WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewable generation impact

  1. Environmental Impacts of Renewable Electricity Generation Technologies: A Life Cycle Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Garvin

    2016-01-13

    All energy systems impact the environment. Much has been learned about these environmental impacts from decades of research. Through systematic reviews, meta-analysis and original research, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been building knowledge about environmental impacts of both renewable and conventional electricity generation technologies. Evidence for greenhouse gas emissions, water and land use will be reviewed mostly from the perspective of life cycle assessment. Impacts from oil and natural gas systems will be highlighted. Areas of uncertainty and challenge will be discussed as suggestions for future research, as well as career opportunities in this field.

  2. The impact of monsoon intraseasonal variability on renewable power generation in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, C. M.; Turner, A. G.; Brayshaw, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    India is increasingly investing in renewable technology to meet rising energy demands, with hydropower and other renewables comprising one-third of current installed capacity. Installed wind-power is projected to increase 5-fold by 2035 (to nearly 100GW) under the International Energy Agency's New Policies scenario. However, renewable electricity generation is dependent upon the prevailing meteorology, which is strongly influenced by monsoon variability. Prosperity and widespread electrification are increasing the demand for air conditioning, especially during the warm summer. This study uses multi-decadal observations and meteorological reanalysis data to assess the impact of intraseasonal monsoon variability on the balance of electricity supply from wind-power and temperature-related demand in India. Active monsoon phases are characterized by vigorous convection and heavy rainfall over central India. This results in lower temperatures giving lower cooling energy demand, while strong westerly winds yield high wind-power output. In contrast, monsoon breaks are characterized by suppressed precipitation, with higher temperatures and hence greater demand for cooling, and lower wind-power output across much of India. The opposing relationship between wind-power supply and cooling demand during active phases (low demand, high supply) and breaks (high demand, low supply) suggests that monsoon variability will tend to exacerbate fluctuations in the so-called demand-net-wind (i.e., electrical demand that must be supplied from non-wind sources). This study may have important implications for the design of power systems and for investment decisions in conventional schedulable generation facilities (such as coal and gas) that are used to maintain the supply/demand balance. In particular, if it is assumed (as is common) that the generated wind-power operates as a price-taker (i.e., wind farm operators always wish to sell their power, irrespective of price) then investors in

  3. Impact of renewable power market penetration on coal power generation capacity growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ABDUL Majeed Aziz; R.Larry Grayson; VLADISLAV Kecojevic

    2011-01-01

    Since renewable energy sources are growing in importance, how well they can penetrate the energy market for power generation will be a very important factor in the role the coal industry will play in the future. This paper examined the displacement of coal power plant capacity from 2010 to 2050 by renewables with respect to three drivers assumed under various conditions: the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), Greenhouse Gas (GHG) policy, and varying plant capital cost cases. The results by 2050 illustrate that renewable market penetration captures anywhere from 1.9% to 6.4% of potential coal power generation capacity additions. Renewable power generation capacity additions is expected to outpace coal power plant additions by 89% with respect to ARRA in 2050, however with no GHG policy coal power generation capacity build-outs will outpace renewables by as high as 809%. Finally, coal power generation is still projected to be the largest single energy source contributor to the electricity market making up 28.0% of total available capacity, while renewables are expected to only make up 16.3% of total available capacity.

  4. Impact of Generator Flexibility on Electric System Costs and Integration of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palchak, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Flexibility of traditional generators plays an important role in accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty of wind and solar on the electric power system. Increased flexibility can be achieved with changes to operational practices or upgrades to existing generation. One challenge is in understanding the value of increasing flexibility, and how this value may change given higher levels of variable generation. This study uses a commercial production cost model to measure the impact of generator flexibility on the integration of wind and solar generators. We use a system that is based on two balancing areas in the western United States with a range of wind and solar penetrations between 15% and 60%, where instantaneous penetration of wind and solar is limited to 80%.

  5. Impact of Generator Flexibility on Electric System Costs and Integration of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palchak, D.; Denholm, P.

    2014-07-01

    Flexibility of traditional generators plays an important role in accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty of wind and solar on the electric power system. Increased flexibility can be achieved with changes to operational practices or upgrades to existing generation. One challenge is in understanding the value of increasing flexibility, and how this value may change given higher levels of variable generation. This study uses a commercial production cost model to measure the impact of generator flexibility on the integration of wind and solar generators. We use a system that is based on two balancing areas in the Western United States with a range of wind and solar penetrations between 15% and 60%, where instantaneous penetration of wind and solar is limited to 80%.

  6. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palchak, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Jack [RePPAE LLC, Wexford, PA (United States); Barrows, Clayton [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Gary [GE Energy, Denver, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Eastern Interconnection (EI) is one of the largest power systems in the world, and its size and complexity have historically made it difficult to study in high levels of detail in a modeling environment. In order to understand how this system might be impacted by high penetrations (30% of total annual generation) of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) during steady state operations, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS). This study investigates certain aspects of the reliability and economic efficiency problem faced by power system operators and planners. Specifically, the study models the ability to meet electricity demand at a 5-minute time interval by scheduling resources for known ramping events, while maintaining adequate reserves to meet random variation in supply and demand, and contingency events. To measure the ability to meet these requirements, a unit commitment and economic dispatch (UC&ED) model is employed to simulate power system operations. The economic costs of managing this system are presented using production costs, a traditional UC&ED metric that does not include any consideration of long-term fixed costs. ERGIS simulated one year of power system operations to understand regional and sub-hourly impacts of wind and PV by developing a comprehensive UC&ED model of the EI. In the analysis, it is shown that, under the study assumptions, generation from approximately 400 GW of combined wind and PV capacity can be balanced on the transmission system at a 5-minute level. In order to address the significant computational burdens associated with a model of this detail we apply novel computing techniques to dramatically reduce simulation solve time while simultaneously increasing the resolution and fidelity of the analysis. Our results also indicate that high penetrations of wind and PV (collectively variable generation (VG

  7. Impacts of demand response and renewable generation in electricity power market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhechong

    This thesis presents the objective of the research which is to analyze the impacts of uncertain wind power and demand response on power systems operation and power market clearing. First, in order to effectively utilize available wind generation, it is usually given the highest priority by assigning zero or negative energy bidding prices when clearing the day-ahead electric power market. However, when congestion occurs, negative wind bidding prices would aggravate locational marginal prices (LMPs) to be negative in certain locations. A load shifting model is explored to alleviate possible congestions and enhance the utilization of wind generation, by shifting proper amount of load from peak hours to off peaks. The problem is to determine proper amount of load to be shifted, for enhancing the utilization of wind generation, alleviating transmission congestions, and making LMPs to be non-negative values. The second piece of work considered the price-based demand response (DR) program which is a mechanism for electricity consumers to dynamically manage their energy consumption in response to time-varying electricity prices. It encourages consumers to reduce their energy consumption when electricity prices are high, and thereby reduce the peak electricity demand and alleviate the pressure to power systems. However, it brings additional dynamics and new challenges on the real-time supply and demand balance. Specifically, price-sensitive DR load levels are constantly changing in response to dynamic real-time electricity prices, which will impact the economic dispatch (ED) schedule and in turn affect electricity market clearing prices. This thesis adopts two methods for examining the impacts of different DR price elasticity characteristics on the stability performance: a closed-loop iterative simulation method and a non-iterative method based on the contraction mapping theorem. This thesis also analyzes the financial stability of DR load consumers, by incorporating

  8. Hydrogen generation from renewable resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loges, Bjoern

    2009-09-04

    In this thesis, the hydrogen generation by dehydrogenation of 2-propanol and formic acid as model substances for renewable resources have been studied, which is of importance for hydrogen storage. For the base-assisted dehydrogenation of 2-propanol, a ruthenium diamine catalyst system has been investigated. For the selective decomposition of formic acid to hydrogen and carbon dioxide, a system has been established containing ruthenium catalysts and formic acid amine adducts as substrates. The best catalyst activity and productivity have been achieved with in situ generated ruthenium phosphine catalysts, e.g. [RuCl{sub 2}(benzene)]{sub 2} / dppe (TOF = 900 h{sup -1}, TON = 260,000). The gas evolved has been directly used in fuel cells. Furthermore, the influence of irradiation with visible light has been described for the ruthenium phosphine catalysts. (orig.)

  9. Generation Capacity Investments and High Levels of Renewables. The Impact of a German Capacity Market on Northwest Europe. Discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, O.; De Joode, J.; Koutstaal, P.R.; Van Hout, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Presently, Northwest European centralised electricity markets are designed as 'energy-only' markets. In an energy-only market, the price received for electricity produced is set by the marginal generation unit. Potentially, the designs of these markets could leave the owners of these units with 'missing money': i.e. money that is required to recover investment cost. Further, increasing penetration of renewables could exacerbate this problem. Of all the different options available to tackle the 'missing money' problem, capacity mechanisms have attracted most of the attention in recent policy debates in Europe. This paper contributes to ongoing policy discussions by providing a quantitative analysis of the phenomena of 'missing money' and capacity mechanisms in Northwest Europe. Our analysis shows that in the case of energy-only markets with a much higher penetration of intermittent electricity sources such as wind and solar PV, the 'missing money' problem may be aggravated, because operating hours for peak and mid-merit order capacity will be considerably reduced. Furthermore, unilateral introduction of capacity mechanisms in integrated electricity markets can have considerable impacts on cross-border electricity flows and investment decisions. Stand-alone introduction of a capacity market in Germany will likely result in higher investments in Germany at the expense of lower investments outside Germany and an increase in net exports from Germany. A possible advantage of a unilateral capacity mechanism in Germany may be a reduction in super-peak prices in the larger market area. Thus, neighbouring countries may have the possibility to free ride on the increase in flexible capacity in Germany. However, this advantage is conditional and depends on sufficient availability of interconnection capacity necessary to be able to use this reserve capacity. Otherwise, security of supply might be more at risk if the German

  10. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  11. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, Chad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bain, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chapman, Jamie [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Drury, Easan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); Brown, Stephen R. [HDR/DTA, Portland, ME (Untied States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felker, Fort [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fernandez, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goodrich, Alan C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hagerman, George [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Neil, Sean [Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition, Portland, OR (United States); Paquette, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  12. On-Site Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes a variety of approaches that local governments can use to advance climate and energy goals by meeting some or all of their electricity needs through on-site renewable energy generation.

  13. Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Norrga, Staffan; Stridh, Bengt; Meier, Stephan; Nee, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The use of conventional energy sources for electricity generation, such as fossil fuel combustion and nuclear power, is questioned because of environmental and safety issues and concerns about possible anthropogenic climate change. This has led to rapid developments in the field of renewable energy exploitation. Entire new fast-growing industries are formed to supply equipment for renewable power plants. The contribution from Swedish industry to this development has so far largely been limite...

  14. Renewable Energy for the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    Renewable energy is harnessed from natural and sustainable sources, like wind, sun and water. They offer a pollution-free, endless source of electricity that is crucial in the fight against climate change. Every unit of this "green" electricity directly replaces electricity normally generated from conventional polluting sources such as coal or…

  15. RESGen: Renewable Energy Scenario Generation Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Space-time scenarios of renewable power generation are increasingly used as input to decision-making in operational problems. They may also be used in planning studies to account for the inherent uncertainty in operations. Similarly using scenarios to derive chance-constraints or robust...... optimization sets for corresponding optimization problems is useful in a power system context. Generating and evaluating such spacetime scenarios is difficult. While quite a number of proposals have appeared in the literature, a gap between methodological proposals and actual usage in operational and planning...... studies remains. Consequently, our aim here is to propose an open-source platform for space-time probabilistic forecasting of renewable energy generation (wind and solar power). This document covers both methodological and implementation aspects, to be seen as a companion document for the open...

  16. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  17. "Social Capitalism" in Renewable energy generation:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Woodrow W; Li, Xing

    2010-01-01

    and industrialized nations, to “plan” and provide for infrastructures. This paper concerns only the energy infrastructure sector and renewable energy generation in particular. The planning process includes financial incentives and investments which are a major part of the Chinese law focused on “encouraging foreign...... investment industries”. The key part of the law is to guarantee long-term power purchase agreements with state owned and controlled “utilities”. In short, China may have gotten the economics of the energy sector correct in its concern for planning and finance. The paper develops these energy infrastructure...... and infrastructures and hence allow the RPC and its Provinces to “leap frog ”the mistakes of other developed nations. Further lessons will be learned from provinces and related infrastructures in China, such as water, transportation, environment, waste and telecommunications. More significantly, the USA and western...

  18. Integrating Renewable Generation into Grid Operations: Four International Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mylrea, Michael E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Botterud, Audun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-22

    International experiences with power sector restructuring and the resultant impacts on bulk power grid operations and planning may provide insight into policy questions for the evolving United States power grid as resource mixes are changing in response to fuel prices, an aging generation fleet and to meet climate goals. Australia, Germany, Japan and the UK were selected to represent a range in the level and attributes of electricity industry liberalization in order to draw comparisons across a variety of regions in the United States such as California, ERCOT, the Southwest Power Pool and the Southeast Reliability Region. The study draws conclusions through a literature review of the four case study countries with regards to the changing resource mix and the electricity industry sector structure and their impact on grid operations and planning. This paper derives lessons learned and synthesizes implications for the United States based on answers to the above questions and the challenges faced by the four selected countries. Each country was examined to determine the challenges to their bulk power sector based on their changing resource mix, market structure, policies driving the changing resource mix, and policies driving restructuring. Each countries’ approach to solving those changes was examined, as well as how each country’s market structure either exacerbated or mitigated the approaches to solving the challenges to their bulk power grid operations and planning. All countries’ policies encourage renewable energy generation. One significant finding included the low- to zero-marginal cost of intermittent renewables and its potential negative impact on long-term resource adequacy. No dominant solution has emerged although a capacity market was introduced in the UK and is being contemplated in Japan. Germany has proposed the Energy Market 2.0 to encourage flexible generation investment. The grid operator in Australia proposed several approaches to maintaining

  19. Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik

    , one of them being the North East area with high share of wind power generation.The aim of this study is to investigate how renewable generations like wind power can contribute to the power system defence plans. This PhD project “Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans...

  20. Renewable Energy Education for Future Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, R.

    2015-12-01

    Considering the constantly growing use of technology, modern society requires increasing amounts of electrical power. Acknowledging the global efforts to increase the use of renewable energy sources, the Independent Schools Foundation Academy, a school in Hong Kong, plans to provide the opportunity for students to explore the applications of various forms of renewable energy through a Renewable Energy Education Centre (REEC). Two students are involved in the designing and construction of the Renewable Energy Education Centre to understand the technologies, processes, and provide insight from the students' perspective. The REEC will incorporate various uses of renewable energy, including a solar photovoltaic system, hybrid photovoltaic/thermal system, vertical windmill, hot water heater, and heat pump. As a means to enrich students' learning experiences, the REEC will be open to access by science students for a wide range of investigations, such as science experiments related to renewable energy and energy efficiency, providing opportunities for student led research projects, Personal Projects and IB Extended Essays. In short, the Independent Schools Foundation Academy aims to allow students to familiarize themselves with various forms of renewable energy from a young age, and develop a deeper understanding of technologies that will become primary sources of electrical power in the near future.

  1. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steven Konkel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW by January 2012. Method . This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1. (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984. It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results . Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion . State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers: a. changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska

  2. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkel, R Steven

    2013-01-01

    In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. This article reviews data and conclusions presented in "Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment" (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards--$202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding--along with numerous energy conservation programs--are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers: changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages, impacts associated with climate change on human health, progress in

  3. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkel, R. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. Method This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers:changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages,impacts associated

  4. Of paradise and clean power: The effect of California's renewable portfolio standard on in-state renewable energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Clifton Lee

    Renewable portfolio standards (RPS), policies that encourage acquisition of electricity from renewable energy sources, have become popular instruments for discouraging the use of climate change inducing-fossil fuels. There has been limited research, however, that empirically evaluates their effectiveness. Using data gathered by three governmental entities -- the federal-level Energy Information Administration and two California agencies, the Employment Development Department and the Department of Finance -- this paper investigates the impact of California's RPS, one of the nation's most ambitious such policies, on in-state renewable energy generation. It finds that the California RPS did not bring about a one-time increase in generation with its inception, nor did it compel an increase in generation over time. These results raise questions as to the best way to structure RPS policies in light of growing interest in the establishment of a national RPS.

  5. Charging a renewable future: The impact of electric vehicle charging intelligence on energy storage requirements to meet renewable portfolio standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Kate E.; Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-12-01

    Increased usage of renewable energy resources is key for energy system evolution to address environmental concerns. Capturing variable renewable power requires the use of energy storage to shift generation and load demand. The integration of plug-in electric vehicles, however, impacts the load demand profile and therefore the capacity of energy storage required to meet renewable utilization targets. This study examines how the intelligence of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) integration impacts the required capacity of energy storage systems to meet renewable utilization targets for a large-scale energy system, using California as an example for meeting a 50% and 80% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2030 and 2050. For an 80% RPS in 2050, immediate charging of PEVs requires the installation of an aggregate energy storage system with a power capacity of 60% of the installed renewable capacity and an energy capacity of 2.3% of annual renewable generation. With smart charging of PEVs, required power capacity drops to 16% and required energy capacity drops to 0.6%, and with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) charging, non-vehicle energy storage systems are no longer required. Overall, this study highlights the importance of intelligent PEV charging for minimizing the scale of infrastructure required to meet renewable utilization targets.

  6. Removing Barriers for Effective Deployment of Intermittent Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabali, Amirsaman

    The stochastic nature of intermittent renewable resources is the main barrier to effective integration of renewable generation. This problem can be studied from feeder-scale and grid-scale perspectives. Two new stochastic methods are proposed to meet the feeder-scale controllable load with a hybrid renewable generation (including wind and PV) and energy storage system. For the first method, an optimization problem is developed whose objective function is the cost of the hybrid system including the cost of renewable generation and storage subject to constraints on energy storage and shifted load. A smart-grid strategy is developed to shift the load and match the renewable energy generation and controllable load. Minimizing the cost function guarantees minimum PV and wind generation installation, as well as storage capacity selection for supplying the controllable load. A confidence coefficient is allocated to each stochastic constraint which shows to what degree the constraint is satisfied. In the second method, a stochastic framework is developed for optimal sizing and reliability analysis of a hybrid power system including renewable resources (PV and wind) and energy storage system. The hybrid power system is optimally sized to satisfy the controllable load with a specified reliability level. A load-shifting strategy is added to provide more flexibility for the system and decrease the installation cost. Load shifting strategies and their potential impacts on the hybrid system reliability/cost analysis are evaluated trough different scenarios. Using a compromise-solution method, the best compromise between the reliability and cost will be realized for the hybrid system. For the second problem, a grid-scale stochastic framework is developed to examine the storage application and its optimal placement for the social cost and transmission congestion relief of wind integration. Storage systems are optimally placed and adequately sized to minimize the sum of operation

  7. Renewable energy rebound effect?: Estimating the impact of state renewable energy financial incentives on residential electricity consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Beth A.

    Climate change is a well-documented phenomenon. If left unchecked greenhouse gas emissions will continue global surface warming, likely leading to severe and irreversible impacts. Generating renewable energy has become an increasingly salient topic in energy policy as it may mitigate the impact of climate change. State renewable energy financial incentives have been in place since the mid-1970s in some states and over 40 states have adopted one or more incentives at some point since then. Using multivariate linear and fixed effects regression for the years 2002 through 2012, I estimate the relationship between state renewable energy financial incentives and residential electricity consumption, along with the associated policy implications. My hypothesis is that a renewable energy rebound effect is present; therefore, states with renewable energy financial incentives have a higher rate of residential electricity consumption. I find a renewable energy rebound effect is present in varying degrees for each model, but the results do not definitively indicate how particular incentives influence consumer behavior. States should use caution when adopting and keeping renewable energy financial incentives as this may increase consumption in the short-term. The long-term impact is unclear, making it worthwhile for policymakers to continue studying the potential for renewable energy financial incentives to alter consumer behavior.

  8. Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. Creating benefits for farmers and society

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroli, G.B.M.; Langeveld, H.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents results of the project Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. It focuses on the (potential) role that on-farm generation of Renewable Energy in the EU-27 may play both in realisation of national and EU environmental targets as in (re)vitalising agriculture and rural economy in different regions of the Union. Renewable Energy (RE) in this respect includes the energy generated on farms by using wind, PV, solar thermal, hydro, geothermal or biomass resources.

  9. Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Kaushik; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Anca Daniela HANSEN; Abildgaard, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity of conventional controllable generations to minimum. In such operation hours, the system is typically more vulnerable to disturbances in general and major disturbances in particular. This was the case in the m...

  10. Development and bottlenecks of renewable electricity generation in China: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-04-02

    This review provides an overview on the development and status of electricity generation from renewable energy sources, namely hydropower, wind power, solar power, biomass energy, and geothermal energy, and discusses the technology, policy, and finance bottlenecks limiting growth of the renewable energy industry in China. Renewable energy, dominated by hydropower, currently accounts for more than 25% of the total electricity generation capacity. China is the world's largest generator of both hydropower and wind power, and also the largest manufacturer and exporter of photovoltaic cells. Electricity production from solar and biomass energy is at the early stages of development in China, while geothermal power generation has received little attention recently. The spatial mismatch in renewable energy supply and electricity demand requires construction of long-distance transmission networks, while the intermittence of renewable energy poses significant technical problems for feeding the generated electricity into the power grid. Besides greater investment in research and technology development, effective policies and financial measures should also be developed and improved to better support the healthy and sustained growth of renewable electricity generation. Meanwhile, attention should be paid to the potential impacts on the local environment from renewable energy development, despite the wider benefits for climate change.

  11. Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. Creating benefits for farmers and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedroli, G.B.M.; Langeveld, H.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents results of the project Impacts of Renewable Energy on European Farmers. It focuses on the (potential) role that on-farm generation of Renewable Energy in the EU-27 may play both in realisation of national and EU environmental targets as in (re)vitalising agriculture and rural ec

  12. Retail Rate Impacts of Renewable Electricity: Some First Thoughts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-21

    This report summarizes select recent analyses of the retail rate impacts of renewable electricity, introduce core limitations of available literature, as rate impacts remain only partly assessed, and highlight a wide range of estimated historical and possible future rate impacts.

  13. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  14. Cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter for renewable energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ravikant; Nath Tripathi, Ravi; Hanamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2016-04-01

    In this paper cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter (CHBMLI) has been investigated for the application of renewable energy generation. Energy sources like solar, wind, hydro, biomass or combination of these can be manipulated to obtain alternative sources for renewable energy generation. These renewable energy sources have different electrical characteristics like DC or AC level so it is challenging to use generated power by connecting to grid or load directly. The renewable energy source require specific power electronics converter as an interface for conditioning generated power .The multilevel inverter can be utilized for renewable energy sources in two different modes, the power generation mode (stand-alone mode), and compensator mode (statcom). The performance of the multilevel inverter has been compared with two level inverter. In power generation mode CHBMLI supplies the active and reactive power required by the different loads. For operation in compensator mode the indirect current control based on synchronous reference frame theory (SRFT) ensures the grid operating in unity power factor and compensate harmonics and reactive power.

  15. Assessing Legal Environment Factors that Impact in the Decision to Invest in Electricity generation from Renewable Resources – Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABAZ ALIKO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and assessing the factors impacting investments in electricity generation is important for both private and public decision-makers. Understanding the decision-making process helps to stimulate and increase investments in the energy sector. This paper examines the legal environment factors that affect the decision to invest in electricity generation. Seventeen sub-factors of this environment are identified and its relative importance in the decision-making is measured, by interviewing 68 investors having invested or having obtained the right to invest in the electricity generation. We perform the Principal Component Analysis (PCA in 17 sub-factors to find more general latent structures (factors that characterize the legal environment affecting investments. The latent factors discovered are: Legal and Favourable Framework for the Concessions, Protecting Foreign Investments, Government Conditions and Bureaucracy as well as the Cascade Investments and Information. These are the most important factors of the legal environment in the decision-making process to invest in electricity generation.

  16. Large scale renewable power generation advances in technologies for generation, transmission and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the issues of integrating large-scale renewable power generation into existing grids. The issues covered in this book include different types of renewable power generation along with their transmission and distribution, storage and protection. It also contains the development of medium voltage converters for step-up-transformer-less direct grid integration of renewable generation units, grid codes and resiliency analysis for large-scale renewable power generation, active power and frequency control and HVDC transmission. The emerging SMES technology for controlling and int

  17. An approach for evaluating the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on transmission expansion planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongrit CHATTHAWORN; Surachai CHAITUSANEY

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new robust optimization approach to evaluate the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on transmission expansion planning (TEP). The objective function of TEP is composed of the investment cost of the transmission line and the operating cost of conventional generators. A method to select suitable scenarios representing the intermittent renewable energy generation and loads is proposed to obtain robust expansion planning for all possible scenarios. A meta-heuristic algorithm called adaptive tabu search (ATS) is employed in the proposed TEP. ATS iterates between the main problem, which minimizes the investment and operating costs, and the subproblem, which minimizes the cost of power generation from conventional generators and curtailments of renewable energy generation and loads. The subproblem is solved by nonlinear programming (NLP) based on an interior point method. Moreover, the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on TEP was evaluated by comparing expansion planning with and without consideration of a renewable energy source. The IEEE Reliability Test System 79 (RTS 79) was used for testing the proposed method and evaluating the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on TEP. The results show that the proposed robust optimization approach provides a more robust solution than other methods and that the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on TEP should be considered.

  18. Environmental impacts of high penetration renewable energy scenarios for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrill, Peter; Arvesen, Anders; Scholz, Yvonne; Gils, Hans Christian; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of irreversible environmental alterations and an increasingly volatile climate pressurises societies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change impacts. As global electricity demand continues to grow, particularly if considering a future with increased electrification of heat and transport sectors, the imperative to decarbonise our electricity supply becomes more urgent. This letter implements outputs of a detailed power system optimisation model into a prospective life cycle analysis framework in order to present a life cycle analysis of 44 electricity scenarios for Europe in 2050, including analyses of systems based largely on low-carbon fossil energy options (natural gas, and coal with carbon capture and storage (CCS)) as well as systems with high shares of variable renewable energy (VRE) (wind and solar). VRE curtailments and impacts caused by extra energy storage and transmission capabilities necessary in systems based on VRE are taken into account. The results show that systems based largely on VRE perform much better regarding climate change and other impact categories than the investigated systems based on fossil fuels. The climate change impacts from Europe for the year 2050 in a scenario using primarily natural gas are 1400 Tg CO2-eq while in a scenario using mostly coal with CCS the impacts are 480 Tg CO2-eq. Systems based on renewables with an even mix of wind and solar capacity generate impacts of 120-140 Tg CO2-eq. Impacts arising as a result of wind and solar variability do not significantly compromise the climate benefits of utilising these energy resources. VRE systems require more infrastructure leading to much larger mineral resource depletion impacts than fossil fuel systems, and greater land occupation impacts than systems based on natural gas. Emissions and resource requirements from wind power are smaller than from solar power.

  19. Generating Renewable Electricity from Food Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mydin M.A.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mini biogas power plant (MBPP was first used and launched in Malaysia by Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM. USM with the collaboration with Enerbon Sdn Bhd had set up this mini biogas power plant as an education and research and development tools to professionals and researchers and at the same time giving opportunities to people who are interested with this system to witness and experience it themselves by looking at how this mini biogas power plant works. There are 2 main objectives of this study being carried out; firstly to determine whether food wastes (canteen and cafeterias wastes can produce methane gas (biogas that can generate heat and electricity and secondly to establish how much methane gas (biogas can be produced with the certain amount of the feedstock. It should be pointed out that this MBPP can generate 600kW electricity per day as this system can generate electricity about 25kW/h. The methane produced per day is approximately 180 cubic metres. The higher the wastes, the higher the amount of methane gas produced. The cow dung is used to increase the bacteria in the tank; the methane gas production will be higher if the bacteria breed.

  20. Special issue on advancing grid-connected renewable generation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    Renewables are heavily involved in power generation, as an essential component for today’s energy paradigm. Energy structure—both national and international—has been undergoing significant changes over the past few decades. For instance, in Denmark, power generation is shifting from fossil......-fuel-based to renewable-based in terms of energy sources, from centralized to decentralized in terms of architectures, and from sole to miscellaneous in terms of energy varieties [1]. In this energy evolution, the power electronic technology plays an enabling role in the integration and advancements of renewables......—such as wind turbine, photovoltaics, fuel cells, and other emerging energy systems. At the same time, various control strategies are necessary to guide the energy integration (i.e., to enhance the energy transition), and on the other hand, to flexibly, reliably, and efficiently utilize the energy. Tremendous...

  1. Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain (sometimes referred to as intermittent) output, which are unlike the dispatchable sources used for the majority of electricity generation in the United States. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid. In this report, we explore the role of energy storage in the electricity grid, focusing on the effects of large-scale deployment of variable renewable sources (primarily wind and solar energy).

  2. Future Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of Renewables Used to Meet U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    This brochure provides a brief overview of the report titled 'A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards.' The report evaluates the future costs, benefits, and other impacts of renewable energy used to meet current state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). It also examines a future scenario where RPSs are expanded. The analysis examines changes in electric system costs and retail electricity prices, which include all fixed and operating costs, including capital costs for all renewable, non-renewable, and supporting (e.g., transmission and storage) electric sector infrastructure; fossil fuel, uranium, and biomass fuel costs; and plant operations and maintenance expenditures. The analysis evaluates three specific benefits: air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and water use. It also analyzes two other impacts, renewable energy workforce and economic development, and natural gas price suppression. The analysis finds that the benefits or renewable energy used to meet RPS polices exceed the costs, even when considering the highest cost and lowest benefit outcomes.

  3. Visualization of the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruchalla, Kenny; Novacheck, Joshua; Bloom, Aaron

    2016-12-01

    The Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS), explores the operational impacts of the wide spread adoption of wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) resources in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection and Quebec Interconnection (collectively, EI). In order to understand some of the economic and reliability challenges of managing hundreds of gigawatts of wind and PV generation, we developed state of the art tools, data, and models for simulating power system operations using hourly unit commitment and 5-minute economic dispatch over an entire year. Using NREL's high-performance computing capabilities and new methodologies to model operations, we found that the EI, as simulated with evolutionary change in 2026, could balance the variability and uncertainty of wind and PV at a 5-minute level under a variety of conditions. A large-scale display and a combination of multiple coordinated views and small multiples were used to visually analyze the four large highly multivariate scenarios with high spatial and temporal resolutions. state of the art tools, data, and models for simulating power system operations using hourly unit commitment and 5-minute economic dispatch over an entire year. Using NRELs high-performance computing capabilities and new methodologies to model operations, we found that the EI, as simulated with evolutionary change in 2026, could balance the variability and uncertainty of wind and PV at a 5-minute level under a variety of conditions. A large-scale display and a combination of multiple coordinated views and small multiples were used to visually analyze the four large highly multivariate scenarios with high spatial and temporal resolutions.

  4. Guide to purchasing green power. Renewable electricity, renewable energy certificates and on-site renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-09-30

    The Guide to Purchasing Green Power is intended for organizations that are considering the merits of buying green power as well as those that have decided to buy it and want help doing so. The Guide was written for a broad audience, including businesses, government agencies, universities, and all organizations wanting to diversify their energy supply and to reduce the environmental impact of their electricity use.The Guide provides an overview of green power markets and describes the necessary steps to buying green power. This section summarizes the Guide to help readers find the information they need.

  5. Rainier Biogas Manure Management and Renewable Energy Generation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, John [King County, WA (United States)

    2017-06-06

    The Rainier Biogas project is a community manure processing and renewable energy generation facility. Construction was completed and operation initiated in 2012. It is owned and operated by Rainier Biogas, LLC in collaboration with local dairy farmers, Washington State University, and the King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks. The project receives manure from three to four partner dairy farms mostly by underground pipe. The project is located at 43218 208th Ave SE; Enumclaw, WA 98022.

  6. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument...... for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are still very limited. Based on a least-cost and technology-rich power generation and transmission expansion model...... for China, this study examines the impacts of renewable energy quota system and carbon cap policy instruments on the future Chinese power sector. Various scenarios are examined toward 2030 and their future power generation mix, capacity installations and carbon emission are discussed. This study concludes...

  7. Integration of Lignocellulosic Biomass into Renewable Energy Generation Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSCH Sigrid

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In all European countries various lignocellulosic biomasses such as agricultural residues (straw, strawcontaining dung or fractions from municipal solid waste are available in large amounts, but currently hardly any of thispotential is being used for energy generation. This paper reviews the different options for including lignocellulosicbiomass into renewable energy generation schemes. Not all wastes are suitable to be treated by principally availabletechniques such as anaerobic digestion, ethanol production or thermal valorisation. The present paper gives an overviewof utilisation options for lignocellulosic biomass to either produce biofuels or to integrate such biomass into anaerobicdigestion. Biorefinery concepts are discussed as well.

  8. A Novel Method of Utilizing Hybrid Generator as Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Fathima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy production and consumption in the future may depend on renewable energy sources and also depends on the efficiency of utilizing it. Here, a hybrid system, a combination of solar cells and thermoelectric generators is controlled by open circuit voltage method which is normally used for linear electrical characteristics. The proposed system is supported by theoretical analysis and simulation. Lead acid battery is used to accumulate the harvested energy. Cuk converters are used here to improve the efficiency and helps in reduction of noises. Hybrid generators are found to be efficient and more stable.

  9. Generation scheduling of renewable energy resources under uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad NEMATBAKHSH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, utilization of renewable energy resources (RERs has become an active and interesting area of research in energy management of power systems. In this paper, a new three-stage generation scheduling method is proposed for thermal units and renewable energy resources. In the method, all generation units are bidding in a competitive market along with the external energy tie-line at the point of common coupling. The scheduling problem is solved while considering uncertainties in both generation and demand. At the first stage, Generation Companies (GenCos use forecasted information (such as market price and climate conditions to determine their optimal bidding strategy for maximum revenue. In the next stages, independent system operator (ISO manages available contracts to minimize the operating cost of the power system. The proposed method is applied to a 10-unit network using GAMS software. Simulation results show that the effectiveness of this method is to the benefit of generation companies and ISO in the presence of traditional tie-line.

  10. Generation and transmission expansion planning for renewable energy integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, Russell W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berscheid, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toole, G. Loren [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-11-30

    In recent years the expansion planning problem has become increasingly complex. As expansion planning (sometimes called composite or integrated resource planning) is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the problem. The problem has also been split into generation expansion planning (GEP) and transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) to improve computational tractability. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to combine and adapt to the more complex and complete problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation, comparable generation and transmission construction costs) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing the TNEP. In this paper, we propose a generalization of DBLS to handle simultaneous generation and transmission planning.

  11. Renewable energy resources for distributed generation systems in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczuk, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    The South African Government has objective to provide universal access of electricity for its citizens and its electrification programme has been successful but focus has moved from numbers of connections to one of achieving sustainable socio-economic benefits. First-hand understanding was obtained of the complexity of socio-economic development where CSIR undertook a project in the rural areas of South Africa to identify electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to economic activities. Lessons formed basis of a government funding implementation of pilot hybrid mini-grids to inform a future rollout. Results informed the development of distributed generation concepts and an integrated methodology.

  12. Renewable generation and storage project industry and laboratory recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, N.H.; Butler, P.C.; Cameron, C.P.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Utility Technologies is planning a series of related projects that will seek to improve the integration of renewable energy generation with energy storage in modular systems. The Energy Storage Systems Program and the Photovoltaics Program at Sandia National Laboratories conducted meetings to solicit industry guidance and to create a set of recommendations for the proposed projects. Five possible projects were identified and a three pronged approach was recommended. The recommended approach includes preparing a storage technology handbook, analyzing data from currently fielded systems, and defining future user needs and application requirements.

  13. Incentive Driven Distributed Generation Planning with Renewable Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAUR, S.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Renewable DGs may not be economically viable due to the stochastic generation and huge capital investment, but are an inevitable choice for sustainable energy development and future planning. An appropriate incentive scheme for clean Distributed Generation (DG technologies is able to address this issue in an economical manner and is considered in proposed distributed generation planning model. The proposed model minimizes the annualized cost with Emission Offset Incentive (EOI and the penalty for Green-house Gas (GHG emissions. A meta-heuristic approach with dynamic tuning of control parameters is adopted to improve the success and the convergence rate of optimal solutions. The algorithm provides the optimal solution in terms of type, size, and location of DG. The proposed technique is implemented on IEEE 33-bus system. Proposed model helps the Distribution Network Operators (DNOs to decide the proper DG technology from an economic prospective for eco-friendly energy planning.

  14. Agile sustainable communities. On-site renewable energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Woodrow W. II. [A. Gary Anderson Graduate School of Management, University of California, Riverside (United States); Eisenberg, Larry [Los Angeles Community College District (United States)

    2008-12-15

    situation in California and the Southern California region, primarily Los Angeles. Then the paper looks at the state and regional energy contexts which lay the ground work and rationale why LACCD and other communities must act on their own to counteract climate change and global warming. Finally, the paper discusses how a community becomes sustainable, and hence 'energy independent'. By doing so, any community can generate its own energy through the production or acquisition of its energy from renewable sources such as solar, wind or biomass among other local resources. Even more significant consequences come in terms of carbon control, lower impact on the environment and reduced global warming. (author)

  15. 75 FR 5873 - Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From CPV Ashley Wind...) of renewable energy from CPV Ashley Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV), a direct subsidiary of CPV Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV REC). In order to supply this renewable energy, CPV is proposing...

  16. Renewable Generation Effect on Net Regional Energy Interchange: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakov, Victor; Brinkman, Gregory; Denholm, Paul; Jenkin, Thomas; Margolis, Robert

    2015-07-30

    Using production-cost model (PLEXOS), we simulate the Western Interchange (WECC) at several levels of the yearly renewable energy (RE) generation, between 13% and 40% of the total load for the year. We look at the overall energy exchange between a region and the rest of the system (net interchange, NI), and find it useful to examine separately (i) (time-)variable and (ii) year-average components of the NI. Both contribute to inter-regional energy exchange, and are affected by wind and PV generation in the system. We find that net load variability (in relatively large portions of WECC) is the leading factor affecting the variable component of inter-regional energy exchange, and the effect is quantifiable: higher regional net load correlation with the rest of the WECC lowers net interchange variability. Further, as the power mix significantly varies between WECC regions, effects of ‘flexibility import’ (regions ‘borrow’ ramping capability) are also observed.

  17. Next Generation of Renewable Electricity Policy: How Rapid Change is Breaking Down Conventional Policy Categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T. D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Jacobs, D. [International Energy Transition (IET), Boston, MA (United States); Rickerson, W. [Meister Consultants Group, Boston, MA (United States); Healey, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A number of policies have been used historically in order to stimulate the growth of the renewable electricity sector. This paper examines four of these policy instruments: competitive tendering, sometimes called renewable electricity auctions, feed-in tariffs, net metering and net billing, and tradable renewable energy certificates. In recent years, however, a number of changes to both market circumstances and to policy priorities have resulted in numerous policy innovations, including the emergence of policy hybrids. With no common language for these evolving policy mechanisms, policymakers have generally continued to use the same traditional policy labels, occasionally generating confusion as many of these new policies no longer look, or act, like their traditional predecessors. In reviewing these changes, this paper makes two separate but related claims: first, policy labels themselves are breaking down and evolving. As a result, policy comparisons that rely on the conventional labels may no longer be appropriate, or advisable. Second, as policymakers continue to adapt, we are in effect witnessing the emergence of the next generation of renewable electricity policies, a change that could have significant impacts on investment, as well as on market growth in both developed and developing countries.

  18. The renewable energy targets of the Maghreb countries: Impact on electricity supply and conventional power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Bernhard, E-mail: brandb@uni-koeln.de [Institute of Energy Economics at the University of Cologne, Vogelsanger Strasse 321, 50827 Cologne (Germany); Zingerle, Jonas [Institute of Energy Economics at the University of Cologne, Vogelsanger Strasse 321, 50827 Cologne (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, the three countries of the North African Maghreb region, are showing increased efforts to integrate renewable electricity into their power markets. Like many other countries, they have pronounced renewable energy targets, defining future shares of 'green' electricity in their national generation mixes. The individual national targets are relatively varied, reflecting the different availability of renewable resources in each country, but also the different political ambitions for renewable electricity in the Maghreb states. Open questions remain regarding the targets' economic impact on the power markets. Our article addresses this issue by applying a linear electricity market optimization model to the North African countries. Assuming a competitive, regional electricity market in the Maghreb, the model minimizes dispatch and investment costs and simulates the impact of the renewable energy targets on the conventional generation system until 2025. Special emphasis is put on investment decisions and overall system costs. - Research Highlights: >Market simulation shows impact of RES-E penetration on the conventional power system of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. >Noticeable effects on dispatch and investments in fossil power plants. >Reduced utilization of base-load plants - stronger investments in flexible capacities. >Overall system costs can be decreased by optimizing the RES-E goals.

  19. Transport Energy Impact Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.

    2015-05-13

    Presented at the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Spring 2015 Symposium on May 13, 2015, this presentation by Jeff Gonder of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides information about NREL's transportation energy impact analysis of connected and automated vehicles.

  20. Evaluating the landscape impact of renewable energy plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Romanos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2017-04-01

    Different types of renewable energy have been on an ongoing competition with each other. There has been a lot of research comparing the most common types of renewable energy plants in relation with their efficiency, cost and environmental impact. However, few papers so far have attempted to analyse their impact on landscape and there has never been in depth research on which type of renewable energy causes the least impact on the natural, cultural and aesthetic characteristics of a landscape. This seems to be a significant omission given the vast areas of land already covered with renewable energy plants and the worldwide plans for many more renewable energy projects in the future. Meanwhile, the low aesthetic quality of renewable energy plants has already been an obstacle to their further development, with several relevant examples from countries such as Spain and the Netherlands. There have even been cases where aesthetic degradation is the primary or even the single argument of the opposition to proposed plants. In any case, the aesthetic design and the integration of renewable energy plants into the landscape should really be important design parameters if we plan those projects to truly be sustainable and to be considered complete works of engineering. To initiate dialogue over those aspects of renewable energy, we provide a first comparison on hydro, solar and wind energy. To materialize this comparison, we use data from existing dams, photovoltaic and wind farms. Initially, the average area per MW covered by each type of energy plant is calculated and then evaluated qualitatively from a landscape-impact perspective. Although the area affected is comparable in these three cases, the analysis of the data suggests that dams offer a considerable amount of advantages compared to the other two types of plants. This conclusion arises from the fact that dams, whose basic impact to the landscape is the creation of an artificial lake, contribute much less to the

  1. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  2. Impact of forecast errors on expansion planning of power systems with a renewables target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Salvador; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Boomsma, Trine Krogh

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of production forecast errors on the expansion planning of a power system and investigates the influence of market design to facilitate the integration of renewable generation. For this purpose, we propose a programming modeling framework to determine the generation...... and transmission expansion plan that minimizes system-wide investment and operating costs, while ensuring a given share of renewable generation in the electricity supply. Unlike existing ones, this framework includes both a day-ahead and a balancing market so as to capture the impact of both production forecasts...... and the associated prediction errors. Within this framework, we consider two paradigmatic market designs that essentially differ in whether the day-ahead generation schedule and the subsequent balancing re-dispatch are co-optimized or not. The main features and results of the model set-ups are discussed using...

  3. Conflicts and social impacts: EIA of renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Nielsen, Helle

    2017-01-01

    The transition to renewable energy is currently in many places challenged by conflicts over specific projects. For example siting of onshore wind turbines often causes conflicts with local communities, sometimes leading to abandonment of the project or plan. This paper presents an analysis...... of such conflicts, and the role social impacts play. The paper analyses in depth four cases of renewable energy projects, utilizing a conceptualization of conflict constituted by three elements: Attitude, behavior and contradictions. Through analysis of EIA reports and hearing responses as well as interviews...

  4. Scaling Up Renewable Energy Generation: Aligning Targets and Incentives with Grid Integration Considerations, Greening The Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-05-27

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, provides power system planners with tips to help secure and sustain investment in new renewable energy generation by aligning renewable energy policy targets and incentives with grid integration considerations.

  5. Design and Implementation of a Control Strategy for Microgrid Containing Renewable Energy Generations and Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchao Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amount of such renewable energy generations as wind/photovoltaic generations directly connected to grid acting as distributed generations will cause control, protection, security, and safety problems. Microgrid, which has advantages in usage and control of distributed generations, is a promising approach to coordinate the conflict between distributed generations and the grid. Regarded as mobile power storages, batteries of electric vehicles can depress the fluctuation of power through the point of common coupling of microgrid. This paper presents a control strategy for microgrid containing renewable energy generations and electric vehicles. The control strategy uses current control for renewable energy generations under parallel-to-grid mode, and uses master-slave control under islanding mode. Simulations and laboratory experiments prove that the control strategy works well for microgrid containing renewable energy generations and electric vehicles and provides maximum power output of renewable energy and a stable and sustainable running under islanding mode.

  6. Climate Change in Environmental Impact Assessment of Renewable Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2012-01-01

    Many renewable energy projects are subject to EIA. However a question that surfaces is what use an impact assessment is when the project is ‘good for the environment’? One of the current topics receiving much attention in impact assessment is climate change and how this factor is integrated...... in impact assessments. This warrants the question: How do we assess the climate change related impacts of a project that inherently has a positive effect on climate? This paper is based on a document study of EIA reports from Denmark. The results show that climate change is included in most of the EIA...... reports reviewed, and that only climate change mitigation is in focus while adaptation is absent. Also the results point to focus on positive impacts, while the indirect negative impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  7. Climate Change in Environmental Impact Assessment of Renewable Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2012-01-01

    reports reviewed, and that only climate change mitigation is in focus while adaptation is absent. Also the results point to focus on positive impacts, while the indirect negative impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA.......Many renewable energy projects are subject to EIA. However a question that surfaces is what use an impact assessment is when the project is ‘good for the environment’? One of the current topics receiving much attention in impact assessment is climate change and how this factor is integrated...... in impact assessments. This warrants the question: How do we assess the climate change related impacts of a project that inherently has a positive effect on climate? This paper is based on a document study of EIA reports from Denmark. The results show that climate change is included in most of the EIA...

  8. Impact of Variable Renewable Energy in the Iberian Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño, Edgar; Pereira, Adelino J. C.; Machado Ferreira, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Market and system operators face new challenges as more renewable energy sources are added. The driving factors in this trend are mainly associated with environmental benefits of the renewable generation and climate change mitigation, as well as the reduction of the dependency of conventional...... and external energy source. If integrated in large scale, the nondispatchable nature of intermittent resources imposes some technical and economic challenges on the operation of power systems. Particularly, market dynamics and prices could be influenced by such integrations. Over the last years, the generation...... mix of Spain and Portugal has undergone a dramatic change, driven by new environmental policies and financial incentives. In this regard, wind has become one of the most popular alternative sources of energy, bringing new challenges from the operational and structural point of view. This trend has...

  9. Development of next generation biodiesel technology. Catalytic deoxygenation of renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snaare, M.

    2006-07-01

    New sustainable solutions for energy production have to be found in the near future to satisfy the rapid increase of the global energy consumption. One highly functional source of energy is diesel fuel, which can be produced from renewable raw materials and can therefore be regarded as a potential sustainable alternative for the fossil fuels in future. In this study, a novel catalytic biodiesel production technology from triglyceride containing vegetable oils and animal fats was investigated. Natural oils and fats were heterogeneously deoxygenated by selectively removing the carboxyl group (decarboxylation or decarbonylation) in the triglyceride structure, forming a diesel-like linear hydrocarbon. Catalyst screening was performed in a semi-batch reactor with dispersed metal catalysts and stearic acid as model compound, in order to obtain the most promising metal-support combination for deoxygenation. The experiments were carried out at elevated temperatures (270-360 deg C) and pressures (1-40 bar), typically under inert (Ar, N{sub 2} and He) or hydrogen atmosphere and in a solvent. Palladium and platinum on active carbon support were proven to be the most promising catalysts for the deoxygenation of stearic acid. In particular, a commercial 5 % Pd on activated carbon was highly active and selective. To study the relationship between the reaction activities and catalysts physical-chemical properties, a range of Pd/C catalysts was synthesized at the laboratory of Industrial Chemistry and evaluated. Selective deoxygenation was successfully achieved over the Pd on activated carbon catalyst with a large variety of renewable feedstocks, such as different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid esters and triglycerides. Moreover, the most essential reaction parameters were investigated and optimized. A deoxygenation mechanism was proposed and discussed. The mechanism was further evaluated and confirmed by kinetic modeling. The kinetic model gave an excellent fit

  10. 40 CFR 73.81 - Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... renewable energy generation. 73.81 Section 73.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Reserve § 73.81 Qualified conservation measures and renewable energy generation. (a) Qualified energy... educational in nature; (4) Load management measures that lead to economic reduction of electric energy...

  11. Optimal configuration of power generating systems in isolated island with renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Hayashi, Daisuke; Yona, Atsushi; Urasaki, Naomitsu [Faculty of Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara-cho, Nakagami, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Funabashi, Toshihisa [Meidensha Corporation, 36-2 Nihonbashi Hakozakicho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-8515 (Japan)

    2007-09-15

    In isolated islands, usually diesel generators supply electric power. However, there are problems, e.g., a lack of fossil fuel, environmental pollution etc. So, isolated island, e.g. Miyako island, installs renewable energy power production plants. However, renewable energy power production plants are very costly. This paper presents an optimal configuration of power system in isolated island installing renewable energy power production plants. The generating system consists of diesel generators, wind turbine generators, PV system and batteries. Using the proposed method, operation cost can be reduced about 10% in comparison with diesel generators only from simulation results. (author)

  12. An Integrated Multiperiod OPF Model with Demand Response and Renewable Generation Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhsh, Waqquas Ahmed; Zhang, Chunyu; Pinson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy sources such as wind and solar have received much attention in recent years, and large amount of renewable generation is being integrated to the electricity networks. A fundamental challenge in a power system operation is to handle the intermittent nature of the renewable...... generation. In this paper we present a stochastic programming approach to solve a multiperiod optimal power flow problem under renewable generation uncertainty. The proposed approach consists of two stages. In the first stage, operating points for the conventional power plants are determined. The second...... stage realizes generation from the renewable resources and optimally accommodates it by relying on the demand-side flexibilities and limited available flexibilities from the conventional generating units. The proposed model is illustrated on a 4-bus and a 39- bus system. Numerical results show...

  13. Strategic Use of Government Procurement to Spur Renewable Energy Generation in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KhairulNaim Adham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy sectorplays an important rolein Malaysia’s socioeconomic development. However energy productionisthe largest contributor toair pollution. Malaysia’s emission intensity levels of green house gases (GHGs in the energy sector are above the global average. In this view, government procurement which refers to the acquisition of supplies, services and works by the government plays a vital role as an economic instrument to promote sustainable use of energy - by intensifying the development of renewable energy (RE and encourage energy efficiency practices. These would ensure continuous supply of energy for future generation, and reduce the negative impact to human and environment. In the context of Malaysia, its huge public expenditure of 24-33% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP could be used to spur RE generation by integrating RE requirements in constructing or upgrading government buildings. By having this initiative, the government will show its strong commitment towards promoting RE generation and creating a favourable environment for RE development.

  14. Energy Management Challenges and Opportunities with Increased Intermittent Renewable Generation on the California Electrical Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichman, Joshua David

    Renewable resources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric, wave and tidal, represent an opportunity for environmentally preferred generation of electricity that also increases energy security and independence. California is very proactive in encouraging the implementation of renewable energy in part through legislation like Assembly Bill 32 and the development and execution of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS); however renewable technologies are not without challenges. All renewable resources have some resource limitations, be that from location, capacity, cost or availability. Technologies like wind and solar are intermittent in nature but represent one of the most abundant resources for generating renewable electricity. If RPS goals are to be achieved high levels of intermittent renewables must be considered. This work explores the effects of high penetration of renewables on a grid system, with respect to resource availability and identifies the key challenges from the perspective of the grid to introducing these resources. The HiGRID tool was developed for this analysis because no other tool could explore grid operation, while maintaining system reliability, with a diverse set of renewable resources and a wide array of complementary technologies including: energy efficiency, demand response, energy storage technologies and electric transportation. This tool resolves the hourly operation of conventional generation resources (nuclear, coal, geothermal, natural gas and hydro). The resulting behavior from introducing additional renewable resources and the lifetime costs for each technology is analyzed.

  15. A retrospective analysis of benefits and impacts of U.S. renewable portfolio standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Heeter, Jenny; Mai, Trieu; Bird, Lori; Bolinger, Mark; Carpenter, Alberta; Heath, Garvin; Keyser, David; Macknick, Jordan; Mills, Andrew; Millstein, Dev

    2016-09-01

    As states consider revising or developing renewable portfolio standards (RPS), they are evaluating policy costs, benefits, and other impacts. We present the first U. S. national-level assessment of state RPS program benefits and impacts, focusing on new renewable electricity resources used to meet RPS compliance obligations in 2013. In our central-case scenario, reductions in life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from displaced fossil fuel-generated electricity resulted in $2.2 billion of global benefits. Health and environmental benefits from reductions in criteria air pollutants (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter 2.5) were even greater, estimated at $5.2 billion in the central case. Further benefits accrued in the form of reductions in water withdrawals and consumption for power generation. Finally, although best considered resource transfers rather than net societal benefits, new renewable electricity generation used for RPS compliance in 2013 also supported nearly 200,000 U. S.-based gross jobs and reduced wholesale electricity prices and natural gas prices, saving consumers a combined $1.3-$4.9 billion. In total, the estimated benefits and impacts well-exceed previous estimates of RPS compliance costs.

  16. A Retrospective Analysis of Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Heeter, Jenny; Mai, Trieu; Bird, Lori; Bolinger, Mark; Carpenter, Alberta; Heath, Garvin; Keyser, David; Macknick, Jordan; Mills, Andrew; Millstein, Dev

    2016-09-01

    As states consider revising or developing renewable portfolio standards (RPS), they are evaluating policy costs, benefits, and other impacts. We present the first U. S. national-level assessment of state RPS program benefits and impacts, focusing on new renewable electricity resources used to meet RPS compliance obligations in 2013. In our central-case scenario, reductions in life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from displaced fossil fuel-generated electricity resulted in $2.2 billion of global benefits. Health and environmental benefits from reductions in criteria air pollutants (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter 2.5) were even greater, estimated at $5.2 billion in the central case. Further benefits accrued in the form of reductions in water withdrawals and consumption for power generation. Finally, although best considered resource transfers rather than net societal benefits, new renewable electricity generation used for RPS compliance in 2013 also supported nearly 200,000 U. S.-based gross jobs and reduced wholesale electricity prices and natural gas prices, saving consumers a combined $1.3-$4.9 billion. In total, the estimated benefits and impacts well-exceed previous estimates of RPS compliance costs.

  17. The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

    2013-06-15

    The countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are one of the world's largest potential growth markets for renewable energy generation. Countries throughout the region have recognized the great potential of their excellent wind and solar conditions, and ample empty space, and have ambitious plans to develop solar and wind energy. They are already making progress in realizing these renewables targets. They also increasingly recognize the great potential of renewable energy in tackling a range of challenges. At a time of high unemployment, particularly among youth, the growth of renewable energy provides an engine for creating new jobs and fostering new skill profiles among workers. Renewables can increase GDP and form the basis for a significant new source of trade revenues. As a source of energy, renewables reduce dependency on fossil fuels - whether as imports, to supply energy, or as exports. This report, Economic Impacts of Desert Power (EIDP), investigates how, and under what conditions, renewables in MENA can lead to socioeconomic benefits. EIDP shows, under various scenarios, how many jobs can be expected in three exemplary MENA countries, and how the expansion of renewables can lead to higher GDP growth rates across the region. EIDP pinpoints their economic impact across sectors and countries. At the same time, EIDP describes how these effects can be maximized through immediate and sustained policy support. The report also details how such support can be tailored to foster a self-sustaining market. In short, EIDP aims to contribute to a range of debates focused on how to maximize the benefits of green growth. EIDP illustrates the following points: - MENA can benefit economically from decarbonizing - even if the rest of the world does not pursue climate action. - Exporting excess electricity is an economic opportunity for MENA countries - several North African countries could create a major export industry with renewable electricity, which

  18. Market Power and Investment in Renewable Electricity Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Rune Ramsdal; Misir, Nihat

    while incurring lower investment costs. We additionally find that highly convex investment cost greatly diminishes the impact of market power on the investment decisions. Furthermore, for both the strategic firm and the social planner, fixed baseload generation is preferable during low installed...... approach to evaluate the investment decisions. In our paper we do not only focus on the differences in costs for different technologies but also on the differences in operation of those technologies and how those differences impact the optimal investment decisions. In our model, the one-time investment...... of installed capacity in the market. In the numerical results, we find that the strategic firm tends to invest at a higher demand trigger level and lower capacity compared to the social planner for both the baseload and peakload investment cases. Hence, the strategic firm is expected to invest at a later date...

  19. Federal policies for renewable electricity: Impacts and interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Karen, E-mail: Palmer@rff.org [Resources for the Future, 1616 P St, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Paul, Anthony, E-mail: Paul@rff.org [Resources for the Future, 1616 P St, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Woerman, Matt, E-mail: Woerman@rff.org [Resources for the Future, 1616 P St, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States); Steinberg, Daniel C., E-mail: daniel.steinberg@nrel.gov [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Three types of policies that are prominent in the federal debate over addressing greenhouse gas emissions in the United States are a cap-and-trade program (CTP) on emissions, a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) for electricity production, and tax credits for renewable electricity producers. Each of these policies would have different consequences, and combinations of these policies could induce interactions yielding a whole that is not the sum of its parts. This paper utilizes the Haiku electricity market model to evaluate the economic and technology outcomes, climate benefits, and cost-effectiveness of three such policies and all possible combinations of the policies. A central finding is that the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions reductions from CTP can be significantly greater than those from the other policies, even for similar levels of renewable electricity production, since of the three policies, CTP is the only one that distinguishes electricity generated by coal and natural gas. It follows that CTP is the most cost-effective among these approaches at reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. An alternative compliance payment mechanism in an RPS program could substantially affect renewables penetration, and the electricity price effects of the policies hinge partly on the regulatory structure of electricity markets, which varies across the country. - Research Highlights: > Climate benefits of cap-and-trade are greater than of tax credits or RPS. > Cap-and-trade is more cost-effective at reducing emissions than tax credits or RPS. > Tax credits are a subsidy to production that raises electricity consumption. > Alternative compliance payment can substantially affect the outcome of RPS.

  20. Joint support schemes for renewable generation and barriers for implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    localization and composition of renewable investment can be partly achieved by creating new areas/sub-segments of renewable technologies where support costs and credits are shared. In this article we address how, for example, feed-in tariffs can be set at levels that diverge from the rest of the national...... regarding connection of supported capacity to different networks and cost sharing rules for electricity transmission expansion is also covered and solutions are suggested. Barriers also include the influence on domestic/regional power market prices. One market will be influenced by for example wind...

  1. The Correlation Function of Multiple Dependent Poisson Processes Generated by the Alternating Renewal Process Method

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Don H

    2008-01-01

    We derive conditions under which alternating renewal processes can be used to construct correlated Poisson processes. The pairwise correlation function is also derived, showing that the resulting correlations can be negative. The technique and the analysis can be extended to the generation of two or more dependent renewal processes.

  2. The Evolution of Power System Planning with High Levels of Variable Renewable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of the Greening the Grid introduces the evolution of power system planning with high levels of variable renewable generation.

  3. A Review of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integration and combined utilization of renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly attractive. This paper is a review of hybrid renewable energy systems technologies for power generation, important issues and challenges in their design stage. Generation technology selection and unit sizing, System configurations and Energy management and control are discussed. Applications of hybrid energy systems, advantages of hybrid energy systems, issues and problems related to hybrid energy systems and an overview of energy storage technologies for renewable energy systems are presented. This paper also highlights the future trends of Hybrid energy systems, which represent a promising sustainable solution for power generation.

  4. Message passing for integrating and assessing renewable generation in a redundant power grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdeborova, Lenka [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    A simplified model of a redundant power grid is used to study integration of fluctuating renewable generation. The grid consists of large number of generator and consumer nodes. The net power consumption is determined by the difference between the gross consumption and the level of renewable generation. The gross consumption is drawn from a narrow distribution representing the predictability of aggregated loads, and we consider two different distributions representing wind and solar resources. Each generator is connected to D consumers, and redundancy is built in by connecting R {le} D of these consumers to other generators. The lines are switchable so that at any instance each consumer is connected to a single generator. We explore the capacity of the renewable generation by determining the level of 'firm' generation capacity that can be displaced for different levels of redundancy R. We also develop message-passing control algorithm for finding switch sellings where no generator is overloaded.

  5. Message passing for integrating and assessing renewable generation in a redundant power grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdeborova, Lenka [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    A simplified model of a redundant power grid is used to study integration of fluctuating renewable generation. The grid consists of large number of generator and consumer nodes. The net power consumption is determined by the difference between the gross consumption and the level of renewable generation. The gross consumption is drawn from a narrow distribution representing the predictability of aggregated loads, and we consider two different distributions representing wind and solar resources. Each generator is connected to D consumers, and redundancy is built in by connecting R {le} D of these consumers to other generators. The lines are switchable so that at any instance each consumer is connected to a single generator. We explore the capacity of the renewable generation by determining the level of 'firm' generation capacity that can be displaced for different levels of redundancy R. We also develop message-passing control algorithm for finding switch sellings where no generator is overloaded.

  6. "Social Capitalism" in Renewable energy generation::China and California Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Woodrow W; Li, Xing

    2010-01-01

    With a population of over 1.3 billion people, demand for renewable energy is expected to grow to a USD $12 billion market in the near term. Under Renewable Energy Law (REL) in February 2005 in the People's Republic of China (PRC) passed by the National Congress, renewable energy projects will be able to receive a range of financial incentives starting in 2006, which will more than double the PRC current renewable energy generation from 7% to 15% by 2020. Most of the increase will be in hydroe...

  7. The impacts of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO2 emissions in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Umit

    2017-06-01

    As a result of great increases in CO2 emissions in the last few decades, many papers have examined the relationship between renewable energy and CO2 emissions in the energy economics literature, because as a clean energy source, renewable energy can reduce CO2 emissions and solve environmental problems stemming from increases in CO2 emissions. When one analyses these papers, he/she will observe that they employ fixed parameter estimation methods, and time-varying effects of non-renewable and renewable energy consumption/production on greenhouse gas emissions are ignored. In order to fulfil this gap in the literature, this paper examines the effects of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO2 emissions in Turkey over the period 1970-2013 by employing fixed parameter and time-varying parameter estimation methods. Estimation methods reveal that CO2 emissions are positively related to non-renewable energy and renewable energy in Turkey. Since policy makers expect renewable energy to decrease CO2 emissions, this paper argues that renewable energy is not able to satisfy the expectations of policy makers though fewer CO2 emissions arise through production of electricity using renewable sources. In conclusion, the paper argues that policy makers should implement long-term energy policies in Turkey.

  8. Impacts of marine renewable energy scheme operation on the eutrophication potential of the Severn Estuary, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiri, Margaret; Kay, David; Ahmadian, Reza; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Falconer, Roger; Bray, Michaela

    2013-04-01

    In recent years there has being growing global interest in the generation of electricity from renewable resources. Amongst these, marine energy resource is now being considered to form a significant part of the energy mix, with plans for the implementation of several marine renewable energy schemes such as barrages and tidal stream turbines around the UK in the near future. Although marine energy presents a great potential for future electricity generation, there are major concerns over its potential impacts, particularly barrages, on the hydro-environment. Previous studies have shown that a barrage could significantly alter the hydrodynamic regime and tidal flow characteristics of an estuary, with changes to sediment transport (Kadiri et al., 2012). However, changes to nutrients have been overlooked to date. Hence, considerable uncertainty remains as to how a barrage would affect the trophic status of an estuary. This is particularly important because eutrophication can lead to algal toxin production and increased mortality of aquatic invertebrates and fish populations. Therefore, this study examines the impacts of the two different modes of operation of a barrage (i.e. ebb generation and flood-ebb generation) on the eutrophication potential of the Severn Estuary using a simplified model developed by the UK's Comprehensive Studies Task Team (CSTT). The model uses a set of equations and site-specific input data to predict equilibrium dissolved nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton biomass, light-controlled phytoplankton growth rate and primary production which are compared against CSTT set standards for assessing the eutrophic status of estuaries and coastal waters. The estuary volume and tidal flushing time under the two operating modes were estimated using a hydrodynamic model and field surveys were conducted to obtain dissolved nitrate and phosphate concentrations which served as input data. The predicted equilibrium dissolved nitrate and phosphate

  9. Integrating Land Conservation and Renewable Energy Goals in California: Assessing Land Use and Economic Cost Impacts Using the Optimal Renewable Energy Build-Out (ORB) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. C.; Schlag, N. H.; Cameron, D. R.; Brand, E.; Crane, L.; Williams, J.; Price, S.; Hernandez, R. R.; Torn, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding of the environmental impacts and economic costs of potential renewable energy (RE) siting decisions that achieve ambitious RE targets. Such analyses are needed to inform policy recommendations that minimize potential conflicts between conservation and RE development. We use the state of California's rapid development of utility-scale RE as a case study to examine how possible land use constraints impact the total electricity land area, areas with conservation value, water use, and electricity cost of ambitious RE portfolios. We developed the Optimal Renewable energy Build-out (ORB) model, and used it in conjunction with the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) Calculator, a RE procurement and transmission planning tool used by utilities within California, to generate environmentally constrained renewable energy potential and assess the cost and siting-associated impacts of wind, solar photovoltaic, concentrating solar power (CSP), and geothermal technologies. We find that imposing environmental constraints on RE development achieves lower conservation impacts and results in development of more fragmented land areas. With increased RE and environmental exclusions, generation becomes more widely distributed across the state, which results in more development on herbaceous agricultural vegetation, grasslands, and developed & urban land cover types. We find land use efficiencies of RE technologies are relatively inelastic to changes in environmental constraints, suggesting that cost-effective substitutions that reduce environmental impact and achieve RE goals is possible under most scenarios and exclusion categories. At very high RE penetration that is limited to in-state development, cost effectiveness decreases substantially under the highest level of environmental constraint due to the over-reliance on solar technologies. This additional cost is removed once the in-state constraint is lifted, suggesting that minimizing both negative

  10. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  11. Renewable Energy Project Financing: Impacts of the Financial Crisis and Federal Legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.; Newcomb, J.

    2009-07-01

    Extraordinary financial market conditions have disrupted the flows of equity and debt investment into U.S. renewable energy (RE) projects since the fourth quarter of 2008. The pace and structure of renewable energy project finance has been reshaped by a combination of forces, including the financial crisis, global economic recession, and major changes in federal legislation affecting renewable energy finance. This report explores the impacts of these key market events on renewable energy project financing and development.

  12. A Review of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Electric Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Ibrahim; Abul Khair

    2015-01-01

    Integration and combined utilization of renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly attractive. This paper is a review of hybrid renewable energy systems technologies for power generation, important issues and challenges in their design stage. Generation technology selection and unit sizing, System configurations and Energy management and control are discussed. Applications of hybrid energy systems, advantages of hybrid energy systems, issues and problems related to hybrid ...

  13. Issues, Challenges, Causes, Impacts and Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources - Grid Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Mamatha Sandhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources have increased significantly due to environmental issues and fossil fuels elevated cost. Integration of renewable energy sources to utility grid depends on the scale of power generation. Large scale power generations are connected to transmission systems where as small scale distributed power generation is connected to distribution systems. There are certain challenges in the integration of both types of systems directly. Due to this, wind energy has gained a lot of investments from all over the world. However, due to the wind speed‘s uncertain behavior it is difficult to obtain good quality power, since wind speed fluctuations reflect on the voltage and active power output of the electric machine connected to the wind turbine. Solar penetration also changes the voltage profile and frequency response of the system and affects the transmission and distribution systems of utility grid. This paper presents a review in the issues, challenges, causes, impacts and utilization of renewable energy sources (RES - Grid Integration.

  14. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Helbra Tenrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil industry, the government of Indonesia should give fiscal incentives to encourage palm oil industry to produce processed materials. The purpose of this study is to identify the appropriate fiscal policy to palm oil industry and to estimate the economic impact due to the implementation of fiscal incentives policy. The methodology used in this research is analysis using Social Accounting Matrix (SAM that can give an overview the impact of policy implementation to factors of production, an institution such as government and household, and other sectors including palm oil sectors itself. The result of this study that is the proposed fiscal policy in palm oil industry was fiscal incentives in the form of VAT exemption. Economic impact analysis that came from SAM indicates that implementation of the policy has an overall positive impact to factors of production, institution and sector.

  15. An evaluation of the impact of state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) on retail, commercial, and industrial electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puram, Rakesh

    The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular mechanism for states to promote renewable energy and its popularity has spurred a potential bill within Congress for a nationwide Federal RPS. While RPS benefits have been touted by several groups, it also has detractors. Among the concerns is that RPS standards could raise electricity rates, given that renewable energy is costlier than traditional fossil fuels. The evidence on the impact of RPS on electricity prices is murky at best: Complex models by NREL and USEIA utilize computer programs with several assumptions which make empirical studies difficult and only predict slight increases in electricity rates associated with RPS standards. Recent theoretical models and empirical studies have found price increases, but often fail to comprehensively include several sets of variables, which in fact could confound results. Utilizing a combination of past papers and studies to triangulate variables this study aims to develop both a rigorous fixed effects regression model as well as a theoretical framework to explain the results. This study analyzes state level panel data from 2002 to 2008 to analyze the effect of RPS on residential, commercial, and industrial electricity prices, controlling for several factors including amount of electricity generation from renewable and non-renewable sources, customer incentives for renewable energy, macroeconomic and demographic indicators, and fuel price mix. The study contrasts several regressions to illustrate important relationships and how inclusions as well as exclusion of various variables have an effect on electricity rates. Regression results indicate that the presence of RPS within a state increases the commercial and residential electricity rates, but have no discernable effect on the industrial electricity rate. Although RPS tends to increase electricity prices, the effect has a small impact on higher electricity prices. The models also indicate that jointly all

  16. Renewable generation technology choice and policies in a competitive electricity supply industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Ashok

    Renewable energy generation technologies have lower externality costs but higher private costs than fossil fuel-based generation. As a result, the choice of renewables in the future generation mix could be affected by the industry's future market-oriented structure because market objectives based on private value judgments may conflict with social policy objectives toward better environmental quality. This research assesses how renewable energy generation choices would be affected in a restructured electricity generation market. A multi-period linear programming-based model (Resource Planning Model) is used to characterize today's electricity supply market in the United States. The model simulates long-range (2000-2020) generation capacity planning and operation decisions under alternative market paradigms. Price-sensitive demand is used to simulate customer preferences in the market. Dynamically changing costs for renewables and a two-step load duration curve are used. A Reference Case represents the benchmark for a socially-optimal diffusion of renewables and a basis for comparing outcomes under alternative market structures. It internalizes externality costs associated with emissions of sulfur dioxide (SOsb2), nitrous oxides (NOsbx), and carbon dioxide (COsb2). A Competitive Case represents a market with many generation suppliers and decision-making based on private costs. Finally, a Market Power Case models the extreme case of market power: monopoly. The results suggest that the share of renewables would decrease (and emissions would increase) considerably in both the Competitive and the Market Power Cases with respect to the Reference Case. The reduction is greater in the Market Power Case due to pricing decisions under existing supply capability. The research evaluates the following environmental policy options that could overcome market failures in achieving an appropriate level of renewable generation: COsb2 emissions tax, SOsb2 emissions cap, renewable

  17. Renewable Energy Generation in India: Present Scenario and Future Prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sri Niwas; Singh, Bharat; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The development of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is necessary for the sustainable development of any country due to depleting fossil fuel level, climbing fossil fuel prices across the world and more recently pressure for reduction emission level. In India, several schemes and policies are launched...... by the government to support the use of RES to achieve energy security and self-sufficiency. This paper discusses the present scenario and future prospects of RES in India. Various schemes such as financial assistance, tax holiday etc for promoting RESs development and utilization are also discussed. The present...

  18. Stability Enhancement of a Power System Containing High-Penetration Intermittent Renewable Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Morel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the transient stability enhancement of a power system containing large amounts of solar and wind generation in Japan. Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster there has been an increasing awareness on the importance of a distributed architecture, based mainly on renewable generation, for the Japanese power system. Also, the targets of CO2 emissions can now be approached without heavily depending on nuclear generation. Large amounts of renewable generation leads to a reduction in the total inertia of the system because renewable generators are connected to the grid by power converters, and transient stability becomes a significant issue. Simulation results show that sodium-sulfur batteries can keep the system in operation and stable after strong transient disturbances, especially for an isolated system. The results also show how the reduction of the inertia in the system can be mitigated by exploiting the kinetic energy of wind turbines.

  19. 77 FR 16278 - License Renewal Application for Indian Point Nuclear Generating Units 2 and 3; Entergy Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION License Renewal Application for Indian Point Nuclear Generating Units 2 and 3; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: License renewal application; intent...

  20. Analysis of performance with variable stroke of a torque based renewable micro hydro power generation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahbubul; Rahman, Md. Shad; Sultan, Rasel A.; Naif, M. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    The most important addition of modern science is renewable energy. And the most useful and the most cheaply renewable power generation source is Hydropower. Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. This is called Hydroelectric power or Hydropower. Hydropower is considered a renewable energy resource because it uses the earth's water cycle to generate electricity. Water evaporates from the earth's surface, forms clouds, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean. As far as Bangladesh is concerned, only a small fraction of electricity is generated by hydropower. The government has set a target of meeting 5 per cent of the electricity demand by 2015 by utilizing renewable energy and 10 per cent by the year 2020. Currently, renewable energies contribute to less than 1 per cent of the country's total electricity generation. The aim of our analysis is to demonstrate and observe the hydropower of our country in micro-scale by our experimental setup which is completely new in concept. This paper consists results of our findings and we find larger the number of stroke higher the rpm correspondingly higher efficiency. We find maximum rpm for 2stroke when fixed fly wheel weight was 18Kg and water was 10liter. It might help in case of utilizing this renewable energy potential at high scale.

  1. The Economics of Renewable Energy Sources into Electricity Generation in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraka Kichonge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the economics of renewable energy sources into electricity generation in Tanzania. Business as usual (BAU scenario and renewable energy (RE scenario which enforce a mandatory penetration of renewable energy sources shares into electricity generations were analyzed. The results show total investment cost for the BAU scenario is much lower as compared to RE scenario while operating and maintenance variable costs are higher in BAU scenario. Primary energy supply in BAU scenario is higher tied with less investment costs as compared to RE scenario. Furthermore, the share of renewable energy sources in BAU scenario is insignificant as compared to RE scenario due to mandatory penetration policy imposed. Analysis concludes that there are much higher investments costs in RE scenario accompanied with less operating and variable costs and lower primary energy supply. Sensitivity analysis carried out suggests that regardless of changes in investments cost of coal and CCGT power plants, the penetration of renewable energy technologies was still insignificant. Notwithstanding the weaknesses of renewable energy technologies in terms of the associated higher investments costs, an interesting result is that it is possible to meet future electricity demand based on domestic resources including renewables.

  2. Study on Renewable Energy Generating Characteristics%新能源发电特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边晓燕; 罗竹平; 符杨

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy such as wind,solar,biomass power generation technology has been relatively mature.It developed rapidly in China in recent years,and has been widely used.Renewable energy power plants / farm integration to the power system causes many problems.This paper will analyze the characteristics of this renewable energy power generation,especially its power output characteristics,and quantitative analysis is applied to example wind farm.The study can be adopted for further renewable energy integration analysis.%阐述了新能源发电厂/场并网后给系统带来的问题。分析新能源发电的特性,特别是其发电的出力特性,并采用案例进行量化分析,为新能源并网运行分析提供依据。

  3. The Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study: Insights on System Stress: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron; Novacheck, Josh

    2017-04-12

    The Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS) explores the operational impacts of the wide spread adoption of wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) resources in North America's Eastern and Quebec Interconnections. We explore the impact of large scale adoption of wind and solar generation on the unit commitment and economic dispatch of the largest coordinated power system in the world by simulating hourly and five-minute operations. Using NREL's high-performance computing capabilities and new methodologies to model operations, we found that the modeled system, as simulated with evolutionary change in 2026, could balance the variability and uncertainty of wind and solar PV at a five-minute level under a variety of conditions. Our simulations achieve instantaneous penetrations that exceed 50% of load while meeting an annual penetration of 30% on an energy basis. The system meets balanced load and supply in all intervals, with modest curtailment, using technologies and practices that are widely available today. However, a variety of the conditions present in these simulations deviate substantially from historical practice. In this work, we analyze potentially stressful system conditions that occur in the simulations and identify opportunities for innovation, regulatory reform, and changes in operating practices that require further analysis to enable the transition to a system with more wind and solar PV.

  4. Preliminary Possibility of Utilising Renewable Energy for Domestic Electricity Generation in Rural and Regional Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the applicability of domestic/home power generation technologies utilizing sustainable/renewable energies in rural and regional Australia. Applicability will cover several aspects such as sustainability and viability. The question is why renewable/sustainable energy? Energy is the keystone of nature and society. Human civilization was spawned eventually by building machines that could use energy stored in fossil fuels. Since the Industrial Revolution the population, econom...

  5. Isotope hydrology of deep groundwater in Syria: renewable and non-renewable groundwater and paleoclimate impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Charideh, A.; Kattaa, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Regional Deep Cretaceous Aquifer (RDCA) is the principal groundwater resource in Syria. Isotope and hydrochemical data have been used to evaluate the geographic zones in terms of renewable and non-renewable groundwater and the inter-relation between current and past recharge. The chemical and isotopic character of groundwater together with radiometric 14C data reflect the existence of three different groundwater groups: (1) renewable groundwater, in RDCA outcropping areas, in western Syria along the Coastal and Anti-Lebanon mountains. The mean δ18O value (-7.2 ‰) is similar to modern precipitation with higher 14C values (up to 60-80 pmc), implying younger groundwater (recent recharge); (2) semi-renewable groundwater, which is located in the unconfined section of the RDCA and parallel to the first zone. The mean δ18O value (-7.0 ‰) is also similar to modern precipitation with a 14C range of 15-45 pmc; (3) non-renewable groundwater found in most of the Syrian interior, where the RDCA becomes confined. A considerable depletion in δ18O (-8.0 ‰) relative to the modern rainfall and low values of 14C (<15 pmc) suggest that the large masses of deep groundwater are non-renewable and related to an older recharge period. The wide scatter of all data points around the two meteoric lines in the δ18O-δ2H diagram indicates considerable variation in recharge conditions. There is limited renewable groundwater in the mountain area, and most of the stored deep groundwater in the RDCA is non-renewable, with corrected 14C ages varying between 10 and 35 Kyr BP.

  6. The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

    2013-06-15

    The countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are one of the world's largest potential growth markets for renewable energy generation. Countries throughout the region have recognized the great potential of their excellent wind and solar conditions, and ample empty space, and have ambitious plans to develop solar and wind energy. They are already making progress in realizing these renewables targets. They also increasingly recognize the great potential of renewable energy in tackling a range of challenges. At a time of high unemployment, particularly among youth, the growth of renewable energy provides an engine for creating new jobs and fostering new skill profiles among workers. Renewables can increase GDP and form the basis for a significant new source of trade revenues. As a source of energy, renewables reduce dependency on fossil fuels - whether as imports, to supply energy, or as exports. This report, Economic Impacts of Desert Power (EIDP), investigates how, and under what conditions, renewables in MENA can lead to socioeconomic benefits. EIDP shows, under various scenarios, how many jobs can be expected in three exemplary MENA countries, and how the expansion of renewables can lead to higher GDP growth rates across the region. EIDP pinpoints their economic impact across sectors and countries. At the same time, EIDP describes how these effects can be maximized through immediate and sustained policy support. The report also details how such support can be tailored to foster a self-sustaining market. In short, EIDP aims to contribute to a range of debates focused on how to maximize the benefits of green growth. EIDP illustrates the following points: - MENA can benefit economically from decarbonizing - even if the rest of the world does not pursue climate action. - Exporting excess electricity is an economic opportunity for MENA countries - several North African countries could create a major export industry with renewable electricity, which

  7. Modelling of Diesel Generator Sets That Assist Off-Grid Renewable Energy Micro-grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Salazar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on modelling diesel generators for off-grid installations based on renewable energies. Variations in Environmental Variables (for example, Solar Radiation and Wind Speed make necessary to include these auxiliary systems in off-grid renewable energy installations, in order to ensure minimal services when the produced renewable energy is not sufficient to fulfill the demand. This paper concentrates on modelling the dynamical behaviour of the diesel generator, in order to use the models and simulations for developing and testing advanced controllers for the overall off-grid system. The Diesel generator is assumed to consist of a diesel motor connected to a synchronous generator through an electromagnetic clutch, with a flywheel to damp variations. Each of the components is modelled using physical models, with the corresponding control systems also modelled: these control systems include the speed and the voltage regulation (in cascade regulation.

  8. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  9. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  10. Impacts of compressed air energy storage plant on an electricity market with a large renewable energy portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Aoife; Diaz Lobera, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy generation is expected to continue to increase globally due to renewable energy targets and obligations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Some renewable energy sources are variable power sources, for example wind, wave and solar. Energy storage technologies can manage the issues associated with variable renewable generation and align non-dispatchable renewable energy generation with load demands. Energy storage technologies can play different roles in each of the step of th...

  11. Co-Generation and Renewables: Solutions for a Low-Carbon Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Co-generation and renewables: solutions for a low-carbon energy future shows that powerful synergies exist when co-generation and renewables work together. The report documents, for the first time, some of the little-known complementary aspects of the two technologies. It also re-emphasises the stand-alone benefits of each technology. Thus, decision makers can use the report as a 'one-stop shop' when they need credible information on co-generation, renewables and the possible synergies between the two. It also provides answers to policy makers' questions about the potential energy and environmental benefits of an increased policy commitment to both co-generation and renewables. Secure, reliable, affordable and clean energy supplies are fundamental to economic and social stability and development. Energy and environmental decision-makers are faced with major challenges that require action now in order to ensure a more sustainable future. More efficient use of, and cleaner primary energy sources can help to achieve this goal. Co-generation -- also known as combined heat and power (CHP) -- represents a proven, cost-effective and energy-efficient solution for delivering electricity and heat. Renewable sources provide clean and secure fuels for producing electricity and heat.

  12. Offshore Renewable Energy Installations: Impact on Navigation and Marine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To reduce our dependence on foreign energy supplies, alternative or renewable energy sources are being pursued. These sources exploit a wide range of...technologies: solar photovoltaics or power plants; hydroelectricity (dams); ocean thermal energy conversion facilities; and offshore renewable energy installations...to affect marine navigation and safety, and although no offshore renewable energy installations presently exist in U.S. waters, several are

  13. Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Technologies: Potential Navigational Impacts and Mitigation Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Richard, M.; Hudon, Thomas, J.; Basco, David, R.; Rondorf, Neil, E.

    2009-12-10

    On April 15, 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement for Advanced Water Power Projects which included a Topic Area for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy Market Acceleration Projects. Within this Topic Area, DOE identified potential navigational impacts of marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy technologies and measures to prevent adverse impacts on navigation as a sub-topic area. DOE defines marine and hydrokinetic technologies as those capable of utilizing one or more of the following resource categories for energy generation: ocean waves; tides or ocean currents; free flowing water in rivers or streams; and energy generation from the differentials in ocean temperature. PCCI was awarded Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-08GO18177 from the DOE to identify the potential navigational impacts and mitigation measures for marine hydrokinetic technologies, as summarized herein. The contract also required cooperation with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) and two recipients of awards (Pacific Energy Ventures and reVision) in a sub-topic area to develop a protocol to identify streamlined, best-siting practices. Over the period of this contract, PCCI and our sub-consultants, David Basco, Ph.D., and Neil Rondorf of Science Applications International Corporation, met with USCG headquarters personnel, with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers headquarters and regional personnel, with U.S. Navy regional personnel and other ocean users in order to develop an understanding of existing practices for the identification of navigational impacts that might occur during construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning. At these same meetings, “standard” and potential mitigation measures were discussed so that guidance could be prepared for project developers. Concurrently, PCCI reviewed navigation guidance published by the USCG and international community. This report summarizes the results of this effort, provides guidance in the form of a

  14. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Katherine [Proton OnSite; Dalton, Luke [Proton OnSite; Roemer, Andy [Proton OnSite; Carter, Blake [Proton OnSite; Niedzwiecki, Mike [Proton OnSite; Manco, Judith [Proton OnSite; Anderson, Everett [Proton OnSite; Capuano, Chris [Proton OnSite; Wang, Chao-Yang [Penn State University; Zhao, Wei [Penn State University

    2014-02-05

    Renewable hydrogen from proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is gaining strong interest in Europe, especially in Germany where wind penetration is already at critical levels for grid stability. For this application as well as biogas conversion and vehicle fueling, megawatt (MW) scale electrolysis is required. Proton has established a technology roadmap to achieve the necessary cost reductions and manufacturing scale up to maintain U.S. competitiveness in these markets. This project represents a highly successful example of the potential for cost reduction in PEM electrolysis, and provides the initial stack design and manufacturing development for Proton’s MW scale product launch. The majority of the program focused on the bipolar assembly, from electrochemical modeling to subscale stack development through prototyping and manufacturing qualification for a large active area cell platform. Feasibility for an advanced membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with 50% reduction in catalyst loading was also demonstrated. Based on the progress in this program and other parallel efforts, H2A analysis shows the status of PEM electrolysis technology dropping below $3.50/kg production costs, exceeding the 2015 target.

  15. Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Miller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small generation rates of kinetic energy to maintain the high wind velocities, and it is this generation rate that will ultimately limit the potential use of jet streams as a renewable energy resource. Here we estimate the maximum limit of jet stream wind power by considering extraction of kinetic energy as a term in the free energy balance of kinetic energy that describes the generation, depletion, and extraction of kinetic energy. We use this balance as the basis to quantify the maximum limit of how much kinetic energy can be extracted sustainably from the jet streams of the global atmosphere as well as the potential climatic impacts of its use. We first use a simple thought experiment of geostrophic flow to demonstrate why the high wind velocities of the jet streams are not associated with a high potential for renewable energy generation. We then use an atmospheric general circulation model to estimate that the maximum sustainable extraction from jet streams of the global atmosphere is about 7.5 TW. This estimate is about 200-times less than previous estimates and is due to the fact that the common expression for instantaneous wind power 12 ρv3 merely characterizes the transport of kinetic energy by the flow, but not the generation rate of kinetic energy. We also find that when maximum wind power is extracted from the jet streams, it results in significant

  16. Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Miller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small generation rates of kinetic energy to maintain the high wind velocities, and it is this generation rate that will ultimately limit the potential use of jet streams as a renewable energy resource. Here we estimate the maximum limit of jet stream wind power by considering extraction of kinetic energy as a term in the free energy balance of kinetic energy that describes the generation, depletion, and extraction of kinetic energy. We use this balance as the basis to quantify the maximum limit of how much kinetic energy can be extracted sustainably from the jet streams of the global atmosphere as well as the potential climatic impacts of its use. We first use a simple thought experiment of geostrophic flow to demonstrate why the high wind velocities of the jet streams are not associated with a high potential for renewable energy generation. We then use an atmospheric general circulation model to estimate that the maximum sustainable extraction from jet streams of the global atmosphere is about 7.5 TW. This estimate is about 200-times less than previous estimates and is due to the fact that the common expression for instantaneous wind power ½ ρ v3 merely characterizes the transport of kinetic energy by the flow, but not the generation rate of kinetic energy. We also find that when maximum wind power is extracted from the jet streams, it results in significant climatic impacts due to a substantial increase of heat transport across the jet streams in the upper atmosphere. This results in upper atmospheric temperature differences of >20 °C, greater atmospheric stability

  17. Renewable energy power generation projects started construction in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On March 19, the construction of a 10-MW photovoltaic power plant and a 1 000-kW new type geothermal power generation project were started by Guodian Longyuan Group in Yanbajing Town, Dangxiong County of Tibet.

  18. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study: Flexibility and High Penetrations of Wind and Solar; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron; Townsend, Aaron; Palchak, David

    2015-07-29

    Balancing wind and solar in a model is relatively easy. All you need to do is assume a very large system with infinite flexibility! But what if you don't have an infinitely flexible system? What if there are thousands of generators nestled in a handful of regions that are unlikely to change their operational practices? Would you still have enough flexibility to balance hundreds of gigawatts of wind and solar at a 5 minute level? At NREL, we think we can, and our industry partners agree. This presentation was presented at the IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting by Aaron Bloom, highlighting results of the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study.

  19. A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report evaluates the future costs, benefits, and other impacts of renewable energy used to meet current state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). It also examines a future scenario where RPSs are expanded. The analysis examines changes in electric system costs and retail electricity prices, which include all fixed and operating costs, including capital costs for all renewable, non-renewable, and supporting (e.g., transmission and storage) electric sector infrastructure; fossil fuel, uranium, and biomass fuel costs; and plant operations and maintenance expenditures. The analysis evaluates three specific benefits: air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and water use. It also analyzes two other impacts, renewable energy workforce and economic development, and natural gas price suppression. This analysis finds that the benefits or renewable energy used to meet RPS polices exceed the costs, even when considering the highest cost and lowest benefit outcomes.

  20. Stochastic Modeling and Analysis of Power System with Renewable Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan

    to evaluate year-to-year variation of wind power generation through a sensitivity analysis and to forecast very short-term wind power through a model-based prediction method. The stochastic load model is established on the basis of a seasonal autoregressive moving average (ARMA) process. It is demonstrated...... that such a stochastic model can be used to simulate the effect of load management on the load duration curve. As CHP units are turned on and off by regulating power, CHP generation has discrete output and thus can be modeled by a transition matrix based discrete Markov chain. As the CHP generation has a strong diurnal...... that minimizes the expectation of power losses of a 69-bus distribution system by controlling the power factor of WTs. The optimization is subjected to the probabilistic constraints of bus voltage and line current. The algorithm combines a constrained nonlinear optimization algorithm and a Monte Carlo based PLF...

  1. Economic and Emissions Impacts of Renewable Fuel Goals for Aviation in the US

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has a goal that one billion gallons of renewable jet fuel is consumed by the US aviation industry each year from 2018. We examine the economic and emissions impacts of this goal using renewable fuel produced from a Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) process from renewable oils. Our approach employs an economy-wide model of economic activity and energy systems and a detailed partial equilibrium model of the aviation industry. If soybean oi...

  2. Reliability evaluation of distribution systems containing renewable distributed generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkuhayli, Abdulaziz Abddullah

    Reliability evaluation of distribution networks, including islanded microgrid cases, is presented. The Monte Carlo simulation algorithm is applied to a test network. The network includes three types of distributed energy resources solar photovoltaic (PV), wind turbine (WT) and gas turbine (GT). These distributed generators contribute to supply part of the load during grid-connected mode, but supply the entire load during islanded microgrid operation. PV and WT stochastic models have been used to simulate the randomness of these resources. This study shows that the implementation of distributed generations can improve the reliability of the distribution networks.

  3. The potential economic impact of constructing and operating solar power generation facilities in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwer, R. K. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Riddel, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Nevada has a vast potential for electricity generation using solar power. An examination of the stock of renewable resources in Nevada proves that the state has the potential to be a leader in renewable-electric generation--one of the best in the world. This study provides estimates on the economic impact in terms of employment, personal income, and gross state product (GSP) of developing a portion of Nevada's solar energy generation resources.

  4. Impacts of Renewable Energy Quota System on China's Future Power Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Weiming; Zhang, Da; Mischke, Peggy; Zhang, Xiliang

    2014-01-01

    As the biggest carbon emitting sector which produces 44% of current national carbon emission in China, the coal-dominated power sector has a tremendous potential for CO2 mitigation in the next two decades. Renewable energy quota system is currently discussed as a potential future policy instrument for the power sector, which requires certain fraction of renewable energy in total power generation for each province and grid zone. The quantitative studies on renewable energy quota for China are ...

  5. Ensemble forecasting for renewable energy applications - status and current challenges for their generation and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The operational management of renewable energy generation in power systems and electricity markets requires forecasts in various forms, e.g., deterministic or probabilistic, continuous or categorical, depending upon the decision process at hand. Besides, such forecasts may also be necessary at various spatial and temporal scales, from high temporal resolutions (in the order of minutes) and very localized for an offshore wind farm, to coarser temporal resolutions (hours) and covering a whole country for day-ahead power scheduling problems. As of today, weather predictions are a common input to forecasting methodologies for renewable energy generation. Since for most decision processes, optimal decisions can only be made if accounting for forecast uncertainties, ensemble predictions and density forecasts are increasingly seen as the product of choice. After discussing some of the basic approaches to obtaining ensemble forecasts of renewable power generation, it will be argued that space-time trajectories of renewable power production may or may not be necessitate post-processing ensemble forecasts for relevant weather variables. Example approaches and test case applications will be covered, e.g., looking at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm in Denmark, or gridded forecasts for the whole continental Europe. Eventually, we will illustrate some of the limitations of current frameworks to forecast verification, which actually make it difficult to fully assess the quality of post-processing approaches to obtain renewable energy predictions.

  6. Renewable Energy Based Floating Power Generator (Rivers and Canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. J.R.Gandhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a stand alone, (river and canal water stream floating power generator system for village electrification, agriculture water pumping, bridge street lights and such other utilities. The system is the unique one of its kind as per our knowledge and various surveys. The physical structure of the system is made of the non corrosive and unbreakable materials like mild steel, fiber glass etc. It works, as it rotates in the water flow. It does not require any kind of the external electric grid power for its working. As the water flows, the specially designed blades of the system rotate in the direction of the flow and ultimately the consistent power is generated, this power can be used directly or it may be stored in battery and the utilized as and when required. No permanent installation, No pollution and environment friendly floating Pico turbine. The observations taken from the sight are tabulated and accordingly results are discussed.

  7. Renewable energy physics, engineering, environmental impacts, economics & planning

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2011-01-01

    This volume is a true shelf reference, providing a thorough overview of the entire renewable energy sphere, while still functioning as a go-to information source for professionals and students when they need answers about a specific technical issue. Crafted over the last 15 years into a problem-solving tool for engineers, researchers, consultants and planners currently working in the field, as well as a detailed map of the renewables universe for those looking to expand into new technological specialties, Renewable Energy by Sorensen offers the most comprehensive coverage of the subject available.

  8. Design and Modeling of Grid Connected Hybrid Renewable Energy Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kishore Reddy,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a design and modeling of grid connected hybrid renewable energy power generation. The energy system having a photo voltaic (PV panel, Srg wind turbine and fuel cell (sofc for continuous power flow management. Fuel cells (storage & generating are added to ensure uninterrupted power supply due to the discontinuous nature of solar and wind resources. Renewable energy generated during times of plenty can be stored for use during periods when sufficient electricity is not available. But storing this energy is a difficult task: batteries and similar technologies perform well over short timescales, but over periods of weeks or months a different approach is necessary. Energy storage in the form of hydrogen is one such possibility: excess electricity is fed into an electrolyser to split water into its constituent parts, oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen is then used in fuel cells to produce electricity when needed which will overcome the problem of storage. This work is mainly concentrated on the design, analysis and modelling of Fuel cells and Analysis and modelling of Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG in the application of Wind Energy Generation and pv cell. Also an effective approach is proposed in this thesis to ensure renewable energy diversity and effective utilization. The pv cell, wind and fuel cell renewable energy system is digitally simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK software environment and fully validated for efficient energy utilizations and enhanced interface power quality under different operating conditions and load excursions

  9. Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2010-03-01

    Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain (sometimes referred to as "intermittent") output, which are unlike the dispatchable sources used for the majority of electricity generation in the United States. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid. In this report, we explore the role of energy storage in the electricity grid, focusing on the effects of large-scale deployment of variable renewable sources (primarily wind and solar energy).

  10. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  11. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  12. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  13. Renewable Energy Jobs. Status, prospects and policies. Biofuels and grid-connected electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, H.; Ferroukhi, R. [et al.] [IRENA Policy Advisory Services and Capacity Building Directorate, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-01-15

    Over the past years, interest has grown in the potential for the renewable energy industry to create jobs. Governments are seeking win-win solutions to the dual challenge of high unemployment and climate change. By 2010, USD 51 billion had been pledged to renewables in stimulus packages, and by early 2011 there were 119 countries with some kind of policy target and/or support policy for renewable energy, such as feed-in tariffs, quota obligations, favourable tax treatment and public loans or grants, many of which explicitly target job creation as a policy goal. Policy-makers in many countries are now designing renewable energy policies that aim to create new jobs, build industries and benefit particular geographic areas. But how much do we know for certain about the job creation potential for renewable energy? This working paper aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on five questions: (1) How can jobs in renewable energy be characterised?; (2) How are they shared out across the technology value chain and what skill levels are required?; (3) How many jobs currently exist and where are they in the world?; (4) How many renewable energy jobs could there be in the future?; and (5) What policy frameworks can be used to promote employment benefits from renewable energy? This paper focuses on grid-connected electricity generation technologies and biofuels. Since the employment potential of off-grid applications is large, it will be covered by a forthcoming study by IRENA on job creation in the context of energy access, based on a number of case studies.

  14. THE IMPACT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SUBVENTION ON THE CAPTIVE CONSUMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the European Union policy in the energy field on promoting the development of new and renewable energy forms, the Community legislation on the promotion of renewable sources had a significant development in the recent years. Thus, alternative fossil fuels (geothermal energy, ocean energy, hydropower energy, solar energy, wind energy, biomass and biofuels contribute to the diversification of the supply on energy to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and reduce the dependence on fossil fuels markets. Moreover, in accordance with the specifications of the Directive 2009/28/EC on energy from renewable sources there has been set as compulsory target the fact that an amount of 20% of the energy consumption of the European Union by 2020, to be derived from the renewable energy sources. In turn, this objective is detailed in the secondary national compulsory targets given the different starting points of Member States. Based on these aspects, in our country, the unsubsidized renewable energy (hydroelectric, together with the photovoltaic, wind and biomass energy represented in the past three years a contribution well above the target assumed by Romania for the year 2020 of total of the produced energy. In this context, this study aims, on the one hand, to emphasize that the subsidized renewable energy to the captive consumers, by increasing the share of green certificates, results in narrowing the market of the classic manufacturers, on the other hand, to account for these securities as due to the existence of subsidies for the operating activities.

  15. The intermittency of wind, solar, and renewable electricity generators. Technical barrier or rhetorical excuse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-09-15

    A consensus has long existed within the electric utility sector of the United States that renewable electricity generators such as wind and solar are unreliable and intermittent to a degree that they will never be able to contribute significantly to electric utility supply or provide baseload power. This paper asks three interconnected questions: (1) What do energy experts really think about renewables in the United States?; (2) To what degree are conventional baseload units reliable?; (3) Is intermittency a justifiable reason to reject renewable electricity resources? To provide at least a few answers, the author conducted 62 formal, semi-structured interviews at 45 different institutions including electric utilities, regulatory agencies, interest groups, energy systems manufacturers, nonprofit organizations, energy consulting firms, universities, national laboratories, and state institutions in the United States. In addition, an extensive literature review of government reports, technical briefs, and journal articles was conducted to understand how other countries have dealt with (or failed to deal with) the intermittent nature of renewable resources around the world. It was concluded that the intermittency of renewables can be predicted, managed, and mitigated, and that the current technical barriers are mainly due to the social, political, and practical inertia of the traditional electricity generation system. (author)

  16. Renewable energy targets, forest resources, and second-generation biofuels in Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinimö, J.; Malinen, H.; Ranta, T.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of second-generation biofuels is an essential factor for meeting the EU’s 2020 targets for renewable energy in the transport sector and enabling the more ambitious targets for 2030. Finland’s forest industry is strongly involved in the development and commercializing of second-generatio

  17. Distributed voltage control coordination between renewable generation plants in MV distribution grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Iov, Florin

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on distributed voltage control coordination between renewable generation plants in medium-voltage distribution grids (DGs). A distributed offline coordination concept has been defined in a previous publication, leading to satisfactory voltage regulation in the DG. However, here...

  18. Redesign Electricity Market for the Next Generation Power System of Renewable Energy and Distributed Storage Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic time-series based method to simulate the volatility of intermittent renewable generation and distributed storage devices along timeline. The proposed method can calculate the optimal timeline for different electricity markets and power systems. In practice...

  19. ‘Standard’ incentive regulation hinders the integration of renewable energy generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, Stefan; Andor, Mark; Hurink, Johann L.

    2012-01-01

    The connection and distribution of growing, decentralized electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E) is leading tomassive investment needs. Besides investing in additional ‘conventional’ assets (e.g. cables), grid operators can also invest in innovative ‘smart solutions’ like local

  20. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

  1. ‘Standard’ incentive regulation hinders the integration of renewable energy generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, Stefan; Andor, Mark; Hurink, Johann L.

    2012-01-01

    The connection and distribution of growing, decentralized electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E) is leading tomassive investment needs. Besides investing in additional ‘conventional’ assets (e.g. cables), grid operators can also invest in innovative ‘smart solutions’ like local

  2. The use of renewable energy in the form of methane via electrolytic hydrogen generation using carbon dioxide as the feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Kumagai, Naokazu; Izumiya, Koichi; Takano, Hiroyuki; Shinomiya, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yusuke; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Kato, Zenta

    2016-12-01

    The history reveals the continuous increase in world energy consumption and carbon emissions. For prevention of intolerable global warming and complete exhaustion of fossil fuels we need complete conversion from fossil fuel consumption to renewable energy. We have been performing the research and development of global carbon dioxide recycling for more than 25 years to supply renewable energy to the world in the form of methane produced by the reaction of carbon dioxide captured from chimney with hydrogen generated electrolytically using electricity generated by renewable energy. We created the cathode and anode for electrolytic hydrogen generation and the catalyst for carbon dioxide methanation by the reaction with hydrogen. The methane formation from renewable energy will be the most convenient and efficient key technology for the use of renewable energy by storage of intermittent and fluctuating electricity generated from renewable energy and by regeneration of stable electricity. Domestic and international cooperation of companies for industrialization is in progress.

  3. Putting renewables and energy efficiency to work: How many jobs can the clean energy industry generate in the US?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Max; Kammen, Daniel M. [Energy and Resources Group, 310 Barrows Hall 3050, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States); Patadia, Shana [Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An analytical job creation model for the US power sector from 2009 to 2030 is presented. The model synthesizes data from 15 job studies covering renewable energy (RE), energy efficiency (EE), carbon capture and storage (CCS) and nuclear power. The paper employs a consistent methodology of normalizing job data to average employment per unit energy produced over plant lifetime. Job losses in the coal and natural gas industry are modeled to project net employment impacts. Benefits and drawbacks of the methodology are assessed and the resulting model is used for job projections under various renewable portfolio standards (RPS), EE, and low carbon energy scenarios We find that all non-fossil fuel technologies (renewable energy, EE, low carbon) create more jobs per unit energy than coal and natural gas. Aggressive EE measures combined with a 30% RPS target in 2030 can generate over 4 million full-time-equivalent job-years by 2030 while increasing nuclear power to 25% and CCS to 10% of overall generation in 2030 can yield an additional 500,000 job-years. (author)

  4. Impact of Uncertainty from Load-Based Reserves and Renewables on Dispatch Costs and Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bowen; Maroukis, Spencer D.; Lin, Yashen; Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2016-11-21

    Aggregations of controllable loads are considered to be a fast-responding, cost-efficient, and environmental-friendly candidate for power system ancillary services. Unlike conventional service providers, the potential capacity from the aggregation is highly affected by factors like ambient conditions and load usage patterns. Previous work modeled aggregations of controllable loads (such as air conditioners) as thermal batteries, which are capable of providing reserves but with uncertain capacity. A stochastic optimal power flow problem was formulated to manage this uncertainty, as well as uncertainty in renewable generation. In this paper, we explore how the types and levels of uncertainty, generation reserve costs, and controllable load capacity affect the dispatch solution, operational costs, and CO2 emissions. We also compare the results of two methods for solving the stochastic optimization problem, namely the probabilistically robust method and analytical reformulation assuming Gaussian distributions. Case studies are conducted on a modified IEEE 9-bus system with renewables, controllable loads, and congestion. We find that different types and levels of uncertainty have significant impacts on dispatch and emissions. More controllable loads and less conservative solution methodologies lead to lower costs and emissions.

  5. The impact of competitive bidding on the market prospects for renewable electric technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B G

    1993-09-01

    This report examines issues regarding the ability of renewable-energy-based generation projects to compete fossil-fuel-based projects in competitive bidding solicitations. State and utility bidding results revealed that on a relative basis, utilities contract for less renewable-energy-based capacity under competitive bidding than under past methods of qualifying facility contracting. It was concluded that renewables are not being chosen more often under competitive bidding because it emphasizes price and operating considerations over other attributes of renewables, such as environmental considerations, fuel diversity, and fuel price stability. Examples are given of bidding approaches used by some states and utilities that have resulted in renewables-based projects winning generation bids. In addition, the appendix summarizes, by state, competitive bidding activities and results for supply-side solicitations that were open to all fuels and technologies.

  6. Navajo Generating Station and Clean-Energy Alternatives: Options for Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Turchi, C. S.; Burman, K.

    2012-06-01

    In January 2012, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory delivered to the Department of the Interior the first part of a study on Navajo Generating Station (Navajo GS) and the likely impacts of BART compliance options. That document establishes a comprehensive baseline for the analysis of clean energy alternatives, and their ability to achieve benefits similar to those that Navajo GS currently provides. This analysis is a supplement to NREL's January 2012 study. It provides a high level examination of several clean energy alternatives, based on the previous analysis. Each has particular characteristics affecting its relevance as an alternative to Navajo GS. It is assumed that the development of any alternative resource (or portfolio of resources) to replace all or a portion of Navajo GS would occur at the end of a staged transition plan designed to reduce economic disruption. We assume that replacing the federal government's 24.3% share of Navajo GS would be a cooperative responsibility of both the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Central Arizona Water Conservation District (CAWCD).

  7. Navajo Generating Station and Clean-Energy Alternatives: Options for Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Turchi, C. S.; Burman, K.

    2012-06-01

    In January 2012, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory delivered to the Department of the Interior the first part of a study on Navajo Generating Station (Navajo GS) and the likely impacts of BART compliance options. That document establishes a comprehensive baseline for the analysis of clean energy alternatives, and their ability to achieve benefits similar to those that Navajo GS currently provides. This analysis is a supplement to NREL's January 2012 study. It provides a high level examination of several clean energy alternatives, based on the previous analysis. Each has particular characteristics affecting its relevance as an alternative to Navajo GS. It is assumed that the development of any alternative resource (or portfolio of resources) to replace all or a portion of Navajo GS would occur at the end of a staged transition plan designed to reduce economic disruption. We assume that replacing the federal government's 24.3% share of Navajo GS would be a cooperative responsibility of both the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Central Arizona Water Conservation District (CAWCD).

  8. Overview of Power Generation Sector of Bangladesh and Proposed Grid Connected Hybrid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Raju Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is the most usable form of energy, and one of the most crucial strategic issues for the sustainable development of a country. The projection of demand of electricity is an integral part of the planning process. Severe power crisis compelled the government to enter into contractual agreements for high-cost temporary solution such as rental power and small IPPS, on an emergency basis, most of these are diesel or liquid-fuel based. Load shading is an acute problem for the country. The country is confronting a simultaneous shortage of electricity. However, the country has substantial amount of renewable energy resources. The overview of power generation section of Bangladesh is presented; the potentiality of renewable energy sources in Bangladesh is discussed. Finally, a grid connected hybrid renewable energy system is proposed to overcome the problem of power crisis using sustainable clean energy at rural area.

  9. ''Social capitalism'' in renewable energy generation: China and California comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Woodrow W. II.; Li, Xing [Clark Strategic Partners, PO Box 17975, Beverly Hills, CA 90210 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    With a population of over 1.3 billion people, demand for renewable energy is expected to grow to a USD $12 billion market in the near term. Under Renewable Energy Law (REL) in February 2005 in the People's Republic of China (PRC) passed by the National Congress, renewable energy projects will be able to receive a range of financial incentives starting in 2006, which will more than double the PRC current renewable energy generation from 7% to 15% by 2020. Most of the increase will be in hydroelectric generated power. Nonetheless, the nation and especially the provinces are moving rapidly to develop a wide range of renewable energy generation including solar, wind, geothermal and run of the river. Because China practices ''social capitalism'' as expressed in it's recurrent Five Year National Plans since 1999, the national government and all the provinces have programs, unlike many western and industrialized nations, to ''plan'' and provide for infrastructures. This paper concerns only the energy infrastructure sector and renewable energy generation in particular. The planning process includes financial incentives and investments which are a major part of the Chinese law focused on ''encouraging foreign investment industries''. The key part of the law is to guarantee long-term power purchase agreements with state owned and controlled ''utilities''. In short, China may have gotten the economics of the energy sector correct in its concern for planning and finance. The paper develops these energy infrastructure ideas along with the legal and financial requirements as ''lessons'' learned from the USA and especially California. These lessons now apply to China and allow it to learn from the American mistakes. Empirical data will be drawn from work done in China that examine the renewable energy generation and infrastructures and hence allow the RPC and its

  10. Recent Trends in Renewable Energy Resources for Power Generation in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Ho Noh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for renewable energy in recent decades has continued to increase, despite adverse economic conditions such as world economic recessions, trade disputes, and falls in gas and oil prices. During this period, the United States and Europe have led the development of renewable energy technologies, but now emerging countries such as China, Brazil, India, and the Republic of Korea are also been actively participating in developing and deploying renewable energy. For example, since 1989, the Korea Electric Power Corporation has built a well-known test site for the application of renewable energy resources, including 500 kW photovoltaic systems with smooth integration into power grids in the Gochang area. The main objects of this study are (1 to review the recent trends in renewable energy systems, including solar, wind, bioenergy, hydroelectric, and tidal power, for electric power generation developed in Korea and (2 to introduce the test sites in Korea. For this purpose, this study examines the current activities of industry and government in Korea and compares them with global trends.

  11. Small-Scale Renewable Energy Systems in the Development of Distributed Generation in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodkowska-Miszczuk Justyna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale renewable energy systems in the context of the development of distributed generation, are discussed for the case of Poland. A distributed energy system is efficient, reliable and environmentally friendly, and is one of the most recent trends in the development of the energy sector in Poland. One of the important dimensions of this process is the creation of micro- and small-power producers based on renewable, locally-available energy sources. It is clear that the development of small-scale renewable energy producers takes place in two ways. One of these is through small hydropower plants, which are the aftermath of hydropower development in areas traditionally associated with water use for energy purposes (northern and western Poland. The second is through other renewable energy sources, mainly biogas and solar energy and located primarily in southern Poland, in highly urbanized areas (e.g. Śląskie Voivodship. In conclusion, the development of small-scale renewable energy systems in Poland is regarded as a good option with respect to sustainable development.

  12. Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-06

    This analysis is the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the benefits and impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). This joint National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory project provides a retrospective analysis of RPS program benefits and impacts, including greenhouse gas emissions reductions, air pollution emission reductions, water use reductions, gross jobs and economic development impacts, wholesale electricity price reduction impacts, and natural gas price reduction impacts. Wherever possible, benefits and impacts are quantified in monetary terms. The paper will inform state policymakers, RPS program administrators, industry, and others about the costs and benefits of state RPS programs. In particular, the work seeks to inform decision-making surrounding ongoing legislative proposals to scale back, freeze, or expand existing RPS programs, as well as future discussions about increasing RPS targets or otherwise increasing renewable energy associated with Clean Power Plan compliance or other emission-reduction goals.

  13. Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-06

    This analysis is the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the benefits and impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). This joint National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory project provides a retrospective analysis of RPS program benefits and impacts, including greenhouse gas emissions reductions, air pollution emission reductions, water use reductions, gross jobs and economic development impacts, wholesale electricity price reduction impacts, and natural gas price reduction impacts. Wherever possible, benefits and impacts are quantified in monetary terms. The paper will inform state policymakers, RPS program administrators, industry, and others about the costs and benefits of state RPS programs. In particular, the work seeks to inform decision-making surrounding ongoing legislative proposals to scale back, freeze, or expand existing RPS programs, as well as future discussions about increasing RPS targets or otherwise increasing renewable energy associated with Clean Power Plan compliance or other emission-reduction goals.

  14. Combining Wind and Pumped Hydro Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Generation in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Coburn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ireland has one of the highest wind energy potentials in Europe. The intermittent nature of wind makes this renewable resource impractical as a sole source of energy. Combining wind energy with pumped hydro energy storage (PHES can overcome this intermittency, consuming energy during low-demand periods and supplying energy for periods of high demand. Currently Ireland has a number of hydroelectric power plants and wind farms of various scales in operation. A feasibility study was conducted to investigate the potential of securing a reliable source of renewable energy by increasing the penetration of hydroelectric power by means of combined wind-PHES developments. The greatest wind potential is experienced along the western coast of Ireland and a number of sites were identified here which satisfied a minimum mean wind speed criterion of 10.5 ms−1. Each site was then further evaluated according to topographical requirements for PHES. All but two of the identified sites are immediately unsuitable due to the presence of areas protected under European legislation; this highlights the nonenergy related obstacles in the path of renewable energy generation in Ireland and suggests that a compromise should be researched which could facilitate both renewable energy generation and species and habitat protection in Europe.

  15. Comparing electricity, heat and biogas storages’ impacts on renewable energy integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    -inclusive 100% renewable energy scenario developed for the Danish city Aalborg based on wind power, bio-resources and low-temperature geothermal heat. The article investigates the system impact of different types of energy storage systems including district heating storage, biogas storage and electricity......Increasing penetration of fluctuating energy sources for electricity generation, heating, cooling and transportation increase the need for flexibility of the energy system to accommodate the fluctuations of these energy sources. Controlling production, controlling demand and utilising storage...... options are the three general categories of measures that may be applied for ensuring balance between production and demand, however with fluctuating energy sources, options are limited, and flexible demand has also demonstrated limited perspective. This article takes its point of departure in an all...

  16. An analysis of the impact of Renewable Portfolio Standards on residential electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Andrew James

    A Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular policy for states seeking to increase the amount of renewable energy generated for consumers of electricity. The success of these state programs has prompted debate about the viability of a national RPS. The impact that these state level policies have had on the price consumers pay for electricity is the subject of some debate. Several federal organizations have conducted studies of the impact that a national RPS would have on electricity prices paid by consumers. NREL and US EIA utilize models that analyze the inputs in electricity generation to examine the future price impact of changes to electricity generation and show marginal increases in prices paid by end users. Other empirical research has produced similar results, showing that the existence of an RPS increases the price of electricity. These studies miss important aspects of RPS policies that may change how we view these price increases from RPS policies. By examining the previous empirical research on RPS policies, this study seeks to identify the controls necessary to build an effective model. These controls are utilized in a fixed effects model that seeks to show how the controls and variables of interest impact electricity prices paid by residential consumers of electricity. This study utilizes a panel data set from 1990 to 2014 to analyze the impact of these policies controlling for generating capacity, the regulatory status of utilities in each state, demographic characteristics of the states, and fuel prices. The results of the regressions indicate that prices are likely to be higher in states that have an RPS compared to states that do not have such a policy. Several of the characteristics mentioned above have price impacts, and so discussing RPS policies in the context of other factors that contribute to electricity prices is essential. In particular, the regulatory status of utilities in each state is an important determinate of price as

  17. The share of renewable energies in electricity generation - Interview wit= h Jean-Louis Bal, Chairman of the Renewable Energies Association; La place des EnR dans la production d'electricite - Entretien avec Jean-Louis Bal, President du Syndicat des Energies Renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, Jean-Louis [Syndicat des Energies Renouvelables, 13-15, rue de la Baume, 75008 Paris (France); Hauet, J.P. [SEE - 17 rue de l' Amiral Hamelin F-75783 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2011-07-01

    In this interview, Jean-Louis Bal, Chairman of the French Renewable Energies Association (SER), expresses his viewpoint concerning the French and European energy policies and in particular concerning the share of renewable energy sources in the 2020 prospects. Different aspects of these policies are debated: the impact of the development of renewable energies on power generation and electricity prices, the French policy of photovoltaic energy development, the problem of electricity storage, the development of solar projects in the Mediterranean area, and the employment in France in relation with the renewable energy industries. (J.S.)

  18. Analysing Renewable Energy Source Impacts on Power System National Network Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Balaban

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact on renewable energy sources integrated into the Romanian power system on the electrical network operation considering the reduction of electricity consumption with respect to the 1990s. This decrease has led to increased difficulties in integrating the renewable energy sources into the power system (network reinforcements, as well as issues concerning the balance of production/consumption. Following the excess of certain proportions of the energy mix, intermittent renewable energy sources require the expansion of networks, storage, back-up capacities and efforts for a flexible consumption, in the absence of which renewable energy sources cannot be used or the grid can be overloaded. To highlight the difficulty of connecting some significant capacities installed in wind power plants and photovoltaic installation, the paper presents a case study for Dobrogea area that has the most installed capacity from renewable energy sources in operation.

  19. Renewable energy respecting nature. A synthesis of knowledge on environmental impacts of renewable energy financed by the Research Council for Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Roel; Bevanger, Kjetil; Dijk, Jiska Van; Petrin, Zlatko; Brende, Hege

    2012-07-01

    Renewable energy production is seen as a key factor for reduction of climate emissions; however further development of landscapes and seascapes may impact the environment on top of existing pressures. Norway has committed to reduce emissions, and major efforts are put into technological and environmental research to provide knowledge and solutions to meet these challenges. This report synthesizes the knowledge on environmental impacts of renewable energy acquired through the EFFEN, EFFEKT and RENERGI programmes run by the Research Council of Norway; especially from the Centre for Environmental Design of Renewable Energy (CEDREN), as one of the centres for environmental-friendly energy research (CEER). Due to extensive water resources Norway was among the first countries to base its energy system on hydropower; already from the late 19th century. Today, approximately 62% of Norway's energy supply comes from hydropower. Norway has ratified EUs Renewables Directive and committed to a target of generating 67.5% from renewable sources. Because the majority of the large river systems were already regulated in the 1960s, wind power is expected to grow extensively to reach this target. With the current development of onshore and offshore wind power and the extension of associated power transmission, environmental considerations will evolve rapidly. Research on environmental impacts of hydropower production prioritized the Atlantic salmon for many years, also due to its value for recreation and tourism. Currently Norway is at the very front of generating knowledge on salmon, empirical studies and development of mitigation measures. Research on hydropower production in regulated rivers has revealed major bottlenecks for salmon production and survival, with varying impacts at different life stages. Research results from EnviDORR and EnviPEAK have provided solutions to ensure production of salmon despite hydropower development. This shows the possibility of reconciling

  20. Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Jasemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to technical and economic reasons, the distributed generation (DG units are widely connected to the low and medium voltage network and created a new structure called micro-grid. Renewable energies (especially wind and solar based DGs are one of the most important generations units among DG units. Because of stochastic behavior of these resources, the optimum and safe management and operation of micro-grids has become one of the research priorities for researchers. So, in this study, the optimal operation of a typical micro-grid is investigated in order to maximize the penetration of renewable energy sources with the lowest operation cost with respect to the limitations for the load supply and the distributed generation resources. The understudy micro-grid consists of diesel generator, battery, wind turbines and photovoltaic panels. The objective function comprises of fuel cost, start-up cost, spinning reserve cost, power purchasing cost from the upstream grid and the sales revenue of the power to the upstream grid. In this paper, the uncertainties of demand, wind speed and solar radiation are considered and the optimization will be made by using the GAMS software and mixed integer planning method (MIP. Article History: Received May 21, 2016; Received in revised form July 11, 2016; Accepted October 15, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Jasemi, M.,  Adabi, F., Mozafari, B., and Salahi, S. (2016 Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation, Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3,233-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.233-248

  1. Optimal Placement and Sizing of Renewable Distributed Generations and Capacitor Banks into Radial Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, renewable types of distributed generation in the distribution system have been much appreciated due to their enormous technical and environmental advantages. This paper proposes a methodology for optimal placement and sizing of renewable distributed generation(s (i.e., wind, solar and biomass and capacitor banks into a radial distribution system. The intermittency of wind speed and solar irradiance are handled with multi-state modeling using suitable probability distribution functions. The three objective functions, i.e., power loss reduction, voltage stability improvement, and voltage deviation minimization are optimized using advanced Pareto-front non-dominated sorting multi-objective particle swarm optimization method. First a set of non-dominated Pareto-front data are called from the algorithm. Later, a fuzzy decision technique is applied to extract the trade-off solution set. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is tested on the standard IEEE 33 test system. The overall results reveal that combination of renewable distributed generations and capacitor banks are dominant in power loss reduction, voltage stability and voltage profile improvement.

  2. Addressing Palm Biodiesel as Renewable Fuel for the Indonesian Power Generation Sector: Java-Madura-Bali System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarianto Indrawan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy security defined as how to equitably provide available, affordable, reliable efficient, environmentally friendly, proactively governed and socially acceptable energy services to end user. It has in recent years taken attention of policymakers in different parts of the world. Formulating policy to improve energy security is mandatory, not only because of depleting fossil resource, but also implementing diversity of energy source since utilization abundant renewable energy resources can increase the security of energy supply. One of the abundant renewable energy resources in Indonesia is palm oil. This study analyses the utilization of palm biodiesel for Indonesian power generation sector in the Java-Madura-Bali (JAMALI system. Two scenarios were created by projecting the demand and environmental impact as well as GHG emissions reduction over the next 25 years. The first scenario subjects on current energy policy, while the second scenario is to substitute of fossil fuel which is still used in the JAMALI power generation system. Effect of palm biodiesel on emission of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, and Volatile Organic Compounds were estimated for each scenario. An externality analysis to complete the environmental analysis was conducted and resource analysis of palm oil plantation based biodiesel was also estimated. Finally, the economics feasibility of palm biodiesel in the power generation sector was analyzed.

  3. Renewable energy and its impact on rural development and sustainability in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the social and economic benefits of renewable energy by examining twelve case studies and applying the findings to the wider industry in order to forecast the effect of renewable energy on rural development. The UK government's policy on renewable energy development, the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation, and the effect of the New Electricity Trading Arrangements (NETA) on the market price for electricity are discussed. Details are given of the case studies concerning wind power, biomass, and wind and hydro schemes; the identification of the economic impacts, the workforce involved, and the expenditure in the local area; and the use of a Keynsian local economic multiplier model to evaluate the impact of the local expenditure and the incoming investment in renewable energy.

  4. Forecast of power generation and heat production from renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pydych Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The share of renewable energy sources (RES in the end use of energy in the UE will increase from the present level of about 25% to 50 % in 2030 according to the assumptions of the European Commission. In Poland the RES Act was passed in 2015. The act defines mechanisms and instruments for supporting the production of electricity and heat from renewable energy sources. Statistics (2003–2014 of electricity generation and heat production from RES in Poland were used in the research. Because of amendments to regulations connected with promoting RES and the emissions trading system (ETS as well as the uncertainty associated with further directions of the energy and environmental policy, generation of electricity and heat based on the use of RES must be modelled while taking risk into account. A number of dynamic processes incorporating random events may be modelled by stochastic equations using Ito calculus. By applying Euler’s method to solve stochastic differential equations (SDE, it is possible to simulate the development of the use of renewable energy carriers in electricity generation and heat production in the future.

  5. Very Short-term Nonparametric Probabilistic Forecasting of Renewable Energy Generation - with Application to Solar Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestaneh, Faranak; Pinson, Pierre; Gooi, Hoay Beng

    2016-01-01

    Due to the inherent uncertainty involved in renewable energy forecasting, uncertainty quantification is a key input to maintain acceptable levels of reliability and profitability in power system operation. A proposal is formulated and evaluated here for the case of solar power generation, when only...... approach to generate very short-term predictive densities, i.e., for lead times between a few minutes to one hour ahead, with fast frequency updates. We rely on an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) as a fast regression model, trained in varied ways to obtain both point and quantile forecasts of solar power...... generation. Four probabilistic methods are implemented as benchmarks. Rival approaches are evaluated based on a number of test cases for two solar power generation sites in different climatic regions, allowing us to show that our approach results in generation of skilful and reliable probabilistic forecasts...

  6. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Helbra Tenrini; Sidiq Suryo Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil ind...

  7. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Overview report of combined energy storage and renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The first part of the paper briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of renewable energy sources with respect to the United Kingdom. It discusses the intermittent nature of wind and solar power and the less intermittent nature of hydro power and energy from biomass. The need to store energy generated, particularly from the intermittent sources, is discussed with special reference to electric batteries and pumped storage. If the energy cannot be stored and delivered when required, then the commercial viability of the source will be adversely affected - the economics and how this fits with NETA are discussed briefly. The second part of the paper is an overview of some relevant literature discussing (a) how the problems of fluctuating supplies may be managed, (b) an analytical assessment of the contribution from wind farms, (c) how fluctuations in wind power can be smoothed using sodium-sulfur batteries, (d) how small generators can get together and reduce trading costs and imbalance exposure under NETA, (e) the benefits of large-scale energy storage to network management and embedded generation, (f) distribution networks, (g) embedded generation and network management issues and (h) costs and benefits of embedded generation. The work was carried out as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme managed by Future Energy Solutions.

  8. Renewable build-up pathways for the US: Generation costs are not system costs

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sarah; Andresen, Gorm B; Jacobson, Mark Z; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The transition to a future electricity system based primarily on wind and solar PV is examined for all regions in the contiguous US. We present optimized pathways for the build-up of wind and solar power for least backup energy needs as well as for least cost obtained with a simplified, lightweight model based on long-term high resolution weather-determined generation data. In the absence of storage, the pathway which achieves the best match of generation and load, thus resulting in the least backup energy requirements, generally favors a combination of both technologies, with a wind/solar PV energy mix of about 80/20 in a fully renewable scenario. The least cost development is seen to start with 100% of the technology with the lowest average generation costs first, but with increasing renewable installations, economically unfavorable excess generation pushes it toward the minimal backup pathway. Surplus generation and the entailed costs can be reduced significantly by combining wind and solar power, and/or a...

  9. Promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency in Africa: a framework to evaluate employment generation and cost effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantore, Nicola; Nussbaumer, Patrick; Wei, Max; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2017-03-01

    The ongoing debate over the cost-effectiveness of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) deployment often hinges on the current cost of incumbent fossil-fuel technologies versus the long-term benefit of clean energy alternatives. This debate is often focused on mature or ‘industrialized’ economies and externalities such as job creation. In many ways, however, the situation in developing economies is at least as or even more interesting due to the generally faster current rate of economic growth and of infrastructure deployment. On the one hand, RE and EE could help decarbonize economies in developing countries, but on the other hand, higher upfront costs of RE and EE could hamper short-term growth. The methodology developed in this paper confirms the existence of this trade-off for some scenarios, yet at the same time provides considerable evidence about the positive impact of EE and RE from a job creation and employment perspective. By extending and adopting a methodology for Africa designed to calculate employment from electricity generation in the U.S., this study finds that energy savings and the conversion of the electricity supply mix to renewable energy generates employment compared to a reference scenario. It also concludes that the costs per additional job created tend to decrease with increasing levels of both EE adoption and RE shares.

  10. Apples with apples: accounting for fuel price risk in comparisons of gas-fired and renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2003-12-18

    power, now largely competitive with gas-fired generation in the US (including the impact of the federal production tax credit and current high gas prices), a margin of 0.3-0.6 cents/kWh may in some cases be enough to sway resource decisions in favor of renewables.

  11. Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Generation in Bangladesh: Possible Scenarios to Generate Renewable Electricity in Dhaka and Chittagong City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nazmul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased generation of methane (CH4 from municipal solid wastes (MSW alarms the world to take proper initiative for the sustainable management of MSW, because it is 34 times stronger than carbon dioxide (CO2. Mounting land scarcity issue around the world brands the waste to energy (WtE strategy for MSW management in urban areas as a promising option, because WtE not only reduces the land pressure problem, but also generates electricity, heat, and green jobs. The goal of this study is to evaluate the renewable electricity generation potential and associated carbon reduction of MSW management in Bangladesh using WtE strategies. The study is conducted in two major cities of Bangladesh: Dhaka and Chittagong. Six different WtE scenarios are evaluated consisting of mixed MSW incineration and landfill gas (LFG recovery system. Energy potential of different WtE strategy is assessed using standard energy conversion model and subsequent GHGs emissions models. Scenario A1 results in highest economic and energy potential and net negative GHGs emission. Sensitivity analysis by varying MSW moisture content reveals higher energy potential and less GHGs emissions from MSW possessing low moisture content. The study proposes mixed MSW incineration that could be a potential WtE strategy for renewable electricity generation in Bangladesh.

  12. Impacts of Federal Tax Credit Extensions on Renewable Deployment and Power Sector Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trieu Mai, Wesley Cole, Eric Lantz, Cara Marcy, and Benjamin Sigrin

    2016-02-01

    The report examines the impacts of the tax credit extensions under two distinct natural gas price futures, as the price of natural gas has been a key factor influencing the economic competitiveness of new renewable energy development. The analysis finds that, in both natural gas price cases, tax credit extensions can spur renewable capacity investments at least through the early 2020s, and can help lower CO2 emissions from the U.S. electricity system. Federal tax credits for renewable energy, particularly the wind production tax credit (PTC) and the solar investment tax credit (ITC), have offered financial incentives for renewable energy deployment over the last two decades in the United States. In December 2015, the wind and solar tax credits were extended by five years from their prior scheduled expiration dates, but ramp down in tax credit value during the latter years of the five-year period.

  13. Financial Impact of Energy Efficiency under a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard: Case Study of a Kansas"super-utility"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Cappers, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Local, state and federal policies that jointly promote the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency are expected to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. If only supply-side options are considered, our analysis suggests that a Kansas"super-utility" would prefer to build its own renewable energy resources, while ratepayers would favor a procurement strategy that relies on long-term renewable power purchase agreements. Introducing energy efficiency under varying levels as a CERES resource will, under our analysis, reduce ratepayer bills by ~;;$400M to ~;;$1.0B between 2009 and 2028, but commensurately erode shareholder returns by ~;;10 to ~;;100 basis points. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our results illustrate how shareholder returns can be improved through the pursuit of energy efficiency, by at most ~;;20 basis points if certain conditions apply, while ratepayers continue to save between $10M and ~;;$840M over 20 years.

  14. Optimal Design of a Direct Driven Slotless Tubular Linear Generator for Renewable Energy Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cheng-Tsung; Lin, H N; Yeh, H C [Department of Electrical Eng., National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Hwang, C C, E-mail: ctliu@ieee.org [Department of Electrical Eng., Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-01

    This paper is aimed to present the systematic design scheme of a direct driven slotless tubular linear generator for renewable energy retraction. To reduce operational cogging and increase energy conversion efficiency, the generator stator is equipped with slotless concentrated annular multiphase windings and its mover is encircled by quasi-Halbach arranged permanent magnets. By systematic comparisons and classifications, the preliminary design and operational specifications of supplying maximum flux that can link the stator windings are fulfilled by setting appropriate factor level combinations from the Taguchi's method. Along with the stator winding selections, potential energy generations from the proposed slotless tubular linear generator can then be estimated. Verified by three-dimensional finite element analyses, the constructed machine prototype can show its adequacy for the operational and design requirements.

  15. Multi-Year Analysis Examines Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    As states consider revising renewable portfolio standard (RPS) programs or developing new ones, careful assessments of the costs, benefits, and other impacts of existing policies will be critical. RPS programs currently exist in 29 states and Washington, D.C. Many of these policies, which were enacted largely during the late 1990s and 2000s, will reach their terminal targets by the end of this decade. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are engaged in a multi-year project to examine the costs, benefits, and other impacts of state RPS polices both retrospectively and prospectively. This fact sheet overviews this work.

  16. Using Probability of Exceedance to Compare the Resource Risk of Renewable and Gas-Fired Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Of the myriad risks surrounding long-term investments in power plants, resource risk is one of the most difficult to mitigate, and is also perhaps the risk that most-clearly distinguishes renewable generation from natural gas-fired generation. For renewable generators like wind and solar projects, resource risk manifests as a quantity risk—i.e., the risk that the quantity of wind and insolation will be less than expected.i For gas-fired generators (i.e., a combined-cycle gas turbine or “CCGT”), resource risk manifests primarily as a price risk—i.e., the risk that natural gas will cost more than expected. Most often, resource risk—and natural gas price risk in particular—falls disproportionately on utility ratepayers, who are typically not well-equipped to manage this risk. As such, it is incumbent upon utilities, regulators, and policymakers to ensure that resource risk is taken into consideration when making or approving resource decisions, or enacting policies that influence the development of the electricity sector more broadly.

  17. Generation X, intergenerational justice and the renewal of the traditioning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory L. Seibel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The church has the task of transmitting its faith tradition from one generation to the next. In the transition to postmodernity, many established congregations have proven to be ineffective at this traditioning process in relation to Generation X (Gen X, the first postmodern generation. The reasons for the ineffectiveness are complex. This article focuses on two key factors that contribute to the problem: the reduction of the church’s tradition to its particular expression within the culture of modernity and the marginalisation experienced by Gen Xers within many established churches. The latter has prevented them from becoming effective bearers of the church’s tradition. If this trend is to be reversed, churches should succeed in renewing their traditions in a way that is meaningful in a postmodern context. The challenge will be to overcome the dynamics of reductionism and marginalisation. In developing the argument, the jubilee themes of ‘return’ and ‘release’ are applied to the intergenerational dynamics of established congregations. The article concludes that local congregations should embrace a renewed commitment to intergenerational justice, which will encourage equity between the generations.

  18. Distributed Renewable Generation and Storage System Sizing Based on Smart Dispatch of Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Atia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the contribution of independent owners (IOs operating within microgrids (MGs toward green power generation in deregulated energy markets. An optimization scheme is introduced for sizing distributed renewable generation (DRG and a distributed energy storage system (DESS based on a novel energy management system (EMS that accounts for demand response (DR, DESS dispatch and performance degradation, dynamic pricing environments, power distribution loss and irregular renewable generation. The proposed EMS utilizes an iterative Newton-Raphson linear programming algorithm that schedules resources in order to minimize the objective function, to deal with the complicated nonlinear nature of the problem and to enable efficient long-term assessments. The EMS is used to evaluate candidate solutions that are generated by a genetic algorithm (GA to determine the optimal combination of DRG and DESS. A case study for IEEE 34-bus distribution MG in Okinawa, Japan, is used for testing the algorithm and analyzing the potential for IO/MG investments and their strategies.

  19. The effect of real-time pricing on load shifting in a highly renewable power system dominated by generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Brown, Tom; Schlachtberger, David; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The supply-demand imbalance is a major concern in the presence of large shares of highly variable renewable generation from sources like wind and photovoltaics (PV) in power systems. Other than the measures on the generation side, such as flexible backup generation or energy storage, sector coupling or demand side management are the most likely option to counter imbalances, therefore to ease the integration of renewable generation. Demand side management usually refers to load shifting, which comprises the reaction of electricity consumers to price fluctuations. In this work, we derive a novel methodology to model the interplay of load shifting and provided incentives via real-time pricing in highly renewable power systems. We use weather data to simulate generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics, as well as historical load data, split into different consumption categories, such as, heating, cooling, domestic, etc., to model a simplified power system. Together with renewable power forecast data, a simple market model and approaches to incorporate sector coupling [1] and load shifting [2,3], we model the interplay of incentives and load shifting for different scenarios (e.g., in dependency of the risk-aversion of consumers or the forecast horizon) and demonstrate the practical benefits of load shifting. First, we introduce the novel methodology and compare it with existing approaches. Secondly, we show results of numerical simulations on the effects of load shifting: It supports the integration of PV power by providing a storage, which characteristics can be described as "daily" and provides a significant amount of balancing potential. Lastly, we propose an experimental setup to obtain empirical data on end-consumer load-shifting behaviour in response to price incentives. References [1] Brown, T., Schlachtberger, D., Kies. A., Greiner, M., Sector coupling in a highly renewable European energy system, Proc. of the 15th International Workshop on

  20. Design of a mediated enzymatic fuel cell to generate power from renewable fuel sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Seyda; Kilic, Muhammet Samet

    2016-01-01

    The present work reported a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) based on newly synthesized Poly(pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid-co-3-thiophene acetic acid) film containing glucose oxidase and laccase effectively wired by p-benzoquinone incorporated into the copolymer structure. The resulting system generated a power density of 18.8 µW/cm(2) with 30 mM of glucose addition at +0.94 V at room temperature. Improvements to maximize the power output were ensured with step-by-step optimization of electrode fabrication design and operational parameters for operating the system with renewable fuel sources. We demonstrated that the improved fuel cell could easily harvest glucose produced during photosynthesis to produce electrical energy in a simple, renewable and sustainable way by generating a power density of 10 nW/cm(2) in the plant leaf within 2 min. An EFC for the first time was successfully operated in municipal wastewater which contained glycolytic substances to generate electrical energy with a power output of 3.3 µW/cm(2).

  1. Optimal Generation and Storage Scheduling in the Presence of Renewable Forecast Uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Gast, Nicolas; Tomozei, Dan-Cristian; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    International audience; —Renewable energy sources, such as wind, are char-acterized by non-dispatchability, high volatility, and non-perfect forecasts. These undesirable features can lead to energy loss and/or can necessitate a large reserve in the form of fast-ramping fuel-based generators. Energy storage can be used to mitigate these ef-fects. In this paper, we are interested in the tradeoff between the use of the reserves and the energy loss. Energy loss includes energy that is either wast...

  2. Wind power and micro-hydro generation: proceedings of the East Midland Universities Renewable Energy Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twidell, J. [De Montfort Univ., Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1995-07-01

    This document introduces the proceedings of the East Midland Universities Renewable Energy Group, a forum for young post-graduate students. The conference included papers on wind power and small-scale hydroelectric power as sources for electric power, including theoretical investigations of wind turbine structures and control and analysis of electric motors adapted as generators for micro-hydro sets, the strategy for micro-hydro developments and the integration of wind and photovoltaic power, backed up by combined heat and power plant. (UK)

  3. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission–intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  4. Biofouling community composition across a range of environmental conditions and geographical locations suitable for floating marine renewable energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Adrian K; Stanley, Michele S; Day, John G; Cook, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of biofouling typical of marine structures is essential for engineers to define appropriate loading criteria in addition to informing other stakeholders about the ecological implications of creating novel artificial environments. There is a lack of information regarding biofouling community composition (including weight and density characteristics) on floating structures associated with future marine renewable energy generation technologies. A network of navigation buoys were identified across a range of geographical areas, environmental conditions (tidal flow speed, temperature and salinity), and deployment durations suitable for future developments. Despite the perceived importance of environmental and temporal factors, geographical location explained the greatest proportion of the observed variation in community composition, emphasising the importance of considering geography when assessing the impact of biofouling on device functioning and associated ecology. The principal taxa associated with variation in biofouling community composition were mussels (Mytilus edulis), which were also important when determining loading criteria.

  5. Impacts of Federal Tax Credit Extensions on Renewable Deployment and Power Sector Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marcy, Cara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Federal tax credits for renewable energy (RE) have served as one of the primary financial incentives for RE deployment over the last two decades in the United States. In December 2015, the wind power production tax credit and solar investment tax credits were extended for five years as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2016. This report explores the impact that these tax credit extensions might have on future RE capacity deployment and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The analysis examines the impacts of the tax credit extensions under two distinct natural gas price futures as natural gas prices have been key factors in influencing the economic competitiveness of new RE development. The analysis finds that, in both natural gas price futures, RE tax credit extensions can spur RE capacity investments at least through the early 2020s and can help lower emissions from the U.S. electricity system. More specifically, the RE tax credit extensions are estimated to drive a net peak increase of 48-53 GW in installed RE capacity in the early 2020s -- longer term impacts are less certain. In the longer term after the tax credits ramp down, greater RE capacity is driven by a combination of assumed RE cost declines, rising fossil fuel prices, and other clean energy policies such as the Clean Power Plan. The tax credit extension-driven acceleration in RE capacity development can reduce fossil fuel-based generation and lower electric sector CO2 emissions. Cumulative emissions reductions over a 15-year period (spanning 2016-2030) as a result of the tax credit extensions are estimated to range from 540 to 1420 million metric tonnes CO2. These findings suggest that tax credit extensions can have a measurable impact on future RE deployment and electric sector CO2 emissions under a range of natural gas price futures.

  6. Flexible Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Uncertain Renewable Generation and Load Demand Based on Hybrid Clustering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hao Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flexible transmission network expansion planning (TNEP approach considering uncertainty. A novel hybrid clustering technique, which integrates the graph partitioning method and rough fuzzy clustering, is proposed to cope with uncertain renewable generation and load demand. The proposed clustering method is capable of recognizing the actual cluster distribution of complex datasets and providing high-quality clustering results. By clustering the hourly data for renewable generation and load demand, a multi-scenario model is proposed to consider the corresponding uncertainties in TNEP. Furthermore, due to the peak distribution characteristics of renewable generation and heavy investment in transmission, the traditional TNEP, which caters to rated renewable power output, is usually uneconomic. To improve the economic efficiency, the multi-objective optimization is incorporated into the multi-scenario TNEP model, while the curtailment of renewable generation is considered as one of the optimization objectives. The solution framework applies a modified NSGA-II algorithm to obtain a set of Pareto optimal planning schemes with different levels of investment costs and renewable generation curtailments. Numerical results on the IEEE RTS-24 system demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. Electrical energy generation in Europe the current situation and perspectives in the use of renewable energy sources and nuclear power for regional electricity generation

    CERN Document Server

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The present book maximizes reader insights into the current and future roles to be played by different types of renewable energy sources and nuclear energy for the purpose of electricity generation in the European region as a whole and in a select group of European countries specifically. This book includes detailed analysis of the different types of renewable energy sources available in different European countries; the pros and cons of the use of the different types of renewables and nuclear energy for electricity generation; which energy options are available in the different European coun

  8. Car fleet renewal schemes: environmental and safety impacts. France, Germany and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraga, F.S.; et al.

    2011-01-01

    TNO carried out an in-depth look at the impacts of car scrappage schemes for the International Transport Forum of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) and the FIA Foundation. The study comes to some interesting conclusions: Car fleet renewal schemes can reduce CO2 emissi

  9. Environmental Impact of Asbestos Cement Pipe Renewal Technologies (WaterRF Report 4465)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes asbestos regulations within the United States and presents current utility practices for a select number of utilities in North America and Australia. In addition, two real-world renewal demonstrations are presented as case studies examining the impact of pi...

  10. 78 FR 37325 - License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact Statement and Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...: NUREG-1437 and NUREG-1555; issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is updating and revising NUREG-1437, ``Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear... amending certain NRC environmental protection regulations. The NRC has also revised NUREG-1555,...

  11. The Opportunity of Using Wind to Generate Power as a Renewable Energy:"Case of Kuwait”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkarim J.Ibreik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand ofsustainable energy is increased daily by expanding our cities and creating new cities and suburbswith huge towers besides increasing in population,moreover the environment and human life is threatening by the pollutions resulted from energy generation. For this reason the researchersattracted todevelop renewable energy and explore its large benefits and unit capacity. Wind power is one of the clean renewable energy resources.Therefore the importance of implementing this resource in Kuwait draws our attention to make this research to emphasis on the technical and economic aspects due to acceptable environmental conditions. Whereas, in some areas of the world, such as in Japan, has some geographical and electrical restrictions such as power fluctuating for land wind generation. And the introductionof large amount of wind power generation tends to be extremely difficult and even impossible in some location. This research is aimed to concentrate on the visibility of utilizing the wind energy as complementary source for the existing steam and gas turbine power stations in Kuwait, furthermore point out the economical perspectives that will guide us to take the right decision. The location of wind farms is very important in this aspect where we cannot build such projects inside the cities between buildings besides meeting the minimum requirements for economic generation. The study prove to us that even at a location which is almost close to the inhabitants buildings ( Kuwait airport can get accepted results the historical data was collected from the weather station at internet. The implementation of wind turbine farms is foreseen to be economic in generation for long run and encouragestepping up toward putting the infrastructure design. Furthermoreit is an opportunity for creating new job vacancies.

  12. A generation-attraction model for renewable energy flows in Italy: A complex network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, Luca; Giannuzzi, Giovanni Luca; Facchini, Angelo; Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Basosi, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, in Italy, the trend of the electricity demand and the need to connect a large number of renewable energy power generators to the power-grid, developed a novel type of energy transmission/distribution infrastructure. The Italian Transmission System Operator (TSO) and the Distribution System Operator (DSO), worked on a new infrastructural model, based on electronic meters and information technology. In pursuing this objective it is crucial importance to understand how even more larger shares of renewable energy can be fully integrated, providing a constant and reliable energy background over space and time. This is particularly true for intermittent sources as photovoltaic installations due to the fine-grained distribution of them across the Country. In this work we use an over-simplified model to characterize the Italian power grid as a graph whose nodes are Italian municipalities and the edges cross the administrative boundaries between a selected municipality and its first neighbours, following a Delaunay triangulation. Our aim is to describe the power flow as a diffusion process over a network, and using open data on the solar irradiation at the ground level, we estimate the production of photovoltaic energy in each node. An attraction index was also defined using demographic data, in accordance with average per capita energy consumption data. The available energy on each node was calculated by finding the stationary state of a generation-attraction model.

  13. A High-Efficiency Voltage Equalization Scheme for Supercapacitor Energy Storage System in Renewable Generation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its fast charge and discharge rate, a supercapacitor-based energy storage system is especially suitable for power smoothing in renewable energy generation applications. Voltage equalization is essential for series-connected supercapacitors in an energy storage system, because it supports the system’s sustainability and maximizes the available cell energy. In this paper, we present a high-efficiency voltage equalization scheme for supercapacitor energy storage systems in renewable generation applications. We propose an improved isolated converter topology that uses a multi-winding transformer. An improved push-pull forward circuit is applied on the primary side of the transformer. A coupling inductor is added on the primary side to allow the switches to operate under the zero-voltage switching (ZVS condition, which reduces switching losses. The diodes in the rectifier are replaced with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs to reduce the power dissipation of the secondary side. In order to simplify the control, we designed a controllable rectifying circuit to achieve synchronous rectifying on the secondary side of the transformer. The experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed design.

  14. The Impact of Location and Proximity on Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Renewable and Alternative Electricity: The Case of West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Nkansah, Kofi; Collins, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In 2015, West Virginia will implement a Renewable and Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act. Meeting these standards with either natural gas or wind power will generate different welfare impacts across society. In particular, this study examined how energy source and generation proximity influence consumers’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) for electricity. Using choice modelling, residents within two counties with distinct location characteristics (existing coal power plant or wind farm) were a...

  15. Hybrid renewable energy system using doubly-fed induction generator and multilevel inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Eshita

    The proposed hybrid system generates AC power by combining solar and wind energy converted by a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The DFIG, driven by a wind turbine, needs rotor excitation so the stator can supply a load or the grid. In a variable-speed wind energy system, the stator voltage and its frequency vary with wind speed, and in order to keep them constant, variable-voltage and variable-frequency rotor excitation is to be provided. A power conversion unit supplies the rotor, drawing power either from AC mains or from a PV panel depending on their availability. It consists of a multilevel inverter which gives lower harmonic distortion in the stator voltage. Maximum power point tracking techniques have been implemented for both wind and solar power. The complete hybrid renewable energy system is implemented in a PSIM-Simulink interface and the wind energy conversion portion is realized in hardware using dSPACE controller board.

  16. Participation of smaller size renewable generation in the electricity market trade in UK: Analyses and approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romanovsky, G.; Xydis, G.; Mutale, J.

    2011-01-01

    While there are presently different options for renewable and distributed generation (RES/DG) to participate in the UK electricity market, none of the market options is specifically tailored for such types of generation and in particular, the smaller (up to 5 MW) RES/DG. This is because the UK has...... a number of specific historical, technical and economic reasons that significantly influenced the ability of the smaller size RES/DG to participate in the electricity market and in provision of balancing services in accordance with the UK National Grid requirements. This paper discusses some perspectives...... and approaches aiming to help stand alone small size and clusters of RES and DG units to participate in the UK electricity market drawing on relevant experience from Denmark....

  17. Renewable Distributed Generation Models in Three-Phase Load Flow Analysis for Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents renewable distributed generation  (RDG models as three-phase resource in load flow computation and analyzes their effect when they are connected in composite networks. The RDG models that have been considered comprise of photovoltaic (PV and wind turbine generation (WTG. The voltage-controlled node and complex power injection node are used in the models. These improvement models are suitable for smart grid power system analysis. The combination of IEEE transmission and distribution data used to test and analyze the algorithm in solving balanced/unbalanced active systems. The combination of IEEE transmission data and IEEE test feeder are used to test the the algorithm for balanced and unbalanced multi-phase distribution system problem. The simulation results show that by increased number and size of RDG units have improved voltage profile and reduced system losses.

  18. Impacts of renewable fuel regulation and production on agriculture, energy, and welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Lihong Lu

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study the impact of U.S. federal renewable fuel regulations on energy and agriculture commodity markets and welfare. We consider two federal ethanol policies: the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) contained in the Energy Security and Independence Act of 2007 and tax credits to ethanol blenders contained in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008. My first essay estimates the distribution of short-run impacts of changing federal ethanol policies on U.S. energy prices, agricultural commodity prices, and welfare through a stochastic partial equilibrium model of U.S. corn, ethanol, and gasoline markets. My second essay focuses on studying the price behavior of the renewable fuel credit (RFC) market, which is the mechanism developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet the RFS. RFCs are a tradable, bankable, and borrowable accounting mechanism to ensure that all obligated parties use a mandated level of renewable fuel. I first develop a conceptual framework to understand how the market works and then apply stochastic dynamic programming to simulate prices for RFCs, examine the sensitivity of prices to relevant shocks, and estimate RFC option premiums. My third essay assesses the impact of policy led U.S. ethanol on the markets of global crude oil and U.S. gasoline using a structural Vector Auto Regression model of global crude oil, U.S. gasoline and ethanol markets.

  19. A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This is the third in a series of reports exploring the costs, benefits, and other impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPS). This report evaluates the effects of renewable electricity used to meet aggregate RPS demand growth prospectively, over the period 2015-2050, under both current RPS policies as well as a potential expansion of those policies. Relying on a well-vetted suite of methods, the report quantifies: the costs to the electric system and retail electricity price impacts; the potential societal benefits associated with reduced greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution emissions, and water use; workforce requirements and economic development effects; and consumer savings associated with reduced natural gas prices. The study quantifies these effects in both physical and monetary terms, where possible, at both national and regional levels, and characterizes key uncertainties. The two prior studies in the series have focused, instead, on the historical costs and on the historical benefits and impacts of state RPS policies.

  20. The Cost-Optimal Distribution of Wind and Solar Generation Facilities in a Simplified Highly Renewable European Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; von Bremen, Lüder; Schyska, Bruno; Chattopadhyay, Kabitri; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2016-04-01

    The transition of the European power system from fossil generation towards renewable sources is driven by different reasons like decarbonisation and sustainability. Renewable power sources like wind and solar have, due to their weather dependency, fluctuating feed-in profiles, which make their system integration a difficult task. To overcome this issue, several solutions have been investigated in the past like the optimal mix of wind and PV [1], the extension of the transmission grid or storages [2]. In this work, the optimal distribution of wind turbines and solar modules in Europe is investigated. For this purpose, feed-in data with an hourly temporal resolution and a spatial resolution of 7 km covering Europe for the renewable sources wind, photovoltaics and hydro was used. Together with historical load data and a transmission model , a simplified pan-European power power system was simulated. Under cost assumptions of [3] the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for this simplified system consisting of generation, consumption, transmission and backup units is calculated. With respect to the LCOE, the optimal distribution of generation facilities in Europe is derived. It is shown, that by optimal placement of renewable generation facilities the LCOE can be reduced by more than 10% compared to a meta study scenario [4] and a self-sufficient scenario (every country produces on average as much from renewable sources as it consumes). This is mainly caused by a shift of generation facilities towards highly suitable locations, reduced backup and increased transmission need. The results of the optimization will be shown and implications for the extension of renewable shares in the European power mix will be discussed. The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (Wuppertal Institute, Next Energy, University of Oldenburg), that is financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, Fkz. 03SFF0439A). [1] Kies, A. et al.: Kies, Alexander, et al

  1. 78 FR 14842 - Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3; Application for Renewal of License to Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3; Application for Renewal of License to Facility... operate the Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3 (CR3), at 2609 megawatts thermal. The FPC... located near Crystal River, FL; the current operating license for the CR3 expires on December 3, 2016. The...

  2. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell for natural gas/renewable hybrid power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Shi, Yixiang; Zheng, Yi; Cai, Ningsheng

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy (RE) is expected to be the major part of the future energy. Presently, the intermittence and fluctuation of RE lead to the limitation of its penetration. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) as the energy storage device can effectively store the renewable energy and build a bidirectional connection with natural gas (NG). In this paper, the energy storage strategy was designed to improve the RE penetration and dynamic operation stability in a distributed system coupling wind generators, internal combustion engine, RSOFC and lithium-ion batteries. By compromising the relative deviation of power supply and demand, RE penetration, system efficiency and capacity requirement, the strategy that no more than 36% of the maximum wind power output is directly supplied to users and the other is stored by the combination of battery and reversible solid oxide fuel cell is optimal for the distributed system. In the case, the RE penetration reached 56.9% and the system efficiency reached 55.2%. The maximum relative deviation of power supply and demand is also lower than 4%, which is significantly superior to that in the wind curtailment case.

  3. Energy Management Optimization for Cellular Networks under Renewable Energy Generation Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir Ben

    2017-03-28

    The integration of renewable energy (RE) as an alternative power source for cellular networks has been deeply investigated in literature. However, RE generation is often assumed to be deterministic; an impractical assumption for realistic scenarios. In this paper, an efficient energy procurement strategy for cellular networks powered simultaneously by the smart grid (SG) and locally deployed RE sources characterized by uncertain processes is proposed. For a one-day operation cycle, the mobile operator aims to reduce its total energy cost by optimizing the amounts of energy to be procured from the local RE sources and SG at each time period. Additionally, it aims to determine the amount of extra generated RE to be sold back to SG. A chance constrained optimization is first proposed to deal with the RE generation uncertainty. Then, two convex approximation approaches: Chernoff and Chebyshev methods, characterized by different levels of knowledge about the RE generation, are developed to determine the energy procurement strategy for different risk levels. In addition, their performances are analyzed for various daily scenarios through selected simulation results. It is shown that the higher complex Chernoff method outperforms the Chebyshev one for different risk levels set by the operator.

  4. Probabilistic evaluation of reserve requirements of generating systems with renewable power sources: The Portuguese and Spanish cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Manuel; Lopes, Joao Pecas; Rosa, Mauro; Ferreira, Ricardo [INESC Porto, Fac. Engenharia Univ. do Porto., Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 378, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Leite da Silva, Armando; Sales, Warlley; Resende, Leonidas; Manso, Luiz [Federal University of Itajuba, UNIFEI (Brazil); Cabral, Pedro; Martins, Nuno [Rede Electrica Nacional, REN (Portugal); Ferreira, Marco [REN Servicos, S.A, Divisao de Planeamento de Longo Prazo, Rua Sa da Bandeira, 567-4 , 4000-437 Porto (Portugal); Artaiz, Carlos; Soto, Fernando; Lopez, Ruben [Red Electrica de Espana, REE (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents an application of probabilistic methodologies to evaluate the reserve requirements of generating systems with a large penetration of renewable energy sources. The idea is to investigate the behavior of reliability indices, including those from the well-being analysis, when the major portion of the renewable sources comes from wind power and other intermittent sources. A new simulation process to address operating reserve adequacy is introduced, and the correspondent reliability indices are observed. Case studies on the Portuguese and Spanish generating systems are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. Optimal mix of renewable power generation in the MENA region as a basis for an efficient electricity supply to europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhamwi Alaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable Energy sources are gaining importance in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. The purpose of this study is to quantify the optimal mix of renewable power generation in the MENA region, taking Morocco as a case study. Based on hourly meteorological data and load data, a 100% solar-plus-wind only scenario for Morocco is investigated. For the optimal mix analyses, a mismatch energy modelling approach is adopted with the objective to minimise the required storage capacities. For a hypothetical Moroccan energy supply system which is entirely based on renewable energy sources, our results show that the minimum storage capacity is achieved at a share of 63% solar and 37% wind power generations.

  6. Major Impact of Fleet Renewal Over Airports Located in the Most Important Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maters, Rafael Waltz; deRoodeTorres, Roberta; Santo, Respicio A. Espirito, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The present article discusses and analyses the major impacts of the Brazilian carriers fleet renewal regarding Brazilian airport infrastructure in the most important region of the country, the Southeast (SE). A brief historical overview of the country's airline fleet will be presented, demonstrating the need for its renewal (m fact, Brazilian carriers started a major fleet renewal program m the last five years), while analyzing the periods in which a new breed of aircraft was put into service by the major carriers operating in the SE region. The trend of operating the classic regional jets plus the forthcoming entry into service of the "large regional jets" (LRJ, 70-115 seaters) in several point-to-point routes are presented along with the country's carriers" reality of operating these former aircraft in several high-capacity and medium-range routes. The article will focus on the ability of four of the major Southeast's airports to cope with the fleet modernization, mainly due to the fact that the region studied is the most socioeconomic developed, by far, with the largest demand for air transportation, thus making the impacts much more perceptible for the communities and the airport management involved. With the emergence of these impacts, several new projects and investments are being discussed and pushed forward, despite budgetary constrains being a reality in almost every Brazilian city, even in the SE region. In view of this, the paper presents how the general planning could be carried out in order to adapt the airports' infrastructures in function of the proposed (and in some cases, necessary) fleet renewal. Ultimately, we will present the present picture and two future scenarios m order to determine the level of service in the existent passenger terminal facilities in the wake of the possible operation of several new aircraft. Keywords: Airline fleet planning, Airport planning, Regional development, Regional Jets.

  7. Marginal share of renewable energy sources of variable electricity generation: A contribution to the concept definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grković Vojin R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology development is a keystone within the efforts toward enabling longer duration of the world fossil energy resources. The past development and the technologies applied, cause huge emissions of СО2 that must be significantly reduced. Increased usage of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-e contributes essentially to the reduction of CO2, but on the other hand, under current conditions of feed-in priority reduces also the market for the electricity from fossil fuelled power plants (FFPP. The other possibility for reduction of CO2 emissions is to apply carbon capture and storage technologies as a part of overall FFPP technologies. A hypothesis presented in this paper is that there is a marginal share of RES variable electricity in overall annual electricity supply after which further increase of RES-e participation produces higher average electricity generated cost, than in the case of CO2 emission reduction by applying CCS technologies. The presented work confirms this hypothesis. Value of the marginal share depends to the price of RES-e feed-in. With the price span from 13.5 to 7.5€c/kWh, the marginal share is under 50%.

  8. Energy consumption renewable energy development and environmental impact in Algeria - Trend for 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahnoune, F.; Imessad, K.; Bouakaz, D. M.

    2017-02-01

    The study provides a detailed analysis of the energy production and consumption in Algeria and the associated CO2 emissions. Algeria is an important energy producer (oil and natural gas). The production is currently around 155 MToe. The total primary energy consumption amounted to about 58 MToe equivalent to 1.46 Toe/capita. The energy demand is still increasing, an average annual growth rate of more than 6% per year during the last decade. The growth rate for electricity production was almost twice that of the total energy consumption. In 2015, the installed capacity of the electricity generation plants reached 17.6 GW. Electricity consumption was 64.6 TWh and is expected to reach at least 75 TWh in 2020 and 130 TWh in 2030. The already high electricity demand will double by 2030. In the structure of final energy consumption, the transport sector ranks first (36%), natural gas consumption ranks second (28.5%), followed by electricity production (27.7%). By activity, the energy sector is the main source of CO2 emissions, about ¾ of the total and this sector has the most important potential for mitigation measures. CO2 emissions from this energy sector amounted to 112.2 MT CO2 as follows: 33% transport, 31% electricity production and 26% from natural gas combustion for residential use. The integration of renewable sources in the energy mix represents for Algeria a major challenge. In 2015, Algeria adopted an ambitious program for development of renewable energy. The target is to achieve 22 GW capacity of electricity from renewable by 2030 to reach a rate of 27 % of national electricity generation through renewable sources. By implementing this program, CO2 emissions of power generation will be reduced by more than 18% in 2030.

  9. Recent Trends in Renewable Energy Resources for Power Generation in the Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Chul-Ho Noh; Insu Kim; Won-Hyeok Jang; Chul-Hwan Kim

    2015-01-01

    The global demand for renewable energy in recent decades has continued to increase, despite adverse economic conditions such as world economic recessions, trade disputes, and falls in gas and oil prices. During this period, the United States and Europe have led the development of renewable energy technologies, but now emerging countries such as China, Brazil, India, and the Republic of Korea are also been actively participating in developing and deploying renewable energy. For example, since ...

  10. A Reserve-based Method for Mitigating the Impact of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krad, Ibrahim

    The fundamental operating paradigm of today's power systems is undergoing a significant shift. This is partially motivated by the increased desire for incorporating variable renewable energy resources into generation portfolios. While these generating technologies offer clean energy at zero marginal cost, i.e. no fuel costs, they also offer unique operating challenges for system operators. Perhaps the biggest operating challenge these resources introduce is accommodating their intermittent fuel source availability. For this reason, these generators increase the system-wide variability and uncertainty. As a result, system operators are revisiting traditional operating strategies to more efficiently incorporate these generation resources to maximize the benefit they provide while minimizing the challenges they introduce. One way system operators have accounted for system variability and uncertainty is through the use of operating reserves. Operating reserves can be simplified as excess capacity kept online during real time operations to help accommodate unforeseen fluctuations in demand. With new generation resources, a new class of operating reserves has emerged that is generally known as flexibility, or ramping, reserves. This new reserve class is meant to better position systems to mitigate severe ramping in the net load profile. The best way to define this new requirement is still under investigation. Typical requirement definitions focus on the additional uncertainty introduced by variable generation and there is room for improvement regarding explicit consideration for the variability they introduce. An exogenous reserve modification method is introduced in this report that can improve system reliability with minimal impacts on total system wide production costs. Another potential solution to this problem is to formulate the problem as a stochastic programming problem. The unit commitment and economic dispatch problems are typically formulated as deterministic

  11. A Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This is the second in a series of reports exploring the costs, benefits, and other impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPS), both retrospectively and prospectively. This report focuses on the benefits and impacts of all state RPS programs, in aggregate, for the year 2013 (the most-recent year for which the requisite data were available). Relying on a well-vetted set of methods, the study evaluates a number of important benefits and impacts in both physical and monetary terms, where possible, and characterizes key uncertainties. The prior study in this series focused on historical RPS compliance costs, and future work will evaluate costs, benefits, and other impacts of RPS policies prospectively.

  12. On the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable resources: dirty vs clean energy sources and the relative efficiency of generators

    OpenAIRE

    Elettra Agliardi; Luigi Sereno

    2012-01-01

    We develop a model on the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable energy sources with endogenous extraction choices under emission taxes, subsidies on renewable resources and abatement costs. We assume that non-renewable resources are "dirty" inputs and create environmental degradation, while renewable resources are more environmentally friendly, although they may be more or less productive than the exhaustible resources. The value of the switching option from non-renewabl...

  13. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  14. A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-31

    As states have gained experience with renewable portfolio standards (RPS) policies, many have made significant revisions to existing programs. In 2015 and 2016, seven states raised and extended their final RPS targets, while another state enacted a new RPS policy (Barbose 2016b). Interest in expanding and strengthening state RPS programs may continue, while efforts like recent proposals in many states to repeal or freeze existing RPS policies may also persist. In either context, questions about the potential costs, benefits, and other impacts of RPS programs are usually central to the decision-making process. This report follows on previous analyses that have focused on the historical costs, benefits, and other impacts of existing state RPS programs (Heeter et al. 2014; Wiser et al. 2016a). This report examines RPS outcomes prospectively, considering both current RPS policies as well as a potential expansion of those policies. The goal of this work is to provide a consistent and independent analytical methodology for that examination. This analysis relies on National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to estimate changes to the U.S. electric power sector across a number of scenarios and sensitivity cases, focusing on the 2015–2050 timeframe. Based on those modeled results, we evaluate the costs, benefits, and other impacts of renewable energy contributing to RPS compliance using the suite of methods employed in a number of recent studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): a report examining retrospective benefits and impacts of RPS programs (Wiser et al. 2016a), the Wind Vision report (DOE 2015), the On the Path to SunShot report focusing on environmental benefits (Wiser et al. 2016b), and the Hydropower Vision report (DOE 2016).

  15. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  16. Hybrid Systems of Distributed Generation with Renewable Sources: Modeling and Analysis of Their Operational Modes in Electric Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gashimov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to modeling and simulation of operational hybrid system modes of the distributed generation comprising conventional sources – modular diesel generators, gas-turbine power units; and renewable sources – wind and solar power plants. Operational modes of the hybrid system have been investigated under conditions of electrical connection with electric power system and in case of its isolated operation. As a consequence

  17. Comparing the sustainability parameters of renewable, nuclear and fossil fuel electricity generation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Annette; Strezov, Vladimir; Evans, Tim

    2010-09-15

    The sustainability parameters of electricity generation have been assessed by the application of eight key indicators. Photovoltaics, wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass, natural gas, coal and nuclear power have been assessed according to their price, greenhouse gas emissions, efficiency, land use, water use, availability, limitations and social impacts on a per kilowatt hour basis. The relevance of this information to the Australian context is discussed. Also included are the results of a survey on Australian opinions regarding electricity generation, which found that Australian prefer solar electricity above any other method, however coal, biomass and nuclear power have low acceptance.

  18. 可再生能源联合发电技术%Renewable Energy Co-generation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丹丹; 席学章

    2014-01-01

    近年来,随着国家倡导低碳经济,以风电、水电、太阳能、生物质能为代表的新能源得到了快速的发展。风能、水能、太阳能、生物质能等多种可再生能源联合发电是一种有效的可再生能源利用方式。简述了风能、水能,太阳能和生物质能的发电原理,并探讨了目前国内关于多种能源联合互补发电系统的设计研究成果。%In recent years, renewable energy, represented by the wind power and the small hydropower, has been rapidly developed due to the low-carbon economy advocated by nation. Co-generation of multiplicate energy sources, such as wind, hydro, solar, biomass and other renewable energy sources, is an effective renewable energy use way. The generation principle of wind power, hydropower, solar power and biomass power are described, and the design research results on co-generation power system of multiplicate renewable energy are discussed.

  19. Renewable energies for reduction of greenhouse gases in the Mexican electricity generation in 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas, J; Manzini, F; Martinez, M [Centre for Energy Research, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This study presents three scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the energy policy path that was in effect until 1990. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-90's as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The three scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG). [Spanish] Este estudio presenta tres escenarios relacionados de los futuros ambientales de generacion de electricidad en Mexico hasta el ano 2025. El primer escenario enfatiza la utilizacion de productos del petroleo, particularmente el combustoleo, y representa el curso de la politica de energia vigente hasta 1990. El segundo escenario da prioridad al uso de gas natural, reflejando el patron de consumo de energia que surgio a mediados de los 90's como resultado de reformas en el sector energetico. En el tercer escenario, la alta participacion de las fuentes renovables de energia es considerada factible desde los puntos de vista tecnico y economico. Los tres escenarios son evaluados hasta el ano 2025 en terminos de los gases de efecto invernadero (GHG) y de gases precursores de lluvia acida (ARPG).

  20. Generation of renewable energy integrated with food production in Brazil GERIPA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Geraldo; Corsini, Romeu [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia]. E-mails: lombardi@sc.usp.br; corsiniromeu@ig.com.br; Ramos, Pedro A.R. [Instituto Superior Politecnico Jose Antonio Echeverria (CUJAE), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba). Facultad Ingenieria Mecanica]. E-mail: pedro@economia.cujae.edu.cu

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports on a study of the economic viability of a Socio-Agroindustrial Ecological Organism for the Generation of Renewable Energy Integrated with Food Production-GERIPA Project. With a minimum production of 125,000 liters of alcohol per day, it has low energy costs in both cogeneration of electricity and alcohol, and in diversified food production with a pay back time of 5.66 years due exclusively to the integrated procedure. The GERIPA meets the basic needs of a city with a population of 53,000, and is characterized as an autonomous development center, with social and environmental high quality, based on the Kyoto Protocol and the premises of Sustainable Development. Attesting the importance of the integration concept, two calculation models are presented: 1- Basic Model, to which ethanol has credited all investments and inherent expenses to its production, as usual; and 2- Integrated Model, where the integration concept implies the co-responsibility of its products in proportion to the total income, basis of the GERIPA economical success. The cost of ethanol production in this model is 38% lower than that of actual alcohol mills-0.640 R$/L. (1 US$=R$2.01-12/2007). (author)

  1. Optimized Energy Procurement for Cellular Networks with Uncertain Renewable Energy Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2017-02-07

    Renewable energy (RE) is an emerging solution for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from cellular networks. One of the challenges of using RE sources is to handle its inherent uncertainty. In this paper, a RE powered cellular network is investigated. For a one-day operation cycle, the cellular network aims to reduce energy procurement costs from the smart grid by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from their locally deployed RE sources as well as from the smart grid. In addition to that, it aims to determine the extra amount of energy to be sold to the electrical grid at each time period. Chance constrained optimization is first proposed to deal with the randomness in the RE generation. Then, to make the optimization problem tractable, two well- know convex approximation methods, namely; Chernoff and Chebyshev based-approaches, are analyzed in details. Numerical results investigate the optimized energy procurement for various daily scenarios and compare between the performances of the employed convex approximation approaches.

  2. Hydrogen Generation Through Renewable Energy Sources at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony; Prokopius, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    An evaluation of the potential for generating high pressure, high purity hydrogen at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) was performed. This evaluation was based on producing hydrogen utilizing a prototype Hamilton Standard electrolyzer that is capable of producing hydrogen at 3000 psi. The present state of the electrolyzer system was determined to identify the refurbishment requirements. The power for operating the electrolyzer would be produced through renewable power sources. Both wind and solar were considered in the analysis. The solar power production capability was based on the existing solar array field located at NASA GRC. The refurbishment and upgrade potential of the array field was determined and the array output was analyzed with various levels of upgrades throughout the year. The total available monthly and yearly energy from the array was determined. A wind turbine was also sized for operation. This sizing evaluated the wind potential at the site and produced an operational design point for the wind turbine. Commercially available wind turbines were evaluated to determine their applicability to this site. The system installation and power integration were also addressed. This included items such as housing the electrolyzer, power management, water supply, gas storage, cooling and hydrogen dispensing.

  3. National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the early development of wind turbine generators (WTG) in the United States, wind farms were primarily located in California where lightning activity is the lowest in the United States. As such, lightning protection for wind turbines was not considered to be a major issue for designers or wind farm operators. However, wind turbine installations are expanding into the Midwest, Southwest and other regions of the United States where lightning activity is significantly more intense and lightning damage to wind turbines is more common. There is a growing need, therefore, to better understand lightning activity on wind farms and to improve wind turbine lightning protection systems. In support of the U.S. Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) Utility Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently begun to take steps to determine the extent of damage due to lightning and the effectiveness of various lightning protection techniques for wind power plants. Working through the TVP program, NREL will also perform outreach and education to (1) help manufacturers to provide equipment that is adequately designed to survive lightning, (2) make sure that operators are aware of effective safety procedures, and (3) help site designers and wind farm developers take the risk of lightning into account as effectively as possible.

  4. Control and Protection in Low Voltage Grid with Large Scale Renewable Electricity Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam

    of renewable energy based DGs are reduced CO2 emission, reduced operational cost as almost no fuel is used for their operation and less transmission and distribution losses as these units are normally built near to the load centers. This has also resulted in some operational challenges due to the unpredictable...... of the wind speed and solar irradiation fluctuations are tackled. The CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) network comprising two solar PV generating units of 3 kW and 4 kW, one 5.5 kW fixed-pitch fix speed WTG and two battery units each producing energy of 30kwh and 21kwh has been chosen for the study. The study...... the distribution system and the transmission grid has been proposed here. The algorithms, models and methodologies developed during this research study have been tested in a CIGRE low voltage distribution network. The simulation results show that they are able to correctly identify the states of the distribution...

  5. Using the “Footprint” Approach to Examine the Potentials and Impacts of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hastik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of renewable energies is regarded as a key way to mitigate global climate change and to ensure the provision of energy in the long term. However, conflicts between these goals and local nature conservation goals are likely to increase because of the additional space required for renewable energies. This is particularly true for mountainous areas with biodiversity-rich ecosystems. Little effort has been undertaken to systematically compare different renewable energy sources and to examine their environmental impacts using an interdisciplinary approach. This study adapted the concept of the “ecological footprint” to examine the impact on ecosystem services of land use changes involved in exploiting renewable energy sources. This innovative approach made it possible to assess and communicate the potentials of those energy sources in light of both space consumption and sustainability. The European Alps are an ideal test area because of their high energy potentials and biodiversity-rich ecosystems and the high demand for multiple ecosystem services. Our results demonstrate that energy consumption in the Alps could not be covered with the available renewable energy potentials, despite the utilization of large parts of the Alpine land area and the majority of larger rivers. Therefore, considerable effort must be invested in resolving conflicting priorities between expanding renewable energies and nature conservation, but also in realizing energy-saving measures. To this end, the approach presented here can support decision-making by revealing the energy potentials, space requirements, and environmental impacts of different renewable energy sources.

  6. Feasibility Analysis and Simulation of Integrated Renewable Energy System for Power Generation: A Hypothetical Study of Rural Health Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the feasibility analysis and study of integrated renewable energy (IRE using solar photovoltaic (PV and wind turbine (WT system in a hypothetical study of rural health clinic in Borno State, Nigeria. Electrical power consumption and metrology data (such as solar radiation and wind speed were used for designing and analyzing the integrated renewable energy system. The health clinic facility energy consumption is 19 kWh/day with a 3.4 kW peak demand load. The metrological data was collected from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA website and used to analyze the performance of electrical generation system using HOMER program. The simulation and optimization results show that the optimal integrated renewable energy system configuration consists of 5 kW PV array, BWC Excel-R 7.5 kW DC wind turbine, 24 unit Surrette 6CS25P battery cycle charging, and a 19 kW AC/DC converter and that the PV power can generate electricity at 9,138 kWh/year while the wind turbine system can generate electricity at 7,490 kWh/year, giving the total electrical generation of the system as 16,628 kWh/year. This would be suitable for deployment of 100% clean energy for uninterruptable power performance in the health clinic. The economics analysis result found that the integrated renewable system has total NPC of 137,139 US Dollar. The results of this research show that, with a low energy health facility, it is possible to meet the entire annual energy demand of a health clinic solely through a stand-alone integrated renewable PV/wind energy supply.

  7. Impacts of large-scale Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources on electricity systems, and how these can be modeled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd; Van Den Broek, Machteld; Seebregts, Ad; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    The electricity sector in OECD countries is on the brink of a large shift towards low-carbon electricity generation. Power systems after 2030 may consist largely of two low-carbon generator types: Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources (IRES) such as wind and solar PV and thermal generators such as p

  8. Impacts of large-scale Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources on electricity systems, and how these can be modeled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; Van Den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Seebregts, Ad; Faaij, André

    The electricity sector in OECD countries is on the brink of a large shift towards low-carbon electricity generation. Power systems after 2030 may consist largely of two low-carbon generator types: Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources (IRES) such as wind and solar PV and thermal generators such as

  9. Production efficiencies of U.S. electric generation plants: Effects of data aggregation and greenhouse gas and renewable energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynes, Melissa Kate

    Over the last few decades there has been a shift in electricity production in the U.S. Renewable energy sources are becoming more widely used. In addition, electric generation plants that use coal inputs are more heavily regulated than a couple decades ago. This shift in electricity production was brought on by changes in federal policy -- a desire for electricity produced in the U.S. which led to policies being adopted that encourage the use of renewable energy. The change in production practices due to policies may have led to changes in the productivity of electric generation plants. Multiple studies have examined the most efficient electric generation plants using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. This study builds on past research to answer three questions: 1) Does the level of aggregation of fuel input variables affect the plant efficiency scores and how does the efficiency of renewable energy input compare to nonrenewable energy inputs; 2) Are policies geared toward directly or indirectly reducing greenhouse gas emissions affecting the production efficiencies of greenhouse gas emitting electric generation plants; and 3) Do renewable energy policies and the use of intermittent energy sources (i.e. wind and solar) affect the productivity growth of electric generation plants. All three analysis, presented in three essays, use U.S. plant level data obtained from the Energy Information Administration to answer these questions. The first two essays use DEA to determine the pure technical, overall technical, and scale efficiencies of electric generation plants. The third essay uses DEA within the Malmquist index to assess the change in productivity over time. Results indicate that the level of aggregation does matter particularly for scale efficiency. This implies that valuable information is likely lost when fuel inputs are aggregated together. Policies directly focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions may improve the production efficiencies of

  10. Transient stability and control of renewable generators based on Hamiltonian surface shaping and power flow control. Part II, analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Wilson, David Gerald

    2010-11-01

    The swing equations for renewable generators connected to the grid are developed and a wind turbine is used as an example. The swing equations for the renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generators system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and non-conservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. The first step is to analyze the system as a conservative natural Hamiltonian system with no externally applied non-conservative forces. The Hamiltonian surface of the swing equations is related to the Equal-Area Criterion and the PEBS method to formulate the nonlinear transient stability problem. This formulation demonstrates the effectiveness of proportional feedback control to expand the stability region. The second step is to analyze the system as natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. The time derivative of the Hamiltonian produces the work/rate (power flow) equation which is used to ensure balanced power flows from the renewable generators to the loads. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is applied to the power flow equations to determine the stability boundaries (limit cycles) of the renewable generators system and enable design of feedback controllers that meet stability requirements while maximizing the power generation and flow to the load. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of renewable generators systems are determined based on the concepts of Hamiltonian systems, power flow, exergy (the maximum work that can be extracted from an energy flow) rate

  11. Impacts of renewable energy on landscape. Alternative of offshore wind in marine areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Moraci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects determined in the landscape by plants powered by renewable sources represent some unresolved issues in terms of visual and landscape impact mitigation in general. These aspects relate to the landscape are recognized in all types of impact with due attention to the various components and dynamics involved identifiable in the landscape of reference.The wind power plants, in particular, while making unquestionable environmental benefits thanks to the production of energy from renewable sources, but imposes a significant cost to the landscape with the installation of wind turbines in contexts necessarily favorable to impact,  interrupting the skyline, creating territorial discontinuities, "subtracting" and altering the landscape in the absence of effective mitigation works.The environmental compatibility of the proposed solutions depends primarily on the location of wind farms.Is necessary indicate  an overall strategy, a shared model of planning and land management, as in other European countries such as Denmark, Germany, France and the United Kingdom where the choice of locating wind farms has resulted in a new draft territory, construction and redesign of the landscape.

  12. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable togas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2004-07-17

    Unlike natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation (e.g., from wind, solar, and geothermal power) is largely immune to fuel price risk. If ratepayers are rational and value long-term price stability, then--contrary to common practice--any comparison of the levelized cost of renewable to gas-fired generation should be based on a hedged gas price input, rather than an uncertain gas price forecast. This paper compares natural gas prices that can be locked in through futures, swaps, and physical supply contracts to contemporaneous long-term forecasts of spot gas prices. We find that from 2000-2003, forward gas prices for terms of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most contemporaneous long-term gas price forecasts. This difference is striking, and implies that comparisons between renewable and gas-fired generation based on these forecasts over this period have arguably yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation.

  13. Renewable Power Options for Electrical Generation on Kaua'i: Economics and Performance Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burman, K.; Keller, J.; Kroposki, B.; Lilienthal, P.; Slaughter, R.; Glassmire, J.

    2011-11-01

    The Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) is working with a team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess the economic and technical feasibility of increasing the contribution of renewable energy in Hawaii. This part of the HCEI project focuses on working with Kaua'i Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) to understand how to integrate higher levels of renewable energy into the electric power system of the island of Kaua'i. NREL partnered with KIUC to perform an economic and technical analysis and discussed how to model PV inverters in the electrical grid.

  14. Aerosol generation by raindrop impact on soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Young Soo; Buie, Cullen R

    2015-01-14

    Aerosols are investigated because of their significant impact on the environment and human health. To date, windblown dust and sea salt from sea spray through bursting bubbles have been considered the chief mechanisms of environmental aerosol dispersion. Here we investigate aerosol generation from droplets hitting wettable porous surfaces including various classifications of soil. We demonstrate that droplets can release aerosols when they influence porous surfaces, and these aerosols can deliver elements of the porous medium to the environment. Experiments on various porous media including soil and engineering materials reveal that knowledge of the surface properties and impact conditions can be used to predict when frenzied aerosol generation will occur. This study highlights new phenomena associated with droplets on porous media that could have implications for the investigation of aerosol generation in the environment.

  15. Accounting Methodology for Source Energy of Non-Combustible Renewable Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As non-combustible sources of renewable power (wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal) do not consume fuel, the “source” (or “primary”) energy from these sources cannot be accounted for in the same manner as it is for fossil fuel sources. The methodology chosen for these technologies is important as it affects the perception of the relative size of renewable source energy to fossil energy, affects estimates of source-based building energy use, and overall source energy based metrics such as energy productivity. This memo reviews the methodological choices, outlines implications of each choice, summarizes responses to a request for information on this topic, and presents guiding principles for the U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to use to determine where modifying the current renewable source energy accounting method used in EERE products and analyses would be appropriate to address the issues raised above.

  16. PROMOTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN ALGERIA FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND BETTER FUTURE FOR NEXT GENERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainouche, A.; Ainouche, H.

    2007-07-01

    Beyond its hydrocarbon resources, Algeria has a high potential of renewable energy which it has the ambition to develop with foreign partners. The development of renewable energies corresponds to the option of a sustainable development. Independently of the units of solar energy intended to feed the remote centers, projects of renewable energies connected to the national grid are in course of development. Our strategy consists in carrying out a synergy between the Solar one and the natural gas thanks to gas/solar hybrid projects by profiting from the Algerian natural gas endowment and to the permanent sunshining of the South of the country. A first gas/solar hybrid project, of large capacity, is under development. Its realization will bring a significant solar energy contribution to the national energy balance and will constitute a first experiment, on a large scale, in the production of renewable electricity connected to the grid of national distribution. This communication focuses on the strategy and efforts made by Algeria to promote renewable energies within the framework of the sustainable development with as objective bringing the share of the electricity produced by renewable energies to 5 % of the total electricity produced from by 2010. (auth)

  17. Generation of a genetically encoded marker of rod photoreceptor outer segment growth and renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Willoughby

    2011-10-01

    Vertebrate photoreceptors are specialized light sensing neurons. The photoreceptor outer segment is a highly modified cilium where photons of light are transduced into a chemical and electrical signal. The outer segment has the typical cilary axoneme but, in addition, it has a large number of densely packed, stacked, intramembranous discs. The molecular and cellular mechanisms that contribute to vertebrate photoreceptor outer segment morphogenesis are still largely unknown. Unlike typical cilia, the outer segment is continuously regenerated or renewed throughout the life of the animal through the combined process of distal outer segment shedding and proximal outer segment growth. The process of outer segment renewal was discovered over forty years ago, but we still lack an understanding of how photoreceptors renew their outer segments and few, if any, molecular mechanisms that regulate outer segment growth or shedding have been described. Our lack of progress in understanding how photoreceptors renew their outer segments has been hampered by the difficulty in measuring rates of renewal. We have created a new method that uses heat-shock induction of a fluorescent protein that can be used to rapidly measure outer segment growth rates. We describe this method, the stable transgenic line we created, and the growth rates observed in larval and adult rod photoreceptors using this new method. This new method will allow us to begin to define the genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate rod outer segment renewal, a crucial aspect of photoreceptor function and, possibly, viability.

  18. A methodology for estimating health benefits of electricity generation using renewable technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Ian; Gamkhar, Shama

    2012-02-01

    At Copenhagen, the developed countries agreed to provide up to $100 bn per year to finance climate change mitigation and adaptation by developing countries. Projects aimed at cutting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will need to be evaluated against dual criteria: from the viewpoint of the developed countries they must cut emissions of GHGs at reasonable cost, while host countries will assess their contribution to development, or simply their overall economic benefits. Co-benefits of some types of project will also be of interest to host countries: for example some projects will contribute to reducing air pollution, thus improving the health of the local population. This paper uses a simple damage function methodology to quantify some of the health co-benefits of replacing coal-fired generation with wind or small hydro in China. We estimate the monetary value of these co-benefits and find that it is probably small compared to the added costs. We have not made a full cost-benefit analysis of renewable energy in China as some likely co-benefits are omitted from our calculations. Our results are subject to considerable uncertainty however, after careful consideration of their likely accuracy and comparisons with other studies, we believe that they provide a good first cut estimate of co-benefits and are sufficiently robust to stand as a guide for policy makers. In addition to these empirical results, a key contribution made by the paper is to demonstrate a simple and reasonably accurate methodology for health benefits estimation that applies the most recent academic research in the field to the solution of an increasingly important problem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing the impact of renewable energy deployment on local sustainability: Towards a theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Rio, Pablo [Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Toledo-45071 (Spain); Burguillo, Mercedes [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Alcala, Pza. de la Victoria 3, 28802 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    Renewable energy sources (RES) have a large potential to contribute to the sustainable development (SD) of specific territories by providing them with a wide variety of socioeconomic and environmental benefits. However, the existing literature has put much emphasis on the environmental benefits (including the reduction of global and local pollutants), while socioeconomic impacts have not received a comparable attention. These include diversification of energy supply, enhanced regional and rural development opportunities, creation of a domestic industry and employment opportunities. With the exception of the diversification and security of energy supply, these benefits have usually been mentioned, but their analysis has been too general (i.e., mostly at the national level) and a focus on the regional and, even more so, the local level, has been lacking. At most, studies provide scattered evidence of some of those regional and local benefits, but without an integrated conceptual framework to analyse them. This paper tries to make a contribution in this regard by developing an integrated theoretical framework which allows a comprehensive analysis of the impact of renewable energy on local sustainability and which can be empirically applied to identify these benefits in different territories. (author)

  20. Asteroid-Generated Tsunami and Impact Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, M.; Aftosmis, M.; Berger, M. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Gisler, G.; Jennings, B.; LeVeque, R. J.; Mathias, D.; McCoy, C.; Robertson, D.; Titov, V. V.; Wheeler, L.

    2016-12-01

    The justification for planetary defense comes from a cost/benefit analysis, which includes risk assessment. The contribution from ocean impacts and airbursts is difficult to quantify and represents a significant uncertainty in our assessment of the overall risk. Our group is currently working toward improved understanding of impact scenarios that can generate dangerous tsunami. The importance of asteroid-generated tsunami research has increased because a new Science Definition Team, at the behest of NASA's Planetary Defense Coordinating Office, is now updating the results of a 2003 study on which our current planetary defense policy is based Our group was formed to address this question on many fronts, including asteroid entry modeling, tsunami generation and propagation simulations, modeling of coastal run-ups, inundation, and consequences, infrastructure damage estimates, and physics-based probabilistic impact risk assessment. We also organized the Second International Workshop on Asteroid Threat Assessment, focused on asteroid-generated tsunami and associated risk (Aug. 23-24, 2016). We will summarize our progress and present the highlights of our workshop, emphasizing its relevance to earth and planetary science. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Community benefits from offshore renewables: The relationship between different understandings of impact, community, and benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, David Philipp; Haggett, Claire; Aitken, Mhairi

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research project evaluating community benefit models for offshore renewables. We identify and analyse UK and international case studies of different forms of community benefit, and provide evidence of how such benefits are delivered. In particular we consider...... the key relationship between the identification of communities, perception of impact, and the apportionment of benefits. In doing so, we develop a range of different definitions of ‘community’, ‘benefit’, and ‘impact’ when considering community benefits. We propose that the way in which community, benefit......, and impact are understood is crucial in determining whether or how benefits should be apportioned and delivered; and that these definitions are closely connected to each other. We develop a new series of typologies as a way to understand this. Finally, we assess different mechanisms and schemes of community...

  2. The potential cost from passengers and how it impacts railway maintenance and renewal decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    To plan Maintenance and Renewals (M&R) for the heavy railway lines, scheduling work possession time and deciding the closure of railway line are quite challenging for Infrastructure Manager (IM) at tactical planning level. As usual, the direct costs such as the materials costs, man power price...... and machinery costs are the important factors for IM to evaluate all the alternative schedules. At the same time, the potential cost from passengers is also crucial to minimize the impacts to the society. A phase-based planning toolkit is developed to help IM to plan and compare project proposals from a wider...... cost scope, integrating the passenger loss and direct costs into the comparison at planning stage. Passenger loss is estimated basing on the potential delay time values. The case study shows the potential cost from passengers is one of the key factors impacting the rank of M&R options. It even...

  3. Integrating Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, Antonio J.; Madsen, Henrik

    This addition to the ISOR series addresses the analytics of the operations of electric energy systems with increasing penetration of stochastic renewable production facilities, such as wind- and solar-based generation units. As stochastic renewable production units become ubiquitous throughout...... electric energy systems, an increasing level of flexible backup provided by non-stochastic units and other system agents is needed if supply security and quality are to be maintained. Within the context above, this book provides up-to-date analytical tools to address challenging operational problems...... such as: • The modeling and forecasting of stochastic renewable power production. • The characterization of the impact of renewable production on market outcomes. • The clearing of electricity markets with high penetration of stochastic renewable units. • The development of mechanisms to counteract...

  4. Implications of integrating electricity supply dynamics into life cycle assessment: a case study of renewable distributed generation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Electricity supply is frequently cited as a significant hot spot in life cycle assessment (LCA) results. Despite its importance, however, LCA research continues to overuse simplified methodologies regarding electricity supply modeling. This work aims to demonstrate the usefulness of electricity trade analysis (proposed model) for integrating the short-term dynamics of electricity supply and refining LCA results. Distributed generation using renewable energy is applied as a case study to demon...

  5. Resolving issues with environmental impact assessment of marine renewable energy installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya M. D. Maclean

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Growing concerns about climate change and energy security have fueled a rapid increase in the development of marine renewable energy installations (MREIs. The potential ecological consequences of increased use of these devices emphasizes the need for high quality environmental impact assessment (EIA. We demonstrate that these processes are hampered severely, primarily because ambiguities in the legislation and lack of clear implementation guidance are such that they do not ensure robust assessment of the significance of impacts and cumulative effects. We highlight why the regulatory framework leads to conceptual ambiguities and propose changes which, for the most part, do not require major adjustments to standard practice. We emphasize the importance of determining the degree of confidence in impacts to permit the likelihood as well as magnitude of impacts to be quantified and propose ways in which assessment of population-level impacts could be incorporated into the EIA process. Overall, however, we argue that, instead of trying to ascertain which particular developments are responsible for tipping an already heavily degraded marine environment into an undesirable state, emphasis should be placed on better strategic assessment.

  6. Impact-generated winds on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Quintana, Stephanie N.

    2017-08-01

    Bright and dark wind streaks across Mars record wind patterns related to atmospheric circulation. In some cases these streaks represent erosion of a surface veneer; in others, they indicate sand grains mobilized by strong vortices shed off of positive relief, such as crater rims. While many streaks change length or orientation over time, others not only remain unchanged but also may indicate a completely different wind direction. These permanent streaks could reflect past circulation patterns in response to conditions related to orbital forcing (e.g., Thomas and Veverka, 1979; Veverka et al., 1981). Here, however, we focus on a subset of permanent wind streaks unrelated to global circulation, rather to impact-generated winds that can extend more than 500 km away from the crater. Nighttime images from the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) reveal certain large craters (> 15 km in diameter) having sets of thermally bright streaks that radiate from certain fresh impact craters. These streaks extend from pre-existing topographic highs (crater rims, wrinkle ridges) beyond the continuous ejecta deposits to more than 6 crater radii, unrelated to secondary craters. For illustration, this contribution primarily focuses on the 20 km-diameter Santa Fe crater in Chryse Planitia. Context Camera (CTX) images reveal that these streaks correspond to zones of erosion. The thermally bright rays in nighttime images correlate with regions where coarser materials have been exposed, not always resolved even in HiRISE images. Models of the impact process indicate impact-generated vapor most likely generated intense winds that scoured the region, well before arrival of secondary craters and later ejecta run-out flows. Pre-existing relief (such as crater rims) disturbed this flow and generated intense cross-flow instabilities resulting in long parallel streaks.

  7. The Influence of Output Variability from Renewable Electricity Generation on Net Energy Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Kunz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One key approach to analyzing the feasibility of energy extraction and generation technologies is to understand the net energy they contribute to society. These analyses most commonly focus on a simple comparison of a source’s expected energy outputs to the required energy inputs, measured in the form of energy return on investment (EROI. What is not typically factored into net energy analysis is the influence of output variability. This omission ignores a key attribute of biological organisms and societies alike: the preference for stable returns with low dispersion versus equivalent returns that are intermittent or variable. This biologic predilection for stability, observed and refined in academic financial literature, has a direct relationship to many new energy technologies whose outputs are much more variable than traditional energy sources. We investigate the impact of variability on net energy metrics and develop a theoretical framework to evaluate energy systems based on existing financial and biological risk models. We then illustrate the impact of variability on nominal energy return using representative technologies in electricity generation, with a more detailed analysis on wind power, where intermittence and stochastic availability of hard-to-store electricity will be factored into theoretical returns.

  8. Potential Utilization of Renewable Energy Resources for Electicity Generation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajik Begić

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with the current processes of restructuring of Energy power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina, liberalisation of the electricity market, and modernisation of the existing power plants, Bosnia and Herzegovina must turn to the utilisation of renewable resources in reasonable dynamics as well. Respecting this policy, the initial evaluation of the potential of renewable energy resources in Bosnia and Herzegovina is performed. The methodology of evaluation of wind energy utilisation is presented in this paper, as well as some other aspects of utilisation of the renewable energy resources in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Implementation of selected projects should improve sustainability of energy power production in Bosnia and Herzegovina, by reducing the total emission of carbon dioxide originated from energy power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  9. Optimizing Capacities of Distributed Generation and Energy Storage in a Small Autonomous Power System Considering Uncertainty in Renewables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores real power generation planning, considering distributed generation resources and energy storage in a small standalone power system. On account of the Kyoto Protocol and Copenhagen Accord, wind and photovoltaic (PV powers are considered as clean and renewable energies. In this study, a genetic algorithm (GA was used to determine the optimal capacities of wind-turbine-generators, PV, diesel generators and energy storage in a small standalone power system. The investment costs (installation, unit and maintenance costs of the distributed generation resources and energy storage and the cost of fuel for the diesel generators were minimized while the reliability requirement and CO2 emission limit were fulfilled. The renewable sources and loads were modeled by random variables because of their uncertainties. The equality and inequality constraints in the genetic algorithms were treated by cumulant effects and cumulative probability of random variables, respectively. The IEEE reliability data for an 8760 h load profile with a 150 kW peak load were used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  10. ReEDS Modeling of the President’s 2020 U.S. Renewable Electricity Generation Goal (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, Owen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gelman, Rachel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The primary objective of the analysis is to project future contributions from wind, solar, and geothermal technologies to the U.S. electricity generation mix in the 2020 time period. While this exercise is motivated by an interest in assessing the feasibility of achieving the Obama's Administration's goal of doubling renewable generation during that timeframe, the analysis only evaluates one interpretation of the goal and does not comprehensively evaluate others. The report introduction provides further background for this motivation.

  11. Anaerobic codigestion of dairy manure and food manufacturing waste for renewable energy generation in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Matthew J.

    Anaerobic digestion is a microbiological process that converts biodegradable organic material into biogas, consisting primarily of methane and carbon dioxide. Anaerobic digestion technologies have been integrated into wastewater treatment facilities nationwide for many decades to increase the economic viability of the treatment process by converting a waste stream into two valuable products: biogas and fertilizer. Thus, anaerobic digestion offers potential economic and environmental benefits of organic waste diversion and renewable energy generation. The use of biogas has many applications, including cogeneration, direct combustion, upgrading for conversion to feed a fuel cell, and compression for injection into the natural gas grid or for vehicular use. The potential benefits of waste diversion and renewable energy generation are now being realized by major organic waste generators in New York State, in particular the food manufacturing and dairy industries, thus warranting an analysis of the energy generation potential for these waste products. Anaerobic codigestion of dairy manure and food-based feedstocks reflects a cradle-to- cradle approach to organic waste management. Given both of their abundance throughout New York State, waste-to-energy processes represent promising waste management strategies. The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the current technical and economic feasibility of anaerobically codigesting existing dairy manure and food manufacturing waste feedstocks in New York State to produce high quality biogas for renewable energy generation. The first element to determining the technical feasibility of anaerobic codigestion potential in New York State was to first understand the feedstock availability. A comprehensive survey of existing organic waste streams was conducted. The key objective was to identify the volume and composition of dairy manure and liquid-phase food manufacturing waste streams available in New York State to make

  12. Analyzing Distributed Generation Impact on the Reliability of Electric Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaullah Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With proliferation of Distribution Generation (DG and renewable energy technologies the power system is becoming more complex, with passage of time the development of distributed generation technologies is becoming diverse and broad. Power system reliability is one of most vital area in electric power system which deals with continuous supply of power and customer satisfaction. Distribution network in power system contributed up to 80% of reliability problems. This paper analyzes the impact of Wind Turbine Generator (WTG as a distribution generation source on reliability of distribution system. Injecting single WTG and close to load point has positive impact on reliability, while injecting multiple WTGs at single place has adverse impact on distribution system reliability. These analyses are performed on bus 2 of Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS.

  13. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the §1603 Treasury Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldberg, Marshall [MRG & Associates, Nevada City, CA (United States)

    2012-04-09

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the §1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the §1603 grant program.

  14. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the §1603Treasury Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldberg, Marshall [MRG and Associates, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the §1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the §1603 grant program.

  15. Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the ..Section..1603 Treasury Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, D.; Porro, G.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-04-01

    This analysis responds to a request from the Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to estimate the direct and indirect jobs and economic impacts of projects supported by the Section 1603 Treasury grant program. The analysis employs the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models to estimate the gross jobs, earnings, and economic output supported by the construction and operation of the large wind (greater than 1 MW) and solar photovoltaic (PV) projects funded by the Section 1603 grant program.

  16. Rotating and linear synchronous generators for renewable electric energy conversion - an update of the ongoing research projects at Uppsala University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolund, B.; Segergren, E.; Solum, A.; Perers, R.; Lundstroem, L.; Lindblom, A.; Thorburn, K.; Eriksson, M.; Nilsson, K.; Ivanova, I.; Danielsson, O.; Eriksson, S.; Bengtsson, H.; Sjoestedt, E.; Isberg, J.; Sundberg, J.; Bernhoff, H.; Karlsson, K.-E.; Wolfbrandt, A.; Aagren, O.; Leijon, M.

    2004-07-01

    The discussion regarding renewable energy has gone on for several years. The many ideas and opinions that are presented in this field reflect the great impact future energy production has on people all over the world. This paper describes the new direction of the division of Electricity at Uppsala University after the admission of the new professor, Mats Leijon, in February 2001. Full electromagnetic dynamics can be used in order to improve performance of existing electromagnetic conversion systems and to adapt new technology to the renewable power in nature. These ideas are adopted in wind power, wave power, water-current power, bio-fuelled plants as well as in conventional hydropower, i.e. in every different area were the division is active. This paper is a coarse description of the different activities at the division and alms to highlight their link to each other. Theoretical and experimental results from the different PhD projects are briefly introduced and summarized. (author)

  17. For a Green Stadium: Economic Feasibility of Sustainable Renewable Electricity Generation at the Jeju World Cup Venue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After the 2002 FIFA World Cup in South Korea and Japan, the local governments of South Korea were left in charge of several large-scale soccer stadiums. Although these governments have made significant efforts toward creating profits from the stadiums, it is proving to be too difficult for several administrations to cover their full operational, maintenance, and conservation costs. In order to overcome this problem, one of the governments, Seogwipo City, which owns Jeju World Cup Stadium (JWCS, is attempting to provide an independent renewable electricity generation system for the operation of the stadium. The current study therefore examines potential configurations of an independent renewable electricity generation system for JWCS, using HOMER software. The simulation results yield three optimal system configurations with a renewable fraction of 1.00 and relatively low values for the cost of energy ($0.405, $0.546, and $0.692 per kWh. Through the examination of these three possible optimal configurations, the implications and limitations of the current study are presented.

  18. Regional income effects and renewable fuels. Increased usage of renewable energy sources in Danish rural areas and its impact on regional incomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentzen, J.; Smith, V. [Aarhus School of Business, Dept. of Economics (Denmark); Dilling-Hansen, M. [Univ. of Aarhus, Dept. of Management (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    CO{sub 2}-emission is a world wide problem and in the attempt to reduce these emissions, renewable energy sources may be considered serious alternatives to the present usage of fossil fuels. As part of a research programme financed by The Danish Energy Agency, data concerning the different heating technologies based on oil and wood fuels have been collected. Private and social costs are estimated and these economic data are used when analysing regional income effects of increased consumption of fuels (e.g. wood) locally produced. The impacts on income and tax revenues are calculated from multiplier expressions, constructed with rights to the measurement of local effects. (au) 10 refs.

  19. Integrating renewable energy sources in the Portuguese power system. New generation adequacy indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Nuno; Santos, Joana; Damas, Manuela [Redes Energeticas Nacionais (REN), Porto (Portugal). Studies and Innovation Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The penetration of intermittent energy sources in the Portuguese power system is growing significantly. The identification of possible solutions to maintain the operational reserve levels is necessary to preserve flexibility and security of electricity supply. In this context, the development of probabilistic tools is essential to calculate new generation adequacy indicators associated with the analysis of the operational reserve. In this paper, the mathematical model RESERVAS, is briefly described and is used to analyse the impact of integrating high levels of intermittent energy sources in the Portuguese power system. The presented results allow us to conclude that the electricity adequacy evaluation should be done using probabilistic indicators, which reflect the power system performance in the following areas: (i) Adequacy (evaluation of the available power to face the hourly electricity demand) and (ii) Security (evaluation of the operational reserve requirements through the deviations in the demand-supply balance that occur among all elementary periods). (orig.)

  20. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local (usually state) level. First developed by NREL’s researchers to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to also estimate the economic impacts of biofuels, coal, conventional hydro, concentrating solar power, geothermal, marine and hydrokinetic power, natural gas, photovoltaics, and transmission lines. This fact sheet focuses on JEDI for wind energy projects.

  1. Impact of Inter- and Intra-Regional Coordination in Markets With a Large Renewable Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    counterproductive or inefficient under uncertain supply, e.g., from weather-driven renewable power generation. In the absence of a specific target model for the common balancing market in Europe, we introduce a framework to compare different coordination schemes and market organizations. The proposed models......The establishment of the single European day-ahead market has accomplished a crucial step towards the spatial integration of the European power system. However, this new arrangement does not consider any intra-regional coordination of day-ahead and balancing markets and thus may become...... are formulated as stochastic equilibrium problems and compared against an optimal market setup. The simulation results reveal significant efficiency loss in case of partial coordination and diversity of market structure among regional power systems....

  2. Research on renewable energy power generation complementarity and storage distribution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jinfang

    2017-01-01

    This paper mainly studied the equivalent conversion relationships and model of different “quality “energies in process of multi-energy conversion. In energy interconnection system containing wind turbine, photovoltaic cell and energy storage systems, it gives renewable energy and storage distribution development model, considering comprehensive effect of load demand characteristics on energy utilization mode, multi-objective optimization model is established with objectives of both maximized energy utilization ratio and minimized system operation costs. Then, take Chinese one certain area as scenario, and give out “renewable energy utilization“, “energy transfer” and “total operating cost” three different analyses, according to the connection model. The result is compared with that for traditional energy utilization model. Feasibility of the proposed model is verified with simulation results.

  3. Investigation into the potential of energy storage to tackle intermittency in renewable energy generation

    OpenAIRE

    Barbour, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Renewable Energy is by nature intermittent and matching the supply of energy to specific time dependent demand poses huge challenges. Energy storage is a useful tool in handling this temporal disparity, although except for regions very suitable for pumped hydroelectric storage schemes, it suffers from being technically difficult to implement and costly as a result. This study investigates the potential benefits offered by various scales of energy storage to different types of r...

  4. Demonstration and Verification of a Turbine Power Generation System Utilizing Renewable Fuel: Landfill Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    weight of the equipment and concrete pads. The heaviest integrated components (turbine, oxidizer, piping and supporting steel work) weigh about 25...DataTaker™ data logger and retrieved via cellular router on a weekly basis. Raw data were retrieved each week and appended into the ‘raw data’ tab of...Poster presentation 2010 ESTCP Symposium Poster presentation 2011 ESTCP Symposium Poster and presentation in renewable energy panel 2011 Exhibition

  5. Driving R&D for the Next Generation Work Truck; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, M.

    2015-03-04

    Improvements in medium- and heavy-duty work truck energy efficiency can dramatically reduce the use of petroleum-based fuels and the emissions of greenhouse gases. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with industry partners to develop fuel-saving, high-performance vehicle technologies, while examining fleet operational practices that can simulateneously improve fuel economy, decrease emissions, and support bottom-line goals.

  6. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local (usually state) level. First developed by NREL's Wind Powering America program to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to biofuels, concentrating solar power, coal, and natural gas power plants. Based on project-specific and default inputs (derived from industry norms), JEDI estimates the number of jobs and economic impacts to a local area (usually a state) that could reasonably be supported by a power generation project. For example, JEDI estimates the number of in-state construction jobs from a new wind farm. This fact sheet provides an overview of the JEDI model as it pertains to wind energy projects.

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  8. Optimizing decentralized renewable energy production by combining potentials and integrated environmental impact analysis. A case study in the Hannover region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmas, Claudia; Siewert, Almut [Leibniz Univ. of Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning

    2013-07-01

    In Europe, the integration of decentralized renewable energy production in regional planning processes plays a crucial role. In particular, regions face a major challenge in order to set up renewable decentralized energy systems and incorporate them into the electricity grid. This paper presents a methodological concept and preliminary tests of applications in order to create an optimization model for an improved renewable energy development and planning practice: firstly, the energy potentials of micro renewable resources are estimated, and secondly the outcomes are combined with an estimation of resulting environmental impacts. Including these data into the spatial analysis, different scenarios can be developed in order to support decision making in landscape planning on the basis of environmental and landscape criteria as well as energy issues, including technical aspects and costs. The case study area is the Hannover region. First results show good energy potentials, which will be in a next step evaluated and combined with environmental impacts in order to improve energy efficiency by integrated renewable, decentralized power plants and energy mix. (orig.)

  9. Microbial Diversity of Impact-Generated Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontefract, Alexandra; Osinski, Gordon R.; Cockell, Charles S.; Southam, Gordon; McCausland, Phil J. A.; Umoh, Joseph; Holdsworth, David W.

    2016-10-01

    Impact-generated lithologies have recently been identified as viable and important microbial habitats, especially within cold and arid regions such as the polar deserts on Earth. These unique habitats provide protection from environmental stressors, such as freeze-thaw events, desiccation, and UV radiation, and act to trap aerially deposited detritus within the fissures and pore spaces, providing necessary nutrients for endoliths. This study provides the first culture-independent analysis of the microbial community structure within impact-generated lithologies in a Mars analog environment, involving the analysis of 44,534 16S rRNA sequences from an assemblage of 21 rock samples that comprises three shock metamorphism categories. We find that species diversity increases (H = 2.4-4.6) with exposure to higher shock pressures, which leads to the development of three distinct populations. In each population, Actinobacteria were the most abundant (41%, 65%, and 59%), and the dominant phototrophic taxa came from the Chloroflexi. Calculated porosity (a function of shock metamorphism) for these samples correlates (R2 = 0.62) with inverse Simpson indices, accounting for overlap in populations in the higher shock levels. The results of our study show that microbial diversity is tied to the amount of porosity in the target substrate (as a function of shock metamorphism), resulting in the formation of distinct microbial populations.

  10. Spermatogonial stem cells derived from infertile Wv/Wv mice self-renew in vitro and generate progeny following transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Avarbock, Mary R; Schmidt, Jonathan A; Brinster, Ralph L

    2009-08-01

    Loss-of-function mutation of the Kit gene causes a severe defect in spermatogenesis that results in infertility due to the inability of its cognate ligand, KIT ligand (KITL), to stimulate spermatogonial proliferation and differentiation. Although self-renewal of mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) depends on glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), there is no unequivocal evidence that SSCs with a KIT deficiency can self-renew in vivo or in vitro. In the testis of W(v)/W(v) mice, in which the KIT tyrosine kinase activity is impaired, spermatogonia with SSC phenotype were identified. When W(v)/W(v) spermatogonia were cultured in an SSC culture system supplemented with GDNF in a 10% O(2) atmosphere, they formed clumps and proliferated continuously. An atmosphere of 10% O(2) was better than 21% O(2) to support SSC self-renewal. When W(v)/W(v) clump-forming germ cells were transplanted into testes of infertile wild-type busulfan-treated mice, they colonized the seminiferous tubules but did not differentiate. However, when transplanted into the testes of infertile W/W(v) pups, they restored spermatogenesis and produced spermatozoa, and progeny were generated using microinsemination. These results clearly show that SSCs exist in W(v)/W(v) testes and that they proliferate in vitro similar to wild-type SSCs, indicating that a functional KIT protein is not required for SSC self-renewal. Furthermore, the results indicate that a defect of KIT/KITL signaling of W(v)/W(v) SSCs does not prevent spermatogonial differentiation and spermatogenesis in some recipient strains.

  11. Comparison of life cycle carbon dioxide emissions and embodied energy in four renewable electricity generation technologies in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Bridget M; Worth, Zeb J; Boyle, Carol A

    2009-08-15

    In order to make the best choice between renewable energy technologies, it is important to be able to compare these technologies on the basis of their sustainability, which may include a variety of social, environmental, and economic indicators. This study examined the comparative sustainability of four renewable electricity technologies in terms of their life cycle CO2 emissions and embodied energy, from construction to decommissioning and including maintenance (periodic component replacement plus machinery use), using life cycle analysis. The models developed were based on case studies of power plants in New Zealand, comprising geothermal, large-scale hydroelectric, tidal (a proposed scheme), and wind-farm electricity generation. The comparative results showed that tidal power generation was associated with 1.8 g of CO2/kWh, wind with 3.0 g of CO2/kWh, hydroelectric with 4.6 g of CO2/kWh, and geothermal with 5.6 g of CO2/kWh (not including fugitive emissions), and that tidal power generation was associated with 42.3 kJ/kWh, wind with 70.2 kJ/kWh, hydroelectric with 55.0 kJ/kWh, and geothermal with 94.6 kJ/kWh. Other environmental indicators, as well as social and economic indicators, should be applied to gain a complete picture of the technologies studied.

  12. Woody Plants Affected by Ungulates in Winter Period, Impacts and Bark Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevřelová Marta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to biotope fragmentation and changes in landscape structure, opportunities for forest animals to migrate and obtain food are diminishing, especially during extreme winter conditions. The main objective of this research was an assessment of ungulates, impact on woody species, evaluation of damage forms and bark renewal phases of affected woody plants. The study area is located in western Slovakia in the southeast part of Male Karpaty Mts. After the very cold and long winter of 2012/2013, 34% of woody plants were damaged by bark stripping and biting on the forest locality and 53% of evaluated trees and shrubs were damaged by biting off shoots in the non-forest locality. Together, 262 woody plants belonging to 15 species were evaluated; the girth of tree trunks and stripped bark patches were measured. The most severely affected tree species, suffering from bark stripping and bitten-off sprouts, was Fraxinus excelsior; Acer campestre was also significantly affected. Results showed that woody plants provide a significant part of hoofed mammal nutrition (especially Capreolus capreolus and Cervus elaphus. The stripped bark dendromass per forested area of 625 m2 reached 3 m2. After the mild winter in 2014, the majority (93.7% of previously affected Fraxinus excelsior trees in the forest locality had only old damages with renewed bark in different phases of regeneration. In the non-forest locality, 96% of young Fraxinus excelsior, damaged in the winter of 2013, shot up new sprouts. The mortality of affected trees was minimal (4−5%.

  13. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.

  14. Economic Feasibility of Renewable Electricity Generation Systems for Local Government Office: Evaluation of the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While environmental and energy concerns have become global issues, the government of South Korea has made notable efforts and formulated plans for the diffusion of renewable energy generation facilities for the nation’s public and governmental institutions. Accordingly, Jeju Island has become one of the most promising locations for utilizing renewable energy resources. This study aims to propose potential configurations for renewable energy generation facilities (mainly solar and wind energy facilities in response to the electricity demand of the main local governmental offices of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. The study utilizes the hybrid optimization of multiple energy resources software to simulate two optimized configurations for generation at a cost of energy of $0.306 per kWh (independent and $0.204 per kWh (grid-connected with 100% renewable fraction for the island. The implications of the simulation results and limitations of the study are discussed.

  15. Smoothing effect for spatially distributed renewable resources and its impact on power grid robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Motoki; Hirata, Yoshito; Fujiwara, Naoya; Tanaka, Gouhei; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we show that spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs greatly influences the robustness of the power grids against large fluctuations of the effective power. First, we evaluate the spatial correlation among renewable energy outputs. We find that the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs depends on the locations, while the influence of the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs on power grids is not well known. Thus, second, by employing the topology of the power grid in eastern Japan, we analyze the robustness of the power grid with spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs. The analysis is performed by using a realistic differential-algebraic equations model. The results show that the spatial correlation of the energy resources strongly degrades the robustness of the power grid. Our results suggest that we should consider the spatial correlation of the renewable energy outputs when estimating the stability of power grids.

  16. Sensitivity Analysis on the Impact Factors of the GSHP System Considering Energy Generation and Environmental Impact Using LCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehoon Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing a crisis due to energy depletion and environmental pollution. The ground source heat pump (GSHP system, the most efficient new/renewable energy (NRE system that can reduce the load of heating/cooling equipment in a building, can be used to address this crisis. Designers and contractors have implemented such systems depending on their experience, although there are many factors that affect the performance of the GSHP system. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct a sensitivity analysis on the impact factors in terms of energy generation and environmental impact. This study was conducted as follows: (i collecting the impact factors that affect the GSHP system’s performance; (ii establishing the GSHP system’s scenarios with the impact factors; (iii determining the methodology and calculation tool to be used for conducting sensitivity analysis; and (iv conducting sensitivity analysis on the impact factors of the GSHP system in terms of energy generation and environmental impact using life cycle assessment. The results of this study can be used: (i to establish the optimal design strategy for different application fields and different seasons; and (ii to conduct a feasibility study on energy generation and environmental impact at the level of the life cycle.

  17. Experience in Developing a Single-Phase Two Winding 5 kW Self-excited Induction Generator for Off-Grid Renewable Energy Based Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, S. S.; Singh, Bhim; Sandeep, Vuddanti

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the design and development of a novel single-phase two winding self-excited squirrel cage induction generator (SEIG) for off-grid renewable energy based power generation. The principles underlying the design process and experience with SPEED design tool are described to design a 5 kW, 50 Hz, 230 V, 4 pole single phase AC generator. All possible configurations to reduce harmonic components of induced e.m.f. are attempted for desired performance and to get an optimum design keeping in view the manufacturing constraints. The development of a prototype based on this design has been completed with the help of an industry. Typical test results on the prototype are presented to demonstrate its performance. Computed results are obtained with a design based computational procedure for performance analysis and a critical comparison is made with test results.

  18. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 3: Renewable energy plant: reports on wind, photovoltaics and biomas energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoha, Bruno; Cohen, Martin [Electricite de France (France)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 3 (WG3). WG3 will promote the introduction of performance indicators for renewable energy generating plant (wind, geothermal, solar and biomass) developed by the Committee. It will also assess selected transitional technology issues and environmental factors related to non-conventional technologies. The WG3 report includes sections on Wind Energy Today, Photovoltaics Energy Today, Biomass Electricity Today and appendices.

  19. Estimating the Size of the Renewable Energy Generators in an Isolated Solar-Biodiesel Microgrid with Lead-Acid Battery Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAMA Alin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, fossil fuel decline, expensive power grid extensions focused the attention of scientist in developing electrical power systems that use as primary resources renewable energy generators. Romania has a high renewable energy potential and presents interest in developing renewable energy microgrids using: solar energy, wind energy, biomass Hydro, etc. The paper presents a method of estimating the size of the renewable energy generators in an isolated solar-biodiesel microgrid with lead-acid battery storage. The mathematical model is first presented and then an algorithm is developed to give an estimation of the size of the microgrid. The microgrid is installed in the region of Oradea, Romania. The results are validated through comparison with existing sizing software programs like: PV*Sol and PVSyst.

  20. Challenges towards Economic Fuel Generation from Renewable Electricity: The Need for Efficient Electro-Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formal, Florian Le; Bourée, Wiktor S; Prévot, Mathieu S; Sivula, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing renewable sources of energy is very attractive to provide the growing population on earth in the future but demands the development of efficient storage to mitigate their intermittent nature. Chemical storage, with energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds such as hydrogen or carbon-containing molecules, is promising as these energy vectors can be reserved and transported easily. In this review, we aim to present the advantages and drawbacks of the main water electrolysis technologies available today: alkaline and PEM electrolysis. The choice of electrode materials for utilization in very basic and very acid conditions is discussed, with specific focus on anodes for the oxygen evolution reaction, considered as the most demanding and energy consuming reaction in an electrolyzer. State-of-the-art performance of materials academically developed for two alternative technologies: electrolysis in neutral or seawater, and the direct electrochemical conversion from solar to hydrogen are also introduced.

  1. Smoothing effect for spatially distributed renewable resources and its impact on power grid robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Motoki; Fujiwara, Naoya; Tanaka, Gouhei; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we show that spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs greatly influences the robustness of power grids. First, we propose a new index for the spatial correlation among renewable energy outputs. We find that the spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs in a short time-scale is as weak as that caused by independent random variables and that in a long time-scale is as strong as that under perfect synchronization. Then, by employing the topology of the power grid in eastern Japan, we analyze the robustness of the power grid with spatial correlation of renewable energy outputs. The analysis is performed by using a realistic differential-algebraic equations model and the result shows that the spatial correlation of the energy resources strongly degrades the robustness of the power grid. Our result suggests that the spatial correlation of the renewable energy outputs should be taken into account when estimating the stability of power grids.

  2. Impact of water renewal on the residual effect of larvicides in the control of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Soares Pontes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the residual effect of three larvicides under laboratory conditions for 100 days in Aedes aegypti. The larval mortality rate was measured without water renewal or with daily water renewal (80%. With temephos, there was 100% mortality in both groups until the 70th day. In the Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti-WDG test, there was no difference during the first 20 days. With Bti-G, without water renewal, mortality was sustained above 90% for up to 35 days. The second experiment (with water renewal reduced the mortality to below 90% after the first 20 days. When renewed water was provided, the residual effect was significantly lower for all larvicides.

  3. Consequences of the feed-in management for the marketing of electric power from renewable energies. Are limited generators financially shut-down according to paragraph 13 par. 4 EnWG; Folgen des Einspeisemanagements fuer die Vermarktung von Strom aus Erneuerbaren Energien. Werden zwangsweise abgeregelte Erzeuger nach paragraph 13 Abs. 4 EnWG bilanziell glattgestellt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetebier, Jan [Bundesnetzagentur, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    With the expansion of renewable energies, the network capacities on windy and sunny days are becoming scarce. If the capacities are not sufficient in order to accommodate all the electricity, conventional power plants and subordinately plants for the power generation from renewable plants have to be closed. What are the consequences of a compulsory curtailment for the marketing of the electric power? This question basically raised for conventional power plants as well as supply remunerated and directly exploited renewable energy plants. From this perspective, the author of this contribution reports on the impact on the stock marketing of the supply remunerated electric power from renewable energy sources according to the balancing mechanism of the Renewable Energy Law.

  4. Distributed Storage Inverter and Legacy Generator Integration Plus Renewables Solution for Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    with small-scale power storage can maintain power quality in islanded mode with minimal use of the generators during non-optimal (e.g. cloud covered...inverter ( advantage of short term storage ) and enables microgrid upgrade of legacy generator assets (integration of inverter and generator controllers...microgrid stability, and can further be integrated with the distributed power storage to address intermittent loss of PV energy as when a cloud passes

  5. The assessment of aesthetic and perceptual aspects within environmental impact assessment of renewable energy projects in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolli, Michela, E-mail: michela.tolli@uniroma1.it [Department of Architecture and Design (DiAP), Sapienza University of Rome, Via Gramsci 53, 00197 Rome (Italy); Recanatesi, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.rec@unitus.it [Department of Agriculture, Forests, Nature and Energy (D.A.F.N.E.), Tuscia University, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Piccinno, Matteo; Leone, Antonio [Department of Agriculture, Forests, Nature and Energy (D.A.F.N.E.), Tuscia University, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The main aim of this paper is to explore how perceptual and aesthetic impact analyses are considered in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), with specific reference to Italian renewable energy projects. To investigate this topic, the paper starts by establishing which factors are linked with perceptual and aesthetic impacts and why it is important to analyze these aspects, which are also related to legislative provisions and procedures in Europe and in Italy. In particular the paper refers to renewable energy projects because environmental policies are encouraging more and more investment in this kind of primary resource. The growing interest in this type of energy is leading to the realization of projects which change the governance of territories, with inevitable effects on the landscape from the aesthetic and perceptual points of view. Legislative references to EIA, including the latest directive regarding this topic show the importance of integrating the assessment of environmental and perceptual impacts, thus there is a need to improve EIA methodological approaches to this purpose. This paper proposes a profile of aesthetic and perceptual impact analysis in EIA for renewable energy projects in Italy, and concludes with recommendations as to how this kind of analysis could be improved. - Highlights: • We analyze 29 EIA Reports of Italian renewable energy projects. • We examine esthetic and perceptual aspects present in Italian EIA reports. • We identified inconsistency in use of methods for esthetic and perceptual aspects. • Local populations are rarely included as stakeholders in EIAs. • A shared understanding of perceptual and esthetic issues in EIA proceedings is required.

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baldwin, S. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); DeMeo, E. [Renewable Energy Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States); Reilly, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Porro, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meshek, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  8. Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S., California and Illinois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Agarwal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation at national and individual state level in U.S has been developed. The model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints (CO2 emissions. Economic policy analysis experiments are carried out to determine the consequences of switching the sources of electricity generation under two scenarios: in first scenario, a switch from coal to renewable sources is made for 10% of electricity generation; in the second scenario, the switch is made for 10% of electricity generation from coal to coal with clean coal technology by employing CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS. The cost of electricity generation from various non-renewable and renewable sources is different and is taken into account in the model. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1 energy prices are fully regulated, (2 energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3 energy prices and electricity supply both are fully adjusted. The model is applied to the states of California and Illinois, and at national level.

  9. Towards answering the "so what" question in marine renewables environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degraer, Steven; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Braeckman, Ulrike; Coolen, Joop W. P.; Dannheim, Jennifer; De Mesel, Ilse; Grégoire, Marilaure; Kerckhof, Francis; Lacroix, Geneviève; Lindeboom, Han; Moens, Tom; Soetaert, Karline; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Van Hoey, Gert

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) projects are increasingly occupying the European North-Atlantic coasts and this is clearly observed in the North Sea. Given the expected impacts on the marine environment, each individual project is accompanied by a legally mandatory, environmental monitoring programme. These programmes are focused on the resultant effects on ecosystem component structure (e.g. species composition, numbers and densities) of single industrial projects. To date, there is a tendency to further narrow down to only a selection of ecosystem components (e.g. marine mammals and birds). While a wide knowledge-based understanding of structural impacts on (a selection of) ecosystem components exists, this evidence is largely lacking when undertaking impact assessments at the ecosystem functioning level (e.g. trophic interactions, dispersal and nutrient cycling). This critical knowledge gap compromises a scientifically-underpinned answer to the "so what" question of environmental impacts, i.e. whether the observed impacts are considered to be good or bad, or acceptable or unacceptable. The importance of ecosystem functioning is further acknowledged in the descriptors 4 and 6 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU MSFD) and is at the heart of a sustainable use and management of our marine resources. There hence is a fundamental need to focus on ecosystem functioning at the spatial scales at which marine ecosystems function when assessing MRE impacts. Here, we make a plea for an increased investment in a large (spatial) scale impact assessment of MRE projects focused on ecosystem functioning. This presentation will cover a selection of examples from North Sea MRE monitoring programmes, where the current knowledge has limited conclusions on the "so what" question. We will demonstrate how an ecosystem functioning-focused approach at an appropriate spatial scale could advance our current understanding, whilst assessing these issues. These examples will cover

  10. Novel Interleaved Converter with Extra-High Voltage Gain to Process Low-Voltage Renewable-Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel interleaved converter (NIC with extra-high voltage gain to process the power of low-voltage renewable-energy generators such as photovoltaic (PV panel, wind turbine, and fuel cells. The NIC can boost a low input voltage to a much higher voltage level to inject renewable energy to DC bus for grid applications. Since the NIC has two circuit branches in parallel at frond end to share input current, it is suitable for high power applications. In addition, the NIC is controlled in an interleaving pattern, which has the advantages that the NIC has lower input current ripple, and the frequency of the ripple is twice the switching frequency. Two coupled inductors and two switched capacitors are incorporated to achieve a much higher voltage gain than conventional high step-up converters. The proposed NIC has intrinsic features such as leakage energy totally recycling and low voltage stress on power semiconductor. Thorough theoretical analysis and key parameter design are presented in this paper. A prototype is built for practical measurements to validate the proposed NIC.

  11. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak; Onay, Turgut T

    2014-01-01

    Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW+DPW+MW+SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH4) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added), respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH4/g VS(added) was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  12. Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Godfrey

    2004-05-01

    Stimulated by recent technological developments and increasing concern over the sustainability and environmental impact of conventional fuel usage, the prospect of producing clean, sustainable power in substantial quantities from renewable energy sources arouses interest around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the principal types of renewable energy--including solar, thermal, photovoltaics, bioenergy, hydro, tidal, wind, wave, and geothermal. In addition, it explains the underlying physical and technological principles of renewable energy and examines the environmental impact and prospects of different energy sources. With more than 350 detailed illustrations, more than 50 tables of data, and a wide range of case studies, Renewable Energy, 2/e is an ideal choice for undergraduate courses in energy, sustainable development, and environmental science. New to the Second Edition ·Full-color design ·Updated to reflect developments in technology, policy, attitides ·Complemented by Energy Systems and Sustainability edited by Godfrey Boyle, Bob Everett and Janet Ramage, all of the Open University, U.K.

  13. Needs for Flexibility in Energy Systems Caused by the Increasing Share of Variable Renewable Energy Generation in 2020, 2030 and 2050 Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Matti Juhani; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Maule, Petr

    The growing share of variable renewable energy (VRE) is expected to increase the need for flexibility in the energy systems in many countries. VRE generation is highly variable because it is determined by weather conditions. The geographical distribution of installed wind generation affects...... scenarios are the baseline scenarios from3. Variable renewable energy generation is analysed using the CorWind tool developed at DTU Wind Energya. In addition to analysing VRE generation, the variability of net load (electricity consumption subtracted by VRE generation) is analysed. Compared to 2014...... deviation (STD) of the hourly net load increases notably in 2050 (22% higher than in 2014). At the same time, the expected value of the net load decreases. Thus, there will be less energy to be generated by the other generation types, such as hydro power, while the need for flexibility increases...

  14. Green technological change. Renewable energies, policy mix and innovation. Results of the GRETCHEN project on the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany; Gruener Wandel. Erneuerbare Energien, Policy Mix und Innovation. Ergebnisse des GRETCHEN-Projektes zum Einfluss des Policy Mixes auf technologischen und strukturellen Wandel bei erneuerbaren Stromerzeugungstechnologien in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Breitschopf, Barbara; Mattes, Katharina [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes; Kalthaus, Martin [Jena Univ. (Germany); Lutz, Christian; Wiebe, Kirsten [Gesellschaft fuer Wirtschaftliche Strukturforschung mbH (GWS), Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The report on the GRETCHEN project that was concerned with the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany covers the following issues: market and technology development of renewable energy electricity production technologies; the policy mix for renewable electricity production technologies, innovative impact of the policy mix; subordinate conclusions for politics and research.

  15. Expert opinion: Comparative analysis of the social costs of electricity generation in the context of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG); Gutachten: Vergleich externer Kosten der Stromerzeugung in Bezug auf das Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohmeyer, O.

    2002-03-01

    The expert opinion for the German Federal Environmental Agency explains and discusses the results of six scenarios describing the outcome of substitution of conventional electricity generation technologies relying exclusively on fossil fuels, using as a reference case the generation of middle load power in Germany in 1998 with the then operating German power plants, as well as projections for the year 2001. One major objective of the expert opinion is to evaluate results in terms of social and other relevant costs, achieved through the use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation since effectiveness of the German EEG, (act promoting power generation from renewable energy sources). The comparative evaluation distinctly refers to conventional and renewable generation technologies in assessing their economic and environmental impacts. The second aspect analysed is the support (and its efficiency) offered so far by the existing national policies and laws, as well as the European Directives and guidelines on promotion of renewable energy technologies. Proposals for improvement are presented. (orig./CB) [German] Im Gutachten werden sechs Szenarien fuer die substituierte konventionelle Stromerzeugung entwickelt, die als Basis sowohl die durchschnittliche Stromerzeugung unter Verwendung fossiler Brennstoffe als auch die Erzeugung von Mittellaststrom fuer die Jahre 1998 und 2010 betrachten und anhand entsprechender Referenzsysteme und Berechnungen die Ergebnisse liefern, die die Frage nach allen relevanten, seit Einfuehrung des EEG bis heute, durch den Einsatz erneuerbarer Energietraeger substituierten Kosten und umweltrelevanten Verbesserungen beantworten und detailliert schildern. In der Zusammenfassung werden vor allem die Ergebnisse von Vergleichen bezogen auf verschiedene erneuerbare und konventioneller Energietraeger fuer das Mittellastszenario auf der Basis des fuer 1998 dokumentierten deutschen Kraftwerksparks vorgestellt. Ferner werden die

  16. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkanok, Gizem; Demirel, Burak, E-mail: burak.demirel@boun.edu.tr; Onay, Turgut T.

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Disposal of supermarket wastes in landfills may contribute to environmental pollution. • High methane yields can be obtained from supermarket wastes by anaerobic co-digestion. • Fruit and vegetable wastes or dairy products wastes could individually be handled by a two-stage anaerobic process. • Buffering capacity, trace metal and C/N ratio are essential for digestion of supermarket wastes. - Abstract: Fruit, vegetable, flower waste (FVFW), dairy products waste (DPW), meat waste (MW) and sugar waste (SW) obtained from a supermarket chain were anaerobically digested, in order to recover methane as a source of renewable energy. Batch mesophilic anaerobic reactors were run at total solids (TS) ratios of 5%, 8% and 10%. The highest methane yield of 0.44 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from anaerobic digestion of wastes (FVFW + DPW + MW + SW) at 10% TS, with 66.4% of methane (CH{sub 4}) composition in biogas. Anaerobic digestion of mixed wastes at 5% and 8% TS provided slightly lower methane yields of 0.41 and 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added}, respectively. When the wastes were digested alone without co-substrate addition, the highest methane yield of 0.40 L CH{sub 4}/g VS{sub added} was obtained from FVFW at 5% TS. Generally, although the volatile solids (VS) conversion percentages seemed low during the experiments, higher methane yields could be obtained from anaerobic digestion of supermarket wastes. A suitable carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio, proper adjustment of the buffering capacity and the addition of essential trace nutrients (such as Ni) could improve VS conversion and biogas production yields significantly.

  17. Analysing the impact of renewable electricity support schemes on power prices: The case of wind electricity in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenz de Miera, Gonzalo [Department of Public Economics, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); del Rio Gonzalez, Pablo [Institute for Public Policies, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain); Vizcaino, Ignacio [Iberdrola, C/Tomas Redondo, 1, Madrid 28033 (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    It is sometimes argued that renewables are 'expensive'. However, although it is generally true that the private costs of renewable electricity generation are certainly above those of conventional electricity, that statement fails to consider the social benefits provided by electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), including environmental and socioeconomic ones. This paper empirically analyses an additional albeit usually neglected benefit: the reduction in the wholesale price of electricity as a result of more RES-E generation being fed into the grid. The case of wind generation in Spain shows that this reduction is greater than the increase in the costs for the consumers arising from the RES-E support scheme (the feed-in tariffs), which are charged to the final consumer. Therefore, a net reduction in the retail electricity price results, which is positive from a consumer point of view. This provides an additional argument for RES-E support and contradicts one of the usual arguments against RES-E deployment: the excessive burden on the consumer. (author)

  18. Bolivia renewable energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1997-12-01

    The author summarizes changes which have occurred in Bolivia in the past year which have had an impact on renewable energy source development. Political changes have included the privatization of power generation and power distribution, and resulted in a new role for state level government and participation by the individual. A National Rural Electrification Plan was adopted in 1996, which stresses the use of GIS analysis and emphasizes factors such as off grid, economic index, population density, maintenance risk, and local organizational structure. The USAID program has chosen to stress economic development, environmental programs, and health over village power programs. The national renewables program has adopted a new development direction, with state projects, geothermal projects, and private sector involvement stressed.

  19. An analysis of the impact of costs of power generation from renewable energies on the stock market prices in the German power trading. Analysis with respect to the year 2006; Analyse des Preiseffektes der Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien auf die Boersenpreise im deutschen Stromhandel. Analyse fuer das Jahr 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensfuss, F.; Ragwitz, M.

    2007-06-18

    The authors of the contribution under consideration analyse the impact of power generation from EEG on the electricity rate. Under this aspect, the effect of the market value, the effect of CO{sub 2} and the effect of merit order on the power market have to be distinguished. This contribution presents a detailed analysis of the effect of the merit order. The priority feed of EEG reduces the demand of conventional power. Therefore, the most expensive power plants needed for covering the demand are not needed any more according to the merit order, the price in the spot market is reduced correspondingly. Due to the fact that spot market prices simultaneously are the most important indicator on the whole power market, the EEG not only should result into increased reductions of prices at the spot market but also into savings for all customers (leverage effect). The quantification of this effect was performed on the basis of a detailed model of the power market (PowerACE).

  20. Conservation planning for offsetting the impacts of development: a case study of biodiversity and renewable energy in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Jason R.; Schloss, Carrie A.; Soong, Oliver; Lee Hannah,; Davis, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    Balancing society’s competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. The direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy, however, can displace species’ habitat and negatively impact populations and natural communities if sited without ecological consideration. Offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool to mitigate residual impacts after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet the problem of efficiently designing a set of offset sites becomes increasingly complex where many species or many sites are involved. Spatial conservation prioritization tools are designed to handle this problem, but have seen little application to offset siting and analysis. To address this need we designed an offset siting support tool for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) of California, and present a case study of hypothetical impacts from solar development in the Western Mojave subsection. We compare two offset scenarios designed to mitigate a hypothetical 15,331 ha derived from proposed utility-scale solar energy development (USSED) projects. The first scenario prioritizes offsets based precisely on impacted features, while the second scenario offsets impacts to maximize biodiversity conservation gains in the region. The two methods only agree on 28% of their prioritized sites and differ in meeting species-specific offset goals. Differences between the two scenarios highlight the importance of clearly specifying choices and priorities for offset siting and mitigation in general. Similarly, the effects of background climate and land use change may lessen the durability or effectiveness of offsets if not considered. Our offset siting support tool was designed specifically for the DRECP area, but with minor code modification could work well in other offset analyses, and could provide

  1. Conservation Planning for Offsetting the Impacts of Development: A Case Study of Biodiversity and Renewable Energy in the Mojave Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitler, Jason; Schloss, Carrie A; Soong, Oliver; Hannah, Lee; Davis, Frank W

    2015-01-01

    Balancing society's competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. The direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy, however, can displace species' habitat and negatively impact populations and natural communities if sited without ecological consideration. Offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool to mitigate residual impacts after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet the problem of efficiently designing a set of offset sites becomes increasingly complex where many species or many sites are involved. Spatial conservation prioritization tools are designed to handle this problem, but have seen little application to offset siting and analysis. To address this need we designed an offset siting support tool for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP) of California, and present a case study of hypothetical impacts from solar development in the Western Mojave subsection. We compare two offset scenarios designed to mitigate a hypothetical 15,331 ha derived from proposed utility-scale solar energy development (USSED) projects. The first scenario prioritizes offsets based precisely on impacted features, while the second scenario offsets impacts to maximize biodiversity conservation gains in the region. The two methods only agree on 28% of their prioritized sites and differ in meeting species-specific offset goals. Differences between the two scenarios highlight the importance of clearly specifying choices and priorities for offset siting and mitigation in general. Similarly, the effects of background climate and land use change may lessen the durability or effectiveness of offsets if not considered. Our offset siting support tool was designed specifically for the DRECP area, but with minor code modification could work well in other offset analyses, and could provide

  2. Conservation Planning for Offsetting the Impacts of Development: A Case Study of Biodiversity and Renewable Energy in the Mojave Desert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Kreitler

    Full Text Available Balancing society's competing needs of development and conservation requires careful consideration of tradeoffs. Renewable energy development and biodiversity conservation are often considered beneficial environmental goals. The direct footprint and disturbance of renewable energy, however, can displace species' habitat and negatively impact populations and natural communities if sited without ecological consideration. Offsets have emerged as a potentially useful tool to mitigate residual impacts after trying to avoid, minimize, or restore affected sites. Yet the problem of efficiently designing a set of offset sites becomes increasingly complex where many species or many sites are involved. Spatial conservation prioritization tools are designed to handle this problem, but have seen little application to offset siting and analysis. To address this need we designed an offset siting support tool for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP of California, and present a case study of hypothetical impacts from solar development in the Western Mojave subsection. We compare two offset scenarios designed to mitigate a hypothetical 15,331 ha derived from proposed utility-scale solar energy development (USSED projects. The first scenario prioritizes offsets based precisely on impacted features, while the second scenario offsets impacts to maximize biodiversity conservation gains in the region. The two methods only agree on 28% of their prioritized sites and differ in meeting species-specific offset goals. Differences between the two scenarios highlight the importance of clearly specifying choices and priorities for offset siting and mitigation in general. Similarly, the effects of background climate and land use change may lessen the durability or effectiveness of offsets if not considered. Our offset siting support tool was designed specifically for the DRECP area, but with minor code modification could work well in other offset analyses, and

  3. Domestic use of overseas renewable energy -Potential as power generating fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tomofumi; Murata, Kenji; Kamiya, Shoji; Ota, Ken-ichiro; Sakata, Ko; Fukuda, Kenzo; Ishimoto, Yuki

    2010-09-15

    For Japan, it will be very important in the future to establish a social system that can consistently import or produce a set amount of resource supplies without green house gas emissions. In this study, we developed a concept for a global hydrogen energy system using wind power generation as a hydrogen source, investigated its economic efficiency, compared it with power generating fuels used at existing thermal power plants, and examined the feasibility of the global hydrogen energy system. As a result, it would be more effective to decommission existing oil-fired thermal power plants and construct new hydrogen turbine plants.

  4. Evolution of Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Bloom, A.; Botterud, A.; Townsend, A.; Levin, T.

    2014-09-01

    Variable generation such as wind and photovoltaic solar power has increased substantially in recent years. Variable generation has unique characteristics compared to the traditional technologies that supply energy in the wholesale electricity markets. These characteristics create unique challenges in planning and operating the power system, and they can also influence the performance and outcomes from electricity markets. This report focuses on two particular issues related to market design: revenue sufficiency for long-term reliability and incentivizing flexibility in short-term operations. The report provides an overview of current design and some designs that have been proposed by industry or researchers.

  5. Pretreated Landfill Gas Conversion Process via a Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Renewable Combined Fuel Cell-Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ziaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new landfill gas-based reforming catalytic processing system for the conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons, such as incoming methane to hydrogen and carbon oxide mixtures, is described and analyzed. The exit synthesis gas (syn-gas is fed to power effectively high-temperature fuel cells such as SOFC types for combined efficient electricity generation. The current research work is also referred on the description and design aspects of permreactors (permeable reformers carrying the same type of landfill gas-reforming reactions. Membrane reactors is a new technology that can be applied efficiently in such systems. Membrane reactors seem to perform better than the nonmembrane traditional reactors. The aim of this research includes turnkey system and process development for the landfill-based power generation and fuel cell industries. Also, a discussion of the efficient utilization of landfill and waste type resources for combined green-type/renewable power generation with increased processing capacity and efficiency via fuel cell systems is taking place. Moreover, pollution reduction is an additional design consideration in the current catalytic processors fuel cell cycles.

  6. Optimizing the Structure of Distribution Smart Grids with Renewable Generation against Abnormal Conditions: A Complex Networks Approach with Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Cuadra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe an approach that allows for optimizing the structure of a smart grid (SG with renewable energy (RE generation against abnormal conditions (imbalances between generation and consumption, overloads or failures arising from the inherent SG complexity by combining the complex network (CN and evolutionary algorithm (EA concepts. We propose a novel objective function (to be minimized that combines cost elements, related to the number of electric cables, and several metrics that quantify properties that are beneficial for SGs (energy exchange at the local scale and high robustness and resilience. The optimized SG structure is obtained by applying an EA in which the chromosome that encodes each potential network (or individual is the upper triangular matrix of its adjacency matrix. This allows for fully tailoring the crossover and mutation operators. We also propose a domain-specific initial population that includes both small-world and random networks, helping the EA converge quickly. The experimental work points out that the proposed method works well and generates the optimum, synthetic, small-world structure that leads to beneficial properties such as improving both the local energy exchange and the robustness. The optimum structure fulfills a balance between moderate cost and robustness against abnormal conditions. Our approach should be considered as an analysis, planning and decision-making tool to gain insight into smart grid structures so that the low level detailed design is carried out by using electrical engineering techniques.

  7. Cooperative control for self-organizing microgrids and game strategies for optimal dispatch of distributed renewable generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maknouninejad, Ali; Lin, Wei; Harno, Hendra G.; Qu, Zhihua; Simaan, Marwan A. [University of Central Florida, Department of EECS, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2012-03-15

    The small size, extensively dispersed and decentralized, and high penetration level of renewable energy sources in the future smart grids make the application of conventional optimal power flow (OPF) neither practical nor economical. In this paper, a practical approach is proposed to realize high penetration of distributed generators (DGs) by organizing them in some groups within a microgrid and dispatching the generated power aggregately. Each group may have virtual leaders which define the power policy of the group, and all other DGs cooperatively follow that policy. A fair utilization ratio is defined and will be introduced to the group by the virtual leaders. The utilization ratio indicates what percentage of the available power each DG has to feed to the grid, and this ratio will also be propagated within the group using cooperative control. As such, a smartgrid may treat microgrids as individually dispatchable loads or generators. Meanwhile, the interaction between each microgrid and the main grid can be formulated as a Stackelberg game. The main grid as the leader, by offering proper energy price to the micro grid, minimizes its cost and secures the power supply that the microgrid, as the follower, is willing to dispatch. It is shown that this game theoretic approach not only guarantees profit optimization, but also provides a convenient technique to optimize power flow from microgrids to the main grid. Numerical and simulation results for a case of study are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques. (orig.)

  8. Electricity generation cost in isolated system: The complementarities of natural gas and renewables in the Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, Gustavo A. [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands) (Spain); Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada (FEDEA), C/Jorge Juan 46, 28001 Madrid (Spain); Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands) (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Desarrollo Regional, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands) (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The Canary Islands offer an example of an isolated electric grid of relative important size within the EU. Due to its peculiarities, the role of renewable energies and their complementarity with fossil fuels offers a solid path to achieving the main energy policy goals of the Islands. The purpose of this paper is to assess the current situation and the energy objectives proposed in the Energy Plan of the Canaries (PECAN, 2006) for the electricity industry, taking into account the average cost and the risk associated with the different alternatives for generating electricity by means of the Mean-Variance Portfolio Theory. Our analysis highlights the inefficiency of the current electricity generating mix in terms of cost, risk and lack of diversification. Shifting toward an efficient system would involve optimizing the use of endogenous energy sources and introducing natural gas to generate electricity. This scenario would mean reducing both cost and risk by almost 30% each, as well as atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions. Our results agree with the PECAN philosophy. (author)

  9. Next generation paramedics, agents of change, or time for curricula renewal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2013-11-01

    improved uptake of evidence-based research into clinical practice and, ultimately, improve patient outcomes. Future research using a longitudinal study design to capture changing attitudes to knowledge translation in the postgraduate population may also prove valuable in curricula renewal. Keywords: curriculum, knowledge translation, paramedic students, practice style inventory

  10. Generating Social Capital at the Workplace: A South African Case of Inside-Out Social Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Ken; Onyx, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    A case study of a South African workplace illustrated how workplace learning and experience of team culture influenced changes in workers' family life and community participation. Results showed how social capital is generated from within for the benefit of civil society. (Contains 35 references.) (SK)

  11. Renewable energy integration into the Australian National Electricity Market: Characterising the energy value of wind and solar generation

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Boerema; Merlinde Kay; Iain MacGill

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how key characteristics of the underlying wind and solar resources may impact on their energy value within the Australian National Electricity Market(NEM). Analysis has been performed for wind generation using half hour NEM data for South Australia over the 2008-9 financial year. The potential integration of large scale solar generation has been modelled using direct normal solar radiant energy measurements from the Bureau of Meteorology for six sites across the NEM. For w...

  12. The Impact of Strong Climate Change on Inter-state Balancing in a Fully-renewable Simplified European Electricity System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohland, Jan; Witthaut, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Electricity systems with a high penetration of renewables are strongly affected by weather patterns. Due to the variability of the climate system, a substantial fraction of energy supply needs to be provided by dispatchable power plants even if the consumption is on average balanced by renewables (e.g. Rodriguez et al. [2014]). In an interconnected system like the European electricity grid, benefits can arise from balancing generation mismatches spatially as long as overproduction in one region coincides with lack of generation in another region. These benefits might change as the climate changes and we thus investigate alterations of correlations between wind timeseries and Backup energy requirements. Our analysis is based on a five member model-ensemble from the EUROCORDEX initiative and we focus on onshore wind energy. We use the highest temporal (3h) and spatial (0.11°) resolution available to capture the intermittent and spatially diverse nature of renewable generation. In view of inter-model spread and other uncertainties, we use the strong climate change scenario rcp8.5 in order to obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio. We argue that rcp8.5 is best suited to reveal interesting interactions between climate change and renewable electricity system despite the fact that is in contradiction to the UNFCCC temperature goals (e.g. Schleussner et al. [2016]). We report spatially inhomogeneous alterations of correlations. In particular, we find increasing correlations between central and northern European states and decreasing correlations at the south-western and south-eastern margins of Europe. This hints to a lowering of balancing potentials within central and northern Europe due to climate change. A possible explanation might be associated to polar amplification and increasing frequencies of blocking events (Coumou [2015]). Moreover, we compute wind energy generation using a single-turbine model and a semi-random deployment procedure as developed in Monforti et al

  13. Evaluating options for balancing the water-electricity nexus in California: Part 2--greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply.

  14. Some advanced parametric methods for assessing waveform distortion in a smart grid with renewable generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    Power quality (PQ) disturbances are becoming an important issue in smart grids (SGs) due to the significant economic consequences that they can generate on sensible loads. However, SGs include several distributed energy resources (DERs) that can be interconnected to the grid with static converters, which lead to a reduction of the PQ levels. Among DERs, wind turbines and photovoltaic systems are expected to be used extensively due to the forecasted reduction in investment costs and other economic incentives. These systems can introduce significant time-varying voltage and current waveform distortions that require advanced spectral analysis methods to be used. This paper provides an application of advanced parametric methods for assessing waveform distortions in SGs with dispersed generation. In particular, the Standard International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC) method, some parametric methods (such as Prony and Estimation of Signal Parameters by Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT)), and some hybrid methods are critically compared on the basis of their accuracy and the computational effort required.

  15. Human health impacts for renewable energy scenarios from the EnerGEO Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Mireille; Gschwind, Benoit; Blanc, Isabelle; Ranchin, Thierry [MINES ParisTech, Sophia Antipolis (France). Observation, Impacts, Energy Center; Wyrwa, Artur; Drebszok, Kamila [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Cofala, Janusz; Fuss, Sabine [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    This article reports impact results from running the EnerGEO Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA) related to human health for different scenarios in Europe. The scenarios were prepared within the EnerGEO project. The idea of this European project is to determine how low carbon scenarios, and in particular scenarios with a high share of renewable energy, affect concentrations of air pollutants and as a consequence affect human health. PM{sub 2.5} concentrations were estimated with the IIASA Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model on a time horizon up to the year 2050 for different scenarios. We analyse here the estimation of the Loss of Life Expectancy due to PM{sub 2.5} concentrations for the Baseline scenario taken as a reference and the Maximum renewable power scenario. (orig.)

  16. Generation of Renewable Power from Biodegradation of Anthracene in a Microbial Fuel Cell Reactor Using Different Bacterial Inocula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N.Z. Alshehri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are increasingly attracting attention as a sustainable technology as they convert chemical energy in organic pollutants to renewable electricity. Anthracene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH that presents a high pollution and health risk. In this study, anthracene degradation with electricity production in Single – chamber air cathode MFC was investigated with respect to values of its biodegradation and MFC performance using different inocula combinations (Anaerobic sludge (AS, Pseudomonas putida (PP, Geobacter sulfurreducens (GS, Shewanella putrefaciens(SP, mixed cultures, and combinations thereof. All the inocula showed high potentials for anthracene degradation efficiency and power density, ranged 41 – 98 % within 120 – 216h and 110.08 – 156.06 mW/m2, respectively. The best overall performing inoculum was anaerobic sludge supplemented with P. putida (AS+PP, having a degradation rate, degradation efficiency, COD removal, maximum power density and coulombic efficiency of 38 μM/d, 98 %, 83 %, 156.06 mW/m2 and 21, respectively. Effect of initial anthracene concentration was also investigated. Results indicated that increasing of initial anthracene concentration to 40 mg/L has a positive effect on both the anthracene degradation rate and the power density by 79 and 83.93 %, respectively, which attained by the best inoculum AS+PP (degradation rate of 41 μM/d and a maximum power density of 287.04 mW/m2.This study highlights the possibility of using MFCs technology to generate renewable electricity and achieve high degradation rates of anthracene simultaneously, through co-metabolism.

  17. Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Joshua D.

    Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to

  18. Unit Sizing and Cost Analysis of Renewable Energy based Hybrid Power Generation System - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin AGARWAL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model is developed for optimal sizing and analysis of a PV-diesel-battery based hybrid power generation system with the objectives to minimize life cycle cost and CO2 emission, while maintaining the desired system autonomy. A case study of a boy’s hostel in Moradabad district is taken for analysis purposes. It has 91 rooms with a capacity of 3 boys in each room. The decision variables included in the optimization methodology are total PV area, number of PV modules of 600 Wp, diesel generator power, fuel consumption per year and number of 24 V and 150 Ah batteries. The simulation result shows that the PV percentage of 86 % and diesel penetration of 14 % gives the most optimized solution with minimum LCC of $110,547 and average CO2 emission of 28 kg/day. The developed model has been validated by comparing its results with earlier research work.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.24

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures. Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures)--an analysis of the costs and grid impacts of integrating large amounts of renewable electricity generation into the U.S. power system--examined renewable energy resources, technical issues regarding the integration of these resources into the grid, and the costs associated with high renewable penetration scenarios. These scenarios included up to 90% of annual generation from renewable sources, although most of the analysis was focused on 80% penetration scenarios. Hourly production cost modeling was performed to understand the operational impacts of high penetrations. One of the conclusions of RE Futures was that further work was necessary to understand whether the operation of the system was possible at sub-hourly time scales and during transient events. This study aimed to address part of this by modeling the operation of the power system at sub-hourly time scales using newer methodologies and updated data sets for transmission and generation infrastructure. The goal of this work was to perform a detailed, sub-hourly analysis of very high penetration scenarios for a single interconnection (the Western Interconnection). It focused on operational impacts, and it helps verify that the operational results from the capacity expansion models are useful. The primary conclusion of this study is that sub-hourly operation of the grid is possible with renewable generation levels between 80% and 90%.

  20. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-16

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  1. Centralized Control Architecture for Coordination of Distributed Renewable Generation and Energy Storage in Islanded AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    The coordinated operation of distributed energy resources such as storage and generation units and also loads is required for the reliable operation of an islanded microgrid. Since in islanded microgrids the storage units are commonly responsible for regulating the voltage amplitude and frequency...... in the local power system, the coordination should consider safe operating limits for the stored energy, which prevents fast degradation or damage to the storage units. This paper proposes a centralized control architecture, applicable for local area power systems such as a small-scale microgrid......, the strategy is complemented with an optimal scheduling of load connection, which minimizes the connection and disconnection cycles of the loads within a time horizon of 24 hours. The proposed architecture is verified experimentally in a lab-scale prototype of a microgrid, which has real communication between...

  2. Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Mitigation versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation in U.S has been developed; the model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints. The non-renewable energy sources include three types of fossil fuels: coal, natural gas and petroleum, and renewable energy sources include nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass wood, biomass waste and geothermal. Energy demand sectors include households, industrial manufacturing and non-manufacturing commercial enterprises. Energy supply takes into account the electricity delivered to the consumer by the utility companies at a certain price which maybe different for retail and wholesale customers. Environmental risks primarily take into account the CO2 generation from fossil fuels. The model takes into account the employment in various sectors and labor supply and demand. Detailed electricity supply and demand data, electricity cost data, employment data in various sectors and CO2 generation data are collected for a period of nineteen years from 1990 to 2009 in U.S. The model is employed for policy analysis experiments if a switch is made in sources of electricity generation, namely from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. As an example, we consider a switch of 10% of electricity generation from coal to 5% from wind, 3% from solar photovoltaic, 1% from biomass wood and 1% from biomass waste. The model is also applied to a switch from 10% coal to 10% from clean coal technologies. It should be noted that the cost of electricity generation from different sources is different and is taken into account. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1 energy prices are fully regulated, (2 energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3 energy prices and

  3. Resource potential for renewable energy generation from co-firing of woody biomass with coal in the Northern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth Skog

    2013-01-01

    Past studies have established measures of co-firing potential at varying spatial scales to assess opportunities for renewable energy generation from woody biomass. This study estimated physical availability, within ecological and public policy constraints, and associated harvesting and delivery costs of woody biomass for co-firing in selected power plants of the...

  4. Sustainable Energy Transitions in China: Renewable Options and Impacts on the Electricity System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese energy consumption has been dominated by coal for decades, but this needs to change to protect the environment and mitigate anthropogenic climate change. Renewable energy development is needed to fulfil the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC for the post-2020 period, as stated on the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris. This paper reviews the potential of renewable energy in China and how it could be utilised to meet the INDC goals. A business-as-usual case and eight alternative scenarios with 40% renewable electricity are explored using the EnergyPLAN model to visualise out to the year 2030. Five criteria (total cost, total capacity, excess electricity, CO2 emissions, and direct job creation are used to assess the sustainability of the scenarios. The results indicate that renewables can meet the goal of a 20% share of non-fossil energy in primary energy and 40%–50% share of non-fossil energy in electricity power. The low nuclear-hydro power scenario is the most optimal scenario based on the used evaluation criteria. The Chinese government should implement new policies aimed at promoting integrated development of wind power and solar PV.

  5. 78 FR 26662 - Draft Supplement to the Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... enough to deny the option of license renewal for energy-planning decision makers. Dated at Rockville... information before making the comment submissions available to the public or entering the comment submissions...)) decision to vacate the NRC's Waste Confidence Decision Rule (75 FR 81032, 75 FR 81037) and provides...

  6. An empirical analysis of the impact of renewable energy deployment on local sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Rio, Pablo [Institute for Public Goods and Policies (IPP), Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain); Burguillo, Mercedes [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Alcala, Pza. de la Victoria 3, 28802 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    It is usually mentioned that renewable energy sources (RES) have a large potential to contribute to the sustainable development of specific territories by providing them with a wide variety of socioeconomic benefits, including diversification of energy supply, enhanced regional and rural development opportunities, creation of a domestic industry and employment opportunities. The analysis of these benefits has usually been too general (i.e., mostly at the national level) and a focus on the regional and especially the local level has been lacking. This paper empirically analyses those benefits, by applying a conceptual and methodological framework previously developed by the authors to three renewable energy technologies in three different places in Spain. With the help of case studies, the paper shows that the contribution of RES to the economic and social dimensions of sustainable development might be significant. Particularly important is employment creation in these areas. Although, in absolute terms, the number of jobs created may not be high, it may be so with respect to the existing jobs in the areas considered. Socioeconomic benefits depend on several factors, and not only on the type of renewable energy, as has usually been mentioned. The specific socioeconomic features of the territories, including the productive structure of the area, the relationships between the stakeholders and the involvement of the local actors in the renewable energy project may play a relevant role in this regard. Furthermore, other local (socioeconomic) sustainability aspects beyond employment creation should be considered. (author)

  7. Are green hopes too rosy? Employment and welfare impacts of renewable energy promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohringer, C.; Keller, A.; Werf, van der E.

    2013-01-01

    In view of pressing unemployment problems, policy makers across all parties jump on the prospects of renewable energy promotion as a job creation engine which can boost economic well-being. Our analytical model shows that initial labor market rigidities in theory provide some scope for such a double

  8. The impact of renewable energy on electricity prices in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Machiel; Scholtens, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Electricity markets may become more sensitive to weather conditions because of a higher penetration of renewable energy sources and climatic changes. We investigate whether weather conditions had a growing influence on the average daily day-ahead price in the Dutch electricity market in the period 2

  9. Impact of Variable Renewable Energy on European Cross-Border Electricity Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; De Vries, L.J.; Fulli, G.

    2012-01-01

    The estimated growth of Europe’s electricity demand and the policy goals of mitigating climate change result in an expected increase in variable renewable energy. A high penetration of wind and solar energy will bring several new challenges to the European electricity transmission network. The objec

  10. Potential Impacts of Global Climate Change on Power and Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ifeanyi ENETE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and climate variability is receiving much attention recently because it has significant effects on our power and energy sector and therefore on the socio-economic activities of the society especially in a developing country such as Nigeria. Approach: The aim of the study is to examine the influence of climate change on power generation. Literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Related published literature and documents were searched in a systematic way using a range of key words relating to climate change impacts and energy. Results: The literature review indicates that climate change undermine power and energy production by increasingly depleting renewable and non-renewable sources, creating resources scarcity as well as damage to infrastructure. The review also indicate that climate change undermine environmental dimensions by increasing sea-level rise, extreme weather events and land degradation and pollution. Conclusion: In reducing climate-induced threats on power sector, efforts should be geared towards ensuring that our energy sector withstand the changes to our climate that are already underway by optimizing energy mix, developing low carbon and renewable energy, formulating relevant law and regulations and promoting technology advancement and economic engineering.

  11. Fractional order fuzzy control of hybrid power system with renewable generation using chaotic PSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the operation of a hybrid power system through a novel fuzzy control scheme. The hybrid power system employs various autonomous generation systems like wind turbine, solar photovoltaic, diesel engine, fuel-cell, aqua electrolyzer etc. Other energy storage devices like the battery, flywheel and ultra-capacitor are also present in the network. A novel fractional order (FO) fuzzy control scheme is employed and its parameters are tuned with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm augmented with two chaotic maps for achieving an improved performance. This FO fuzzy controller shows better performance over the classical PID, and the integer order fuzzy PID controller in both linear and nonlinear operating regimes. The FO fuzzy controller also shows stronger robustness properties against system parameter variation and rate constraint nonlinearity, than that with the other controller structures. The robustness is a highly desirable property in such a scenario since many components of the hybrid power system may be switched on/off or may run at lower/higher power output, at different time instants.

  12. Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation: Incentivizing Flexibility in System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, Erik; Milligan, Michael; Bloom, Aaron; Botterud, Audun; Townsend, Aaron; Levin, Todd; Frew, Bethany A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the importance and challenges of incentivizing flexibility during short-term operations of the bulk power system due to the increasing variability and uncertainty from growing penetrations of variable generation (VG). Operational flexibility can refer to many aspects of a resource's capability to support the power system, such as the speed, range, and duration of power output, as well as the ability to autonomously respond to frequency or voltage changes. Inefficient utilization of existing flexibility, or unwillingness of resources to provide flexibility, can compromise system reliability by not meeting the changing net load, and it can also lead to higher costs when an inefficient use of flexibility resources occurs. There are many existing characteristics of market design that incentivize flexibility in some manner. How they incentivize the provision of flexibility as well as the level of flexibility is still debated. We explore some of these existing market designs, as well as new market mechanisms, such as pay-for-performance regulating reserve and flexible ramping products, that aim to explicitly incentivize the provision of more flexibility to the system, particularly as a result of increasing VG penetration levels.

  13. Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Undrill, John; Mackin, Peter; Daschmans, Ron; Williams, Ben; Haney, Brian; Hunt, Randall; Ellis, Jeff; Illian, Howard; Martinez, Carlos; O' Malley, Mark; Coughlin, Katie; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2010-12-20

    An interconnected electric power system is a complex system that must be operated within a safe frequency range in order to reliably maintain the instantaneous balance between generation and load. This is accomplished by ensuring that adequate resources are available to respond to expected and unexpected imbalances and restoring frequency to its scheduled value in order to ensure uninterrupted electric service to customers. Electrical systems must be flexible enough to reliably operate under a variety of"change" scenarios. System planners and operators must understand how other parts of the system change in response to the initial change, and need tools to manage such changes to ensure reliable operation within the scheduled frequency range. This report presents a systematic approach to identifying metrics that are useful for operating and planning a reliable system with increased amounts of variable renewable generation which builds on existing industry practices for frequency control after unexpected loss of a large amount of generation. The report introduces a set of metrics or tools for measuring the adequacy of frequency response within an interconnection. Based on the concept of the frequency nadir, these metrics take advantage of new information gathering and processing capabilities that system operators are developing for wide-area situational awareness. Primary frequency response is the leading metric that will be used by this report to assess the adequacy of primary frequency control reserves necessary to ensure reliable operation. It measures what is needed to arrest frequency decline (i.e., to establish frequency nadir) at a frequency higher than the highest set point for under-frequency load shedding within an interconnection. These metrics can be used to guide the reliable operation of an interconnection under changing circumstances.

  14. Comparison of hydro-environmental impacts for ebb-only and two-way generation for a Severn Barrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Reza; Falconer, Roger A.; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina

    2014-10-01

    Marine renewable energy is playing an increasing significant role in many parts of the world, mainly due to a rise in the awareness of climate change, and its detrimental effects, and the increasing cost of natural resources. The Severn Estuary, located between South West England and South Wales, has a tidal range of up to 14 m which makes it the second highest tidal range in the world. There are a number of barrage proposals amongst various marine renewable energy schemes proposed to be built in the estuary. The Cardiff-Weston STPG (Severn Tidal Power Group) Barrage, which would be one of the world's largest tidal renewable energy schemes if built, is one of the most publicised schemes to-date. This barrage would generate about 17 TWh/annum of power, which is approximately 5% of the UK's electricity consumption, whilst causing significant hydro-environmental and ecological impact on the estuary. This study mainly focuses on investigating the hydro-environmental impacts of the STPG barrage for the option of two-way generation, and compares this with the commonly investigated option of ebb-only generation. The impacts of the barrage were modelled by implementing a linked 1-D/2-D hydro-environmental model, with the capability of modelling several key environmental processes. The model predictions show that the hydro-environmental impacts of the barrage on the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel, such as changes in the maximum velocity and reduction in suspended sediment and bacteria levels, were less significant for the two-way generation scheme when compared with the corresponding impacts for ebb-only generation.

  15. Adjusting the CO2 cap to subsidised RES generation: Can CO2 prices be decoupled from renewable policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Chappin, E.J.L.; De Vries, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The low prices in the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) have triggered discussions of various possible reforms. One option is to decouple the CO 2 prices from renewable energy policy by adjusting the emission cap to renewable energy investment overshoots. We introduce two ways of reducing th

  16. Multi-Fluid Geothermal Energy Systems: Using CO2 for Dispatchable Renewable Power Generation and Grid Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, T. A.; Bielicki, J. M.; Randolph, J.; Chen, M.; Hao, Y.; Sun, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract We present an approach to use CO2 to (1) generate dispatchable renewable power that can quickly respond to grid fluctuations and be cost-competitive with natural gas, (2) stabilize the grid by efficiently storing large quantities of energy, (3) enable seasonal storage of solar thermal energy for grid integration, (4) produce brine for power-plant cooling, all which (5) increase CO2 value, rendering CO2 capture to be commerically viable, while (6) sequestering huge quantities of CO2. These attributes reduce carbon intensity of electric power, and enable cost-competitive, dispatchable power from major sources of renewable energy: wind, solar, and geothermal. Conventional geothermal power systems circulate brine as the working fluid to extract heat, but the parasitic power load for this circulation can consume a large portion of gross power output. Recently, CO2 has been considered as a working fluid because its advantageous properties reduce this parasitic loss. We expand on this idea by using multiple working fluids: brine, CO2, and N2. N2 can be separated from air at lower cost than captured CO2, it is not corrosive, and it will not react with the formation. N2 also can improve the economics of energy production and enable energy storage, while reducing operational risk. Extracting heat from geothermal reservoirs often requires submersible pumps to lift brine, but these pumps consume much of the generated electricity. In contrast, our approach drives fluid circulation by injecting supplemental, compressible fluids (CO2, and N2) with high coefficients of thermal expansion. These fluids augment reservoir pressure, produce artesian flow at the producers, and reduce the parasitic load. Pressure augmentation is improved by the thermosiphon effect that results from injecting cold/dense CO2 and N2. These fluids are heated to reservoir temperature, greatly expand, and increase the artesian flow of brine and supplemental fluid at the producers. Rather than using

  17. Wastewater use in algae production for generation of renewable resources: a review and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Omatoyo K; Halfhide, Trina; Udom, Innocent; Gilles, Benjamin; Wolan, John; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina

    2013-01-05

    Microalgae feedstock production can be integrated with wastewater and industrial sources of carbon dioxide. This study reviews the literature on algae grown on wastewater and includes a preliminary analysis of algal production based on anaerobic digestion sludge centrate from the Howard F. Curren Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (HFC AWTP) in Tampa, Florida and secondary effluent from the City of Lakeland wastewater treatment facilities in Lakeland, Florida. It was demonstrated that a mixed culture of wild algae species could successfully be grown on wastewater nutrients and potentially scaled to commercial production. Algae have demonstrated the ability to naturally colonize low-nutrient effluent water in a wetland treatment system utilized by the City of Lakeland. The results from these experiments show that the algae grown in high strength wastewater from the HFC AWTP are light-limited when cultivated indoor since more than 50% of the outdoor illumination is attenuated in the greenhouse.An analysis was performed to determine the mass of algae that can be supported by the wastewater nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorous) available from the two Florida cities. The study was guided by the growth and productivity data obtained for algal growth in the photobioreactors in operation at the University of South Florida. In the analysis, nutrients and light are assumed to be limited, while CO2 is abundantly available. There is some limitation on land, especially since the HFC AWTP is located at the Port of Tampa. The temperature range in Tampa is assumed to be suitable for algal growth year round. Assuming that the numerous technical challenges to achieving commercial-scale algal production can be met, the results presented suggest that an excess of 71 metric tons per hectare per year of algal biomass can be produced. Two energy production options were considered; liquid biofuels from feedstock with high lipid content, and biogas generation from anaerobic

  18. Wastewater use in algae production for generation of renewable resources: a review and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae feedstock production can be integrated with wastewater and industrial sources of carbon dioxide. This study reviews the literature on algae grown on wastewater and includes a preliminary analysis of algal production based on anaerobic digestion sludge centrate from the Howard F. Curren Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (HFC AWTP) in Tampa, Florida and secondary effluent from the City of Lakeland wastewater treatment facilities in Lakeland, Florida. It was demonstrated that a mixed culture of wild algae species could successfully be grown on wastewater nutrients and potentially scaled to commercial production. Algae have demonstrated the ability to naturally colonize low-nutrient effluent water in a wetland treatment system utilized by the City of Lakeland. The results from these experiments show that the algae grown in high strength wastewater from the HFC AWTP are light-limited when cultivated indoor since more than 50% of the outdoor illumination is attenuated in the greenhouse. An analysis was performed to determine the mass of algae that can be supported by the wastewater nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorous) available from the two Florida cities. The study was guided by the growth and productivity data obtained for algal growth in the photobioreactors in operation at the University of South Florida. In the analysis, nutrients and light are assumed to be limited, while CO2 is abundantly available. There is some limitation on land, especially since the HFC AWTP is located at the Port of Tampa. The temperature range in Tampa is assumed to be suitable for algal growth year round. Assuming that the numerous technical challenges to achieving commercial-scale algal production can be met, the results presented suggest that an excess of 71 metric tons per hectare per year of algal biomass can be produced. Two energy production options were considered; liquid biofuels from feedstock with high lipid content, and biogas generation from anaerobic

  19. The effects of the German feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity generation on the German energy system. An analysis with the energy system model TIMES-D; Die Auswirkungen des EEG auf das Energiesystem Deutschlands. Eine Betrachtung mit dem Energiesystemmodell TIMES-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, Birgit; Voss, Alfred; Blesl, Markus; Fahl, Ulrich [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung

    2011-09-15

    In Germany, the electricity generation from renewable energy has been promoted since the year 2000 by a feed-in tariff system, the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). This article evaluates the long-term impact of the German feed-in tariffs on the development of the German energy system with the help of the energy system model TIMES-D. In the model-based analysis, both the payment side (i.e. the tariffs) and the cost side (i.e. the EEG apportionment) are taken into consideration. Through the promotion of the feed-in tariff system - in combination with the European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) - the use of renewable energies in electricity generation in Germany rises considerably such that renewable energy sources account for almost 40% of total gross electricity consumption in 2030. Accordingly, until 2020 total EEG fee payments as well as the EEG apportionment increase significantly. The impact of the feed-in tariff system on final electricity demand is, however, relatively small. Alternative scenario settings show that the expansion of the renewable electricity generation through the feed-in tariff system clearly exceeds the development which would occur when trying to reach the reduction targets of the ETS in a cost-efficient way. (orig.)

  20. Renewable Energies and CO2 Cost Analysis, Environmental Impacts and Technological Trends- 2012 Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero-Lemus, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Providing up-to-date numerical data across a range of topics related to renewable energy technologies, Renewable Energies and CO2 offers a one-stop source of key information to engineers, economists and all other professionals working in the energy and climate change sectors. The most relevant up-to-date numerical data are exposed in 201 tables and graphs, integrated in terms of units and methodology, and covering topics such as energy system capacities and lifetimes, production costs, energy payback ratios, carbon emissions, external costs, patents and literature statistics. The data are first presented and then analyzed to project potential future grid, heat and fuel parity scenarios, as well as future technology tendencies in different energy technological areas. Innovative highlights and descriptions of preproduction energy systems and components from the past four years have been gathered from selected journals and international energy departments from G20 countries. As the field develops, readers are in...

  1. Power System Planning: Emerging Practices Suitable for Evaluating the Impact of High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report explores the impact of high-penetration renewable generation on electric power system planning methodologies and outlines how these methodologies are evolving to enable effective integration of variable-output renewable generation sources.

  2. The Generational Impact in Virtual Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrara, Samuel Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The world of today allows groups of people who are geographically-distributed to communicate through information and communication technologies (ICTs). In the workplace, these geographically-distributed teams are referred to as virtual teams. Quantifying and understanding issues in virtual teams has been a focus of research for the past two decades. This thesis aims to quantify generational differences between the Millennials and the Baby Boomers in the context of virtual teams in the enginee...

  3. Local content requirements and the impact on the South African renewable energy sector: A survey-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ettmayr

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Economies aim to grow over time, which usually implies the need for increased energy availability. Governments can use their procurement of energy to increase benefits in their economies via certain policy tools. One such tool is local content requirements (LCRs, where the purchase of goods prescribes that a certain value has to be sourced locally. The argument for this tool is that spending is localised and manufacturing, as well as job creation, can be stimulated because industry will need to establish in the host economy. However, this practice is distortionary in effect and does not create a fair playing ground for global trade. Furthermore, if the local content definition is weak, or open to manipulation, the goals of such a policy may not be achieved at all. Aim: The objective of this study was to determine how LCRs would ultimately impact on the overall procurement programme. Setting: This study took place as South Africa commenced with large scale development of the renewable energy sector. This was largely achieved via the State run Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP. Method: This study utilised opinion-based surveys to look into the LCRs of South Africa’s REIPPPP and measure the impact of this policy on the renewable energy sector in general. The mixed method approach was utilised to analyse qualitative and quantitative data and this was then triangulated with an international peer group to arrive at certain conclusions. The Delphi Technique was then employed to achieve population consensus on the findings. Results and conclusion: It was found that, in order to implement a policy such as local content without any negative welfare effects, the host economy had to show certain pre-existing conditions. Because South Africa does not hold all supportive pre-conditions, the impact and effect of LCRs have not been optimal, and it has not been found to be a sustainable mechanism to

  4. Impact of Rural Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Generation Systems on Power Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Pinto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV generation systems have been increasingly used to generate electricity from renewable sources, attracting a growing interest. Recently, grid connected PV micro-generation facilities in individual homes have increased due to governmental policies as well as greater attention by industry. As low voltage (LV distribution systems were built to make energy flow in one direction, the power feed-in of PV generation in rural low-voltage grids can influence power quality (PQ as well as facility operation and reliability. This paper presents results on PQ analysis of a real PV generation facility connected to a rural low-voltage grid. Voltage fluctuations and voltage harmonic contents were observed. Statistical analysis shows a negative impact on PQ produced by this PV facility and also that only a small fraction of the energy available during a sunny day is converted, provoking losses of revenue and forcing the converter to work in an undesirable operating mode. We discuss the disturbances imposed upon the grid and their outcome regarding technical and economic viability of the PV system, as well as possible solutions. A low-voltage grid strengthening has been suggested and implemented. After that a new PQ analysis shows an improvement in the impact upon PQ, making this facility economically viable.

  5. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-05-03

    Installation of fast charging infrastructure is considered by many as one of potential solutions to increase the utility and range of electric vehicles (EVs). This is expected to reduce the range anxiety of drivers of EVs and thus increase their market penetration. Level 1 and 2 charging in homes and workplaces is expected to contribute to the majority of miles driven by EVs. However, a small percentage of urban driving and most of inter-city driving could be only achieved by a fast-charging network. DC fast charging at 50 kW, 100 kW, 120 kW compared to level 1 (3.3 kW) and level 2 (6.6 kW) results in high-current charging that can adversely impact the life of the battery. In the last couple of years, we have investigated the impact of higher current rates in batteries and potential of higher temperatures and thus lower service life. Using mathematical models, we investigated the temperature increase of batteries due to higher heat generation during fast charge and have found that this could lead to higher temperatures. We compared our models with data from other national laboratories both for fine-tuning and calibration. We found that the incremental temperature rise of batteries during 1C to 3C fast charging may reduce the practical life of the batteries by less than 10% over 10 to 15 years of vehicle ownership. We also found that thermal management of batteries is needed for fast charging to prevent high temperature excursions leading to unsafe conditions.

  6. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  7. Economic and Industrial Development: EID - EMPLOY. Final Report, task 1. Review of approaches for employment impact assessment of renewable energy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, Barbara; Nathani, Carsten; Resch, Gustav

    2011-11-15

    The importance of renewable energy in energy systems is increasing at an impressive rate, and the expectation is that this tendency will continue in the longer term. As a consequence, there is a strong need for reliable insight into the employment benefits from renewable energy. The current knowledge on the economic impacts of large-scale deployment of renewable energy technologies is more or less derived on an ad hoc basis and consists of a variety of different methodologies with different objectives. This is why the International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) would like to facilitate a more structural approach, which will contribute to reliable and consistent insights of employment effects from deployment of renewable energy technologies. The objectives of the EMPLOY-EID project are to: Provide guidelines based on a thorough review of best practices, which are able to contribute to a consistent, reliable framework in which to measure employment effects from renewable energy deployment and which can be replicated from one country to another; Identify data sources and/or inputs required in application of such guidelines; Provide better understanding of key parameters and mechanisms that determine contribution of renewable energy employment; Assess availability of sources for employment benefit data for all RETD member countries as well as other interesting countries; Provide concrete gross employment benefit data to countries where data is available through application of the guidelines and best practices; and, Document the economic effects of renewable energy deployment through a publishable brochure of the main project results, presentations, the guidelines and background report. This project will help achieve the IEA-RETD's objective to ''empowering policy makers and energy market actors through the provision of information, tools and resources'' by underlining the

  8. Assessing Impact of Large-Scale Distributed Residential HVAC Control Optimization on Electricity Grid Operation and Renewable Energy Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Charles D.

    Demand management is an important component of the emerging Smart Grid, and a potential solution to the supply-demand imbalance occurring increasingly as intermittent renewable electricity is added to the generation mix. Model predictive control (MPC) has shown great promise for controlling HVAC demand in commercial buildings, making it an ideal solution to this problem. MPC is believed to hold similar promise for residential applications, yet very few examples exist in the literature despite a growing interest in residential demand management. This work explores the potential for residential buildings to shape electric demand at the distribution feeder level in order to reduce peak demand, reduce system ramping, and increase load factor using detailed sub-hourly simulations of thousands of buildings coupled to distribution power flow software. More generally, this work develops a methodology for the directed optimization of residential HVAC operation using a distributed but directed MPC scheme that can be applied to today's programmable thermostat technologies to address the increasing variability in electric supply and demand. Case studies incorporating varying levels of renewable energy generation demonstrate the approach and highlight important considerations for large-scale residential model predictive control.

  9. The Impact of a Carbon Tax on the Chilean Electricity Generation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Benavides

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyse the economy-wide implications of a carbon tax applied on the Chilean electricity generation sector. In order to analyse the macroeconomic impacts, both an energy sectorial model and a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium model have been used. During the year 2014 a carbon tax of 5 US$/tCO2e was approved in Chile. This tax and its increases (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 US$/tCO2e are evaluated in this article. The results show that the effectiveness of this policy depends on some variables which are not controlled by policy makers, for example, non-conventional renewable energy investment cost projections, natural gas prices, and the feasibility of exploiting hydroelectric resources. For a carbon tax of 20 US$/tCO2e, the average annual emission reduction would be between 1.1 and 9.1 million tCO2e. However, the price of the electricity would increase between 8.3 and 9.6 US$/MWh. This price shock would decrease the annual GDP growth rate by a maximum amount of 0.13%. This article compares this energy policy with others such as the introduction of non-conventional renewable energy sources and a sectorial cap. The results show that the same global greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction can be obtained with these policies, but the impact on the electricity price and GDP are lower than that of the carbon tax.

  10. Venezuela: A petro-state using renewable energies. A contribution to the global debate about new renewable energies for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massabie, G.

    2008-07-01

    In spite of the economic role of oil, Venezuela has started developing hydroelectricity since the 1950s. At present, the country is trying to introduce additional renewable energy sources (RES) but still has to overcome a series of hurdles in order to deploy them. Unlike other developing countries, oil countries such as Venezuela do not lack financial means and sometimes show a tendency to solve problems by using money when other approaches could be more helpful. The main goal of this qualitative, comparative policy analysis is to find out whether the availability of oil revenues restraints or favors the adoption of RES. Based on the rentier state theory, German Massabie examines the reasons why Petro states try to dispose of their natural wealth to take advantage of non-conventional energy sources. He analyses and interprets primary and secondary data collected in Germany and in Venezuela and draws on interviews with Venezuelan experts, policy makers, and key actors. The study allows a look beyond laws, development programs, and official statements. (orig.)

  11. The potential cost from passengers and how it impacts railway maintenance and renewal decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    To plan Maintenance and Renewals (M&R) for the heavy railway lines, scheduling work possession time and deciding the closure of railway line are quite challenging for Infrastructure Manager (IM) at tactical planning level. As usual, the direct costs such as the materials costs, man power price...... dominates the overall cost comparison for the busiest railway stations. In such case, the track closure time has to be decided according to the passenger loss instead of the direct costs. Sometime the best proposal for society might be the most expensive solution for IM. Therefore the potential passenger...

  12. Renewable Electricity Futures: Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this work was to perform a detailed, sub-hourly analysis of very high penetration scenarios for a single interconnection (the Western Interconnection). The scenarios analyzed for this study included a variety of generation infrastructure buildouts and power system operational assumptions, with three different portfolios of renewable generators. The primary conclusion of this study is that sub-hourly operation of the grid is possible with renewable generation levels between 80% and 90%. Dynamic studies will need to be done to understand any impacts on reliability during contingencies and transient events.

  13. Renewable energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Twidell, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s

  14. Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts of Hybrid Giant Napier (Pennisetum Hydridum) Direct-fired Power Generation in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanfen; Fang, Hailin; Zhang, Hengjin; Yu, Zhaosheng; Liu, Zhichao; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    To meet with the demand of energy conservation and emission reduction policies, the method of life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to assess the feasibility of Hybrid Giant Napier (HGN) direct-fired power generation in this study. The entire life cycle is consisted of five stages (cultivation and harvesting, transportation, drying and comminuting, direct-fired power generation, constructing and decommissioning of biomass power plant). Analytical results revealed that to generate 10000kWh electricity, 10.925 t of customized HGN fuel (moisture content: 30 wt%) and 6659.430 MJ of energy were required. The total environmental impact potential was 0.927 PET2010 (person equivalents, targeted, in 2010) and the global warming (GW), acidification (AC), and nutrient (NE) emissions were 339.235 kg CO2-eq, 22.033 kg SO2-eq, and 25.486 kg NOx-eq respectively. The effect of AC was the most serious among all calculated category impacts. The energy requirements and environmental impacts were found to be sensitive to single yield, average transport distance, cutting frequency, and moisture content. The results indicated that HGN direct-fired power generation accorded well with Chinese energy planning; in addition, HGN proved to be a promising contribution to reducing non-renewable energy consumption and had encouraging prospects as a renewable energy plant.

  15. Economic and industrial development. EID - EMPLOY. Final report. Task 1. Review of approaches for employment impact assessment of renewable energy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, Barbara [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Nathani, Carsten; Resch, Gustav

    2011-11-15

    The objective of this study is to provide an overview of existing impact assessment studies that analyse employment impacts of renewable energy (RE) deployment and to show which methodological approaches are best suitable to assess employment effect in the field of RE- electricity. A first review shows a large variety of impact assessment studies in the field of energy deployment applying a rather broad array of methodological approaches. Bounding the studies to RE-electricity considerably reduces the number of studies, but not necessarily the number of approaches. Due to different approaches the questions answered by the impact assessment studies cover a wide range that captures e.g. limited impacts in the RE industry as well as overarching employment impacts in the overall economy. First, based on the research focus of the studies and their impacts (Figure 0-1), we classify the assessed studies on employment impacts into two groups: gross employment studies and net employment studies. They aim to answer different policy questions and capture different effects: - Gross employment studies focus on the economic relevance of the RE industry in terms of employment, thus on the number of jobs provided in the RE industry and the structural analysis of employment in the RE industry. Furthermore employment in supplying industries are also included as indirect or induced impacts. The aim is to provide transparency on employment in an industry that is in the public interest but not adequately represented in official statistics, and, furthermore, enabling monitoring of this industry in the course of RE promotion. Gross studies take into account positive effects of RE deployment. - Net employment impact studies aim to assess the overall economic impact of promoting RE deployment, thus the change of the number of jobs in the total economy. For this, they take into account negative and positive effects of RE deployment on employment in all economic sectors and hence provide a

  16. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  17. Evaluation of New and Renewable Energy Power Generation Performance in G8 and BRIC Nations%基于G8与BRIC的新能源及可再生能源发电绩效动态评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡立亚; 郭剑锋; 姬强

    2013-01-01

    The electric power industry is a large energy production sector, energy consumer and source of greenhouse gases. Here, new and renewable energy resources for countries were defined and reorganized according to various new and renewable energies. Solar, wind,hydro, geothermal, biomass and nuclear energy were examined for G8 and BRIC countries from 2000 to 2008. A new and renewable electric power generation performance index (REPPI) is calculated, and shows that the REPPI of developed countries is generally higher than that of developing countries, but REPPI growth rates in developed countries are lower. The REPPI of countries abundant in new and renewable energy resources is generally lower than that of countries with fewer new and renewable energy sources. The relationship between REPPI and macroeconomic conditions, technological progress, electricity consumption and research and development investment were analyzed using a panel data model. According to data availability and previous studies, per capital GDP, patents, electricity consumption, and new and renewable energy research investment ratios were used. We conclude that technological progress and the new and renewable energy research and development ratio have significant effects on promoting and improving REPPI. However, the effect of per capita GDP on REPPI of some countries has been minimal in recent years, indicating that the REPPI of those countries is not simply determined by economic development. In China, performance of new and renewable energy electric power generation is mainly impacted by per capita GDP and electricity consumption. Policy recommendations for promoting the new and renewable energy electric power development are discussed%新能源及可再生能源发电是各国能源可持续发展战略的重要组成部分.本文针对各种新能源及可再生能源的特点,对各国新能源及可再生能源的潜在资源量予以定义和整理,以此为基础提出新能源及可再生

  18. Dollars from Sense: The Economic Benefits of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This document illustrates direct economic benefits, including job creation, of renewable energy technologies. Examples of electricity generation from biomass, wind power, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, and geothermal energy are given, with emphasis on the impact of individual projects on the state and local community. Employment numbers at existing facilities are provided, including total national employment for each renewable industry where available. Renewable energy technologies offer economic advantages because they are more labor-intensive than conventional generation technologies, and they use primarily indigenous resources.

  19. Incorporating operational flexibility into electric generation planning Impacts and methods for system design and policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmintier, Bryan S.

    This dissertation demonstrates how flexibility in hourly electricity operations can impact long-term planning and analysis for future power systems, particularly those with substantial variable renewables (e.g., wind) or strict carbon policies. Operational flexibility describes a power system's ability to respond to predictable and unexpected changes in generation or demand. Planning and policy models have traditionally not directly captured the technical operating constraints that determine operational flexibility. However, as demonstrated in this dissertation, this capability becomes increasingly important with the greater flexibility required by significant renewables (>= 20%) and the decreased flexibility inherent in some low-carbon generation technologies. Incorporating flexibility can significantly change optimal generation and energy mixes, lower system costs, improve policy impact estimates, and enable system designs capable of meeting strict regulatory targets. Methodologically, this work presents a new clustered formulation that tractably combines a range of normally distinct power system models, from hourly unit-commitment operations to long-term generation planning. This formulation groups similar generators into clusters to reduce problem size, while still retaining the individual unit constraints required to accurately capture operating reserves and other flexibility drivers. In comparisons against traditional unit commitment formulations, errors were generally less than 1% while run times decreased by several orders of magnitude (e.g., 5000x). Extensive numerical simulations, using a realistic Texas-based power system show that ignoring flexibility can underestimate carbon emissions by 50% or result in significant load and wind shedding to meet environmental regulations. Contributions of this dissertation include: 1. Demonstrating that operational flexibility can have an important impact on power system planning, and describing when and how these

  20. Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; P, Kumaran; M, Jayakumar

    2013-06-01

    One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane - a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Geothermal Power Generation at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Site in Lakeview, Oregon. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Lakeview Uranium Mill site in Lakeview, Oregon, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide technical assistance for the project. The purpose of this report is to describe an assessment of the site for possible development of a geothermal power generation facility and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts for the facility. In addition, the report recommends development pathways that could assist in the implementation of a geothermal power system at the site.

  2. Renewable energies on the example of biogas production. The remuneration conditions with respect to the Renewable Energy Law EEG 2012 and the tax-related focal points in the power generation by agriculturists.; Erneuerbare Energien am Beispiel der Biogasproduktion. Die Verguetungsregelungen nach dem EEG 2012 und die steuerlichen Brennpunkte fuer die Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslaton, Martin; Loibl, Helmut; Bahrs, Enno

    2011-07-01

    The authors of the booklet under consideration report on the remuneration conditions with respect to the Renewable Energy Law EEG 2012 and the tax-related focal points in the power generation by agriculturists. The attachment presents an extract from the Act on the priority of Renewable Energy 2012.

  3. Increased demand-side flexibility: market effects and impacts on variable renewable energy integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Grytli Tveten

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of increased demand-side flexibility (DSF on integration and market value of variable renewable energy sources (VRE. Using assumed potentials, system-optimal within-day shifts in demand are investigated for the Northern European power markets in 2030, applying a comprehensive partial equilibrium model with high temporal and spatial resolution. Increased DSF is found to cause only a minor (less than 3% reduction in consumers’ cost of electricity. VRE revenues are found to increase (up to 5% and 2% for wind and solar power, respectively, and total VRE curtailment decreases by up to 7.2 TWh. Increased DSF causes only limited reductions in GHG emissions. The emission reduction is, however, sensitive to underlying assumptions. We conclude that increased DSF is a promising measure for improving VRE integration. However, low consumers’ savings imply that policies stimulating DFS will be needed to fully use the potential benefits of DSF for VRE integration

  4. Solar belt and wind farm oasis. Which portion have renewable energy sources at the power generation in Chile?; Sonnenguertel und Windparkoasen. Welchen Anteil haben Erneuerbare Energien an der Stromerzeugung in Chile?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarzua, Tatiana [DGS, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the portion of renewable energies at the power generation in Chile. The technically usable potential of renewable energy sources (hydroelectric power plants, photovoltaic systems, wind power plant, geothermal power plants, biogas plants, ocean energy systems) as well as the already approved photovoltaic systems are presented.

  5. Survey cost of electric power generation from renewable resources in the state of Goias, Brazil; Levantamento de custos da geracao de energia eletrica a partir de recursos renovaveis no estado de Goias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Ronaldo Pereira de; Bortoni, Edson da Costa; Haddad, Jamil [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], emails: ronaldopa@gmail.com, bortoni@unifei.edu.br, jamil@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The work presents a developed study to obtain the investment index costs for renewable based distributed generation in Goias state. A set of renewable resources was selected, along with their availability in each city of the state. Therefore, a rank of investments could be developed. (author)

  6. Renewable energy and wildlife conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mona

    2016-09-09

    The renewable energy sector is rapidly expanding and diversifying the power supply of the country. Yet, as our Nation works to advance renewable energy and to conserve wildlife, some conflicts arise. To address these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting innovative research and developing workable solutions to reduce impacts of renewable energy production on wildlife.

  7. Coffee Area (Subak Abian Tri Guna Karya Kintamani Bangli Based Waste Management Potential to Generate Renewable Energy Sources and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INyoman Sucipta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali island has 5.632.86 km2 area with a total area of 36.298 hectares of coffee farm in 2004with production 3.696.206 15386.405 tons of Arabica coffee and Robusta coffee produces tonsof waste is high enough. The results of the proximate analysis of robusta coffee waste containingprotein, crude fiber and fat is high at 6.67 to 12.43% crude protein, fiber kasar11,05-21,40%, fat1.04 to 1.07%, while the calcium 0 , 21 to 0.34% and 0.02-0.07% phosfor.Materials (coffee waste inserted through the container revenue in accordance with thetreatment, then allowed to ferment anaerobically for 35 days, if the bio-gas already formed inlarge volume, then the bio-gas flow from the inner tube to cleaners tube which then exits througha gas hose. Bio-gas has started to form when the water in the U manometer and hose materialspointer moves upward.Parameters measured were the temperature of the fermentation medium was measured with athermometer scale 0-100oC. Volume of bio-gas can be shown on the hose raw material pointerwas the changes of the surface of raw material height multiplied by its width. Gasbio pressureinside the bioreactor was measured using a manometer U scaleD 3-3 cm. gasbio production wasmeasured by thermik properties of the gas or through the ideal gas equation (Sutanto, 1982.Technical analysis measured through the strength of materials, dimensions and weight. Thecontent of gasbio is observed from methanogenic process is methane gas, and of the hydrolysisand acidification processes was carbon dioxide gas using a Shimadzu GC-7A kromatograf modelChemical analysis of coffee waste and bio-gas as byproduct was crude fiber, nitrogen, fattyacids, calcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc as well ascaffeine using atomic spetrophotometes.Handling of coffee waste using region-based bioreactors (Subak Abian Tri to workKintamani Bangli generate renewable energy, a source of nutrients and bioactive and spawned aculture of energy

  8. Use Of Renewable Energy In The Electric Power Generation Sector In Mexico: Political, Regulatory, Economic And Technical Issues From 1965 To 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde-Baltierra, Alberto; Sasse, Diana; Zeferino-Abundis, Yolanda; Quiroz-Juarez, Carolina; Lopez-Satow, Edgar; Beltran-Mora, Hector; Crisostomo-Ramirez, David

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this work is to analyze the political, regulatory, economic and technical issues that have determined the use of primary energies for power generation in Mexico from 1965 to 2008, and its perspectives for the next 10 years, in particular the prospects of using renewable energies. In the 60's, hydro was the preferred source of energy to produce electricity for economical and technical reasons. Under the 'oil boom' in the 70s, transition to hydrocarbons resources (fuel oil) was progressive. As a result of implementing environmental policies, electricity has mainly been generated with natural gas since the early 2000.

  9. An investigation on the impacts of regulatory interventions on wind power expansion in generation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alishahi, Ehsan [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, P.O. Box 14115-143 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghaddam, Mohsen P., E-mail: parsa@modares.ac.ir [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, P.O. Box 14115-143 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheikh-El-Eslami, Mohammad K. [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, P.O. Box 14115-143 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Large integration of intermittent wind generation in power system has necessitated the inclusion of more innovative and sophisticated approaches in power system investment planning. This paper presents a novel framework on the basis of a combination of stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) algorithm and game theory to study the impacts of different regulatory interventions to promote wind power investment in generation expansion planning. In this study, regulatory policies include Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) incentive, quota and tradable green certificate. The intermittent nature and uncertainties of wind power generation will cause the investors encounter risk in their investment decisions. To overcome this problem, a novel model has been derived to study the regulatory impacts on wind generation expansion planning. In our approach, the probabilistic nature of wind generation is modeled. The model can calculate optimal investment strategies, in which the wind power uncertainty is included. This framework is implemented on a test system to illustrate the working of the proposed approach. The result shows that FITs are the most effective policy to encourage the rapid and sustained deployment of wind power. FITs can significantly reduce the risks of investing in renewable energy technologies and thus create conditions conducive to rapid market growth. - Highlights: > The impacts of regulatory policies to promote wind power investment are investigated. > These policies include Feed-in-Tariff (FIT), quota and tradable green certificate. > Result shows that FIT is an effective policy to motivate the rapid growth of wind power. > In quota, customers are forced to provide the quota decided by regulators from wind.

  10. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  11. Sustainable energy policy: the impact of government subsidies on ethanol as a renewable fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Denis Ahamarula

    The United States Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1978 to promote ethanol production and reduce American dependence on foreign oil. The provision of subsidies in the act is indicative of the importance of energy in the economy. America needs a national energy policy that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. Considering the importance of these needs, this study examines (a) the implementation of the Energy Policy Act of 1978 in regard to government subsidies and its effect on ethanol production, (b) the effect of gasoline consumption and cost on ethanol production, (c) the effect of corn production and price on ethanol fuel, and (d) the role of mandates and global crises on ethanol production. Secondary qualitative and quantitative data collected from various sources in 1978 through 2005 study the effect of ethanol subsidies on ethanol production. An autoregression error model is used to estimate the relevance of the explanatory variables on variations in ethanol production. The following are major study findings: (1) there is a positive correlation between corn production and ethanol production, is statistically significant; (2) government subsidies have a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production; (3) oil import has a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production, but has not contributed to a reduction the quantity of imported oil; (4) the price of corn has a statistically significant inverse relationship with ethanol production; (5) though not statistically significant, the price per barrel of oil is inversely related to ethanol production; (6) the budget surplus or deficit is associated with ethanol production; and (7) advocacy and lobbying for renewable fuel have encouraged support of ethanol production. The findings also show that global crises in the oil producing regions tend to influence the passage of favorable legislation for ethanol production. Furthermore, the

  12. The potential of renewables versus natural gas with CO2 capture and storage for power generation under CO2 constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Berghout, Niels|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328201057; Rubin, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    The costs of intermittent renewable energy systems (IRES) and power storage technologies are compared on a level playing field to those of natural gas combined cycle power plants with CO2 capture and storage (NGCC-CCS). To account for technological progress over time, an "experience curve

  13. The research agenda on social acceptance of distributed generation in smart grids: renewable as common pool resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolsink, M.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid developing literature on ‘smart grids’ suggests that these will facilitate ‘distributed generation’ (DG) preferably from renewable sources. However, the current development of smart (micro)grids with substantial amount of DG ("DisGenMiGrids") suffers from a focus on mere ‘technology’.

  14. Smart use of storage potentials of electric vehicles for renewable energy generation in the built environment: A design scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Timmeren, A.; Bauer, T.C.; Silvester, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of use of electrical vehicles for energy storage (of renewable sources), their integration in the built environment and attached required power and charging systems for the Netherlands. This was done as part of the DIEMIGO project on int

  15. The potential of renewables versus natural gas with CO2 capture and storage for power generation under CO2 constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Broek, Machteld; Berghout, Niels; Rubin, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    The costs of intermittent renewable energy systems (IRES) and power storage technologies are compared on a level playing field to those of natural gas combined cycle power plants with CO2 capture and storage (NGCC-CCS). To account for technological progress over time, an "experience curve

  16. The potential of renewables versus natural gas with CO2 capture and storage for power generation under CO2 constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Broek, Machteld; Berghout, Niels; Rubin, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    The costs of intermittent renewable energy systems (IRES) and power storage technologies are compared on a level playing field to those of natural gas combined cycle power plants with CO2 capture and storage (NGCC-CCS). To account for technological progress over time, an "experience

  17. Smart use of storage potentials of electric vehicles for renewable energy generation in the built environment: A design scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Timmeren, A.; Bauer, T.C.; Silvester, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of use of electrical vehicles for energy storage (of renewable sources), their integration in the built environment and attached required power and charging systems for the Netherlands. This was done as part of the DIEMIGO project on int

  18. A Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    This report, the second in the series, analyzes historical benefits and impacts of all state RPS policies, in aggregate, employing a consistent and well-vetted set of methods and data sets. The analysis focuses on three specific benefits: greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, and water use. It also analyzes three other impacts: gross job additions, wholesale electricity market price suppression, and natural gas price suppression. These are an important subset, but by no means a comprehensive set, of all possible effects associated with RPS policies. These benefits and impacts are also subject to many uncertainties, which are described and, to the extent possible, quantified within the report.

  19. Demand response impacts on off-grid hybrid photovoltaic-diesel generator microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron St. Leger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid microgrids consisting of diesel generator set(s and converter based power sources, such as solar photovoltaic or wind sources, offer an alternative to generator based off-grid power systems. The hybrid approach has been shown to be economical in many off-grid applications and can result in reduced generator operation, fuel requirements, and maintenance. However, the intermittent nature of demand and renewable energy sources typically require energy storage, such as batteries, to properly operate the hybrid microgrid. These batteries increase the system cost, require proper operation and maintenance, and have been shown to be unreliable in case studies on hybrid microgrids. This work examines the impacts of leveraging demand response in a hybrid microgrid in lieu of energy storage. The study is performed by simulating two different hybrid diesel generator—PV microgrid topologies, one with a single diesel generator and one with multiple paralleled diesel generators, for a small residential neighborhood with varying levels of demand response. Various system designs are considered and the optimal design, based on cost of energy, is presented for each level of demand response. The solar resources, performance of solar PV source, performance of diesel generators, costs of system components, maintenance, and operation are modeled and simulated at a time interval of ten minutes over a twenty-five year period for both microgrid topologies. Results are quantified through cost of energy, diesel fuel requirements, and utilization of the energy sources under varying levels of demand response. The results indicate that a moderate level of demand response can have significant positive impacts to the operation of hybrid microgrids through reduced energy cost, fuel consumption, and increased utilization of PV sources.

  20. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  1. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-08-13

    Against the backdrop of increasingly volatile natural gas prices, renewable energy resources, which by their nature are immune to natural gas fuel price risk, provide a real economic benefit. Unlike many contracts for natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation is typically sold under fixed-price contracts. Assuming that electricity consumers value long-term price stability, a utility or other retail electricity supplier that is looking to expand its resource portfolio (or a policymaker interested in evaluating different resource options) should therefore compare the cost of fixed-price renewable generation to the hedged or guaranteed cost of new natural gas-fired generation, rather than to projected costs based on uncertain gas price forecasts. To do otherwise would be to compare apples to oranges: by their nature, renewable resources carry no natural gas fuel price risk, and if the market values that attribute, then the most appropriate comparison is to the hedged cost of natural gas-fired generation. Nonetheless, utilities and others often compare the costs of renewable to gas-fired generation using as their fuel price input long-term gas price forecasts that are inherently uncertain, rather than long-term natural gas forward prices that can actually be locked in. This practice raises the critical question of how these two price streams compare. If they are similar, then one might conclude that forecast-based modeling and planning exercises are in fact approximating an apples-to-apples comparison, and no further consideration is necessary. If, however, natural gas forward prices systematically differ from price forecasts, then the use of such forecasts in planning and modeling exercises will yield results that are biased in favor of either renewable (if forwards < forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (if forwards > forecasts). In this report we compare the cost of hedging natural gas price risk through traditional gas-based hedging instruments (e

  2. Building a sustainable market for renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, N.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding marketing approaches for electricity generation from renewable resources are presented in the paper. The Renewables Portfolio Standard of the California Public Utilities Commission is described. This system is based on renewable energy credits. Other marketing approaches, including surcharges, auctioned renewables credit, green pricing, and green marketing are also assessed. It is concluded that the Renewables Portfolio Standard creates a stable economic environment for the renewable energy industries.

  3. Impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel on emissions of regulated pollutants and greenhouse gases on a 2000 heavy duty diesel truck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kwangsam; Biswas, Subhasis; Robertson, William; Sahay, Keshav; Okamoto, Robert; Mitchell, Alexander; Lemieux, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    As part of a broad evaluation of the environmental impacts of biodiesel and renewable diesel as alternative motor fuels and fuel blends in California, the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) Heavy-duty Diesel Emission Testing Laboratory conducted chassis dynamometer exhaust emission measurements on in-use heavy-heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDT). The results presented here detail the impact of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels and fuel blends as compared to CARB ULSD on particulate matter (PM), regulated gases, and two greenhouse gases emissions from a HHDDT with a 2000 C15 Caterpillar engine with no exhaust after treatment devices. This vehicle was tested over the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and the cruise portion of the California HHDDT driving schedule. Three neat blend stocks (soy-based and animal-based fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesels, and a renewable diesel) and CARB-certified ultra-low sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD) along with their 20% and 50% blends (blended with CARB ULSD) were tested. The effects of blend level on emission characteristics were discussed on g·km-1 basis. The results showed that PM, total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were dependent on driving cycles, showing higher emissions for the UDDS cycles with medium load than the highway cruise cycle with high load on per km basis. When comparing CARB ULSD to biodiesels and renewable diesel blends, it was observed that the PM, THC, and CO emissions decreased with increasing blend levels regardless of the driving cycles. Note that biodiesel blends showed higher degree of emission reductions for PM, THC, and CO than renewable diesel blends. Both biodiesels and renewable diesel blends effectively reduced PM emissions, mainly due to reduction in elemental carbon emissions (EC), however no readily apparent reductions in organic carbon (OC) emissions were observed. When compared to CARB ULSD, soy- and animal-based biodiesel blends showed statistically

  4. The Impact of Generational Status on Instructors' Reported Technology Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Susan Troncoso; Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Saxon, D. Patrick; Edmonson, Stacey L.

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of colleges and universities are equipped with the latest instructional technologies, an appreciable integration of technology has not been observed in instructional practices (Flavin, 2013; Garrison & Akyol, 2009; Salinas, 2008). The purpose of this research is to understand the impact that generational differences can…

  5. Impact of ectopic pregnancy for reproductive prognosis in next generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kårhus, Line Lund; Egerup, Pia; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel

    2014-01-01

    The impact of an ectopic pregnancy in the next generation is unknown. Our aim was to compare reproductive outcomes in daughters of women with and without ectopic pregnancy. Designed as a historical prospective controlled cohort study with data collected in four Danish registries from 1977-2009, w...

  6. Integration of renewables. Status and challenges in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Kat

    2011-08-12

    This Working Paper gives an overview of the status and challenges of integrating an increasing share of variable renewables in China, with a focus on areas of generation, power transmission, demand-side management and policy. Some of these areas are intertwined with the nature and design of China's electricity power market and pricing mechanism, which have an impact on the effectiveness of the country's targets to accommodate larger shares of renewables.

  7. Marine Renewable Energy Seascape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G.L. Borthwick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production based on fossil fuel reserves is largely responsible for carbon emissions, and hence global warming. The planet needs concerted action to reduce fossil fuel usage and to implement carbon mitigation measures. Ocean energy has huge potential, but there are major interdisciplinary problems to be overcome regarding technology, cost reduction, investment, environmental impact, governance, and so forth. This article briefly reviews ocean energy production from offshore wind, tidal stream, ocean current, tidal range, wave, thermal, salinity gradients, and biomass sources. Future areas of research and development are outlined that could make exploitation of the marine renewable energy (MRE seascape a viable proposition; these areas include energy storage, advanced materials, robotics, and informatics. The article concludes with a sustainability perspective on the MRE seascape encompassing ethics, legislation, the regulatory environment, governance and consenting, economic, social, and environmental constraints. A new generation of engineers is needed with the ingenuity and spirit of adventure to meet the global challenge posed by MRE.

  8. Evaluation of the impacts of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on NO(x) emissions for CARB diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbabaei, Maryam; Johnson, Kent C; Okamoto, Robert A; Mitchell, Alexander; Pullman, Marcie; Durbin, Thomas D

    2012-08-21

    The impact of biodiesel and second generation biofuels on nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions from heavy-duty engines was investigated using a California Air Resources Board (CARB) certified diesel fuel. Two heavy-duty engines, a 2006 engine with no exhaust aftertreatment, and a 2007 engine with a diesel particle filter (DPF), were tested on an engine dynamometer over four different test cycles. Emissions from soy- and animal-based biodiesels, a hydrotreated renewable diesel, and a gas to liquid (GTL) fuel were evaluated at blend levels from 5 to 100%. NO(x) emissions consistently increased with increasing biodiesel blend level, while increasing renewable diesel and GTL blends showed NO(x) emissions reductions with blend level. NO(x) increases ranged from 1.5% to 6.9% for B20, 6.4% to 18.2% for B50, and 14.1% to 47.1% for B100. The soy-biodiesel showed higher NO(x) emissions increases compared to the animal-biodiesel. NO(x) emissions neutrality with the CARB diesel was achieved by blending GTL or renewable diesel fuels with various levels of biodiesel or by using di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP). It appears that the impact of biodiesel on NO(x) emissions might be a more important consideration when blended with CARB diesel or similar fuels, and that some form of NO(x) mitigation might be needed for biodiesel blends with such fuels.

  9. Promotion of renewable energy to mitigate impact of heavy use of carbon energy on society and climate change in Central Sub-Saharan Africa remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa owns important renewable energy potential and is still heavily using carbon energy. This is having a negative impact on the climate and on the environment. Given the local cost of carbon energy, the purchase power of people, the availability and the reserve of carbon energy in the area, this resource is being heavily used. This practice is harmful to the climate and is also resulting on poor effort to promote renewable energy in remote areas. The important renewable energy potential is still suffering from poor development. The purpose of this paper is among other things aiming at showing the rate of carbon energy use and its potential impact on climate and environment. We will also ensure that the renewable energy resources of Central Sub-Saharan Africa are known and are subject to be used optimally to help mitigate climate change. After showing some negative impacts of carbon energy used in the area, the work also suggests actions to promote and sustain the development of renewable energy. Based on the knowledge of the Central African energy sector, this paper will identify actions for reduce access to carbon energy and improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure and the promotion of energy efficiency. We will show all type of carbon energy used, the potential for solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development. After a swot analysis of the situation, identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. Finally, suggestions will be made to help the region develop a vision aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon case study will be examined as illustration. Analysis will be made from data collected in the field. |End Text|

  10. Contribution of Asteroid Generated Tsunami to the Impact Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2017-01-01

    The long-standing uncertainty about the importance of asteroid-generated tsunami was addressed at a workshop in August 2016, co-sponsored by NASA and NOAA. Experts from NASA, NOAA, the DoE tri-labs (LLNL, SNL, and LANL), DHS, FEMA, and academia addressed the hazard of tsunami created by asteroid impacts, focusing primarily on NEAs with diameter less than 250m. Participants jointly identified key issues and shared information for nearly a year to coordinate their results for discussion at the workshop. They used modern computational tools to examine 1) Near-field wave generation by the impact; 2) Long-distance wave propagation; 3) Damage from coastal run-up and inundation, and associated hazard. The workshop resulted in broad consensus that the asteroid impact tsunami threat is not as great as previously thought.

  11. Addressing Palm Biodiesel as Renewable Fuel for the Indonesian Power Generation Sector: Java-Madura-Bali System

    OpenAIRE

    Natarianto Indrawan; Muhammad Ery Wijaya

    2011-01-01

    Energy security defined as how to equitably provide available, affordable, reliable efficient, environmentally friendly, proactively governed and socially acceptable energy services to end user. It has in recent years taken attention of policymakers in different parts of the world. Formulating policy to improve energy security is mandatory, not only because of depleting fossil resource, but also implementing diversity of energy source since utilization abundant renewable energy resources can ...

  12. Electrochemistry for the Generation of Renewable Chemicals: One-Pot Electrochemical Deoxygenation of Xylose to δ-Valerolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Olusola O; Sauter, Waldemer; Schröder, Uwe

    2017-05-09

    In this study, the electrochemical conversion of xylose to δ-valerolactone via carbonyl intermediates is demonstrated. The conversion was achieved in aqueous media and at ambient conditions. This study also demonstrates that the feedstock for production of renewable chemicals and biofuels through electrochemistry can be extended to primary carbohydrate molecules. This is the first report on a one-pot electrochemical deoxygenation of xylose to δ-valerolactone. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Nuclear energy and renewable energies. Two technologies for the CO{sub 2}-free generation of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, Hans-Josef [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The worldwide energy demand will increase over the coming years. This is also causing a rise in demand for new fossil power plant capacities and at the same time we also need to achieve reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in order to protect the climate. Ultimately, the only CO{sub 2}-free energy conversion methods that are open to us are renewables and nuclear energy. We need an open dialogue about our future energy mix. (orig.)

  14. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  15. Impact Assessment of the Renewable Energies in the Cultural Heritage: the Case of the Way of St. James in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chias, P.; Abad, T.

    2014-06-01

    Medieval town centres and landscapes along the Way of St. James are being affected by renewable energy sources at the architectural, urban and territorial scales. The impact is not only visual, but thermal, accoustic and electromagnetic. Visual impact of solar photovoltaic power plants - which are placed over traditional crops close to the urban borders -, and also wind farms located at the hilltops, are sometimes remarkable. Solar photovoltaic modules are integrated into ancient roofs, and small scale wind turbines are taking up the ancient urban spaces. Among other effects on animal life and vegetation, the rise in temperature, radioelectric interferences, as well as changes in the traditional land uses are noticeable, and a deep analysis is needed. Our main target is to define an integrated methodology which considers all these effects. As a part of our project premises, we work with Open Source programs. We obtained a digital terrain model - 25 m spatial resolution -, and from Corine Land Cover images we got different raster files according to our research targets. Databases where implemented from both remote sensing and measures obtained directly in the field work. We applied GIS based multicriteria decision analysis and weighted linear combination, and then we adapted GRASS tools for a better usability. Our case studies are particularly interesting due to their situation along the Spanish Way of St. James, which is an itinerary named one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.

  16. Optimal Planning of an Off-grid Electricity Generation with Renewable Energy Resources using the HOMER Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Shahinzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several factors such as environmental pollution which is caused by fossil fuels and various diseases caused by them from one hand and concerns about the dwindling fossil fuels and price fluctuation of the products and resulting effects of these fluctuations in the economy from other hand has led most countries to seek alternative energy sources for fossil fuel supplies. Such a way that in 2006, about 18% of the consumed energy of the world is obtained through renewable energies. Iran is among the countries that are geographically located in hot and dry areas and has the most sun exposure in different months of the year. Except in the coasts of Caspian Sea, the percentage of sunny days throughout the year is between 63 to 98 percent in Iran. On the other hand, there are dispersed and remote areas and loads far from national grid which is impossible to provide electrical energy for them through transmission from national grid, therefore, for such cases the renewable energy technologies could be used to solve the problem and provide the energy. In this paper, technical and economic feasibility for the use of renewable energies for independent systems of the grid for a dispersed load in the area on the outskirts of Isfahan (Sepahan with the maximum energy consumption of 3Kwh in a day is studied and presented. In addition, the HOMER simulation software is used as the optimization tool.

  17. A review on the impact of embedded generation to network fault level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, M. S.; Basar, M. F.; Ibrahim, Z.; Nasir, M. N. N.; Lada, M. Y.; Bukhari, W. M.

    2015-05-01

    The line of Embedded Generation (EG) in power systems especially for renewable energy has increased markedly in recent years. The interconnection of EG has a technical impact which needs to considered. One of the technical challenges faced by the Distribution Network Operator (DNO) is the network fault level. In this paper, the different methods of interconnection with and without EG on the network is analyze by looking at the impact of network fault level. This comparative study made to determine the most effective method to reduce fault level or fault current. This paper will gives basic understanding on the fault level effect when synchronous generator connected to network by different method of interconnection. A three phase fault is introduced at one network bus bar. By employ it to simple network configuration of network configurations which is normal interconnection and splitting network connection with and without EG, the fault level has been simulated and analyzed. Developing the network model by using PSS-Viper™ software package, the fault level for both networks will be showed and the difference is defines. From the review, network splitting was found the best interconnection method and greatest potential for reducing the fault level in the network.

  18. The Impact of Changes in Water Availability on Geothermal Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassley, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    The conventional geothermal electrical generation capacity potential in the United States is estimated to be as high as 90 GW (USGS, 2008). If Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are included, the estimated capacity soars beyond 800 GW. Current generation capacity in the U.S. is approximately 1,000 GW. With a capacity factor close to 0.9, these numbers suggest that geothermal energy has the potential to be the primary provider of electrical energy in the United States. Realizing that potential is important, since geothermal energy is renewable, has low to no emissions, involves no fuel cycle, has one of the lowest spatial footprints per MW, has one of the lowest levelized costs of energy and the highest energy returned on energy invested values. However, access to water is an important prerequisite for geothermal power generation. It is required in drilling, heat transfer and power production. For EGS applications, water is also needed for stimulation. Much of the water currently utilized in these geothermal applications is groundwater. The impact of climate change on geothermal power generation will be expressed primarily through water availability. The details of potential water change impacts on power generation in existing and future geothermal sites will be presented in three case studies. It will be shown that strategies for mitigating groundwater losses are available, and include: use of degraded water in geothermal systems; use of captured CO2 for heat transfer; expanded use of dry cooling; improved resolution of subsurface permeability mapping; improved efficiencies in power generation; and expanded access to high enthalpy resources. Achieving these benefits will require aggressive research programs. Developing model hybrid technologies that combine geothermal-solar-biomass-wind-small hydro should be part of this research effort. Coupling geothermal resource exploration and mapping with detailed analysis of groundwater resources (recharge sites; climate

  19. Renewable energies: A real option for the electrical generation in Mexico?; Energias renovables: opcion real para la generacion electrica en Mexico?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz V, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The renewable energies offer additional benefits to the kilowatts (kW) and kilowatts-hour (kWh) that they produce, because they include the creation of new jobs, a cleaner mean of generation and power assurance, among others. In view of this, most of the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and several developing nations have established goals for the renewable energies in their power plans. Many of these countries also have fomented the local development of industries of renewable energy and are penetrating aggressively in this new technology market. [Spanish] Las energias renovables ofrecen beneficios adicionales a los kilowatts (kW) y kilowatts-hora (kWh) que producen, pues incluyen la creacion de nuevos empleos, un medio mas limpio de generacion y seguridad energetica, entre otros. En vista de ello, la mayoria de los paises de la Organizacion de Cooperacion para el Desarrollo Economico (OCDE) y varias naciones en desarrollo han establecido metas para las energias renovables en sus planes energeticos. Muchos de estos paises tambien han fomentado el desarrollo local de industrias de energia renovable y estan penetrando agresivamente en este nuevo mercado de la tecnologia.

  20. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  1. Distributed-dispersed renewable energy systems and novel control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljankawey, Abdualah S.

    Renewable green-energy systems are re-emerging as viable economic alternative sources of environmentally safe power generation in place of conventional fossil fuels. In terms of power quality and safety, this research investigates a number of renewable green-energy (wind, photovoltaic and fuel cells) interface schemes and control strategies that ensure maximum energy utilization, voltage and frequency stabilization and minimum impact on the host electric grid systems. The research key objectives are to study efficient and robust renewable energy converter schemes with associated control strategies and validate their operations for both stand-alone and electric utility grid interfacing. The research work investigates both stand-alone and grid connected renewable green-energy utilization schemes with a number of power electronic converter topologies and robust control schemes for both dispersed and hybrid renewable energy systems. Different sample study systems and control strategies are digitally simulated and fully validated using the MATLAB-Simulink-SimPower environment.

  2. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Supporting paper: The evolution of the electricity sector and renewable sources in Italy: opportunities and problems for wind power integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvaderi, Luigi [IEEE Fellow (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This document serves as a supporting paper. Sections include: features of Italian energy and electricity; the evolution of liberalisation; support mechanism for renewables; connection to wind farm transmission network; wind source integration into power system; and, final comments.

  3. Model experiment: Heat generation from renewable fuels - recycling fodder drying plant at Apolda, Saxony. Feasibility study; Modellversuch Waermeerzeugung aus Nachwachsenden Rohstoffen: Recycling-Futtermitteltrockenwerk Apolda. Machbarkeitsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    The conditions for the culture of energy plants on agricultural useful area, their ecological classification and the economically energetic utilization of bio fuel insteed of brown coal have been investigated. The priorities of the study were the preliminary work for the design, retrofitting and the generation of a hot gas generator with a heating capacity of 6.5 MW for food with drying as a model plant for the heat generation from renewable raw material in similar cases of application. (orig.). 1 fig., 1 tab., 2 maps. [Deutsch] Die Bedingungen fuer den Anbau von Energiepflanzen auf landwirtschaftlicher Nutzflaeche, deren Oekologische Einordnung und die wirtschaftlich energetische Nutzung des Biobrennstoffes anstelle von Braunkohle wurden untersucht. Schwerpunkte der Studie waren die Vorarbeiten fuer die Planung, die Umruestung und den Betrieb eines Heissgaserzeugers mit einer Waermeleistung von 6,5 MW zu Futtermitteltrocknung als Modellanlage fuer die Waermeerzeugung aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen in gleichgelagerten Anwendungsfaellen. (orig.)

  4. Impact of Dispersed Generation on Optimization of Power Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dispersed generation (DG is defined as any source of electrical energy of limited size that is connected directly to the distribution system of a power network. It is also called decentralized generation, embedded generation or distributed generation. Dispersed generation is any modular generation located at or near the load center. It can be applied in the form of rechargeable, such as, mini-hydro, solar, wind and photovoltaic system or in the form of fuel-based systems, such as, fuel cells and micro-turbines. This paper presents the impact of dispersed generation on the optimization of power exports. Computer simulation was carried out using the hourly loads of the selected distribution feeders on Kaduna distribution system as input parameters for the computation of the line loss reduction ratio index (LLRI. The result showed that the line loss reduced from 163.56MW to 144.61 MW when DG was introduced which is an indication of a reduction in line losses with the installation of DG at the various feeders of the distribution system. In all the feeders where DG is integrated, the average magnitude of the line loss reduction index is 0.8754 MW which is less than 1 indicating a reduction in the electrical line losses with the introduction of DG. The line loss reduction index confirmed that by integrating DG into the distribution system, the distribution losses are reduced and optimization of power exports is achieved The results of this research paper will form a basis to establish that proper location of distributed generation units have significant impact on their effective capacity.

  5. Impact of Renewable Energy Forecast Imperfections on Market-Clearing Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoudis, Christos; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    . Hence, innovative market structures have been proposed to cope with the uncertainty introduced. Nonetheless, the quality of wind power forecasts may affect the market outcome due to their inaccuracy. For this reason, a framework is proposed to examine market-clearing algorithms, both deterministic...... and stochastic approaches, under imperfect wind power forecasts in order to quantify their influence on the market outcome. Results show that mean value mismatch between “estimated” and “realized” distributions has the highest impact on total system cost. Finally, it is examined if cost recovery for market...... players is guaranteed in the presence of inaccurate wind power forecasts....

  6. Using long term synthetic time series to assess the impact of meteorological extreme events on renewable energy systems: a case study of wind and hydro power in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höltinger, Stefan; Schmidt, Johannes; Weterlund, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic time series of renewable energy generation provide important inputs for energy system models that study the transition to low carbon energy systems. The coverage of national energy statistics is usually too short or temporal resolution too low - in particular if meteorological extreme events should be assessed. These extreme events may put high stress on power systems with very high shares of renewables and therefore have to be studied in detail. We use simulated time series of Swedish wind energy generation for a 35 year period based on MERRA reanalysis datasets. The simulation of hydropower generation is more complex and requires hydrological models that combine precipitation data with spatially explicit information on soil type and land cover to simulate river discharge. For this purpose, we use time series of daily river discharge that have been simulated using the open source model HYPE (HYdrological Predictions for the Environment). We compared the derived time series for wind and hydropower generation in the four Swedish bidding areas with respect to their long-term correlation, patterns of seasonality, and length and duration of extreme events. Preliminary results show that expanding wind power capacities could significantly reduce the overall variability of renewable energy generation. Furthermore, the frequency and duration of extreme production events in a combined wind-hydropower system is lower than in a hydropower system only. Further work will study the need for backup capacities in a future Swedish power system with very high shares of hydro, wind and solar power (>90%).

  7. Analysing the interactions between renewable energy promotion and energy efficiency support schemes: The impact of different instruments and design elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del, E-mail: pablo.delrio@cchs.csic.e [Instituto de Politicas y Bienes Publicos, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, renewable energy deployment and energy efficiency are three main energy/environmental goals, particularly in Europe. Their relevance has led to the implementation of support schemes in these realms. Their coexistence may lead to overlaps, synergies and conflicts between them. The aim of this paper is to analyse the interactions between energy efficiency measures and renewable energy promotion, whereas previous analyses have focused on the interactions between emissions trading schemes (ETS) and energy efficiency measures and ETS and renewable energy promotion schemes. Furthermore, the analysis in this paper transcends the 'certificate' debate (i.e., tradable green and white certificates) and considers other instruments, particularly feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity. The goal is to identify positive and negative interactions between energy efficiency and renewable electricity promotion and to assess whether the choice of specific instruments and design elements within those instruments affects the results of the interactions.

  8. Analysing the interactions between renewable energy promotion and energy efficiency support schemes. The impact of different instruments and design elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Rio, Pablo [Instituto de Politicas y Bienes Publicos, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    CO{sub 2} emissions reduction, renewable energy deployment and energy efficiency are three main energy/environmental goals, particularly in Europe. Their relevance has led to the implementation of support schemes in these realms. Their coexistence may lead to overlaps, synergies and conflicts between them. The aim of this paper is to analyse the interactions between energy efficiency measures and renewable energy promotion, whereas previous analyses have focused on the interactions between emissions trading schemes (ETS) and energy efficiency measures and ETS and renewable energy promotion schemes. Furthermore, the analysis in this paper transcends the certificate debate (i.e., tradable green and white certificates) and considers other instruments, particularly feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity. The goal is to identify positive and negative interactions between energy efficiency and renewable electricity promotion and to assess whether the choice of specific instruments and design elements within those instruments affects the results of the interactions. (author)

  9. Renewable energies for power generation in Latin America: market, technologies and perspectives; Energias renovables para generacion de electricidad en America Latina: mercado, tecnologias y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP e International Energy Initiative (Brazil); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico); Gorenstein Dedecca, Joao [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Goncalves Nogueira, Larissa [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Maia Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Navarro, Judith [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Latin America has a wealth of renewable energy resources, although the utilization of these resources has historically been carried out in the region by large hydroelectric energy plants. Nevertheless, according to the present report, there is an immense potential for wider use of new sources of renewable energy, including Small-Scale Hydroelectric (SSH), wind, solar and geothermal. Considering only the renewable sources used for power generation in the countries studied, they are observed to account for between 2.5 and 5% of the current installed capacity of these countries. Brazil and Peru use roughly 5%, Argentina and Colombia 4% and Mexico and Chile 2.5% of current capacity. Among the alternative sources used, biomass is observed to be predominant, corresponding to 50% of the installed capacity of those countries, collectively, followed by SSH (37%) and wind energy (13%). The installed capacity of photovoltaic energy (PV) continues to be insignificant. In this work, large hydroelectric plants are not included as renewable sources, only CHP is included. Among the countries studied, Brazil is currently responsible for more than 70% of the installed capacity of the renewable sources used for power generation, followed by Mexico (9%) and Argentina (7%). Colombia and Central American countries represent 5% of current installed capacity, each, and the remaining countries are responsible for 2%, with the exception of Venezuela. The high contribution of biomass as an alternative source in Brazil and Argentina explains its predominance in this area. With respect to total hydroelectric potential, Mexico has already exploited a large part portion of its economically viable resources, as much as 87.4%, much higher than the average for the region. While Brazil stands out for the large participation of hydroelectric energy, 58.4% of the economically exploitable capacity still remains. Nevertheless, those resources are concentrated in the northern region of the country and

  10. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hhinckley, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of [sup 238]Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  11. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  12. Potential impacts of electric power production utilizing natural gas, renewables and carbon capture and sequestration on US Freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C; Malczynski, Leonard A; Kobos, Peter H; Klise, Geoffrey T; Shuster, Erik

    2013-08-06

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has important implications relative to future thermoelectric water use. A bounding analysis is performed using past greenhouse gas emission policy proposals and assumes either all effected capacity retires (lower water use bound) or is retrofitted (upper bound). The analysis is performed in the context of recent trends in electric power generation expansion, namely high penetration of natural gas and renewables along with constrained cooling system options. Results indicate thermoelectric freshwater withdrawals nationwide could increase by roughly 1% or decrease by up to 60% relative to 2009 levels, while consumption could increase as much as 21% or decrease as much as 28%. To identify where changes in freshwater use might be problematic at a regional level, electric power production has been mapped onto watersheds with limited water availability (where consumption exceeds 70% of gauged streamflow). Results suggest that between 0.44 and 0.96 Mm(3)/d of new thermoelectric freshwater consumption could occur in watersheds with limited water availability, while power plant retirements in these watersheds could yield 0.90 to 1.0 Mm(3)/d of water savings.

  13. Power-to-Syngas - an enabling technology for the transition of the energy system? Production of tailored synfuels and chemicals using renewably generated electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foit, Severin; Eichel, Rüdiger-A; Vinke, Izaak C; de Haart, Lambertus G J

    2016-10-07

    Power-to-X concepts promise a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and simultaneously guaranteeing a safe energy supply even at high share of renewable power generation, thus becoming a cornerstone of a sustainable energy system. Power-to-Syngas, i.e. the electrochemical conversion of steam and carbon dioxide with the use of renewably generated electricity to syngas for the production of synfuels and high-value chemicals, offers an efficient technology to couple different energy-intense sectors, such as 'traffic and transportation' and 'chemical industry'. Consequently, co-electrolysis can be regarded as a key-enabling step for a transition of the energy system that offers additionally features of CO2-valorization and closed carbon cycles. In this Minireview, we outline and discuss advantages and current technical limitations of low- and high-temperature co-electrolysis. Advances in both, a fundamental understanding of the basic reaction schemes and in stable high-performance materials are essential to further promote co-electrolysis.

  14. Role of storage technologies to integrate high shares of renewable electricity generation into the electricity system of Germany. Simulation and optimization; Rolle und Bedeutung der Stromspeicher bei hohen Anteilen erneuerbarer Energien in Deutschland. Speichersimulation und Betriebsoptimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Niklas

    2013-06-13

    The share of renewable electricity generation of gross electricity consumption in Germany increased from 6.8 % to about 20 % during the years of 2000 and 2011. This share will increase even more in the future. The greater part of the renewable electricity generation is characterized by significant fluctuations, which can only be planned to a limited extent. Hence, the electricity system in Germany faces the challenge to integrate an increasing amount of fluctuating renewable electricity generation. Additionally the system stability needs to be ensured, despite a decreasing capacity in conventional power plants. One option to support the integration of large amounts of renewable electricity generation and to enhance system stability is the deployment of storage technologies. The aim of this research was to analyze the role of storage technologies to integrate high shares of renewable electricity generation into the electricity system of Germany. To achieve this aim, adiabatic compressed air energy storage, diabatic compressed air energy storage and mobile battery storage systems were simulated and compared with a pumped hydro storage as the reference storage system. Key characteristics of these storage systems were modeled within a fundamental stochastic unit commitment model of the German power markets (Joint-Market-Model) in order to analyze the effect of the implementation of these storage systems on the overall cost of the electricity system. Additionally, the operation of the storages in an electricity system with high shares of renewable energy was evaluated. The results show that the integration of large shares of renewable electricity generation into the grid can only be achieved with a substantial implementation of storage systems. To integrate 50 % of renewable energy, a storage power of 27 GW and storage capacity of 245 GWh is needed. For a renewable energy share of 80 %, a storage power of 78 GW and a storage capacity of 6.3 TWh are necessary. A 100

  15. Power generation from renewable energy - Future investments with perspectives. EEG report of experience 2007 and EEG 2009 in a survey; Strom aus erneuerbaren Energien - Zukunftsinvestition mit Perspektiven. EEG-Erfahrungsbericht 2007 und EEG 2009 im Ueberblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerrschmidt, Wolfhart; Buesgen, Uwe (comps.)

    2009-06-15

    In the contribution under consideration, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on future investments with perspectives according to power generation from renewable energy. This contribution consists of the following articles: (1) Renewable energy in Germany: A story of success; (2) From the Act for enhanced use of electricity to the renewable energy law EEG 2009; (3) Development of power generation from renewable energy; (4) Ecological and economic efficiency of renewable energy; (5) Report of experience in the centre: The history of development of EEG 2009; (6) Economic boundary conditions according to EEG 2009; (7) The persisting hydropower; (8) The manifold biomass; (9) Landfill gas, sewage gas, mine gas: Deserved run-out models; (10) Geothermal energy: Great potential in ''deep'' sleep; (11) Wind energy at land: No. 1 in power generation; (12) Offshore wind energy in the starting lines; (13) Photovoltaics: fascinating perspectives; (14) Further new specifications; (15) Future extension of power generation from renewable energy - perspectives.

  16. Power generation from renewable energy - Future investments with perspectives. EEG report of experience 2007 and EEG 2009 in a survey; Strom aus erneuerbaren Energien - Zukunftsinvestition mit Perspektiven. EEG-Erfahrungsbericht 2007 und EEG 2009 im Ueberblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerrschmidt, Wolfhart; Buesgen, Uwe (comps.)

    2009-06-15

    In the contribution under consideration, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on future investments with perspectives according to power generation from renewable energy. This contribution consists of the following articles: (1) Renewable energy in Germany: A story of success; (2) From the Act for enhanced use of electricity to the renewable energy law EEG 2009; (3) Development of power generation from renewable energy; (4) Ecological and economic efficiency of renewable energy; (5) Report of experience in the centre: The history of development of EEG 2009; (6) Economic boundary conditions according to EEG 2009; (7) The persisting hydropower; (8) The manifold biomass; (9) Landfill gas, sewage gas, mine gas: Deserved run-out models; (10) Geothermal energy: Great potential in ''deep'' sleep; (11) Wind energy at land: No. 1 in power generation; (12) Offshore wind energy in the starting lines; (13) Photovoltaics: fascinating perspectives; (14) Further new specifications; (15) Future extension of power generation from renewable energy - perspectives.

  17. Renewable enery-the path to sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Xiaomei; Brett Rose

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to address some lingering debates within sustainability studies by revealing the connections between renewable energy,consumption and sustainability.Using data from 30 OECD countries,the article amines the connections via regression and geospatial analysis Findings from the quantitative analysis indicate that about 50% of the variation in sustainability is accounted for by the degree of renewables consumption.The geospatial analysis visually illustrates the intimate connections between the two variables.Theoreticallv,renewable energy,relates to sustainability in three dimensions.The first dimension is economic.Relying on traditional fossil fuels eventually will bring our economy to a stop.Renewable energies,however,are able to secure our energy supply into an indefinite future.The second dimension links to ethics.To leave an intact planet to future generations is a moral responsibility of our generation.The current energy supply system is built on depletion of natural resources,while the sources of renewable energy are vast and constantlv replenished The last dimension is ecologic.How to allocate a porper apportionment of the global hiosphere between humankind and the other life on the earth is a critical issue related to sustainability.By using renewable energv,we can greatly reduce our impact on biodiversity and therefore strike a balance between humankind and other life.Overall the research suggests that developing renewables can and in many cases does sustain a nation's economic growth while simultaneously protecting the environment.It is a win-win situation.This finding undoubtedly points out a practical and realistic path for sudtainable development.

  18. Impact of Different Time Series Streamflow Data on Energy Generation of a Run-of-River Hydropower Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.; Cetinkaya, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Global issues such as population increase, power supply crises, oil prices, social and environmental concerns have been forcing countries to search for alternative energy sources such as renewable energy to satisfy the sustainable development goals. Hydropower is the most common form of renewable energy in the world. Hydropower does not require any fuel, produces relatively less pollution and waste and it is a reliable energy source with relatively low operating cost. In order to estimate the average annual energy production of a hydropower plant, sufficient and dependable streamflow data is required. The goal of this study is to investigate impact of streamflow data on annual energy generation of Balkusan HEPP which is a small run-of-river hydropower plant at Karaman, Turkey. Two different stream gaging stations are located in the vicinity of Balkusan HEPP and these two stations have different observation periods: one from 1986 to 2004 and the other from 2000 to 2009. These two observation periods show different climatic characteristics. Thus, annual energy estimations based on data from these two different stations differ considerably. Additionally, neither of these stations is located at the power plant axis, thus streamflow observations from these two stream gaging stations need to be transferred to the plant axis. This requirement introduces further errors into energy estimations. Impact of different streamflow data and transfer of streamflow observations to plant axis on annual energy generation of a small hydropower plant is investigated in this study.

  19. Evaluation of the Impact of Wind Generation on the Electricity Market Prices and on the Profitability of New Wind Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A. J.; Saraiva, J. T.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a Dynamic Model of the electricity sector that can be used to simulate the evolution of some key variables on the long term, namely the evolution of the electricity price, of the demand and of the capacity factors of the technologies in the generation mix. This model can be used in different ways and by several agents, for instance to estimate the impact on the electricity price of the increasing presence of renewable power stations, namely using wind power and PV systems. In several countries these stations are paid feed-in tariffs with a fixed price but in some cases this scheme is under discussion and there are opinions that payments determined by the market price are more adequate and would bring fewer costs to final consumers. Such a change has to be carefully evaluated given that the presence of renewable stations bidding at an infra marginal price will affect the price itself. The model described in this paper can be used in a profitable way both by governmental agencies when preparing or studying alternative remuneration schemes to renewable stations or by promoters themselves to get more insight to the profitability of their investments, namely if the fixed feed-in tariffs in force in several countries are changed.

  20. Evaluation of the Impact of Wind Generation on the Electricity Market Prices and on the Profitability of New Wind Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraiva J. T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a Dynamic Model of the electricity sector that can be used to simulate the evolution of some key variables on the long term, namely the evolution of the electricity price, of the demand and of the capacity factors of the technologies in the generation mix. This model can be used in different ways and by several agents, for instance to estimate the impact on the electricity price of the increasing presence of renewable power stations, namely using wind power and PV systems. In several countries these stations are paid feed-in tariffs with a fixed price but in some cases this scheme is under discussion and there are opinions that payments determined by the market price are more adequate and would bring fewer costs to final consumers. Such a change has to be carefully evaluated given that the presence of renewable stations bidding at an infra marginal price will affect the price itself. The model described in this paper can be used in a profitable way both by governmental agencies when preparing or studying alternative remuneration schemes to renewable stations or by promoters themselves to get more insight to the profitability of their investments, namely if the fixed feed-in tariffs in force in several countries are changed.

  1. Influence of impact conditions on plasma generation during hypervelocity impact by aluminum projectile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weidong; Lv, Yangtao; Li, Jianqiao; Wang, Cheng; Ning, Jianguo

    2016-07-01

    For describing hypervelocity impact (relative low-speed as related to space debris and much lower than travelling speed of meteoroids) phenomenon associated with plasma generation, a self-developed 3D code was advanced to numerically simulate projectiles impacting on a rigid wall. The numerical results were combined with a new ionization model which was developed in an early study to calculate the ionized materials during the impact. The calculated results of ionization were compared with the empirical formulas concluded by experiments in references and a good agreement was obtained. Then based on the reliable 3D numerical code, a series of impacts with different projectile configurations were simulated to investigate the influence of impact conditions on hypervelocity impact generated plasma. It was found that the form of empirical formula needed to be modified. A new empirical formula with a critical impact velocity was advanced to describe the velocity dependence of plasma generation and the parameters of the modified formula were ensured by the comparison between the numerical predictions and the empirical formulas. For different projectile configurations, the changes of plasma charges with time are different but the integrals of charges on time almost stayed in the same level.

  2. Low frequency variability of European weather patterns and its impact on power generation in northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masato, Giacomo; Slavov, Georgi

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that Europe is becoming increasingly reliant on the power generation from the solar and wind sources. Germany is a leader in such a trend - it is then interesting to study to what extent the low-frequency variability of the European weather patterns impacts the power production in this country. Rather than identifying such patterns starting from the weather angle, four weather regimes are identified that maximize and minimize the production of solar and wind power. The analysis of their past occurrence and trends allows us to estimate the potential amount of energy produced for any given year (assuming a constant installed capacity). It is found that the sole change in such weather regimes over the recent years is able to drive up to a 20% annual difference in power generation. This also throws an interesting challenge at the scientific community, whereby the future projection of these regimes can heavily influence both the short- and long-term Eurozone plans in terms of European renewable energy targets.

  3. Demand response impacts on off-grid hybrid photovoltaic-diesel generator microgrids

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron St. Leger

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid microgrids consisting of diesel generator set(s) and converter based power sources, such as solar photovoltaic or wind sources, offer an alternative to generator based off-grid power systems. The hybrid approach has been shown to be economical in many off-grid applications and can result in reduced generator operation, fuel requirements, and maintenance. However, the intermittent nature of demand and renewable energy sources typically require energy storage, such as batteries, to prope...

  4. Increased auctioning in the EU ETS and trade in guarantees of origin for renewables: a comparison of the impact on power sector producer rents

    OpenAIRE

    Ragwitz, Mario; Resch, Gustav; Schleich, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    The European Commission is currently reviewing two major policy instruments which will pose major economic challenges and opportunities for EU power producers. First, the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is likely to include a high percentage of auctioning. Second, support schemes for electricity from renewable energy sources may involve open private-actor trade of guarantees of origins (GO). This paper provides a first coarse comparison of the impacts of these policy changes on pow...

  5. Decentralized power generation from solid biomass in the course of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG); Dezentrale Stromerzeugung aus fester Biomasse im Rahmen des Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetzes (EEG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauter, Philipp; Witt, Janet; Billig, Eric [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme

    2012-07-01

    The increased use of renewable energy sources is the stated goal of the German and European climate policy. According to the German government, in 2020, 35 % of electricity production will be covered by renewable energy (currently 20 %). To achieve this goal, the federal government has enacted the EEG. Currently, solid biomass plays an important role by having a share of 10 % of renewable electricity production while providing combined heat and power (CHP). Since the enactment of the EEG in 2000, the number, as well as the installed capacity of biomass (thermal) power plants (CHP) increased more than tenfold. During the first two versions of the EEG (EEG 2000 and EEG 2004) mainly larger (> MW{sub el}) and medium (> 500 MW{sub el}) sized biomass CHP-plants were installed. Later on (EEG 2009), progressively smaller biomass CHP-plants were built. This is due to the increasing scarcity of fuel wood as well as technological advances in power generation of small biomass CHP-plants - initially in the use of ORC turbines and most recently in the development of thermochemical gasifiers with a gas engine attached. In total, German CHP-plants using solid biomass produced 9 590 GWhel EEG relevant electricity in 2011. Therefore, more than 7.8 million tbone dry wood is used (except the fuel used in CHP-plants of the pulp and paper industry). It is expected, that the use of other types of biomass, such as straw, miscanthus and other energy crops will increase in the near future and mostly small, heat-operated biomass CHP-plants will be installed. (orig.)

  6. Economic and industrial development. EID - EMPLOY. Final report. Task 1. Review of approaches for employment impact assessment of renewable energy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, Barbara [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Nathani, Carsten; Resch, Gustav

    2011-11-15

    The objective of this study is to provide an overview of existing impact assessment studies that analyse employment impacts of renewable energy (RE) deployment and to show which methodological approaches are best suitable to assess employment effect in the field of RE- electricity. A first review shows a large variety of impact assessment studies in the field of energy deployment applying a rather broad array of methodological approaches. Bounding the studies to RE-electricity considerably reduces the number of studies, but not necessarily the number of approaches. Due to different approaches the questions answered by the impact assessment studies cover a wide range that captures e.g. limited impacts in the RE industry as well as overarching employment impacts in the overall economy. First, based on the research focus of the studies and their impacts (Figure 0-1), we classify the assessed studies on employment impacts into two groups: gross employment studies and net employment studies. They aim to answer different policy questions and capture different effects: - Gross employment studies focus on the economic relevance of the RE industry in terms of employment, thus on the number of jobs provided in the RE industry and the structural analysis of employment in the RE industry. Furthermore employment in supplying industries are also included as indirect or induced impacts. The aim is to provide transparency on employment in an industry that is in the public interest but not adequately represented in official statistics, and, furthermore, enabling monitoring of this industry in the course of RE promotion. Gross studies take into account positive effects of RE deployment. - Net employment impact studies aim to assess the overall economic impact of promoting RE deployment, thus the change of the number of jobs in the total economy. For this, they take into account negative and positive effects of RE deployment on employment in all economic sectors and hence provide a

  7. Are government policies effective in promoting deployment of renewable electricity resources?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrimali, Gireesh, E-mail: gireesh_shrimali@isb.edu [Indian School of Business, Hyderabad, AP (India); Kniefel, Joshua [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Using a panel data over 50 US states and years 1991-2007, this paper uses a state fixed-effects model with state-specific time-trends to estimate the effects of state policies on the penetration of various emerging renewable electricity sources, including wind, biomass, geothermal, and solar photovoltaic. Renewable portfolio standards with either capacity or sales requirements have a significant impact on the penetration of all types of renewables-however, this impact is variable depending on the type of renewable source: it is negative for combined renewables, wind, and biomass; and positive for geothermal and solar. Further, clean energy funds and required green power options mostly result in increasing the penetration of all types of renewables. On the other hand, voluntary renewable portfolio standards as well as state green power purchasing programs are found to be ineffective in increasing the penetration of any type of renewable source. Finally, economic variables, such as electricity price, natural gas price, and per capita GDP as well as structural variables, such as league of conservation voters rating and the share of coal-generated electricity are found to be generally insignificant, suggesting the crucial role of policy in increasing the penetration of renewables. - Highlights: > Ascertains the impact of state policies on increasing the renewable capacity. > Renewable portfolio requirements have an (sometimes unexpected) impact. > Clean energy funds and required green power options have a positive impact. > Voluntary renewable standards as well as state green power purchasing requirements are ineffective. > Economics as well as political and structural variables are ineffective.

  8. Renewable energy education in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

  9. 海洋可再生能源发电现状与发展趋势%Current Situation and Development of Marine Renewable Energy Power Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟国; 刘玉田; 王伟胜

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid growth of fossil energy consumption, pressure of carbon emission reduction becomes higher, and more attention has been paid to marine renewable energy power generation. Offshore wind energy, tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, ocean thermal energy conversion and salinity gradient energy generation are discussed by taxonomic study. The worldwide resource distributions, developmental trajectories and current status are introduced and analyzed respectively. The obstructions hindering their wide scale exploitation and commercialization are also focused on, then some possible solutions, development trends and prospects are put forward. The severe situation of energy shortage, carbon emission and environmental pollution can be effectively alleviated by marine renewable energy power generation technology.%随着化石能源消耗的迅速增长,低碳减排压力不断增加,海洋可再生能源发电日益受到重视。分类介绍海上风能、潮汐能、潮流能、波浪能、海洋温差能和盐度差能等海洋发电方式资源分布、发展历程和现状,分析海洋可再生能源开发所面临的主要问题,提出相关建议,指出发展趋势和前景。正在迅速发展的海洋可再生能源发电技术,不仅能够缓解能源紧张的现状,更可以有效实现低碳减排和环境保护。

  10. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-12-31

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the convertor housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  11. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  12. Impact-driven shock waves and thermonuclear neutron generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gus' kov, S Yu; Demchenko, N N; Doskoch, I Ya; Rozanov, V B [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Azechi, H; Murakami, M; Sakaiya, T; Watari, T [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Zmitrenko, N V, E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.r [Institute for Mathematical Modeling of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-09-15

    Impact-driven shock waves, thermonuclear plasma and neutron yield were investigated. The results of 2D numerical simulations and Gekko/HIPER laser experiments on the collision of a laser-accelerated disk-projectile with a massive target, both containing (CD){sub n}-material, are discussed. A two-temperature model of the non-equilibrium plasma created by impact-driven shock waves due to the collision of a laser-accelerated planar projectile with a massive target was developed and used for analysis of the numerical and experimental results. The model defines the characteristics of shock waves and plasmas (including their lifetime) as well as neutron yields in both the colliding objects as functions of velocity, density and mass of the projectile-impactor just before collision. The neutron yield generated during the period of laser-driven acceleration of the impactor was also determined. Two effects were discovered that exert a substantial influence on the plasma parameters and neutron yield. The first of them relates to the formation of the pre-impact state of the impactor. It decreases the projectile density due to thermal expansion of its matter through a free boundary during the period of laser-driven acceleration. The other relates to the formation of impact-produced plasma. Predominant heating of the ion component of plasma leads to the existence of a non-equilibrium two-temperature plasma during the period of electron-ion relaxation.

  13. Electrical efficiency and renewable energy - Economical alternatives to large-scale power generation; Stromeffizienz und erneuerbare Energien - Wirtschaftliche alternative zu Grosskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettli, B.; Hammer, S.; Moret, F.; Iten, R. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nordmann, T. [TNC Consulting AG, Erlenbach (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This final report for WWF Switzerland, Greenpeace Switzerland, the Swiss Energy Foundation SES, Pro Natura and the Swiss Cantons of Basel City and Geneva takes a look at the energy-relevant effects of the propositions made by Swiss electricity utilities for large-scale power generation. These proposals are compared with a strategy that proposes investments in energy-efficiency and the use of renewable sources of energy. The effects of both scenarios on the environment and the risks involved are discussed, as are the investments involved. The associated effects on the Swiss national economy are also discussed. For the efficiency and renewables scenario, two implementation variants are discussed: Inland investments and production are examined as are foreign production options and/or import from foreign countries. The methods used in the study are introduced and discussed. Investment and cost considerations, earnings and effects on employment are also reviewed. The report is completed with an extensive appendix which, amongst other things, includes potential reviews, cost estimates and a discussion on 'smart grids'

  14. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    2011-01-01

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  15. Reduced storage and balancing needs in a fully renewable European power system with excess wind and solar power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Greiner, Martin; von Bremen, Lüder

    The storage and balancing needs of a simplified European power system, which is based on wind and solar power generation only, are derived from an extensive weather-driven modeling of hourly power mismatches between generation and load. The storage energy capacity, the annual balancing energy...... and the balancing power are found to depend significantly on the mixing ratio between wind and solar power generation. They decrease strongly with the overall excess generation. At 50% excess generation the required long-term storage energy capacity and annual balancing energy amount to 1% of the annual consumption....... The required balancing power turns out to be 25% of the average hourly load. These numbers are in agreement with current hydro storage lakes in Scandinavia and the Alps, as well as with potential hydrogen storage in mostly North-German salt caverns....

  16. Navajo Generating Station and Air Visibility Regulations: Alternatives and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; Haase, S.; Brinkman, G.; Funk, K.; Gelman, R.; Lantz, E.; Larney, C.; Peterson, D.; Worley, C.; Liebsch, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pursuant to the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in 2009 its intent to issue rules for controlling emissions from Navajo Generating Station that could affect visibility at the Grand Canyon and at several other national parks and wilderness areas. The final rule will conform to what EPA determines is the best available retrofit technology (BART) for the control of haze-causing air pollutants, especially nitrogen oxides. While EPA is ultimately responsible for setting Navajo Generating Station's BART standards in its final rule, it will be the U.S. Department of the Interior's responsibility to manage compliance and the related impacts. This study aims to assist both Interior and EPA by providing an objective assessment of issues relating to the power sector.

  17. Financial vulnerability of the electricity sector to drought, and the impacts of changes in generation mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, J.

    2015-12-01

    Electric power utilities are increasingly cognizant of the risks water scarcity and rising temperatures pose for generators that use water as a "fuel" (i.e., hydroelectric dams) and generators that use water for cooling (i.e., coal, natural gas and nuclear). At the same time, utilities are under increasing market and policy pressure to retire coal-fired generation, the primary source of carbon emissions in the electric power sector. Due to falling costs of renewables and low natural gas prices, retiring coal fired generation is mostly being replaced with combined cycle natural gas, wind and solar. An immediate benefit of this shift has been a reduction in water withdrawals per megawatt-hour and reduced thermal impacts in surface water systems. In the process of retiring older coal-fired power plants, many of which use water intensive open-loop cooling systems, utilities are making their systems less vulnerable to water scarcity and higher water temperatures. However, it is not clear whether financial risks from water scarcity will decrease as result of this change. In particular, the choice to replace coal with natural gas combined cycle plants leaves utilities financially exposed to natural gas prices, especially during droughts when natural gas generation is used to replace lost hydropower production. Utility-scale solar, while more expensive than natural gas combined cycle generation, gives utilities an opportunity to simultaneously reduce their exposure to water scarcity and fuel price risk. In this study, we assess how switching from coal to natural gas and solar changes a utility's financial exposure to drought. We model impacts on retail prices and a utility's rate of return under current conditions and non-stationarity in natural gas prices and temperature and streamflows to determine whether increased exposure to natural gas prices offsets corresponding gains in water use efficiency. We also evaluate whether utility scale solar is an effective hedge

  18. An Algorithmic Game Approach for Demand Side Management in Smart Grid with Distributed Renewable Power Generation and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Shiou Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of minimizing electricity cost and the peak system load in smart grids with distributed renewable energy resources is studied. Unlike prior research works that either assume all of the jobs are interruptible or power-shiftable, this paper focuses on more challenging scenarios in which jobs are non-interruptible and non-power-shiftable. In addition, as more and more newly-built homes have rooftop solar arrays, it is assumed that all users are equipped with a solar-plus-battery system in this paper. Thus, power can be drawn from the battery as needed to reduce the cost of electricity or to lower the overall system load. With a quadratic load-dependent cost function, this paper first shows that the electricity cost minimization problem in such a setting is NP-hard and presents a distributed demand-side management algorithm, called DDSM, to solve this. Experimental results show that the proposed DDSM algorithm is effective, scalable and converges to a Nash equilibrium in finite rounds.

  19. Recovery Act: Beneficial CO{sub 2} Capture in an Integrated Algal Biorefinery for Renewable Generation and Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Christopher; Hampel, Kristin; Rismani-Yazdi, Hamid; Kessler, Ben; Moats, Kenneth; Park, Jonathan; Schwenk, Jacob; White, Nicholas; Bakhit, Anis; Bargiel, Jeff; Allnutt, F. C.

    2014-03-31

    DOE DE-FE0001888 Award, Phase 2, funded research, development, and deployment (RD&D) of Phycal’s pilot-scale, algae to biofuels, bioproducts, and processing facility in Hawai’i. Phycal’s algal-biofuel and bioproducts production system integrates several novel and mature technologies into a system that captures and reuses industrially produced carbon dioxide emissions, which would otherwise go directly to the atmosphere, for the manufacture of renewable energy products and bioproducts from algae (note that these algae are not genetically engineered). At the end of Phase 2, the project as proposed was to encompass 34 acres in Central Oahu and provide large open ponds for algal mass culturing, heterotrophic reactors for the Heteroboost™ process, processing facilities, water recycling facilities, anaerobic digestion facilities, and other integrated processes. The Phase 2 award was divided into two modules, Modules 1 & 2, where the Module 1 effort addressed critical scaling issues, tested highest risk technologies, and set the overall infrastructure needed for a Module 2. Phycal terminated the project prior to executing construction of the first Module. This Final Report covers the development research, detailed design, and the proposed operating strategy for Module 1 of Phase 2.

  20. Renewable Energy: Ready to Meet Its Promise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, S. R.; Billman, L. L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper will briefly review the technical status, cost, and applications of major renewable energy technologies in 1998, and also discuss some of the socioeconomic impacts of wide-scale adoption of renewables.

  1. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hein, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, D.; Belzer, D.B.; Hadley, S.W.; Markel, T.; Marnay, C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  4. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3. End-Use Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  5. Renewable Electricity: Insights for the Coming Decade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, Camila [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Pless, Jacquelyn [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A sophisticated set of renewable electricity (RE) generation technologies is now commercially available. Globally, RE captured approximately half of all capacity additions since 2011. The cost of RE is already competitive with fossil fuels in some areas around the world, and prices are anticipated to continue to decline over the next decade. RE options, led by wind and solar, are part of a suite of technologies and business solutions that are transforming electricity sectors around the world. Renewable deployment is expected to continue due to: increasingly competitive economics; favorable environmental characteristics such as low water use, and minimal local air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; complementary risk profiles when paired with natural gas generators; strong support from stakeholders. Despite this positive outlook for renewables, the collapse in global oil prices since mid-2014 and continued growth in natural gas supply in the United States--due to the development of low-cost shale gas--raise questions about the potential impacts of fossil fuel prices on RE. Today, oil plays a very minor role in the electricity sectors of most countries, so direct impacts on RE are likely to be minimal (except where natural gas prices are indexed on oil). Natural gas and RE generating options appear to be more serious competitors than oil and renewables. Low gas prices raise the hurdle for RE to be cost competitive. Additionally, although RE emits far less GHG than natural gas, both natural gas and RE offer the benefits of reducing carbon relative to coal and oil (see Section 4.1 for more detail on the GHG intensity of electricity technologies). However, many investors and decision makers are becoming aware of the complementary benefits of pairing natural gas and renewables to minimize risk of unstable fuel prices and maintain the reliability of electricity to the grid.

  6. Nonlinear and Nonparametric Stochastic Model to Represent Uncertainty of Renewable Generation in Operation and Expansion Planning Studies of Electrical Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, T. M.; Alberto, J.

    2015-12-01

    The uncertainties of wind and solar generation patterns tends to be a critical factor in operation and expansion planning studies of electrical energy systems, as these generations are highly dependent on atmospheric variables which are difficult to predict. Traditionally, the uncertainty of renewable generation has been represented through scenarios generated by autoregressive parametric models (ARMA, PAR(p), SARIMA, etc.), that have been widely used for simulating the uncertainty of inflows and electrical demand. These methods have 3 disadvantages: (i) it is assumed that the random variables can be modelled through a known probability distribution, usually Weibull, log-normal, or normal, which are not always adequate; (ii) the temporal and spatial coupling of the represented variables are generally constructed from the Pearson Correlation, strictly requiring the hypothesis of data normality, that in the case of wind and solar generation is not met; (iii) there is an exponential increase in the model complexity due to its dimensionality. This work proposes the use of a stochastic model built from the combination of a non-parametric approach of a probability density function (the kernel density estimation method) with a dynamic Bayesian network framework. The kernel density estimation method is used to obtain the probability density function of the random variables directly from historical records, eliminating the need of choosing prior distributions. The Bayesian network allows the representation of nonlinearities in the temporal coupling of the time series, since they allow reproducing a compact probability distribution of a variable, subject to preceding stages. The proposed model was used to the generate wind power scenarios in long-term operation studies of the Brazilian Electric System, in which inflows of major rivers were also represented. The results show a considerable quality gain when compared to scenarios generated by traditional approaches.

  7. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  8. Renewable Electricity Generation via Solar-Powered Methanol Reforming: Hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems Based on Novel Non-Concentrating, Intermediate-Temperature Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Daniel J.

    Tremendous research efforts have been conducted studying the capturing and conversion of solar energy. Solar thermal power systems offer a compelling opportunity for renewable energy utilization with high efficiencies and excellent cost-effectiveness. The goal of this work was to design a non-concentrating collector capable of reaching temperatures above 250 °C, use this collector to power methanol steam reforming, and operate a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell using the generated hydrogen. The study presents the construction and characterization of a non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature, fin-in-tube evacuated solar collector, made of copper and capable of reaching stagnation temperatures of 268.5 °C at 1000 W/m2 irradiance. The collector was used to power methanol steam reforming, including the initial heating and vaporization of liquid reactants and the final heating of the gaseous reactants. A preferential oxidation (PROX) catalyst was used to remove CO from simulated reformate gas, and this product gas was used to operate a PEM fuel cell. The results show 1) that the outlet temperature is not limited by heat transfer from the absorber coating to the heat transfer fluid, but by the amount of solar energy absorbed. This implicates a constant heat flux description of the heat transfer process and allows for the usage of materials with lower thermal conductivity than copper. 2) It is possible to operate a PEM fuel cell from reformate gas if a PROX catalyst is used to remove CO from the gas. 3) The performance of the fuel cell is only slightly decreased (~4%) by CO2 dilution present in the reformate and PROX gas. These results provide a foundation for the first renewable electricity generation via solar-powered methanol reforming through a hybrid PEM fuel cell system based on novel non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature solar collectors.

  9. Factors of impact on the evolution of electricity markets from renewable energy sources: a comparison between Romania and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodnițchi Roxana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When talking about the future of Europe we also think about alternative energy sources. It is up to national governments to decide how to encourage investments in this field in order to contribute to the 20-20-20 EU-objective. Until the network delivery cost for electricity produced from renewable sources will be comparable to the cost for energy from traditional sources ("grid parity", the development of businesses and markets for electricity from renewable sources is going to be driven by support schemes. The state of the grids and the facility of grid-access constitute another two key factors influencing the development of this sector. Last but not least, the question of policy consistency is raised within the business community. Over the past years some support schemes have proved to be more effective than others, and grid conditions have also evolved. Policies supporting the development of renewables also changed at EU-level and at national levels. Based on statistics, scientific literature and the feedback of the business community, this study aims to analyse the development of renewable energy sectors in the European Union by comparing Germany’s and Romania’s experience. Also this study describes the current and expected future market situation in these countries relying on data gained from questionnaires and interviews with specialists in the renewable field.

  10. US Renewable Futures in the GCAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.; Karas, Joseph F.; Nathan, Mayda

    2011-10-06

    This project examines renewable energy deployment in the United States using a version of the GCAM integrated assessment model with detailed a representation of renewables, the GCAM-RE. Electricity generation was modeled in four generation segments and 12-subregions. This level of regional and sectoral detail allows a more explicit representation of renewable energy generation. Wind, solar thermal power, and central solar PV plants are implemented in explicit resource classes with new intermittency parameterizations appropriate for each technology. A scenario analysis examines a range of assumptions for technology characteristics, climate policy, and long-distance transmission. We find that renewable generation levels grow over the century in all scenarios. As expected, renewable generation increases with lower renewable technology costs, more stringent climate policy, and if alternative low-carbon technology are not available. The availability of long distance transmission lowers policy costs and changes the renewable generation mix.

  11. The impact of next-generation sequencing on genomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhang; Rod Chiodini; Ahmed Badr; Genfa Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews basic concepts,general applications,and the potential impact of next-generation sequencing(NGS)technologies on genomics,with particular reference to currently available and possible future platforms and bioinformatics.NGS technologies have demonstrated the capacity to sequence DNA at unprecedented speed,thereby enabling previously unimaginable scientific achievements and novel biological applications.But,the massive data produced by NGS also presents a significant challenge for data storage,analyses,and management solutions.Advanced bioinformatic tools are essential for the successful application of NGS technology.As evidenced throughout this review,NGS technologies will have a striking impact on genomic research and the entire biological field.With its ability to tackle the unsolved challenges unconquered by previous genomic technologies,NGS is likely to unravel the complexity of the human genome in terms of genetic variations,some of which may be confined to susceptible loci for some common human conditions.The impact of NGS technologies on genomics will be far reaching and likely change the field for years to come.

  12. Impact-generated Hydrothermal Activity at the Chicxulub Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, D. A.; Zurcher, L.; Abramov, O.

    2007-05-01

    Borehole samples recovered from PEMEX exploration boreholes and an ICDP scientific borehole indicate the Chicxulub impact event generated hydrothermal alteration throughout a large volume of the Maya Block beneath the crater floor and extending across the bulk of the ~180 km diameter crater. The first indications of hydrothermal alteration were observed in the crater discovery samples from the Yucatan-6 borehole and manifest itself in the form of anhydrite and quartz veins. Continuous core from the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole reveal a more complex and temporally extensive alteration sequence: following a brief period at high temperatures, impact- melt-bearing polymict breccias and a thin, underlying unit of impact melt were subjected to metasomatism, producing alkali feldspar, sphene, apatite, and magnetite. As the system continued to cool, smectite-series phyllosilicates appeared. A saline solution was involved. Stable isotopes suggest the fluid was dominated by a basinal brine created mostly from existing groundwater of the Yucatan Peninsula, although contributions from down-welling water also occurred in some parts of the system. Numerical modeling of the hydrothermal system suggests circulation occurred for 1.5 to 2.3 Myr, depending on the permeability of the system. Our understanding of the hydrothermal system, however, is still crude. Additional core recovery projects, particularly into the central melt sheet, are needed to better evaluate the extent and duration of hydrothermal alteration.

  13. Waves in Periodic Dissipative Laminate Metamaterial Generated by Plate Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Navarro, Pedro; Benson, David; Nesterenko, Vitali

    2015-06-01

    Waves generated by plate impact loading of Al/W laminates with different size of cell were investigated numerically depending on the impactor/cell mass ratio. The materials model took into account viscoplastic behavior of materials. It was observed that this mass ratio has a direct impact on the structure of stress pulses traveling through the composite. At the small impactor/cell mass ratio travelling waves closely resembling solitary waves were quickly formed near the impacted surface. They propagate as quasistationary weakly attenuating localized pulses. The properties of these pulses were satisfactory described based on a theoretical model using dispersive and nonlinear parameters of the materials similar to solitary solutions for the Korteweg-de Vries equation (KdV). The temperature at given pressure at the maximum is dramatically different then the temperature corresponding to the shock wave at the same pressure reflecting a different paths of loading. Increase of impactor/cell mass ratio results in the train of solitary like pulses which number increased with the increase of the impactor/cell mass ratio. At large impactor/cell mass ratio oscillatory stationary shock waves were formed. The leading front of these stationary shock waves was closely described by a solitary like pulse observed at small impactor/cell mass ratio. One of the authors (PFN) was supported by UCMexus Fellowship

  14. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, D. N.; Smith, P.; Davies, C.; McNamara, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and likely to play a major role in transitioning to a lower CO2 energy system. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on broader sustainability encompassed by ecosystem services, further enhanced by ongoing climate change. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers ecosystem services at a continental scale including biodiversity and pollination, water and air security, erosion control and soil security, GHG emissions, soil C and cultural services like tourism value. The technical distribution potential and likely yield of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC; willow and poplar) was modelled using ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor models. In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models are utilised. We will present results for synergies and trade-offs between land use change and ecosystem services, impact on food security and land management. Further, we will show modelled yield maps for different cultivars of Miscanthus, willow and poplar in Europe and constraint/opportunity maps based on projected yield and other factors e.g. total economic value, technical potential, current land use, climate change and trade-offs and synergies. It will be essential to include multiple ecosystem services when assessing the potential for bioenergy production/expansion that does not impact other land uses or provisioning services. Considering that the soil GHG balance is dominated by change in soil organic carbon (SOC) and the difference among Miscanthus and SRC is largely determined by yield, an important target for management of perennial energy crops is to achieve the best possible yield using the most appropriate energy crop and cultivar for the local situation. This research could inform future policy decisions on bioenergy crops in

  15. Impact of boat-generated waves on intertidal estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanpain, O.; Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Gomit, G.; Calluaud, D.; David, L.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrodynamics in the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) are controlled by the semi-diurnal tidal regime modulated seasonally by the fluvial discharge. Wind effect on sediment transport (through wind waves and swell) is observed at the mouth of the estuary. Over the last century, authorities have put emphasis on facilitating economic exchanges by means of embankment building and increased dredging activity. These developments led to allow and secure sea vessel traffic in the Seine estuary (from its mouth to the port of Rouen, 125 km upstream) but they also resulted in a change of estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment transport features. A riversides restoration policy has been recently started by port authorities. In this context, the objective of the field-based study presented is to connect vessel characteristics (i.e. speed, draft...), boat-generated waves and their sedimentary impacts. Such information will be used by stakeholders to manage riverside. The natural intertidal site of interest is located in the fluvial freshwater part of the Seine estuary characterized by a 4.5 m maximum tidal range. The foreshore slope is gently decreasing and surface sediments are composed of fine to coarse sand with occasional mud drapes. In order to decipher boat-generated events, the sampling strategy is based on continuous ADV measurements coupled with a turbidimeter and an altimeter to study sediment dynamics. These instruments are settled in the lower part of the foreshore (i) to obtain a significant dataset (i.e. oceanic instruments are not measuring in air) on a zone statically affected by boat waves and (ii) because most of boat traffic occurs during early flood or late ebb period. Spatial variations are assessed along a cross-section through grain-size analysis of surface sediments and topography measurements using pole technique. Results enhance hydrodynamic and sedimentary impacts of boat-generated waves compared respectively to tidal and wind effects. Long

  16. Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on Ecosystem Services in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henner, Dagmar; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy with higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on ecosystem services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by the unpredictable climate change currently going on. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers high impact, policy relevant ecosystem services at a Continental scale including biodiversity and pollination, water and air security, erosion control and soil security, GHG emissions, soil C and cultural services like tourism value. The technical distribution potential and likely yield of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) with willow, poplar, eucalyptus and other broadleaf species and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF), is currently being modelled using ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor, and ecosystem models will be used to examine the impacts of these crops on ecosystem services. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecosystem services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate ecosystem valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ecosystem Services Framework) will be utilised. Research will focus on optimisation of land use change feedbacks on above named ecosystem services, impact on food security, land management practices and impacts from climate change. We will present results for GHG emissions and soil organic carbon change after different land use change scenarios (e.g. arable to Miscanthus, forest to SRF), and

  17. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Bolinger, Mark

    2008-01-07

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic, risk reduction, and environmental effects. This article synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 31 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost-impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 20 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the projected costs of state RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, evaluate the reasonableness of key input assumptions, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analyses. We conclude that while there is considerable uncertainty in the study results, the majority of the studies project modest cost impacts. Seventy percent of the state RPS cost studies project retail electricity rate increases of no greater than one percent. Nonetheless, there is considerable room for improving the analytic methods, and therefore accuracy, of these estimates.

  18. Optimal Management of DoD Lands for Military Training, Ecosystem Services, and Renewable Energy Generation: Framework and Data Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    training activity may have an impact on the natural resource base (e.g., degradation in soil , water, and vegetation conditions), ecosys- tem...availability of solar exposure for photovoltaic production. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising, publication, or...Resources1 Geothermal Energy Resources1 Photovoltaic Solar Energy Resources2 Wind Energy Resources2 ERDC/CERL TR-13-2 7 Each type of

  19. Renewable Energies, Present & Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. S. Cai

    2005-01-01

    Fossil fuels are major cause of environmental destruction in pollutions. It has created much needed momentum for renewable energies, which are environmentally benign, generated locally, and can play a significant role in developing economy. As a sustainable energy sources, it can grow at a rapid pace to meet increasing demands for electricity in a cost-effective way.

  20. Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Hydropower is currently the most common form of renewable energy and plays an important part in global power generation. Worldwide hydropower produced 3 288 TWh, just over 16% of global electricity production in 2008, and the overall technical potential for hydropower is estimated to be more than 16 400 TWh/yr.

  1. Generating scenarios to predict air quality impact in public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.M.; Coelho, L.M.R.; Gouveia, C.; Cerdeira, R. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal (EST-IPS), Setubal (Portugal); Ferreira, T.; Baptista, M.N. [Hospital Na. Sa. do Rosario, Servico de Pediatria, Barreiro (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    This study intends to associate air quality with public health by generating air quality scenarios, under different future perspectives in Barreiro. This city is located in middle south of Portugal nearby Lisbon and it has a large resident population, an important industrial area and intense traffic. In this study ADMS-urban was used to simulate the possible scenarios of future air quality in this city, taking into consideration the probable city development and future activities. Special attention was given to the future evolutions of traffic, industrial activities, demographical and geographical expansion. The new EU directives about air quality and the CAFE program were also considered. To correlate the impact of the future air quality of the city and public health, a children population sample was used. This study team is also composed by paediatric doctors from Hospital N{sup a}. S{sup a}. do Rosario that contribute with public health information and helped to identify air quality related diseases. (orig.)

  2. 77 FR 1079 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement To Address Grazing Permit Renewals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... Grazing Permit Renewals in the Jump Creek, Succor Creek, and Cow Creek Watersheds in the Owyhee Field... Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (NEPA), as amended, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Owyhee.../fo/owyhee/owyhee_grazing_group.html . Email: NPR_EIS@blm.gov . Fax: (208) 373-3805. Mail: Bureau...

  3. Vortex Ring generation during drop impact into a shallow pool

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkens, Andreas; van Heijst, GertJan

    2013-01-01

    When a drop falls from a moderate height into a shallow fluid pool whose depth is of the order of the drop-radius two pairs of vortex rings are generated. The inner pair forms at the edge of the crater created by the impacting drop while the outer pair is laid off from the spreading wave. One ring of each of these pairs is short-lived while the other persists. Each of the rings has a measureable non-zero circulation (whose sign, however, is opposite to that of the well-known deep-water drop vortex rings) which persists long after the wave has receded. Furthermore under certain conditions they develop instabilities typical to ring vortices. Although the rings are well reproducible, aspects of their later development are very sensitive to changes in some of the experimental parameters. This paper reports on experiments distinguishing reproducible aspects of these drop- generated rings and documenting their dependence on material and geometrical parameters.

  4. Transmission pricing and renewables: Issues, options, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoft, S.; Webber, C.; Wiser, R.

    1997-05-01

    Open access to the transmission system, if provided at reasonable costs, should open new electricity markets for high-quality renewable resources that are located far from load centers. Several factors will affect the cost of transmission service, including the type of transmission pricing system implemented and the specific attributes of renewable energy. One crucial variable in the transmission cost equation is a generator`s capacity factor. This factor is important for intermittent renewables such as wind and solar, because it can increase transmission costs several fold due to the traditional use of take-or-pay, capacity-based transmission access charges. This report argues that such a charge is demonstrably unfair to renewable generators. It puts them at an economic disadvantage that will lead to an undersupply of renewable energy compared with the least-cost mix of generation technologies. The authors argue that congestion charges must first be separated from the access charges that cover the fixed cost of the network before one can design an efficient tariff. They then show that, in a competitive market with a separate charge for congestion, a take-or-pay capacity-based access charge used to cover system fixed costs cannot be justified on the basis of peak-load pricing. An energy-based access charge, on the other hand, is fair to intermittent generators as well as to the usual spectrum of peak and base-load technologies. This report also reviews other specific characteristics of renewables that can affect the cost of transmission, and evaluates the potential impact on renewables of several transmission pricing schemes, including postage-stamp rates, megawatt-mile pricing, congestion pricing, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s {open_quotes}point-to-point{close_quotes} transmission tariffs.

  5. Transmission pricing and renewables: Issues, options, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoft, S.; Webber, C.; Wiser, R.

    1997-05-01

    Open access to the transmission system, if provided at reasonable costs, should open new electricity markets for high-quality renewable resources that are located far from load centers. Several factors will affect the cost of transmission service, including the type of transmission pricing system implemented and the specific attributes of renewable energy. One crucial variable in the transmission cost equation is a generator`s capacity factor. This factor is important for intermittent renewables such as wind and solar, because it can increase transmission costs several fold due to the traditional use of take-or-pay, capacity-based transmission access charges. This report argues that such a charge is demonstrably unfair to renewable generators. It puts them at an economic disadvantage that will lead to an undersupply of renewable energy compared with the least-cost mix of generation technologies. The authors argue that congestion charges must first be separated from the access charges that cover the fixed cost of the network before one can design an efficient tariff. They then show that, in a competitive market with a separate charge for congestion, a take-or-pay capacity-based access charge used to cover system fixed costs cannot be justified on the basis of peak-load pricing. An energy-based access charge, on the other hand, is fair to intermittent generators as well as to the usual spectrum of peak and base-load technologies. This report also reviews other specific characteristics of renewables that can affect the cost of transmission, and evaluates the potential impact on renewables of several transmission pricing schemes, including postage-stamp rates, megawatt-mile pricing, congestion pricing, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s {open_quotes}point-to-point{close_quotes} transmission tariffs.

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of the Impact of the Section 1603 Treasury Grant Program on Renewable Energy Deployment in 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naim

    2010-03-31

    Federal support for renewable energy deployment in the United States has traditionally been delivered primarily through tax benefits, including the production tax credit ('PTC') in Section 45 of the U.S. tax code, investment tax credits ('ITC') in Sections 25D and 48, and accelerated tax depreciation in Section 168. Many renewable power project developers are unable to use the majority of these tax benefits directly or immediately, however, and have therefore often relied on third-party 'tax equity' investors for the necessary investment capital in order to monetize the available tax benefits. As has been well-publicized, most of these tax equity investors were hit hard by the global financial crisis that unfolded in the last months of 2008 and, as a result, most either withdrew from the renewable power market at that time or reduced their available investment capital. This left a significant financing gap beginning in late 2008, and placed at some risk the continued near-term growth of renewable energy supply in the U.S. In recognition of these developments, the U.S. Congress passed two stimulus bills - The Energy Improvement and Extension Act ('the Extension Act') in October 2008 and The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ('the Recovery Act') in February 2009 - parts of which were intended to address the growing shortage of finance for renewable power projects. Most notably, Section 1603 of the Recovery Act enables qualifying commercial renewable energy projects to choose between the Section 45 PTC, the Section 48 ITC, or a cash grant of equal value to the Section 48 ITC (i.e., 30% of the project's eligible basis in most cases). By giving developers the option to receive a 30% cash grant (administered by the U.S. Department of the Treasury) in lieu of either the ITC or the PTC, Congress hoped to 'temporarily fill the gap created by the diminished investor demand for tax credits,' and thereby

  7. Indian Renewable Energy Status Report: Background Report for DIREC 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, D. S.; Busche, S.; Cowlin, S.; Engelmeier, T.; Jaritz, J.; Milbrandt, A.; Wang, S.

    2010-10-01

    India has great potential to accelerate use of endowed renewable resources in powering its growing economy with a secure and affordable energy supply. The Government of India recognizes that development of local, renewable resources will be critical to ensure that India is able to meet both economic and environmental objectives and has supported the development of renewable energy through several policy actions. This paper describes the status of renewable energy in India as of DIREC 2010. It begins by describing the institutional framework guiding energy development in India, the main policy drivers impacting energy, and the major policy actions India has taken that impact renewable energy deployment. The paper presents estimates of potential for wind, solar, small hydro, and bioenergy and the deployment of each of these technologies to date in India. The potential for India to meet both large-scale generation needs and provide access to remote, unelectrified populations are covered. Finally, the enabling environment required to facilitate rapid scale of renewables is discussed, including issues of technology transfer and the status of financing in India.

  8. Mechanism Research on Renewable Energy Generation and Integration in Smart Grid%智能电网环境下可再生能源发电并网机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕春泉; 厉一梅; 刘宏志; 刘清宇; 张鲲; 许文秀; 曾鸣

    2011-01-01

    The development of the smart grid and renewable energy generation technology is one of the important solutions to energy crisis,and meanwhile,the construction of smart grid also provides potential opportunities for the safe renewable energy integration into grid.Based on the basic characteristics of smart grid and renewable energy,research was made related with renewable energy integration into smart grid,and the main operation mechanisms were proposed to provide the theoretical support for grid-connected renewable energy generation.%发展智能电网及可再生能源发电技术逐渐成为解决当前能源危机的重要途径之一,同时智能电网的建设也为可再生能源发电的安全并网提供了可能。基于智能电网和可再生能源的基本特征,分析研究了智能电网环境下可再生能源并网运行的相关问题,提出了可再生能源发电并网的主要运行机制,为可再生能源发电并网提供一定的理论支撑。

  9. Electricity Market Liberalisation and Flexibility of Conventional Generation to Balance Intermittent Renewable Energy – Is It Possible to Stay Competitive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linkevics O.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent generation (solar PV and wind energy integration in power production portfolio as well as electricity price fluctuations have changed the running manner of conventional combined heat and power (CHP plants: the shift from base load operation to running in cyclic modes. These cogeneration power plants are not adapted to new running conditions. The level of CHP plant flexibility should be improved to operate profitably and efficiently from both technical and fuel usage point of view. There are different ways to increase the flexibility of power plants. Before any improvements, the situation at power plants should be evaluated and the weakest points defined. In this publication, such measures are presented on Riga CHP-2 plant example: installation of heat storage tank; extension of operation rang; acceleration of start-ups.

  10. Electricity Market Liberalisation and Flexibility of Conventional Generation to Balance Intermittent Renewable Energy - Is It Possible to Stay Competitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkevics, O.; Ivanova, P.; Balodis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Intermittent generation (solar PV and wind energy) integration in power production portfolio as well as electricity price fluctuations have changed the running manner of conventional combined heat and power (CHP) plants: the shift from base load operation to running in cyclic modes. These cogeneration power plants are not adapted to new running conditions. The level of CHP plant flexibility should be improved to operate profitably and efficiently from both technical and fuel usage point of view. There are different ways to increase the flexibility of power plants. Before any improvements, the situation at power plants should be evaluated and the weakest points defined. In this publication, such measures are presented on Riga CHP-2 plant example: installation of heat storage tank; extension of operation rang; acceleration of start-ups.

  11. Integrated renewable energy networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri Kouhestani, F.; Byrne, J. M.; Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Spencer, L.

    2015-12-01

    This multidisciplinary research is focused on studying implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Our modern economy now depends heavily on large-scale, energy-intensive technologies. A transition to low carbon, renewable sources of energy is needed. We will develop a procedure for designing and analyzing renewable energy systems based on the magnitude, distribution, temporal characteristics, reliability and costs of the various renewable resources (including biomass waste streams) in combination with various measures to control the magnitude and timing of energy demand. The southern Canadian prairies are an ideal location for developing renewable energy networks. The region is blessed with steady, westerly winds and bright sunshine for more hours annually than Houston Texas. Extensive irrigation agriculture provides huge waste streams that can be processed biologically and chemically to create a range of biofuels. The first stage involves mapping existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation, such as ridges, rooftops and valley walls, will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids.

  12. Antiperovskite compounds SbNSr{sub 3} and BiNSr{sub 3}: Potential candidates for thermoelectric renewable energy generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilal, M.; Saifullah,; Shafiq, M.; Khan, B. [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Rahnamaye Aliabad, H.A. [Department of Physics, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalali Asadabadi, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan (UI), 81744 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmad, Rashid [Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Ahmad, Iftikhar, E-mail: ahma5532@gmail.com [Center for Computational Materials Science, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Malakand, Chakdara (Pakistan)

    2015-01-23

    This letter communicates thermoelectric properties of antiperovskites SbNSr{sub 3} and BiNSr{sub 3}, using ab-initio calculations. These compounds are identified as good transport materials for their narrow band gaps and dense electronic states near their Fermi levels. The peak values of Seebeck coefficient of 1590 and 1540 μV/K are observed for SbNSr{sub 3} and BiNSr{sub 3}, respectively in the p-type regions, at room temperature. The figure of merit approaches unity for both materials, while their thermal conductivities increase and electrical conductivities decrease with temperature. These theoretical studies predict that these antiperovskites could be efficient materials for thermoelectric generators and need further experimental and theoretical studies. - Highlights: • We report theoretical studies of the thermoelectric properties of antiperovskites SbNSr{sub 3} and BiNSr{sub 3}. • Both of these compounds have direct band gap nature. • These compounds have narrow band gaps and dense electronic states near the Fermi levels. • They have large Seebeck coefficients and high values of the figure of merit at room temperature. • These properties demonstrate the effectiveness of SbNSr{sub 3} and BiNSr{sub 3} in thermoelectric devices.

  13. Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards: Impacts on Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    This is a critical time for the geoscience community. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) have been released and are now being adopted by states (a dozen states and Washington, DC, at the time of writing this), with dramatic implications for national K-12 science education. Curriculum developers and textbook companies are working hard to construct educational materials that match the new standards, which emphasize a hands-on practice-based approach that focuses on working directly with primary data and other forms of evidence. While the set of 8 science and engineering practices of the NGSS lend themselves well to the observation-oriented approach of much of the geosciences, there is currently not a sufficient number of geoscience educational modules and activities geared toward the K-12 levels, and geoscience research organizations need to be mobilizing their education & outreach programs to meet this need. It is a rare opportunity that will not come again in this generation. There are other significant issues surrounding the implementation of the NGSS. The NGSS involves a year of Earth and space science at the high school level, but there does not exist a sufficient workforce is geoscience teachers to meet this need. The form and content of the geoscience standards are also very different from past standards, moving away from a memorization and categorization approach and toward a complex Earth Systems Science approach. Combined with the shift toward practice-based teaching, this means that significant professional development will therefore be required for the existing K-12 geoscience education workforce. How the NGSS are to be assessed is another significant question, with an NRC report providing some guidance but leaving many questions unanswered. There is also an uneasy relationship between the NGSS and the Common Core of math and English, and the recent push-back against the Common Core in many states may impact the implementation of the NGSS.

  14. Energy generation externalities with conventional and renewable sources; Externalidades da geracao de energia com fontes convencionais e renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayani, Rafael Amaral; Oliveira, Marco Aurelio Goncalves de [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica. Lab. de Fontes Alternativas de Energia

    2008-07-01

    The energy generation externalities have both positive and negative sides. The conventional sources, including fossil and nuclear fuel, have environment, political, economical and social negative externalities. The environment one affects the world climate, the political one includes the wars caused by oil control, the governmental financial support is economical aspects, and black outs, that affect all citizen's job, are a social example. The photovoltaic solar energy has a negative externality when the lead-acid battery is used into stand-alone systems. This batteries need special attention because has harmful components that can pollute the water. The use of other way to storage the energy is a solution to this, like non pollute batteries, electrostatic accumulation, flywheels, compressed air, hydrogen fuel cell or thermo accumulation. The PV system can be grid-connected too; this solutions have positive externalities, because the solar collector can replace the electric shower, reducing the transmission system demand during the peak time, and saving some energy from the conventional power plant during drought season. A house's roof can support more than twice of PV system needed to supply the energy of the house, so the potential to use the solar energy without needing new places is huge. The consciousness that the Earth is but one country, and mankind its citizens, should be adopted for all mankind, because the environment pollution of a specific place affects everyone, and the negative externalities must be calculated. The PV prices is getting cheaper each year, forecasting 45% of price reduction into the next 10 years. The governmental support to use solar hot water at residences, research and nationalization of the PV production are necessary to amplify the positive externalities of the solar energy. (author)

  15. Renewable Energy Resources Portfolio Optimization in the Presence of Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behboodi, Sahand; Chassin, David P.; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2016-01-15

    In this paper we introduce a simple cost model of renewable integration and demand response that can be used to determine the optimal mix of generation and demand response resources. The model includes production cost, demand elasticity, uncertainty costs, capacity expansion costs, retirement and mothballing costs, and wind variability impacts to determine the hourly cost and revenue of electricity delivery. The model is tested on the 2024 planning case for British Columbia and we find that cost is minimized with about 31% renewable generation. We also find that demand responsive does not have a significant impact on cost at the hourly level. The results suggest that the optimal level of renewable resource is not sensitive to a carbon tax or demand elasticity, but it is highly sensitive to the renewable resource installation cost.

  16. Impact of ectopic pregnancy for reproductive prognosis in next generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårhus, Line Lund; Egerup, Pia; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2014-04-01

    The impact of an ectopic pregnancy in the next generation is unknown. Our aim was to compare reproductive outcomes in daughters of women with and without ectopic pregnancy. Designed as a historical prospective controlled cohort study with data collected in four Danish registries from 1977-2009, women with ectopic pregnancy during 1977-1982 were age-matched to women without ectopic pregnancy. Daughters of these two cohorts were followed until 2009. We compared 5126 daughters of women with ectopic pregnancy with 19 928 daughters of women without ectopic pregnancy. The daughters of women with ectopic pregnancy had a 1.5-fold (95% confidence interval 1.2-1.9) increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, while for deliveries this was 1.0 (1.0-1.1), for miscarriages 1.1 (1.0-1.2), and for induced abortions 1.3 (1.2-1.4). Daughters of mothers with ectopic pregnancy have a 50% higher risk of ectopic pregnancy than daughters of women without an ectopic pregnancy, but a normal delivery rate.

  17. Renewable energy annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as data on US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, ethanol, and biodiesel); municipal solid waste; geothermal; wind; and solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic). The first chapter of the report provides an overview of renewable energy use and capability from 1992 through 1996. It contains renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as descriptive text. Chapter 2 presents current (through 1996) information on the US solar energy industry. A glossary of renewable energy terms is also included. 15 figs., 42 tabs.

  18. Renewable energies for power generation in Latin America: market, technologies and perspectives; Energias renovables para generacion de electricidad en America Latina: mercado, tecnologias y perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP e International Energy Initiative (Brazil); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico); Gorenstein Dedecca, Joao [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Goncalves Nogueira, Larissa [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Maia Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative, IEI (Brazil); Navarro, Judith [Energia, Tecnologia y Educacion, S.C., ENTE, S.C. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    Latin America has a wealth of renewable energy resources, although the utilization of these resources has historically been carried out in the region by large hydroelectric energy plants. Nevertheless, according to the present report, there is an immense potential for wider use of new sources of renewable energy, including Small-Scale Hydroelectric (SSH), wind, solar and geothermal. Considering only the renewable sources used for power generation in the countries studied, they are observed to account for between 2.5 and 5% of the current installed capacity of these countries. Brazil and Peru use roughly 5%, Argentina and Colombia 4% and Mexico and Chile 2.5% of current capacity. Among the alternative sources used, biomass is observed to be predominant, corresponding to 50% of the installed capacity of those countries, collectively, followed by SSH (37%) and wind energy (13%). The installed capacity of photovoltaic energy (PV) continues to be insignificant. In this work, large hydroelectric plants are not included as renewable sources, only CHP is included. Among the countries studied, Brazil is currently responsible for more than 70% of the installed capacity of the renewable sources used for power generation, followed by Mexico (9%) and Argentina (7%). Colombia and Central American countries represent 5% of current installed capacity, each, and the remaining countries are responsible for 2%, with the exception of Venezuela. The high contribution of biomass as an alternative source in Brazil and Argentina explains its predominance in this area. With respect to total hydroelectric potential, Mexico has already exploited a large part portion of its economically viable resources, as much as 87.4%, much higher than the average for the region. While Brazil stands out for the large participation of hydroelectric energy, 58.4% of the economically exploitable capacity still remains. Nevertheless, those resources are concentrated in the northern region of the country and

  19. What Do Capacity Deployment Rates Tell Us about the Efficiency of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources Support Measures in Greece?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Papadelis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of fiscal support for electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES-E is a multifaceted notion that cannot be adequately described by a single metric. Efficiency is related to the ability of a policy measure to support deployment without creating negative feedback effects. These negative effects may stem from saturation of the grid’s ability to absorb an increased amount of RES-E power, the inability of regulatory bodies to cope with the larger workload due to the increased number of projects requesting permits or from rent-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the primary rationale for feed-in tariffs (FITs and other fiscal support schemes is that increased deployment of RES-E technologies will lead to reductions in costs and increases in efficiency. As a result, the efficiency of an RES-E support policy should be also judged by its ability to capitalize on cost reductions. Overall, we present an approach to facilitate ongoing assessments of the efficiency of support measures for RES-E deployment. We demonstrate the proposed approach using the FIT support policy in Greece as a case study. In particular, the RES-E support policy in Greece has been recently revised through tariff cuts and a moratorium on new production licenses. We aim to demonstrate that if publicly available data are appropriately monitored, a policy revision can take place in a timelier and less disruptive manner.

  20. Integrated Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems: Foundational Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsberg, Charles [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Collins, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere to systems that can drastically reduce environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both hydrocarbon resources and clean energy generation sources. Thus, DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean energy generation sources, including renewable and nuclear options. A concept being advanced by the DOE Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that produces new energy currency for the combined electricity grid, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation energy sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of providing the right type of energy, at the right time, in the right place. At the direction of DOE-NE and DOE-EERE leadership, project leads at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have identified and engaged stakeholders in discussing integrated energy systems that would optimize renewable and nuclear energy integration on a region-by-region basis. Subsequent work will entail conduct of technical, economic, environmental and socio-political evaluations of the leading integrated system options based on a set of criteria established with stakeholder input. The Foundational Workshop for Integrated Nuclear – Renewable Energy Systems was organized around the following objectives: 1. Identify and refine priority region-specific opportunities for integrated nuclear-renewable energy systems in the U.S.; 2. Select Figures of Merit (FOM) to rank and prioritize candidate systems; 3. Discuss enabling technology development needs; 4. Identify analysis requirements, capabilities and gaps to estimate FOM for

  1. Culture of mouse amniotic fluid-derived cells on irradiated STO feeders results in the generation of primitive endoderm cell lines capable of self-renewal in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Aleksandar M; Jang, Sunyoung; Nicolov, Eugenia; Voicu, Horatiu; Luckey, Chance J

    2013-01-01

    The cells present in amniotic fluid (AF) are currently used for prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomalies but are also a potential source of cells for cell therapy. To better characterize putative progenitor cell populations present in AF, we used culture conditions that support self-renewal to determine if these promoted the generation of stable cell lines from AF-derived cells (AFC). Cells isolated from E11.5 mouse were cultured on irradiated STO fibroblast feeder layers in human embryonic germ cell derivation conditions. The cultures grew multicellular epithelial colonies that could be repropagated from single cells. Reverse transcription semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction of established cell lines revealed that they belonged to the extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn) expressing high levels of Gata6, Gata4, Sox17, Foxa2 and Sox7 mRNA. Hierarchical clustering based on the whole transcriptome expression profile of the AFC lines (AFCL) shows significant correlation between transcription profiles of AFCL and blastocyst-derived XEN, an ExEn cell line. In vitro differentiation of AFCL results in the generation of cells expressing albumin and α-fetoprotein (AFP), while intramuscular injection of AFCL into immunodeficient mice produced AFP-positive tumors with primitive endodermal appearance. Hence, E11.5 mouse AF contains cells that efficiently produce XEN lines. These AF-derived XEN lines do not spontaneously differentiate into embryonic-type cells but are phenotypically stable and have the capacity for extensive expansion. The lack of requirement for reprogramming factors to turn AF-derived progenitor cells into stable cell lines capable of massive expansion together with the known ability of ExEn to contribute to embryonic tissue suggests that this cell type may be a candidate for banking for cell therapies. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Somerset County Renewable Energy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katula, Denise [County of Somerset, Somervile, NJ (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The County of Somerset, New Jersey, through the Somerset County Improvement Authority (SCIA), applied Federal funding through the U.S. Department of Energy to will apply project funds to buy-down the capital costs of equipment associated with the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems at two sites owned by the County. This Renewable Energy Initiative allows the County to take advantage of clean renewable energy, without any adverse debt impacts, and at a price that results in operating budget savings beyond what is presently available in the marketplace. This project addressed the objectives of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by making the acquisition of renewable energy more affordable for the County, thereby, encouraging other counties and local units to develop similar programs and increase the deployment of solar energy technologies. The two sites that were funded by the DOE grant are part of a much larger, ambitious, and unique renewable energy project, described in the next section.

  3. Second Generation Weather Impacts Decision Aid User’s Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory Computational and Information Sciences Directorate Battlefield Environment Division (ATTN: RDRL- CIE -M) White Sands Missile Range, NM 88002...layers are selected, the 2-D map overlay will show the layers as a “roll-up” of the highest impact color in each impact grid cell. The user can click in...used to calculate the weather impacts. The color -coded weather impacts for the selected assets at each forecast time are returned and populated into

  4. Power generation from renewable energy sources. Climate-friendly and economically efficient. Background information; Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien. Klimafreundlich und oekonomisch sinnvoll. Hintergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    As the publication shows, the public discussion in Germany is increasingly focusing on the cost of the promotion of renewable energy sources. Critical comments state that the EEG (Renewables Act) accounts for most of the recent electricity rate increases and also does not contribute to climate protection. This background paper of the Federal Environmental Office stresses the role of the EEC for climate protection and its effects on price trends in electricity supply. The resulting financial burden for the German citizens and industry is investigated, and it is discussed whether public funding of renewable energy sources is indeed beneficial for the German economy on the whole.

  5. Marine Renewable Energy Seascape

    OpenAIRE

    Borthwick, Alistair G. L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine renewable energy has a major part to play in closing the world’s energy gap and lowering carbon emissions. Key global challenges relate to technology, grid infrastructure, cost and investment, environmental impact, and marine governance. Offshore wind turbines typically consist of three blades rotating about a hub. Although offshore wind technology is rapidly being implemented, there remain many fascinating engineering problems to overcome. These include: offshore foundations and float...

  6. How Do “Renewable Products” Impact Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services – The Example of Natural Rubber in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Cotter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the implications brought by the expansion of “renewable products” plantation systems in the tropics with cultivation of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis as a main focus. Throughout South East Asia, natural forest is being replaced by rubber or oil palm (Elaeis guineensis plantations, with severe consequences for the local flora and fauna. Main aspects of this review are: i The provision of an overview over renewable resources in general and rubber in particular, with eco-physiological and agronomical information concerning rubber cultivation. ii The effect of rubber plantations on biodiversity and species composition under different rubber farming approaches. In addition we debate the possible influences of such large scale land cover transformations on ecosystem services. iii The conversion of natural forests into rubber plantations releases considerable amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. We estimated these values for different land cover types in southern China and assessed the carbon sequestration potential of local rubber plantations.

  7. Impact of climate change on renewable groundwater resources: assessing the benefits of avoided greenhouse gas emissions using selected CMIP5 climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Felix T.; Döll, Petra; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina

    2013-06-01

    Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to minimize climate change requires very significant societal effort. To motivate this effort, it is important to clarify the benefits of avoided emissions. To this end, we analysed the impact of four emissions scenarios on future renewable groundwater resources, which range from 1600 GtCO2 during the 21st century (RCP2.6) to 7300 GtCO2 (RCP8.5). Climate modelling uncertainty was taken into account by applying the bias-corrected output of a small ensemble of five CMIP5 global climate models (GCM) as provided by the ISI-MIP effort to the global hydrological model WaterGAP. Despite significant climate model uncertainty, the benefits of avoided emissions with respect to renewable groundwater resources (i.e. groundwater recharge (GWR)) are obvious. The percentage of projected global population (SSP2 population scenario) suffering from a significant decrease of GWR of more than 10% by the 2080s as compared to 1971-2000 decreases from 38% (GCM range 27-50%) for RCP8.5 to 24% (11-39%) for RCP2.6. The population fraction that is spared from any significant GWR change would increase from 29% to 47% if emissions were restricted to RCP2.6. Increases of GWR are more likely to occur in areas with below average population density, while GWR decreases of more than 30% affect especially (semi)arid regions, across all GCMs. Considering change of renewable groundwater resources as a function of mean global temperature (GMT) rise, the land area that is affected by GWR decreases of more than 30% and 70% increases linearly with global warming from 0 to 3 ° C. For each degree of GMT rise, an additional 4% of the global land area (except Greenland and Antarctica) is affected by a GWR decrease of more than 30%, and an additional 1% is affected by a decrease of more than 70%.

  8. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on utility demand-side management and conservation and renewable energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, J.D.; Germer, M.F.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all of its long-term firm power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. Western has also proposed that all customers develop integrated resource plans that include cost-effective demand-side management programs. As part of the preparation of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed estimates of the reductions in energy demand resulting from Western`s conservation and renewable energy activities in its Salt Lake City Area Office. ANL has also estimated the energy-demand reductions from cost-effective, demand-side management programs that could be included in the integrated resource plans of the customers served by Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The results of this study have been used to adjust the expected hourly demand for Western`s major systems in the Salt Lake City Area. The expected hourly demand served as the basis for capacity expansion plans develops with ANL`s Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model.

  9. Environmental impacts of renewable energy. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based analysis of cumulative effects; Umweltauswirkungen erneuerbarer Energien. GIS-gestuetzte Analyse kumulativer Wirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoden, Henning

    2015-04-15

    The energy transition and thus turning away from fossil fuels and nuclear energy sources is based on an increased expansion of renewable energies. This expansion mainly take place in nature and the landscape, which conflicts with the objectives of the Federal Nature Conservation Act concerning scenery or the consequences of monoculture cultivation of energy crops. What happens, however, if more than one type of renewables occur compressed in a landscape that is investigated in this work. Result from cumulative effects are extended conflict with the objectives of the Federal Nature Conservation Act or possibly have positive effects can be seen? A ''cumulative effect'' is defined as an additive-synergistic overall effect of all a protected interest of respective impact factors. These arise from one or more projects / plans and influence from a variety of ways. As part of the investigations carried out it is clear that extended conflicts may arise in relation to the objectives of the Federal Nature Conservation Act by cumulative effects of renewable energies. To prevent these conflicts, policies and regulations in the context of spatial planning is necessary to enable a focusing of spatial planning for a sustainable expansion of renewable energy. [German] Die Energiewende und damit die Abkehr von fossilen und atomaren Energiequellen beruht auf einem verstaerkten Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien. Dieser Ausbau findet vorwiegend in Natur und Landschaft statt, wobei Konflikte mit den Zielen des BNatSchG z.B. hinsichtlich Landschaftsbild oder den Folgen von Monokultur beim Energiepflanzenanbau bereits gegeben sind. Was jedoch passiert, wenn mehrere Arten erneuerbarer Energien in einer Landschaft komprimiert auftreten, wird in dieser Arbeit untersucht. Ergeben sich aus kumulierten Wirkungen erweiterte Konflikte mit den Zielen des BNatSchG oder sind moeglicherweise positive Effekte zu erkennen? Eine ''kumulative Wirkung'' ist

  10. Modeling of a completely on renewable energy based power generation in 2050 in autonomous, decentralized structures; Modellierung einer vollstaendig auf erneuerbaren Energien basierenden Stromerzeugung im Jahr 2050 in autarken, dezentralen Strukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Stefan

    2013-09-15

    The German Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA) has developed three radically different scenarios of a future electricity supply entirely based on renewable sources in Germany by 2050. This study investigates the technical and ecological feasibility for one of these scenarios, the ''Local Energy Autarky'' scenario, by means of computer based simulation with a high spatial and temporal resolution. The scope of this scenario is restricted to small-scale decentralized energy systems which satisfy their own power demand without being connected with each other or with outside suppliers, i.e. without electricity imports. Relying only on locally available renewable energy sources to cover the electricity demand, makes electricity storage a necessity within the simulation model. The model itself consists of different modules representing electricity demand (e.g. for households, commerce and industry), power generation of different renewable technologies, and meteorological data, such as solar irradiation, wind speed, and outside temperatures. Various basic assumptions were made with regard to future developments such as energy efficiency. The simulations were applied exemplarily to a rural community with a low population density and a town district (high population and building density), each with and without trade/industry and each at a location in northern and in southern Germany, which are representative of the different meteorological conditions affecting the power generation from renewable sources such as wind and solar. Several variations were applied to the system, e.g. with regard to the share of electricity powered private vehicles or the installed generation capacities per technology. The simulation results show that the electricity demand of private households plus the demand for a complete shift to (private) e-mobility can be covered by the assumed locally available potentials for photovoltaics and wind energy, but only for

  11. GRENADA. Renewables Readiness Assessment 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Grenada, like many Caribbean islands, is dependent on costly oil imports for its energy needs, including the generation of electricity. The transition to renewable energy could potentially support price reductions and improve the overall competitiveness of key sectors of the economy, particularly tourism. This report provides facts and analysis to support the country's discussion on ways to move forward with the renewable energy agenda. IRENA is ready to provide support in the implementation of the actions identified in this report.

  12. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes.

  13. Impact of Text on Idea Generation: An Electroencephalography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lingyun; Xiang, Wei; Chai, Chunlei; Wang, Changlu; Liu, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Sketching is widely used as a creative tool, playing a significant role in industrial design. Designers commonly use sketching to generate and evaluate ideas, leading to subsequent development of the most promising ideas. The current study examined the use of text in the idea generation sketching process among novices and experts. The…

  14. Renewable Electricity: How Do You Know You Have It?; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    When electricity is generated - either from a renewable or non-renewable power plant - the electrons added to the grid are indistinguishable. So, on what basis can a consumer of electricity claim to be using renewables? In the United States, renewable energy certificates (RECs) were developed as states passed renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and were requiring fuel mix disclosure labels. RECs are also used in the voluntary market, where customers are buying renewables to meet sustainability goals. The concept of RECs is used most widely in the United States, but international markets also have tradable renewable electricity certificates. This fact sheet reviews how to ensure that RECs are not double-counted, roles of electricity regulators, renewable generators and purchasers. It concludes with a discussion of the international use of RECs.

  15. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  16. Analog Ensemble Methodology: Expansion and Optimization for Renewable Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United S