WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewable fuels standard

  1. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Fuel Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Kreycik, C.

    2008-07-01

    The State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project is supported by the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program within the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project seeks to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states. The goal is to assist states in determining which clean energy policies or policy portfolios will best accomplish their environmental, economic, and security goals. For example, renewable fuel standards (RFS) policies are a mechanism for developing a market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. This flexible market-based policy, when properly executed, can correct for market failures and promote growth of the renewable fuels industry better than a more command-oriented approach. The policy attempts to correct market failures such as embedded fossil fuel infrastructure and culture, risk associated with developing renewable fuels, consumer information gaps, and lack of quantification of the non-economic costs and benefits of both renewable and fossil-based fuels. This report focuses on renewable fuel standards policies, which are being analyzed as part of this project.

  2. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2): Final Rule Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on March 26, 2010 and is effective on July 1, 2010. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  3. Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS1): Final Rule Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on May 1, 2007 and is effective on September 1, 2007. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  4. 75 FR 76789 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... qualifying domestic corn ethanol production capacity to meet the balance of the total renewable fuel standard... biomass-based diesels, advanced biofuels, and other conventional renewable fuels such as corn-ethanol... capacity of 250,000 gallons of ethanol per year and uses an enzymatic hydrolysis process to convert...

  5. 75 FR 42237 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... those producers who use canola oil, grain sorghum, pulpwood, or palm oil to produce renewable fuel. The... canola oil, grain sorghum, pulpwood, or palm oil to produce renewable fuel, and only if EPA determines.... Additionally, EPA is required to set the cellulosic biofuel standard each year based on the volume projected...

  6. Does a renewable fuel standard for biofuels reduce climate costs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Hoel, Michael; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2012-07-01

    Recent contributions have questioned whether biofuels policies actually lead to emissions reductions, and thus lower climate costs. In this paper we make two contributions to the literature. First, we study the market effects of a renewable fuel standard. Opposed to most previous studies we model the supply of fossil fuels taking into account that fossil fuels is a non-renewable resource. Second, we model emissions from land use change explicitly when we evaluate the climate effects of the renewable fuel standard. We find that extraction of fossil fuels most likely will decline initially as a consequence of the standard. Thus, if emissions from biofuels are sufficiently low, the standard will have beneficial climate effects. Furthermore, we find that the standard tends to reduce total fuel (i.e., oil plus biofuels) consumption initially. Hence, even if emissions from biofuels are substantial, climate costs may be reduced. Finally, if only a subset of countries introduce a renewable fuel standard, there will be carbon leakage to the rest of the world. However, climate costs may decline as global extraction of fossil fuels is postponed.(Author)

  7. Multi-objective regulations on transportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and emission standards

    OpenAIRE

    D. Rajagopal; Plevin, R; Hochman, G; Zilberman, D.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We compare two types of fuel market regulations - a renewable fuel mandate and a fuel emission standard - that could be employed to simultaneously achieve multiple outcomes such as reduction in fuel prices, fuel imports and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We compare these two types of regulations in a global context taking into account heterogeneity in carbon content of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels. We find that although neither the ethanol mandate nor the emissi...

  8. 78 FR 9281 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... biofuel standard for 2013. Combined with the availability of conventional biofuels such as corn ethanol.... imported 101 million gallons of sugarcane ethanol from Brazil and exported 396 million gallons of corn... conventional renewable fuel including corn-ethanol, combined with advanced biofuel, to satisfy the...

  9. 75 FR 14669 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... that the corn ethanol production co-product, distillers grains and solubles (DGS), is more efficient as... Renewable Fuel 3. Additional Control Cases Considered B. Renewable Fuel Production 1. Corn/Starch Ethanol a... Costs a. Corn Ethanol b. Cellulosic Ethanol i. Feedstock Costs ii. Production Costs for...

  10. 75 FR 26025 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Technologies for Renewable Fuel Pathways The final RFS2 rule includes two corn ethanol pathways in Table 1 of..., or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Regulated categories and entities affected by this... products merchant wholesalers. Industry 424710 5171 Petroleum bulk stations and terminals. Industry...

  11. 78 FR 49793 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... renewable fuel volume of 16.55 bill gal. \\4\\ Non-advanced is composed primarily of corn ethanol, but may.... We believe there will be sufficient volumes of conventional renewable fuel including corn ethanol... specified in the Act. For instance, current corn ethanol production capacity is 14.5 bill gal, compared...

  12. Changing the renewable fuel standard to a renewable material standard: bioethylene case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posen, I Daniel; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott; Azevedo, Inês L

    2015-01-01

    The narrow scope of the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS2) is a missed opportunity to spur a wider range of biomass use. This is especially relevant as RFS2 targets are being missed due to demand-side limitations for ethanol consumption. This paper examines the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of a more flexible policy based on RFS2, which includes credits for chemical use of bioethanol (to produce bioethylene). A Monte Carlo simulation is employed to estimate the life-cycle GHG emissions of conventional low-density polyethylene (LDPE), made from natural gas derived ethane (mean: 1.8 kg CO2e/kg LDPE). The life-cycle GHG emissions from bioethanol and bio-LDPE are examined for three biomass feedstocks: U.S. corn (mean: 97g CO2e/MJ and 2.6 kg CO2e/kg LDPE), U.S. switchgrass (mean: -18g CO2e/MJ and -2.9 kg CO2e/kg LDPE), and Brazilian sugar cane (mean: 33g CO2e/MJ and -1.3 kg CO2e/kg LDPE); bioproduct and fossil-product emissions are compared. Results suggest that neither corn product (bioethanol or bio-LDPE) can meet regulatory GHG targets, while switchgrass and sugar cane ethanol and bio-LDPE likely do. For U.S. production, bioethanol achieves slightly greater GHG reductions than bio-LDPE. For imported Brazilian products, bio-LDPE achieves greater GHG reductions than bioethanol. An expanded policy that includes bio-LDPE provides added flexibility without compromising GHG targets.

  13. 77 FR 1319 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... process to convert corn cobs into ethanol. In conversations with EPA in July 2011 DDCE indicated that this... fuel or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Potentially regulated categories include: NAICS... organic chemical manufacturing. Industry 424690 5169 Chemical and allied products merchant...

  14. 75 FR 26049 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Technologies for Renewable Fuel Pathways The final RFS2 rule includes two corn ethanol pathways in Table 1 of... fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Regulated categories and entities affected by this action include... basic organic chemical manufacturers. Industry 424690 5169 Chemical and allied products...

  15. [U.S. renewable fuel standard implementation mechanism and market tracking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Liping; Earley, Robert; An, Feng; Zhang, Yu

    2013-03-01

    U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) is a mandatory policy for promoting the utilization of biofuels in road transpiration sector in order to reduce the country's dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas emissions. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines the proportion of renewable fuels according to RFS annual target, and requests obligated parties such like fossil fuel refiner, blenders and importer in the U.S. to complete Renewable Volume Obligation (RVO) every year. Obligated parties prove they have achieved their RVO through a renewable fuels certification system, which generates Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) for every gallon of qualified renewable fuels produced or imported into U.S., RINs is a key for tracking renewable fuel consumption, which in turn is a key for implementing the RFS in the U.S., separated RINs can be freely traded in market and obligated parties could fulfill their RVO through buying RINs from other stakeholders. This briefing paper highlights RFS policy implementing mechanism and marketing tracking, mainly describes importance of RINs, and the method for generating and tracking RINs by both government and fuels industry participants.

  16. Understanding and Informing the Policy Environment: State-Level Renewable Fuels Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Cory, K.; Arent, D.

    2007-01-01

    Renewable fuels standard (RFS) policies are becoming a popular public policy mechanism for developing the market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. During the past decade, U.S. states and several countries began implementing these more market-based (less command and control) policies to support increased biofuels production and use. This paper presents an overview of current and proposed U.S. state-level policies, as well as selected electric sector policies and international fuel standard policies. Current U.S. state-level renewable fuel policies list drivers including an improved economy and environment, as well as fuel self-sufficiency. Best practices and experience from an evaluation of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in the United States and international RFS policies can inform U.S. state-level policy by illustrating the importance of policy flexibility, binding targets, effective cost caps, and tradable permits. Understanding and building on the experiences from these previous policies can improve the policy mechanism and further develop a market for renewable fuels to meet the goals of improved economy, environment, and fuel self-sufficiency.

  17. 78 FR 71607 - Notice of Receipt of Petitions for a Waiver of the Renewable Fuel Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... renewable fuel standards that would apply in 2014. The American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American... requirements would severely harm the economy or environment of a State, a region, or the United States, or that... opportunity for comment, that implementation of the RFS volume requirement would severely harm the economy...

  18. 77 FR 61281 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... at least 80 percent mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal... fuel must contain at least 80 percent mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from... activities. Fuel oils used to generate process heat, power, or other functions will not be included in...

  19. 77 FR 61313 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... contains at least 80 percent mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or..., the fuel must contain at least 80 percent mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from... heat, power, or other functions would not be included in the amended definition. Producers or...

  20. Utah-Based Washakie Renewable Energy, LLC Settles Renewable Fuel Standard Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) today announced a settlement with Utah-based Washakie Renewable Energy, LLC, that resolves allegations that the company generated more than 7.2 million inv

  1. 78 FR 11870 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... Fuel Producer Co-products Report RFS0801: RFS2 Renewable Biomass Report RFS0901: RFS2 Production... domestic plantation/forest land owners and foreign biofuel feedstock producers which were not reflected in...

  2. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022

  3. 77 FR 699 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... January 5, 2012 Part V Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard... Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under...

  4. 77 FR 13009 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AR07 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... January 5, 2012 to amend the Renewable Fuel Standard program regulations. Because EPA received...

  5. Meeting the U.S. renewable fuel standard: a comparison of biofuel pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Y. Menetrez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of renewable energy is undergoing rapid development. Ethanol primarily derived from corn and biodiesel made from recycled cooking oil and agricultural grains are established sources of renewable transportation fuel. Cellulosic ethanol production is increasing substantially, but at a rate below expectations. If future renewable fuel projections are to be accomplished, additional sources will be needed. Ideally, these sources should be independent of competing feedstock use such as food grains, and require a minimal footprint. Although the uses of algae seem promising, a number of demonstrations have not been economically successful in today‟s market. This paper identifies efforts being conducted on ethanol and biodiesel production and how algae might contribute to the production of biofuel in the United States. Additionally, the feedstock and land requirements of existing biofuel pathways are compared and discussed.

  6. 78 FR 71731 - 2014 Standards for the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... production capacities, company production plans, the progress made in 2013, expected production distribution... ranges for each of the individual companies and a production probability distribution within the range... involved with the production, distribution, and sale of transportation fuels, including gasoline and...

  7. Renewable jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Pauli; Pásztor, András; Akhtar, M Kalim; Jones, Patrik R

    2014-04-01

    Novel strategies for sustainable replacement of finite fossil fuels are intensely pursued in fundamental research, applied science and industry. In the case of jet fuels used in gas-turbine engine aircrafts, the production and use of synthetic bio-derived kerosenes are advancing rapidly. Microbial biotechnology could potentially also be used to complement the renewable production of jet fuel, as demonstrated by the production of bioethanol and biodiesel for piston engine vehicles. Engineered microbial biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes, which constitute the major fraction of petroleum-based jet fuels, was recently demonstrated. Although efficiencies currently are far from that needed for commercial application, this discovery has spurred research towards future production platforms using both fermentative and direct photobiological routes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 78 FR 14190 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AR07 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is issuing a final rule identifying additional...

  9. Do biofuel blending mandates reduce gasoline consumption? Implications of state-level renewable fuel standards for energy security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shinling

    In an effort to keep America's addiction to oil under control, federal and state governments have implemented a variety of policy measures including those that determine the composition of motor gasoline sold at the pump. Biofuel blending mandates known as Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) are designed to reduce the amount of foreign crude oil needed to be imported as well as to boost the local ethanol and corn industry. Yet beyond looking at changes in gasoline prices associated with increased ethanol production, there have been no empirical studies that examine effects of state-level RFS implementation on gasoline consumption. I estimate a Generalized Least Squares model for the gasoline demand for the 1993 to 2010 period with state and time fixed effects controlling for RFS. States with active RFS are Minnesota, Hawaii, Missouri, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. I find that, despite the onset of federal biofuel mandates across states in 2007 and the lower energy content of blended gasoline, being in a state that has implemented RFS is associated with 1.5% decrease in gasoline consumption (including blended gasoline). This is encouraging evidence for efforts to lessen dependence on gasoline and has positive implications for energy security.

  10. Fuel Handbook[Wood and other renewable fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (SE)] (ed.)

    2006-03-15

    This handbook on renewable fuels is intended for power and heat producers in Sweden. This fuel handbook provides, from a plant owner's perspective, a method to evaluate different fuels on the market. The fuel handbook concerns renewable fuels (but does not include household waste) that are available on the Swedish market today or fuels that have potential to be available within the next ten years. The handbook covers 26 different fuels. Analysis data, special properties, operating experiences and literature references are outlined for each fuel. [Special properties, operating experiences and literature references are not included in this English version] The handbook also contains: A proposed methodology for introduction of new fuels. A recommendation of analyses and tests to perform in order to reduce the risk of problems is presented. [The recommendation of analyses and tests is not included in the English version] A summary of relevant laws and taxes for energy production, with references to relevant documentation. [Only laws and taxes regarding EU are included] Theory and background to evaluate a fuel with respect to combustion, ash and corrosion properties and methods that can be used for such evaluations. Summary of standards, databases and handbooks on biomass fuels and other solid fuels, and links to web sites where further information about the fuels can be found. The appendices includes: A methodology for trial firing of fuels. Calculations procedures for, amongst others, heating value, flue gas composition, key number and free fall velocity [Free fall velocity is not included in the English version]. In addition, conversion routines between different units for a number of different applications are provided. Fuel analyses are presented in the appendix. (The report is a translation of parts of the report VARMEFORSK--911 published in 2005)

  11. Renewable Fuels for Cross Border Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Mehlin, Markus; Zauner, Martin; Reichmuth, Matthias; Nill, Moritz; Wacker, Manfred; Galster, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The use of renewable energy has increased slowly in most sectors and the transport sector is predominantly depending on traditional fossil fuels notably petrol and diesel. This has created a difficult situation concerning the fuel supply and fuel prices as well as an increase of emissions of climate gasses. A number of local and regional projects have been carried out and are still ongoing regarding the use of renewable fuels in the transport sector. Most of those covers captive fleets of bus...

  12. Nanostructured Basic Catalysts: Opportunities for Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, William C; Huber, George; Auerbach, Scott

    2009-06-30

    This research studied and developed novel basic catalysts for production of renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass. We focused on the development of unique porous structural-base catalysts zeolites. These catalysts were compared to conventional solid base materials for aldol condensation, that were being commercialized for production of fuels from biomass and would be pivotal in future biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Specifically, we had studied the aldolpyrolysis over zeolites and the trans-esterification of vegetable oil with methanol over mixed oxide catalysts. Our research has indicated that the base strength of framework nitrogen in nitrogen substituted zeolites (NH-zeolites) is nearly twice as strong as in standard zeolites. Nitrogen substituted catalysts have been synthesized from several zeolites (including FAU, MFI, BEA, and LTL) using NH3 treatment.

  13. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Report...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels 5a. CONTRACT...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented at the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held

  14. Industrial fermentation of renewable diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Patrick J; Gardner, Timothy S

    2011-06-01

    In commodity chemicals, cost drives everything. A working class family of four drives up to the gas pumps and faces a choice of a renewable diesel or petroleum diesel. Renewable diesel costs $0.50 more per gallon. Which fuel do they pick? Petroleum diesel will be the winner every time, unless the renewable fuel can achieve cost and performance parity with petrol. Nascent producers of advanced biofuels, including Amyris, LS9, Neste and Solazyme, aim to deliver renewable diesel fuels that not only meet the cost challenge, but also exceed the storage, transport, engine performance and emissions properties of petroleum diesel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-08-01

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  16. Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Rass

    2008-01-01

    The present work entitled Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols covers the idea of developing routes for producing sustainable fuel and chemicals from biomass resources. Some renewable alcohols are already readily available from biomass in significant amounts and thus the potential...... of a possible production of value-added chemicals from renewable resources. High temperature dehydration of methanol and ethanol results in a range of different hydrocarbons, which can be used either as gasoline fuel or, by altering process conditions, as a way to produce important olefin products which can...... for these renewable alcohols, together with other primary renewable building blocks, has been highlighted in the introductory chapter. While the first chapter covers the general potential of a renewable chemical industry, the other chapters deal with particular possibilities. It is shown how ethanol and glycerol can...

  17. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-11-01

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  18. The system architecture for renewable synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva

    To overcome and eventually eliminate the existing heavy fossil fuels in the transport sector, there is a need for new renewable fuels. This transition could lead to large capital costs for implementing the new solutions and a long time frame for establishing the new infrastructure unless a suitab...

  19. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  20. Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Rass

    2008-01-01

    The present work entitled Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols covers the idea of developing routes for producing sustainable fuel and chemicals from biomass resources. Some renewable alcohols are already readily available from biomass in significant amounts and thus the potential...... be converted into hydrogen by steam reforming over nickel or ruthenium based catalysts. This process could be important in a future hydrogen society, where hydrogen can be utilized in high efficiency fuel cells. Hydrogen produced from biofeedstocks can also be used directly in the chemical industry, where...... it can compete with hydrogen production from natural gas. Similar substitution possibilities are emerging in the case of conversion of renewable alcohols to synthesis gas, which is used for instance in the manufacture of methanol and synthetic fuel. Here it is illustrated how glycerol can be converted...

  1. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Gray, Nancy Ryan [Gordon Research Conferences, West Kingston, RI (United States)

    2010-02-26

    This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable

  2. U.S.Renewable Fuel Standard implementation mechanism and market tracking%美国可再生燃料标准实施机制与市场跟踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康利平; Robert Earley; 安锋; 张宇

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) is a mandatory policy for promoting the utilization of biofuels in road transpiration sector in order to reduce the country's dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas emissions. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines the proportion of renewable fuels according to RFS annual target, and requests obligated parties such like fossil fuel refiner, blenders and importer in the U.S. to complete Renewable Volume Obligation (RVO) every year. Obligated parties prove they have achieved their RVO through a renewable fuels certification system, which generates Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) for every gallon of qualified renewable fuels produced or imported into U.S., RINs is a key for tracking renewable fuel consumption, which in turn is a key for implementing the RFS in the U.S., separated RINs can be freely traded in market and obligated parties could fulfill their RVO through buying RINs from other stakeholders. This briefing paper highlights RFS policy implementing mechanism and marketing tracking, mainly describes importance of RINs, and the method for generating and tracking RINs by both government and fuels industry participants.%可再生燃料标准(RFS)是美国政府为提高生物燃料利用量,减少石油对外依存度与温室气体排放而制定的强制执行指令.美国环保署(EPA)根据RFS目标确定可再生燃料在道路交通燃料中的混配比例,并强制要求美国汽柴油炼制、混配与进口等责任商完成当年可再生燃料配比责任量(RVO);责任商需在年末向EPA提交足够多的可再生燃料身份码(RINs)以示完成任务.RINs跟随可再生燃料的生产或进口而获取,是跟踪可再生燃料利用与监测RFS目标是否完成的主要依据.独立的RINs可自由交易并形成市场,责任商可选择购买RINs来完成年度RVO.文中介绍了美国RFS的管理机制、实施进展与影响评价,重点介绍了RINs的产生、跟踪与交易.

  3. Future Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of Renewables Used to Meet U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    This brochure provides a brief overview of the report titled 'A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards.' The report evaluates the future costs, benefits, and other impacts of renewable energy used to meet current state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). It also examines a future scenario where RPSs are expanded. The analysis examines changes in electric system costs and retail electricity prices, which include all fixed and operating costs, including capital costs for all renewable, non-renewable, and supporting (e.g., transmission and storage) electric sector infrastructure; fossil fuel, uranium, and biomass fuel costs; and plant operations and maintenance expenditures. The analysis evaluates three specific benefits: air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and water use. It also analyzes two other impacts, renewable energy workforce and economic development, and natural gas price suppression. The analysis finds that the benefits or renewable energy used to meet RPS polices exceed the costs, even when considering the highest cost and lowest benefit outcomes.

  4. Analysis of renewable portfolio standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.; Dougherty, W.; Duckworth, M.

    1997-12-31

    A national RPS would increase the fraction of U.S. electricity generation from renewable technologies at least cost. It would help ensure that the cost and performance of these technologies would improve with manufacturing experience, scale economies, and learning-by-doing from their integration into electric systems. Thus, their economic, environmental, energy security, and sustainability benefits would be realized.

  5. 77 FR 462 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... advanced biofuel. Naphtha and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)--qualifying as advanced biofuel. Energy cane... renewable jet fuel and heating oil), and naphtha--qualifying as cellulosic biofuel. Renewable gasoline and... pathway for jet fuel, naphtha, and LPG produced from camelina oil through hydrotreating. This ] is based...

  6. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  7. Safe handling of renewable fuels and fuel mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    VTT Energy has for several years carried out co-operation with many European research institutes on contractional basis on safety issues of fuels handling. A two-year co-operational project between VTT Energy and these research institutes was started in EU`s JOULE 3 programme in 1996, the total budget of which is 6.9 million FIM. Dust explosion testing method for `difficult` fuels, and for tests at elevated pressures and temperatures, will be developed in the task `Safe handling of renewable fuels and fuel mixtures`. Self- ignition and dust-explosion characteristics will be generated for wood and agro-biomass based biomasses and for the mixtures of them and coal. Inertization requirements will be studied, and the quenching method, combined with partial inertization, will be tested in 1.0 m{sup 3} test equipment. The ignition properties of the fuels under normal and elevated pressures will be characterised with thermobalances. The self-ignition tests with wood and forest residue dusts at 25 bar pressure have been carried out as scheduled. In addition to this, several fuels have undergone thermobalance tests, sieve analyses and microscopic studies for the characterisation of the fuels

  8. Review of different renewable fuels for potential utilization in SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradis, H.; Andersson, M.; Yuan, J.; Sunden, B. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Sciences

    2010-07-01

    A literature review was carried out to enhance knowledge about alternative fuels for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). This paper outlined the materials and structure of SOFCs along with the possibilities involving SOFCs fed with different renewable fuels. The alternative fuels discussed in this study were methanol, ethanol, di-methyl-ether (DME), ammonia, biogas and and natural gas (methane). Finally, the different hydrogen-based fuels were compared and analyzed. Due to their high operating temperature and suitable catalyst material, SOFCs provide a good enough environment for renewable fuels. The development of new catalyst materials could help promote the use of alternative fuels in SOFCs, so they can better tolerate impurities and effectively reform the hydrocarbon fuels. The high cost for both SOFCs and the alternative fuels remains a concern for market implementation. It was concluded that although renewable fuels in SOFCs are promising and have shown good tendency as an energy provider, further research is still needed. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  10. Flex fuel polygeneration: Integrating renewable natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Matthew

    Flex Fuel Polygeneration (FFPG) is the use of multiple primary energy sources for the production of multiple energy carriers to achieve increased market opportunities. FFPG allows for adjustments in energy supply to meet market fluctuations and increase resiliency to contingencies such as weather disruptions, technological changes, and variations in supply of energy resources. In this study a FFPG plant is examined that uses a combination of the primary energy sources natural gas and renewable natural gas (RNG) derived from MSW and livestock manure and converts them into energy carriers of electricity and fuels through anaerobic digestion (AD), Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), and gas turbine cycles. Previous techno-economic analyses of conventional energy production plants are combined to obtain equipment and operating costs, and then the 20-year NPVs of the FFPG plant designs are evaluated by static and stochastic simulations. The effects of changing operating parameters are investigated, as well as the number of anaerobic digestion plants on the 20-year NPV of the FTS and FFPG systems.

  11. Navy Fuel Specification Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    surfaced periodically to convert further to a single-fuel operation, i.e., one fuel for both aircraft and ship propulsion /power systems. This study...lead to the development of a single distillate fuel for ship propulsion , resulting eventually in the MIL-F-16884 Naval Distillate Fuel (NDF) used today...for both aircraft and ship propulsion /power systems. This report summarizes a study to consider this problem in light of current systems and

  12. Optimal Energy Mix with Renewable Portfolio Standards in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Korea is a heavily energy-dependent country whose primary energy consumption ranks ninth in the world. However, at the same time, it promised to reduce carbon emission and planned to use more renewable energy. Thus, the objective of this study is to propose an optimal energy mix planning model in electricity generation from various energy sources, such as gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, wind, photovoltaic, and biomass, which considers more renewable and sustainable portions by imposing governmental regulation named renewable portfolio standard (RPS. This optimization model minimizes various costs such as construction cost, operation and management cost, fuel cost, and carbon emission cost while satisfying minimal demand requirement, maximal annual installation potential, and renewable portfolio standard constraints. Results showed that this optimization model could successfully generate energy mix plan from 2012 to 2030 while minimizing the objective costs and satisfying all the constraints. Therefore, this optimization model contributes more efficient and objective method to the complex decision-making process with a sustainability option. This proposed energy mix model is expected to be applied not only to Korea, but also to many other countries in the future for more economical planning of their electricity generation while affecting climate change less.

  13. Market analysis: renewable fuels; Marktanalyse - Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This new publication of Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) e.V. presents an analysis of markets and potentials. The Meo Consulting Team of Cologne analyzed the importance of various products in Germany, as well as electric power, heat, and fuels. The ''Marktanalyse Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'' is available for free at FNR. It contains a detailed survey, with many figures and graphs. It is shown that oils, fats, sugar, starch and fibres of renewable materials have become established products in the market. Political boundary conditions have great importance, as is shown in the data for bioenergy, where dynamic growth is expected both for electric power from biogas and for biofuels. The study is in two parts. The first part analyzes electrical and thermal energy as well as biofuels. The second part goes into lubricants, chemical feedstocks, varnishes and lacquers, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. There are also sections on paper, cardboard and carton, packaging products, fibre-reinforced materials and formed parts, textiles, construction materials, insulating materials and furniture. (orig.)

  14. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of...... with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems.......In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage...... flexibility, such as SOFCs, heat pumps and heat storage technologies are more important than storing electricity as hydrogen via electrolysis in energy systems with high amounts of wind [12]. Unnecessary energy conversions should be avoided. However in future energy systems with wind providing more than 50...

  15. A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report evaluates the future costs, benefits, and other impacts of renewable energy used to meet current state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). It also examines a future scenario where RPSs are expanded. The analysis examines changes in electric system costs and retail electricity prices, which include all fixed and operating costs, including capital costs for all renewable, non-renewable, and supporting (e.g., transmission and storage) electric sector infrastructure; fossil fuel, uranium, and biomass fuel costs; and plant operations and maintenance expenditures. The analysis evaluates three specific benefits: air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and water use. It also analyzes two other impacts, renewable energy workforce and economic development, and natural gas price suppression. This analysis finds that the benefits or renewable energy used to meet RPS polices exceed the costs, even when considering the highest cost and lowest benefit outcomes.

  16. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  17. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  18. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Hossain, A.B.M.; Aishah Salleh; Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce; Partha chowdhury; Mohd Naqiuddin

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO...

  19. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D.

    2008-07-01

    The State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project is supported by the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program within the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project seeks to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states. The goal is to assist states in determining which clean energy policies or policy portfolios will best accomplish their environmental, economic, and security goals. For example, a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) mandates an increase in the use of wind, solar, biomass, and other alternatives to fossil and nuclear electric generation. This paper provides a summary of the policy objectives that commonly drive the establishment of an RPS, the key issues that states have encountered in implementing an RPS, and the strategies that some of the leading states have followed to address implementation challenges. The factors that help an RPS function best generally have been explored in other analyses. This study complements others by comparing empirical outcomes, and identifying the policies that appear to have the greatest impact on results.

  20. Renewable Electricity Standards: Good Practices and Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-02

    In widespread use globally, renewable electricity standards (RES) are one of the most widely adopted renewable energy policies and a critical regulatory vehicle to accelerate renewable energy deployment. This policy brief provides an introduction to key RES design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific RES policy design.

  1. Essays in energy economics: An inquiry into Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Laura Marie

    In an attempt to motivate the transition away from fossil fuels, reduce carbon emissions and diversify electricity supply, twenty-nine states and the District of Columbia have adopted a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS). An RPS is a form of regulation that requires increased electricity production from renewable energy sources. These standards vary by state but generally require a minimum percentage of electricity generation to come from renewable technologies by a predetermined date. In the first chapter I examine the effect of the adoption of an RPS on electricity rates, making use of the increased availability of data since several policies' adoption. Using a fifty state panel over the years 1990-2010, this study uses a difference-in-difference and a fixed effects estimation to measure how the adoption of an RPS affects the price of electricity in state markets. Empirical findings show that states that have adopted an RPS have approximately a 20% higher all-retail electricity price than states that do not have RPS. Following the adoption of this regulation, a state can expect to see electricity prices rise by roughly 5% on average per year relative to states with no RPS. Once the legislation has been in place for almost a decade, electricity rates begin to dramatically increase upwards of 10% per year. In the second chapter, I observe the economic, social and political factors that prompt a state to adopt a Renewable Portfolio Standard. I estimate a probit model to determine the probability a state will adopt an RPS in a year given its present political and economic climate. Results show that a deregulated electricity market, a high per-capita GDP, a strong democratic presence in the state legislature, high renewable capacity, and a strong incidence of natural gas are indicators a state will pass an RPS. Whether or not a state is a net importer or exporter of electricity is not a significant indicator of adoption of an RPS within a state. The third chapter

  2. Distributed renewable power from biomass and other waste fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The world population is continually growing and putting a burden on our fossil fuels. These fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are used for a variety of critical needs such as power production and transportation. While significant environmental improvements have been made, the uses of these fuels are still causing significant ecological impacts. Coal power production efficiency has not improved over the past thirty years and with relatively cheap petroleum cost, transportation mileage has not improved significantly either. With the demand for these fossil fuels increasing, ultimately price will also have to increase. This presentation will evaluate alternative power production methods using localized distributed generation from biomass, municipal solid waste and other waste sources of organic materials. The presentation will review various gasification processes that produce a synthetic gas that can be utilized as a fuel source in combustion turbines for clean and efficient combined heat and power. This fuel source can produce base load renewable power. In addition tail gases from the production of bio-diesel and methanol fuels can be used to produce renewable power. Being localized can reduce the need for long and costly transmission lines making the production of fuels and power from waste a viable alternative energy source for the future.

  3. Capacitive Bioanodes Enable Renewable Energy Storage in Microbial Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deeke, A.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an integrated system for storage of renewable electricity in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The system contained a capacitive electrode that was inserted into the anodic compartment of an MFC to form a capacitive bioanode. This capacitive bioanode was compared with a noncapacitive

  4. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  5. Market analysis. Renewable fuels; Marktanalyse. Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR) had on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture created a study on the market development of renewable resources in Germany and published this in the year of 2006. The aim of that study was to identify of actual status and market performance of the individual market segments of the material and energetic use as a basis for policy recommendations for accelerated and long term successful market launch and market share expansion of renewable raw materials. On behalf of the FNR, a market analysis of mid-2011 was carried out until the beginning of 2013, the results of which are hereby resubmitted. This market analysis covers all markets of material and energetic use in the global context, taking account of possible competing uses. A market segmentation, which was based on the product classification of the Federal Statistical Office, formed the basis of the analysis. A total of ten markets have been defined, seven material and three energetic use. [German] Die Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR) hatte im Auftrag des BMEL eine Studie zur Marktentwicklung von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen in Deutschland erstellen lassen und diese im Jahr 2006 veroeffentlicht. Ziel der damaligen Studie war die Ermittlung von Ist-Zustand und Marktentwicklung der einzelnen Marktsegmente der stofflichen und energetischen Nutzung als Basis fuer Handlungsempfehlungen fuer eine beschleunigte und langfristig erfolgreiche Markteinfuehrung bzw. Marktanteilsausweitung nachwachsender Rohstoffe. Im Auftrag der FNR wurde erneut eine Marktanalyse von Mitte 2011 bis Anfang 2013 durchgefuehrt, deren Ergebnisse hiermit vorgelegt werden. Diese Marktanalyse umfasst alle Maerkte der stofflichen und energetischen Nutzung im globalen Kontext unter Beruecksichtigung moeglicher Nutzungskonkurrenzen. Eine Marktsegmentierung, die sich an der Produktklassifikation des Statistischen Bundesamtes orientierte, bildete die Grundlage der Analyse. Insgesamt

  6. 40 CFR 80.1115 - How are equivalence values assigned to renewable fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall have an equivalence value of 1.3. (5) Non-ester renewable diesel, including that produced from... renewable source, expressed as a percent, on an energy basis. EC = Energy content of the renewable fuel, in... renewable fuel? 80.1115 Section 80.1115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  7. 40 CFR 80.1415 - How are equivalence values assigned to renewable fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Non-ester renewable diesel with a lower heating value of at least 123,500 Btu/gal shall have an... renewable fuel that came from renewable biomass, expressed as a fraction, on an energy basis. EC = Energy... renewable fuel? 80.1415 Section 80.1415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  8. Study on Planning Standards for Urban Renewal Areas in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper starts from the origin and evolution of city planning standards of Shenzhen before analyzing the new demands for the standards by the development of city renewal amid city transition,and establishes a primary framework for the planning standards and requirements.In addition,on the basis of comparing with the formulation of planning standards of Hong Kong,Shanghai,and Changsha,the paper carries out a discussion on the formulation ideas and main contents of the planning standards for the urban renewal areas in Shenzhen.Moreover,the paper also analyzes the standards for renewal objects,scope,mode,functions guidance,development control,and public facilities,all of which are quite heated issues and key elements in the process of formulation and approval of renewal planning,in order to improve the institutional structure of the City Planning Standards and Requirements of Shenzhen and meet the government’s demand in realizing a refined management.

  9. Of paradise and clean power: The effect of California's renewable portfolio standard on in-state renewable energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Clifton Lee

    Renewable portfolio standards (RPS), policies that encourage acquisition of electricity from renewable energy sources, have become popular instruments for discouraging the use of climate change inducing-fossil fuels. There has been limited research, however, that empirically evaluates their effectiveness. Using data gathered by three governmental entities -- the federal-level Energy Information Administration and two California agencies, the Employment Development Department and the Department of Finance -- this paper investigates the impact of California's RPS, one of the nation's most ambitious such policies, on in-state renewable energy generation. It finds that the California RPS did not bring about a one-time increase in generation with its inception, nor did it compel an increase in generation over time. These results raise questions as to the best way to structure RPS policies in light of growing interest in the establishment of a national RPS.

  10. U.S. Air Force Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    aircraft certification; airworthiness certification; fuel certification; hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ); hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids...and R-8X Hydrotreated Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel,” AFRL-RZ-WP-TR-2011-2020, May 2010. Bessee, G. et al. “Analysis of Synthetic Aviation Fuels... Hydrotreated Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel,” AFRL-RZ-WP-TR-2011-2020, May 2010. 4. Hadaller, O. J., Johnson, J. M., “World Fuel Sampling Program

  11. 77 FR 59458 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... water supply; The impact of renewable fuels on the energy security of the United States; The expected... taking this view generally did not offer any data or information to support their belief that 1.28...

  12. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Harold T.

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  13. Impacts of renewable fuel regulation and production on agriculture, energy, and welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Lihong Lu

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study the impact of U.S. federal renewable fuel regulations on energy and agriculture commodity markets and welfare. We consider two federal ethanol policies: the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) contained in the Energy Security and Independence Act of 2007 and tax credits to ethanol blenders contained in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008. My first essay estimates the distribution of short-run impacts of changing federal ethanol policies on U.S. energy prices, agricultural commodity prices, and welfare through a stochastic partial equilibrium model of U.S. corn, ethanol, and gasoline markets. My second essay focuses on studying the price behavior of the renewable fuel credit (RFC) market, which is the mechanism developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet the RFS. RFCs are a tradable, bankable, and borrowable accounting mechanism to ensure that all obligated parties use a mandated level of renewable fuel. I first develop a conceptual framework to understand how the market works and then apply stochastic dynamic programming to simulate prices for RFCs, examine the sensitivity of prices to relevant shocks, and estimate RFC option premiums. My third essay assesses the impact of policy led U.S. ethanol on the markets of global crude oil and U.S. gasoline using a structural Vector Auto Regression model of global crude oil, U.S. gasoline and ethanol markets.

  14. Electric Vehicles - Promoting Fuel Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Danish Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)......Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)...

  15. Electric Vehicles - Promoting Fuel Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Danish Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)......Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)...

  16. Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V. [and others

    1995-06-01

    In the fundamental biological process of photosynthesis, atmospheric carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrate using water as the source of electrons with simultaneous evolution of molecular oxygen: H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + light {yields} O{sub 2} + (CH{sub 2}O). It is well established that two light reactions, Photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) working in series, are required to perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Experimental data supporting the two-light reaction model are based on the quantum requirement for complete photosynthesis, spectroscopy, and direct biochemical analysis. Some algae also have the capability to evolve molecular hydrogen in a reaction energized by the light reactions of photosynthesis. This process, now known as biophotolysis, can use water as the electron donor and lead to simultaneous evolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen. In green algae, hydrogen evolution requires prior incubation under anaerobic conditions. Atmospheric oxygen inhibits hydrogen evolution and also represses the synthesis of hydrogenase enzyme. CO{sub 2} fixation competes with proton reduction for electrons relased from the photosystems. Interest in biophotolysis arises from both the questions that it raises concerning photosynthesis and its potential practical application as a process for converting solar energy to a non-carbon-based fuel. Prior data supported the requirement for both Photosystem I and Photosystem II in spanning the energy gap necessary for biophotolysis of water to oxygen and hydrogen. In this paper we report the at PSII alone is capable of driving sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen in an anaerobically adapted PSI-deficient strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutant B4, and that CO{sub 2} competes as an electron acceptor.

  17. Catalytic conversion of renewable biomass resources to fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; West, Ryan M; Dumesic, James A

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is renewable and cheap, and it has the potential to displace fossil fuels in the production of fuels and chemicals. Biomass-derived carboxylic acids are important compounds that can be used as platform molecules for the production of a variety of important chemicals on a large scale. Lactic acid, a prototypical biomass derivative, and levulinic acid, an important chemical feedstock produced by hydrolysis of waste cellulosic materials, can be upgraded using bifunctional catalysts (those containing metal and acid sites), which allows the integration of several transformations (e.g., oxygen removal and C-C coupling) in a single catalyst bed. This coupling between active sites is beneficial in that it reduces the complexity and cost of the biomass conversion processes. Deoxygenation of biomass derivatives is a requisite step for the production of fuels and chemicals, and strategies are proposed to minimize the consumption of hydrogen from an external source during this process.

  18. Final Progress Report, Renewable and Logistics Fuels for Fuel Cells at the Colorado School of Mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Neal P. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-08-06

    The objective of this program is to advance the current state of technology of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to improve performance when operating on renewable and logistics hydrocarbon fuel streams. Outcomes will include: 1.) new SOFC materials and architectures that address the technical challenges associated with carbon-deposit formation and sulfur poisoning; 2.) new integration strategies for combining fuel reformers with SOFCs; 3.) advanced modeling tools that bridge the scales of fundamental charge-transfer chemistry to system operation and control; and 4.) outreach through creation of the Distinguished Lecturer Series to promote nationwide collaboration with fuel-cell researchers and scientists.

  19. Algae oil: a sustainable renewable fuel of future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Abishek, Monford; Patel, Jay; Prem Rajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come.

  20. Algae Oil: A Sustainable Renewable Fuel of Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monford Paul Abishek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come.

  1. Renewable Portfolio Standards in the States: Balancing Goals and Implementation Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K. S.; Swezey, B. G.

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports on renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and how the RPS rules vary from state to state. This variation presents important challenges to successful implementation. Key issues are discussed in terms of resource availability, solar-specific provisions, and political and regulatory consistency, and their impacts on the ability to finance new renewable energy projects. This report emphasizes the fact that a successful RPS policy must balance a state's goals for fuel diversity, economic development, price effects, and environmental benefits.

  2. A comparison between renewable transport fuels that can supplement or replace biofuels in a 100% renewable energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Ridjan, Iva

    2014-01-01

    Identifying renewable energy alternatives in transport is particularly complicated, since the end-user can vary from a single-person car to a cargo ship. The aim of this paper is to aid this process by comparing 7 different methods for producing transport fuels in terms of the resources required...... for these fuels. Based on the assumptions in this study, some of the renewable fuels proposed here would be cheaper than oil in the year 2050. However, this is based on fuel production costs only and does do not consider other key costs, such as the infrastructure costs, which will be considered in the future...

  3. Terminology used for renewable liquid and gaseous fuels based on the conversion of electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    As the transport sector transitions away from fossil fuels and renewable fuels shift into focus, it is important that the terminology around renewable fuels is clarified. A number of terms such as synthetic fuel and electrofuel are used to describe both renewable and alternative fuels. The aim...... of this article is to identify and review these terms to avoid any potential misuse. An integrative review of terminology has been made. This review did not differentiate the articles in terms of the methodologies applied, but had the main objective to identify the terminology used and its definition. The results...... confirm that the term synthetic fuel is used generically in the majority of articles, without providing information about the production process of the fuel or differentiating between fossil-based and renewable-based synthetic fuels. The majority of the articles use the term synthetic fuel to describe...

  4. Hydrothermal Liquefaction: A Promising Pathway Towards Renewable Jet Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biller, Patrick; Roth, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Conversion of wet biomass and waste products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) has been evolving as an alternative thermochemical technology for the production of liquid biofuels. Processing of biomass slurries with approximately 20 % solids content under high temperature and pressure mimics...... the natural formation of fossil crude on earth. With reaction times of around 10 to 30 minutes, temperatures of 350 °C and pressures of around 200 bar, HTL converts any biomass feedstock to a liquid bio-crude. This raw product roughly resembles petroleum, but exhibits higher oxygen contents (~10 %) and has...... of feedstocks and products represents a major advantage over other thermochemical conversion processes. Future developments should address tailoring the process to meet specific fuel requirements, e.g. those of renewable aviation fuels. Recent HTL reactor developments have led to proven continuous operation...

  5. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  6. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B.M. Sharif Hossain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO2-enriched air can be converted to oily substances. Such an approach can contribute to solve major problems of air pollution resulting from CO2 evolution and future crisis due to a shortage of energy sources. This study was undertaken to know the proper transesterification, amount of biodiesel production (ester and physical properties of biodiesel. In this study we used common species Oedogonium and Spirogyra to compare the amount of biodiesel production. Algal oil and biodiesel (ester production was higher in Oedogonium than Spirogyra sp. However, biomass (after oil extraction was higher in Spirogyra than Oedogonium sp. Sediments (glycerine, water and pigments was higher in Spirogyra than Oedogonium sp. There was no difference of pH between Spirogyra and Oedogonium sp. These results indicate that biodiesel can be produced from both species and Oedogonium is better source than Spirogyra sp.

  7. Oilseeds for use in biodiesel and drop-in renewable jet fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseeds, primarily soybean and canola, are currently used as feedstocks for biodiesel production. Oilseeds can also be used to produce drop-in renewable jet fuel and diesel products. While soybean and canola are the most common oilseed crops used for renewable fuel production in the U.S., many othe...

  8. Capacitive bioanodes enable renewable energy storage in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeke, Alexandra; Sleutels, Tom H J A; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2012-03-20

    We developed an integrated system for storage of renewable electricity in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The system contained a capacitive electrode that was inserted into the anodic compartment of an MFC to form a capacitive bioanode. This capacitive bioanode was compared with a noncapacitive bioanode on the basis of performance and storage capacity. The performance and storage capacity were investigated during polarization curves and charge-discharge experiments. During polarization curves the capacitive electrode reached a maximum current density of 1.02 ± 0.04 A/m(2), whereas the noncapacitive electrode reached a current density output of only 0.79 ± 0.03 A/m(2). During the charge-discharge experiment with 5 min of charging and 20 min of discharging, the capacitive electrode was able to store a total of 22,831 C/m(2), whereas the noncapacitive electrode was only able to store 12,195 C/m(2). Regarding the charge recovery of each electrode, the capacitive electrode was able to recover 52.9% more charge during each charge-discharge experiment compared with the noncapacitive electrode. The capacitive electrode outperformed the noncapacitive electrode throughout each charge-discharge experiment. With a capacitive electrode it is possible to use the MFC simultaneously for production and storage of renewable electricity.

  9. Economic and Emissions Impacts of Renewable Fuel Goals for Aviation in the US

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has a goal that one billion gallons of renewable jet fuel is consumed by the US aviation industry each year from 2018. We examine the economic and emissions impacts of this goal using renewable fuel produced from a Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) process from renewable oils. Our approach employs an economy-wide model of economic activity and energy systems and a detailed partial equilibrium model of the aviation industry. If soybean oi...

  10. Standardization of Alternative Fuels. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    mean with a specific alternative fuel; a standard for the fuel. Since we today live in a global society with international trade, the work with standards has to be carried out by international standardization organizations such as CEN and ISO. In the work on standardization of alternative fuels, it is of course important that all existing knowledge and experiences on production, distribution and use of alternative fuels are taken into account to avoid duplication of work and to limit the time and resources needed to produce standards. The International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor Fuels, (IEA/AMF) is an organization with competence and more than 20 years of experience on alternative fuels. In April 2002 IEA/AMF's Executive Committee decided to start a new Annex, Annex XXVII on 'Standardization of alternative fuels'. This report is the result of phase one of Annex XXVII.

  11. Investigation of the effects of renewable diesel fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Ogunkoya, Dolanimi

    2015-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate renewable fuels in a compression-ignition internal combustion engine. The focus of this study was the effect of newly developed renewable fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions. Eight fuels were investigated, and they include diesel, jet fuel, a traditional biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester: FAME), and five next generation biofuels. These five fuels were derived using a two-step process: hydrolysis of the oil into fatty acids (if necessary) and then a thermo-catalytic process to remove the oxygen via a decarboxylation reaction. The fuels included a fed batch deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids (DCFA), a fed batch deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids with varying amounts of H2 used during the deoxygenation process (DCFAH), a continuous deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids (CDCFA), fed batch deoxygenation of lauric acid (DLA), and a third reaction to isomerize the products of the deoxygenated canola derived fatty acid alkanes (IPCF). Diesel, jet fuel, and biodiesel (FAME) have been used as benchmarks for comparing with the newer renewable fuels. The results of the experiments show slightly lower mechanical efficiency but better brake specific fuel consumption for the new renewable fuels. Results from combustion show shorter ignition delays for most of the renewable (deoxygenated) fuels with the exception of fed batch deoxygenation of lauric acid. Combustion results also show lower peak in-cylinder pressures, reduced rate of increase in cylinder pressure, and lower heat release rates for the renewable fuels. Emission results show an increase in hydrocarbon emissions for renewable deoxygenated fuels, but a general decrease in all other emissions including NOx, greenhouse gases, and soot. Results also demonstrate that isomers of the alkanes resulting from the deoxygenation of the canola derived fatty acids could be a potential replacement to conventional fossil diesel and biodiesel based on the

  12. Outlook on Standardization of Alternative Vehicle Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehnlund, B. [Atrax Energi AB (Sweden)

    2008-10-15

    The use of fossil but in first hand biobased alternative fuels in transportation has increased over the last decades. This change is primarily driven by concerns about climate change that is caused by emissions of fossil carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, but also by the impact on health and environment, caused by emissions of regulated as well as non-regulated emissions from the transport sector. Most alternative fuels will help to reduce the emissions of regulated and non-regulated emissions, while alternative fuels based on biomass also will contribute to reduced net emissions of carbon dioxide. Since the mid 1990s, the use of biomass based fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel has reached levels high enough in for example Europe, Brazil and the U.S. to motivate national or regional specifications/standards. Especially from the vehicle/engine manufacturer's point of view standards are of high importance. From early 2000 onwards, the international trade of biofuels (for example from Brazil to the U.S. and Europe) has grown, and this has created a need for common international specifications/standards. This report presents information about national and regional standards for alternative fuels, but also, when existing and reported, standards on a global level are described and discussed. Ongoing work concerning new or revised standards on alternative fuels on national, regional or global level is also discussed. In this report we have covered standards on all kind of alternative fuels, exemplified below. However, the focus is on liquid biofuels for diesel engines and Otto engines. 1) Liquid fuels for diesel engines (compression ignition engines), such as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME), Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEE), alcohols, alcohol derivates and synthetic diesel fuels. 2) Liquid fuels for Otto engines (spark ignition engines), such as alcohols, ethers and synthetic gasoline. 3) Liquefied fossil petroleum gas (LPG). 4) Di-Methyl Ether (DME). 5

  13. Design of a mediated enzymatic fuel cell to generate power from renewable fuel sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Seyda; Kilic, Muhammet Samet

    2016-01-01

    The present work reported a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) based on newly synthesized Poly(pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid-co-3-thiophene acetic acid) film containing glucose oxidase and laccase effectively wired by p-benzoquinone incorporated into the copolymer structure. The resulting system generated a power density of 18.8 µW/cm(2) with 30 mM of glucose addition at +0.94 V at room temperature. Improvements to maximize the power output were ensured with step-by-step optimization of electrode fabrication design and operational parameters for operating the system with renewable fuel sources. We demonstrated that the improved fuel cell could easily harvest glucose produced during photosynthesis to produce electrical energy in a simple, renewable and sustainable way by generating a power density of 10 nW/cm(2) in the plant leaf within 2 min. An EFC for the first time was successfully operated in municipal wastewater which contained glycolytic substances to generate electrical energy with a power output of 3.3 µW/cm(2).

  14. 75 FR 65614 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Standards Board Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Standards Board Charter Renewal AGENCY: Election Assistance... (EAC) has renewed the charter for the Standards Board for a two-year period through October 18, 2012...-463, as amended, this notice advises interested persons of the renewal of the Standards Board...

  15. Solar hydrogen production: renewable hydrogen production by dry fuel reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Jamie; Miyamoto, Henry K.

    2006-09-01

    SHEC LABS - Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation constructed a pilot-plant to demonstrate a Dry Fuel Reforming (DFR) system that is heated primarily by sunlight focusing-mirrors. The pilot-plant consists of: 1) a solar mirror array and solar concentrator and shutter system; and 2) two thermo-catalytic reactors to convert Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Water into Hydrogen. Results from the pilot study show that solar Hydrogen generation is feasible and cost-competitive with traditional Hydrogen production. More than 95% of Hydrogen commercially produced today is by the Steam Methane Reformation (SMR) of natural gas, a process that liberates Carbon Dioxide to the atmosphere. The SMR process provides a net energy loss of 30 to 35% when converting from Methane to Hydrogen. Solar Hydrogen production provides a 14% net energy gain when converting Methane into Hydrogen since the energy used to drive the process is from the sun. The environmental benefits of generating Hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas and criteria air contaminant reductions.

  16. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  17. Assessing the costs and benefits of US renewable portfolio standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, Ryan; Mai, Trieu; Millstein, Dev; Barbose, Galen; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; Keyser, David; Krishnan, Venkat; Macknick, Jordan

    2017-09-01

    Renewable portfolio standards (RPS) exist in 29 US states and the District of Columbia. This article summarizes the first national-level, integrated assessment of the future costs and benefits of existing RPS policies; the same metrics are evaluated under a second scenario in which widespread expansion of these policies is assumed to occur. Depending on assumptions about renewable energy technology advancement and natural gas prices, existing RPS policies increase electric system costs by as much as 31 billion, on a present-value basis over 2015‑2050. The expanded renewable deployment scenario yields incremental costs that range from 23 billion to 194 billion, depending on the assumptions employed. The monetized value of improved air quality and reduced climate damages exceed these costs. Using central assumptions, existing RPS policies yield 97 billion in air-pollution health benefits and 161 billion in climate damage reductions. Under the expanded RPS case, health benefits total 558 billion and climate benefits equal 599 billion. These scenarios also yield benefits in the form of reduced water use. RPS programs are not likely to represent the most cost effective path towards achieving air quality and climate benefits. Nonetheless, the findings suggest that US RPS programs are, on a national basis, cost effective when considering externalities.

  18. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muradov, Nazim; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Gujar, Amit; Rochfort, Simone; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-01-01

    ... and production of value-added products. In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored...

  19. Evaluation of Suppression of Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel Fires with Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2011-0101 EVALUATION OF SUPPRESSION OF HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE JET (HRJ) FUEL FIRES WITH AQUEOUS FILM FORMING FOAM ( AFFF ...Forming Foam ( AFFF ) has the capability of extinguishing HRJ fuel fires and HRJ/JP-8 blended fuel fires . The assessment included extinguishment...whether existing aqueous film- forming foam ( AFFF ) firefighting agents and equipment are capable of extinguishing alternative- fuel fires or

  20. Simultaneous determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel contents in diesel fuel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Julio Cesar Laurentino; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2013-11-07

    Highly polluting fuels based on non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels need to be replaced with potentially less polluting renewable fuels derived from vegetable or animal biomass, these so-called biofuels, are a reality nowadays and many countries have started the challenge of increasing the use of different types of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters), often mixed with petroleum derivatives, such as gasoline and diesel, respectively. The quantitative determination of these fuel blends using simple, fast and low cost methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been reported. However, advanced biofuels based on a mixture of hydrocarbons or a single hydrocarbon molecule, such as farnesane (2,6,10-trimethyldodecane), a hydrocarbon renewable diesel, can also be used in mixtures with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel and the use of NIR spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of a ternary fuel blend of these two hydrocarbon-based fuels and biodiesel can be a useful tool for quality control. This work presents a development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel (farnesane), biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends using NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). This development leads to a more accurate, simpler, faster and cheaper method when compared to the standard reference method ASTM D6866 and with the main advantage of providing the individual quantification of two different biofuels in a mixture with petroleum diesel fuel. Using the developed PLS model the three fuel blend components were determined simultaneously with values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.38% for hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel, respectively, the values obtained were in agreement with those suggested by

  1. U.S. Renewables Portfolio Standards: 2017 Annual Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-25

    Berkeley Lab’s annual status report on U.S. renewables portfolio standards (RPS) provides an overview of key trends associated with U.S. state RPS policies. The report, published in slide-deck form, describes recent legislative revisions, key policy design features, compliance with interim targets, past and projected impacts on renewables development, and compliance costs. The 2017 edition of the report presents historical data through year-end 2016 and projections through 2030. Key trends from this edition of the report include the following: -Evolution of state RPS programs: Significant RPS-related policy revisions since the start of 2016 include increased RPS targets in DC, MD, MI, NY, RI, and OR; requirements for new wind and solar projects and other major reforms to the RPS procurement process in IL; and a new offshore wind carve-out and solar procurement program in MA. -Historical impacts on renewables development: Roughly half of all growth in U.S. renewable electricity (RE) generation and capacity since 2000 is associated with state RPS requirements. Nationally, the role of RPS policies has diminished over time, representing 44% of all U.S. RE capacity additions in 2016. However, within particular regions, RPS policies continue to play a central role in supporting RE growth, constituting 70-90% of 2016 RE capacity additions in the West, Mid-Atlantic, and Northeast. -Future RPS demand and incremental needs: Meeting RPS demand growth will require roughly a 50% increase in U.S. RE generation by 2030, equating to 55 GW of new RE capacity. To meet future RPS demand, total U.S. RE generation will need to reach 13% of electricity sales by 2030 (compared to 10% today), though other drivers will also continue to influence RE growth. -RPS target achievement to-date: States have generally met their interim RPS targets in recent years, with only a few exceptions reflecting unique state-specific policy designs. -REC pricing trends: Prices for renewable energy

  2. The feasibility of synthetic fuels in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, D.

    2013-01-01

    While all other sectors had significant renewable energy penetrations, transport is still heavily dependent on oil displaying rapid growth in the last decades. There is no easy renewable solution to meet transport sector demand due to the wide variety of modes and needs in the sector. Nowadays, b...

  3. Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villet, R.H.

    1980-04-01

    To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

  4. An evaluation of the impact of state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) on retail, commercial, and industrial electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puram, Rakesh

    The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular mechanism for states to promote renewable energy and its popularity has spurred a potential bill within Congress for a nationwide Federal RPS. While RPS benefits have been touted by several groups, it also has detractors. Among the concerns is that RPS standards could raise electricity rates, given that renewable energy is costlier than traditional fossil fuels. The evidence on the impact of RPS on electricity prices is murky at best: Complex models by NREL and USEIA utilize computer programs with several assumptions which make empirical studies difficult and only predict slight increases in electricity rates associated with RPS standards. Recent theoretical models and empirical studies have found price increases, but often fail to comprehensively include several sets of variables, which in fact could confound results. Utilizing a combination of past papers and studies to triangulate variables this study aims to develop both a rigorous fixed effects regression model as well as a theoretical framework to explain the results. This study analyzes state level panel data from 2002 to 2008 to analyze the effect of RPS on residential, commercial, and industrial electricity prices, controlling for several factors including amount of electricity generation from renewable and non-renewable sources, customer incentives for renewable energy, macroeconomic and demographic indicators, and fuel price mix. The study contrasts several regressions to illustrate important relationships and how inclusions as well as exclusion of various variables have an effect on electricity rates. Regression results indicate that the presence of RPS within a state increases the commercial and residential electricity rates, but have no discernable effect on the industrial electricity rate. Although RPS tends to increase electricity prices, the effect has a small impact on higher electricity prices. The models also indicate that jointly all

  5. 75 FR 43522 - Notice of Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... of fuel pathways such as ethanol from corn starch or biodiesel from soybean oil our reference case... transportation fuels, including gasoline and diesel fuel or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel... assumed that the co- product glycerin would displace residual oil as a fuel source on an energy...

  6. Fuels for transportation derived from renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, J.; Weindorf, W.

    2001-07-01

    There are two main reasons for introducing renewable energy sources into the transportation sector: global warming on the one hand and the imminent end of cheap oil on the other. The future use of renewable energy sources for tranportation is the only sustainable solution that protects the climate and ensures energy supply - especially it is the only conceivable way to satisfy the demand for mobility of the people in the developing countries.

  7. A retrospective analysis of benefits and impacts of U.S. renewable portfolio standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Heeter, Jenny; Mai, Trieu; Bird, Lori; Bolinger, Mark; Carpenter, Alberta; Heath, Garvin; Keyser, David; Macknick, Jordan; Mills, Andrew; Millstein, Dev

    2016-09-01

    As states consider revising or developing renewable portfolio standards (RPS), they are evaluating policy costs, benefits, and other impacts. We present the first U. S. national-level assessment of state RPS program benefits and impacts, focusing on new renewable electricity resources used to meet RPS compliance obligations in 2013. In our central-case scenario, reductions in life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from displaced fossil fuel-generated electricity resulted in $2.2 billion of global benefits. Health and environmental benefits from reductions in criteria air pollutants (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter 2.5) were even greater, estimated at $5.2 billion in the central case. Further benefits accrued in the form of reductions in water withdrawals and consumption for power generation. Finally, although best considered resource transfers rather than net societal benefits, new renewable electricity generation used for RPS compliance in 2013 also supported nearly 200,000 U. S.-based gross jobs and reduced wholesale electricity prices and natural gas prices, saving consumers a combined $1.3-$4.9 billion. In total, the estimated benefits and impacts well-exceed previous estimates of RPS compliance costs.

  8. A Retrospective Analysis of Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Heeter, Jenny; Mai, Trieu; Bird, Lori; Bolinger, Mark; Carpenter, Alberta; Heath, Garvin; Keyser, David; Macknick, Jordan; Mills, Andrew; Millstein, Dev

    2016-09-01

    As states consider revising or developing renewable portfolio standards (RPS), they are evaluating policy costs, benefits, and other impacts. We present the first U. S. national-level assessment of state RPS program benefits and impacts, focusing on new renewable electricity resources used to meet RPS compliance obligations in 2013. In our central-case scenario, reductions in life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from displaced fossil fuel-generated electricity resulted in $2.2 billion of global benefits. Health and environmental benefits from reductions in criteria air pollutants (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter 2.5) were even greater, estimated at $5.2 billion in the central case. Further benefits accrued in the form of reductions in water withdrawals and consumption for power generation. Finally, although best considered resource transfers rather than net societal benefits, new renewable electricity generation used for RPS compliance in 2013 also supported nearly 200,000 U. S.-based gross jobs and reduced wholesale electricity prices and natural gas prices, saving consumers a combined $1.3-$4.9 billion. In total, the estimated benefits and impacts well-exceed previous estimates of RPS compliance costs.

  9. Utilizing GIS to Examine the Relationship Between State Renewable Portfolio Standards and the Adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Schelly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, there is no comprehensive energy policy at the federal level. To address issues as diverse as climate change, energy security, and economic development, individual states have increasingly implemented Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs, which mandate that utility providers include a specified amount of electricity from renewable energy sources in their total energy portfolios. Some states have included incentives for individual energy technologies in their RPS, such as solar electric (also called photovoltaic or PV technology. Here, we use GIS to visualize adoption of RPSs and electricity generation from renewable energy sources in the US and examine changes in renewable electricity and solar electric generation over time with the goal of informing future policies aimed at promoting the adoption of renewable energy technologies.

  10. 14 CFR 34.11 - Standard for fuel venting emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Engine Fuel Venting Emissions (New and In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.11 Standard for fuel venting emissions. (a) No... discharge to the atmosphere of fuel drained from fuel nozzle manifolds after engines are shut down and...

  11. The Treatment of Renewable Energy Certificates, EmissionsAllowances, and Green Power Programs in State Renewables PortfolioStandards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Edward A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2007-04-17

    Twenty-one states and the District of Columbia have adopted mandatory renewables portfolio standards (RPS) over the last ten years. Renewable energy attributes-such as the energy source, conversion technology, plant location and vintage, and emissions-are usually required to verify compliance with these policies, sometimes through attributes bundled with electricity, and sometimes with the attributes unbundled from electricity and traded separately as renewable energy certificates (RECs). This report summarizes the treatment of renewable energy attributes in state RPS rules. Its purpose is to provide a source of information for states considering RPS policies, and also to draw attention to certain policy issues that arise when renewable attributes and RECs are used for RPS compliance. Three specific issues are addressed: (1) the degree to which unbundled RECs are allowed under existing state RPS programs and the status of systems to track RECs and renewable energy attributes; (2) definitions of the renewable energy attributes that must be included in order to meet state RPS obligations, including the treatment of available emissions allowances; and (3) state policies on whether renewable energy or RECs sold through voluntary green power transactions may count towards RPS obligations.

  12. Charging a renewable future: The impact of electric vehicle charging intelligence on energy storage requirements to meet renewable portfolio standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Kate E.; Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-12-01

    Increased usage of renewable energy resources is key for energy system evolution to address environmental concerns. Capturing variable renewable power requires the use of energy storage to shift generation and load demand. The integration of plug-in electric vehicles, however, impacts the load demand profile and therefore the capacity of energy storage required to meet renewable utilization targets. This study examines how the intelligence of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) integration impacts the required capacity of energy storage systems to meet renewable utilization targets for a large-scale energy system, using California as an example for meeting a 50% and 80% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2030 and 2050. For an 80% RPS in 2050, immediate charging of PEVs requires the installation of an aggregate energy storage system with a power capacity of 60% of the installed renewable capacity and an energy capacity of 2.3% of annual renewable generation. With smart charging of PEVs, required power capacity drops to 16% and required energy capacity drops to 0.6%, and with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) charging, non-vehicle energy storage systems are no longer required. Overall, this study highlights the importance of intelligent PEV charging for minimizing the scale of infrastructure required to meet renewable utilization targets.

  13. Advanced Combustion and Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, Brad

    2015-06-08

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It addresses technical barriers of inadequate data and predictive tools for fuel and lubricant effects on advanced combustion engines, with the strategy being through collaboration, develop techniques, tools, and data to quantify critical fuel physico-chemical effects to enable development of advanced combustion engines that use alternative fuels.

  14. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    integration can also be preformed with other types of fuel cells than the SOFCs such as PEMFC in micro-CHP. These however have the disadvantage that the efficiency is lower and require pure hydrogen. PEMFCs have advantages for mobile applications replacing internal combustion engines and batteries were...... with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems....

  15. Drop-in Jet and Diesel Fuels from Renewable Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    WWII Germany • Gasify coal or other biomass to CO and H2 • Catalytically convert syngas to hydrocarbons • Paraffins and isoparaffins • Hydrotreated ...Renewable Jet (HRJ) • Converts renewable plant oils or fats • Conventional catalytic petroleum refining processes • Hydrotreating , hydrocracking...CHJatropha ~ f J I j l 1 ~ ~ -~AAA-----------====-~~~~~~ 14 GC of Hydrotreated CH Crude Jatropha Oil 9e+07 8.5e+07 8e+07 7.5e+07 Hydrotreated

  16. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-06-10

    This presentation provides a summary of NREL's FY15 fuel cell electric vehicle evaluation project activities and accomplishments. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 10, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia.

  17. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-06-10

    This presentation provides a summary of NREL's FY15 fuel cell electric vehicle evaluation project activities and accomplishments. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 10, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia.

  18. 49 CFR 531.5 - Fuel economy standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel economy standards. 531.5 Section 531.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.5 Fuel economy standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this section, each manufacturer of...

  19. 21st Century Renewable Fuels, Energy, and Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, K. Joel [Kettering Univ., Flint, MI (United States); Das, Susanta K. [Kettering Univ., Flint, MI (United States)

    2012-11-29

    The objectives of this project were multi-fold: (i) conduct fundamental studies to develop a new class of high temperature PEM fuel cell material capable of conducting protons at elevated temperature (180°C), (ii) develop and fabricate a 5k We novel catalytic flat plate steam reforming process for extracting hydrogen from multi-fuels and integrate with high-temperature PEM fuel cell systems, (iii) research and develop improved oxygen permeable membranes for high power density lithium air battery with simple control systems and reduced cost, (iv) research on high energy yield agriculture bio-crop (Miscanthus) suitable for reformate fuel/alternative fuel with minimum impact on human food chain and develop a cost analysis and production model, and (v) develop math and science alternative energy educator program to include bio-energy and power.

  20. The feasibility of synthetic fuels in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    The transport sector is the only sector in which there have been no significant renewable energy penetrations, it is heavily dependent on oil with rapid growth in the last decades. Moreover, it is challenging to obviate the oil dependence due to the wide variety of modes and needs in the sector. ...

  1. Feasibility of synthetic fuels in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    The transport sector is the only sector in which there have been no significant renewable energy penetrations and it is heavily dependent on oil with rapid growth in the last decades. Moreover, it is challenging to obviate the oil dependence due to the wide variety of modes and needs in the secto...

  2. 2011 RENEWABLE ENERGY: SOLAR FUELS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Hupp

    2011-01-21

    The conference will present and discuss current science that underlies solar fuels production, and will focus on direct production pathways for production. Thus, recent advances in design and understanding of molecular systems and materials for light capture and conversion of relevance for solar fuels will be discussed. An important set of topics will be homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological catalysts for the multi-electron processes of water oxidation, hydrogen production and carbon dioxide reduction to useful fuels. Also, progress towards integrated and scalable systems will be presented. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program.

  3. Development of a multi-criteria assessment model for ranking of renewable and non-renewable transportation fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, H.; Tichkowsky, G.; Kumar, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Several factors, including economical, environmental, and social factors, are involved in selection of the best fuel-based vehicles for road transportation. This leads to a multi-criteria selection problem for multi-alternatives. In this study, a multi-criteria assessment model was developed to rank different road transportation fuel-based vehicles (both renewable and non-renewable) using a method called Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment and Evaluations (PROMETHEE). This method combines qualitative and quantitative criteria to rank various alternatives. In this study, vehicles based on gasoline, gasoline-electric (hybrid), E85 ethanol, diesel, B100 biodiesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) were considered as alternatives. These alternatives were ranked based on five criteria: vehicle cost, fuel cost, distance between refueling stations, number of vehicle options available to the consumer, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit distance traveled. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to study the impact of changes in various parameters on final ranking. Two base cases and several alternative scenarios were evaluated. In the base case scenario with higher weight on economical parameters, gasoline-based vehicle was ranked higher than other vehicles. In the base case scenario with higher weight on environmental parameters, hybrid vehicle was ranked first followed by biodiesel-based vehicle. (author)

  4. Standardization of Alternative Fuels. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-15

    March 2003 the Executive Committee of the International Energy Agency's Implementing Agreement on Advanced Motor fuels (IEA/AMF) decided to continue annex XXVII 'Standardization of alternative fuels' with a second phase. The purpose of the second phase was to go further in the contacts with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as well as the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and their technical committees, to better understand their needs and to investigate how IEA/AMF could contribute to their work. It was also scheduled to put forward proposals on how IEA/AMF could cooperate with CEN and ISO and their technical committees (TC: s), primarily ISO/TC 28 'Petroleum Products and Lubricants' and CEN/TC 19 'Petroleum Products, Lubricants and Related Products'. The main part of the work in IEA/AMF annex XXVII phase two has focused on personal contacts within CEN/TC 19 and ISO/TC 28, but also on data and information collection from websites and written information. Together with the analysis of this information, the internal organization of a cooperation between IEA/AMF and ISO/TC 28 and of a cooperation between IEA/AMF and CEN/TC 19 have also been discussed and analysed.

  5. 78 FR 41703 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... American Industry Classification System (NAICS). \\2\\ Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system code.... Poster session presented at: ASA, CSSA, and SSSA 2010 International Annual Meetings, Green Revolution 2.0; 2010 Oct 31-Nov 4; Long Beach, CA. \\7\\ Mantineo, M., D'Agnosta, G.M., Copani, V., Patan , C., and...

  6. AP fuels and the potential of renewable diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkley, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; O' Shea, Michael; Peters, Christopher

    2010-09-15

    The decrease in demand for forestry products has been detrimental to the Province of Quebec's industrial base. With increasing energy security and environmental concerns the promotion of innovative technologies is adamant. AP Fuels Inc. has undertaken the development of a biomass-to-liquids facility proposed herein as a hybrid design, combining biomass and natural gas capable of producing diesel and other liquid fuels. The facility would consume 2,200,000 tonnewet per year of biomass and produce 10,600 bbl/day of liquid fuels. Forestry-derived F-T fuels have notable advantages including: improved performance; ultra-low sulphur content; reduced emissions, particulates and fouling; and production of fewer by-products.

  7. Corrigendum to "A comparison between renewable transport fuels that can supplement or replace biofuels in a 100% renewable energy system" [Energy 73, (2014), 110-125], doi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Mathiesen, B. V.; Ridjan, I.

    2015-01-01

    In this communication, we give the following corrigendum to the original paper, “A comparison between renewable transport fuels that can supplement or replace biofuels in a 100% renewable energy system” [1], to correct some typos and a figure which could mislead the readers: • Firstly, the incorr...

  8. 2007 Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels Gordon Research Conference - January 21-26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel G. Nocera

    2008-02-01

    This Gordon Research Conference seeks to brings together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable

  9. Photocatalysis for Renewable Energy Production Using PhotoFuelCells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a short review of our recent studies on PhotoFuelCells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume a fuel to produce electricity or hydrogen, and presents some unpublished data concerning both electricity and hydrogen production. PhotoFuelCells have been constructed using nanoparticulate titania photoanodes and various cathode electrodes bearing a few different types of electrocatalyst. In the case where the cell functioned with an aerated cathode, the cathode electrode was made of carbon cloth carrying a carbon paste made of carbon black and dispersed Pt nanoparticles. When the cell was operated in the absence of oxygen, the electrocatalyst was deposited on an FTO slide using a special commercial carbon paste, which was again enriched with Pt nanoparticles. Mixing of Pt with carbon paste decreased the quantity of Pt necessary to act as electrocatalyst. PhotoFuelCells can produce electricity without bias and with relatively high open-circuit voltage when they function in the presence of fuel and with an aerated cathode. In that case, titania can be sensitized in the visible region by CdS quantum dots. In the present work, CdS was deposited by the SILAR method. Other metal chalcogenides are not functional as sensitizers because the combined photoanode in their presence does not have enough oxidative power to oxidize the fuel. Concerning hydrogen production, it was found that it is difficult to produce hydrogen in an alkaline environment even under bias, however, this is still possible if losses are minimized. One way to limit losses is to short-circuit anode and cathode electrode and put them close together. This is achieved in the “photoelectrocatalytic leaf”, which was presently demonstrated capable of producing hydrogen even in a strongly alkaline environment.

  10. Photocatalysis for renewable energy production using PhotoFuelCells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Robert; Sfaelou, Stavroula; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2014-11-27

    The present work is a short review of our recent studies on PhotoFuelCells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume a fuel to produce electricity or hydrogen, and presents some unpublished data concerning both electricity and hydrogen production. PhotoFuelCells have been constructed using nanoparticulate titania photoanodes and various cathode electrodes bearing a few different types of electrocatalyst. In the case where the cell functioned with an aerated cathode, the cathode electrode was made of carbon cloth carrying a carbon paste made of carbon black and dispersed Pt nanoparticles. When the cell was operated in the absence of oxygen, the electrocatalyst was deposited on an FTO slide using a special commercial carbon paste, which was again enriched with Pt nanoparticles. Mixing of Pt with carbon paste decreased the quantity of Pt necessary to act as electrocatalyst. PhotoFuelCells can produce electricity without bias and with relatively high open-circuit voltage when they function in the presence of fuel and with an aerated cathode. In that case, titania can be sensitized in the visible region by CdS quantum dots. In the present work, CdS was deposited by the SILAR method. Other metal chalcogenides are not functional as sensitizers because the combined photoanode in their presence does not have enough oxidative power to oxidize the fuel. Concerning hydrogen production, it was found that it is difficult to produce hydrogen in an alkaline environment even under bias, however, this is still possible if losses are minimized. One way to limit losses is to short-circuit anode and cathode electrode and put them close together. This is achieved in the "photoelectrocatalytic leaf", which was presently demonstrated capable of producing hydrogen even in a strongly alkaline environment.

  11. The effect of state renewable portfolio standards on consumer participation in green pricing programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, James L.

    In the last several years, two mechanisms for increasing the supply of renewable electricity have become increasingly popular: renewable portfolio standards, a state policy of mandating increased production of green power; and green pricing programs, which allow customers to purchase green power through their utilities. These mechanisms have been effective in increasing the adoption of renewable energy; however, it is unclear whether they interact in a way that is mutually beneficial or counterproductive. It is important to understand the effect of renewable portfolio standards on the voluntary market for green energy, especially as Congress considers a nationwide portfolio standard. The effectiveness of a renewable portfolio standard may be undercut if it leads customers to purchase less green power. This study analyzes the relationship between the passage and implementation of a renewable portfolio standard and two measures of enrollment in utility green pricing programs. Using eight years of data for all fifty states, the study utilizes multiple regression analysis with fixed-effects estimation. The results indicate that the passage of a renewable portfolio standard has a positive and statistically significant effect on green pricing enrollment within the state. At the same time, the rate at which states increase the stringency of the renewable portfolio standard is found to have no effect on enrollment. Although further study is needed to determine if additional factors are responsible for the observed increase in green pricing enrollment, this study provides evidence that such programs do not harm, and may in fact encourage, voluntary purchases of green power.

  12. Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

  13. Life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from renewable jet fuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Sierk; Antonissen, Kay; Hoefnagels, Ric; Lonza, Laura; Wang, Michael; Faaij, André; Junginger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background: The introduction of renewable jet fuel (RJF) is considered an important emission mitigation measure for the aviation industry. This study compares the well-to-wake (WtWa) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission performance of multiple RJF conversion pathways and explores the impact of different

  14. 40 CFR 80.1429 - Requirements for separating RINs from volumes of renewable fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or biogas for which RINs have been generated in accordance with § 80.1426(f) must separate any RINs that have been assigned to that volume of renewable electricity or biogas if: (i) The party designates the electricity or biogas as transportation fuel; and (ii) The electricity or biogas is used...

  15. Status of DOE efforts to renew acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, C.R.

    1997-08-01

    This presentation summarizes the efforts being made by the Department of Energy to renew acceptance of spent nuclear fuel shipments from foreign research reactors. The author reviews the actions undertaken in this process in a fairly chronological manner, through the present time, as well as the development of an environmental impact statement to support the proposed actions.

  16. Model documentation Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analaytical approach and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1996 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described.

  17. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass product...

  18. Comparison of renewable fuels based on their land use using energy densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, T. J.; Benders, R. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article energy densities of selected renewable fuels are determined. Energy density is defined here as the annual energy production per hectare, taking energy inputs into account. Using 5 scenarios, consisting of 1 set focusing on technical differences and 1 set focusing on geographical

  19. Comparison of renewable fuels based on their land use using energy densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, T. J.; Benders, R. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article energy densities of selected renewable fuels are determined. Energy density is defined here as the annual energy production per hectare, taking energy inputs into account. Using 5 scenarios, consisting of 1 set focusing on technical differences and 1 set focusing on geographical vari

  20. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  1. Subsidy regulation in WTO Law : Some implications for fossil fuels and renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  2. Life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from renewable jet fuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Sierk; Antonissen, Kay; Hoefnagels, Ric; Lonza, Laura; Wang, Michael; Faaij, André; Junginger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background: The introduction of renewable jet fuel (RJF) is considered an important emission mitigation measure for the aviation industry. This study compares the well-to-wake (WtWa) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission performance of multiple RJF conversion pathways and explores the impact of different co

  3. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Terlouw, H.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a

  4. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Terlouw, H.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a

  5. Subsidy regulation in WTO Law : Some implications for fossil fuels and renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean en

  6. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean en

  7. Analyzing hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) feedstock availability using crop simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    While hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) has been demonstrated for use in commercial and military aviation, a challenge to large-scale adoption is availability of cost competitive feedstocks. Brassica oilseed crops like Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, B. carinata, Sinapis alba, and Camelina s...

  8. Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, Adnan; Dincer, Ibrahim [Energy Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Nigde University, 51100 Nigde (Turkey); Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +{infinity}) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels

  9. Renewable energy based catalytic CH4 conversion to fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Jansen, I.; Schuttlefield, J.D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is envisioned as a primary source of hydrocarbons in the foreseeable future. With the abundance of shale gas, the main concerns have shifted from the limited hydrocarbon availability to the sustainable methods of CH4 conversion to fuels. This is necessitated by high costs of natural gas

  10. Biofuels for fuel cells: renewable energy from biomass fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Westermann, P.; Haberbauer, M.; Moreno, A.

    2005-01-01

    This book has been produced under the auspices of the Network ‘Biomass Fermentation Towards Usage in Fuel Cells’. The Network comprises nine partners from eight European countries and is funded by the European Science Foundation. This volume includes a chapter, from each of the member institutions,

  11. An analysis of Renewable Portfolio Standard policy formulation and its influence on state level energy prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollester, Peter Colin

    Over the past two decades, environmental concern has crept to the forefront of the world policy agenda. This concern has manifested itself differently throughout the world. In the United States, this has come in the form of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) which have become one of the primary policy tools which states use to encourage renewable energy generation. The advent of RPS has spurred intense debate at a federal and state level, centering on the economic merits of promoting renewable energy generation. Detractors argue that RPS will raise electricity rates, since generation from renewable sources is typically costlier than energy generated from fossil fuels. At this point, evidence to the relationship between RPS on electricity prices remains unclear. Researchers have attempted to understand this relationship through a variety of means. The most common being regression based models, which utilize readily available United States Energy Information Agency (US EIA) data, and have uncovered a number of important independent variables which are incorporated into the model in this study. Examples include personal income, state population, and deregulation of an energy market. In addition to empirical studies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has created complex mathematical models which generate scenario projections based on a number of assumptions. While interesting, these are forward looking tools and as such have not yielded a tremendous amount of insight into the underlying policy mechanics of RPS. A challenge of addressing this topic which is worth noting is that much of the research available which analyzes the merits of RPS caters to distinct political or private sector agendas. The research gathered for this study is comprehensive, and attempts to avoid studies with any clear political, ideological, or financial motivation. Using the insights from previous researchers this study develops a rigorous fixed effects regression model to

  12. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable

  13. Design, Operation, Control, and Economics of a Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Renewable Energy System for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary S. Whiteman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Meeting rapidly growing global energy demand—without producing greenhouse gases or further diminishing the availability of non-renewable resources—requires the development of affordable low-emission renewable energy systems. Here, we develop a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES for automotive applications—specifically, a roof-installed photovoltaic (PV array combined with a PEM fuel cell/NiCd battery bus currently operating shuttle routes on the University of Delaware campus. The system’s overall operating objectives—meeting the total power demand of the bus and maintaining the desired state of charge (SOC of the NiCd battery—are achieved with appropriately designed controllers: a logic-based “algebraic controller” and a standard PI controller. The design, implementation, and performance of the hybrid system are demonstrated via simulation of real shuttle runs under various operating conditions. The results show that both control strategies perform equally well in enabling the HRES to meet its objectives under typical operating conditions, and under sudden cloud cover conditions; however, at consistently high bus speeds, battery SOC maintenance is better, and the system consumes less hydrogen, with PI control. An economic analysis of the PV investment necessary to realize the HRES design objectives indicates a return on investment of approximately 30% (a slight, but nonetheless positive, ~$550 profit over the bus lifetime in Newark, DE, establishing the economic viability of the proposed addition of a PV array to the existing University of Delaware fuel cell/battery bus.

  14. Trends and Issues in California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard - Learning from Response to Existing Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcover, J.

    2015-12-01

    Debate over lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation has included heated discussion about appropriate policies and their cost and feasibility. One prominent policy mechanism, a carbon intensity standard, rates transport fuels based on analysis of lifecycle GHG emissions, and targets lower fuel pool carbon intensity through a market mechanism that uses a system of tradable, bankable credits and deficits. California instituted such a policy -- the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) - in 2010, which targets a 10% carbon intensity (CI) reduction by 2020. The program rolled out amid concerns over slow development of new fuels expected to be very low carbon (such as cellulosic) and has faced court challenges that added considerable policy uncertainty. Since the program's start, state transport energy mix has shifted modestly but noticeably. Looking ahead, emerging issues for the program include amendments and re-adoption in response to a court ruling, potential interaction with California's multi-sector cap on carbon emissions (which started covering transport fuels in 2015), and impacts from similar CI standards in other jurisdictions. This study provides an analysis of fuel mix changes since the LCFS was implemented in 2011, and a discussion of emerging issues focusing on policy interaction. Descriptive statistics on alternative fuel use, available fuel pathways, and CI ratings are presented based on data from the California Air Resources Board (which runs the program). They document a shift towards more alternative fuels in a more diverse mix, with lower average CI ratings for most alternative fuel types. Financial incentives for various fuels are compared under the LCFS and the US federal Renewable Fuel Standard; disincentives from conceptually different carbon pricing schemes under the LCFS and the Cap-and-Trade are also outlined. The results provide important information on response to an existing market-based policy mechanism for addressing GHG

  15. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  16. Quantification of aldehydes emissions from alternative and renewable aviation fuels using a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Altaher, Mohamed A.; Wilson, Chris W.; Blakey, Simon; Chung, Winson; Rye, Lucas

    2014-02-01

    In this research three renewable aviation fuel blends including two HEFA (Hydrotreated Ester and Fatty Acid) blends and one FAE (Fatty Acids Ethyl Ester) blend with conventional Jet A-1 along with a GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel have been tested for their aldehydes emissions on a small gas turbine engine. Three strong ozone formation precursors: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were measured in the exhaust at different operational modes and compared to neat Jet A-1. The aim is to assess the impact of renewable and alternative aviation fuels on aldehydes emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines so as to provide informed knowledge for the future deployment of new fuels in aviation. The results show that formaldehyde was a major aldehyde species emitted with a fraction of around 60% of total measured aldehydes emissions for all fuels. Acrolein was the second major emitted aldehyde species with a fraction of ˜30%. Acetaldehyde emissions were very low for all the fuels and below the detention limit of the instrument. The formaldehyde emissions at cold idle were up to two to threefold higher than that at full power. The fractions of formaldehyde were 6-10% and 20% of total hydrocarbon emissions in ppm at idle and full power respectively and doubled on a g kg-1-fuel basis.

  17. Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO2 and H2O with renewable or nuclear energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Ebbesen, Sune; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    . The dominant costs of the process are the electricity cost and the capital cost of the electrolyzer, and this capital cost is significantly increased when operating intermittently (on renewable power sources such as solar and wind). The potential of this CO2 recycling process is assessed, in terms of what......) and biofuels have received the most attention, similar hydrocarbons can be produced without using fossil fuels or biomass. Using renewable and/or nuclear energy, carbon dioxide and water can be recycled into liquid hydrocarbon fuels in non-biological processes which remove oxygen from CO2 and H2O (the reverse...... dissociation, and fuel synthesis. Dissociation methods include thermolysis, thermochemical cycles, electrolysis, and photoelectrolysis of CO2 and/or H2O. High temperature co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 makes very efficient use of electricity and heat (near-100% electricity-to-syngas efficiency), provides high...

  18. Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1995 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO95) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources--wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. The RFM also reads in hydroelectric facility capacities and capacity factors from a data file for use by the NEMS Electricity Market Module (EMM). The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological, cost and resource size characteristics of renewable energy technologies. These characteristics are used to compute a levelized cost to be competed against other similarly derived costs from other energy sources and technologies. The competition of these energy sources over the NEMS time horizon determines the market penetration of these renewable energy technologies. The characteristics include available energy capacity, capital costs, fixed operating costs, variable operating costs, capacity factor, heat rate, construction lead time, and fuel product price.

  19. Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1995 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO95) forecasts. The report catalogs and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources -- wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. The RFM also reads in hydroelectric facility capacities and capacity factors from a data file for use by the NEMS Electricity Market Module (EMM). The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological, cost, and resource size characteristics of renewable energy technologies. These characteristics are used to compute a levelized cost to be competed against other similarly derived costs from other energy sources and technologies. The competition of these energy sources over the NEMS time horizon determines the market penetration of these renewable energy technologies. The characteristics include available energy capacity, capital costs, fixed operating costs, variable operating costs, capacity factor, heat rate, construction lead time, and fuel product price.

  20. Renewing Liquid Fueled Molten Salt Reactor Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towell, Rusty; NEXT Lab Team

    2016-09-01

    Globally there is a desperate need for affordable, safe, and clean energy on demand. More than anything else, this would raise the living conditions of those in poverty around the world. An advanced reactor that utilizes liquid fuel and molten salts is capable of meeting these needs. Although, this technology was demonstrated in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL in the 60's, little progress has been made since the program was cancelled over 40 years ago. A new research effort has been initiated to advance the technical readiness level of key reactor components. This presentation will explain the motivation and initial steps for this new research initiative.

  1. Renewable Fuel Utilization in a Cogeneration Arrangement with Hydrate Storage Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Soe; Yamada, Takanobu; Nakanishi, Kimio

    According to the third conference of parties (COP3), Japan has set a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 6% by the year 2010. Many believe that the bulk utilization of fossil fuel influences to the damaging environmental effect. The objective of this paper is to propose an effective method for this goad which is possible to clarify a noticeable utilization of renewable fuel in a micro gas turbine cogeneration system in cold region. Moreover, analysis of renewable fuel, biogas production indicates that production amount becomes largest in hot season, while the total heat energy demand is lowest on during three years. Biogas storage is also adapted for the delay between peak energy supply and demand. Biogas hydrate formation is examined by resource from laboratory experiments and simulation of integration into an existing cogeneration arrangement. The proposed system can be successfully supported the use and reuse of renewable fuel for providing to substantial emission and clean development mechanism for reducing greenhouse gas emission.

  2. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2): Program Amendments Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final rule amends the RFS2 regulations of 40 CFR Part 80 Subpart M to correct regulatory language that was inconsistent or that inadvertently misrepresented EPA’s intent as reflected in the preamble to the final RFS2 regulations.

  3. Modifications to the Renewable Fuel Standard Program Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA withdraws the heating oil definition and transmix amendments addressed in EPA's direct final rule on October 9, 2012. You will find October's final rule and withdrawal notice of this final rule on this page.

  4. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  5. The effectiveness of Renewable Portfolio Standard banding and carve-outs in supporting high-cost types of renewable electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckman, Greg, E-mail: greg.buckman@anu.edu.au [Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Acton, ACT 0200, Canberra (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs) are renewable electricity (RES-E) subsidy mechanisms in which governments mandate how much RES-E should be generated and markets determine the cost of the subsidy needed to generate the RES-E. Two modifications of the RPS that can help support high-cost types of RES-E are banding, where governments mandate higher multiples of RPS tradable certificates for high-cost types of RES-E, and carve-outs, where governments prescribe parts of a RPS target that can be met only by a particular type, or types, of RES-E. This paper analyses the design and generation performance of banding, as used in the UK, with some reference to Italy; and carve-outs, as used in the USA. To date, there is insufficient experience of either device to reach firm conclusions about their generation effectiveness. However, there is early, tentative evidence that banding is successful at supporting high-cost types of RES-E in the UK. Carve-outs are not being fully exploited in US states that use a RPS mechanism, and Italy is using banding in a fairly insignificant way. Though both devices have different design strengths and weaknesses, and either could be adapted to specific RPS markets, banding is probably the better device for supporting high-cost RES-E. - Highlights: > I analysed three countries that use either Renewable Portfolio Standards banding or carve-outs. > I assess whether banding or carve-outs have diversified renewable electricity generation. > There's insufficient banding/carve-out experience to reach firm diversification conclusions. > There's early evidence that the UK banding is diversifying its renewable electricity.

  6. Inventory of concepts for mixed diesel fuels containing renewable components. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, B. [Inst. for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm (Sweden); Berg, R. [Befri Konsult, Solna (Sweden); Berg, J. [Svenska Lantmaennen/Agro Oil, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-08-01

    The present report has involved the assembly of two sub-reports, which have been put together to form this final report. Both of the sub-reports deal with the incorporation of ethanol in diesel fuels. The potential advantages are the decreased net emissions of carbon dioxide, due to the renewable nature of ethanol (if obtained from renewable raw materials), and the decrease of NO{sub x} emissions, due to the decreased combustion temperature. The first sub-report is a compilation of scientific articles and patents/patent applications regarding the possibility to blend ethanol into diesel to form a stable solution in the form of a so called microemulsion, with the aid of surfactants and/or co-solvents. The second sub-report briefly describes the test work, both in the laboratory and in field tests, that is being done in various countries, regarding the blending of ethanol into diesel fuel.

  7. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This article investigates upgrading biomass pyrolysis vapors to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals using catalysts with different concentrations of acid sites. It shows that greater separation of acid sites makes catalysts more efficient at producing hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. The conversion of biomass into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant attention because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Biomass is a renewable resource, which is abundant worldwide and can potentially be exploited to produce transportation fuels that are less damaging to the environment. This renewable resource consists of cellulose (40–50%), hemicellulose (25–35%), and lignin (16–33%) biopolymers in addition to smaller quantities of inorganic materials such as silica and alkali and alkaline earth metals (calcium and potassium). Fast pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical technology for converting biomass into precursors for hydrocarbon fuels because it produces up to 75 wt% bio-oil,1 which can be upgraded to feedstocks and/or blendstocks for further refining to finished fuels. Bio-oil that has not been upgraded has limited applications because of the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups, derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which gives rise to high acidity, high viscosity, low heating value, immiscibility with hydrocarbons and aging during storage. Ex situ catalytic vapor phase upgrading is a promising approach for improving the properties of bio-oil. The goal of this process is to reject oxygen and produce a bio-oil with improved properties for subsequent downstream conversion to hydrocarbons.

  8. Hydrothermal Conversion in Near-Critical Water – A Sustainable Way of Producing Renewable Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Liquid fuels from biomass will form an essential part of meeting the grand challenges within energy. The need for renewable and sustainable energy sources is triggered by a number of factors; like increase in global energy demand, depletion of conventional resources, climate issues and the desire...... for national/regional energy independence. Especially in marine, aviation and heavy land transport suitable carbon neutral drop-in fuels from biomass are needed, since electrification of those is rather unlikely. Hydrothermal conversion (HTC) of biomass offers a solution and is a sustainable way of converting...

  9. Hydrothermal Conversion in Near-Critical Water – A Sustainable Way of Producing Renewable Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Liquid fuels from biomass will form an essential part of meeting the grand challenges within energy. The need for renewable and sustainable energy sources is triggered by a number of factors; like increase in global energy demand, depletion of conventional resources, climate issues and the desire...... for national/regional energy independence. Especially in marine, aviation and heavy land transport suitable carbon neutral drop-in fuels from biomass are needed, since electrification of those is rather unlikely. Hydrothermal conversion (HTC) of biomass offers a solution and is a sustainable way of converting...

  10. Pollutant emissions and environmental assessment of ethyl 3-ethoxybutyrate, a potential renewable fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, John M E; Bunce, Michael P; Clarke, Edwina M; Edmonds, Jennifer W; Findlay, Robert H; Ritchie, Stephen M C; Eyers, Laurent; McMurry, Zackery A; Smoot, James C

    2016-09-01

    Renewable and bio-based transportation fuel sources can lower the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles. We present an initial assessment of ethyl 3-ethoxybutyrate (EEB) as a biofuel in terms of its performance as a fuel oxygenate and its persistence in the environment. EEB can be produced from ethanol and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, a bacterial storage polymer that can be produced from non-food biomass and other organic feedstocks. Physicochemical properties of EEB and fuel-relevant properties of EEB-gasoline blends were measured, emissions of criteria pollutants from EEB as a gasoline additive in a production vehicle were evaluated, and fate and persistence of EEB in the environment were estimated. EEB solubility in water was 25.8 g/L, its Kow was 1.8, and its Henry's Law constant was 1.04 × 10(-5) atm-m(3)/mole. The anti-knock index values for 5 and 20 % v/v EEB-gasoline blends were 91.6 and 91.9, respectively. Reductions in fuel economy were consistent with the level of oxygenation, and criteria emissions were met by the vehicle operated over the urban dynamometer driving cycle (FTP 75). Predicted environmental persistence ranged from 15 to 30 days which indicates that EEB is not likely to be a persistent organic pollutant. In combination, these results suggest a high potential for the use of EEB as a renewable fuel source.

  11. Will Aerosol Hygroscopicity Change with Biodiesel, Renewable Diesel Fuels and Emission Control Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Diep; Short, Daniel; Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas D; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2017-02-07

    The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF. Overall, the apparent hygroscopicity of emissions during nonregeneration events is consistently low (κ < 0.1) for all fuels over the FTP cycle. Aerosol emitted during filter regeneration is significantly more CCN active and hygroscopic; average κ values range from 0.242 to 0.439 and are as high as 0.843. Regardless of fuel, the current classification of "fresh" tailpipe emissions as nonhygroscopic remains true during nonregeneration operation. However, aftertreatment technologies such as DPF, will produce significantly more hygroscopic particles during regeneration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a significant enhancement of hygroscopic materials emitted during DPF regeneration of on-road diesel vehicles. As such, the contribution of regeneration emissions from a growing fleet of diesel vehicles will be important.

  12. Model documentation: Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it related to the production of the 1994 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO94) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves two purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources -- wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. Of these six, four are documented in the following chapters: municipal solid waste, wind, solar and biofuels. Geothermal and wood are not currently working components of NEMS. The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological and cost characteristics of renewable energy technologies, and to pass these characteristics to other NEMS modules for the determination of mid-term forecasted renewable energy demand.

  13. An approach to meeting the spent fuel standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhijani, A. [Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Takoma Park, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The idea of the spent fuel standard is that there should be a high surface gamma radiation to prevent theft. For purposes of preventing theft, containers should be massive, and the plutonium should be difficult to extract. This report discusses issues associated with the spent fuel standard.

  14. 77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA... comment on EPA's analyses of palm oil used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel and renewable diesel...

  15. System and method for integration of renewable energy and fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a system and method for integrating renewable energy and a fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen, wherein this comprises the use of renewable energy as fluctuating energy source for the production of electricity and also comprises the use of at least one f

  16. 77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... types of biofuel shows that biodiesel and renewable diesel produced from palm oil have estimated... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil...

  17. Overall review of feed-in tariff and renewable portfolio standard policy: A perspective of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Yang, L.; Wang, X.

    2016-08-01

    A major share of China's total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is from the electric power sector. To solve this problem, Chinese government has implemented many renewable energy policies in the electric power sector. In China, the most popular renewable energy policies are Feed-in tariff (FIT) and renewable portfolio standard (RPS). This paper first introduces the current development of renewable electricity generation. Second the design plan and implement of FIT and RPS in China's thermal electricity generation sector are summarized in this paper. Third this paper establishes a complementary mode of FIT and RPS which can provide a stable environment to make the FIT and RPS work together. Finally, based on the above analysis, this paper proposes relative suggestions for the implementation of FIT and RPS in China making recommendation for the development of electricity generation from renewable energy.

  18. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  19. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  20. The production of hydrogen fuel from renewable sources and its role in grid operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, John; Gammon, Rupert

    Understanding the scale and nature of hydrogen's potential role in the development of low carbon energy systems requires an examination of the operation of the whole energy system, including heat, power, industrial and transport sectors, on an hour-by-hour basis. The Future Energy Scenario Assessment (FESA) software model used for this study is unique in providing a holistic, high resolution, functional analysis, which incorporates variations in supply resulting from weather-dependent renewable energy generators. The outputs of this model, arising from any given user-definable scenario, are year round supply and demand profiles that can be used to assess the market size and operational regime of energy technologies. FESA was used in this case to assess what - if anything - might be the role for hydrogen in a low carbon economy future for the UK. In this study, three UK energy supply pathways were considered, all of which reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, and substantially reduce reliance on oil and gas while maintaining a stable electricity grid and meeting the energy needs of a modern economy. All use more nuclear power and renewable energy of all kinds than today's system. The first of these scenarios relies on substantial amounts of 'clean coal' in combination with intermittent renewable energy sources by year the 2050. The second uses twice as much intermittent renewable energy as the first and virtually no coal. The third uses 2.5 times as much nuclear power as the first and virtually no coal. All scenarios clearly indicate that the use of hydrogen in the transport sector is important in reducing distributed carbon emissions that cannot easily be mitigated by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). In the first scenario, this hydrogen derives mainly from steam reformation of fossil fuels (principally coal), whereas in the second and third scenarios, hydrogen is made mainly by electrolysis using variable surpluses of low-carbon electricity. Hydrogen

  1. 76 FR 38843 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... an enzymatic hydrolysis process to convert corn cobs into ethanol. In conversations with EPA in early... to license their enzymes to existing corn ethanol facilities. Such licensing would be accompanied by... sugars. EdeniQ claims that their technology would allow corn ethanol facilities to increase...

  2. 75 FR 79964 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... capacity'' to establish their baseline volume have an unfair advantage over facilities that must use their... final RFS2 regulations, we stated, ``one major advantage of EMTS * * * is that the system will simplify...

  3. 78 FR 62462 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... at least 80 percent mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal... long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, as well as meeting all other... oils used to generate process heat, power, or other functions are not included in this...

  4. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strik, David P B T B; Terlouw, Hilde; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2008-12-01

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC) based on naturally selected algae and electrochemically active microorganisms in an open system and without addition of instable or toxic mediators. The developed solar-powered PAMFC produced continuously over 100 days renewable biocatalyzed electricity. The sustainable performance of the PAMFC resulted in a maximum current density of 539 mA/m2 projected anode surface area and a maximum power production of 110 mW/m2 surface area photobioreactor. The energy recovery of the PAMFC can be increased by optimization of the photobioreactor, by reducing the competition from non-electrochemically active microorganisms, by increasing the electrode surface and establishment of a further-enriched biofilm. Since the objective is to produce net renewable energy with algae, future research should also focus on the development of low energy input PAMFCs. This is because current algae production systems have energy inputs similar to the energy present in the outcoming valuable products.

  5. Performance Assessment and Renewing Teacher Education: The Possibilities of the NBPTS Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    simple wedge with its tip made of durable, clear, and appropriate teaching standards forged in the furnace of science and theory widens to bring the materials and processes of art and practice to bear on the work of strengthening and renewing all of teaching by applying the national board's standards and assessment processes. With this model,…

  6. Production of Solid Fuel by Torrefaction Using Coconut Leaves As Renewable Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Domnina Bote Pestaño

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The reserves of non-renewable energy sources such as coal, crude oil and natural gas are not limitless, they gradually get exhausted and their price continually increases. In the last four decades, researchers have been focusing on alternate fuel resources to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to avoid dependence on crude oil. Amongst different sources of renewable energy, biomass residues hold special promise due to their inherent capability to store solar energy and amenability to subsequent conversion to convenient solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. At present, among the coconut farm wastes such as husks, shell, coir dust and coconut leaves, the latter is considered the most grossly under-utilized by in situ burning in the coconut farm as means of disposal. In order to utilize dried coconut leaves and to improve its biomass properties, this research attempts to produce solid fuel by torrefaction using dried coconut leaves for use as alternative source of energy. Torrefaction is a thermal method for the conversion of biomass operating in the low temperature range of 200oC-300oC under atmospheric conditions in absence of oxygen. Dried coconut leaves were torrefied at different feedstock conditions. The key torrefaction products were collected and analyzed. Physical and combustion characteristics of both torrefied and untorrefied biomass were investigated. Torrefaction of dried coconut leaves significantly improved the heating value compared to that of the untreated biomass.  Proximate compositions of the torrefied biomass also improved and were comparable to coal. The distribution of the products of torrefaction depends highly on the process conditions such as torrefaction temperature and residence time. Physical and combustion characteristics of torrefied biomass were superior making it more suitable for fuel applications. Article History: Received June 24th 2016; Received in revised form August 16th 2016; Accepted 27th 2016; Available

  7. Regional income effects and renewable fuels. Increased usage of renewable energy sources in Danish rural areas and its impact on regional incomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentzen, J.; Smith, V. [Aarhus School of Business, Dept. of Economics (Denmark); Dilling-Hansen, M. [Univ. of Aarhus, Dept. of Management (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    CO{sub 2}-emission is a world wide problem and in the attempt to reduce these emissions, renewable energy sources may be considered serious alternatives to the present usage of fossil fuels. As part of a research programme financed by The Danish Energy Agency, data concerning the different heating technologies based on oil and wood fuels have been collected. Private and social costs are estimated and these economic data are used when analysing regional income effects of increased consumption of fuels (e.g. wood) locally produced. The impacts on income and tax revenues are calculated from multiplier expressions, constructed with rights to the measurement of local effects. (au) 10 refs.

  8. Can Hawaii Meet Its Renewable Fuel Target? Case Study of Banagrass-Based Cellulosic Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Banagrass is a biomass crop candidate for ethanol production in the State of Hawaii. This study examines: (i whether enough banagrass can be produced to meet Hawaii’s renewable fuel target of 20% highway fuel demand produced with renewable sources by 2020 and (ii at what cost. This study proposes to locate suitable land areas for banagrass production and ethanol processing, focusing on the two largest islands in the state of Hawaii—Hawaii and Maui. The results suggest that the 20% target is not achievable by using all suitable land resources for banagrass production on both Hawaii and Maui. A total of about 74,224,160 gallons, accounting for 16.04% of the state’s highway fuel demand, can be potentially produced at a cost of $6.28/gallon. Lower ethanol cost is found when using a smaller production scale. The lowest cost of $3.31/gallon is found at a production processing capacity of about 9 million gallons per year (MGY, which meets about 2% of state demand. This cost is still higher than the average imported ethanol price of $3/gallon. Sensitivity analysis finds that it is possible to produce banagrass-based ethanol on Hawaii Island at a cost below the average imported ethanol price if banagrass yield increases of at least 35.56%.

  9. Energy and chemicals from the selective electrooxidation of renewable diols by organometallic fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Marco; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Filippi, Jonathan; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Marchionni, Andrea; Miller, Hamish A; Oberhauser, Werner; Vizza, Francesco; Annen, Samuel P; Grützmacher, H

    2014-09-01

    Organometallic fuel cells catalyze the selective electrooxidation of renewable diols, simultaneously providing high power densities and chemicals of industrial importance. It is shown that the unique organometallic complex [Rh(OTf)(trop2NH)(PPh3)] employed as molecular active site in an anode of an OMFC selectively oxidizes a number of renewable diols, such as ethylene glycol , 1,2-propanediol (1,2-P), 1,3-propanediol (1,3-P), and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-B) to their corresponding mono-carboxylates. The electrochemical performance of this molecular catalyst is discussed, with the aim to achieve cogeneration of electricity and valuable chemicals in a highly selective electrooxidation from diol precursors.

  10. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    There is a global effort to expand the use of alternative fuels due to their several benefits such as improving air quality with reducing some criteria emissions, reducing dependency on fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. This dissertation is focused on investigating the impact of two popular alternative fuels, biodiesel and natural gas (NG), on emissions from heavy-duty engines. Biodiesel is one of the most popular renewable fuels with diesel applications. Although biodiesel blends are reported to reduce particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and total hydrocarbon emissions; there is uncertainty on their impact on nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. This dissertation evaluated the effect of biodiesel feedstock, biodiesel blend level, engine technology, and driving conditions on NOx emissions. The results showed that NOx emissions increase with 20% and higher biodiesel blends. Also, in this study some strategies were proposed and some fuel formulations were found for mitigating NOx emissions increases with biodiesel. The impact of 5% biodiesel on criteria emissions specifically NOx was also fully studied in this thesis. As a part of the results of this study, 5% animal-based biodiesel was certified for use in California based on California Air Resources Board emissions equivalent procedure. NG is one of the most prominent alternative fuels with larger reserves compared to crude oil. However, the quality of NG depends on both its source and the degree to which it is processed. The current study explored the impact of various NG fuels, ranging from low methane/high energy gases to high methane/low energy gases, on criteria and toxic emissions from NG engines with different combustion and aftertreatment technologies. The results showed stronger fuel effects for the lean-burn technology bus. Finally, this thesis investigated the impact of changing diesel fuel composition on the criteria emissions from a variety of heavy-duty engine

  11. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  12. Fire Protection Safety Evaluations of Hydro-Treated Renewable Jet (HRJ) and Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    first responder must be established. The objective of this study was to measure alternative fuel safety parameters. Flame propagation tests documented the flame spread rate on liquid fuel surfaces. Flame visible spectrum emissions were measured in normal and elevated oxygen concentration environments. Commercial optical flame detectors (OFDs) and commercial combustible gas detectors (CGDs) were evaluated for their relative response to and ability to detect bio-oil derived hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) and synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) fuel fires and vapors as

  13. New Standard for Fuel to Reduce Pollution in Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Beijing introduced new fuel standards on May 31 this year that municipal officials say are nearly on a par with the European Union's Euro V, the first Chinese city to do so. All fuel sold by retailers in the Chinese capital are required to adhere to the new standards, which are expected to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions from 50 to 10 milligrams per kilogram, according to the Beijing environmental protection bureau.

  14. Environmental Standard Review Plan for the review of license renewal applications for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, J.; Kim, T.J.; Reynolds, S.

    1991-08-01

    The Environmental Standard Review Plan for the Review of License Applications for Nuclear Power Plants (ESRP-LR) is to be used by the NRC staff when performing environmental reviews of applications for the renewal of power reactor licenses. The use of the ESRP-LR provides a framework for the staff to determine whether or not environmental issues important to license renewal have been identified and the impacts evaluated and provides acceptance standards to help the reviewers comply with the National Environmental Policy Act.

  15. Pollutant Emissions and Lean Blowoff Limits of Fuel Flexible Burners Operating on Gaseous Renewable and Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado, Andres

    This study provides an experimental and numerical examination of pollutant emissions and stability of gaseous fueled reactions stabilized with two premixed-fuel-flexible and ultra-low NOx burner technologies. Both burners feature lean combustion technology to control the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The first fuel--flexible burner is the low-swirl burner (LSB), which features aerodynamic stabilization of the reactions with a divergent flow-field; the second burner is the surface stabilized combustion burner (SSCB), which features the stabilization of the reactions on surface patterns. For combustion applications the most commonly studied species are: NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). However these are not the only pollutants emitted when burning fossil fuels; other species such as nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3) and formaldehyde (CH2O) can be directly emitted from the oxidation reactions. Yet the conditions that favor the emission of these pollutants are not completely understood and require further insight. The results of this dissertation close the gap existing regarding the relations between emission of pollutants species and stability when burning variable gaseous fuels. The results of this study are applicable to current issues such as: 1. Current combustion systems operating at low temperatures to control formation of NOx. 2. Increased use of alternative fuels such as hydrogen, synthetic gas and biogas. 3. Increasing recognition of the need/desire to operate combustion systems in a transient manner to follow load and to offset the intermittency of renewable power. 4. The recent advances in measurement methods allow us to quantify other pollutants, such as N 2O, NH3 and CH2O. Hence in this study, these pollutant species are assessed when burning natural gas (NG) and its binary mixtures with other gaseous fuels such as hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), ethane (C 2H6) and propane (C3H8) at variable operation modes including

  16. Experimental Study of the Combustion Dynamics of Renewable & Fossil Fuel Co-Fire in Swirling Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaķe, M.; Barmina, I.; Kriško, V.; Gedrovičs, M.; Descņickis, A.

    2009-01-01

    The complex experimental research into the combustion dynamics of rene-wable (wood biomass) and fossil (propane) fuel co-fire in a swirling flame flow has been carried out with the aim to achieve clean and effective heat production with reduced carbon emissions. The effect of propane co-fire on the formation of the swirling flame velocity, temperature and composition fields as well as on the combustion efficiency and heat output has been analysed. The results of experimental study show that the propane supply into the wood biomass gasifier provides faster wood fuel gasification with active release of volatiles at the primary stage of swirling flame flow formation, while the swirl-induced recirculation with enhanced mixing of the flame components results in a more complete burnout of wood volatiles downstream of the combustor with reduced mass fraction of polluting impurities in the emissions.

  17. Study of renewable energy, fuel cell and demotics integration for stationary energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andaloro, L.; Ferraro, M.; Sergi, F.; Brunaccini, G.; Antonucci, V. [National Research Inst., Messina (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described a study in which a small house equipped with various renewable technologies was modelled. The aim of the study was to evaluated the integration of fuel cells with various other energy sources. Technologies installed in the house included a photovoltaic (PV) system; a hydrogen system; fuel cells; a battery-storage system; and a thermal solar panel. Maximum energy savings were evaluated for different configurations and combinations of the installed energy sources. A domotic system was also used to automatically control the use of electrical appliances and improve safety and comfort. An energy side management system was designed and compared with a demand side management system. Various scenarios were simulated in order to test the energy management systems in relation to the automated domotic system.

  18. An Economic Basis for Littoral Land-Based Production of Low Carbon Fuel from Renewable Electrical Energy and Seawater for Naval Use: Diego Garcia Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    Based Production of Low Carbon Fuel from Renewable Electrical Energy and Seawater for Naval Use: Diego Garcia Evaluation Heather D. Willauer, Dennis R...difficult challenges to the U.S. Navy for the future production of low carbon fuel from renewable electrical energy from photovoltaic (PV) arrays and...gallons of fuel delivered annually to Diego Garcia. Using published capital cost estimates and a range of solar and wind renewable electrical energy

  19. Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

  20. Design, engineering, and construction of photosynthetic microbial cell factories for renewable solar fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Oliveira, Paulo; Stensjö, Karin; Heidorn, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H(2) production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted.

  1. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass production potential, excellent nitrogen usage efficiency, wide adaptability, drought resistance, and water lodging tolerance and salinity resistance. The ability to withstand severe drought conditions and its high water usage efficiency make sorghum a good renewable feedstock suitable for cultivation in arid regions, such as the southern US and many areas in Africa and Asia. Sorghum varieties include grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, and biomass sorghum. Grain sorghum, having starch content equivalent to corn, has been considered as a feedstock for ethanol production. Its tannin content, however, may cause problems during enzyme hydrolysis. Sweet sorghum juice contains sucrose, glucose and fructose, which are readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and hence is a good substrate for ethanol fermentation. The enzyme invertase, however, needs to be added to convert sucrose to glucose and fructose if the juice is used for production of industrial chemicals in fermentation processes that employ microorganisms incapable of metabolizing sucrose. Biomass sorghum requires pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to generate fermentable sugars to be used in the subsequent fermentation process. This report reviews the current knowledge on bioconversion of sorghum to fuels and chemicals and identifies areas that deserve further studies.

  2. Economic analysis of using excess renewable electricity to displace heating fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Kempton, Willett

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has shown that for high-penetration renewable electricity systems, it is less expensive to install higher capacity of renewables and to allow generation to exceed load during some hours, rather than to build so much storage that all electricity can be used to meet electrical load. Bec...... energy storage was found to be crucial when it comes to reducing the need for fossil fuels for heating (in this model, as backup heat)........ Because excess electricity appears to be cost-optimum, this raises the question as to whether the excess electricity, which in the case of wind power is predominately produced in colder weather, might displace other fuels for purposes such as heat. This study models using excess electricity for heating......, based on an analysis of electricity and heat use in a TSO in the North-Eastern part of the United States (PJM Interconnection). The heating system was modeled as heat pump based district heating (HPDH) with thermal energy storage (TES). Thus, excess electricity is transformed into heat, which is easy...

  3. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell for natural gas/renewable hybrid power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Shi, Yixiang; Zheng, Yi; Cai, Ningsheng

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy (RE) is expected to be the major part of the future energy. Presently, the intermittence and fluctuation of RE lead to the limitation of its penetration. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) as the energy storage device can effectively store the renewable energy and build a bidirectional connection with natural gas (NG). In this paper, the energy storage strategy was designed to improve the RE penetration and dynamic operation stability in a distributed system coupling wind generators, internal combustion engine, RSOFC and lithium-ion batteries. By compromising the relative deviation of power supply and demand, RE penetration, system efficiency and capacity requirement, the strategy that no more than 36% of the maximum wind power output is directly supplied to users and the other is stored by the combination of battery and reversible solid oxide fuel cell is optimal for the distributed system. In the case, the RE penetration reached 56.9% and the system efficiency reached 55.2%. The maximum relative deviation of power supply and demand is also lower than 4%, which is significantly superior to that in the wind curtailment case.

  4. Compositional and Agronomic Evaluation of Sorghum Biomass as a Potential Feedstock for Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.; Wolfrum, E.; Bean, B.; Rooney, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    One goal of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee was to replace 30% of current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. This will take mixtures of various feedstocks; an annual biomass feedstock such as sorghum will play an important role in meeting this goal. Commercial forage sorghum samples collected from field trials grown in Bushland, TX in 2007 were evaluated for both agronomic and compositional traits. Biomass compositional analysis of the samples was performed at the National Renewable Energy Lab in Golden, CO following NREL Laboratory Analytical Procedures. Depending on the specific cultivar, several additional years of yield data for this location were considered in establishing agronomic potential. Results confirm that sorghum forages can produce high biomass yields over multiple years and varied growing conditions. In addition, the composition of sorghum shows significant variation, as would be expected for most crops. Using theoretical estimates for ethanol production, the sorghum commercial forages examined in this study could produce an average of 6147 L ha{sup -1} of renewable fuels. Given its genetic variability, a known genomic sequence, a robust seed industry, and biomass composition, sorghum will be an important annual feedstock to meet the alternative fuel production goals legislated by the US Energy Security Act of 2007.

  5. 78 FR 6357 - Submission for Renewal: New Information Collection, Fingerprint Chart Standard Form 87 (SF 87)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Renewal: New Information Collection, Fingerprint Chart Standard Form 87 (SF 87... (SF 87). As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. chapter 35) as... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The SF 87 is a fingerprint card, which is utilized to conduct a national...

  6. International Standards Development for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy - Final Report on Technical Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Neil E.; Busch, Jason; Kimball, Richard

    2011-10-29

    This report summarizes the progress toward development of International Standards for Marine and Hydrokinetic Renewable Energy, as funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 114. The project has three main objectives: 1. Provide funding to support participation of key U.S. industry technical experts in 6 (originally 4) international working groups and/or project teams (the primary standards-making committees) and to attend technical meetings to ensure greater U.S. involvement in the development of these standards. 2. Provide a report to DOE and industry stakeholders summarizing the IEC standards development process for marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, new international standards and their justifications, and provide standards guidance to industry members. 3. Provide a semi-annual (web-based) newsletter to the marine renewable energy community. The newsletter will educate industry members and stakeholders about the processes, progress, and needs of the US efforts to support the international standards development effort. The newsletter is available at www.TC114.us

  7. Electrocatalytic processing of renewable biomass-derived compounds for production of chemicals, fuels and electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Le

    The dual problems of sustaining the fast growth of human society and preserving the environment for future generations urge us to shift our focus from exploiting fossil oils to researching and developing more affordable, reliable and clean energy sources. Human beings had a long history that depended on meeting our energy demands with plant biomass, and the modern biorefinery technologies realize the effective conversion of biomass to production of transportation fuels, bulk and fine chemicals so to alleviate our reliance on fossil fuel resources of declining supply. With the aim of replacing as much non-renewable carbon from fossil oils with renewable carbon from biomass as possible, innovative R&D activities must strive to enhance the current biorefinery process and secure our energy future. Much of my Ph.D. research effort is centered on the study of electrocatalytic conversion of biomass-derived compounds to produce value-added chemicals, biofuels and electrical energy on model electrocatalysts in AEM/PEM-based continuous flow electrolysis cell and fuel cell reactors. High electricity generation performance was obtained when glycerol or crude glycerol was employed as fuels in AEMFCs. The study on selective electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol shows an electrode potential-regulated product distribution where tartronate and mesoxalate can be selectively produced with electrode potential switch. This finding then led to the development of AEMFCs with selective production of valuable tartronate or mesoxalate with high selectivity and yield and cogeneration of electricity. Reaction mechanisms of electrocatalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol and 1,2-propanediol were further elucidated by means of an on-line sample collection technique and DFT modeling. Besides electro-oxidation of biorenewable alcohols to chemicals and electricity, electrocatalytic reduction of keto acids (e.g. levulinic acid) was also studied for upgrading biomass-based feedstock to biofuels while

  8. Life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from renewable jet fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Sierk; Antonissen, Kay; Hoefnagels, Ric; Lonza, Laura; Wang, Michael; Faaij, André; Junginger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of renewable jet fuel (RJF) is considered an important emission mitigation measure for the aviation industry. This study compares the well-to-wake (WtWa) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission performance of multiple RJF conversion pathways and explores the impact of different co-product allocation methods. The insights obtained in this study are of particular importance if RJF is included as an emission mitigation instrument in the global Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA). Fischer-Tropsch pathways yield the highest GHG emission reduction compared to fossil jet fuel (86-104%) of the pathways in scope, followed by Hydrothermal Liquefaction (77-80%) and sugarcane- (71-75%) and corn stover-based Alcohol-to-Jet (60-75%). Feedstock cultivation, hydrogen and conversion inputs were shown to be major contributors to the overall WtWa GHG emission performance. The choice of allocation method mainly affects pathways yielding high shares of co-products or producing co-products which effectively displace carbon intensive products (e.g., electricity). Renewable jet fuel can contribute to significant reduction of aviation-related GHG emissions, provided the right feedstock and conversion technology are used. The GHG emission performance of RJF may be further improved by using sustainable hydrogen sources or applying carbon capture and storage. Based on the character and impact of different co-product allocation methods, we recommend using energy and economic allocation (for non-energy co-products) at a global level, as it leverages the universal character of energy allocation while adequately valuing non-energy co-products.

  9. Multi-Year Analysis Examines Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-01

    As states consider revising renewable portfolio standard (RPS) programs or developing new ones, careful assessments of the costs, benefits, and other impacts of existing policies will be critical. RPS programs currently exist in 29 states and Washington, D.C. Many of these policies, which were enacted largely during the late 1990s and 2000s, will reach their terminal targets by the end of this decade. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are engaged in a multi-year project to examine the costs, benefits, and other impacts of state RPS polices both retrospectively and prospectively. This fact sheet overviews this work.

  10. Performance of Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) on Large-Scale Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2012-0012 PERFORMANCE OF AQUEOUS FILM FORMING FOAM ( AFFF ) ON LARGE-SCALE HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE JET (HRJ) FUEL FIRES ...Performance of Aqueous Film Forming Foam ( AFFF ) on Large-Scale Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel Fires FA4819-09-C-0030 0602102F 4915 D0 QD103001...Forming Foam ( AFFF )”. AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2011-0101, July 2011 7. Sokri, M., Beyler, CL. “Radiation from Larger Pool Fires ” SFPE Journal of Fire Protection

  11. Recommendations on Fuel Parameters for Standard Technical Specifications for Spent Fuel Storage Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, S.M.

    2001-03-08

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is currently reviewing the technical specifications for spent fuel storage casks in an effort to develop standard technical specifications (STS) that define the allowable spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contents. One of the objectives of the review is to minimize the level of detail in the STS that define the acceptable fuel types. To support this initiative, this study has been performed to identify potential fuel specification parameters needed for criticality safety and radiation shielding analysis and rank their importance relative to a potential compromise of the margin of safety.

  12. Performance of nickel-based oxygen carrier produced using renewable fuel aloe vera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afandi, NF; Devaraj, D.; Manap, A.; Ibrahim, N.

    2017-04-01

    Consuming and burning of fuel mainly fossil fuel has gradually increased in this upcoming era due to high-energy demand and causes the global warming. One of the most effective ways to reduce the greenhouse gases is by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) during the combustion process. Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is one of the most effective methods to capture the CO2 without the need of an energy intensive air separation unit. This method uses oxygen carrier to provide O2 that can react with fuel to form CO2 and H2O. This research focuses on synthesizing NiO/NiAl2O4 as an oxygen carrier due to its properties that can withstand high temperature during CLC application. The NiO/NiAl2O4 powder was synthesized using solution combustion method with plant extract renewable fuel, aloe vera as the fuel. In order to optimize the performance of the particles that can be used in CLC application, various calcination temperatures were varied at 600°C, 800°C, 1050°C and 1300°C. The phase and morphology of obtained powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Microscopy (FESEM) respectively together with the powder elements. In CLC application, high reactivity can be achieved by using smaller particle size of oxygen carrier. This research succeeded in producing nano-structured powder with high crystalline structure at temperature 1050°C which is suitable to be used in CLC application.

  13. An analysis of the impact of Renewable Portfolio Standards on residential electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Andrew James

    A Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular policy for states seeking to increase the amount of renewable energy generated for consumers of electricity. The success of these state programs has prompted debate about the viability of a national RPS. The impact that these state level policies have had on the price consumers pay for electricity is the subject of some debate. Several federal organizations have conducted studies of the impact that a national RPS would have on electricity prices paid by consumers. NREL and US EIA utilize models that analyze the inputs in electricity generation to examine the future price impact of changes to electricity generation and show marginal increases in prices paid by end users. Other empirical research has produced similar results, showing that the existence of an RPS increases the price of electricity. These studies miss important aspects of RPS policies that may change how we view these price increases from RPS policies. By examining the previous empirical research on RPS policies, this study seeks to identify the controls necessary to build an effective model. These controls are utilized in a fixed effects model that seeks to show how the controls and variables of interest impact electricity prices paid by residential consumers of electricity. This study utilizes a panel data set from 1990 to 2014 to analyze the impact of these policies controlling for generating capacity, the regulatory status of utilities in each state, demographic characteristics of the states, and fuel prices. The results of the regressions indicate that prices are likely to be higher in states that have an RPS compared to states that do not have such a policy. Several of the characteristics mentioned above have price impacts, and so discussing RPS policies in the context of other factors that contribute to electricity prices is essential. In particular, the regulatory status of utilities in each state is an important determinate of price as

  14. Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-06

    This analysis is the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the benefits and impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). This joint National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory project provides a retrospective analysis of RPS program benefits and impacts, including greenhouse gas emissions reductions, air pollution emission reductions, water use reductions, gross jobs and economic development impacts, wholesale electricity price reduction impacts, and natural gas price reduction impacts. Wherever possible, benefits and impacts are quantified in monetary terms. The paper will inform state policymakers, RPS program administrators, industry, and others about the costs and benefits of state RPS programs. In particular, the work seeks to inform decision-making surrounding ongoing legislative proposals to scale back, freeze, or expand existing RPS programs, as well as future discussions about increasing RPS targets or otherwise increasing renewable energy associated with Clean Power Plan compliance or other emission-reduction goals.

  15. The Economic Viability of Renewable Portfolio Standard Support for Offshore Wind Farm Projects in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gi Min

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Offshore wind farm (WF projects have been promoted by support schemes as part of the expansion of renewable energy resources in Korea. This paper examines in detail how the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS, which was adopted post the Feed-in-Tariff scheme in 2012, has had a profound impact on the economic benefits of offshore WFs in Korea. A framework for analyzing the economic viability of RPS is presented and applied to the sixth basic plan for long-term electricity supply and demand in Korea. The electricity market price is forecast using a reformulated probabilistic production cost (PPC model, and the renewable energy certificate (REC price is calculated using its determination rule. The results show that the existing RPS will be ineffective in increasing the penetration of offshore WFs in Korea; however, they also indicate that the economic viability of offshore WFs could be improved by adjusting the existing RPS.

  16. Evaluating Renewable Portfolio Standards and Carbon Cap Scenarios in the U.S. Electric Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Chapman, C.; Logan, J.; Sumner, J.; Short, W.

    2010-05-01

    This report examines the impact of various renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and cap-and-trade policy options on the U.S. electricity sector, focusing mainly on renewable energy generation. The analysis uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that simulates the least-cost expansion of electricity generation capacity and transmission in the United States to examine the impact of an emissions cap--similar to that proposed in the Waxman-Markey bill (H.R. 2454)--as well as lower and higher cap scenarios. It also examines the effects of combining various RPS targets with the emissions caps. The generation mix, carbon emissions, and electricity price are examined for various policy combinations to simulate the effect of implementing policies simultaneously.

  17. Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-06

    This analysis is the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the benefits and impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPSs). This joint National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory project provides a retrospective analysis of RPS program benefits and impacts, including greenhouse gas emissions reductions, air pollution emission reductions, water use reductions, gross jobs and economic development impacts, wholesale electricity price reduction impacts, and natural gas price reduction impacts. Wherever possible, benefits and impacts are quantified in monetary terms. The paper will inform state policymakers, RPS program administrators, industry, and others about the costs and benefits of state RPS programs. In particular, the work seeks to inform decision-making surrounding ongoing legislative proposals to scale back, freeze, or expand existing RPS programs, as well as future discussions about increasing RPS targets or otherwise increasing renewable energy associated with Clean Power Plan compliance or other emission-reduction goals.

  18. Supporting Solar Power in Renewables Portfolio Standards: Experience from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Holt, Edward

    2010-10-01

    Among the available options for encouraging the increased deployment of renewable electricity, renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have become increasingly popular. The RPS is a relatively new policy mechanism, however, and experience with its use is only beginning to emerge. One key concern that has been voiced is whether RPS policies will offer adequate support to a wide range of renewable energy technologies and applications or whether, alternatively, RPS programs will favor a small number of the currently least-cost forms of renewable energy. This report documents the design of and early experience with state-level RPS programs in the United States that have been specifically tailored to encourage a wider diversity of renewable energy technologies, and solar energy in particular. As shown here, state-level RPS programs specifically designed to support solar have already proven to be an important, albeit somewhat modest, driver for solar energy deployment, and those impacts are projected to continue to build in the coming years. State experience in supporting solar energy with RPS programs is mixed, however, and full compliance with existing requirements has not been achieved. The comparative experiences described herein highlight the opportunities and challenges of applying an RPS to specifically support solar energy, as well as the importance of policy design details to ensuring that program goals are achieved.

  19. Lifecycle analysis of renewable natural gas and hydrocarbon fuels from wastewater treatment plants’ sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uisung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Urgun Demirtas, Meltem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) produce sludge as a byproduct when they treat wastewater. In the United States, over 8 million dry tons of sludge are produced annually just from publicly owned WWTPs. Sludge is commonly treated in anaerobic digesters, which generate biogas; the biogas is then largely flared to reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Because sludge is quite homogeneous and has a high energy content, it is a good potential feedstock for other conversion processes that make biofuels, bioproducts, and power. For example, biogas from anaerobic digesters can be used to generate renewable natural gas (RNG), which can be further processed to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Sludge can be directly converted into hydrocarbon liquid fuels via thermochemical processes such as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Currently, the environmental impacts of converting sludge into energy are largely unknown, and only a few studies have focused on the environmental impacts of RNG produced from existing anaerobic digesters. As biofuels from sludge generate high interest, however, existing anaerobic digesters could be upgraded to technology with more economic potential and more environmental benefits. The environmental impacts of using a different anaerobic digestion (AD) technology to convert sludge into energy have yet to be analyzed. In addition, no studies are available about the direct conversion of sludge into liquid fuels. In order to estimate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of these alternative pathways (sludge-to-RNG and sludge-to-liquid), this study performed a lifecycle analysis (LCA) using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. The energy uses and GHG emissions associated with the RNG and hydrocarbon liquid are analyzed relative to the current typical sludge management case, which consists of a single-stage mesophilic

  20. Review: Fuel Volatility Standards and Spark-Ignition Vehicle Driveability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanowitz, Janet; McCormick, Robert L.

    2016-03-14

    We've put spark-ignition engine fuel standards in place in order to ensure acceptable hot and cold weather driveability (HWD and CWD). Vehicle manufacturers and fuel suppliers have developed systems that meet our driveability requirements so effectively that drivers overwhelmingly find that their vehicles reliably start up and operate smoothly and consistently throughout the year. For HWD, fuels that are too volatile perform more poorly than those that are less volatile. Vapor lock is the apparent cause of poor HWD, but there is conflicting evidence in the literature as to where in the fuel system it occurs. Most studies have found a correlation between degraded driveability and higher dry vapor pressure equivalent or lower TV/L = 20, and less consistently with a minimum T50. For CWD, fuels with inadequate volatility can cause difficulty in starting and rough operation during engine warmup. The Driveability Index (DI)-a function of T10, T50, and T90-is well correlated with CWD in hydrocarbon fuels. For ethanol-containing fuels, a correction factor to the DI equation improves the correlation with CWD, although the best value for that factor has still not been determined. Ethanol increases the heat of vaporization. But, this is likely insignificant for E15 and lower concentration fuels. The impact of ethanol on driveability is likely due to its direct effect on vapor pressure at cold temperatures. For E51-E83 or flex-fuel blends, ASTM sets a minimum vapor pressure; however, published data suggest that a correction for the amount of ethanol in the fuel is needed to accurately predict CWD, possibly because ethanol has a higher lower-flammability limit.

  1. Evaluating renewable portfolio standards and carbon cap scenarios in the U.S. electric sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori; Chapman, Caroline; Logan, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Sumner, Jenny, E-mail: jenny.sumner@nrel.go [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Short, Walter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS RSF 100, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    This report examines the impact of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and cap-and-trade policy options on the U.S. electricity sector. The analysis uses the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that simulates the least-cost expansion of electricity generation capacity and transmission in the U.S. to examine the impact of a variety of emissions caps-and RPS scenarios both individually and combined. The generation mix, carbon emissions, and electricity price are examined for various policy combinations simulated in the modeling. - Research highlights: {yields} The report examines renewable portfolio standards and cap-and-trade policy options. {yields} The analysis uses the NREL's Regional Energy Deployment System model. {yields} A carbon emissions cap and an RPS can be complementary policies.{yields} The cap alone case drives significant renewable generation.{yields} A 25% RPS has similar near term emissions as base cap at similar electricity price.

  2. Renewable fuels from agricultural sources - ethanol, biodiesel, biogas; Foernybara drivmedel fraan jordbruket - etanol, biodiesel, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolke, Camilla L.; Einarson, Elin; Ekloef, Patrik

    2011-07-01

    In this report we give a status report of the biofuels market. We describe some of the issues which are linked to environmental and land use. We also explain why different actors reach different assessments regarding the greenhouse gas emissions, land use and food security. Biofuels have been highlighted as a way to reduce the transport sector large emissions of greenhouse gases and thus as a climate measure. But when several countries have increased their production and consumption and set targets for bio-renewable fuels the biofuels impact has been questioned. Are emissions really reduced? What happens to the direct and indirect land use? How does the production of more biofuels affect the security in food production?

  3. Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1997 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs. and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Finally, such documentation facilitates continuity in EIA model development by providing information sufficient to perform model enhancements and data updates as part of EIA`s ongoing mission to provide analytical and forecasting information systems.

  4. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Gujar, Amit; Rochfort, Simone; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-02-28

    Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of "green" gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants' metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for efficient bio

  5. TOWARDS A RESILIENT ENERGY SYSTEM IN EASTERN ROMANIA – FROM FOSSIL FUELS TO RENEWABLE SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂNICĂ Alexandru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study takes into account the two Romanian Eastern regions (North East and South East trying to emphasize the post-communist dynamics of the energy sector in order to draw a general perspective for the future evolution towards both energy security and a clean environment. Before 1989, the energy sector, that had to sustain not only the population needs, but also an oversized manufacturing industry, was based on big power plants usually using coal and oil and highly polluting the environment. The hydropower had a rather small share in the total energy production. This inherited system was very much resistant after the end of the centralized political system, therefore after the general industrial decline the energy sector remained the main source of air pollution in many towns and cities from Romania. Meanwhile, in the last 6-7 years, due to a favourable national political context, we assisted, especially in the analysed area, to an important emergence of renewable energy investments (mainly wind and solar energy, but also biomass or hydro-energy. Our purpose is to evaluate, from a geographical point of view, the extent and the implications of a desirable progressive shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy that could radically change the territorial relations and sustain development on the long term.

  6. Model documentation, Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. For AEO98, the RFM was modified in three principal ways, introducing capital cost elasticities of supply for new renewable energy technologies, modifying biomass supply curves, and revising assumptions for use of landfill gas from municipal solid waste (MSW). In addition, the RFM was modified in general to accommodate projections beyond 2015 through 2020. Two supply elasticities were introduced, the first reflecting short-term (annual) cost increases from manufacturing, siting, and installation bottlenecks incurred under conditions of rapid growth, and the second reflecting longer term natural resource, transmission and distribution upgrade, and market limitations increasing costs as more and more of the overall resource is used. Biomass supply curves were also modified, basing forest products supplies on production rather than on inventory, and expanding energy crop estimates to include states west of the Mississippi River using information developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Finally, for MSW, several assumptions for the use of landfill gas were revised and extended.

  7. 77 FR 34915 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Grain Sorghum Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ...-HQ-OAR- 2011-0542. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included in the public docket..., 2012, Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS... and included as part of the comment that is placed in the public docket and made available on...

  8. 77 FR 74592 - Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program From Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program (77 FR 4300... use change GHG emissions related to grain sorghum ethanol by approximately 1.2 kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per million British thermal units of grain sorghum ethanol (kgCO 2...

  9. The feasibility of short-term production strategies for renewable jet fuels – a comprehensive techno-economic comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.A.; Hoefnagels, E.T.A.; Faaij, André; Slade, Raphael; Mawhood, Rebecca; Junginger, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the short-term economic feasibility of six conversion pathways for renewable jet fuel (RJF) production. The assessment combines (i) a harmonized techno-economic analysis of conversion pathways expected to be certified for use in commercial aviation by 2020, (ii) a pioneer plant a

  10. Solar Production of Fuels from Water and CO2: Perspectives and Opportunities for a Sustainable Use of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passalacqua R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing energy demand, the depletion of fossil fuels and the concern of maintaining clean environment have become the main reasons for a worldwide attention on renewable energy production. Fuel and energy productions from sunlight represent exciting challenges in the next future thank to the recent developments in related technologies, catalysts and materials. It will be discussed the present economic data concerning energy request, the current technological issues required to face an increase of the use of renewable energy, the main drawbacks related to low conversion efficiency in energy applications, the new routes for producing renewable hydrogen and the bio-mimicking approach provided by artificial leaves. Finally, the critical role of nanoscale engineered processes for the development of efficient and cost-effective systems will be evidenced.

  11. Standard fire behavior fuel models: a comprehensive set for use with Rothermel's surface fire spread model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe H. Scott; Robert E. Burgan

    2005-01-01

    This report describes a new set of standard fire behavior fuel models for use with Rothermel's surface fire spread model and the relationship of the new set to the original set of 13 fire behavior fuel models. To assist with transition to using the new fuel models, a fuel model selection guide, fuel model crosswalk, and set of fuel model photos are provided.

  12. California's Low-Carbon Fuel Standard - Compliance Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcover, J.; Yeh, S.

    2013-12-01

    Policies to incentivize lower carbon transport fuels have become more prevalent even as they spark heated debate over their cost and feasibility. California's approach - performance-based regulation called the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) - has proved no exception. The LCFS aims to achieve 10% reductions in state transport fuel carbon intensity (CI) by 2020, by setting declining annual CI targets, and rewarding fuels for incremental improvements in CI beyond the targets while penalizing those that fail to meet requirements. Even as debate continues over when new, lower carbon fuels will become widely available at commercial scale, California's transport energy mix is shifting in gradual but noticeable ways under the LCFS. We analyze the changes using available data on LCFS fuels from the California Air Resources Board and other secondary sources, beginning in 2011 (the first compliance year). We examine trends in program compliance (evaluated through carbon credits and deficits generated), and relative importance of various transport energy pathways (fuel types and feedstocks, and their CI ratings, including new pathways added since the program's start). We document a roughly 2% decline in CI for gasoline and diesel substitutes under the program, with compliance achieved through small shifts toward greater reliance on fuels with lower CI ratings within a relatively stable amount of transport energy derived from alternatives to fossil fuel gasoline and diesel. We also discuss price trends in the nascent LCFS credit market. The results are important to the broader policy debate about transportation sector response to market-based policies aimed at reducing the sector's greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. The OSU Hydro-Mechanical Fuel Test Facility: Standard Fuel Element Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade R. Marcum; Brian G. Woods; Ann Marie Phillips; Richard G. Ambrosek; James D. Wiest; Daniel M. Wachs

    2001-10-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) are currently collaborating on a test program which entails hydro-mechanical testing of a generic plate type fuel element, or standard fuel element (SFE), for the purpose of qualitatively demonstrating mechanical integrity of uranium-molybdenum monolithic plates as compared to that of uranium aluminum dispersion, and aluminum fuel plates due to hydraulic forces. This test program supports ongoing work conducted for/by the fuel development program and will take place at OSU in the Hydro-Mechanical Fuel Test Facility (HMFTF). Discussion of a preliminary test matrix, SFE design, measurement and instrumentation techniques, and facility description are detailed in this paper.

  14. Microwave-Assisted Decarboxylation of Sodium Oleate and Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yunpu; Liu Yuhuan; Ruan Rongsheng; Wen Pingwei; Wan Yiqin; Zhang Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    The carboxyl terminal of sodium oleate has a stronger polarity than that of oleic acid;this terminal is more likely to be dipole polarized and ionically conductive in a microwave ifeld. Sodium oleate was used as the model compound to study the decarboxylation of oleic acid leading to hydrocarbon formation via microwave-assisted pyrolysis technology. The pyrolysis gas, liquid, and solid products were precisely analyzed to deduce the mechanism for decarboxylation of sodium oleate. Microwave energy was able to selectively heat the carboxyl terminal of sodium oleate. During decarboxylation, the double bond in the long hydrocarbon chain formed a p-πconjugated system with the carbanion intermediate. The resulting p-πconjugated system was more stable and beneifcial to the pyrolysis reaction (decarboxylation, terminal allylation, isomeriza-tion, and aromatization). The physical properties of pyrolysis liquid were generally similar to those of diesel fuel, thereby demonstrating the possible use of microwaves for controlling the decarboxylation of sodium oleate in order to manufacture renewable hydrocarbon fuels.

  15. Chemical storage of renewable electricity in hydrocarbon fuels via H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, H.; Iglesias Gonzalez, M.; Schaub, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institute I

    2012-07-01

    The increased generation of renewable electricity leads to an increasing demand for storage due to its fluctuating production. Electrical energy can be stored as chemical energy carriers e.g. in form of H{sub 2} that can be further processed to hydrocarbons. Storage in form of hydrocarbons is advantageous compared to H{sub 2} storage since (i) a higher volumetric energy density in the product can be achieved and (ii) the infrastructure for hydrocarbon distribution, storage and utilization already exists. The present contribution introduces the potential of H{sub 2} integration in upgrading/production processes to hydrocarbon fuels, based on stoichiometry and kind of carbon feedstock. Processes include petroleum refining, vegetable oil hydrogenation, production of synfuel from lignocellulosic biomass and substitute natural gas from H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}. In the case of fossil raw materials, yields per feedstock can be increased and fossil CO{sub 2} emissions decreased since fossil resources for H{sub 2} production can be avoided. In the case of biomass conversion to synfuels, product yields per biomass/hectare can be increased. If CO{sub 2} is hydrogenated to fuels, no gasification step is needed, however lower hydrocarbon product yields per H{sub 2} are achieved since CO{sub 2} has the highest oxygen content. (orig.)

  16. Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 into value-added and renewable fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lan; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2015-07-01

    The increasing energy crisis and the worsening global climate caused by the excessive utilization of fossil fuel have boosted tremendous research activities about CO2 capture, storage and utilization. Artificial photosynthesis that uses solar light energy to convert CO2 to form value-added and renewable fuels such as methane or methanol has been consistently drawing increasing attention. It is like killing two birds with one stone since it can not only reduce the greenhouse effects caused by CO2 emission but also produce value added chemicals for alternative energy supplying. This review provides a brief introduction about the basic principles of artificial photosynthesis of CO2 and the progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts from the viewpoint of light harvesting and photogenerated charge carriers boosting. Moreover, the undergoing mechanisms of CO2 photoreduction are discussed with selected examples, in terms of adsorption of reactants, CO2 activation as well as the possible reaction pathways. Finally, perspectives on future research directions and open issues in CO2 photoreduction are outlined.

  17. Renewable Portfolio Standards in the United States - A Status Report with Data Through 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Bird, Lori; Churchill, Susannah; Deyette, Jeff; Holt, Ed

    2008-04-09

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have proliferated at the state level in the United States since the late 1990s. In combination with Federal tax incentives, state RPS requirements have emerged as one of the most important drivers of renewable energy capacity additions. The focus of most RPS activity in the U.S. has been within the states. Nonetheless, the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate have, at different times, each passed versions of a Federal RPS; a Federal RPS, however, has not yet been signed into law. The design of an RPS can and does vary, but at its heart an RPS simply requires retail electricity suppliers (also called load-serving entities, or LSEs) to procure a certain minimum quantity of eligible renewable energy. An RPS establishes numeric targets for renewable energy supply, applies those targets to retail electricity suppliers, and seeks to encourage competition among renewable developers to meet the targets in a least-cost fashion. RPS purchase obligations generally increase over time, and retail suppliers typically must demonstrate compliance on an annual basis. Mandatory RPS policies are backed by various types of compliance enforcement mechanisms, and many--but not all--such policies include the trading of renewable energy certificates (RECs). Renewables portfolio standards are a relatively recent addition to the renewable energy policy landscape, and these policies continue to evolve. Keeping up with the design, early experience, and projected impacts of these programs is a challenge. This report seeks to fill this need by providing basic, factual information on RPS policies in the United States. It focuses on state-level initiatives, though a later section briefly discusses Federal developments as well. The report does not cover municipal-level renewable energy goals, unless required by state law. Similarly, this report focuses on mandatory state RPS requirements, though it also touches on non-binding renewable energy goals

  18. 75 FR 25323 - Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 88... Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards; Final Rule AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... light-duty vehicles that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve fuel economy. This joint...

  19. Photocatalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} into value-added and renewable fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Lan [State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); College of Chemistry, New Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Xu, Yi-Jun, E-mail: yjxu@fzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); College of Chemistry, New Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Artificial photosynthesis that uses solar light energy to convert CO{sub 2} to form value-added and renewable fuels is considered to be a promising avenue to solve the problems relating to CO{sub 2}. However, the state-of-the-art photocatalytic efficiency of CO{sub 2} reduction is far from being optimal as a viable economical process. The present review is mainly focused on the progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts for CO{sub 2} photoreduction and the undergoing mechanisms, which is anticipated to contribute to further advancement in CO{sub 2} photoreduction with on-going efforts. - Highlights: • Brief introduction about the basic principle of artificial photosynthesis of CO{sub 2}. • Progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts for CO{sub 2} reduction. • Efforts devoted to excavate the in-depth mechanism of CO{sub 2} photoreduction. • Perspectives on future research directions and open issues in CO{sub 2} photoreduction. - Abstract: The increasing energy crisis and the worsening global climate caused by the excessive utilization of fossil fuel have boosted tremendous research activities about CO{sub 2} capture, storage and utilization. Artificial photosynthesis that uses solar light energy to convert CO{sub 2} to form value-added and renewable fuels such as methane or methanol has been consistently drawing increasing attention. It is like killing two birds with one stone since it can not only reduce the greenhouse effects caused by CO{sub 2} emission but also produce value added chemicals for alternative energy supplying. This review provides a brief introduction about the basic principles of artificial photosynthesis of CO{sub 2} and the progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts from the viewpoint of light harvesting and photogenerated charge carriers boosting. Moreover, the undergoing mechanisms of CO{sub 2} photoreduction are discussed with selected examples, in terms of adsorption of

  20. Life-cycle assessment of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of soybean-derived biodiesel and renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hong; Wang, Michael; Bloyd, Cary; Putsche, Vicky

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches were employed to allocate the coproducts: a displacement approach; two allocation approaches, one based on the energy value and the other based on the market value; and two hybrid approaches that integrated the displacement and allocation methods. The relative rankings of soybean-based fuels in terms of energy and environmental impacts were different under the different approaches, and the reasons were analyzed. Results from the five allocation approaches showed that although the production and combustion of soybean-based fuels might increase total energy use, they could have significant benefits in reducing fossil energy use (>52%), petroleum use (>88%), and GHG emissions (>57%) relative to petroleum fuels. This study emphasized the importance of the methods used to deal with coproduct issues and provided a comprehensive solution for conducting a life-cycle assessment of fuel pathways with multiple coproducts.

  1. Reduced emissions and lower costs: combining renewable energy and energy efficiency into a sustainable energy portfolio standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn A.; York, Dan; Kushler, Martin

    2007-05-15

    Combining renewable energy and energy efficiency in Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standard (SEPS) has emerged as a key state and national policy option to achieve greater levels of sustainable energy resources with maximum economic efficiency and equity. One advantage of the SEPS relative to a renewable portfolio standard or a stand-alone energy efficiency resource standard is enhanced flexibility and broader options for meeting targets. (author)

  2. Analysis of different research activities and description of parties within the Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, Joakim [Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Wallberg, Ola [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels (f3) is a nationwide centre, which through cooperation and a systems approach will contribute to the development of sustainable fossil free fuels for transportation. The centre will, through joint efforts by the centre partners, perform syntheses of current research about the production of renewable fuels as well as supplementing research, such as comparative systems analyses of fuels, processes, raw materials and plant design. f3 provides a platform for collaboration between centre partners, with a common vision of sustainable fuels for transportation and common objectives. The centre partners include Sweden's most active universities and research institutes within the field, as well as a number of highly relevant industrial companies. New fuels will be an important component of a strategy to reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and our dependence on petroleum. The Swedish Government has established a vision for the Swedish transport industry to function without fossil fuels by 2030. Such a development requires a concerted response, with participation from all stake holders. Swedish researchers in various disciplines and at various colleges and institutes have a unique breadth and they are at the forefront in several areas of knowledge appropriate for a centre for renewable fuels. Through collaboration, f3 should help to link engineering and systems research and communicate results and conclusions from these research efforts. Within the f3 centre, several parties with different research activities are represented. This document is a snapshot of the different parties at the end of 2011 where the stake holders are described and their current research is highlighted. Also, the different projects conducted by the parties have been categorized and presented at the end of the document.

  3. Beyond Renewable Portfolio Standards: An Assessment of Regional Supply and Demand Conditions Affecting the Future of Renewable Energy in the West; Report and Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.; McLaren, J.; Gelman, R.

    2013-08-01

    This study assesses the outlook for utility-scale renewable energy development in the West once states have met their renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements. In the West, the last state RPS culminates in 2025, so the analysis uses 2025 as a transition point on the timeline of RE development. Most western states appear to be on track to meet their final requirements, relying primarily on renewable resources located relatively close to the customers being served. What happens next depends on several factors including trends in the supply and price of natural gas, greenhouse gas and other environmental regulations, consumer preferences, technological breakthroughs, and future public policies and regulations. Changes in any one of these factors could make future renewable energy options more or less attractive.

  4. Supporting solar power in renewables portfolio standards: Experience from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Electricity Markets and Policy Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barbose, Galen, E-mail: glbarbose@lbl.gov [Electricity Markets and Policy Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Holt, Edward [Ed Holt and Associates, Inc., Harpswell, ME 04079 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have become an increasingly popular option for encouraging the deployment of renewable electricity. It is a relatively new policy mechanism, however, and experience with its use is only beginning to emerge. One key concern is whether RPS policies offer adequate support to a wide range of renewable energy technologies and applications or whether, alternatively, they will favor a small number of the currently least-cost forms of renewable energy. This article documents the design of and early experience with state-level RPS programs in the United States that have been specifically tailored to encourage a wider diversity of renewable energy technologies, and solar energy in particular. As shown here, state-level RPS programs specifically designed to support solar have already proven to be an important driver for solar energy deployment, and those impacts are projected to build in the coming years. State experience in supporting solar energy with RPS programs is mixed, however, and full compliance with existing requirements has not been achieved. The comparative experiences described herein highlight the opportunities and challenges of applying an RPS to specifically support solar energy, as well as the importance of policy design details to ensuring that program goals are achieved. - Research Highlights: > Many states have adopted RPS policies with solar or DG set-asides. > Solar and DG set-asides have become a significant driver for solar growth. > Compliance with solar/DG set-aside targets has been mixed. > The estimated retail rate impacts have thus far been relatively modest. > Various emerging issues will affect the future impact of RPS policies on solar growth.

  5. A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This is the third in a series of reports exploring the costs, benefits, and other impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPS). This report evaluates the effects of renewable electricity used to meet aggregate RPS demand growth prospectively, over the period 2015-2050, under both current RPS policies as well as a potential expansion of those policies. Relying on a well-vetted suite of methods, the report quantifies: the costs to the electric system and retail electricity price impacts; the potential societal benefits associated with reduced greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution emissions, and water use; workforce requirements and economic development effects; and consumer savings associated with reduced natural gas prices. The study quantifies these effects in both physical and monetary terms, where possible, at both national and regional levels, and characterizes key uncertainties. The two prior studies in the series have focused, instead, on the historical costs and on the historical benefits and impacts of state RPS policies.

  6. Sustainable energy policy: the impact of government subsidies on ethanol as a renewable fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Denis Ahamarula

    The United States Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1978 to promote ethanol production and reduce American dependence on foreign oil. The provision of subsidies in the act is indicative of the importance of energy in the economy. America needs a national energy policy that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. Considering the importance of these needs, this study examines (a) the implementation of the Energy Policy Act of 1978 in regard to government subsidies and its effect on ethanol production, (b) the effect of gasoline consumption and cost on ethanol production, (c) the effect of corn production and price on ethanol fuel, and (d) the role of mandates and global crises on ethanol production. Secondary qualitative and quantitative data collected from various sources in 1978 through 2005 study the effect of ethanol subsidies on ethanol production. An autoregression error model is used to estimate the relevance of the explanatory variables on variations in ethanol production. The following are major study findings: (1) there is a positive correlation between corn production and ethanol production, is statistically significant; (2) government subsidies have a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production; (3) oil import has a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production, but has not contributed to a reduction the quantity of imported oil; (4) the price of corn has a statistically significant inverse relationship with ethanol production; (5) though not statistically significant, the price per barrel of oil is inversely related to ethanol production; (6) the budget surplus or deficit is associated with ethanol production; and (7) advocacy and lobbying for renewable fuel have encouraged support of ethanol production. The findings also show that global crises in the oil producing regions tend to influence the passage of favorable legislation for ethanol production. Furthermore, the

  7. Quality standards and requirements for solid recovered fuels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, Sabine; Geiping, Julia

    2012-04-01

    The utilization of solid recovered fuels (SRF) for energy recovery has been increasing steadily in recent years, and this development is set to continue. In order to use SRF efficiently, it is necessary to define quality standards and introduce targeted quality assurance measures. SRF can be used both in mono-incineration and in co-incineration systems, for instance in power generation and cement plants; but as quality requirements differ, it is necessary to unambiguously define the term 'solid recovered fuel'. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the origin, development and the current status of quality assurance for SRF. The basic principles of quality assurance for SRF are explained with reference to the development of the German RAL Quality Assurance System and in addition specifications that have emerged from European standardization work of CEN/TC 343 are analysed.

  8. 75 FR 81952 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and...--Proposed Vocational Diesel Engine Standards Over the Heavy-Duty FTP Cycle Medium Model year Standard Light... Light heavy-duty Medium heavy-duty Heavy heavy-duty Fuel Consumption Baseline (gallon/1,000 ton-mile...

  9. Substitutability of Electricity and Renewable Materials for Fossil Fuels in a Post-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Olivares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A feasible way to avoid the risk of energy decline and combat climate change is to build a 100% renewable global energy mix. However, a globally electrified economy cannot grow much above 12 electric terawatts without putting pressure on the limits of finite mineral reserves. Here we analyze whether 12 TW of electricity and 1 TW of biomass (final power will be able to fuel a future post-carbon economy that can provide similar services to those of a contemporary economy. Contrarily to some pessimistic expectations, this analysis shows that the principle economic processes can be replaced with sustainable alternatives based on electricity, charcoal, biogas and hydrogen. Furthermore, those services that cannot be replaced are not as crucial so as to cause a return to a pre-industrial society. Even so, land transport and aviation are at the limit of what is sustainable, outdoor work should be reorganized, metal primary production should be based on hydrogen reduction when possible, mineral production should be increasingly based on recycling, the petrochemical industry should shrink to a size of 40%–43% of the 2012 petrochemical sector, i.e., a size similar to that the sector had in 1985–1986, and agriculture may require organic farming methods to be sustainable.

  10. The Development of the Renewable Energy Power Industry under Feed-In Tariff and Renewable Portfolio Standard: A Case Study of China’s Photovoltaic Power Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhuo Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the regulatory policies, feed-in tariffs (FIT and renewable portfolio standards (RPS are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy. In this paper, we synthetically consider various important factors with the analysis of the existing literature, and use system dynamics (SD to establish models of long-term development of the renewable energy power industry under FIT and RPS schemes. The model not only clearly shows the complex logical relationship between the factors but also reveals the process of coordination between the two policy tools in the development of the renewable energy power industry. In addition, as an example of development of renewable energy industry, the paper studies the development of China’s photovoltaic power industry under different scenarios. The models proposed in this paper can provide a reference for scholars to study development of the renewable energy power industry in different countries, thereby facilitating an understanding of the renewable energy power’s long-term sustainable development pattern under FIT and RPS schemes, and helping to provide references for policy-making institutions. The results show that in the perfect competitive market, the implementation of RPS can promote long-term and rapid development of China’s photovoltaic power industry given the constraints and actions of the mechanisms of RPS quota proportion, the TGC valid period, and fines, compared with FIT. At the end of the paper, policy implications are offered as references for the government.

  11. 49 CFR 525.11 - Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... average fuel economy standard. 525.11 Section 525.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 525.11 Termination of exemption; amendment of alternative average fuel economy standard. (a) Any exemption granted under this part for an affected model year...

  12. National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC); (NREL) National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam

    2014-03-11

    This presentation gives an overview of the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC), describes how NFCTEC benefits the hydrogen and fuel cell community, and introduces a new fuel cell cost/price aggregation project.

  13. 76 FR 65971 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles AGENCY... 57106). The regulations established fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty engines and... trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles'' will be added. List of Subjects in 49 CFR Parts 523 and 535...

  14. 76 FR 59922 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles AGENCY: National... established fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty engines and vehicles, as prescribed under the...--MEDIUM- AND HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLES 0 1. The authority citation for part 535 continues to read as follows...

  15. A Prospective Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-12-31

    As states have gained experience with renewable portfolio standards (RPS) policies, many have made significant revisions to existing programs. In 2015 and 2016, seven states raised and extended their final RPS targets, while another state enacted a new RPS policy (Barbose 2016b). Interest in expanding and strengthening state RPS programs may continue, while efforts like recent proposals in many states to repeal or freeze existing RPS policies may also persist. In either context, questions about the potential costs, benefits, and other impacts of RPS programs are usually central to the decision-making process. This report follows on previous analyses that have focused on the historical costs, benefits, and other impacts of existing state RPS programs (Heeter et al. 2014; Wiser et al. 2016a). This report examines RPS outcomes prospectively, considering both current RPS policies as well as a potential expansion of those policies. The goal of this work is to provide a consistent and independent analytical methodology for that examination. This analysis relies on National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL’s) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to estimate changes to the U.S. electric power sector across a number of scenarios and sensitivity cases, focusing on the 2015–2050 timeframe. Based on those modeled results, we evaluate the costs, benefits, and other impacts of renewable energy contributing to RPS compliance using the suite of methods employed in a number of recent studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): a report examining retrospective benefits and impacts of RPS programs (Wiser et al. 2016a), the Wind Vision report (DOE 2015), the On the Path to SunShot report focusing on environmental benefits (Wiser et al. 2016b), and the Hydropower Vision report (DOE 2016).

  16. 76 FR 3587 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel... government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units owned by municipalities. 921150...

  17. Renewables Portfolio Standards: A Factual Introduction toExperience from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Namovicz, C.; Gielecki, M.; Smith, R.

    2007-05-09

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have--since the late 1990s--proliferated at the state level in the United States. What began as a policy idea minted in California and first described in detail in the pages of the 'Electricity Journal' FPT has emerged as an important driver for renewable energy capacity additions in the United States. Over the years, articles in the 'Electricity Journal' have explored the RPS in more detail, identifying both its strengths and weaknesses. The present article provides an introduction to the history, concept, and design of the RPS, reviews early experience with the policy as applied at the state level, and provides a brief overview of Federal RPS proposals to date and the possible relationship between Federal and state RPS policies. Our purpose is to offer a factual introduction to the RPS, as applied and considered in the U.S. Though elements of state RPS design are summarized here, other publications provide a more thorough review of design lessons that emerge from that experience. In addition, the present article does not describe the results of economic analyses of Federal RPS proposals, though we do cite many of the analyses conducted by the U.S. DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  18. Is it Worth it? A Comparative Analysis of Cost-Benefit Projectionsfor State Renewables Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-06-05

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to almost 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of twenty-six distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998 (see Figure 1 and Appendix for a complete list of the studies). Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in seventeen different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  19. The Costs and Benefits of Compliance with Renewable Portfolio Standards: Reviewing Experience to Date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny; Barbose, Galen; Bird, Lori; Weaver, Samantha; Flores, Francisco; Kuskova-Burns, Ksenia; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-12

    More than half of U.S. states have renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in place and have collectively deployed approximately 46,000 MW of new renewable energy capacity through year-end 2012. Most of these policies have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS benefits and costs is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. A key aspect of this study is the comprehensive review of existing RPS cost and benefit estimates, in addition to an examination of the variety of methods used to calculate such estimates. Based on available data and estimates reported by utilities and regulators, this study summarizes RPS costs to date. The study considers how those costs may evolve going forward, given scheduled increases in RPS targets and cost containment mechanisms incorporated into existing policies. The report also summarizes RPS benefits estimates, based on published studies for individual states, and discusses key methodological considerations.

  20. Fuel Consumption Analysis and Optimization of a Sustainable Energy System for a 100% Renewables Smart House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile Simion; Blarke, Morten; Trifa, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    . In case of renewable energies, one main challenge is the discontinuity of generation which can be solved with planning and control optimization methods. The results of the economic analysis and the feasibility of the sustainable energy system for a 100% renewables SH show that this could be possible...

  1. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15

  2. A Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Impacts of U.S. Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This is the second in a series of reports exploring the costs, benefits, and other impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPS), both retrospectively and prospectively. This report focuses on the benefits and impacts of all state RPS programs, in aggregate, for the year 2013 (the most-recent year for which the requisite data were available). Relying on a well-vetted set of methods, the study evaluates a number of important benefits and impacts in both physical and monetary terms, where possible, and characterizes key uncertainties. The prior study in this series focused on historical RPS compliance costs, and future work will evaluate costs, benefits, and other impacts of RPS policies prospectively.

  3. Winter School 2011 of the North Rhine Westphalia Research School "Fuel production based on renewable resources" associated with the Cluster of Excellence "Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass"

    CERN Document Server

    Pischinger, Stefan; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The book reports on the results of the BrenaRo Winterschool 2011, held on November 21-22 in Aachen, Germany. The different chapters cover a number of aspects of the topic of energy generation, with a particular focus on energy generation from biomass. They presents new findings concerning engine development, process engineering, and biological and chemical conversion of biomass to fuels, and highlight the importance of an interdisciplinary approach, combining chemistry, biology and engineering research, to the use of renewable energy sources. All in all, this book provides readers with a snapshot of the state-of-the-art in renewable energy conversion, and gives an overview of the ongoing work in this field in Germany.

  4. 40 CFR 80.524 - What sulfur content standard applies to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or importer? 80.524 Section 80.524 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.524 What sulfur content...

  5. Advanced reactors and novel reactions for the conversion of triglyceride based oils into high quality renewable transportation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, Michael James

    Sustainable energy continues to grow more important to all societies, leading to the research and development of a variety of alternative and renewable energy technologies. Of these, renewable liquid transportation fuels may be the most visible to consumers, and this visibility is further magnified by the long-term trend of increasingly expensive petroleum fuels that the public consumes. While first-generation biofuels such as biodiesel and fuel ethanol have been integrated into the existing fuel infrastructures of several countries, the chemical differences between them and their petroleum counterparts reduce their effectiveness. This gives rise to the development and commercialization of second generation biofuels, many of which are intended to have equivalent properties to those of their petroleum counterparts. In this dissertation, the primary reactions for a second-generation biofuel process, known herein as the University of North Dakota noncatalytic cracking process (NCP), have been studied at the fundamental level and improved. The NCP is capable of producing renewable fuels and chemicals that are virtually the same as their petroleum counterparts in performance and quality (i.e., petroleum-equivalent). In addition, a novel analytical method, FIMSDIST was developed which, within certain limitations, can increase the elution capabilities of GC analysis and decrease sample processing times compared to other high resolution methods. These advances are particularly useful for studies of highly heterogeneous fuel and/or organic chemical intermediates, such as those studied for the NCP. However the data from FIMSDIST must be supplemented with data from other methods such as for certain carboxylic acid, to provide accurate, comprehensive results, From a series of TAG cracking experiments that were performed, it was found that coke formation during cracking is most likely the result of excessive temperature and/or residence time in a cracking reactor. Based on this

  6. Gasification in a CFB reactor : a simple and economic way of co-firing renewable fuels in existing power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, H.; Zotter, T. [AE Energietechnik, Graz (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    The use of biomass for power generation offers many environmental advantages and shorter carbon dioxide cycles compared to fossil fuels. However, biomass is not suitable as the principal fuel in large biomass-fired power plants because of its low specific volumetric energy density and the high transport and handling volume. Biomass is suitable for decentralized, small power plants but these often require high investment and operational costs. This paper discussed the suitability of biomass for co-firing in existing coal-fired thermal power plants. AE Energietechnik and partners, implemented a pilot biomass gasifier in Zeltweg, Austria in 1997. The plant operates a circulating fluidized bed reactor with a hot, low-calorific product gas produced and transported into an existing coal-fired boiler. The thermal capacity is up to 20 MW compared to the thermal capacity of 344 MW for the PC-boiler. This represents a coal substitution of 5 per cent. Commercial production began in December 1997 following gasification tests with alternative fuels such as wood wastes and plastics. The demonstration program has increased the awareness for the potential to use renewable fuels in fossil-fired power plants not originally designed to accept such fuels. 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  7. Analytic Methods for Benchmarking Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Saur, Genevieve; Ramsden, Todd; Eichman, Joshua

    2015-05-28

    This presentation summarizes NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis work in three areas: resource potential, greenhouse gas emissions and cost of delivered energy, and influence of auxiliary revenue streams. NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis projects focus on low-­carbon and economic transportation and stationary fuel cell applications. Analysis tools developed by the lab provide insight into the degree to which bridging markets can strengthen the business case for fuel cell applications.

  8. Out-of-pile Verifying Test for the Hydraulic Stability of the CARR Standard Fuel Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The CARR standard fuel element is a flat-plate-type assembly. A fuel plate consists of 0.6 mmthickness layer of uranium- silicon - aluminum fuel (U3Si2-Al) and 0.38 mm thickness of aluminumcladding. The fuel plates are attached to aluminum alloy side plates by a "roll swaging" technique. Thistype of fuel assembly is first used in China. The testing simulates the in-pile thermal-hydraulic operating conditions except for neutron

  9. State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Alternative Compliance; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The final rule of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and its associated regulations enable covered state and alternative fuel provider fleets to obtain waivers from the alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)-acquisition requirements of Standard Compliance. Under Alternative Compliance, covered fleets instead meet a petroleum-use reduction requirement. This guidance document is designed to help fleets better understand the Alternative Compliance option and successfully complete the waiver application process.

  10. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  11. Pretreated Landfill Gas Conversion Process via a Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Renewable Combined Fuel Cell-Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ziaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new landfill gas-based reforming catalytic processing system for the conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons, such as incoming methane to hydrogen and carbon oxide mixtures, is described and analyzed. The exit synthesis gas (syn-gas is fed to power effectively high-temperature fuel cells such as SOFC types for combined efficient electricity generation. The current research work is also referred on the description and design aspects of permreactors (permeable reformers carrying the same type of landfill gas-reforming reactions. Membrane reactors is a new technology that can be applied efficiently in such systems. Membrane reactors seem to perform better than the nonmembrane traditional reactors. The aim of this research includes turnkey system and process development for the landfill-based power generation and fuel cell industries. Also, a discussion of the efficient utilization of landfill and waste type resources for combined green-type/renewable power generation with increased processing capacity and efficiency via fuel cell systems is taking place. Moreover, pollution reduction is an additional design consideration in the current catalytic processors fuel cell cycles.

  12. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable togas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2004-07-17

    Unlike natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation (e.g., from wind, solar, and geothermal power) is largely immune to fuel price risk. If ratepayers are rational and value long-term price stability, then--contrary to common practice--any comparison of the levelized cost of renewable to gas-fired generation should be based on a hedged gas price input, rather than an uncertain gas price forecast. This paper compares natural gas prices that can be locked in through futures, swaps, and physical supply contracts to contemporaneous long-term forecasts of spot gas prices. We find that from 2000-2003, forward gas prices for terms of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most contemporaneous long-term gas price forecasts. This difference is striking, and implies that comparisons between renewable and gas-fired generation based on these forecasts over this period have arguably yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation.

  13. Renewable Electricity: How Do You Know You Have It?; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    When electricity is generated - either from a renewable or non-renewable power plant - the electrons added to the grid are indistinguishable. So, on what basis can a consumer of electricity claim to be using renewables? In the United States, renewable energy certificates (RECs) were developed as states passed renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and were requiring fuel mix disclosure labels. RECs are also used in the voluntary market, where customers are buying renewables to meet sustainability goals. The concept of RECs is used most widely in the United States, but international markets also have tradable renewable electricity certificates. This fact sheet reviews how to ensure that RECs are not double-counted, roles of electricity regulators, renewable generators and purchasers. It concludes with a discussion of the international use of RECs.

  14. 77 FR 70848 - Submission for Renewal: Information Collection 3206-0150; Fingerprint Chart Standard Form 87 (SF 87)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Renewal: Information Collection 3206-0150; Fingerprint Chart Standard Form 87 (SF... Form 87 (SF 87). As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. chapter... DeMarion or sent via electronic mail to FISFormsComments@opm.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  15. Renewable fuels as feedstocks in industrial organic chemistry; Nachwachsende Rohstoffe als Feedstock in der industriellen organischen Chemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, J.

    1995-10-01

    Fossil fuels are used in the chemical industry for providing process energy but primarily as chemical feedstocks. In view of the necessity ofsaving fossil resources and reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, the author investigates inhowfar renewable fuels may serve as substitutes for the fossil carbon carriers now used in the chemical industry. He starts with a bibliographic research which also takes account of studies on the uses of biomass for power generation. On this basis, an outline of current production processes (including specific data for cultivation and processing), production volumes and consumption structures is given for the main types of renewable raw materials (sugar, starch, cellulose and vegetable fats and oils). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Fossile Energietraeger werden in der chemischen Industrie ausser zur Bereitstellung von Prozessenergie vor allem nichtenergetisch, d.h. als chemische Rohstoffe (sog. Feedstock), eingesetzt. Angesichts der Notwendigkeit, die fossilen Rohstoffvorraete zu schonen und die anthropogenen Klimagasemissionen zu vermindern, stellt sich die Frage, inwieweit nachwachsende Rohstoffe die im Chemiesektor fuer nichtenergetische Zwecke eingesetzten fossilen Kohlenstofftraeger ersetzen koennen. Im Rahmen der Studienarbeit soll zunaechst eine Literaturrecherche zu diesem Themenkomplex durchgefuehrt werden, wobei auch Untersuchungen zur energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse zu beruecksichtigen sind. Auf dieser Basis soll fuer die Haupttypen nachwachsender Rohstoffe (Zucker, Staerke, Cellulose und pflanzliche Fette/Oele) ein Ueberblick zu den heutigen Produktionsverfahren (inkl. Anbau- und verarbeitungsspezifischer Daten), Produktionsmengen und Verbrauchsstrukturen gegeben werden. (orig./SR)

  16. Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy...... sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be used to help the integration of fluctuating sources. Electricity storage technologies can be used...

  17. 40 CFR 80.520 - What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for motor vehicle diesel fuel? 80.520 Section 80.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.520 What are the standards and dye requirements for motor vehicle...

  18. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 RIN 2060-AQ46 Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility... limited to, the following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric...

  19. 75 FR 74151 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and... that power them, except for medium-duty passenger vehicles already covered by the greenhouse gas...

  20. New technologies in the production of motor fuels from renewable materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnađević Borivoj K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents resources of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina available for bioethanol and motor fuels (gasoline and diesel fuel from sustainable resources: corn-stalks, straw, sweet sorghum, pork fat. The physicochemical basis for novel processes for motor fuel production is coupling microwave pyrolysis of oil shale and catalytic cracking of purified pyrolysis oil, hydrothermal liquefaction of algae and swine manure. The effects of the degree of purification of crude pyrolysis oil and oil shale on the degree of their conversion to gasoline and diesel fuel, as well as the product distribution are investigated. The effects of the duration and temperature of hydrothermal liquefaction of microalga, Botryoccocus braunii, and swine manure on their degrees of conversion into bio-oil and its thermal properties are investigated. The development of novel strategy of biofuel in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is presented.

  1. The combustion properties analysis of various liquid fuels based on crude oil and renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab-Rogalinski, K.; Szwaja, S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents results of investigation on combustion properties analysis of hydrocarbon based liquid fuels commonly used in the CI engine. The analysis was performed with aid of the CRU (Combustion Research Unit). CRU is the machine consisted of a constant volume combustion chamber equipped with one or two fuel injectors and a pressure sensor. Fuel can be injected under various both injection pressure and injection duration, also with two injector versions two stage combustion with pilot injection can be simulated, that makes it possible to introduce and modify additional parameter which is injection delay (defined as the time between pilot and main injection). On a basis of this investigation such combustion parameters as pressure increase, rate of heat release, ignition delay and combustion duration can be determined. The research was performed for the four fuels as follows: LFO, HFO, Biofuel from rape seeds and Glycerol under various injection parameters as well as combustion chamber thermodynamic conditions. Under these tests the change in such injection parameters as injection pressure, use of pilot injection, injection delay and injection duration, for main injection, were made. Moreover, fuels were tested under different conditions of load, what was determined by initial conditions (pressure and temperature) in the combustion chamber. Stored data from research allows to compare combustion parameters for fuels applied to tests and show this comparison in diagrams.

  2. Demonstration and Verification of a Turbine Power Generation System Utilizing Renewable Fuel: Landfill Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    weight of the equipment and concrete pads. The heaviest integrated components (turbine, oxidizer, piping and supporting steel work) weigh about 25...DataTaker™ data logger and retrieved via cellular router on a weekly basis. Raw data were retrieved each week and appended into the ‘raw data’ tab of...Poster presentation 2010 ESTCP Symposium Poster presentation 2011 ESTCP Symposium Poster and presentation in renewable energy panel 2011 Exhibition

  3. Relationship of Solar Energy Installation Permits to Renewable Portfolio Standards and Insolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kirt Gordon

    Legislated renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) may not be the key to ensure forecast energy demands are met. States without a legislated RPS and with efficient permitting procedures were found to have approved and issued 28.57% more permits on average than those with a legislated RPS. Assessment models to make informed decisions about the need and effect of legislated RPSs do not exist. Decision makers and policy creators need to use empirical data and a viable model to resolve the debate over a nationally legislated RPS. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine if relationships between the independent variables of RPS and insolation levels and the dependent variable of the percentage of permits approved would prove to be a viable model. The research population was 68 cities in the United States, of which 55 were used in this study. The return on investment economic decision model provided the theoretical framework for this study and the model generated. The output of multiple regression analysis indicated a weak to medium positive relationship among the variables. None of these relationships were statistically significant at the 0.05 level. A model using site specific data might yield significant results and be useful for determining which solar energy projects to pursue and where to implement them without Federal or State mandated RPSs. A viable model would bring about efficiency gains in the permitting process and effectiveness gains in promoting installations of solar energy-based systems. Research leading to the development of a viable model would benefit society by encouraging the development of sustainable energy sources and helping to meet forecast energy demands.

  4. Evaluation of microbial triglyceride oil purification requirements for the CelTherm process: an efficient biochemical pathway to renewable fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, Michael; Seames, Wayne; Kubatova, Alena; Menon, Suresh; Alisala, Kashinatham; Hash, Sara

    2014-10-01

    CelTherm is a biochemical process to produce renewable fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. The present study's objective was to determine the level of treatment/purity of the microbial triacylglyceride oil (TAG) necessary to facilitate fuel production. After a unique microbe aerobically synthesizes TAG from biomass-derived sugars, the microbes were harvested and dried then crude TAG was chemically extracted from the residual biomass. Some TAGs were further purified to hydrotreating process requirements. Both grades were then noncatalytically cracked into a petroleum-like intermediate characterized by gas chromatography. Experiments were repeated using refined soybean oil for comparison to previous studies. The products from crude microbial TAG cracking were then further refined into a jet fuel product. Fuel tests indicate that this jet fuel corresponds to specifications for JP-8 military turbine fuel. It was thus concluded that the crude microbial TAG is a suitable feedstock with no further purification required, demonstrating CelTherm's commercial potential.

  5. Addressing Palm Biodiesel as Renewable Fuel for the Indonesian Power Generation Sector: Java-Madura-Bali System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarianto Indrawan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy security defined as how to equitably provide available, affordable, reliable efficient, environmentally friendly, proactively governed and socially acceptable energy services to end user. It has in recent years taken attention of policymakers in different parts of the world. Formulating policy to improve energy security is mandatory, not only because of depleting fossil resource, but also implementing diversity of energy source since utilization abundant renewable energy resources can increase the security of energy supply. One of the abundant renewable energy resources in Indonesia is palm oil. This study analyses the utilization of palm biodiesel for Indonesian power generation sector in the Java-Madura-Bali (JAMALI system. Two scenarios were created by projecting the demand and environmental impact as well as GHG emissions reduction over the next 25 years. The first scenario subjects on current energy policy, while the second scenario is to substitute of fossil fuel which is still used in the JAMALI power generation system. Effect of palm biodiesel on emission of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, and Volatile Organic Compounds were estimated for each scenario. An externality analysis to complete the environmental analysis was conducted and resource analysis of palm oil plantation based biodiesel was also estimated. Finally, the economics feasibility of palm biodiesel in the power generation sector was analyzed.

  6. Adaptive control paradigm for photovoltaic and solid oxide fuel cell in a grid-integrated hybrid renewable energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sidra; Khan, Laiq

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system. A comprehensive simulation testbed for a grid-connected hybrid power system (wind turbine, PV cells, SOFC, electrolyzer, battery storage system, supercapacitor (SC), micro-turbine (MT) and domestic load) is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness and superiority of the proposed indirect adaptive control paradigm are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system testbed by comparison with a conventional PI (proportional and integral) control system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigm.

  7. Adaptive control paradigm for photovoltaic and solid oxide fuel cell in a grid-integrated hybrid renewable energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Laiq

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system. A comprehensive simulation testbed for a grid-connected hybrid power system (wind turbine, PV cells, SOFC, electrolyzer, battery storage system, supercapacitor (SC), micro-turbine (MT) and domestic load) is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness and superiority of the proposed indirect adaptive control paradigm are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system testbed by comparison with a conventional PI (proportional and integral) control system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigm. PMID:28329015

  8. Results of international standard problem No. 36 severe fuel damage experiment of a VVER fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firnhaber, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen-und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany); Yegorova, L. [Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brockmeier, U. [Ruhr-Univ. of Bochum (Germany)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    International Standard Problems (ISP) organized by the OECD are defined as comparative exercises in which predictions with different computer codes for a given physical problem are compared with each other and with a carefully controlled experimental study. The main goal of ISP is to increase confidence in the validity and accuracy of analytical tools used in assessing the safety of nuclear installations. In addition, it enables the code user to gain experience and to improve his competence. This paper presents the results and assessment of ISP No. 36, which deals with the early core degradation phase during an unmitigated severe LWR accident in a Russian type VVER. Representatives of 17 organizations participated in the ISP using the codes ATHLET-CD, ICARE2, KESS-III, MELCOR, SCDAP/RELAP5 and RAPTA. Some participants performed several calculations with different codes. As experimental basis the severe fuel damage experiment CORA-W2 was selected. The main phenomena investigated are thermal behavior of fuel rods, onset of temperature escalation, material behavior and hydrogen generation. In general, the calculations give the right tendency of the experimental results for the thermal behavior, the hydrogen generation and, partly, for the material behavior. However, some calculations deviate in important quantities - e.g. some material behavior data - showing remarkable discrepancies between each other and from the experiments. The temperature history of the bundle up to the beginning of significant oxidation was calculated quite well. Deviations seem to be related to the overall heat balance. Since the material behavior of the bundle is to a great extent influenced by the cladding failure criteria a more realistic cladding failure model should be developed at least for the detailed, mechanistic codes. Regarding the material behavior and flow blockage some models for the material interaction as well as for relocation and refreezing requires further improvement.

  9. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Hunt, Andrew J; Sherwood, James

    2015-07-28

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  10. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Clark

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  11. Finding synergies in fuels properties for the design of renewable fuels--hydroxylated biodiesel effects on butanol-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukjit, E; Herreros, J M; Piaszyk, J; Dearn, K D; Tsolakis, A

    2013-04-02

    This article describes the effects of hydroxylated biodiesel (castor oil methyl ester - COME) on the properties, combustion, and emissions of butanol-diesel blends used within compression ignition engines. The study was conducted to investigate the influence of COME as a means of increasing the butanol concentration in a stable butanol-diesel blend. Tests were compared with baseline experiments using rapeseed methyl esters (RME). A clear benefit in terms of the trade-off between NOX and soot emissions with respect to ULSD and biodiesel-diesel blends with the same oxygen content was obtained from the combination of biodiesel and butanol, while there was no penalty in regulated gaseous carbonaceous emissions. From the comparison between the biodiesel fuels used in this work, COME improved some of the properties (for example lubricity, density and viscosity) of butanol-diesel blends with respect to RME. The existence of hydroxyl group in COME also reduced further soot emissions and decreased soot activation energy.

  12. Financial Impact of Energy Efficiency under a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard: Case Study of a Kansas"super-utility"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Cappers, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Local, state and federal policies that jointly promote the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency are expected to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. If only supply-side options are considered, our analysis suggests that a Kansas"super-utility" would prefer to build its own renewable energy resources, while ratepayers would favor a procurement strategy that relies on long-term renewable power purchase agreements. Introducing energy efficiency under varying levels as a CERES resource will, under our analysis, reduce ratepayer bills by ~;;$400M to ~;;$1.0B between 2009 and 2028, but commensurately erode shareholder returns by ~;;10 to ~;;100 basis points. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our results illustrate how shareholder returns can be improved through the pursuit of energy efficiency, by at most ~;;20 basis points if certain conditions apply, while ratepayers continue to save between $10M and ~;;$840M over 20 years.

  13. Estimating the Value of Utility-Scale Solar Technologies in California Under a 40% Renewable Portfolio Standard (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2014-06-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of solar energy in that its output can be shifted over time. The ability of CSP-TES to be a flexible source of generation may be particularly valuable in regions with high overall penetration of solar energy, such as the state of California. California's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires the state to increase generation from eligible renewable energy resources to reach 33% of retail electricity sales by 2020. Beyond 2020, California targets a further reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. To help reach this goal, current California governor Jerry Brown has stated that a higher 40% RPS might be reachable in the near term. The levelized cost of energy is generally emphasized when assessing the economic viability of renewable energy systems implemented to achieve the RPS. However, the operational and capacity benefits of such systems are often ignored, which can lead to incorrect economic comparisons between CSP-TES and variable renewable generation technologies such as solar photovoltaics (PV). Here we evaluate a 40% RPS scenario in a California grid model with PV or CSP-TES providing the last 1% of RPS energy. We compare the technical and economic implications of integrating either solar technology under several sensitivities, finding that the ability to displace new conventional thermal generation capacity may be the largest source of value of CSP-TES compared to PV at high solar penetrations.

  14. Estimating the Value of Utility-Scale Solar Technologies in California Under a 40% Renewable Portfolio Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgenson, J.; Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2014-05-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of solar energy in that its output can be shifted over time. The ability of CSP-TES to be a flexible source of generation may be particularly valuable in regions with high overall penetration of solar energy, such as the state of California. California's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) requires the state to increase generation from eligible renewable energy resources to reach 33% of retail electricity sales by 2020. Beyond 2020, California targets a further reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. To help reach this goal, current California governor Jerry Brown has stated that a higher 40% RPS might be reachable in the near term. The levelized cost of energy is generally emphasized when assessing the economic viability of renewable energy systems implemented to achieve the RPS. However, the operational and capacity benefits of such systems are often ignored, which can lead to incorrect economic comparisons between CSP-TES and variable renewable generation technologies such as solar photovoltaics (PV). Here we evaluate a 40% RPS scenario in a California grid model with PV or CSP-TES providing the last 1% of RPS energy. We compare the technical and economic implications of integrating either solar technology under several sensitivities, finding that the ability to displace new conventional thermal generation capacity may be the largest source of value of CSP-TES compared to PV at high solar penetrations.

  15. 76 FR 57105 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles; Final... for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and... that power them, except for medium-duty passenger vehicles already covered by the greenhouse gas...

  16. Renewable hydrocarbons for jet fuels from biomass and plastics via microwave-induced pyrolysis and hydrogenation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong

    This dissertation aims to enhance the production of aromatic hydrocarbons in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis, and maximize the production of renewable cycloalkanes for jet fuels in the hydrogenation process. In the process, ZSM-5 catalyst as the highly efficient catalyst was employed for catalyzing the pyrolytic volatiles from thermal decomposition of cellulose (a model compound of lignocellulosic biomass). A central composite experiment design (CCD) was used to optimize the product yields as a function of independent factors (e.g. catalytic temperature and catalyst to feed mass ratio). The low-density polyethylene (a mode compound of waste plastics) was then carried out in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis in the presence of ZSM-5 catalyst. Thereafter, the catalytic microwave-induced co-pyrolysis of cellulose with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was conducted over ZSM-5 catalyst. The results showed that the production of aromatic hydrocarbons was significantly enhanced and the coke formation was also considerably reduced comparing with the catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose or LDPE alone. Moreover, practical lignocellulosic biomass (Douglas fir sawdust pellets) was converted into aromatics-enriched bio-oil by catalytic microwave pyrolysis. The bio-oil was subsequently hydrogenated by using the Raney Ni catalyst. A liquid-liquid extraction step was implemented to recover the liquid organics and remove the water content. Over 20% carbon yield of liquid product regarding lignocellulosic biomass was obtained. Up to 90% selectivity in the liquid product belongs to jet fuel range cycloalkanes. As the integrated processes was developed, catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose with LDPE was conducted to improve aromatic production. After the liquid-liquid extraction by the optimal solvent (n-heptane), over 40% carbon yield of hydrogenated organics based on cellulose and LDPE were achieved in the hydrogenation process. As such, real

  17. The Challenge of Efficient Synthesis of Biofuels from Lignocellulose for Future Renewable Transportation Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Mäki-Arvela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration of sugars to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF has recently been under intensive study by a multitude of research groups. On the other hand, when lignocellulosic biomass is applied as the starting material, very few studies can be found in the open literature. The direct synthesis of HMF, in line with the idea of “one-pot” synthesis strategy from lignocellulose, is demanding since the overall process should encompass dissolution, hydrolysis, and dehydration steps in a single processing unit. Ionic liquid-assisted methods to produce hydroxymethyl-furfural directly from lignocellulosic biomass are reported here together with a short overview of the most important biofuels. In reality, HMF is not suitable to be used as a single-component fuel as such, and, consequently, methods to produce HMF derivatives suitable as liquid fuels are reported.

  18. Dynamic analyses of regenerative fuel cell power for potential use in renewable residential applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maclay, JD; J. Brouwer; Samuelsen, GS

    2006-01-01

    A model of a solar-hydrogen powered residence, in both stand-alone and grid parallel configurations, was developed using Matlab / Simulink®. The model assesses the viability of employing a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) as an energy storage device to be used with photovoltaic (PV) electrical generation. Other modes of energy storage such as batteries and hybrid storage were also evaluated. Analyses of various operating conditions, system configurations, and control strategies were performed. De...

  19. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule...

  20. A proposed framework of food waste collection and recycling for renewable biogas fuel production in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Kok Sin; Lo, Irene M C

    2016-01-01

    Hong Kong is experiencing a pressing need for food waste management. Currently, approximately 3600 tonnes of food waste are disposed of at landfills in Hong Kong daily. The landfills in Hong Kong are expected to be exhausted by 2020. In the long run, unavoidable food waste should be sorted out from the other municipal solid waste (MSW) and then valorized into valuable resources. A simple sorting process involving less behavioural change of residents is, therefore, of paramount importance in order to encourage residents to sort the food waste from other MSW. In this paper, a sustainable framework of food waste collection and recycling for renewable biogas fuel production is proposed. For an efficient separation and collection system, an optic bag (i.e. green bag) can be used to pack the food waste, while the residual MSW can be packed in a common plastic bag. All the wastes are then sent to the refuse transfer stations in the conventional way (i.e. refuse collection vehicles). At the refuse transfer stations, the food waste is separated from the residual MSW using optic sensors which recognize the colours of the bags. The food waste in the optic bags is then delivered to the proposed Organic Waste Treatment Facilities, in which biogas is generated following the anaerobic digestion technology. The biogas can be further upgraded via gas upgrading units to a quality suitable for use as a vehicle biogas fuel. The use of biogas fuel from food waste has been widely practiced by some countries such as Sweden, France, and Norway. Hopefully, the proposed framework can provide the epitome of the waste-to-wealth concept for the sustainable collection and recycling of food waste in Hong Kong.

  1. Spray combustion of biomass-based renewable diesel fuel using multiple injection strategy in a constant volume combustion chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-05-26

    Effect of a two-injection strategy associated with a pilot injection on the spray combustion process was investigated under conventional diesel combustion conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration) for a biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, i.e., biomass to liquid (BTL), and a regular No. 2 diesel in a constant volume combustion chamber using multiband flame measurement and two-color pyrometry. The spray combustion flame structure was visualized by using multiband flame measurement to show features of soot formation, high temperature and low temperature reactions, which can be characterized by the narrow-band emissions of radicals or intermediate species such as OH, HCHO, and CH. The objective of this study was to identify the details of multiple injection combustion, including a pilot and a main injection, and to provide further insights on how the two injections interact. For comparison, three injection strategies were considered for both fuels including a two-injection strategy (Case TI), single injection strategy A (Case SA), and single injection strategy B (Case SB). Multiband flame results show a strong interaction, indicated by OH emissions between the pilot injection and the main injection for Case TI while very weak connection is found for the narrow-band emissions acquired through filters with centerlines of 430 nm and 470 nm. A faster flame development is found for the main injection of Case TI compared to Cases SA and SB, which could be due to the high temperature environment and large air entrainment from the pilot injection. A lower soot level is observed for the BTL flame compared to the diesel flame for all three injection types. Case TI has a lower soot level compared to Cases SA and SB for the BTL fuel, while the diesel fuel maintains a similar soot level among all three injection strategies. Soot temperature of Case TI is lower for both fuels, especially for diesel. Based on these results, it is expected that the two-injection strategy could be

  2. Renewable liquid fuels from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher J.

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and growing concerns about global warming require the development of sustainable sources of energy. Fuels for use in the transportation sector must have specific physical properties that allow for efficient distribution, storage, and combustion; these requirements are currently fulfilled by petroleum-derived liquid fuels. The focus of this work has been the development of two new biofuels that have the potential to become widely used transportation fuels from carbohydrate intermediates. Our first biofuel has cetane numbers ranging from 63 to 97 and is comprised of C7 to C15 straight chain alkanes. These alkanes can be blended with diesel like fuels or with P-series biofuel. Production involves a solid base catalyzed aldol condensation with mixed Mg-Al-oxide between furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acetone, followed by hydrogenation over Pd/Al2O3, and finally hydrogenation/dehydration over Pt/SiO2-Al2O3. Water was the solvent for all process steps, except for the hydrogenation/dehydration stage where hexadecane was co-fed to spontaneously separate out all alkane products and eliminate the need for energy intensive distillation. A later optimization identified Pd/MgO-ZrO2 as a hydrothermally stable bifunctional catalyst to replace Pd/Al2O3 and the hydrothermally unstable Mg-Al-oxide catalysts along with optimizing process parameters, such as temperature and molar ratios of reactants to maximize yields to heavier alkanes. Our second biofuel involved creating an improved process to produce HMF through the acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose in a biphasic reactor. Additionally, we developed a technique to further convert HMF into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) by hydrogenolysis of C-O bonds over a copper-ruthenium catalyst. DMF has many properties that make it a superior blending agent to ethanol: it has a high research octane number at 119, a 40% higher energy density than ethanol, 20 K higher boiling point, and is insoluble in

  3. Challenges towards Economic Fuel Generation from Renewable Electricity: The Need for Efficient Electro-Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formal, Florian Le; Bourée, Wiktor S; Prévot, Mathieu S; Sivula, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing renewable sources of energy is very attractive to provide the growing population on earth in the future but demands the development of efficient storage to mitigate their intermittent nature. Chemical storage, with energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds such as hydrogen or carbon-containing molecules, is promising as these energy vectors can be reserved and transported easily. In this review, we aim to present the advantages and drawbacks of the main water electrolysis technologies available today: alkaline and PEM electrolysis. The choice of electrode materials for utilization in very basic and very acid conditions is discussed, with specific focus on anodes for the oxygen evolution reaction, considered as the most demanding and energy consuming reaction in an electrolyzer. State-of-the-art performance of materials academically developed for two alternative technologies: electrolysis in neutral or seawater, and the direct electrochemical conversion from solar to hydrogen are also introduced.

  4. Renewable Gasoline, Solvents, and Fuel Additives from 2,3-Butanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Benjamin G; Merriman, Walter W; Quintana, Roxanne L

    2016-07-21

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a renewable alcohol that can be prepared in high yield from biomass sugars. 2,3-BD was selectively dehydrated in a solvent-free process to a complex mixture of 2-ethyl-2,4,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolanes and 4,5-dimethyl-2isopropyl dioxolanes with the heterogeneous acid catalyst Amberlyst-15. The purified dioxolane mixture exhibited an anti-knock index of 90.5, comparable to high octane gasoline, and a volumetric net heat of combustion 34 % higher than ethanol. The solubility of the dioxolane mixture in water was only 0.8 g per 100 mL, nearly an order of magnitude lower than the common gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether. The dioxolane mixture has potential applications as a sustainable gasoline blending component, diesel oxygenate, and industrial solvent.

  5. USDOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy joint collaboration for renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touryan, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint collaboration between the US and Russia to develop renewable energy resources. There are five main goals of the project. First is to establish Intersolarcenter as a sister organization to NREL for joint R&D activities, and to provide training to the staff. Second is to install demonstration systems in parks and selected locations around Moscow. Third is to install pilot projects: a wind/diesel hybrid system at 21 sites in the northern territories; a 500 kW biomass power plant in the Arkhangelsk Region. Fourth is to assist in the start-up operations of a 2 MW/yr Triple Junction amorphous-Si manufacturing facility in Moscow using US technology. Fifth is to explore the possibilities of financing large-scale wind/hybrid and biomass power systems for the nouthern territories (possibly 900 sites).

  6. 78 FR 37325 - License Renewal of Nuclear Power Plants; Generic Environmental Impact Statement and Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...: NUREG-1437 and NUREG-1555; issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is updating and revising NUREG-1437, ``Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear... amending certain NRC environmental protection regulations. The NRC has also revised NUREG-1555,...

  7. Standard guide for drying behavior of spent nuclear fuel

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This guide is organized to discuss the three major components of significance in the drying behavior of spent nuclear fuel: evaluating the need for drying, drying spent nuclear fuel, and confirmation of adequate dryness. 1.1.1 The guide addresses drying methods and their limitations in drying spent nuclear fuels that have been in storage at water pools. The guide discusses sources and forms of water that remain in SNF, its container, or both, after the drying process and discusses the importance and potential effects they may have on fuel integrity, and container materials. The effects of residual water are discussed mechanistically as a function of the container thermal and radiological environment to provide guidance on situations that may require extraordinary drying methods, specialized handling, or other treatments. 1.1.2 The basic issue in drying is to determine how dry the SNF must be in order to prevent issues with fuel retrievability, container pressurization, or container corrosion. Adequate d...

  8. Development of standard fuel models in boreal forests of Northeast China through calibration and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Longyan; He, Hong S; Wu, Zhiwei; Lewis, Benard L; Liang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the fire prediction capabilities of fuel models is vital to forest fire management. Various fuel models have been developed in the Great Xing'an Mountains in Northeast China. However, the performances of these fuel models have not been tested for historical occurrences of wildfires. Consequently, the applicability of these models requires further investigation. Thus, this paper aims to develop standard fuel models. Seven vegetation types were combined into three fuel models according to potential fire behaviors which were clustered using Euclidean distance algorithms. Fuel model parameter sensitivity was analyzed by the Morris screening method. Results showed that the fuel model parameters 1-hour time-lag loading, dead heat content, live heat content, 1-hour time-lag SAV(Surface Area-to-Volume), live shrub SAV, and fuel bed depth have high sensitivity. Two main sensitive fuel parameters: 1-hour time-lag loading and fuel bed depth, were determined as adjustment parameters because of their high spatio-temporal variability. The FARSITE model was then used to test the fire prediction capabilities of the combined fuel models (uncalibrated fuel models). FARSITE was shown to yield an unrealistic prediction of the historical fire. However, the calibrated fuel models significantly improved the capabilities of the fuel models to predict the actual fire with an accuracy of 89%. Validation results also showed that the model can estimate the actual fires with an accuracy exceeding 56% by using the calibrated fuel models. Therefore, these fuel models can be efficiently used to calculate fire behaviors, which can be helpful in forest fire management.

  9. 40 CFR 80.527 - Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard be downgraded to motor vehicle diesel fuel... Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.527 Under what conditions may motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the...

  10. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  11. The Sport-Utility Vehicle: Debating Fuel-Economy Standards in Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a debate about national fuel-economy standards for sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) used as a foundation for exploring a public policy issue in the physical science classroom. The subject of automobile fuel economy benefits from a familiarity with thermodynamics, specifically heat engines, and is therefore applicable to a broad…

  12. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... container integrity. 571.304 Section 571.304 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... natural gas fuel container integrity. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of... recommended service life for the container. S8Test conditions: fuel container integrity. S8.1Pressure cycling...

  13. Codes and Standards Requirements for Deployment of Emerging Fuel Cell Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.; Riykin, C.

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this NREL report is to provide information on codes and standards (of two emerging hydrogen power fuel cell technology markets; forklift trucks and backup power units), that would ease the implementation of emerging fuel cell technologies. This information should help project developers, project engineers, code officials and other interested parties in developing and reviewing permit applications for regulatory compliance.

  14. 41 CFR 102-34.55 - Are there fleet average fuel economy standards we must meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there fleet average... PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.55 Are there fleet... that each executive agency meet the fleet average fuel economy standards in place as of January 1...

  15. 76 FR 65544 - Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... issuance of the guide (74 FR 36780). The comment period closed on September 21, 2009. The staff's responses... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities... Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities.'' This...

  16. 77 FR 65840 - Section 610 Reviews of Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements (Heavy-Duty 610... EPA's 610 Review related to Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur... Review of Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements...

  17. 41 CFR 102-34.65 - How may we request an exemption from the fuel economy standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exemption from the fuel economy standards? 102-34.65 Section 102-34.65 Public Contracts and Property... an exemption from the fuel economy standards? You must submit a written request for an exemption from the fuel economy standards to: Administrator, General Services Administration, ATTN: Deputy...

  18. Domestic use of overseas renewable energy -Potential as power generating fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tomofumi; Murata, Kenji; Kamiya, Shoji; Ota, Ken-ichiro; Sakata, Ko; Fukuda, Kenzo; Ishimoto, Yuki

    2010-09-15

    For Japan, it will be very important in the future to establish a social system that can consistently import or produce a set amount of resource supplies without green house gas emissions. In this study, we developed a concept for a global hydrogen energy system using wind power generation as a hydrogen source, investigated its economic efficiency, compared it with power generating fuels used at existing thermal power plants, and examined the feasibility of the global hydrogen energy system. As a result, it would be more effective to decommission existing oil-fired thermal power plants and construct new hydrogen turbine plants.

  19. Hydrogen Sulphide Corrosion of Carbon and Stainless Steel Alloys Immersed in Mixtures of Renewable Fuel Sources and Tested Under Co-processing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely András

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with modern regulations and directives, the use of renewable biomass materials as precursors for the production of fuels for transportation purposes is to be strictly followed. Even though, there are problems related to processing, storage and handling in wide range of subsequent uses, since there must be a limit to the ratio of biofuels mixed with mineral raw materials. As a key factor with regards to these biomass sources pose a great risk of causing multiple forms of corrosion both to metallic and non-metallic structural materials. To assess the degree of corrosion risk to a variety of engineering alloys like low-carbon and stainless steels widely used as structural metals, this work is dedicated to investigating corrosion rates of economically reasonable engineering steel alloys in mixtures of raw gas oil and renewable biomass fuel sources under typical co-processing conditions. To model a desulphurising refining process, corrosion tests were carried out with raw mineral gasoline and its mixture with used cooking oil and animal waste lard in relative quantities of 10% (g/g. Co-processing was simulated by batch-reactor laboratory experiments. Experiments were performed at temperatures between 200 and 300ºC and a pressure in the gas phase of 90 bar containing 2% (m3/m3 hydrogen sulphide. The time span of individual tests were varied between 1 and 21 days so that we can conclude about changes in the reaction rates against time exposure of and extrapolate for longer periods of exposure. Initial and integral corrosion rates were defined by a weight loss method on standard size of coupons of all sorts of steel alloys. Corrosion rates of carbon steels indicated a linear increase with temperature and little variation with composition of the biomass fuel sources. Apparent activation energies over the first 24-hour period remained moderate, varying between 35.5 and 50.3 kJ mol−1. Scales developed on carbon steels at higher

  20. Generation of Renewable Power from Biodegradation of Anthracene in a Microbial Fuel Cell Reactor Using Different Bacterial Inocula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N.Z. Alshehri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are increasingly attracting attention as a sustainable technology as they convert chemical energy in organic pollutants to renewable electricity. Anthracene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH that presents a high pollution and health risk. In this study, anthracene degradation with electricity production in Single – chamber air cathode MFC was investigated with respect to values of its biodegradation and MFC performance using different inocula combinations (Anaerobic sludge (AS, Pseudomonas putida (PP, Geobacter sulfurreducens (GS, Shewanella putrefaciens(SP, mixed cultures, and combinations thereof. All the inocula showed high potentials for anthracene degradation efficiency and power density, ranged 41 – 98 % within 120 – 216h and 110.08 – 156.06 mW/m2, respectively. The best overall performing inoculum was anaerobic sludge supplemented with P. putida (AS+PP, having a degradation rate, degradation efficiency, COD removal, maximum power density and coulombic efficiency of 38 μM/d, 98 %, 83 %, 156.06 mW/m2 and 21, respectively. Effect of initial anthracene concentration was also investigated. Results indicated that increasing of initial anthracene concentration to 40 mg/L has a positive effect on both the anthracene degradation rate and the power density by 79 and 83.93 %, respectively, which attained by the best inoculum AS+PP (degradation rate of 41 μM/d and a maximum power density of 287.04 mW/m2.This study highlights the possibility of using MFCs technology to generate renewable electricity and achieve high degradation rates of anthracene simultaneously, through co-metabolism.

  1. Apples with apples: accounting for fuel price risk in comparisons of gas-fired and renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2003-12-18

    For better or worse, natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plants being built across the United States. According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), natural gas combined-cycle and combustion turbine power plants accounted for 96% of the total generating capacity added in the US between 1999 and 2002--138 GW out of a total of 144 GW. Looking ahead, the EIA expects that gas-fired technology will account for 61% of the 355 GW new generating capacity projected to come on-line in the US up to 2025, increasing the nationwide market share of gas-fired generation from 18% in 2002 to 22% in 2025. While the data are specific to the US, natural gas-fired generation is making similar advances in other countries as well. Regardless of the explanation for (or interpretation of) the empirical findings, however, the basic implications remain the same: one should not blindly rely on gas price forecasts when comparing fixed-price renewable with variable-price gas-fired generation contracts. If there is a cost to hedging, gas price forecasts do not capture and account for it. Alternatively, if the forecasts are at risk of being biased or out of tune with the market, then one certainly would not want to use them as the basis for resource comparisons or investment decisions if a more certain source of data (forwards) existed. Accordingly, assuming that long-term price stability is valued, the most appropriate way to compare the levelized cost of these resources in both cases would be to use forward natural gas price data--i.e. prices that can be locked in to create price certainty--as opposed to uncertain natural gas price forecasts. This article suggests that had utilities and analysts in the US done so over the sample period from November 2000 to November 2003, they would have found gas-fired generation to be at least 0.3-0.6 cents/kWh more expensive (on a levelized cost basis) than otherwise thought. With some renewable resources, in particular wind

  2. Cracking and hydrocracking of triglycerides for renewable liquid fuels: alternative processes to transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frety, Roger; Rocha, Maria da Graca C. da; Brandao, Soraia T., E-mail: frety@unifacs.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Pontes, Luiz A.M; Padilha, Jose F. [Universidade de Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil); Borges, Luiz E.P.; Gonzalez, Wilma A. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The most used industrial processes for the production of liquid fuels like diesel type are based on the methanolysis and ethanolysis of various oil reactants, such as palm, soybean and rapeseed oils, in the presence of homogeneous base catalysts. However, thermal and catalytic transformations of vegetable oils using available reactors and industrial processes are possible alternatives and deserve attention. In fact, three industrial processes are operating and new projects are announced. The present work analyses the experimental studies performed up to now by Brazilian researchers in the field of cracking, catalytic cracking and hydrocracking of pure or modified vegetable oils. From the published results, some research areas for the near future are suggested. (author)

  3. Advanced energy production based on fossil and renewable fuels; Energiantuotannon tehostaminen fossiilisiin ja uusiutuviin polttoaineisiin perustuvassa energiantuotannossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepola, J.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland)

    2002-07-01

    The objects of this survey were gasification and combustion techniques, coproduction alternatives of energy, fuels and chemicals, as well as high-temperature fuel cells and hybrid fuel cell systems. The potential and market outlook of pressurised fluidised-bed combustion have been declined, i.a., due to the good competitivity of natural gas combined-cycle technology, tightening emission standards, and the development outlook for gasification combined-cycle technology. Development of a combined-cycle power plant process based on pressurised pulverised combustion of coal is still at an initial stage. The oxygen based IGCC plants in the world have so far been demonstration plants. The IGCC technology is expected to commercialise first in residual oil gasification applications integrated to oil refineries and then in coal powered condensed power plants. In addition, one biomass-based IGCC plant has been constructed. This process is so called simplified IGCC, utilising pressurised air blown gasification and hot gas cleaning. The test trials of this plant were completed in 1999. The process is technically feasible also for large-scale demonstration. Gasification technology has also been developed for black liquor. The ChemRec black liquor gasification process is technically the most advanced process at the moment. The atmospheric process has been demonstrated and the pressurised process demonstration is about to start in Sweden and in USA. In utilising biomass fuels or black liquor, the IGCC process offers the possibility to significantly increase the ratio of electrical power to thermal power with combined cycle. Synthesis gas produced by gasification technology can be used for producing different gaseous or liquid fuels and chemicals and for energy production. In a flexible use of feedstocks and products this coproduction method offers a significantly more feasible alternative to present energy production plants. There are several projects underway in the United States

  4. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  5. Review of application code and standards for mechanical and piping design of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1998-02-01

    The design and installation of the irradiation test facility for verification test of the fuel performance are very important in connection with maximization of the utilization of HANARO. HANARO fuel test loop was designed in accordance with the same code and standards of nuclear power plant because HANARO FTL will be operated the high pressure and temperature same as nuclear power plant operation conditions. The objective of this study is to confirm the propriety of application code and standards for mechanical and piping of HANARO fuel test loop and to decide the technical specification of FTL systems. (author). 18 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Molecular sieve adsorbents and membranes for applications in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajiv

    Metal organic frameworks (MOF), a new class of porous materials, have emerged as promising candidate for gas storage, separation membrane and chemical sensors. We used secondary growth method to grow microporous metal organic framework (MMOF) films on porous alumina supports. Examination of the film using SEM and XRD showed that the crystals were well inter-grown and preferentially oriented. Gas permeation study showed that membranes were defect free and moderate selectivity was achieved for H2/N2 gas pairs. The next project had to do with ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass as an alternate energy source. However, toxic inhibitors produced from the hydrolysis of biomass decrease ethanol yield during the fermentation process. We demonstrated the use of zeolites for the pretreatment of hydrolyzate in order to remove inhibitors like 5-Hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (HMF) and furfural from aqueous solution. Zeolites exhibit preferential adsorption of the inhibitors and in effect improve the ethanol yield during fermentation. Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST) was also used to predict adsorption isotherms for HMF-furfural mixtures using single component adsorption data. We also studied production of HMF, a potential substitute as a building block for plastic and chemical production, from renewable biomass resources. Catalytic dehydration of fructose for HMF production faces problems like low conversion and yield. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) can be used as the solvent as well as the catalyst resulting in high HMF yield. We studied a reaction-separation system for this dehydration reaction where the product (HMF) could be recovered by selective adsorption on solid adsorbents from the reaction mixture.

  7. Processing of waste to solid fuel (SFS-standard); Jaetteen jalostaminen kiinteaeksi polttoaineeksi (SFS-Standardi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvonen, J. [VTT Energia, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this project is to prepare, based on the Quality Assurance Manual for Recovered Fuels, a SFS-standard 'Processing of waste to solid fuel'. The fundamentals for safe energy use in co-combustion will be stated in the standard. The standard unifies the terminology and contributes to equation of recovered fuels with other solid fuels. The work is prepared by an expert group of about twenty persons. Juhani Juvonen, Research Scientist, VTT Energy, acts as the author of the proposal and the technical secretary of the expert group. Other group members help in preparing the work as experts of their domain. The expert group introduces the proposal for the standardization committee, which processes and comments the proposal at its own meetings. The standard proposal is processed, until it is ready for circulation among different interest groups. The statements will be processed both in the expert group and the standardization committee, after which the standard will be revised to be send to SFS to be approved as SFS standard. The work on standardization was started in 1998 and the first practical actions were taken on 24 September 1998 at a meeting held in the General Industry Federation (YTL). The preliminary objective is to have the standard approved during the year 1999. (orig.)

  8. The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark A; Wiser, Ryan

    2008-09-15

    cost of renewable energy (relative to conventional fuels), we do seek to quantify the magnit

  9. The Value of Renewable Energy as a Hedge Against Fuel Price Risk: Analytic Contributions from Economic and Finance Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark A; Wiser, Ryan

    2008-09-15

    cost of renewable energy (relative to conventional fuels), we do seek to quantify the magnit

  10. MN Center for Renewable Energy: Cellulosic Ethanol, Optimization of Bio-fuels in Internal Combustion Engines, & Course Development for Technicians in These Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Frey

    2009-02-22

    This final report for Grant #DE-FG02-06ER64241, MN Center for Renewable Energy, will address the shared institutional work done by Minnesota State University, Mankato and Minnesota West Community and Technical College during the time period of July 1, 2006 to December 30, 2008. There was a no-cost extension request approved for the purpose of finalizing some of the work. The grant objectives broadly stated were to 1) develop educational curriculum to train technicians in wind and ethanol renewable energy, 2) determine the value of cattails as a biomass crop for production of cellulosic ethanol, and 3) research in Optimization of Bio-Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines. The funding for the MN Center for Renewable Energy was spent on specific projects related to the work of the Center.

  11. Production of Hydrogen for Clean and Renewable Source of Energy for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xunming; Ingler, William B, Jr.; Abraham, Martin; Castellano, Felix; Coleman, Maria; Collins, Robert; Compaan, Alvin; Giolando, Dean; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya. H.; Stuart, Thomas; Vonderembse, Mark

    2008-10-31

    This was a two-year project that had two major components: 1) the demonstration of a PV-electrolysis system that has separate PV system and electrolysis unit and the hydrogen generated is to be used to power a fuel cell based vehicle; 2) the development of technologies for generation of hydrogen through photoelectrochemical process and bio-mass derived resources. Development under this project could lead to the achievement of DOE technical target related to PEC hydrogen production at low cost. The PEC part of the project is focused on the development of photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation devices and systems using thin-film silicon based solar cells. Two approaches are taken for the development of efficient and durable photoelectrochemical cells; 1) An immersion-type photoelectrochemical cells (Task 3) where the photoelectrode is immersed in electrolyte, and 2) A substrate-type photoelectrochemical cell (Task 2) where the photoelectrode is not in direct contact with electrolyte. Four tasks are being carried out: Task 1: Design and analysis of DC voltage regulation system for direct PV-to-electrolyzer power feed Task 2: Development of advanced materials for substrate-type PEC cells Task 3: Development of advanced materials for immersion-type PEC cells Task 4: Hydrogen production through conversion of biomass-derived wastes

  12. 77 FR 52715 - Request for Comment on Letters Seeking a Waiver of the Renewable Fuel Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... change demand for ethanol and affect prices of corn, other feedstocks, feed, and food; (d) the amount of ethanol that is likely to be consumed in the U.S. during the relevant time period, based on its value...

  13. 77 FR 70752 - Notice of Decision Regarding Requests for a Waiver of the Renewable Fuel Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... variables. The gasoline price put into the model is a ``petroleum only'' price, meaning that it represents a... production of ethanol to meet volumes required under the RFS, leading to increased corn prices and resultant negative impacts on the livestock industry and food prices. Other parties requested a waiver on similar...

  14. Assessment of energy return on energy investment (EROEI of oil bearing crops for renewable fuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Restuccia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As reported in literature the production of biodiesel should lead to a lower energy consumption than those obtainable with its use. So, to justify its consumption, a sustainable and “low input” production should be carried out. In order to assess the sustainability of Linum usitatissimum, Camelina sativa and Brassica carinata cultivation for biodiesel production in terms of energy used compared to that obtained, the index EROEI (Energy Return On Energy Invested has been used. At this aim, an experimental field was realised in the south-eastern Sicilian land. During the autumn-winter crop cycle, no irrigation was carried out and some suitable agricultural practices have been carried out taking into account the peculiarity of each type of used seeds. The total energy consumed for the cultivation of oil bearing crops from sowing to the production of biodiesel represents the Input of the process. In particular, this concerned the energy embodied in machinery and tools utilized, in seed, chemical fertilizer and herbicide but also the energy embodied in diesel fuels and lubricant oils. In addition, the energy consumption relating to machines and reagents required for the processes of extraction and transesterification of the vegetable oil into biodiesel have been calculated for each crops. The energy obtainable from biodiesel production, taking into account the energy used for seed pressing and for vegetable oil transesterification into biodiesel, represents the Output of the process. The ratio Output/Input gets the EROEI index which in the case of Camelina sativa and Linum usatissimum is greater than one. These results show that the cultivation of these crops for biofuels production is convenient in terms of energy return on energy investment. The EROEI index for Brassica carinata is lower than one. This could means that some factors, concerning mechanisation and climatic

  15. Fuel Utilization and Environment Pollution/. (Part 1. Energy Ecology of Fuel Utilization and Standardizing of Hazardous Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Soroka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex of problems pertaining to environment pollution, while utilizing fuel in industrially-developed countries and in the Ukraine, is considered with due account of regional peculiarities and a pattern of the industrial production. The world balance of hydrocarbon fuel output and its utilization from energy-ecology position are analyzed. Nitrogen oxides (NOx, carbon monoxide (CO, non-bumt hydrocarbons (UHC, including poly-aromatic ones (PAH, volatile organic compounds (VOC and the smoke with the particles of size lower than 10 μm (PM 10 are considered as pollutants of hydrocarbon fuel combustion processes and their concentration is regulated by standards. National and international norms of hazardous effluents are adduced and discussed.

  16. An analysis of plutonium immobilization versus the "spent fuel" standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, W L; McKibben, J M

    1998-06-16

    Safe Pu management is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. Presidential Policy Directive 13 and analyses by scientific, technical, and international policy organizations brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and implement long-term disposition paths for surplus Pu. The principal goal is to render surplus Pu as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as Pu in spent reactor fuel. In the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision for the Storage and Disposition of Weapons- Usable Fissile Materials (1997), DOE announced pursuit of two disposition technologies: (1) irradiation of Pu as MOX fuel in existing reactors and (2) immobilization of Pu into solid forms containing fission products as a radiation barrier. DOE chose an immobilization approach that includes "use of the can-in-canister option.. . for a portion of the surplus, non-pit Pu material." In the can-in-canister approach, cans of glass or ceramic forms containing Pu are encapsulated within canisters of HLW glass. In support of the selection process, a technical evaluation of retrievability and recoverability of Pu from glass and ceramic forms by a host nation and by rogue nations or subnational groups was completed. The evaluation involved determining processes and flowsheets for Pu recovery, comparing these processes against criteria and metrics established by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program and then comparing the recovery processes against each other and against SNF processes.

  17. Sustainability of renewable fuel infrastructure: a screening LCA case study of anticorrosive graphene oxide epoxy liners in steel tanks for the storage of biodiesel and its blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoor, Govinda; Upadhyayula, Venkata K K; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana; Koratkar, Nikhil; Tysklind, Mats

    2017-02-22

    Biodiesel is a widely used fuel that meets the renewable fuel standards developed under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. However, biodiesel is known to pose a series of abiotic and biotic corrosion risks to storage tanks. A typical practice (incumbent system) used to protect the tanks from these risks include (i) coating the interior surface of the tank with a solvent-free epoxy (SFE) liner, and (ii) adding a biocide to the tank. Herein, we present a screening-level life-cycle assessment study to compare the environmental performance of a graphene oxide (GO)-epoxy (GOE) liner with the incumbent system. TRACI was used as an impact assessment tool to model the midpoint environmental impacts in ten categories: global warming potential (GWP, kg CO2 eq.); acidification potential (AP, kg SO2 eq.); potential human health damage impacts due to carcinogens (HH-CP, CTUh) and non-carcinogens (HH-NCP, CTUh); potential respiratory effects (REP, kg PM2.5 eq.); eutrophication potential (EP, kg N eq.); ozone depletion potential (ODP kg CFC-11 eq.); ecotoxicity potential (ETXP, CTUe); smog formation potential (SFP kg O3 eq.) and fossil fuel depletion potential (FFDP MJ surplus). The equivalent functional unit of the LCA study was designed to protect 30 m(2) of the interior surface (unalloyed steel sheet) of a 10 000 liter biodiesel tank against abiotic and biotic corrosion during its service life of 20 years. Overall, this LCA study highlights the improved environmental performance for the GOE liner compared to the incumbent system, whereby the GOE liner showed 91% lower impacts in ODP impact category, 59% smaller in REP, 62% smaller in AP, 67-69% smaller in GWP and HH-CP, 72-76% smaller in EP, SFP, and FFDP, and 81-83% smaller ETXP and HH-NCP category results. The scenario analysis study revealed that these potential impacts change by less than 15% when the GOE liners are functionalized with silanized-GO nanosheets or GO-reinforced polyvinyl carbazole to improve the antimicrobial

  18. Outlook on renewable fuels in Sweden - Update and extension of the study 'Opportunities for renewable fuels in Sweden to 2030' by Grahn and Hansson, 2010; Utsikt foer foernybara drivmedel i Sverige - Uppdatering och utvidgning av studien 'Moejligheter foer foernybara drivmedel i Sverige till aar 2030', av Grahn och Hansson 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Julia [IVL, Stockholm (Sweden); Grahn, Maria [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to update and extend the authors' analysis, from 2010. The report includes a compilation of other actors visions for the development of renewable fuels, a compilation of control means for renewable fuels, a survey of existing and planned production for biofuels in Sweden and outlook to the world. There is a discussion of Sweden's future import opportunities, a survey of the state of infrastructure and vehicles, and finally scenarios for the development of renewable fuels in Sweden to 2030, with different assumptions. The study's analysis is based on literature studies, contacts with actors in the field and on the results of our own scenarios. The scenarios provide a picture of the potential contribution of renewable fuels, to the Swedish road transport sector, can range from 7 to 16 TWh in 2020 and 13-30 TWh in 2030 (of which 5 to 13 TWh in 2020 and 13-26 TWh in 2030 is the possible domestic contribution that is., without imports)

  19. The Development of the Renewable Energy Power Industry under Feed-In Tariff and Renewable Portfolio Standard: A Case Study of China’s Photovoltaic Power Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuzhuo Zhang; Xingang Zhao; Yi Zuo; Lingzhi Ren; Ling Wang

    2017-01-01

    ...) are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy...

  20. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  1. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  2. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp; Tian, Tian

    2016-11-01

    The 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  3. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2015 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  4. 2008 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  5. 2010 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, Rachel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced waterpower, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  6. 2009 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2010-08-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2009 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced waterpower, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  7. 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Gelman

    2013-02-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  8. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  9. Did state renewable portfolio standards induce technical change in methane mitigation in the U.S. landfill sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhotal, Katherine Casey

    Landfill gas (LFG) projects use the gas created from decomposing waste, which is approximately 49% methane, and substitute it for natural gas in engines, boilers, turbines, and other technologies to produce energy or heat. The projects are beneficial in terms of increased safety at the landfill, production of a cost-effective source of energy or heat, reduced odor, reduced air pollution emissions, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. However, landfills sometimes face conflicting policy incentives. The theory of technical change shows that the diffusion of a technology or groups of technologies increases slowly in the beginning and then picks up speed as knowledge and better understanding of using the technology diffuses among potential users. Using duration analysis, data on energy prices, State and Federal policies related to landfill gas, renewable energy, and air pollution, as well as control data on landfill characteristics, I estimate the influence and direction of influence of renewable portfolio standards (RPS). The analysis found that RPS positively influences the diffusion of landfill gas technologies, encouraging landfills to consider electricity generation projects over direct sales of LFG to another facility. Energy price increases or increased revenues for a project are also critical. Barriers to diffusion include air emission permits in non-attainment areas and policies, such as net metering, which promote other renewables over LFG projects. Using the estimates from the diffusion equations, I analyze the potential influence of a Federal RPS as well as the potential interaction with a Federal, market based climate change policy, which will increase the revenue of a project through higher energy sale prices. My analysis shows that a market based climate change policy such as a cap-and-trade or carbon tax scheme would increase the number of landfill gas projects significantly more than a Federal RPS.

  10. Recycled water reuse permit renewal application for the materials and fuels complex industrial waste ditch and industrial waste pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Name, No

    2014-10-01

    This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  11. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Materials and Fuels Complex Industrial Waste Ditch and Industrial Waste Pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Name

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT This renewal application for the Industrial Wastewater Reuse Permit (IWRP) WRU-I-0160-01 at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) Industrial Waste Ditch (IWD) and Industrial Waste Pond (IWP) is being submitted to the State of Idaho, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ). This application has been prepared in compliance with the requirements in IDAPA 58.01.17, Recycled Water Rules. Information in this application is consistent with the IDAPA 58.01.17 rules, pre-application meeting, and the Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (September 2007). This application is being submitted using much of the same information contained in the initial permit application, submitted in 2007, and modification, in 2012. There have been no significant changes to the information and operations covered in the existing IWRP. Summary of the monitoring results and operation activity that has occurred since the issuance of the WRP has been included. MFC has operated the IWP and IWD as regulated wastewater land treatment facilities in compliance with the IDAPA 58.01.17 regulations and the IWRP. Industrial wastewater, consisting primarily of continuous discharges of nonhazardous, nonradioactive, routinely discharged noncontact cooling water and steam condensate, periodic discharges of industrial wastewater from the MFC facility process holdup tanks, and precipitation runoff, are discharged to the IWP and IWD system from various MFC facilities. Wastewater goes to the IWP and IWD with a permitted annual flow of up to 17 million gallons/year. All requirements of the IWRP are being met. The Operations and Maintenance Manual for the Industrial Wastewater System will be updated to include any new requirements.

  12. Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Joshua D.

    Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to

  13. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-16

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  14. Molybdenum-99-producing 37-element fuel bundle neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to a standard CANDU fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichita, E., E-mail: Eleodor.Nichita@uoit.ca; Haroon, J., E-mail: Jawad.Haroon@uoit.ca

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A 37-element fuel bundle modified for {sup 99}Mo production in CANDU reactors is presented. • The modified bundle is neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the standard bundle. • The modified bundle satisfies all safety criteria satisfied by the standard bundle. - Abstract: {sup 99m}Tc, the most commonly used radioisotope in diagnostic nuclear medicine, results from the radioactive decay of {sup 99}Mo which is currently being produced at various research reactors around the globe. In this study, the potential use of CANDU power reactors for the production of {sup 99}Mo is investigated. A modified 37-element fuel bundle, suitable for the production of {sup 99}Mo in existing CANDU-type reactors is proposed. The new bundle is specifically designed to be neutronically and thermal-hydraulically equivalent to the standard 37-element CANDU fuel bundle in normal, steady-state operation and, at the same time, be able to produce significant quantities of {sup 99}Mo when irradiated in a CANDU reactor. The proposed bundle design uses fuel pins consisting of a depleted-uranium centre surrounded by a thin layer of low-enriched uranium. The new molybdenum-producing bundle is analyzed using the lattice transport code DRAGON and the diffusion code DONJON. The proposed design is shown to produce 4081 six-day Curies of {sup 99}Mo activity per bundle when irradiated in the peak-power channel of a CANDU core, while maintaining the necessary reactivity and power rating limits. The calculated {sup 99}Mo yield corresponds to approximately one third of the world weekly demand. A production rate of ∼3 bundles per week can meet the global demand of {sup 99}Mo.

  15. 40 CFR 80.510 - What are the standards and marker requirements for NRLM diesel fuel and ECA marine fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General... of marker solvent yellow 124. (2) All motor vehicle and NRLM diesel fuel shall be free of solvent... yellow 124 shall be considered motor vehicle diesel fuel or NRLM diesel fuel, as appropriate. (5)...

  16. 76 FR 25761 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... engineers employed by the company to enable these individuals to continue test-driving commercial motor... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo... from the requirement to hold a commercial driver's license (CDL) sought by Volvo Trucks North America...

  17. 75 FR 45198 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... the company to enable this individual to continue test-driving commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks... requirement to hold a commercial driver's license (CDL) submitted by Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) on...

  18. Renewable Electricity Generation via Solar-Powered Methanol Reforming: Hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems Based on Novel Non-Concentrating, Intermediate-Temperature Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Daniel J.

    Tremendous research efforts have been conducted studying the capturing and conversion of solar energy. Solar thermal power systems offer a compelling opportunity for renewable energy utilization with high efficiencies and excellent cost-effectiveness. The goal of this work was to design a non-concentrating collector capable of reaching temperatures above 250 °C, use this collector to power methanol steam reforming, and operate a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell using the generated hydrogen. The study presents the construction and characterization of a non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature, fin-in-tube evacuated solar collector, made of copper and capable of reaching stagnation temperatures of 268.5 °C at 1000 W/m2 irradiance. The collector was used to power methanol steam reforming, including the initial heating and vaporization of liquid reactants and the final heating of the gaseous reactants. A preferential oxidation (PROX) catalyst was used to remove CO from simulated reformate gas, and this product gas was used to operate a PEM fuel cell. The results show 1) that the outlet temperature is not limited by heat transfer from the absorber coating to the heat transfer fluid, but by the amount of solar energy absorbed. This implicates a constant heat flux description of the heat transfer process and allows for the usage of materials with lower thermal conductivity than copper. 2) It is possible to operate a PEM fuel cell from reformate gas if a PROX catalyst is used to remove CO from the gas. 3) The performance of the fuel cell is only slightly decreased (~4%) by CO2 dilution present in the reformate and PROX gas. These results provide a foundation for the first renewable electricity generation via solar-powered methanol reforming through a hybrid PEM fuel cell system based on novel non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature solar collectors.

  19. Emerging Technologies for the Production of Renewable Liquid Transport Fuels from Biomass Sources Enriched in Plant Cell Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwei-Ting Tan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels. Estimates place annual plant cellulose production from captured light energy in the order of hundreds of billions of tonnes. Lignin is synthesised in the same order of magnitude and, as a very large polymer of phenylpropanoid residues, lignin is also an abundant, high energy macromolecule. However, one of the major functions of these cell wall constituents in plants is to provide the extreme tensile and compressive strengths that enable plants to resist the forces of gravity and a broad range of other mechanical forces. Over millions of years these wall constituents have evolved under natural selection to generate extremely tough and resilient biomaterials. The rapid degradation of these tough cell wall composites to fermentable sugars is therefore a difficult task and has significantly slowed the development of a viable lignocellulose-based biofuels industry. However, good progress has been made in overcoming this so-called recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the biofuels industry, through modifications to the lignocellulose itself, innovative pre-treatments of the biomass, improved enzymes and the development of superior yeasts and other microorganisms for the fermentation process. Nevertheless, it has been argued that bioethanol might not be the best or only biofuel that can be generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources and that hydrocarbons with

  20. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed natural gas vehicles. 571.303 Section 571.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of motor vehicle fuel systems using compressed natural gas (CNG), including the CNG...

  1. Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Godfrey

    2004-05-01

    Stimulated by recent technological developments and increasing concern over the sustainability and environmental impact of conventional fuel usage, the prospect of producing clean, sustainable power in substantial quantities from renewable energy sources arouses interest around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the principal types of renewable energy--including solar, thermal, photovoltaics, bioenergy, hydro, tidal, wind, wave, and geothermal. In addition, it explains the underlying physical and technological principles of renewable energy and examines the environmental impact and prospects of different energy sources. With more than 350 detailed illustrations, more than 50 tables of data, and a wide range of case studies, Renewable Energy, 2/e is an ideal choice for undergraduate courses in energy, sustainable development, and environmental science. New to the Second Edition ·Full-color design ·Updated to reflect developments in technology, policy, attitides ·Complemented by Energy Systems and Sustainability edited by Godfrey Boyle, Bob Everett and Janet Ramage, all of the Open University, U.K.

  2. Standard laboratory hydraulic pressure drop characteristics of various solid and I&E fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, E.D.; Horn, G.R.

    1958-01-20

    The purpose of this report is to present a set of standard pressure-drop curves for various fuel elements in process tubes of Hanford reactors. The flow and pressures within a process tube assembly under normal conditions are dependent to a large extent on the magnitude of the pressure drop across the fuel elements. The knowledge of this pressure drop is important in determination of existing thermal conditions within the process tubes and in predicting conditions for new fuel element designs or changes in operating conditions. The pressure-flow relations for the different Hanford fuel element-process tube assemblies have all been determined at one time or another in the 189-D Hydraulics Laboratory but the data had never been collected into a single report. Such a report is presented now in the interest of establishing a set of ``standard curves`` as determined by laboratory investigations. It must be recognized that the pressure drops of fuel elements in actual process tubes in the reactors may be slightly different than those reported here. The data presented here were obtained in new process tubes while reactor process tubes are usually either corroded or filmed, depending on their past history.

  3. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...... vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport...

  4. Fuel taxes, motor vehicle emission standards and patents related to the fuel-efficiency and emissions of motor vehicles. Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollebergh, H. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency MNP, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2010-01-21

    Contribution to the project on Taxation, Innovation and the Environment of OECD's Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts. It studies the impacts of motor vehicle fuel taxes and mandatory fuel efficiency standards on relevant car-related innovation activity in selected car-producing countries.

  5. Summary of Recommendations: Legislative and Regulatory Actions to Consider for Ensuring the Long-Term Effectiveness of the Nevada Renewable Portfolio Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Kevin; Grace, Robert; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-10-29

    In 2001, the Nevada Legislature passed an aggressive renewable portfolio standard (Nevada RPS) that called for 5% of each major utility's resource mix to come from eligible renewable energy by 2003, rising by 2% every two years to 15% by 2013. Of the RPS standard, 5% per year must come from solar energy. The early performance of the Nevada RPS is generally considered to be disappointing. So far, only a small quantity of electricity state wide has been generated by new renewable energy systems. The utilities and many other stakeholders appear to agree that the utilities, which were unable to fully comply with the RPS in 2003, will continue to have difficulty complying in 2004 and 2005, and perhaps beyond. To date, there have been several efforts to improve compliance with the RPS (such as California and New Mexico). Other states in the region are also motivated to develop their renewable resources, and some have adopted RPS policies. A workshop as held on November 4, 2004 in Reno in order to address additional measures available to strengthen the Nevada RPS, and to consider the implications and potential interaction with RPS policies in nearby states. The purpose of this report is to identify and summarize the top policy priorities, from among those identified and discussed at the November 4, 2004 Reno Workshop, to be considered by the Nevada Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Task Force for implementation.

  6. Algae-Based Jet Fuel: The Renewable Alternative to the Air Force’s Focus On Coal-To-Liquid Synthetic Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-19

    with aircraft rubber seals causing them to expand. Without aromatics, aircraft seals don’t expand and aircraft fuel systems leak. 16 According to an...waste piles, mountain top removal, and coal dust pollution. 80 While increased coal mining has its own issues, FT CTL plants have additional...Compared to petroleum fuel, algae-based fuel emits fewer particulates, air toxins and carcinogens . 102 Additionally, algae cultivation can occur in

  7. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  8. GreenSynFuels. Economical and technological statement regarding integration and storage of renewable energy in the energy sector by production of green synthetic fuels for utilization in fuel cells. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebaek, J. (Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark)); Boegild Hansen, J. (Haldor Topsoee, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Mogens (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)) (and others)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of the project is to select and validate technology concepts for the establishment of a Danish production of green synthetic fuels primarily for fuel cells. The feasibility of the selected concepts is assessed trough a techno-economical calculation, which includes mass and energy balances and economics including CAPEX and OPEX assessments. It is envisioned by the project partners that a production of green synthetic fuels, such as methanol, can 1) bring stability to a future electricity grid with a high share of renewable energy, 2) replace fossil fuels in the transport sector, and 3) boost Danish green technology export. In the project, two technology concepts were derived through carefully considerations and plenum discussions by the project group members: Concept 1): Methanol/DME Synthesis based on Electrolysis assisted Gasification of Wood. Concept 2): Methanol/DME synthesis based on biogas temporarily stored in the natural gas network. Concept 1) is clearly the most favored by the project group and is therefore analyzed for its techno-economic feasibility. Using mass and energy balances the technical perspectives of the concept were investigated, along with an economic breakdown of the CAPEX and OPEX cost of the methanol production plant. The plant was technically compared to a traditional methanol production plant using gasified biomass. The project group has decided to focus on large scale plants, as the scale economics favor large scale plants. Therefore, the dimensioning input of the concept 1) plant is 1000 tons wood per day. This is truly a large scale gasification plant; however, in a methanol synthesis context the plant is not particularly large. The SOEC electrolyzer unit is dimensioned by the need of hydrogen to balance the stoichiometric ratio of the methanol synthesis reaction, which will result in 141 MW installed SOEC. The resulting methanol output is 1,050 tons methanol per day. In comparison to a traditional methanol synthesis plant

  9. Chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether: from greenhouse gas to renewable, environmentally carbon neutral fuels and synthetic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

    2009-01-16

    Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. In contrast, chemical recycling of carbon dioxide from natural and industrial sources as well as varied human activities or even from the air itself to methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) and their varied products can be achieved via its capture and subsequent reductive hydrogenative conversion. The present Perspective reviews this new approach and our research in the field over the last 15 years. Carbon recycling represents a significant aspect of our proposed Methanol Economy. Any available energy source (alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal, and atomic energy) can be used for the production of needed hydrogen and chemical conversion of CO(2). Improved new methods for the efficient reductive conversion of CO(2) to methanol and/or DME that we have developed include bireforming with methane and ways of catalytic or electrochemical conversions. Liquid methanol is preferable to highly volatile and potentially explosive hydrogen for energy storage and transportation. Together with the derived DME, they are excellent transportation fuels for internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells as well as convenient starting materials for synthetic hydrocarbons and their varied products. Carbon dioxide thus can be chemically transformed from a detrimental greenhouse gas causing global warming into a valuable, renewable and inexhaustible carbon source of the future allowing environmentally neutral use of carbon fuels and derived hydrocarbon products.

  10. Problems of renewal of the main resources and experience in ecological improvement of coal fuels at TPS of 'OAO Sverdlovenergo'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korelkin, G.; Knyazev, A.

    2003-07-01

    From 1990 up to now, the rate of renewal of the main power generating capacities in Russia as well as in the Ural region decreased considerably. Accordingly, the problems of physical depreciation and obsolescence of equipment installed at TPS, heating and electric networks have become acute during the past few years. This resulted in deterioration of boiler performance and gradual reduction of general effectiveness of power generating facilities. Sverdlovskenergo faces the problems too. Over the past 15 years intense convection transfer surfaces (ribbed, membrane-, band-spiral and combined type) were introduced at 17 boilers. This retrofit gave fuel saving up to 3000 t of conventional fuel annually per one boiler. A wide range of works is being executed to ensure ecological safety of combustion processes. Twenty one boilers of IE-14 type at Serovskaya and Verkhnetagilskaya TPS, equipped with coal handling systems with direct blow , simplified two- and three-stage solid fuel combustion schemes were introduced. Staged combustion of ekibastuz coal was realized via the formation of oxygen-deficient and oxygen-excess zones by pulverized coal redistribution between the burners. Centrifugal coal powder distributor directing air/fuel mixture to two burners located in two rows was designed. 5 figs.

  11. Enhancing the growth of renewable energy sources. Pt. 2. The fossil fuel economy is meeting a turning point; Das Wachstum der Erneuerbaren beschleunigen. T. 2. Die fossile Energiewirtschaft vor dem Scheitelpunkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, Thomas

    2009-04-15

    The first part of this article was published in SBZ 7/09; it described the dramatic shortage of fossil fuels. The second part presents analyses and forecasts of the potential and rate of development of renewable energy sources. The central statement is that development can be faster and at lower investments than often assumed, but there are still massive obstacles. Also, the faster the conversion to renewables, the less costly it will be. (orig.)

  12. Standard test method for atom percent fission in uranium and plutonium fuel (Neodymium-148 Method)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of stable fission product 148Nd in irradiated uranium (U) fuel (with initial plutonium (Pu) content from 0 to 50 %) as a measure of fuel burnup (1-3). 1.2 It is possible to obtain additional information about the uranium and plutonium concentrations and isotopic abundances on the same sample taken for burnup analysis. If this additional information is desired, it can be obtained by precisely measuring the spike and sample volumes and following the instructions in Test Method E267. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Analysis of high burnup fuel behavior under control rod ejection accident in Korea standard nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chan Bok; Lee, Chung Chan; Kim, Oh Hwan; Kim, Jong Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    Test results of high burnup fuel behavior under RIA(reactivity insertion accident) indicated that fuel might fail at the fuel enthalpy lower than that in the current fuel failure criteria was derived by the conservative assumptions and analysis of fuel failure mechanisms, and applied to the analysis of control rod ejection accident in the 1,000 MWe Korea standard PWR. Except that three dimensional core analysis was performed instead of conventional zero dimensional analysis, all the other conservative assumptions were kept. Analysis results showed that less than on percent of the fuel rods in the core has failed which was much less than the conventional fuel failure fraction, 9.8 %, even though a newly derived fuel failure criteria -Fuel failure occurs at the power level lower than that in the current fuel failure criteria. - was applied, since transient fuel rod power level was significantly decreased by analyzing the transient fuel rod power level was significantly decreased by analyzing the transient core three dimensionally. Therefore, it can be said that results of the radiological consequence analysis for the control rod ejection accident in the FSAR where fuel failure fraction was assumed 9.8 % is still bounding. 18 tabs., 48 figs., 39 refs. (Author).

  14. 77 FR 73060 - Standard Review Plan for Review of Fuel Cycle Facility License Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is planning to revise NUREG-1520, Revision 1, ``Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Fuel Cycle Facility.'' The staff proposes to revise NUREG-1520 to provide guidance and further clarify several technical areas. In addition to revising NUREG-1520, the staff is also planning to issue Interim Staff Guidance (ISG)......

  15. Using a prescribed fire to test custom and standard fuel models for fire behaviour prediction in a non-native, grass-invaded tropical dry shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Pierce; Sierra McDaniel; Mark Wasser; Alison Ainsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Christian P. Giardina; Susan Cordell; Ralf Ohlemuller

    2014-01-01

    Questions: Do fuel models developed for North American fuel types accurately represent fuel beds found in grass-invaded tropical shrublands? Do standard or custom fuel models for firebehavior models with in situ or RAWS measured fuel moistures affect the accuracy of predicted fire behavior in grass-invaded tropical shrublands? Location: Hawai’i Volcanoes National...

  16. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-10-27

    Tom Wenzel of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicle, specifically on the relationship between vehicle weight and vehicle safety.

  17. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-10-27

    Tom Wenzel of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicle, specifically on the relationship between vehicle weight and vehicle safety.

  18. Physical characterization of biomass-based pyrolysis liquids. Application of standard fuel oil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Koponen, P.; Levander, J.; Tapola, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The main purpose of the study was to test the applicability of standard fuel oil methods developed for petroleum-based fuels to pyrolysis liquids. In addition, research on sampling, homogeneity, stability, miscibility and corrosivity was carried out. The standard methods have been tested for several different pyrolysis liquids. Recommendations on sampling, sample size and small modifications of standard methods are presented. In general, most of the methods can be used as such but the accuracy of the analysis can be improved by minor modifications. Fuel oil analyses not suitable for pyrolysis liquids have been identified. Homogeneity of the liquids is the most critical factor in accurate analysis. The presence of air bubbles may disturb in several analyses. Sample preheating and prefiltration should be avoided when possible. The former may cause changes in the composition and structure of the pyrolysis liquid. The latter may remove part of organic material with particles. The size of the sample should be determined on the basis of the homogeneity and the water content of the liquid. The basic analyses of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) include water, pH, solids, ash, Conradson carbon residue, heating value, CHN, density, viscosity, pourpoint, flash point, and stability. Additional analyses are carried out when needed. (orig.) 53 refs.

  19. China's fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles: Rationale, policy process, and impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Hongyan H., E-mail: hongyan.oliver@gmail.co [John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gallagher, Kelly Sims [John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tian Donglian; Zhang Jinhua [China Automotive Technology and Research Center, No. 188 Western Road, 4th South Ring Road, Fengtai District, Beijing 100070 (China)

    2009-11-15

    China issued its first Fuel Economy Standards (FES) for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPV) in September 2004, and the first and second phases of the FES took effective in July 2005 and January 2008, respectively. The stringency of the Chinese FES ranks third globally, following the Japanese and European standards. In this paper, we first review the policy-making background, including the motivations, key players, and the process; and then explain the content and the features of the FES and why there was no compliance flexibility built into it. Next, we assess the various aspects of the standard's impact, including fuel economy improvement, technology changes, shift of market composition, and overall fuel savings. Lastly, we comment on the prospect of tightening the existing FES and summarize the complementary policies that have been adopted or may be considered by the Chinese government for further promoting efficient vehicles and reducing transport energy consumption. The Chinese experience is highly relevant for countries that are also experiencing or anticipating rapid growth in personal vehicles, those wishing to moderate an increase in oil demand, or those desirous of vehicle technology upgrades.

  20. China's fuel economy standards for passenger vehicles. Rationale, policy process, and impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Hongyan H.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims [John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tian, Donglian; Zhang, Jinhua [China Automotive Technology and Research Center, No. 188 Western Road, 4th South Ring Road, Fengtai District, Beijing 100070 (China)

    2009-11-15

    China issued its first Fuel Economy Standards (FES) for light-duty passenger vehicles (LDPV) in September 2004, and the first and second phases of the FES took effective in July 2005 and January 2008, respectively. The stringency of the Chinese FES ranks third globally, following the Japanese and European standards. In this paper, we first review the policy-making background, including the motivations, key players, and the process; and then explain the content and the features of the FES and why there was no compliance flexibility built into it. Next, we assess the various aspects of the standard's impact, including fuel economy improvement, technology changes, shift of market composition, and overall fuel savings. Lastly, we comment on the prospect of tightening the existing FES and summarize the complementary policies that have been adopted or may be considered by the Chinese government for further promoting efficient vehicles and reducing transport energy consumption. The Chinese experience is highly relevant for countries that are also experiencing or anticipating rapid growth in personal vehicles, those wishing to moderate an increase in oil demand, or those desirous of vehicle technology upgrades. (author)

  1. Reducing Fuel Consumption in Bucharest Terminal Area for Flights Using a Standard Instrument Departure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin George DIACONU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconfiguration of the standard instrument departure and standard arrival routes at certain airports can bring significant reductions in fuel consumption and level of noise. This can be done either by implementing modern radionavigation aids for terminal areas or by eliminating the flying restrictions over cities and inhabited places and designing of low level of noise procedures for these areas. These solutions have other important benefits like decreasing the workload for the air traffic controllers and reducing the total flight time. The paper describes an operational solution in this manner for Bucharest Henri Coanda International Airport.

  2. Best mix of primary energy resources by renewable energy and fossil fuel with CCS in view of security,stability and sustainability——A vision on hydrogen supply chain by organic chemical hydride method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junichi; SAKAGUCHI

    2010-01-01

    The best mix scenario by renewable energy and fossil fuel with or without CCS(Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage) would be a solution to compromise Greenhouse Gases emission issue caused by carbon dioxide(CO2),and depletion of crude oil and natural gas reserves.As fossil fuel with pre-combustion CCS means hydrogen manufacturing and also hydrogen can be produced via electrolysis with renewable energy,it is desirable to establish transportation and storage systems of hydrogen as a clean energy.In this paper a vision on Hydrogen Supply Chain by Organic Chemical Hydride(OCH) Method as well as comparison of CCS configuration are discussed.

  3. Accounting for fuel price risk: Using forward natural gas prices instead of gas price forecasts to compare renewable to natural gas-fired generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2003-08-13

    Against the backdrop of increasingly volatile natural gas prices, renewable energy resources, which by their nature are immune to natural gas fuel price risk, provide a real economic benefit. Unlike many contracts for natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation is typically sold under fixed-price contracts. Assuming that electricity consumers value long-term price stability, a utility or other retail electricity supplier that is looking to expand its resource portfolio (or a policymaker interested in evaluating different resource options) should therefore compare the cost of fixed-price renewable generation to the hedged or guaranteed cost of new natural gas-fired generation, rather than to projected costs based on uncertain gas price forecasts. To do otherwise would be to compare apples to oranges: by their nature, renewable resources carry no natural gas fuel price risk, and if the market values that attribute, then the most appropriate comparison is to the hedged cost of natural gas-fired generation. Nonetheless, utilities and others often compare the costs of renewable to gas-fired generation using as their fuel price input long-term gas price forecasts that are inherently uncertain, rather than long-term natural gas forward prices that can actually be locked in. This practice raises the critical question of how these two price streams compare. If they are similar, then one might conclude that forecast-based modeling and planning exercises are in fact approximating an apples-to-apples comparison, and no further consideration is necessary. If, however, natural gas forward prices systematically differ from price forecasts, then the use of such forecasts in planning and modeling exercises will yield results that are biased in favor of either renewable (if forwards < forecasts) or natural gas-fired generation (if forwards > forecasts). In this report we compare the cost of hedging natural gas price risk through traditional gas-based hedging instruments (e

  4. Long-Term Hydrocarbon Trade Options for the Maghreb Region and Europe—Renewable Energy Based Synthetic Fuels for a Net Zero Emissions World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Fasihi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and increasing emission costs are drivers for new sources of fuels for Europe. Sustainable hydrocarbons can be produced synthetically by power-to-gas (PtG and power-to-liquids (PtL facilities, for sectors with low direct electrification such as aviation, heavy transportation and chemical industry. Hybrid PV–Wind power plants can harvest high solar and wind potentials of the Maghreb region to power these systems. This paper calculates the cost of these fuels for Europe, and presents a respective business case for the Maghreb region. Calculations are hourly resolved to find the least cost combination of technologies in a 0.45° × 0.45° spatial resolution. Results show that, for 7% weighted average cost of capital (WACC, renewable energy based synthetic natural gas (RE-SNG and RE-diesel can be produced in 2030 for a minimum cost of 76 €/MWhHHV (0.78 €/m3SNG and 88 €/MWhHHV (0.85 €/L, respectively. While in 2040, these production costs can drop to 66 €/MWhHHV (0.68 €/m3SNG and 83 €/MWhHHV (0.80 €/L, respectively. Considering access to a WACC of 5% in a de-risking project, oxygen sales and CO2 emissions costs, RE-diesel can reach fuel-parity at crude oil prices of 101 and 83 USD/bbl in 2030 and 2040, respectively. Thus, RE-synthetic fuels could be produced to answer fuel demand and remove environmental concerns in Europe at an affordable cost.

  5. Review of Sodium and Plutonium related Technical Standards in Trans-Uranium Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Misuk; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kang, Hyun Sik; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we would introduce and review technical standards related to sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety. This paper may be helpful to identify considerations in the development of equipment, standards, and etc., to meet the safety requirements in the design, construction and operating of TFFF, KAPF and SFR. The feasibility and conceptual designs are being examined on related facilities, for example, TRU Fuel Fabrication Facilities (TFFF), Korea Advanced Pyro-process Facility (KAPF), and Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), in Korea. However, the safety concerns of these facilities have been controversial in part because of the Sodium fire accident and Plutonium related radiation safety caused by transport and handling accident. Thus, many researches have been performed to ensure safety and various documents including safety requirements have been developed. In separating and reducing the long-lived radioactive transuranic(TRU) in the spent nuclear fuel, reusing as the potential energy of uranium fuel resources and reducing the high level wastes, TFFF would be receiving the attention of many people. Thus, people would wonder whether compliance with technical standards that ensures safety. For new facility design, one of the important tasks is to review of technical standards, especially for sodium and Plutonium because of water related highly reactive characteristics and criticality hazard respectively. We have introduced and reviewed two important technical standards for TFFF, which are sodium fire and plutonium criticality safety, in this paper. This paper would provide a brief guidance, about how to start and what is important, to people who are responsible for the initial design to operation of TFFF.

  6. Towards a framework for evaluation of renewable energy storage projects: A study case of hydrogen and fuel cells in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Enevoldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy is characterized by its intermittency and a general dislocation between places of production and places of use. To overcome the intermittency, renewable energy storage (RES) is critical in the design of a future carbon-free society. More than 700 RES projects are in the pipeline...... on governmental subsidies or high-risk venture capital. RES projects are along the energy agenda following an agenda of industrial development. The research question of this paper is: Given the high degree of uncertainty and low degree of technological maturity in energy storage, how to design evaluation...... frameworks and approaches for energy storage projects? The paper consists of: (1) A literature review of evaluation frameworks for major technological transformations related to energy or more unrelated: main reference class forecasting (Flyvbjerg, 2006), OECD, IEA, and Jesus-Hitzschky (JTMI, 2007). (2...

  7. Addressing Palm Biodiesel as Renewable Fuel for the Indonesian Power Generation Sector: Java-Madura-Bali System

    OpenAIRE

    Natarianto Indrawan; Muhammad Ery Wijaya

    2011-01-01

    Energy security defined as how to equitably provide available, affordable, reliable efficient, environmentally friendly, proactively governed and socially acceptable energy services to end user. It has in recent years taken attention of policymakers in different parts of the world. Formulating policy to improve energy security is mandatory, not only because of depleting fossil resource, but also implementing diversity of energy source since utilization abundant renewable energy resources can ...

  8. 40 CFR 80.521 - What are the standards and identification requirements for diesel fuel additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor... consumer in diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines. ... identification requirements for diesel fuel additives? 80.521 Section 80.521 Protection of...

  9. Ensuring safety of fuel cell applications and hydrogen refuelling. Legislation and standards; Polttokennosovellusten ja vetytankkauksen turvallisuuden varmistaminen. Saeaedoeksiae ja standardeja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissila, M.; Sarsama, J.

    2013-09-15

    Fuel cell technology is considered a promising alternative in terms of viable energy systems. The advantages of fuel cell systems include a good efficiency rate and the lack of harmful environmental emissions. Factors which may slow down the commercialisation of fuel cell technology, e.g. fuel cell vehicles, include the high price of hydrogen and the insufficiency of the infrastructure required for the distribution of hydrogen. A large proportion of major car manufacturers are committed to introducing fuel cell cars to the market by 2014-2016. In order to ensure a successful market introduction of fuel cell vehicles, this has to be aligned with the development of the necessary hydrogen infrastructure. In the early commercialisation stages of a new technology, it is important to give the public correct, justified and understandable information on the safety of the fuel cell applications, and also on the measures taken to ensure the safety of applications. A lack of necessary information, inaccurate perceptions and prejudices can have an adverse effect on the public acceptance of fuel cell applications. Hazards and potential accidents related to fuel cell systems are mainly associated with the flammable substances (e.g. hydrogen, methane) used as fuel, the high pressure of hydrogen, electrical hazards, and dangers concerning technical systems in general. The fuel cell applications reviewed in this publication are transport applications and stationary applications and the refuelling system of gaseous hydrogen. The publication concentrates on fuel cells using hydrogen as fuel. The publication gives an overview of how EU-legislation (mainly various directives) and Finnish legislation applies to fuel cell systems and applications, and what kind of safety requirements the legislation sets. In addition, a brief overview of safety standards concerning fuel cell systems and hydrogen refuelling is presented. (orig.)

  10. Model experiment: Heat generation from renewable fuels - recycling fodder drying plant at Apolda, Saxony. Feasibility study; Modellversuch Waermeerzeugung aus Nachwachsenden Rohstoffen: Recycling-Futtermitteltrockenwerk Apolda. Machbarkeitsstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    The conditions for the culture of energy plants on agricultural useful area, their ecological classification and the economically energetic utilization of bio fuel insteed of brown coal have been investigated. The priorities of the study were the preliminary work for the design, retrofitting and the generation of a hot gas generator with a heating capacity of 6.5 MW for food with drying as a model plant for the heat generation from renewable raw material in similar cases of application. (orig.). 1 fig., 1 tab., 2 maps. [Deutsch] Die Bedingungen fuer den Anbau von Energiepflanzen auf landwirtschaftlicher Nutzflaeche, deren Oekologische Einordnung und die wirtschaftlich energetische Nutzung des Biobrennstoffes anstelle von Braunkohle wurden untersucht. Schwerpunkte der Studie waren die Vorarbeiten fuer die Planung, die Umruestung und den Betrieb eines Heissgaserzeugers mit einer Waermeleistung von 6,5 MW zu Futtermitteltrocknung als Modellanlage fuer die Waermeerzeugung aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen in gleichgelagerten Anwendungsfaellen. (orig.)

  11. Fuel Savings Potential from Future In-motion Wireless Power Transfer (WPT); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Konan, A.

    2015-02-10

    This presentation discusses the fuel savings potential from future in-motion wireless power transfer. There is an extensive overlap in road usage apparent across regional vehicle population, which occurs primarily on high-capacity roads--1% of roads are used for 25% of the vehicle miles traveled. Interstates and highways make up between 2.5% and 4% of the total roads within the Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs), which represent groupings of metropolitan and/or micropolitan statistical areas. Mileage traveled on the interstates and highways ranges from 54% in California to 24% in Chicago. Road electrification could remove range restrictions of electric vehicles and increase the fuel savings of PHEVs or HEVs if implemented on a large scale. If 1% of the road miles within a geographic area are electrified, 25% of the fuel used by a 'fleet' of vehicles enabled with the technology could be displaced.

  12. 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2012-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  13. 2012 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2013-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2012 provides facts and figures in a graphical format on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  14. 2013 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esterly, S.

    2014-12-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2013 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  15. 2010 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2011-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  16. 2009 Renewable Energy Data Book, August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2009 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  17. Evaluation of Hydroprocessed Renewable Diesel (HRD) Fuel in a Caterpillar Engine Using the 210 Hour TWV Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    free product that helps meet air quality requirements from the conversion of various non-petroleum resources such as natural gas, coal, biomass, fats ...used in their HRD fuel processing. The response was as follow: 1. 1.1% Petroleum Diesel, for tax crediting purposes 2. 0.5 ppm Stadis 450

  18. Characterization of Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx that Incorporate Control Measures, Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency and Fuel Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NOx) are emitted when fossil fuels are combusted. In the atmosphere, NOx reacts with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to produce tropospheric ozone, a component of photochemical smog. In most parts of the country, strategies for reducing ozone gene...

  19. Life after oil: Cuba's fossil fuel shortage had inspired innovations that combine sustainable agriculture and renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zytaruk, M.

    2003-09-30

    Innovations in agricultural practices, an aggressive program of power generation from renewable resources, mainly from photovoltaics, wind power, biogas from hog manure and waste products from sugar production, are discussed as Cuba's response to the loss of much of the country's imported oil, which occurred in the aftermath of the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989. As a measure of the program's success, it is reported that in 2001 Cuba abandoned plans to complete its mostly finished nuclear power plant in favour of improving its energy production from bagasse (the waste product from sugar cane production), motivated by the persuasive evidence that bagasse could provide electricity more economically than nuclear fission, and without the risk associated with nuclear energy. More by way of good news for Cuba, it is estimated by European experts that the country could provide nearly all its energy needs if all its sugar refineries were retrofitted with more efficient cogeneration equipment. To supplement this valuable renewable energy source, efforts in diversifying the range of products from the sugar cane crop and diversification of agriculture as a whole are also discussed as illustrations of how Cubans are responding to political changes in the world by learning to utilize indigenous sources of energy, thereby reducing their dependence on foreign oil. 11 refs., 2 photos.

  20. Renewing Rock-Tenn: A Biomass Fuels Assessment for Rock-Tenn's St. Paul Recycled Paper Mill.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Carl

    2007-03-31

    In the summer of 2006 the Green Institute started the study for the RockTenn paper mill that would evaluate the economics and supply chain reliability of wood waste and other clean biomass as a fuel for the facility. The Green Institute obtained sponsorship from a broad coalition representing the community and the project team included other consultants and university researchers specializing in biomass issues. The final product from the project was a report to: 1) assess the availability of clean biomass fuel for use at the Rock-Tenn site; 2) roughly estimate costs at various annual usage quantities; and 3) develop the building blocks for a supply chain procurement plan. The initial report was completed and public presentations on the results were completed in spring of 2007.

  1. Hydrocracking of waste chicken fat as a cost effective feedstock for renewable fuel production: A kinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia A. Hanafi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, low cost waste chicken fat (WCF feedstock was used for fuel-like hydrocarbon production. The effects of varying reaction parameters on the hydrocracking of waste chicken fat using NiW/SiO2–Al2O3 catalyst were investigated. The reactions were carried out in a fixed bed down flow reactor at reaction temperatures of 400–450 °C, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV of 1, 2, 4 h−1, H2/oil molar ratio of 450 v/v and hydrogen pressures of 6.0 MPa. The effects on hydrocracking conversion and distribution of products were investigated. The liquid product was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC to quantify n-alkanes. Hydrocracking conversion and organic liquid products (OLPs were evaluated by ASTM D-2887 distillation. The results showed that the catalytic hydrocracking of WCF generates fuels that have chemical and physical properties comparable to those specified for petroleum-based fuels. The amount of kerosene/diesel fractional product decreased with an increase in the temperature and a decrease in the LHSV; while gasoline like petroleum fuel increased. A considerable elimination of O2 from chicken waste fat molecules has been indicated by FTIR analysis. The oxygen removal pathway of WCF over NiW/SiO2–Al2O3 catalyst is primarily carried out by hydro-deoxygenation. The reaction was found to follow the second order mechanism, and the estimated activation energy Ea was 96 kJ mol−1. The exploited catalyst was employed in another run where the results showed the catalyst stability and can be used for several times.

  2. Glucose and glutamine fuel protein O-GlcNAcylation to control T cell self-renewal and malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Swamy, Mahima; Pathak, Shalini; Grzes, Katarzyna M.; Damerow, Sebastian; Sinclair, Linda V.; van Aalten, Daan M.F.; Cantrell, Doreen A.

    2016-01-01

    Sustained glucose and glutamine transport are essential for activated T lymphocytes to support ATP and macromolecule biosynthesis. We now show that glutamine and glucose also fuel an indispensible dynamic regulation of intracellular protein O-GlcNAcylation at key stages of T cell development, transformation and differentiation. Glucose and glutamine are precursors of UDP-GlcNAc, a substrate for cellular glycosyltransferases. Immune activated T cells contained higher concentrations of UDP-GlcN...

  3. Standard guide for evaluation of materials used in extended service of interim spent nuclear fuel dry storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Part of the total inventory of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is stored in dry cask storage systems (DCSS) under licenses granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purpose of this guide is to provide information to assist in supporting the renewal of these licenses, safely and without removal of the SNF from its licensed confinement, for periods beyond those governed by the term of the original license. This guide provides information on materials behavior under conditions that may be important to safety evaluations for the extended service of the renewal period. This guide is written for DCSS containing light water reactor (LWR) fuel that is clad in zirconium alloy material and stored in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), at an independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI). The components of an ISFSI, addressed in this document, include the commercial SNF, canister, cask, and all parts of the storage installation including the ISFSI pad. The language of t...

  4. Survey of U.S. fuel ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ethanol industry is progressively growing in response to increased consumer demands for fuel as well as the renewable fuel standard. Corn ethanol processing creates the following products: 1/3 ethanol, 1/3 distillers grains, and 1/3 carbon dioxide. As the production of ethanol increases so too ...

  5. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  6. Building a sustainable market for renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, N.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding marketing approaches for electricity generation from renewable resources are presented in the paper. The Renewables Portfolio Standard of the California Public Utilities Commission is described. This system is based on renewable energy credits. Other marketing approaches, including surcharges, auctioned renewables credit, green pricing, and green marketing are also assessed. It is concluded that the Renewables Portfolio Standard creates a stable economic environment for the renewable energy industries.

  7. 78 FR 73566 - Standard Format and Content for a License Application for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content for a License Application for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage... public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-3042, ``Standard Format and Content for a License... Waste'' (Ref. 1), Subpart B, ``License Application, Form, and Contents,'' specifies the information...

  8. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiuping [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Logan, Bruce E., E-mail: blogan@psu.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► A new type of electro-Fenton system was developed for wastewater treatment. ► Degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. ► Operation cost was greatly reduced compared to other microbial fuel cell designs. -- Abstract: Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation and Fe{sup 2+} release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75 ± 2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22 h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants.

  9. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Joergensen, K.

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO{sub 2}-emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market

  10. Recovery Act: Beneficial CO{sub 2} Capture in an Integrated Algal Biorefinery for Renewable Generation and Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Christopher; Hampel, Kristin; Rismani-Yazdi, Hamid; Kessler, Ben; Moats, Kenneth; Park, Jonathan; Schwenk, Jacob; White, Nicholas; Bakhit, Anis; Bargiel, Jeff; Allnutt, F. C.

    2014-03-31

    DOE DE-FE0001888 Award, Phase 2, funded research, development, and deployment (RD&D) of Phycal’s pilot-scale, algae to biofuels, bioproducts, and processing facility in Hawai’i. Phycal’s algal-biofuel and bioproducts production system integrates several novel and mature technologies into a system that captures and reuses industrially produced carbon dioxide emissions, which would otherwise go directly to the atmosphere, for the manufacture of renewable energy products and bioproducts from algae (note that these algae are not genetically engineered). At the end of Phase 2, the project as proposed was to encompass 34 acres in Central Oahu and provide large open ponds for algal mass culturing, heterotrophic reactors for the Heteroboost™ process, processing facilities, water recycling facilities, anaerobic digestion facilities, and other integrated processes. The Phase 2 award was divided into two modules, Modules 1 & 2, where the Module 1 effort addressed critical scaling issues, tested highest risk technologies, and set the overall infrastructure needed for a Module 2. Phycal terminated the project prior to executing construction of the first Module. This Final Report covers the development research, detailed design, and the proposed operating strategy for Module 1 of Phase 2.

  11. When renewable portfolio standards meet cap-and-trade regulations in the electricity sector: Market interactions, profits implications, and policy redundancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, C.-C., E-mail: cctsao3@ucmerced.edu [School of engineering, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Sierra Nevada Research Institute, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Campbell, J.E., E-mail: ecampbell3@ucmerced.edu [School of engineering, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Sierra Nevada Research Institute, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Chen, Yihsu, E-mail: yihsu.chen@ucmerced.edu [School of engineering, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Sierra Nevada Research Institute, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); School of social sciences, humanities, and art, University of California Merced, Merced, CA 95343 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Emission trading programs (C and T) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are two common tools used by policymakers to control GHG emissions in the energy and other energy-intensive sectors. Little is known, however, as to the policy implications resulting from these concurrent regulations, especially given that their underlying policy goals and regulatory schemes are distinct. This paper applies both an analytical model and a computational model to examine the short-run implications of market interactions and policy redundancy. The analytical model is used to generate contestable hypotheses, while the numerical model is applied to consider more realistic market conditions. We have two central findings. First, lowering the CO{sub 2} C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. Second, making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. - Highlights: > Lowering the CO{sub 2} C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. > Making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. > The market-wise average emissions could increase when increasing RPS requirement.

  12. Energy resources of the 21st century: problems and forecasts. Can renewable energy sources replace fossil fuels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, V. S.; Lisichkin, G. V.

    2017-08-01

    The state of the art and the major trends of development of world energy engineering are analyzed. It is concluded that throughout the 21st century the role of alternative sources will remain rather modest. Fossil fuel will still be the major source of energy until the end of the century. Because of depletion of accessible oil resources, the proportion of crude oil in the world energy balance will constantly decline, while the proportion of natural gas will grow. It is shown that energy production from any source, including alternative sources, cannot be environmentally benign if the scale of production is large. In the long term, humanity has no sources other than fusion energy, but transition to this source would not solve the problem of the planet's heat balance. The bibliography includes 70 references.

  13. Biocatalytic production of biodiesel from cottonseed oil: Standardization of process parameters and comparison of fuel characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Soham; Karemore, Ankush; Das, Sancharini; Sen, Ramkrishna [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Deysarkar, Asoke [PfP Technology LLC., 14227 Fern, Houston, TX 77079 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The enzymatic production of biodiesel by transesterification of cottonseed oil was studied using low cost crude pancreatic lipase as catalyst in a batch system. The effects of the critical process parameters including water percentage, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration, buffer pH and reaction temperature were determined. Maximum conversion of 75-80% was achieved after 4 h at 37 C, pH 7.0 and with 1:15 M ratio of oil to methanol, 0.5% (wt of oil) enzyme and water concentration of 5% (wt of oil). Various organic solvents were tested among which a partially polar solvent (t-butanol) was found to be suitable for the reaction. The major fuel characteristics like specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, flash point and calorific value of the 20:80 blends (B20) of the fatty acid methyl esters with petroleum diesel conformed very closely to those of American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) standards. (author)

  14. Well-to-wheel analysis of renewable transport fuels: synthetic natural gas from wood gasification and hydrogen from concentrated solar energy[Dissertation 17437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, R.

    2007-07-01

    In order to deal with problems such as climate change, an increasing energy demand and the finiteness of fossil resources, alternative CO{sub 2}-low technologies have to be found for a sustainable growing future. Laboratories at PSI are conducting research on two pathways delivering such car fuels: synthetic natural gas from wood gasification (SNG) and hydrogen from solar thermochemical ZnO dissociation (STD). The biofuel SNG is produced using wood in an auto-thermal gasification reactor. It can be supplied to the natural-gas grid and be used in a compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle. STD is a long-term option, using concentrated solar radiation in a thermochemical reactor, producing zinc as solar energy carrier. Zinc can be used for hydrolysis, in order to produce hydrogen as a locally low-polluting future car fuel. In the frame of the thesis, both fuels are assessed using a life cycle assessment, i.e. investigating all environmental interactions from the extraction of resources over the processing and usage steps to the final disposal. Different methodologies are applied for a rating, compared to alternatives and standard fuels of today. In addition, costs of the technologies are calculated in order to assess economic competitiveness. The thesis is structured as follows: After an introduction giving an overview (chapter A), the methodology is presented (chapter B). It includes various life cycle impact assessment methods such as greenhouse gas emissions, the cumulative energy demand or comprehensive rating approaches. Calculations of the production and supply costs of the assessed fuels are included as well as the eco-efficiency, a combination of environmental with economic indicators. In addition, external costs caused by the emissions are quantified. Sensitivity studies investigate the importance of different parameters and substantiate conclusions. In chapter C, the production, supply and use of the assessed fuels is discussed, following the well

  15. Renewable energy for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, D. [All Russian Research Institute for Electrification of the Agriculture, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bezrukich, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. [Intersolarcenter Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    In spite of quite good centralized power supply system, rural electrification level across Russia vary widely: in some regions there are densely populated communities which lack power, while in the other the most pressing need is to electrify dispersed, isolated villages or homes. The main objective of the Russian project `Renewable energy for rural electrification` is the elaboration and application of new technologies of rural electrification in order to ensure the sustainable development of unelectrified areas of the Russia. The long-term objective of the project are: to improve the living standards of people in rural areas, who lack centralized energy supply systems, by introducing a new system for generation, transmission and distribution of electric power on the base of renewable energy systems; to provide a reliable cost-effective electric service for electrified and uncertified communities; to reduce the consumption of organic fuel in power generation systems; to support the military industry in converting their activity into the renewable energy sector; and to protect the environment

  16. Loop system for creating jet fuel vapor standards used in the calibration of infrared spectrophotometers and gas chromatographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboulet, James; Cunningham, Robert; Gunasekar, Palur G; Chapman, Gail D; Stevens, Sean C

    2009-02-01

    A whole body inhalation study of mixed jet fuel vapor and its aerosol necessitated the development of a method for preparing vapor only standards from the neat fuel. Jet fuel is a complex mixture of components which partitions between aerosol and vapor when aspirated based on relative volatility of the individual compounds. A method was desired which could separate the vapor portion from the aerosol component to prepare standards for the calibration of infrared spectrophotometers and a head space gas chromatography system. A re-circulating loop system was developed which provided vapor only standards whose composition matched those seen in an exposure system. Comparisons of nominal concentrations in the exposure system to those determined by infrared spectrophotometry were in 92-95% agreement. Comparison of jet fuel vapor concentrations determined by infrared spectrophotometry compared to head space gas chromatography yielded a 93% overall agreement in trial runs. These levels of agreement show the loop system to be a viable method for creating jet fuel vapor standards for calibrating instruments.

  17. Renewable Energy in European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The regional dynamics of energy innovation, in particular the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy in the EU, is discussed within the framework of neo-Schumpeterian theory. The EU’s 4.2% average annual growth in renewable energy production in the last decade has been accompanied by diverging

  18. Renewable Energies, Present & Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. S. Cai

    2005-01-01

    Fossil fuels are major cause of environmental destruction in pollutions. It has created much needed momentum for renewable energies, which are environmentally benign, generated locally, and can play a significant role in developing economy. As a sustainable energy sources, it can grow at a rapid pace to meet increasing demands for electricity in a cost-effective way.

  19. Solution-chemical route to generalized synthesis of metal germanate nanowires with room-temperature, light-driven hydrogenation activity of CO2 into renewable hydrocarbon fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Zhou, Yong; Tu, Wenguang; Yan, Shicheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2014-01-06

    A facile solution-chemical route was developed for the generalized preparation of a family of highly uniform metal germanate nanowires on a large scale. This route is based on the use of hydrazine monohydrate/H2O as a mixed solvent under solvothermal conditions. Hydrazine has multiple effects on the generation of the nanowires: as an alkali solvent, a coordination agent, and crystal anisotropic growth director. Different-percentage cobalt-doped Cd2Ge2O6 nanowires were also successfully obtained through the addition of Co(OAc)2·4H2O to the initial reaction mixture for future investigation of the magnetic properties of these nanowires. The considerably negative conduction band level of the Cd2Ge2O6 nanowire offers a high driving force for photogenerated electron transfer to CO2 under UV-vis illumination, which facilitates CO2 photocatalytic reduction to a renewable hydrocarbon fuel in the presence of water vapor at room temperature.

  20. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2013-05-01

    Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H2O2 generation and Fe2+ release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75±2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-05-15

    Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H2O2 generation and Fe(2+) release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75 ± 2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22 h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. CEN standard for water-soluble chloride, sodium and potassium in solid bio-fuels; CEN standard for vandoploeseligt chlorid, natrium og kalium i faste biobraendsler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    In 2000 a European work of standardization for 'Solid bio-fuels' under CEN/TC 335 was started. In Denmark this work is followed through the Danish mirror committee S-358. Denmark was asked to prepare a draft for a European standard concerning determination of the water-soluble content of chloride, sodium and potassium in solid bio-fuels. The draft should be based on the Danish 'Recommended analysis methods' no. 10 and 11 concerning respectively the determination of the water-soluble content of chloride and the water soluble content of sodium and potassium in solid bio-fuels. The content of chlorine, sodium and potassium in a fuel is important for the use of the fuel, as high contents can contribute significantly to utilisation problems such as corrosion, fouling and slagging in furnaces. The gaseous emissions from the thermal processes may also be affected. Concerning sodium and potassium it is furthermore the content of the water-soluble and readily volatile salts which is problematic in relation with energy conversion processes. Sodium and potassium bound in non-water soluble compounds as clay minerals (silicates) normally will not volatilises during the process and therefore do not contribute to the formation of deposits. A determination of the water-soluble content of sodium and potassium is therefore not an alternative routine method for sodium and potassium, but a separate method for a determination of the 'aggressive' contents of sodium and potassium. For some solid bio-fuels the water-soluble contents will however be equal to the total contents, this goes for instance for potassium in straw. There is a very large variation in the content of chlorine, sodium and potassium for the different types of solid bio-fuel, from the low contents in clean wood to contents in percentage in straw. Knowledge of the content of chlorine, sodium and potassium in a bio-fuel is thus important in relation to e.g. plant design and fuel purchasing

  3. Technological Decision to Renewable Energy Usage Biogas for Off-grid Systems Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubkova Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the energy experiments based on electrochemical researches and the thermodynamic calculations, which are carried out on the hydrogenous fuel with the residual content of methane obtained from biogas selected organic waste. Energy indicators are examined in comparison to electrolysis hydrogen. The use of technical and electro physical indicators together with parameters of the fuel operating allowed assessing energy efficiency the module reformer - fuel cell running on a non-standard hydrogenous fuel. Numerical characteristic the efficiency of workflows fuel system reformer – fuel cell is about 39%. To operate the power installation with a predetermined capacity amount used of hydrogenous fuel is comparable to required electrolysis hydrogen amount. Shown the possibility of creation the systems of power supply based on new hydrogen technologies using renewable energy resources local waste. Confirms the relatively high efficiency the usage of hydrogenous fuel for the tasks of off-grid systems consumption.

  4. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  5. Wind, biomass, hydrogen: renewable energies; Vent, biomasse, hydrogene: energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotosson, V.; Brousse, Th.; Guillemet, Ph.; Scudeller, Y.; Crosnier, O.; Dugas, R.; Favier, F.; Zhou, Y.; Taberna, P.M.; Simon, P.; Toupin, M.; Belanger, D.; Ngo, Ch.; Djamie, B.; Guyard, Ch.; Tamain, B.; Ruer, J.; Ungerer, Ph.; Bonal, J.; Flamant, G

    2007-06-15

    This press kit gathers a series of articles about renewable energies: the compared availabilities of renewable energy sources (comparison at a given time); offshore wind turbines (projects under development, cost optimisation); hydrogen for transports: present day situation (production, transport and storage, hydrogen conversion into mechanical energy, indirect use in biomass conversion); biomass: future carbon source (resource potential in France, pyrolysis and fermentation, development of biofuels and synthetic fuels, stakes for agriculture); beneficial standards for the heat pumps market (market organization and quality approach); collecting solar energy (solar furnaces and future solar power plants, hydrogen generation). (J.S.)

  6. 40 CFR 63.1216 - What are the standards for solid fuel boilers that burn hazardous waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; (4) For arsenic, beryllium, and chromium combined, except for an area source as defined under § 63.2... boilers that burn hazardous waste? 63.1216 Section 63.1216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., and Hydrochloric Acid Production Furnaces § 63.1216 What are the standards for solid fuel boilers...

  7. Oxidation and combustion of fuel-rich N-butane-oxygen mixture in a standard 20-liter explosion vessel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frolov, S.M.; Basevich, V.Y.; Smetanyuk, V.A.; Belyaev, A.A.; Pasman, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments on forced ignition of extremely fuel-rich n-butane-oxygen mixture with the equivalence ratio of 23 in the standard 20-liter spherical vessel at elevated initial pressure (4.1 bar) and temperature (500 K) reveal the nonmonotonic influence of the forced ignition delay time on the maximum e

  8. The Fuel Handbook 2012; Braenslehandboken 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, Birgitta; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie

    2012-04-15

    This fuel handbook provides, from a plant owner's perspective, a method of evaluating different fuels on the market. The fuel handbook concerns renewable fuels (but not including household waste) that are available on the Swedish market today or which are judged to have the potential to be available within the next ten years. The handbook covers 31 different fuels. Analysis data, special properties, operating experience, recommendations, risks when using the fuels and literature references are outlined for each fuel. The handbook also contains 1. A proposed route to follow when one plans to introduce a new fuel. Those analyses and tests one should perform to reduce the risk of encountering problems. 2. A summary of relevant laws and taxes for energy production, with directions as to where relevant documentation can be found. 3. Theory and background to judge the fuel's combustion, ash and corrosion properties and different methods that can be used for such judgement. 4. Summary of standards, databases and handbooks for biomass fuels and other solid fuels, and details on where further information on the fuels can be found, with the help of links to different web sites. Included in the annexes are 1. A proposal for a standard procedure for test burning of fuel. 2. Calculations procedures for, amongst others, heating value, flue gas composition and key numbers. In addition, calculations routines for different units for a number of different applications are provided

  9. 2016 Standard Scenarios Report: A U.S. Electricity Sector Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting a study sponsored by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) that aims to document and implement an annual process designed to identify a realistic and timely set of input assumptions (e.g., technology cost and performance, fuel costs), and a diverse set of potential futures (standard scenarios), initially for electric sector analysis.

  10. The policy effects of feed-in tariff and renewable portfolio standard: A case study of China's waste incineration power industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-Gang, Zhao; Yu-Zhuo, Zhang; Ling-Zhi, Ren; Yi, Zuo; Zhi-Gong, Wu

    2017-06-15

    Among the regulatory policies, feed-in tariffs (FIT) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy. This paper uses system dynamics (SD) to establish models of long-term development of China's waste incineration power industry under FIT and RPS schemes, and provides a case study by using scenario analysis method. The model, on the one hand, not only clearly shows the complex logical relationship between the factors but also assesses policy effects of the two policy tools in the development of the industry. On the other hand, it provides a reference for scholars to study similar problems in different countries, thereby facilitating an understanding of waste incineration power's long-term sustainable development pattern under FIT and RPS schemes, and helping to provide references for policy-making institutions. The results show that in the perfect competitive market, the implementation of RPS can promote long-term and rapid development of China's waste incineration power industry given the constraints and actions of the mechanisms of RPS quota proportion, the TGC valid period, and fines, compared with FIT. At the end of the paper, policy implications are offered as references for the government. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of State Renewables Portfolio Standards in the United States: A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Bolinger, Mark

    2008-01-07

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic, risk reduction, and environmental effects. This article synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 31 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost-impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 20 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the projected costs of state RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, evaluate the reasonableness of key input assumptions, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analyses. We conclude that while there is considerable uncertainty in the study results, the majority of the studies project modest cost impacts. Seventy percent of the state RPS cost studies project retail electricity rate increases of no greater than one percent. Nonetheless, there is considerable room for improving the analytic methods, and therefore accuracy, of these estimates.

  12. DOD Renewable Energy Projects: Improved Guidance Needed for Analyzing and Documenting Costs and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    noted that there are multiple ways to help ensure sufficient and reliable energy (i.e., energy security) at installations, including the diversification ... Portfolio Standards. Page 36 GAO-16-487 DOD Renewable Energy Projects Project Contributes to energy production goala Contributes...security benefit because the officials defined energy security broadly to encompass the diversification of fuel sources, among other things. However

  13. Research in renewable energy materials: The fundamental physics and chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-lin YANG; Qiang SUN

    2011-01-01

    @@ As the population of the world increases and people strive for a higher standard of living,the amount of energy necessary to sustain our society is ever increasing.While the supplyof fossil fuels is very limited and they have had an adverse effect on the environment, itis imperative for all nations to explore the new energy sources which should be abundant,renewable, secure, clean, safe, and cost-effective.

  14. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Adoption Increases Fleet Gasoline Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions under United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy Policy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenn, Alan; Azevedo, Inês M L; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2016-03-01

    The United States Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission standards are designed to reduce petroleum consumption and GHG emissions from light-duty passenger vehicles. They do so by requiring automakers to meet aggregate criteria for fleet fuel efficiency and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates. Several incentives for manufacturers to sell alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) have been introduced in recent updates of CAFE/GHG policy for vehicles sold from 2012 through 2025 to help encourage a fleet technology transition. These incentives allow automakers that sell AFVs to meet less-stringent fleet efficiency targets, resulting in increased fleet-wide gasoline consumption and emissions. We derive a closed-form expression to quantify these effects. We find that each time an AFV is sold in place of a conventional vehicle, fleet emissions increase by 0 to 60 t of CO2 and gasoline consumption increases by 0 to 7000 gallons (26,000 L), depending on the AFV and year of sale. Using projections for vehicles sold from 2012 to 2025 from the Energy Information Administration, we estimate that the CAFE/GHG AFV incentives lead to a cumulative increase of 30 to 70 million metric tons of CO2 and 3 to 8 billion gallons (11 to 30 billion liters) of gasoline consumed over the vehicles' lifetimes - the largest share of which is due to legacy GHG flex-fuel vehicle credits that expire in 2016. These effects may be 30-40% larger in practice than we estimate here due to optimistic laboratory vehicle efficiency tests used in policy compliance calculations.

  15. Determination of Compatibility of Some Biodiesel Properties Produced under Turkey Conditions to Standards and Effects of Fuel Spraying Amount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Guven

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, viscosity values that is one of the rheological properties of biodiesel samples that have been produced under Turkey conditions. In addition to this, specific weight values that are effective on directly to engine performance curves were also determined. Compatibility of these values to standards were examined. Kinematic viscosity measurements at two different temperatures namely 20 and 40 °C were carried out to determine the effect of temperature on viscosity change. Density measurements according to the standard at 15 °C was also set. In this study, eight biodiesel samples were collected from markets (4 of them are enrolled to Industry and Commerce provincial Directorates, the other four are not registered, and 1 diesel sample as comparison sample were used. In addition to viscosity and specific weight measurements, effect of viscosity and specific weight changes on the amount of fuel sprayed from injector by using 3 different types injectors that are used in different brand widely used tractor engines was determined. In addition to these effects of fuel with different density and viscosity on distribution of sprayed fuel in combustion chamber was determined by manufacturing a model combustion chamber that has identical with tractor combustion chambers. According to research results, increasing of the temperature decreased the viscosity values highly. Including the registered samples, in the great majority of biodiesel samples viscosity and specific weight values were determined to be non-standard. Due to high specific weight and viscosity, amount the sprayed fuel were found higher for all injector and biodiesel samples compared to sprayed diesel amount. According to distrubition in combustion chamber, the highest fuel amount was found for biodiesel 9 that has the maximum viscosity. Diesel was spryed the furthest points in combustion chamber and its distribution was found more homogenity compared with those biodiesel samples.

  16. Oilseeds for renewable jet fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-disciplinary research project was initiated to investigate the agronomic performance of different oilseed species under varying conditions across the western U.S. wheat belt, provide regionalized strategies to integrate sustainable oilseed production into existing land uses, and provide stra...

  17. Standard guide for characterization of spent nuclear fuel in support of geologic repository disposal

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidance for the types and extent of testing that would be involved in characterizing the physical and chemical nature of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in support of its interim storage, transport, and disposal in a geologic repository. This guide applies primarily to commercial light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and spent fuel from weapons production, although the individual tests/analyses may be used as applicable to other spent fuels such as those from research and test reactors. The testing is designed to provide information that supports the design, safety analysis, and performance assessment of a geologic repository for the ultimate disposal of the SNF. 1.2 The testing described includes characterization of such physical attributes as physical appearance, weight, density, shape/geometry, degree, and type of SNF cladding damage. The testing described also includes the measurement/examination of such chemical attributes as radionuclide content, microstructure, and corrosion product c...

  18. The DDA-Ⅱ Process for Manufacture of Diesel Fuel Meeting the Euro-Ⅳ or even Higher Emission Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Haitao; Men Zhuowu; Hu Zhihai

    2006-01-01

    The DDA-Ⅱ process aimed at manufacture of diesel fuel meeting the Euro-Ⅳ emission standard from inferior diesel feedstock has been developed and tested in pilot scale. This technology adopts non-noble metal catalysts and a highly integrated two-stage process scheme featuring low investment and operating cost and convenience in operation. Under an appropriate process regime the DDA-Ⅱ technology can process FCC LCO, a blend of straight-run diesel and FCC LCO, or the SR diesel to yield the diesel product streams meeting the Euro-Ⅳ or even higher emission standards.

  19. FY 2012 USED FUEL DISPOSITION CAMPAIGN TRANSPORTATION TASK REPORT ON INL EFFORTS SUPPORTING THE MODERATOR EXCLUSION CONCEPT AND STANDARDIZED TRANSPORTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. Morton

    2012-08-01

    Following the defunding of the Yucca Mountain Project, it is reasonable to assume that commercial used fuel will remain in storage for a longer time period than initially assumed. Previous transportation task work in FY 2011, under the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, proposed an alternative for safely transporting used fuel regardless of the structural integrity of the used fuel, baskets, poisons, or storage canisters after an extended period of storage. This alternative assures criticality safety during transportation by implementing a concept that achieves moderator exclusion (no in-leakage of moderator into the used fuel cavity). By relying upon a component inside of the transportation cask that provides a watertight function, a strong argument can be made that moderator intrusion is not credible and should not be a required assumption for criticality evaluations during normal or hypothetical accident conditions of transportation. This Transportation Task report addresses the assigned FY 2012 work that supports the proposed moderator exclusion concept as well as a standardized transportation system. The two tasks assigned were to (1) promote the proposed moderator exclusion concept to both regulatory and nuclear industry audiences and (2) advance specific technical issues in order to improve American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 3 rules for storage and transportation containments. The common point behind both of the assigned tasks is to provide more options that can be used to resolve current issues being debated regarding the future transportation of used fuel after extended storage.

  20. Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain (sometimes referred to as intermittent) output, which are unlike the dispatchable sources used for the majority of electricity generation in the United States. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid. In this report, we explore the role of energy storage in the electricity grid, focusing on the effects of large-scale deployment of variable renewable sources (primarily wind and solar energy).

  1. Preparation of activated carbon from a renewable agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... Preparation of activated carbon from a renewable agricultural ... fuel-wood because household energy requirements are met with multiple ..... for activated carbon production - A review. Renewable & Sustainable. Energy ...

  2. Renewable energies: are we on track

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, Harvey; Braun, Gerry

    1998-12-01

    The current global energy supply mix is dominated by carbon-based fuels. This publication describes three scenarios for the future and their implications for renewable energy use and stabilization of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Themes discussed in this connection comprise major phases of global energy supply, current deployment of renewals, future energy supply scenarios, renewals and carbon dioxide in 2050, renewable energy supply targets, solar electricity market drivers, solar penetration of grid electricity markets, rooftop PV (Photovoltaics) economics, other grid markets, solar farms for wholesale electricity and fuel in future, and PV capacity and investment requirements. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  3. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  4. Criticality Analysis for Proposed Maximum Fuel Loading in a Standardized SNF Canister with Type 1a Baskets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chad Pope; Larry L. Taylor; Soon Sam Kim

    2007-02-01

    This document represents a summary version of the criticality analysis done to support loading SNF in a Type 1a basket/standard canister combination. Specifically, this engineering design file (EDF) captures the information pertinent to the intact condition of four fuel types with different fissile loads and their calculated reactivities. These fuels are then degraded into various configurations inside a canister without the presence of significant moderation. The important aspect of this study is the portrayal of the fuel degradation and its effect on the reactivity of a single canister given the supposition there will be continued moderation exclusion from the canister. Subsequent analyses also investigate the most reactive ‘dry’ canister in a nine canister array inside a hypothetical transport cask, both dry and partial to complete flooding inside the transport cask. The analyses also includes a comparison of the most reactive configuration to other benchmarked fuels using a software package called TSUNAMI, which is part of the SCALE 5.0 suite of software.

  5. 77 FR 51499 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 535 RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions... purpose of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because the GHG standards fundamentally regulate...

  6. Renewables in Global Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  7. Renewable energy sources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Volker [Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gGmbH (DBFZ), Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

    2012-07-01

    The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Germany in 2011 significantly was influenced by the disaster in Fukushima (Japan) and the change of course in the German energy policy. In addition, there is the amendment of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) in an increasingly controversial area of tension between climate protection, energy utilization, cost minimization and considerations on sustainability. With this in mind, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on developments in Germany in the year 2011 in the field of energy supply and fuel supply from renewable energies. Beside the energy-economic framework conditions for the various possibilities for the use of renewable energies, the current status, developments and prospects are analysed. The contribution gives an outlook on the possible expansion of the supply of renewable energies in 2012.

  8. Methods for Calculating Energy Requirements for Processes in Which a Reactant Is Also a Fuel: Need for Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, H. Y.; Olivas-Martinez, Miguel

    2014-09-01

    When a process involves both endothermic chemical reactions and heat generation from the combustion of fuels, the choice of endothermic reactions to include in computing the "energy requirement" for the overall process is arbitrary and can be a source of confusion. It is shown that the essential question becomes whether the heat of combustion of a reactant, which can be used as a fuel, should be included in the energy requirement value. It is noted that the choice is a matter of convention, but it is important to clearly state what convention is followed in presenting the results of energy calculations. There is a need to select a standard approach because the presented value of "energy requirement" of a process depends on the choice. This problem is illustrated using the example of ironmaking by different processes including a novel flash ironmaking process under development at the University of Utah. The authors advocate using just the "process energy requirement" as the standard value of the energy requirement for a process in which a reactant is also a fuel.

  9. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-03-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  10. Standard Compliance: Guidelines to Help State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets Meet Their Energy Policy Act Requirements, 10 CFR Part 490 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    This guidebook addresses the primary requirements of the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program to help state and alternative fuel provider fleets comply with the Energy Policy Act via the Standard Compliance option. It also addresses the topics that covered fleets ask about most frequently.

  11. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  12. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P

    2009-10-27

    I appreciate the opportunity to provide comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles. My comments are directed at the choice of vehicle footprint as the attribute by which to vary fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards, in the interest of protecting vehicle occupants from death or serious injury. I have made several of these points before when commenting on previous NHTSA rulemakings regarding CAFE standards and safety. The comments today are mine alone, and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of Energy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, or the University of California. My comments can be summarized as follows: (1) My updated analysis of casualty risk finds that, after accounting for drivers and crash location, there is a wide range in casualty risk for vehicles with the same weight or footprint. This suggests that reducing vehicle weight or footprint will not necessarily result in increased fatalities or serious injuries. (2) Indeed, the recent safety record of crossover SUVs indicates that weight reduction in this class of vehicles resulted in a reduction in fatality risks. (3) Computer crash simulations can pinpoint the effect of specific design changes on vehicle safety; these analyses are preferable to regression analyses, which rely on historical vehicle designs, and cannot fully isolate the effect of specific design changes, such as weight reduction, on crash outcomes. (4) There is evidence that automakers planned to build more large light trucks in response to the footprint-based light truck CAFE standards. Such an increase in the number of large light trucks on the road may decrease, rather than increase, overall safety.

  13. Optimally Controlled Flexible Fuel Powertrain System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan Sheppard; Bruce Woodrow; Paul Kilmurray; Simon Thwaite

    2011-06-30

    ) developed the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) under the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The RFS specifies targets for the amount of renewable fuel to be blended into petroleum based transportation fuels. The goal is to blend 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels into transportation fuels by 2022 (9 billion gallons were blended in 2008). The RFS also requires that the renewable fuels emit fewer greenhouse gasses than the petroleum fuels replaced. Thus the goal of the EPA is to have a more fuel efficient national fleet, less dependent on petroleum based fuels. The limit to the implementation of certain technologies employed was the requirement to run the developed powertrain on gasoline with minimal performance degradation. The addition of ethanol to gasoline fuels improves the fuels octane rating and increases the fuels evaporative cooling. Both of these fuel property enhancements make gasoline / ethanol blends more suitable than straight gasoline for use in downsized engines or engines with increased compression ratio. The use of engine downsizing and high compression ratios as well as direct injection (DI), dual independent cam phasing, external EGR, and downspeeding were fundamental to the fuel economy improvements targeted in this project. The developed powertrain specification utilized the MAHLE DI3 gasoline downsizing research engine. It was a turbocharged, intercooled, DI engine with dual independent cam phasing utilizing a compression ratio of 11.25 : 1 and a 15% reduction in final drive ratio. When compared to a gasoline fuelled 2.2L Ecotec engine in a Chevrolet HHR, vehicle drive cycle predictions indicate that the optimized powertrain operating on E85 would result in a reduced volume based drive cycle fuel economy penalty of 6% compared to an approximately 30% penalty for current technology engines.

  14. The Role of Policies in Supporting the Diffusion of Solar Photovoltaic Systems: Experiences with Ontario, Canada’s Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Adachi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, high initial capital costs and lengthy payback periods have been identified as the most significant barriers that limit the diffusion of solar photovoltaic (PV systems. In November, 2006, the Ontario Power Authority (OPA introduced the Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program (RESOP, offering owners of solar PV systems with a generation capacity under 10 MW a 20 year contract to sell electricity back to the grid at a guaranteed rate of CAD $0.42/kWh. While it is the intent of incentive programs such as the RESOP to begin to lower financial barriers in order to increase the uptake of solar PV systems, there is no guarantee that the level of participation will in fact rise. The "on-the-ground" manner in which consumers interact with such an incentive program ultimately determines its effectiveness. This paper analyzes the relationship between the RESOP and solar PV system consumers. Experiences of current RESOP participants are presented, wherein the factors that are either hindering or promoting utilization of the RESOP and the adoption of solar PV systems are identified.

  15. Evaluation of standard methods for collecting and processing fuel moisture samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally M. Haase; José Sánchez; David R. Weise

    2016-01-01

    A variety of techniques for collecting and processing samples to determine moisture content of wildland fuels in support of fire management activities were evaluated. The effects of using a chainsaw or handsaw to collect samples of largediameter wood, containers for storing and transporting collected samples, and quick-response ovens for estimating moisture content...

  16. Cost and fuel efficient SCR-only solution for post-2010 HD emission standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.; Heijden, P.V.A.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    A promising SCR-only solution is presented to meet post-2010 NOx emission targets for heavy duty applications. The proposed concept is based on an engine from a EURO IV SCR application, which is considered optimal with respect to fuel economy and costs. The addition of advanced SCR after treatment c

  17. Renewable Energy Technology—Is It a Manufactured Technology or an Information Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok L. Shum

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Socio-technical or strategic approach to renewable energy deployment all suggests that the uptake of renewable energy technology such as solar photovoltaic is as much a social issue as a technical issue. Among social issues, one most direct and immediate component is the cost of the renewable energy technology. Because renewable electricity provides no new functionality—a clean electron does the same work as a dirty electron does—but is relatively expensive compared with fossil fuel based electricity, there is currently an under-supply of renewable electricity. Policy instruments based on economics approaches are therefore developed to encourage the production and consumption of renewable electricity, aiming to remediate the market inefficiencies that stem from the failure in internalizing the environmental or social costs of fossil fuels. In this vein, the most discussed instruments are renewable portfolio standard or quota based system and the general category of feed-in tariff. Feed-in tariff is to support output or generation of the renewable electricity by subsidizing revenues. The existing discussions have all concerned about the relative effectiveness of these two instruments in terms of cost, prices and implementation efficiency. This paper attempts a different basis of evaluation of these two instruments in terms of cost and (network externality effects. The cost effect is driven by deploying the renewable as a manufactured technology, and the network externality effect is driven by deploying the renewable as an information technology. The deployment instruments are studied in terms of how these two effects are leveraged in the deployment process. Our formulation lends itself to evolutionary policy interpretation. Future research directions associated with this new energy policy framework is then suggested.

  18. Mississippi Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Report. A snap shot of related activities in the state of Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Sumesh M. [Mississippi Technology Alliance, Jackson, MS (United States); Linton, Joseph A. [Mississippi Technology Alliance, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2011-05-11

    In recent years, due to concerns over national security from both economic and military standpoints, increased attention has been given to the production of renewable energy in order to reduce American dependence on foreign supplies of energy. These concerns, along with those related to the effect of fossil fuels on the environment, have served to heighten the enthusiasm for finding replacements for traditional energy sources, along with helping to highlight the need for energy efficiency in American homes and businesses. Throughout the nation, this has been exemplified in an increased entrepreneurial activity to produce liquid fuels, thermal energy and electricity from a vast range of sources such as plants, trees, bacteria, the sun, wind, waves and the Earth itself. Coupled with tax subsidies, loan guarantees, renewable fuel standards, and various other government incentives and legislative encouragements we have seen a big jump in the production of renewable energy in the United States in the last ten years. But we are just getting started!

  19. Renewable energies and energy choices. Summary of the colloquium; Energies renouvelables et choix energetiques. Compte rendu du colloque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    This document is an executive summary of the colloquium organized by the French syndicate of renewable energies (SER) which took place at the Maison de l'UNESCO in Paris during the national debate on energies organized by the French government in spring 2003. The colloquium was organized around 6 round tables dealing with: the world perspectives and the environmental context of the contribution of renewable energies to the sustainable development (respect of Kyoto protocol commitments, contribution to the security of energy supplies, lack of large scale program of development of decentralized power generation in developing countries, lack of market tools linked with CO{sub 2} emissions, improvement of competitiveness); development of renewable energies in Europe (promotion and sustain in all European countries, obligation of supply and purchase, pricing regulation, European harmonization of practices); renewable electricity and its place in the new orientation law about energies (tariff/pluri-annual investment planing, administrative authorizations, connections to the grid, calls for offer, costs of the photovoltaic solar energy); contribution of renewable energies in the transportation sector (bio-fuels, low taxes, ethanol fuel cells, vegetal chemistry); renewable heat and integration of renewable energy sources in buildings (intelligent architecture, promotion, quality labels and standards, lack of CO{sub 2} penalties linked with fossil fuels, tax reduction for solar and wood fuel appliances, acknowledgment of geothermal heat pumps as renewable energy source); and the presentation of the first proposals for the future orientation law (balance between nuclear and renewable energy sources, integration in the local environment, competitiveness, use of market mechanisms, R and D etc.). (J.S.)

  20. Systematic Approach to Design Tailor Made Fuel Blends That Meets ASTM Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Intikhab, S.; Kalakul, Sawitree; H., Choudhury

    2015-01-01

    to solve them [2]. Two tailor-made liquid fuels viz., model gasoline and model diesel were formulated by our collaborator at the Technical University of Denmark conducting the MINLP program [3]. Different set of target properties were calculated for each type of fuel in order to design a set of suitable...... blend. The target properties calculated for tailor-made gasoline were flash point (Tf), Reid vapor pressure (RVP) and kinematic viscosity (n). Target properties calculated for tailor-made diesel were high heating value (HHV), dynamic viscosity ( h), lethal concentration ( -logLC50), weight percent...... of oxygen (WtO2), density (r) and Reid vapor pressure (RVP). Model gasoline blend (main ingredient) designed using MINLP, comprised of six different chemicals viz. n-pentane, n-heptane, iso-octane, 1-pentene, methyl cyclopentane and toluene in different volumetric ratios. Similarly, model diesel blend (main...

  1. Multirecycling of Plutonium from LMFBR Blanket in Standard PWRs Loaded with MOX Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonat Sen; Gilles Youinou

    2013-02-01

    It is now well-known that, from a physics standpoint, Pu, or even TRU (i.e. Pu+M.A.), originating from LEU fuel irradiated in PWRs can be multirecycled also in PWRs using MOX fuel. However, the degradation of the isotopic composition during irradiation necessitates using enriched U in conjunction with the MOX fuel either homogeneously or heterogeneously to maintain the Pu (or TRU) content at a level allowing safe operation of the reactor, i.e. below about 10%. The study is related to another possible utilization of the excess Pu produced in the blanket of a LMFBR, namely in a PWR(MOX). In this case the more Pu is bred in the LMFBR, the more PWR(MOX) it can sustain. The important difference between the Pu coming from the blanket of a LMFBR and that coming from a PWR(LEU) is its isotopic composition. The first one contains about 95% of fissile isotopes whereas the second one contains only about 65% of fissile isotopes. As it will be shown later, this difference allows the PWR fed by Pu from the LMFBR blanket to operate with natural U instead of enriched U when it is fed by Pu from PWR(LEU)

  2. Heliodromus: Renewable energy from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change and the related running out of fossil fuel reserves drive the development of renewable energy sources. To contribute to a solution of these problems, we present the results of a BSc student design synthesis exercise project on Space Based Solar Power (SBSP). A SBSP system generates po

  3. Introduction to renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn C

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionEnergy and SocietyTypes of EnergyRenewable EnergyAdvantages/DisadvantagesEconomicsGlobal WarmingOrder of Magnitude EstimatesGrowth (Exponential)SolutionsEnergyIntroductionDefinition of Energy and PowerHeatThermodynamicsEnergy Dilemma in Light of the Laws of ThermodynamicsUse of Fossil FuelsNuclearFinite ResourceSummarySunSolar PowerElectromagnetic SpectrumEnergy Balance of the EarthEarth-Sun MotionInsolationSolar ResourceGreenhouse EffectHeat Transfer and StorageIntroductionConductionConvectionRadiationThermal MassSeasonal Heating or CoolingThermal ComfortSolar Heating and CoolingB

  4. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuels via Indirect Liquefaction, Fast Pyrolysis, and Hydrothermal Liquefaction: Update of the 2016 State-of-Technology Cases and Design Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Pegallapati, Ambica [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Canter, Christina [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States; Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Biddy, Mary [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davis, Ryan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markham, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Talmadge, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Pimphan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims to develop and deploy technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2016). BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth technoeconomic assessments (TEA) of biomass feedstock supply and logistics and conversion technologies to produce biofuels, and life-cycle analysis of overall system sustainability.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  6. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them.

  7. Marine Renewable Energy Seascape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair G.L. Borthwick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production based on fossil fuel reserves is largely responsible for carbon emissions, and hence global warming. The planet needs concerted action to reduce fossil fuel usage and to implement carbon mitigation measures. Ocean energy has huge potential, but there are major interdisciplinary problems to be overcome regarding technology, cost reduction, investment, environmental impact, governance, and so forth. This article briefly reviews ocean energy production from offshore wind, tidal stream, ocean current, tidal range, wave, thermal, salinity gradients, and biomass sources. Future areas of research and development are outlined that could make exploitation of the marine renewable energy (MRE seascape a viable proposition; these areas include energy storage, advanced materials, robotics, and informatics. The article concludes with a sustainability perspective on the MRE seascape encompassing ethics, legislation, the regulatory environment, governance and consenting, economic, social, and environmental constraints. A new generation of engineers is needed with the ingenuity and spirit of adventure to meet the global challenge posed by MRE.

  8. 77 FR 75676 - Standard Review Plan for Review of Fuel Cycle Facility License Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Regulatory Commission. ACTION: NUREG revision; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On December 7, 2012 (77... to NUREG- 1520, Revision 1, ``Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for... document is available in ADAMS) is provided the first time that a document is referenced....

  9. 75 FR 12123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection; Fuel System Integrity; Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Motors, Porsche, Toyota, and Volkswagen. Lead time. The final rule specified that manufacturers must... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK48 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety..., 2007, final rule that upgraded Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 214, ``Side impact...

  10. Report on requests by General Motors and Ford to reduce fuel econoMY standards for my 1981-85 passenger automobiles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The 1981-84 Fuel Economy Standards for Passenger Automobiles were issued in June, 1977. However, in December, 1978 General Motors and Ford began claiming that reduced standards would result in a slower rate of car price increases that would save consumers money. After a review of the GM and Ford information the NHTSA concluded that initiating rulemaking to reduce the standards was not warranted.

  11. 78 FR 49411 - Denial of Petitions for Reconsideration of Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume Final Rule AGENCY: Environmental... entitled Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume. DATES...(o)(2)(B)(ii) of the Clean Air Act requires that EPA determine the applicable volume of...

  12. HySA infrastructure center of competence: A strategic collaboration platform for renewable hydrogen production and storage for fuel cell telecom applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bessarabov, D

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Science and Technology of South Africa developed the National Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technologies (HFCT) Research, Development and Innovation Strategy. The National Strategy was branded Hydrogen South Africa (HySA). HySA has been...

  13. Sulfur content standards homogeneity evaluation in diesel fuel; Avaliacao da homogeneidade de padroes de teor de enxofre em oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchini, Ricardo Rezende; Sakai, Patricia Naomi

    2003-07-01

    The Reference Materials Group, from Chemistry Division of the Technological Research Institute from Sao Paulo State is developing new reference materials, employed to assure traceability to a number of tests carried out by laboratories of Petroleum Industry, amongst them, a set of reference materials with certified sulfur content. A standard must have its homogeneity assured, once it is certified through measurement on a limited number of units, but certified values must be valid throughout the entire lot. Assuring homogeneity of a lot is a specialized task, which demands the proper use of adequate statistical methods. In this paper it is presented a study accomplished in order to evaluate homogeneity of a Diesel fuel, candidate to the certification as a sulfur content reference material. (author)

  14. Standard guide for establishing calibration for a measurement method used to analyze nuclear fuel cycle materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides the basis for establishing calibration for a measurement method typically used in an analytical chemistry laboratory analyzing nuclear materials. Guidance is included for such activities as preparing a calibration procedure, selecting a calibration standard, controlling calibrated equipment, and documenting calibration. The guide is generic and any required technical information specific for a given method must be obtained from other sources.

  15. Institutional and Policy Assessment of Renewable Energy Sector in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Murtaza Ershad

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy resources could play a vital role in the sustainable economic, social, and environmental development of Afghanistan. Heavy reliance of rural households on firewood, rising costs of fossil fuels, outdoor and indoor air pollution, and climate change are some of the challenges that can be addressed by diversifying our power production fuel inputs and adopting renewable energy technologies. In order to deploy and scale up renewable energy technologies and improve access to sustai...

  16. Water impacts of CO2 emission performance standards for fossil fuel-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Morgan, M Granger

    2014-10-21

    We employ an integrated systems modeling tool to assess the water impacts of the new source performance standards recently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for limiting CO2 emissions from coal- and gas-fired power plants. The implementation of amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) for 40% CO2 capture to meet the current proposal will increase plant water use by roughly 30% in supercritical pulverized coal-fired power plants. The specific amount of added water use varies with power plant and CCS designs. More stringent emission standards than the current proposal would require CO2 emission reductions for natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) plants via CCS, which would also increase plant water use. When examined over a range of possible future emission standards from 1100 to 300 lb CO2/MWh gross, new baseload NGCC plants consume roughly 60-70% less water than coal-fired plants. A series of adaptation approaches to secure low-carbon energy production and improve the electric power industry's water management in the face of future policy constraints are discussed both quantitatively and qualitatively.

  17. Renewable energy for passive house heating - Part II. Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, V. [Candida Oancea Institute of Solar Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Sicre, B. [Computational Physics, Technical University of Chemnitz, Institute of Physics, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The evaluation of renewable energy used to increase the environmental friendliness of passive houses (PH) is the topic of this paper. A time-dependent model of passive house thermal behavior is developed. The heat transfer through the high thermal inertia elements is analyzed by using a one-dimensional time-dependent conduction heat-transfer equation that is solved numerically by using a standard Netlib solver (PDECHEB). Appropriate models for the conduction through the low thermal inertia elements are used, as well as a simple approach of the solar radiation transmission through the windows. The model takes into account in a detailed fashion the internal heat sources. Also, the operation of ventilation/heating system is described and common-practice control strategies are implemented. Three renewable energy sources are considered. First, there is the passive solar heating due to the large window on the facade oriented south. Second, the active solar collector system provides thermal energy for space heating or domestic hot water preparation. Third, a ground heat exchanger (GHE) increases the fresh air temperature during the cold season. The model was applied to the Pirmasens Passive House (Rhineland Palatinate, Germany). The passive solar heating system provides most part of the heating energy during November, December, February and March while in January the ground heat exchanger is the most important renewable energy source. January and February require use of additional conventional energy sources. A clever use of the active solar heating system could avoid consuming classical fuels during November, December and March. The ground heat exchanger is a reliable renewable source of energy. It provides heat during all the day and its (rather small) heat flux is increasing when the weather becomes colder. The air temperature at heater exit is normally lower than 46 {sup o}C. This is a good reason for the use of renewable energy to replace the classical fuel or the

  18. Renewable energy for passive house heating. Part 2. Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, V. [Polytechnic Univ., Bucharest (Romania). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Sicre, B. [Technical Univ., Chemnitz (Germany). Computational Physics

    2003-12-01

    The evaluation of renewable energy used to increase the environmental friendliness of passive houses (PH) is the topic of this paper. A time-dependent model of passive house thermal behavior is developed. The heat-transfer through the high thermal inertia elements is analyzed by using a 1D time-dependent conduction heat-transfer equation that is solved numerically by using a standard Netlib solver (PDECHEB). Appropriate models for the conduction through the low thermal inertia elements are used, as well as a simple approach of the solar radiation transmission through the windows. The model takes into account in a detailed fashion the internal heat sources. Also, the operation of ventilation/heating system is described and common practice control strategies are implemented. Three renewable energy sources are considered. First, there is the passive solar heating due to the large window on the facade oriented south. Second, the active solar collectors system provides thermal energy for space heating or hot domestic water preparation. Third, a ground heat exchanger (GHE) increases the fresh air temperature during the cold season. The model was applied to the Pirmasens Passive House (Rhineland Palatinate, Germany). The passive solar heating system provides most part of the heating energy during November, December, February and March while in January the ground heat exchanger is the most important renewable energy source. January and February require use of additional conventional energy sources. A clever use of the active solar heating system could avoid consuming classical fuels during November, December and March. The ground heat exchanger is a reliable renewable source of energy. It provides heat during all the day and its (rather small) heat flux is increasing when the weather becomes colder. The air temperature at heater exit is normally lower than 46 {sup o}C. This is a good reason for the use of renewable energy to replace the classical fuel or the wood to be

  19. Three-dimensional graphene nanosheets as cathode catalysts in standard and supercapacitive microbial fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Carlo; Kodali, Mounika; Kabir, Sadia; Soavi, Francesca; Serov, Alexey; Atanassov, Plamen

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional graphene nanosheets (3D-GNS) were used as cathode catalysts for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operating in neutral conditions. 3D-GNS catalysts showed high performance towards oxygen electroreduction in neutral media with high current densities and low hydrogen peroxide generation compared to activated carbon (AC). 3D-GNS was incorporated into air-breathing cathodes based on AC with three different loadings (2, 6 and 10 mgcm-2). Performances in MFCs showed that 3D-GNS had the highest performances with power densities of 2.059 ± 0.003 Wm-2, 1.855 ± 0.007 Wm-2 and 1.503 ± 0.005 Wm-2 for loading of 10, 6 and 2 mgcm-2 respectively. Plain AC had the lowest performances (1.017 ± 0.009 Wm-2). The different cathodes were also investigated in supercapacitive MFCs (SC-MFCs). The addition of 3D-GNS decreased the ohmic losses by 14-25%. The decrease in ohmic losses allowed the SC-MFC with 3D-GNS (loading 10 mgcm-2) to have the maximum power (Pmax) of 5.746 ± 0.186 Wm-2. At 5 mA, the SC-MFC featured an ;apparent; capacitive response that increased from 0.027 ± 0.007 F with AC to 0.213 ± 0.026 F with 3D-GNS (loading 2 mgcm-2) and further to 1.817 ± 0.040 F with 3D-GNS (loading 10 mgcm-2).

  20. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  1. Gas Fermentation – A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low Carbon Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FungMin eLiew

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2 and carbon monoxide (CO can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues or industrial off gasses (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants. Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields.

  2. Gas Fermentation-A Flexible Platform for Commercial Scale Production of Low-Carbon-Fuels and Chemicals from Waste and Renewable Feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, FungMin; Martin, Michael E; Tappel, Ryan C; Heijstra, Björn D; Mihalcea, Christophe; Köpke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There is an immediate need to drastically reduce the emissions associated with global fossil fuel consumption in order to limit climate change. However, carbon-based materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels are predominantly made from fossil sources and currently there is no alternative source available to adequately displace them. Gas-fermenting microorganisms that fix carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) can break this dependence as they are capable of converting gaseous carbon to fuels and chemicals. As such, the technology can utilize a wide range of feedstocks including gasified organic matter of any sort (e.g., municipal solid waste, industrial waste, biomass, and agricultural waste residues) or industrial off-gases (e.g., from steel mills or processing plants). Gas fermentation has matured to the point that large-scale production of ethanol from gas has been demonstrated by two companies. This review gives an overview of the gas fermentation process, focusing specifically on anaerobic acetogens. Applications of synthetic biology and coupling gas fermentation to additional processes are discussed in detail. Both of these strategies, demonstrated at bench-scale, have abundant potential to rapidly expand the commercial product spectrum of gas fermentation and further improve efficiencies and yields.

  3. Fuel prices, emission standards, and generation costs for coal vs natural gas power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratson, Lincoln F; Haerer, Drew; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2013-05-07

    Low natural gas prices and stricter, federal emission regulations are promoting a shift away from coal power plants and toward natural gas plants as the lowest-cost means of generating electricity in the United States. By estimating the cost of electricity generation (COE) for 304 coal and 358 natural gas plants, we show that the economic viability of 9% of current coal capacity is challenged by low natural gas prices, while another 56% would be challenged by the stricter emission regulations. Under the current regulations, coal plants would again become the dominant least-cost generation option should the ratio of average natural gas to coal prices (NG2CP) rise to 1.8 (it was 1.42 in February 2012). If the more stringent emission standards are enforced, however, natural gas plants would remain cost competitive with a majority of coal plants for NG2CPs up to 4.3.

  4. Renewable resources and renewable energy a global challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasiero, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    As energy demands continue to surge worldwide, the need for efficient and environmentally neutral energy production becomes increasingly apparent. In its first edition, this book presented a well-rounded perspective on the development of bio-based feedstocks, biodegradable plastics, hydrogen energy, fuel cells, and other aspects related to renewable resources and sustainable energy production. The new second edition builds upon this foundation to explore new trends and technologies. The authors pay particular attention to hydrogen-based and fuel cell-based technologies and provide real-world c

  5. Decomposing Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Regulatory Standards in the Energy Conversion Efficiency and Tractive Energy Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannone, Greg [Novation Analytics; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Reale, Michael [Novation Analytics; Betz, Brian [Novation Analytics

    2017-01-01

    The three foundational elements that determine mobile source energy use and tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are the tractive energy requirements of the vehicle, the on-cycle energy conversion efficiency of the propulsion system, and the energy source. The tractive energy requirements are determined by the vehicle's mass, aerodynamic drag, tire rolling resistance, and parasitic drag. Oncycle energy conversion of the propulsion system is dictated by the tractive efficiency, non-tractive energy use, kinetic energy recovery, and parasitic losses. The energy source determines the mobile source CO2 emissions. For current vehicles, tractive energy requirements and overall energy conversion efficiency are readily available from the decomposition of test data. For future applications, plausible levels of mass reduction, aerodynamic drag improvements, and tire rolling resistance can be transposed into the tractive energy domain. Similarly, by combining thermodynamic, mechanical efficiency, and kinetic energy recovery fundamentals with logical proxies, achievable levels of energy conversion efficiency can be established to allow for the evaluation of future powertrain requirements. Combining the plausible levels of tractive energy and on-cycle efficiency provides a means to compute sustainable vehicle and propulsion system scenarios that can achieve future regulations. Using these principles, the regulations established in the United States (U.S.) for fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are evaluated. Fleet-level scenarios are generated and compared to the technology deployment assumptions made during rule-making. When compared to the rule-making assumptions, the results indicate that a greater level of advanced vehicle and propulsion system technology deployment will be required to achieve the model year 2025 U.S. standards for fuel economy and CO2 emissions.

  6. Simultaneous fast pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of lignin to obtain a marine diesel fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng

    The topic of this Ph.D. project is to convert lignin, a by-product from a 2nd generation bio-ethanol plant, into a marine diesel fuel by fast pyrolysis followed with catalytic upgrading of the pyrolysis vapor. Lignin, a major component of lignocellulosic biomass, is underutilized in the 2nd...... generation bio-ethanol plants. Shipping industry on the other hand is looking for clean alternative fuels in order to meet stricter fuel quality and emission standards. To convert lignin into a renewable marine diesel fuel will both accelerate the development of modern bio-refinery and transfer the marine...

  7. Sustainable Housing Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the already proved models the sustainable planning culture is endangering several methods directed towards the needs of tenants in the existing post-war housing stock. The case-study of our project is the renewal of the multi stored building in the housing estate Metalna, Maribor/Tezno (1949. It is based on the sustainable renovation principle for the quality of sustainable housing in functional, technological and environmental point of view. According to it, the idea of the project was to improve the functionality of the building as well as of individual housing units. One of the main goals was to introduce the variety of space and typology of individual housing units. Beside, there was an intention to rebuild and redesign the green area, especially the problems of parking and playground for children. On the other hand, the project is introducing the low-energy renovation principle including new technologies, structural elements and materials. Two scenarios of technological renewal were suggested. The first one was a classical one using additional thermal insulation of the building envelope and fitting of new structural elements such as windows, doors, balconies, windbreaks etc. (Renewal 1. The second scenario, however, included the sunspace construction used as a new passive solar structural element, modifying the envelope (Renewal 2. The energy efficiency of the suggested scenarios were calculated according to the procedures given in EN 832 standard considering the attached sunspace as integral part of the building in first case and as a passive solar object adjacent to the thermal envelope of the building in the second case. The results show that the last case yields the most energy efficient renewal of the existing residential building.

  8. Health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants. Volume 6 of health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. [In California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, G.D.; Bertolli, T.A.; Bodington, J.C.; Choy, T.A.; Nero, A.V.

    1977-01-01

    This report reviews health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants, emphasizing impacts which may occur through emissions into the atmosphere, and treating other impacts briefly. Federal regulations as well as California state and local regulations are reviewed. Emissions are characterized by power plant type, including: coal-fired, oil-fired, gas-fired, combined cycle and advanced fossil-fuel plants; and liquid and vapor geothermal systems. Dispersion and transformation of emissions are treated. The state of knowledge of health effects, based on epidemiological, physiological, and biomedical studies, is reviewed.

  9. Fuels Performance: Navigating the Intersection of Fuels and Combustion (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, recognize that engine and infrastructure compatibility can make or break the impact of even the most promising fuel. NREL and its industry partners navigate the intersection of fuel chemistry, ignition kinetics, combustion, and emissions, with innovative approaches to engines and fuels that meet drivers' expectations, while minimizing petroleum use and GHGs.

  10. Butanol production from renewable biomass by clostridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Malaviya, Alok; Cho, Changhee; Lee, Joungmin; Lee, Sang Yup

    2012-11-01

    Global energy crisis and limited supply of petroleum fuels have rekindled the worldwide focus towards development of a sustainable technology for alternative fuel production. Utilization of abundant renewable biomass offers an excellent opportunity for the development of an economical biofuel production process at a scale sufficiently large to have an impact on sustainability and security objectives. Additionally, several environmental benefits have also been linked with the utilization of renewable biomass. Butanol is considered to be superior to ethanol due to its higher energy content and less hygroscopy. This has led to an increased research interest in butanol production from renewable biomass in recent years. In this paper, we review the various aspects of utilizing renewable biomass for clostridial butanol production. Focus is given on various alternative substrates that have been used for butanol production and on fermentation strategies recently reported to improve butanol production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Monitoring `Renewable resources`. Vegetable oils and other fuels from plants. Third status report; Monitoring `Nachwachsende Rohstoffe`. Pflanzliche Oele und andere Kraftstoffe aus Pflanzen. Dritter Sachstandsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, C.

    1997-11-01

    The present status report `vegetable oils and other fuels from plants` deals with important developments on the utilization of biofuels in spark ignition engines and diesel engines since presentation of the report `growing raw materials` of the Enquete comission `Technikfolgenabschaetzung und -bewertung`. The report deals mainly with rapeseed oil and rape seed oil fatty acid methyl ester produced from this (mentioned short of biodiesel) as well as with bioethanol made from sugar beet and grain. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Sachstandsbericht `Pflanzliche Oele und andere Kraftstoffe aus Pflanzen` beschaeftigt sich mit den wichtigsten Entwicklungen beim Einsatz von Biokraftstoffen in Otto- und Dieselmotoren seit Vorlage des Berichts `Nachwachsende Rohstoffe` der Enquete-Kommission `Technikfolgenabschaetzung und -bewertung`. Der Bericht befasst sich schwerpunktmaessig mit Rapsoel und daraus hergestelltem Rapsoelfettsaeuremethylester (kurz Biodiesel genannt) sowie mit aus Zuckerrueben und Getreide erzeugtem Bioethanol. (orig./SR)

  12. Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2010-03-01

    Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain (sometimes referred to as "intermittent") output, which are unlike the dispatchable sources used for the majority of electricity generation in the United States. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid. In this report, we explore the role of energy storage in the electricity grid, focusing on the effects of large-scale deployment of variable renewable sources (primarily wind and solar energy).

  13. Renewable Electricity Benefits Quantification Methodology: A Request for Technical Assistance from the California Public Utilities Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2009-07-01

    The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) requested assistance in identifying methodological alternatives for quantifying the benefits of renewable electricity. The context is the CPUC's analysis of a 33% renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in California--one element of California's Climate Change Scoping Plan. The information would be used to support development of an analytic plan to augment the cost analysis of this RPS (which recently was completed). NREL has responded to this request by developing a high-level survey of renewable electricity effects, quantification alternatives, and considerations for selection of analytic methods. This report addresses economic effects and health and environmental effects, and provides an overview of related analytic tools. Economic effects include jobs, earnings, gross state product, and electricity rate and fuel price hedging. Health and environmental effects include air quality and related public-health effects, solid and hazardous wastes, and effects on water resources.

  14. Integration of renewable energy and energy efficiency into high temperature applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roos, T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available solar collectors, or electric conversion (preferably renewable) if fossil-based. This can enable further emissions reductions, as fuel combustion is displaced. Globally, renewable energy technologies have predominantly been limited to the electricity...

  15. Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Norrga, Staffan; Stridh, Bengt; Meier, Stephan; Nee, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The use of conventional energy sources for electricity generation, such as fossil fuel combustion and nuclear power, is questioned because of environmental and safety issues and concerns about possible anthropogenic climate change. This has led to rapid developments in the field of renewable energy exploitation. Entire new fast-growing industries are formed to supply equipment for renewable power plants. The contribution from Swedish industry to this development has so far largely been limite...

  16. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy

  17. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  18. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy

  19. Utilization of renewable energy in architectural design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lei; QIN Youguo

    2007-01-01

    Renewable energy does not simply equal to using a photovoltaic (PV) board.In addition to heating,ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) engineering considerations,the design approaches of architects are crucial to the utilization condition and methods of renewable energy.Through profound comprehension of the relationship between renewable energy utilization and design approaches,we can achieve a dual-standard of building environment performance and esthetics.

  20. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.