Yadav, Anita; Aggarwal, Neeraj K.

    2013-01-01

    The production of poly β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Bacillus subtilis NG220 was observed utilizing the sugar industry waste water supplemented with various carbon and nitrogen sources. At a growth rate of 0.14 g h−1 L−1, using sugar industry waste water was supplemented with maltose (1% w/v) and ammonium sulphate (1% w/v); the isolate produced 5.297 g/L of poly β-hydroxybutyrate accumulating 51.8% (w/w) of biomass. The chemical nature of the polymer was confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and GC-MS spectroscopy whereas thermal properties were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry. In biodegradability study, when PHB film of the polymer (made by traditional solvent casting technique) was subjected to degradation in various natural habitats like soil, compost, and industrial sludge, it was completely degraded after 30 days in the compost having 25% (w/w) moisture. So, the present study gives insight into dual benefits of conversion of a waste material into value added product, PHB, and waste management. PMID:24027767

  5. Exploring the life cycle management of industrial solid waste in the case of copper slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaolong; Yang, Jianxin; Lu, Bin; Li, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Industrial solid waste has potential impacts on soil, water and air quality, as well as human health, during its whole life stages. A framework for the life cycle management of industrial solid waste, which integrates the source reduction process, is presented and applied to copper slag management. Three management scenarios of copper slag are developed: (i) production of cement after electric furnace treatment, (ii) production of cement after flotation, and (iii) source reduction before the recycling process. A life cycle assessment is carried out to estimate the environmental burdens of these three scenarios. Life cycle assessment results showed that the environmental burdens of the three scenarios are 2710.09, 2061.19 and 2145.02 Pt respectively. In consideration of the closed-loop recycling process, the environmental performance of the flotation approach excelled that of the electric furnace approach. Additionally, although flash smelting promotes the source reduction of copper slag compared with bath smelting, it did not reduce the overall environmental burdens resulting from the complete copper slag management process. Moreover, it led to the shifting of environmental burdens from ecosystem quality damage and resources depletion to human health damage. The case study shows that it is necessary to integrate the generation process into the whole life cycle of industrial solid waste, and to make an integrated assessment for quantifying the contribution of source reduction, rather than to simply follow the priority of source reduction and the hierarchy of waste management.

  6. Economic and Industrial Development: EID - EMPLOY. Final Report, task 1. Review of approaches for employment impact assessment of renewable energy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, Barbara; Nathani, Carsten; Resch, Gustav

    2011-11-15

    economic and industrial impacts of renewable energy technology deployment and providing reliable methodological approaches for employment -- similar to those available for the incumbent energy technologies.

  7. The insurance and risk management industries: new players in thedelivery of energy-efficient and renewable energy products andservices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2001-11-26

    The insurance industry is typically considered to have little concern about energy issues. However, the historical involvement by insurers and allied industries in the development and deployment of familiar loss-prevention technologies such as automobile air bags, fire prevention/suppression systems, and anti-theft devices, shows that this industry has a tradition of utilizing technology to improve safety and otherwise reduce the likelihood of losses for which they would otherwise have to pay. Through an examination of the connection between risk management and energy efficiency, we have identified nearly 80 examples of energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies that offer''loss-prevention'' benefits, and have mapped these opportunities onto the appropriate segments of the very diverse insurance sector (life, health,property, liability, business interruption, etc.). Some insurers and risk managers are beginning to recognize these previously un-noticed benefits.This paper presents the business case for insurer involvement in energy efficiency and documents case studies of insurer efforts along these lines. We review steps taken by 52 forward-looking insurers and reinsurers, 5 brokers, and 7 insurance organizations, and 13non-insurance organizations in the energy-efficiency arena. The approaches can be grouped into the categories of: information, education,and demonstration; financial incentives; specialized policies and products; direct investment to promote energy efficiency and renewables; value-added customer services and inspections; efficient codes,standards, and policies; research and development; and in-house energy management in insurer-owned properties. Specific examples include reduced premiums for architects and engineers who practice building commissioning(reduces risk of property loss and liability-related claims), insurer promotion of improved indoor air quality practices (mitigating life,health, and liability risks), and

  8. Silicon carbide recovered from photovoltaic industry waste as photocatalysts for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Hu, Yu [College of Material Science and Enginneering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Zeng, Hongmei [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Zhong, Lin, E-mail: zhonglin@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Liu, Kewei; Cao, Hongmei [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Li, Wei [College of Material Science and Enginneering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China); Yan, Hongjian, E-mail: hjyan@scu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • SiC was recovered from photovoltaic industry waste. • The recovered SiC is mainly consist of 3C-SiC, 6H-SiC and some silicon oxycarbides. • The recovered SiC shows photocatalytic H{sub 2} evolution from water. - Abstract: In recent years, the focus on creating a dependable and efficient means to recycle or recover the valuable parts from the waste material has drawn significantly attention as an environmentally friendly way to deal with the industrial wastes. The silicon carbide (SiC) crystalline is one of reusable material in the slurry wastes generated during wafer slicing. Here we report the use of recovered SiC from the slurry wastes as photocatalysts to produce hydrogen in the presence of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}S as electron donor. The recovered SiC were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra (XPS), UV–vis (UV–vis) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The morphology of SiC loaded with 1 wt% Pt as cocatalyst by thermal-reduction method was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results reveal that the recovered SiC is mainly consist of 3C-SiC, 6H-SiC and some silicon oxycarbides on the surface of the SiC. The highest hydrogen production rate is 191.8 μmol h{sup −1} g{sup −1}. This study provides a way to recycle crystalline SiC from the discharged waste in the photovoltaic industry and reuse it as photocatalyst to yield hydrogen with the advantage of low energy consumption, low pollution and easy operation.

  9. Stepping stones to significant market shares for renewables. The European forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This invitation to a two-day European Forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy business lists the presentations made at the conference in 2007. The programme included contributions in the following areas: Policies and market deployment initiatives, market trends and experience - from support schemes to market experience, opportunities in a changing framework in Switzerland, instruments and infrastructure requirements - how to make the market work and supply and demand aspects of a growing market. The conference examined how renewable forms of energy can gain significant market shares and reach a quota of 50% renewables in 50 years. The first session examined policies and market deployment initiatives, the second market trends and experiences, the third opportunities for Switzerland in a changing framework. The second day featured sessions on instruments and infrastructure requirements as well as on supply and demand aspects in a growing market. The conference was complemented with four workshops.

  10. Distribution of radium in oil and gas industry wastes from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, M; Ali, H M; Abu, M P; Kontol, K M; Ahmad, Z; Ahmad, S H S S; Sulaiman, I; Hamzah, R

    2004-05-01

    Radium concentrations in 470 samples of the various types of waste from oil and gas industries were analysed using gamma spectrometers. The results showed that the radium concentration varied within a wide range. The highest mean 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations of 114,300 and 130,120 Bq/kg, respectively, were measured in scales. Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg.

  11. Development of value-added products from alumina industry mineral wastes using low-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, Seung-Young; Singh, D.

    1996-01-01

    A room-temperature process for stabilizing mineral waste streams has been developed, based on acid-base reaction between MgO and H3PO4 or acid phosphate solution. The resulting waste form sets into a hard ceramic in a few hours. In this way, various alumina industry wastes, such as red mud and treated potliner waste, can be solidified into ceramics which can be used as structural materials in waste management and construction industry. Red mud ceramics made by this process were low-porosity materials ({approx}2 vol%) with a compression strength equal to portland cement concrete (4944 psi). Bonding mechanism appears to be result of reactions of boehmite, goethite, and bayerite with the acid solution, and also encapsulation of red mud particles in Mg phosphate matrix. Possible applications include liners for ponds and thickned tailings disposal, dikes for waste ponds, and grouts. Compatability problems arising at the interface of the liner and the waste are avoided.

  12. Prospek pengembangan industri perkulitan pada pelita VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Karyadi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The leather industry is one of the strong competitive industry, as it comes from renewable natural resources. Therefore, the leather industry has good prospect to develop at the Pelita VI to be the industrial products export competitive. To develop leather industry and leather products should be given closed attention and well managed, especially concerning raw material supply, quality and leather waste treatment.

  13. Use of industrial waste for the manufacturing of sustainable building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrañez, Rafael; Cruz-Yusta, Manuel; Mármol, Isabel; Martín, Francisco; Morales, Julián; Sánchez, Luis

    2012-04-01

    Presently, appropriate waste management is one of the main requisites for sustainable development; this task is tackled by the material construction industry. The work described herein is focused on the valorization of granite waste through incorporation, as a filler-functional admixture, into cement-based mortar formulations. The main components of the waste are SiO(2) (62.1 %), Al(2)O(3) (13.2 %), Fe(2)O(3) (10.1 %), and CaO (4.6 %). The presence of iron oxides is used to develop the photocatalytic properties of the waste. Following heating at 700 °C, α-Fe(2)O(3) forms in the waste. The inclusion of the heated sample as a filler admixture in a cement-based mortar is possible. Moreover, this sample exhibits a moderate ability in the photodegradation of organic dye solutions. Also, the plastering mortars, in which the heated samples have been used, show self-cleaning properties. The preparation of sustainable building materials is demonstrated through the adequate reuse of the granite waste.

  14. Application of Waste Liquids Containing Lignin from Pulp-producing Industry to CWM Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ding-guo; TADAHIRO Murakata; TAKESHI Higuchi; SHIMIO Sato

    2004-01-01

    Three kinds of craft waste liquids, which are by-products in the pulp industry and contain much lignin,were used as dispersing additives for preparing Horonai coal CWM (coal water mixture). The experiments showed that the CWM exhibited the lowest viscosity when it was diluted with an appropriate amount of water with the waste eiquids added. The experiments also indicated that the maximum coal concentration in the 62.5% (mass fraction), and 56.5% is the maximum coal mass fraction of the CWM prepared without additives. These data show the effectiveness of the waste liquids as the additives for preparing CWMs. The zeta potential of coal particles in the CWMs changed with the addition of lignin. From the change, the steric repulsion effect of the lignin adsorbed on the coal particles is concluded to be mainly responsible for the CWM dispersion. The waste liquids contain less sulfur than PSSNa(polystyrene sulfonate sodium salt), a typical dispersant which is currently used for preparing the commercial CWM, when the sulfur content in the unit mass of the solid matters within the waste liquids is compared with that in unit mass of PSSNa. This fact suggests that the waste liquids are more advantageous than PSSNa as far as air pollutants are concerned.

  15. Recycling and reuse of chosen kinds of waste materials in a building industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferek, B.; Harasymiuk, J.; Tyburski, J.

    2016-08-01

    The article describes the current state of knowledge and practice in Poland concerning recycling as a method of reuse of chosen groups of waste materials in building industry. The recycling of building scraps is imposed by environmental, economic and technological premises. The issue of usage of sewage residues is becoming a problem of ever -growing gravity as the presence of the increasing number of pernicious contaminants makes their utilization for agricultural purposes more and more limited. The strategies of using waste materials on Polish building sites were analyzed. The analysis of predispositions to salvage for a group of traditional materials, such as: timber, steel, building debris, insulation materials, plastics, and on the example of new materials, such as: artificial light aggregates made by appropriate mixing of siliceous aggregates, glass refuses and sewage residues in order to obtain a commodity which is apt for economic usage also was made in the article. The issue of recycling of waste materials originating from building operations will be presented in the context of the binding home and EU legal regulations. It was proved that the level of recycling of building wastes in Poland is considerably different from one which is achieved in the solid market economies, both in quantity and in assortment. The method of neutralization of building refuses in connection with special waste materials, which are sewage sludge that is presented in the article may be one of the alternative solutions to the problem of recycling of these wastes not only on the Polish scale.

  16. Environmental impact of incineration of calorific industrial waste: rotary kiln vs. cement kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Isabel; Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Dewulf, Wim; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Rotary kiln incinerators and cement kilns are two energy intensive processes, requiring high temperatures that can be obtained by the combustion of fossil fuel. In both processes, fossil fuel is often substituted by high or medium calorific waste to avoid resource depletion and to save costs. Two types of industrial calorific waste streams are considered: automotive shredder residue (ASR) and meat and bone meal (MBM). These waste streams are of current high interest: ASR must be diverted from landfill, while MBM can no longer be used for cattle feeding. The environmental impact of the incineration of these waste streams is assessed and compared for both a rotary kiln and a cement kiln. For this purpose, data from an extensive emission inventory is applied for assessing the environmental impact using two different modeling approaches: one focusing on the impact of the relevant flows to and from the process and its subsystems, the other describing the change of environmental impact in response to these physical flows. Both ways of assessing emphasize different aspects of the considered processes. Attention is paid to assumptions in the methodology that can influence the outcome and conclusions of the assessment. It is concluded that for the incineration of calorific wastes, rotary kilns are generally preferred. Nevertheless, cement kilns show opportunities in improving their environmental impact when substituting their currently used fuels by more clean calorific waste streams, if this improvement is not at the expense of the actual environmental impact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on contaminant transport at an industrial waste dumpsite of Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfiqar Ahmed Mohammed Nazeer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrialization and urbanization has produced various types of wastes that sometimes are dumped in low-lying areas without proper treatment and engineering controls. Bangalore district has more than 60 illegal dumpsites consisting of either municipal or industrial waste. Government records indicate that more than 1,500 industries are working at various industrial areas and other locations around the city. In the present study an attempt has been made to characterize the Bommasandra industrial area dump site located at the south of Bangalore. This dump site is 15 to 20 years old and spreads on an area of 12.7 acres. Around 60 to 70 industries of all nature are located around this dump site. A large number of soil samples were collected and after site characterization of soil properties, an attempt has been made to predict the transport behavior of selected chemical species using available mathematical models and a program based on MATLAB- 7 to study the migration properties of these selected chemical species as a function of time. Also a model provided by USEPA DRASTIC has been used. The DRASTIC Index found for this dumpsite was 146; therefore, one can conclude that the studied dumpsite is moderately vulnerable to pollutants. The migrating behavior of cations such as sodium, calcium and anions such as sulphate, chloride were considered. It was observed that cations are better retarded in comparison to anions. This was attributed to exchangeable chemical reactions.

  18. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminda Tsouko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  19. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  20. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-07-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102-138 g · water/g · dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7-9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1-2672.8, stress at break of 72.3-139.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 0.97-1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  1. Agro-industrial waste to solid biofuel through hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Daniele; Patuzzi, Francesco; Castello, Daniele; Baratieri, Marco; Rada, Elena Cristina; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Fiori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the use of grape marc for energy purposes was investigated. Grape marc is a residual lignocellulosic by-product from the winery industry, which is present in every world region where vine-making is addressed. Among the others, hydrothermal carbonization was chosen as a promising alternative thermochemical process, suitable for the treatment of this high moisture substrate. Through a 50 mL experimental apparatus, hydrothermal carbonization tests were performed at several temperatures (namely: 180, 220 and 250 °C) and residence times (1, 3, 8 h). Analyses on both the solid and the gaseous phases obtained downstream of the process were performed. In particular, solid and gas yields versus the process operational conditions were studied and the obtained hydrochar was evaluated in terms of calorific value, elemental analysis, and thermal stability. Data testify that hydrochar form grape marc presents interesting values of HHV (in the range 19.8-24.1 MJ/kg) and physical-chemical characteristics which make hydrochar exploitable as a solid biofuel. In the meanwhile, the amount of gases produced is very small, if compared to other thermochemical processes. This represents an interesting result when considering environmental issues. Statistical analysis of data allows to affirm that, in the chosen range of operational conditions, the process is influenced more by temperature than residence time. These preliminary results support the option of upgrading grape marc toward its energetic valorisation through hydrothermal carbonization.

  2. Extractive removal of chromium (VI) from industrial waste solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Archana; Pal, Chandana; Sahu, K K

    2008-11-30

    Extractive removal of Cr (VI) was carried out from chloride solutions using cyanex 923 mixed with kerosene. The efficiency of this extractant was studied under various experimental conditions, such as concentration of different mineral acids in the aqueous phase, concentration of cyanex 923 and Cr (VI) present in the initial aqueous feed, temperature and time of extraction, organic to aqueous (O/A) phase ratio. Percentage Cr (VI) extraction decreases with the increase in temperature at varying concentration of cyanex 923. The interference of the impurities usually associated with Cr (VI) such as Cr (III), Cu, Ni, Fe (II), Zn, Chloride and sulphate, etc., were examined under the optimized conditions and only Zn was found to interfere. Under the optimum experimental conditions 98.6-99.9% of Cr (VI) was extracted in 3-5 min at O/A of 2 with the initial feed concentration of 1g/L of Cr (VI). The extracted Cr (VI) was quantitatively stripped with 1M NaOH and the organic phase obtained after the stripping of Cr (VI) was washed with dilute HCl solution to neutralize any NaOH trapped/adhered to the solvent and then with distilled water. This regenerated solvent was reused in succeeding extraction of chromium (VI). Finally a few experiments were performed with the synthetic effluent from an electroplating industry.

  3. Analysis of potential RDF resources from solid waste and their energy values in the largest industrial city of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Trang T T; Lee, Byeong-Kyu

    2009-05-01

    The production potential of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in the largest industrial city of Korea is discussed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energy potential of the RDF obtained from utilizing combustible solid waste as a fuel resource. The total amount of generated solid waste in the industrial city was more than 3.3 million tonnes, which is equivalent to 3.0tonnes per capita in a single year. The highest amount of solid waste was generated in the city district with the largest population and the biggest petrochemical industrial complex (IC) in Korea. Industrial waste accounted for 89% of the total amount of the solid waste in the city. Potential RDF resources based on combustible solid wastes including wastepaper, wood, rubber, plastic, synthetic resins and industrial sludge were identified. The amount of combustible solid waste that can be used to produce RDF was 635,552tonnes/yr, consisting of three types of RDF: 116,083tonnes/yr of RDF-MS (RDF from municipal solid waste); 146,621tonnes/yr of RDF-IMC (RDF from industrial, municipal and construction wastes); and 372,848tonnes/yr of RDF-IS (RDF from industrial sludge). The total obtainable energy value from the RDF resources in the industrial city was more than 2,240,000x10(6)kcal/yr, with the following proportions: RDF-MS of 25.6%, RDF-IMC of 43.5%, and RDF-IS of 30.9%. If 50% or 100% of the RDF resources are utilized as fuel resources, the industrial city can save approximately 17.6% and 35.2%, respectively, of the current total disposal costs.

  4. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crudu, Marian, E-mail: mariancrudu@yahoo.com [The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu Str., Bucharest (Romania); Deselnicu, Viorica, E-mail: viorica.deselnicu@icpi.ro [The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu Str., Bucharest (Romania); Deselnicu, Dana Corina, E-mail: d_deselnicu@yahoo.com [University Politehnica Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei Nr. 313, Sector 6, RO-060042 Bucharest (Romania); Albu, Luminita, E-mail: luminita.albu@gmail.com [The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather – Division Leather and Footwear Research Institute, 93 Ion Minulescu Str., Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Valorization of titanium wastes which cannot be recycled in metallurgical industry. • Transferring Ti waste into raw materials for obtaining Ti based tanning agent. • Characterization of new Ti based tanning agents and leather tanned with them. • Characterization of sewage waste water and sludge resulted from leather manufacture. • Analysis of the impact of main metal component of Ti waste. - Abstract: The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77 °C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning.

  5. Selection of melter systems for the DOE/Industrial Center for Waste Vitrification Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1993-12-31

    The EPA has designated vitrification as the best developed available technology for immobilization of High-Level Nuclear Waste. In a recent federal facilities compliance agreement between the EPA, the State of Washington, and the DOE, the DOE agreed to vitrify all of the Low Level Radioactive Waste resulting from processing of High Level Radioactive Waste stored at the Hanford Site. This is expected to result in the requirement of 100 ton per day Low Level Radioactive Waste melters. Thus, there is increased need for the rapid adaptation of commercial melter equipment to DOE`s needs. DOE has needed a facility where commercial pilot scale equipment could be operated on surrogate (non-radioactive) simulations of typical DOE waste streams. The DOE/Industry Center for Vitrification Research (Center) was established in 1992 at the Clemson University Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Clemson, SC, to address that need. This report discusses some of the characteristics of the melter types selected for installation of the Center. An overall objective of the Center has been to provide the broadest possible treatment capability with the minimum number of melter units. Thus, units have been sought which have broad potential application, and which had construction characteristics which would allow their adaptation to various waste compositions, and various operating conditions, including extreme variations in throughput, and widely differing radiological control requirements. The report discusses waste types suitable for vitrification; technical requirements for the application of vitrification to low level mixed wastes; available melters and systems; and selection of melter systems. An annotated bibliography is included.

  6. Design and Implementation of Integrated Solid Wastes Management Pattern in Industrial areas, Case Study of Shahroud, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamiar Yaghmaeian

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Results showed that implementation of this pattern, i.e. running source separation, training programs, capacity building, providing technical services, completing chain of industries and strengthening the cooperation between industrial estate management and industrial units could greatly reduce the waste management problems.

  7. Integration of microalgae cultivation with industrial waste remediation for biofuel and bioenergy production: opportunities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Patrick J; Dickinson, Kathryn E; Bhatti, Shabana; Frigon, Jean-Claude; Guiot, Serge R; O'Leary, Stephen J B

    2011-09-01

    There is currently a renewed interest in developing microalgae as a source of renewable energy and fuel. Microalgae hold great potential as a source of biomass for the production of energy and fungible liquid transportation fuels. However, the technologies required for large-scale cultivation, processing, and conversion of microalgal biomass to energy products are underdeveloped. Microalgae offer several advantages over traditional 'first-generation' biofuels crops like corn: these include superior biomass productivity, the ability to grow on poor-quality land unsuitable for agriculture, and the potential for sustainable growth by extracting macro- and micronutrients from wastewater and industrial flue-stack emissions. Integrating microalgal cultivation with municipal wastewater treatment and industrial CO(2) emissions from coal-fired power plants is a potential strategy to produce large quantities of biomass, and represents an opportunity to develop, test, and optimize the necessary technologies to make microalgal biofuels more cost-effective and efficient. However, many constraints on the eventual deployment of this technology must be taken into consideration and mitigating strategies developed before large scale microalgal cultivation can become a reality. As a strategy for CO(2) biomitigation from industrial point source emitters, microalgal cultivation can be limited by the availability of land, light, and other nutrients like N and P. Effective removal of N and P from municipal wastewater is limited by the processing capacity of available microalgal cultivation systems. Strategies to mitigate against the constraints are discussed.

  8. Irrigation Use of Food Industry Waste Water (Ispol’ Zovaniye na Orosheniye Stochnykh vod Predpriyatiy Pishchevoy Promyshlennosti),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    AD AOSa 1434 COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER N H F/s 2/3 IRRIGATION USE OF FOOD INDUSTRY WASTE WATER (ISPOL’ ZOVANITE NA——ETC (U...OF STAMMRDS Mc~OCOPv RUOUmON TEsT cs~~T C RREL Draft Translation 675 1 _ _ _ IRRIGATION USE OF FOOD INDUSTRY WASTE WATER V.1. Dodolina Apri’ 1978 :1...ED IRR IGATION USE OF FOOD INDUSTRY WASTE WATER __________________________ S. iRFoRMIi~~~~POrRfPonT-uwtaseR_d~- 7. AUTII OR(.) S. CONT R ACT OR G R

  9. Industrial wastes with boron : legislations; Vertidos industriales borados: normativa y legislacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Camacho, E.; Fuente de la Garcia Soto, M. M.

    2001-07-01

    The main sources of boron detected in water include urban waste, either with a high presence of detergents and cleaning products or the result of a great number of industrial activities, and waste containing the diverse chemical products used in agriculture. This article analyses the current situation of boron in the regulations and legislative measures related to water and waste, with the aim of clarifying the quality criteria applied to the derivatives of this element. The legislation has been examined on three levels: in terms of the European Union, individual states and autonomous governments. The last section of the article is devoted to the most widely accepted criteria for irrigation water, an area left in a legislative vacuum. (Author) 9 refs.

  10. Six Sigma application in a process industry for capacity waste reduction: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Today energy is directly related with progress or growth of any country and every event requires a huge amount of energy. In today’s global competitiveness, demand for energy is very high and India is facing a problem of very poor energy supply. So, researchers and planners are worried about very poor productivity of thermal power plant and the most critical cause for this problem is high capacity waste at these plants. This paper focuses on causes of capacity waste and for this, DMAIC approach is adopted. The study also clears some myths of Six Sigma compatibility at process industries (thermal power plant for performance improvement. After implementation of the first phase i.e. “Define”, the study confirms the competence of Six Sigma in defining the issue of capacity waste.

  11. A pilot-scale steam autoclave system for treating municipal solid waste for recovery of renewable organic content: Operational results and energy usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtman, Kevin M; Bozzi, David V; Franqui-Villanueva, Diana; Offeman, Richard D; Orts, William J

    2016-05-01

    A pilot-scale (1800 kg per batch capacity) autoclave used in this study reduces municipal solid waste to a debris contaminated pulp product that is efficiently separated into its renewable organic content and non-renewable organic content fractions using a rotary trommel screen. The renewable organic content can be recovered at nearly 90% efficiency and the trommel rejects are also much easier to sort for recovery. This study provides the evaluation of autoclave operation, including mass and energy balances for the purpose of integration into organic diversion systems. Several methods of cooking municipal solid waste were explored from indirect oil heating only, a combination of oil and direct steam during the same cooking cycle, and steam only. Gross energy requirements averaged 1290 kJ kg(-1) material in vessel, including the weight of free water and steam added during heating. On average, steam recovery can recoup 43% of the water added and 30% of the energy, supplying on average 40% of steam requirements for the next cook. Steam recycle from one vessel to the next can reduce gross energy requirements to an average of 790 kJ kg(-1). © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Extraction of cellulose from agricultural waste using Montmorillonite K-10/LiOH and its conversion to renewable energy: Biofuel by using Myrothecium gramineum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Archana M; Hazarika, Manash P; Goswami, Monmi; Yadav, Archana; Khound, Pradip

    2016-05-05

    Cellulose was extracted from agricultural waste like Rice Husk (RH) a renewable resource of India as well as in the World. Cellulose was isolated from rice husk (RH) using eco-friendly method with Montmorillonite K-10/LiOH solution and bleaching with 2% H2O2. The reaction parameters like time, temperature, catalyst, acid and alkali were studied to evaluate the optimum reaction conditions 6h, 80°C, 20% maleic acid and 10% LiOH (in H2O) for time, temperature, acid and alkali, respectively. Renewable energy, biofuel from agricultural waste using Myrothecium gramineum was also investigated herein. Cellulose was converted to glucose by using acid hydrolysis and the optimum reaction conditions were 140°C for 60min. in presence of H2SO4 (5% v/v). It has been recognized significantly as potential sustainable sources of sugars for fermentation to bioethanol. So, our effort was given to obtain bioethanol from RH using new and novel renewable fungal strain M. gramineum. M. gramineum was isolated from acacia plant available in NE region of India. The results revealed that % yields of cellulose, glucose and bioethanol were 68%, 60% and 25%, respectively. Moreover, the bioethanol was compared with the standard ethanol (Laboratory grade) and also the ethanol produced from the known microb Aspergillus niger. The synthesized products were characterized with the help of analytical techniques like FT-IR, GC, TGA, DSC and XRD.

  13. Public perceptions of industrial risks: the context of public attitudes toward radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.

    1981-06-01

    A survey was made to determine the public risk perception of several industrial hazards. A free response approach was used in order for respondents to generate their own alternatives. The general class of hazard investigated here included all hazardous industrial facilities. The free response survey was used to study public perception of: (a) the closeness of the nearest hazardous industrial facility (as estimated by the respondent); (b) the sort of facility it is; (c) the sorts of risk associated with it; and (d) the persons placed at risk by it. Respondents also identified the risks of, and the persons placed at risk by, both a toxic chemical disposal facility and a nuclear waste disposal facility. Results of this study thus can inform us of the unprompted concerns of the public regarding a wide variety of industrial facilities.

  14. Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of an Anaerobic Codigestion Facility Processing Dairy Manure and Industrial Food Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Jacqueline H; Labatut, Rodrigo A; Rankin, Matthew J; Pronto, Jennifer L; Gooch, Curt A; Williamson, Anahita A; Trabold, Thomas A

    2015-09-15

    Anaerobic codigestion (AcoD) can address food waste disposal and manure management issues while delivering clean, renewable energy. Quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to implementation of AcoD is important to achieve this goal. A lifecycle analysis was performed on the basis of data from an on-farm AcoD in New York, resulting in a 71% reduction in GHG, or net reduction of 37.5 kg CO2e/t influent relative to conventional treatment of manure and food waste. Displacement of grid electricity provided the largest reduction, followed by avoidance of alternative food waste disposal options and reduced impacts associated with storage of digestate vs undigested manure. These reductions offset digester emissions and the net increase in emissions associated with land application in the AcoD case relative to the reference case. Sensitivity analysis showed that using feedstock diverted from high impact disposal pathways, control of digester emissions, and managing digestate storage emissions were opportunities to improve the AcoD GHG benefits. Regional and parametrized emissions factors for the storage emissions and land application phases would reduce uncertainty.

  15. Comparison of alkaline industrial wastes for aqueous mineral carbon sequestration through a parallel reactivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Clinton W; Dzombak, David A; Nakles, David V; Hawthorne, Steven B; Heebink, Loreal V; Dando, Neal; Gershenzon, Michael; Ghosh, Rajat S

    2014-10-01

    Thirty-one alkaline industrial wastes from a wide range of industrial processes were acquired and screened for application in an aqueous carbon sequestration process. The wastes were evaluated for their potential to leach polyvalent cations and base species. Following mixing with a simple sodium bicarbonate solution, chemistries of the aqueous and solid phases were analyzed. Experimental results indicated that the most reactive materials were capable of sequestering between 77% and 93% of the available carbon under experimental conditions in four hours. These materials - cement kiln dust, spray dryer absorber ash, and circulating dry scrubber ash - are thus good candidates for detailed, process-oriented studies. Chemical equilibrium modeling indicated that amorphous calcium carbonate is likely responsible for the observed sequestration. High variability and low reactive fractions render many other materials less attractive for further pursuit without considering preprocessing or activation techniques.

  16. Determination of heating value of industrial waste for the formulation of alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouabid G.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative fuels has become increasingly widespread. They are basically designed based on industrial waste so that they can substitute fossil fuels which start to become scarce. Alternative fuels must meet some criteria, namely an important calorific content, minimum humidity and ash content. When it comes to combustion, the most interesting parameter is the calorific value which represents the thermal energy released during combustion. The experiments that were conducted showed that the calorific value is influenced by other parameters namely moisture and ash content. It was therefore necessary to study the behavior of the heating value in terms of these two parameters in order to establish a relationship that is used to describe the behavior. This is expected to allow a simulation of the calorific value of a mixture of various industrial waste.

  17. Reduction Waste by Combining Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma in an Electronics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Prieto-avalos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays organizations are involved in a complex environment with continues changing, that should impels the innovations looking for increase production performance, quality improvement, customer satisfaction and create a competitive advantage. Lean manufacturing provides an approach to identify and eliminate waste and all non value added activities through continuous improvement. The use of lean manufacturing as a set of “tools” that assist in waste identification and besides linked to DMAIC stages from six sigma could result in a systematic approach toward increasing value through production flow, statistical capability from the process and customer satisfaction; synergizing company efforts. An application case in an electronic industry from this integration is presented where sigma level from process was raised to 4.625 (99.91% efficiency, postulating VSM (Value Stream Map and DMAIC stages as an essential first step from lean and six sigma respectively. The emerging integration that is already used in many industries is referred as Lean Six Sigma.

  18. New Porous Material Made from Industrial and Municipal Waste for Building Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find a new method for usage of the hazardous waste coming from recycling industry. Two hazardous wastes – aluminium recycling final dross or non-metallic product (NMP and lead – silica glass (LSG were investigated. It is generally considered that NMP is a process waste and subject to disposal after residual metal has been recovered from primary dross. NMP is impurities which are removed from the molten metal in dross recycling process and it could be defined as a hazardous waste product in aluminium recycling industry. LSG comes from fluorescence lamp recycling plant and could be classified as hazardous waste due to high amount of lead in the composition and re-melting problems. The new alkali activated material, which can be defined as porous building material, was created. Composition of this material consisted of aluminium recycling waste, recycled fluorescent lamp LSG, sintered kaolin clay as well as commercially available alkali flakes (NaOH and liquid glass (Na2SiO3 + nH2O. Physical and mechanical properties of the obtained material were tested. Density of the obtained material was from (460 – 550 kg/m3 and the total porosity was from 82 % – 83 %. The compressive strength of the material was in range from 1.1 MPa to 2.3 MPa. The thermal conductivity was determined. The pore microstructure was investigated and the mineralogical composition of porous material was determined. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4330

  19. New Porous Material Made from Industrial and Municipal Waste for Building Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BAJARE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find a new method for usage of the hazardous waste coming from recycling industry. Two hazardous wastes – aluminium recycling final dross or non-metallic product (NMP and lead – silica glass (LSG were investigated. It is generally considered that NMP is a process waste and subject to disposal after residual metal has been recovered from primary dross. NMP is impurities which are removed from the molten metal in dross recycling process and it could be defined as a hazardous waste product in aluminium recycling industry. LSG comes from fluorescence lamp recycling plant and could be classified as hazardous waste due to high amount of lead in the composition and re-melting problems. The new alkali activated material, which can be defined as porous building material, was created. Composition of this material consisted of aluminium recycling waste, recycled fluorescent lamp LSG, sintered kaolin clay as well as commercially available alkali flakes (NaOH and liquid glass (Na2SiO3 + nH2O. Physical and mechanical properties of the obtained material were tested. Density of the obtained material was from (460 – 550 kg/m3 and the total porosity was from 82 % – 83 %. The compressive strength of the material was in range from 1.1 MPa to 2.3 MPa. The thermal conductivity was determined. The pore microstructure was investigated and the mineralogical composition of porous material was determined. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4330

  20. A pilot survey of the U.S. medical waste industry to determine training needs for safely handling highly infectious waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Aurora B; Hoboy, Selin; Germain, Anne; Miller, Hal; Thompson, Richard; Herstein, Jocelyn J; Jelden, Katelyn C; Beam, Elizabeth L; Gibbs, Shawn G; Lowe, John J

    2017-09-25

    The recent Ebola outbreak led to the development of Ebola virus disease (EVD) best practices in clinical settings. However, after the care of EVD patients, proper medical waste management and disposal was identified as a crucial component to containing the virus. Category A waste-contaminated with EVD and other highly infectious pathogens-is strictly regulated by governmental agencies, and led to only several facilities willing to accept the waste. A pilot survey was administered to determine if U.S. medical waste facilities are prepared to handle or transport category A waste, and to determine waste workers' current extent of training to handle highly infectious waste. Sixty-eight percent of survey respondents indicated they had not determined if their facility would accept category A waste. Of those that had acquired a special permit, 67% had yet to modify their permit since the EVD outbreak. This pilot survey underscores gaps in the medical waste industry to handle and respond to category A waste. Furthermore, this study affirms reports a limited number of processing facilities are capable or willing to accept category A waste. Developing the proper management of infectious disease materials is essential to close the gaps identified so that states and governmental entities can act accordingly based on the regulations and guidance developed, and to ensure public safety. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.