WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewable fuel sources

  1. Waste cooking oil as source for renewable fuel in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah, F. Um Min; Alexandru, G.

    2016-08-01

    Biodiesel is non-toxic renewable fuel which has the potential to replace diesel fuel with little or no modifications in diesel engine. Waste cooking oil can be used as source to produce biodiesel. It has environmental and economic advantages over other alternative fuels. Biodiesel production from transesterification is affected by water content, type f alcohol, catalyst type and concentration, alcohol to oil ratio, temperature, reaction rate, pH, free fatty acid (FFA) and stirrer speed. These parameters and their effect on transesterification are discussed in this paper. Properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil are measured according to local standards by distributor and their comparison with European biodiesel standard is also given in this paper. Comparison has shown that these properties lie within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. Furthermore emission performance of diesel engine for biodiesel-diesel blends has resulted in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Romanian fuel market can ensure energy security by mixing fuel share with biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil has shown its viability economically and environmentally.

  2. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage of...... with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems.......In the perspective of using fuel cells for integration of fluctuating renewable energy the SOFCs are the most promising. These cells have the advantage of significantly higher electricity efficiency than competing technologies and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells in general also have the advantage...... flexibility, such as SOFCs, heat pumps and heat storage technologies are more important than storing electricity as hydrogen via electrolysis in energy systems with high amounts of wind [12]. Unnecessary energy conversions should be avoided. However in future energy systems with wind providing more than 50...

  3. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  4. Fuels for transportation derived from renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, J.; Weindorf, W.

    2001-07-01

    There are two main reasons for introducing renewable energy sources into the transportation sector: global warming on the one hand and the imminent end of cheap oil on the other. The future use of renewable energy sources for tranportation is the only sustainable solution that protects the climate and ensures energy supply - especially it is the only conceivable way to satisfy the demand for mobility of the people in the developing countries.

  5. Design of a mediated enzymatic fuel cell to generate power from renewable fuel sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Seyda; Kilic, Muhammet Samet

    2016-01-01

    The present work reported a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) based on newly synthesized Poly(pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid-co-3-thiophene acetic acid) film containing glucose oxidase and laccase effectively wired by p-benzoquinone incorporated into the copolymer structure. The resulting system generated a power density of 18.8 µW/cm(2) with 30 mM of glucose addition at +0.94 V at room temperature. Improvements to maximize the power output were ensured with step-by-step optimization of electrode fabrication design and operational parameters for operating the system with renewable fuel sources. We demonstrated that the improved fuel cell could easily harvest glucose produced during photosynthesis to produce electrical energy in a simple, renewable and sustainable way by generating a power density of 10 nW/cm(2) in the plant leaf within 2 min. An EFC for the first time was successfully operated in municipal wastewater which contained glycolytic substances to generate electrical energy with a power output of 3.3 µW/cm(2).

  6. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  7. Fuel Cells for Balancing Fluctuation Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    integration can also be preformed with other types of fuel cells than the SOFCs such as PEMFC in micro-CHP. These however have the disadvantage that the efficiency is lower and require pure hydrogen. PEMFCs have advantages for mobile applications replacing internal combustion engines and batteries were...... with hydrogen production or electric cars, and on the other hand using biomass and bio fuels [11]. Fuel cells can have an important role in these future energy systems....

  8. The production of hydrogen fuel from renewable sources and its role in grid operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, John; Gammon, Rupert

    Understanding the scale and nature of hydrogen's potential role in the development of low carbon energy systems requires an examination of the operation of the whole energy system, including heat, power, industrial and transport sectors, on an hour-by-hour basis. The Future Energy Scenario Assessment (FESA) software model used for this study is unique in providing a holistic, high resolution, functional analysis, which incorporates variations in supply resulting from weather-dependent renewable energy generators. The outputs of this model, arising from any given user-definable scenario, are year round supply and demand profiles that can be used to assess the market size and operational regime of energy technologies. FESA was used in this case to assess what - if anything - might be the role for hydrogen in a low carbon economy future for the UK. In this study, three UK energy supply pathways were considered, all of which reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050, and substantially reduce reliance on oil and gas while maintaining a stable electricity grid and meeting the energy needs of a modern economy. All use more nuclear power and renewable energy of all kinds than today's system. The first of these scenarios relies on substantial amounts of 'clean coal' in combination with intermittent renewable energy sources by year the 2050. The second uses twice as much intermittent renewable energy as the first and virtually no coal. The third uses 2.5 times as much nuclear power as the first and virtually no coal. All scenarios clearly indicate that the use of hydrogen in the transport sector is important in reducing distributed carbon emissions that cannot easily be mitigated by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). In the first scenario, this hydrogen derives mainly from steam reformation of fossil fuels (principally coal), whereas in the second and third scenarios, hydrogen is made mainly by electrolysis using variable surpluses of low-carbon electricity. Hydrogen

  9. TOWARDS A RESILIENT ENERGY SYSTEM IN EASTERN ROMANIA – FROM FOSSIL FUELS TO RENEWABLE SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂNICĂ Alexandru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study takes into account the two Romanian Eastern regions (North East and South East trying to emphasize the post-communist dynamics of the energy sector in order to draw a general perspective for the future evolution towards both energy security and a clean environment. Before 1989, the energy sector, that had to sustain not only the population needs, but also an oversized manufacturing industry, was based on big power plants usually using coal and oil and highly polluting the environment. The hydropower had a rather small share in the total energy production. This inherited system was very much resistant after the end of the centralized political system, therefore after the general industrial decline the energy sector remained the main source of air pollution in many towns and cities from Romania. Meanwhile, in the last 6-7 years, due to a favourable national political context, we assisted, especially in the analysed area, to an important emergence of renewable energy investments (mainly wind and solar energy, but also biomass or hydro-energy. Our purpose is to evaluate, from a geographical point of view, the extent and the implications of a desirable progressive shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy that could radically change the territorial relations and sustain development on the long term.

  10. Regional income effects and renewable fuels. Increased usage of renewable energy sources in Danish rural areas and its impact on regional incomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentzen, J.; Smith, V. [Aarhus School of Business, Dept. of Economics (Denmark); Dilling-Hansen, M. [Univ. of Aarhus, Dept. of Management (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    CO{sub 2}-emission is a world wide problem and in the attempt to reduce these emissions, renewable energy sources may be considered serious alternatives to the present usage of fossil fuels. As part of a research programme financed by The Danish Energy Agency, data concerning the different heating technologies based on oil and wood fuels have been collected. Private and social costs are estimated and these economic data are used when analysing regional income effects of increased consumption of fuels (e.g. wood) locally produced. The impacts on income and tax revenues are calculated from multiplier expressions, constructed with rights to the measurement of local effects. (au) 10 refs.

  11. Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy...... sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be used to help the integration of fluctuating sources. Electricity storage technologies can be used...

  12. Renewable jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Pauli; Pásztor, András; Akhtar, M Kalim; Jones, Patrik R

    2014-04-01

    Novel strategies for sustainable replacement of finite fossil fuels are intensely pursued in fundamental research, applied science and industry. In the case of jet fuels used in gas-turbine engine aircrafts, the production and use of synthetic bio-derived kerosenes are advancing rapidly. Microbial biotechnology could potentially also be used to complement the renewable production of jet fuel, as demonstrated by the production of bioethanol and biodiesel for piston engine vehicles. Engineered microbial biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes, which constitute the major fraction of petroleum-based jet fuels, was recently demonstrated. Although efficiencies currently are far from that needed for commercial application, this discovery has spurred research towards future production platforms using both fermentative and direct photobiological routes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Renewable fuels from agricultural sources - ethanol, biodiesel, biogas; Foernybara drivmedel fraan jordbruket - etanol, biodiesel, biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolke, Camilla L.; Einarson, Elin; Ekloef, Patrik

    2011-07-01

    In this report we give a status report of the biofuels market. We describe some of the issues which are linked to environmental and land use. We also explain why different actors reach different assessments regarding the greenhouse gas emissions, land use and food security. Biofuels have been highlighted as a way to reduce the transport sector large emissions of greenhouse gases and thus as a climate measure. But when several countries have increased their production and consumption and set targets for bio-renewable fuels the biofuels impact has been questioned. Are emissions really reduced? What happens to the direct and indirect land use? How does the production of more biofuels affect the security in food production?

  14. Renewable energy sources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Volker [Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gGmbH (DBFZ), Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

    2012-07-01

    The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Germany in 2011 significantly was influenced by the disaster in Fukushima (Japan) and the change of course in the German energy policy. In addition, there is the amendment of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) in an increasingly controversial area of tension between climate protection, energy utilization, cost minimization and considerations on sustainability. With this in mind, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on developments in Germany in the year 2011 in the field of energy supply and fuel supply from renewable energies. Beside the energy-economic framework conditions for the various possibilities for the use of renewable energies, the current status, developments and prospects are analysed. The contribution gives an outlook on the possible expansion of the supply of renewable energies in 2012.

  15. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  16. Production of Hydrogen for Clean and Renewable Source of Energy for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xunming; Ingler, William B, Jr.; Abraham, Martin; Castellano, Felix; Coleman, Maria; Collins, Robert; Compaan, Alvin; Giolando, Dean; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya. H.; Stuart, Thomas; Vonderembse, Mark

    2008-10-31

    This was a two-year project that had two major components: 1) the demonstration of a PV-electrolysis system that has separate PV system and electrolysis unit and the hydrogen generated is to be used to power a fuel cell based vehicle; 2) the development of technologies for generation of hydrogen through photoelectrochemical process and bio-mass derived resources. Development under this project could lead to the achievement of DOE technical target related to PEC hydrogen production at low cost. The PEC part of the project is focused on the development of photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation devices and systems using thin-film silicon based solar cells. Two approaches are taken for the development of efficient and durable photoelectrochemical cells; 1) An immersion-type photoelectrochemical cells (Task 3) where the photoelectrode is immersed in electrolyte, and 2) A substrate-type photoelectrochemical cell (Task 2) where the photoelectrode is not in direct contact with electrolyte. Four tasks are being carried out: Task 1: Design and analysis of DC voltage regulation system for direct PV-to-electrolyzer power feed Task 2: Development of advanced materials for substrate-type PEC cells Task 3: Development of advanced materials for immersion-type PEC cells Task 4: Hydrogen production through conversion of biomass-derived wastes

  17. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  18. Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Norrga, Staffan; Stridh, Bengt; Meier, Stephan; Nee, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The use of conventional energy sources for electricity generation, such as fossil fuel combustion and nuclear power, is questioned because of environmental and safety issues and concerns about possible anthropogenic climate change. This has led to rapid developments in the field of renewable energy exploitation. Entire new fast-growing industries are formed to supply equipment for renewable power plants. The contribution from Swedish industry to this development has so far largely been limite...

  19. Emerging Technologies for the Production of Renewable Liquid Transport Fuels from Biomass Sources Enriched in Plant Cell Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwei-Ting Tan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels. Estimates place annual plant cellulose production from captured light energy in the order of hundreds of billions of tonnes. Lignin is synthesised in the same order of magnitude and, as a very large polymer of phenylpropanoid residues, lignin is also an abundant, high energy macromolecule. However, one of the major functions of these cell wall constituents in plants is to provide the extreme tensile and compressive strengths that enable plants to resist the forces of gravity and a broad range of other mechanical forces. Over millions of years these wall constituents have evolved under natural selection to generate extremely tough and resilient biomaterials. The rapid degradation of these tough cell wall composites to fermentable sugars is therefore a difficult task and has significantly slowed the development of a viable lignocellulose-based biofuels industry. However, good progress has been made in overcoming this so-called recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the biofuels industry, through modifications to the lignocellulose itself, innovative pre-treatments of the biomass, improved enzymes and the development of superior yeasts and other microorganisms for the fermentation process. Nevertheless, it has been argued that bioethanol might not be the best or only biofuel that can be generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources and that hydrocarbons with

  20. 77 FR 699 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... January 5, 2012 Part V Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard... Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under...

  1. Renewable Fuels for Cross Border Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Mehlin, Markus; Zauner, Martin; Reichmuth, Matthias; Nill, Moritz; Wacker, Manfred; Galster, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The use of renewable energy has increased slowly in most sectors and the transport sector is predominantly depending on traditional fossil fuels notably petrol and diesel. This has created a difficult situation concerning the fuel supply and fuel prices as well as an increase of emissions of climate gasses. A number of local and regional projects have been carried out and are still ongoing regarding the use of renewable fuels in the transport sector. Most of those covers captive fleets of bus...

  2. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Report...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels 5a. CONTRACT...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented at the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held

  3. Industrial fermentation of renewable diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Patrick J; Gardner, Timothy S

    2011-06-01

    In commodity chemicals, cost drives everything. A working class family of four drives up to the gas pumps and faces a choice of a renewable diesel or petroleum diesel. Renewable diesel costs $0.50 more per gallon. Which fuel do they pick? Petroleum diesel will be the winner every time, unless the renewable fuel can achieve cost and performance parity with petrol. Nascent producers of advanced biofuels, including Amyris, LS9, Neste and Solazyme, aim to deliver renewable diesel fuels that not only meet the cost challenge, but also exceed the storage, transport, engine performance and emissions properties of petroleum diesel. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 40 CFR 80.1115 - How are equivalence values assigned to renewable fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall have an equivalence value of 1.3. (5) Non-ester renewable diesel, including that produced from... renewable source, expressed as a percent, on an energy basis. EC = Energy content of the renewable fuel, in... renewable fuel? 80.1115 Section 80.1115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  5. Energy resources of the 21st century: problems and forecasts. Can renewable energy sources replace fossil fuels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, V. S.; Lisichkin, G. V.

    2017-08-01

    The state of the art and the major trends of development of world energy engineering are analyzed. It is concluded that throughout the 21st century the role of alternative sources will remain rather modest. Fossil fuel will still be the major source of energy until the end of the century. Because of depletion of accessible oil resources, the proportion of crude oil in the world energy balance will constantly decline, while the proportion of natural gas will grow. It is shown that energy production from any source, including alternative sources, cannot be environmentally benign if the scale of production is large. In the long term, humanity has no sources other than fusion energy, but transition to this source would not solve the problem of the planet's heat balance. The bibliography includes 70 references.

  6. Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-08-01

    This fact sheet describes the Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory at the U.S. Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a state-of-the-art research and testing facility for advanced fuels and vehicles. Research and development aims to improve vehicle efficiency and overcome barriers to the increased use of renewable diesel and other nonpetroleum-based fuels, such as biodiesel and synthetic diesel derived from biomass. The ReFUEL Laboratory features a chassis dynamometer for vehicle performance and emissions research, two engine dynamometer test cells for advanced fuels research, and precise emissions analysis equipment. As a complement to these capabilities, detailed studies of fuel properties, with a focus on ignition quality, are performed at NREL's Fuel Chemistry Laboratory.

  7. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Hossain, A.B.M.; Aishah Salleh; Amru Nasrulhaq Boyce; Partha chowdhury; Mohd Naqiuddin

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO...

  8. Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Rass

    2008-01-01

    The present work entitled Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols covers the idea of developing routes for producing sustainable fuel and chemicals from biomass resources. Some renewable alcohols are already readily available from biomass in significant amounts and thus the potential...... of a possible production of value-added chemicals from renewable resources. High temperature dehydration of methanol and ethanol results in a range of different hydrocarbons, which can be used either as gasoline fuel or, by altering process conditions, as a way to produce important olefin products which can...... for these renewable alcohols, together with other primary renewable building blocks, has been highlighted in the introductory chapter. While the first chapter covers the general potential of a renewable chemical industry, the other chapters deal with particular possibilities. It is shown how ethanol and glycerol can...

  9. State Clean Energy Practices: Renewable Fuel Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Kreycik, C.

    2008-07-01

    The State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) project is supported by the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program within the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This project seeks to quantify the impacts of existing state policies, and to identify crucial policy attributes and their potential applicability to other states. The goal is to assist states in determining which clean energy policies or policy portfolios will best accomplish their environmental, economic, and security goals. For example, renewable fuel standards (RFS) policies are a mechanism for developing a market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. This flexible market-based policy, when properly executed, can correct for market failures and promote growth of the renewable fuels industry better than a more command-oriented approach. The policy attempts to correct market failures such as embedded fossil fuel infrastructure and culture, risk associated with developing renewable fuels, consumer information gaps, and lack of quantification of the non-economic costs and benefits of both renewable and fossil-based fuels. This report focuses on renewable fuel standards policies, which are being analyzed as part of this project.

  10. 77 FR 13009 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AR07 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... January 5, 2012 to amend the Renewable Fuel Standard program regulations. Because EPA received...

  11. Biodiesel and Other Renewable Diesel Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-11-01

    Present federal tax incentives apply to certain types of biomass-derived diesel fuels, which in energy policy and tax laws are described either as renewable diesel or biodiesel. To understand the distinctions between these diesel types it is necessary to understand the technologies used to produce them and the properties of the resulting products. This fact sheet contains definitions of renewable and biodiesel and discusses the processes used to convert biomass to diesel fuel and the properties of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels.

  12. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Gray, Nancy Ryan [Gordon Research Conferences, West Kingston, RI (United States)

    2010-02-26

    This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable

  13. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiuping [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Logan, Bruce E., E-mail: blogan@psu.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► A new type of electro-Fenton system was developed for wastewater treatment. ► Degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. ► Operation cost was greatly reduced compared to other microbial fuel cell designs. -- Abstract: Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation and Fe{sup 2+} release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75 ± 2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22 h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants.

  14. The system architecture for renewable synthetic fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva

    To overcome and eventually eliminate the existing heavy fossil fuels in the transport sector, there is a need for new renewable fuels. This transition could lead to large capital costs for implementing the new solutions and a long time frame for establishing the new infrastructure unless a suitab...

  15. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  16. Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Rass

    2008-01-01

    The present work entitled Fuel and Chemicals from Renewable Alcohols covers the idea of developing routes for producing sustainable fuel and chemicals from biomass resources. Some renewable alcohols are already readily available from biomass in significant amounts and thus the potential...... be converted into hydrogen by steam reforming over nickel or ruthenium based catalysts. This process could be important in a future hydrogen society, where hydrogen can be utilized in high efficiency fuel cells. Hydrogen produced from biofeedstocks can also be used directly in the chemical industry, where...... it can compete with hydrogen production from natural gas. Similar substitution possibilities are emerging in the case of conversion of renewable alcohols to synthesis gas, which is used for instance in the manufacture of methanol and synthetic fuel. Here it is illustrated how glycerol can be converted...

  17. Enhancing the growth of renewable energy sources. Pt. 2. The fossil fuel economy is meeting a turning point; Das Wachstum der Erneuerbaren beschleunigen. T. 2. Die fossile Energiewirtschaft vor dem Scheitelpunkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seltmann, Thomas

    2009-04-15

    The first part of this article was published in SBZ 7/09; it described the dramatic shortage of fossil fuels. The second part presents analyses and forecasts of the potential and rate of development of renewable energy sources. The central statement is that development can be faster and at lower investments than often assumed, but there are still massive obstacles. Also, the faster the conversion to renewables, the less costly it will be. (orig.)

  18. Flex fuel polygeneration: Integrating renewable natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Matthew

    Flex Fuel Polygeneration (FFPG) is the use of multiple primary energy sources for the production of multiple energy carriers to achieve increased market opportunities. FFPG allows for adjustments in energy supply to meet market fluctuations and increase resiliency to contingencies such as weather disruptions, technological changes, and variations in supply of energy resources. In this study a FFPG plant is examined that uses a combination of the primary energy sources natural gas and renewable natural gas (RNG) derived from MSW and livestock manure and converts them into energy carriers of electricity and fuels through anaerobic digestion (AD), Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), and gas turbine cycles. Previous techno-economic analyses of conventional energy production plants are combined to obtain equipment and operating costs, and then the 20-year NPVs of the FFPG plant designs are evaluated by static and stochastic simulations. The effects of changing operating parameters are investigated, as well as the number of anaerobic digestion plants on the 20-year NPV of the FTS and FFPG systems.

  19. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2013-05-01

    Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H2O2 generation and Fe2+ release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75±2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Using single-chamber microbial fuel cells as renewable power sources of electro-Fenton reactors for organic pollutant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-05-15

    Electro-Fenton reactions can be very effective for organic pollutant degradation, but they typically require non-sustainable electrical power to produce hydrogen peroxide. Two-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been proposed for pollutant treatment using Fenton-based reactions, but these types of MFCs have low power densities and require expensive membranes. Here, more efficient dual reactor systems were developed using a single-chamber MFC as a low-voltage power source to simultaneously accomplish H2O2 generation and Fe(2+) release for the Fenton reaction. In tests using phenol, 75 ± 2% of the total organic carbon (TOC) was removed in the electro-Fenton reactor in one cycle (22 h), and phenol was completely degraded to simple and readily biodegradable organic acids. Compared to previously developed systems based on two-chamber MFCs, the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants was substantially improved. These results demonstrate that this system is an energy-efficient and cost-effective approach for industrial wastewater treatment of certain pollutants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Distributed renewable power from biomass and other waste fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The world population is continually growing and putting a burden on our fossil fuels. These fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas are used for a variety of critical needs such as power production and transportation. While significant environmental improvements have been made, the uses of these fuels are still causing significant ecological impacts. Coal power production efficiency has not improved over the past thirty years and with relatively cheap petroleum cost, transportation mileage has not improved significantly either. With the demand for these fossil fuels increasing, ultimately price will also have to increase. This presentation will evaluate alternative power production methods using localized distributed generation from biomass, municipal solid waste and other waste sources of organic materials. The presentation will review various gasification processes that produce a synthetic gas that can be utilized as a fuel source in combustion turbines for clean and efficient combined heat and power. This fuel source can produce base load renewable power. In addition tail gases from the production of bio-diesel and methanol fuels can be used to produce renewable power. Being localized can reduce the need for long and costly transmission lines making the production of fuels and power from waste a viable alternative energy source for the future.

  2. Hydrogen Sulphide Corrosion of Carbon and Stainless Steel Alloys Immersed in Mixtures of Renewable Fuel Sources and Tested Under Co-processing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely András

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with modern regulations and directives, the use of renewable biomass materials as precursors for the production of fuels for transportation purposes is to be strictly followed. Even though, there are problems related to processing, storage and handling in wide range of subsequent uses, since there must be a limit to the ratio of biofuels mixed with mineral raw materials. As a key factor with regards to these biomass sources pose a great risk of causing multiple forms of corrosion both to metallic and non-metallic structural materials. To assess the degree of corrosion risk to a variety of engineering alloys like low-carbon and stainless steels widely used as structural metals, this work is dedicated to investigating corrosion rates of economically reasonable engineering steel alloys in mixtures of raw gas oil and renewable biomass fuel sources under typical co-processing conditions. To model a desulphurising refining process, corrosion tests were carried out with raw mineral gasoline and its mixture with used cooking oil and animal waste lard in relative quantities of 10% (g/g. Co-processing was simulated by batch-reactor laboratory experiments. Experiments were performed at temperatures between 200 and 300ºC and a pressure in the gas phase of 90 bar containing 2% (m3/m3 hydrogen sulphide. The time span of individual tests were varied between 1 and 21 days so that we can conclude about changes in the reaction rates against time exposure of and extrapolate for longer periods of exposure. Initial and integral corrosion rates were defined by a weight loss method on standard size of coupons of all sorts of steel alloys. Corrosion rates of carbon steels indicated a linear increase with temperature and little variation with composition of the biomass fuel sources. Apparent activation energies over the first 24-hour period remained moderate, varying between 35.5 and 50.3 kJ mol−1. Scales developed on carbon steels at higher

  3. 78 FR 14190 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AR07 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is issuing a final rule identifying additional...

  4. The Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalay ÇETİN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Especially in last two decades, most of the developed and developing countries around theworld have been supporting the researches that investigate more clean and sustainable energy sources. Renewable energy sources play more important role in today’s increasingly globalized energy market because of the environmental issues and the sources of fossil fuelare becoming scarce. According to that, as a virtue of the rapidly increase in energy demand, the supply of renewable energy sources are increasingly continue around theworld. As a matter of fact, when it is compared to the 2011 rates, the consumption rate of hydro-electricity and other renewable energy sources has increased to 4.3% and % 15.2 respectively in 2012 in the world, is verifying that view.The aim of this study is to investigate the present potential and sufficiency of the main sources of renewable energy such as solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal andbiomass at Turkey. In this regard, even Turkey has a remarkable potential especially in hydro, wind, solar and geothermal energies among Europe, renewable energy sources ratio in Turkey’s total energy consumption is not rising at desired level. Furthermore becauseTurkey hasn’t got a rich fossil fuel reserves, it needs to import fossil energy sources to meet its rapidly growing energy needs. In related to this, Turkey’s current deficit has beengrowing due to the increase in fossil fuel sources prices at international energy markets. On the other side Turkey’s Green House Gases (GHGs emission has grown more thantwo times as a result of its rapidly using of fossil fuel sources due to its growing economy, industrialization and urbanization process since 1990. Within this context, as a foreigndependent country on fossil fuel energy sources (especially on crude oil and natural gas, Turkey should rapidly change its energy policy from fossil fuels to renewable energysources which are domestic, clean and much more cheaper

  5. New renewable source of energy from municipal solid waste plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Zaman, Ashiquz; Mamunor Rashid, Mohammad

    2010-09-15

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the supply of energy. When energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. Emissions from the evaporation and combustion of these traditional fossil fuels contributing to a range of environmental and health problems, causing poor air quality, and emitting greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Alternative fuel created from domestic sources has been proposed as a solution to these problems and many alternative fuels are being developed based on solar, wind and biomass. Natural State Research has developed different alternative hydrocarbon fuel produced from abundant waste plastic materials.

  6. Fuel Handbook[Wood and other renewable fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (SE)] (ed.)

    2006-03-15

    This handbook on renewable fuels is intended for power and heat producers in Sweden. This fuel handbook provides, from a plant owner's perspective, a method to evaluate different fuels on the market. The fuel handbook concerns renewable fuels (but does not include household waste) that are available on the Swedish market today or fuels that have potential to be available within the next ten years. The handbook covers 26 different fuels. Analysis data, special properties, operating experiences and literature references are outlined for each fuel. [Special properties, operating experiences and literature references are not included in this English version] The handbook also contains: A proposed methodology for introduction of new fuels. A recommendation of analyses and tests to perform in order to reduce the risk of problems is presented. [The recommendation of analyses and tests is not included in the English version] A summary of relevant laws and taxes for energy production, with references to relevant documentation. [Only laws and taxes regarding EU are included] Theory and background to evaluate a fuel with respect to combustion, ash and corrosion properties and methods that can be used for such evaluations. Summary of standards, databases and handbooks on biomass fuels and other solid fuels, and links to web sites where further information about the fuels can be found. The appendices includes: A methodology for trial firing of fuels. Calculations procedures for, amongst others, heating value, flue gas composition, key number and free fall velocity [Free fall velocity is not included in the English version]. In addition, conversion routines between different units for a number of different applications are provided. Fuel analyses are presented in the appendix. (The report is a translation of parts of the report VARMEFORSK--911 published in 2005)

  7. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2): Final Rule Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on March 26, 2010 and is effective on July 1, 2010. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  8. Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS1): Final Rule Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on May 1, 2007 and is effective on September 1, 2007. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  9. Nanostructured Basic Catalysts: Opportunities for Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, William C; Huber, George; Auerbach, Scott

    2009-06-30

    This research studied and developed novel basic catalysts for production of renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass. We focused on the development of unique porous structural-base catalysts zeolites. These catalysts were compared to conventional solid base materials for aldol condensation, that were being commercialized for production of fuels from biomass and would be pivotal in future biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Specifically, we had studied the aldolpyrolysis over zeolites and the trans-esterification of vegetable oil with methanol over mixed oxide catalysts. Our research has indicated that the base strength of framework nitrogen in nitrogen substituted zeolites (NH-zeolites) is nearly twice as strong as in standard zeolites. Nitrogen substituted catalysts have been synthesized from several zeolites (including FAU, MFI, BEA, and LTL) using NH3 treatment.

  10. 75 FR 14669 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... that the corn ethanol production co-product, distillers grains and solubles (DGS), is more efficient as... Renewable Fuel 3. Additional Control Cases Considered B. Renewable Fuel Production 1. Corn/Starch Ethanol a... Costs a. Corn Ethanol b. Cellulosic Ethanol i. Feedstock Costs ii. Production Costs for...

  11. 75 FR 76789 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... qualifying domestic corn ethanol production capacity to meet the balance of the total renewable fuel standard... biomass-based diesels, advanced biofuels, and other conventional renewable fuels such as corn-ethanol... capacity of 250,000 gallons of ethanol per year and uses an enzymatic hydrolysis process to convert...

  12. 75 FR 26025 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Technologies for Renewable Fuel Pathways The final RFS2 rule includes two corn ethanol pathways in Table 1 of..., or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Regulated categories and entities affected by this... products merchant wholesalers. Industry 424710 5171 Petroleum bulk stations and terminals. Industry...

  13. 78 FR 49793 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... renewable fuel volume of 16.55 bill gal. \\4\\ Non-advanced is composed primarily of corn ethanol, but may.... We believe there will be sufficient volumes of conventional renewable fuel including corn ethanol... specified in the Act. For instance, current corn ethanol production capacity is 14.5 bill gal, compared...

  14. 77 FR 462 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... advanced biofuel. Naphtha and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)--qualifying as advanced biofuel. Energy cane... renewable jet fuel and heating oil), and naphtha--qualifying as cellulosic biofuel. Renewable gasoline and... pathway for jet fuel, naphtha, and LPG produced from camelina oil through hydrotreating. This ] is based...

  15. 75 FR 42237 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... those producers who use canola oil, grain sorghum, pulpwood, or palm oil to produce renewable fuel. The... canola oil, grain sorghum, pulpwood, or palm oil to produce renewable fuel, and only if EPA determines.... Additionally, EPA is required to set the cellulosic biofuel standard each year based on the volume projected...

  16. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  17. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  18. Polymer biocomposites with renewable sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kuciel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays production of natural biodegradable polymer composites is an important research topic on the stage of renewable sourcesimplementation instead of petrochemical sources. In this work, possibilities of processing biocomposites on the base on different types of biopolymers – polylactide (PLA, thermoplastic starch (TPS, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, cellulose acetate (CA - filled with natural fibers such as wood, kenaf, horse hair and nettle are presented. Large variety of natural fibers and their developed surface which increases adhesion to matrix makes them an attractive filler material. The fibers serve as reinforcement by giving strength and stiffness to the structure while the polymer matrix holds the fibers in place so that suitable structural composites can be made. Main physic-mechanical properties of natural fibers and biopolymers are presented. Modulus of elasticity and tensile strength increased with rising content of natural fibers in composite. The results show that biocomposites based on starch or PHB filled with kenaf fibers has the best mechanical properties. Modulus of elasticity achieves 10-12 GPa and tensile strength 50 MPa. This property can be interesting for packaging especially for fresh food like fruits or vegetables and for technical products with short-time life cycles. In future prospects, biocomposites based on biopolymers with a long time of decomposition can be interesting alternative as a construction material in automotive sectors.

  19. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...

  20. Optimal portfolio selection between different kinds of Renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakerinia, MohammadSaleh; Piltan, Mehdi; Ghaderi, Farid

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, selection of the optimal energy supply system in an industrial unit is taken into consideration. This study takes environmental, economical and social parameters into consideration in modeling along with technical factors. Several alternatives which include renewable energy sources, micro-CHP systems and conventional system has been compared by means of an integrated model of linear programming and three multi-criteria approaches (AHP, TOPSIS and ELECTRE III). New parameters like availability of sources, fuels' price volatility, besides traditional factors are considered in different scenarios. Results show with environmental preferences, renewable sources and micro-CHP are good alternatives for conventional systems.

  1. Safe handling of renewable fuels and fuel mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    VTT Energy has for several years carried out co-operation with many European research institutes on contractional basis on safety issues of fuels handling. A two-year co-operational project between VTT Energy and these research institutes was started in EU`s JOULE 3 programme in 1996, the total budget of which is 6.9 million FIM. Dust explosion testing method for `difficult` fuels, and for tests at elevated pressures and temperatures, will be developed in the task `Safe handling of renewable fuels and fuel mixtures`. Self- ignition and dust-explosion characteristics will be generated for wood and agro-biomass based biomasses and for the mixtures of them and coal. Inertization requirements will be studied, and the quenching method, combined with partial inertization, will be tested in 1.0 m{sup 3} test equipment. The ignition properties of the fuels under normal and elevated pressures will be characterised with thermobalances. The self-ignition tests with wood and forest residue dusts at 25 bar pressure have been carried out as scheduled. In addition to this, several fuels have undergone thermobalance tests, sieve analyses and microscopic studies for the characterisation of the fuels

  2. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This booklet describes in simple terms the so-called new renewable energy sources: solar energy, biomass, wind power and wave power. In addition, there are brief discussions on hydrogen, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), tidal power, geothermal energy, small hydropower plants and energy from salt gradients. The concept of new renewable energy sources is used to exclude large hydropower plants as these are considered conventional energy sources. The booklet also discusses the present energy use, the external frames for new renewable energy sources, and prospects for the future energy supply.

  3. Microalgae: An Alternative Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. A. Saifullah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the potentiality of microalgae with particular emphasis as a sustainable renewable energy source for biodiesel. One of the most important dilemmas of the modern world is to supply maximal amount of energy with minimal environmental impact. The total energy demand of our planet is increasing with population growth whereas the fossil fuel reserves are dwindling swiftly. Biodiesel produced from biomass is widely considered to be one of the most sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and a viable means for energy security and environmental and economic sustainability. But as a large area of arable land is required to cultivate biodiesel producing terrestrial plants, it may lead towards food scarcity and deforestation. Microalgae have a number of characteristics that allow the production concepts of biodiesel which are significantly more sustainable than their alternatives. Microalgae possess high biomass productivity, oils with high lipid content, fast growth rates, possibility of utilizing marginal and infertile land, capable of growing in salt water and waste streams, and capable of utilizing solar light and CO2 gas as nutrients.

  4. Review of different renewable fuels for potential utilization in SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradis, H.; Andersson, M.; Yuan, J.; Sunden, B. [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Sciences

    2010-07-01

    A literature review was carried out to enhance knowledge about alternative fuels for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). This paper outlined the materials and structure of SOFCs along with the possibilities involving SOFCs fed with different renewable fuels. The alternative fuels discussed in this study were methanol, ethanol, di-methyl-ether (DME), ammonia, biogas and and natural gas (methane). Finally, the different hydrogen-based fuels were compared and analyzed. Due to their high operating temperature and suitable catalyst material, SOFCs provide a good enough environment for renewable fuels. The development of new catalyst materials could help promote the use of alternative fuels in SOFCs, so they can better tolerate impurities and effectively reform the hydrocarbon fuels. The high cost for both SOFCs and the alternative fuels remains a concern for market implementation. It was concluded that although renewable fuels in SOFCs are promising and have shown good tendency as an energy provider, further research is still needed. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. 75 FR 43522 - Notice of Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... of fuel pathways such as ethanol from corn starch or biodiesel from soybean oil our reference case... transportation fuels, including gasoline and diesel fuel or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel... assumed that the co- product glycerin would displace residual oil as a fuel source on an energy...

  6. Renewable power sources. Data to compare; Sources renouvelables d'electricite. Des chiffres pour comparer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Multon, B. [Ecole Normale Superieure, 94 - Cachan (France)

    2003-05-01

    This article makes a status of production, growth and cost data for the different renewable energy sources used for power generation in order to give some elements of comparison between the different fossil, nuclear and renewable energy sources (total installed power, annual growth rate, load factor, service life, power of generator units, investment cost, fuel and maintenance costs, production costs and evolution costs). (J.S.)

  7. Multi-objective regulations on transportation fuels: Comparing renewable fuel mandates and emission standards

    OpenAIRE

    D. Rajagopal; Plevin, R; Hochman, G; Zilberman, D.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We compare two types of fuel market regulations - a renewable fuel mandate and a fuel emission standard - that could be employed to simultaneously achieve multiple outcomes such as reduction in fuel prices, fuel imports and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We compare these two types of regulations in a global context taking into account heterogeneity in carbon content of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels. We find that although neither the ethanol mandate nor the emissi...

  8. Catalytic conversion of renewable biomass resources to fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Ruiz, Juan Carlos; West, Ryan M; Dumesic, James A

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is renewable and cheap, and it has the potential to displace fossil fuels in the production of fuels and chemicals. Biomass-derived carboxylic acids are important compounds that can be used as platform molecules for the production of a variety of important chemicals on a large scale. Lactic acid, a prototypical biomass derivative, and levulinic acid, an important chemical feedstock produced by hydrolysis of waste cellulosic materials, can be upgraded using bifunctional catalysts (those containing metal and acid sites), which allows the integration of several transformations (e.g., oxygen removal and C-C coupling) in a single catalyst bed. This coupling between active sites is beneficial in that it reduces the complexity and cost of the biomass conversion processes. Deoxygenation of biomass derivatives is a requisite step for the production of fuels and chemicals, and strategies are proposed to minimize the consumption of hydrogen from an external source during this process.

  9. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

  10. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  11. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective...... renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...... to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid...

  12. Research on bioorganic fuels as power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, Markku J.; Spets, Jukka-Pekka [Aalto University, Department of Energy Technology-TKK, Applied Thermodynamics, PO Box 4400, FI-02201 TKK (Finland); Kiros, Yohannes [Royal Institute of Technology-KTH, Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, S100-44 Stockholm (Sweden); Anttila, Tomi [Oy Hydrocell Ltd, Minkkikatu 1-3, 04430 Jaervenpaeae (Finland)

    2010-11-15

    This paper deals with the kind of the bioorganic fuel cells that are equipped with or without ion exchange membranes. The bioorganic materials of interest are alcohols (methanol, ethanol) and glucose, which are obtained from renewable energy sources such as biomass. The operation temperatures of the direct fuel cells cover from room temperature up to 150 C. The direct bioorganic fuel cells belong to the subject area of 'Advanced fuel cells' of the Working group 4 in the EU COST Action 543 among the collaborating Universities and Institutes. Bioorganic fuel cells are suitable for application in small portable power sources, such as backups, battery chargers and in electronic devices. A number of current and earlier works are summarised and advances are highlighted in this area with special emphasis on glucose as a fuel. (author)

  13. Biodegradable plastics from renewable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, M; Kantorová, M; Prell, A; Rezanka, T; Votruba, J

    2003-01-01

    Plastic waste disposal is a huge ecotechnological problem and one of the approaches to solving this problem is the development of biodegradable plastics. This review summarizes data on their use, biodegradability, commercial reliability and production from renewable resources. Some commercially successful biodegradable plastics are based on chemical synthesis (i.e. polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, and polyvinyl alcohol). Others are products of microbial fermentations (i.e. polyesters and neutral polysaccharides) or are prepared from chemically modified natural products (e.g., starch, cellulose, chitin or soy protein).

  14. 77 FR 1319 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2012 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... process to convert corn cobs into ethanol. In conversations with EPA in July 2011 DDCE indicated that this... fuel or renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Potentially regulated categories include: NAICS... organic chemical manufacturing. Industry 424690 5169 Chemical and allied products merchant...

  15. 75 FR 26049 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Technologies for Renewable Fuel Pathways The final RFS2 rule includes two corn ethanol pathways in Table 1 of... fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. Regulated categories and entities affected by this action include... basic organic chemical manufacturers. Industry 424690 5169 Chemical and allied products...

  16. Algae oil: a sustainable renewable fuel of future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Abishek, Monford; Patel, Jay; Prem Rajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come.

  17. Algae Oil: A Sustainable Renewable Fuel of Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monford Paul Abishek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come.

  18. CARDOON, RENEWABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia NEAGU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus is a herbaceous perennial plant in the vegetable, artichoke, wild or garden, which belongs to the Compositae family (Asteraceae Compositae-and more precisely Cynara species and is grown specifically for the production of biomass (solid bio fuel as a pellet, or solid and liquid bio fuel, bio diesel. In this paper I have tried to highlight the profitability and economic efficiency of growing of this plant. Production capacity exceeding 2 tonnes dry matter/1000mp. The yield depends on climatic conditions, adequate soil moisture, soil nutrients, and range from 1 to 3 t/1000mp, dry. Cardoon seed contains on average 24% oil (category: 19-32%, with the same qualities as the sunflower. Quantity of seed production to 480 kgs/1000mp, while ordinary productivities range 70 to 330 kg/1000mp, always depending on the total biomass production. Growing cardooncan replace traditional crops, partly by ensuring a good profit for the farmer (double the wheat and rapeseed and bio fuel production with high energy content. Solid bio fuels (pellets, briquettes, artichokes, etc. can reach the enduser, at prices up to 30-40% lower than the price of oil. Because cardoon is a perennial plant which grows once every 10-12 years, and preparing the ground and sowing it will be carried out at intervals so large (this plant is harvested annually,it is remarkable cost reduction efficiency of growing this plant.In addition to the obvious environmental advantages by producing green energy, growing artichokes garden preserves the soil covered for the most part of the year, thereby minimizing the risk of soil erosion and limit the pollution of soil and groundwater with agrochemical products, especially in areas with intensive agriculture, because it does not require additional fertilization and/or with the use of chemical fertilizers or pesticides.

  19. Spirogyra biomass a renewable source for biofuel (bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Salem Eshaq

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels refer to renewable fuels from biological sources that can be used for heat, electricity and fuel. The fuels obtained from algae are termed as third generation fuels. The production of fuel from algae provides many advantages when compared to the fuel produced from other sources like agrobased raw materials. Other than environmental pollution control the algal biofuel will help in reduction of the fuel cost when compared to the agrobased and fossil fuels. In the present study algae specifically Spirogyra was used for the production of bioethanol by the fermentative process. A comparative study was carried out by using chemically pre-treated anduntreated Spirogyra biomass. The Spirogyra has a very simple cell wall made up of cellulose and starch that can be converted to ethanol by the fermentation process. The Spirogyra biomass was subjected to saccharification process by the fungal organism Aspergillus niger MTCCC 2196 for the hydrolysis, this process was followed by the fermentation using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC170 for the production of alcohol. A high yield of ethanol was recorded for untreated Spirogyra biomass when compared to chemically pre-treated biomass. The yield of alcohol using algal biomass is more when compared to alcohol produced from other sources like agrobased rawmaterials.

  20. Biodiesel Fuel Production from Algae as Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B.M. Sharif Hossain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is biodegradable, less CO2 and NOx emissions. Continuous use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and the contribution of these fuels to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Algae have emerged as one of the most promising sources for biodiesel production. It can be inferred that algae grown in CO2-enriched air can be converted to oily substances. Such an approach can contribute to solve major problems of air pollution resulting from CO2 evolution and future crisis due to a shortage of energy sources. This study was undertaken to know the proper transesterification, amount of biodiesel production (ester and physical properties of biodiesel. In this study we used common species Oedogonium and Spirogyra to compare the amount of biodiesel production. Algal oil and biodiesel (ester production was higher in Oedogonium than Spirogyra sp. However, biomass (after oil extraction was higher in Spirogyra than Oedogonium sp. Sediments (glycerine, water and pigments was higher in Spirogyra than Oedogonium sp. There was no difference of pH between Spirogyra and Oedogonium sp. These results indicate that biodiesel can be produced from both species and Oedogonium is better source than Spirogyra sp.

  1. Market analysis: renewable fuels; Marktanalyse - Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This new publication of Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) e.V. presents an analysis of markets and potentials. The Meo Consulting Team of Cologne analyzed the importance of various products in Germany, as well as electric power, heat, and fuels. The ''Marktanalyse Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'' is available for free at FNR. It contains a detailed survey, with many figures and graphs. It is shown that oils, fats, sugar, starch and fibres of renewable materials have become established products in the market. Political boundary conditions have great importance, as is shown in the data for bioenergy, where dynamic growth is expected both for electric power from biogas and for biofuels. The study is in two parts. The first part analyzes electrical and thermal energy as well as biofuels. The second part goes into lubricants, chemical feedstocks, varnishes and lacquers, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. There are also sections on paper, cardboard and carton, packaging products, fibre-reinforced materials and formed parts, textiles, construction materials, insulating materials and furniture. (orig.)

  2. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, J.V.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

  3. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, J.V.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

  4. Micro and macroalgal biomass: a renewable source for bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rojan P; Anisha, G S; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Pandey, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Population outburst together with increased motorization has led to an overwhelming increase in the demand for fuel. In the milieu of economical and environmental concern, algae capable of accumulating high starch/cellulose can serve as an excellent alternative to food crops for bioethanol production, a green fuel for sustainable future. Certain species of algae can produce ethanol during dark-anaerobic fermentation and thus serve as a direct source for ethanol production. Of late, oleaginous microalgae generate high starch/cellulose biomass waste after oil extraction, which can be hydrolyzed to generate sugary syrup to be used as substrate for ethanol production. Macroalgae are also harnessed as renewable source of biomass intended for ethanol production. Currently there are very few studies on this issue, and intense research is required in future in this area for efficient utilization of algal biomass and their industrial wastes to produce environmentally friendly fuel bioethanol. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  6. Accounting Methodology for Source Energy of Non-Combustible Renewable Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As non-combustible sources of renewable power (wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal) do not consume fuel, the “source” (or “primary”) energy from these sources cannot be accounted for in the same manner as it is for fossil fuel sources. The methodology chosen for these technologies is important as it affects the perception of the relative size of renewable source energy to fossil energy, affects estimates of source-based building energy use, and overall source energy based metrics such as energy productivity. This memo reviews the methodological choices, outlines implications of each choice, summarizes responses to a request for information on this topic, and presents guiding principles for the U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to use to determine where modifying the current renewable source energy accounting method used in EERE products and analyses would be appropriate to address the issues raised above.

  7. Does a renewable fuel standard for biofuels reduce climate costs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Hoel, Michael; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2012-07-01

    Recent contributions have questioned whether biofuels policies actually lead to emissions reductions, and thus lower climate costs. In this paper we make two contributions to the literature. First, we study the market effects of a renewable fuel standard. Opposed to most previous studies we model the supply of fossil fuels taking into account that fossil fuels is a non-renewable resource. Second, we model emissions from land use change explicitly when we evaluate the climate effects of the renewable fuel standard. We find that extraction of fossil fuels most likely will decline initially as a consequence of the standard. Thus, if emissions from biofuels are sufficiently low, the standard will have beneficial climate effects. Furthermore, we find that the standard tends to reduce total fuel (i.e., oil plus biofuels) consumption initially. Hence, even if emissions from biofuels are substantial, climate costs may be reduced. Finally, if only a subset of countries introduce a renewable fuel standard, there will be carbon leakage to the rest of the world. However, climate costs may decline as global extraction of fossil fuels is postponed.(Author)

  8. 78 FR 9281 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... biofuel standard for 2013. Combined with the availability of conventional biofuels such as corn ethanol.... imported 101 million gallons of sugarcane ethanol from Brazil and exported 396 million gallons of corn... conventional renewable fuel including corn-ethanol, combined with advanced biofuel, to satisfy the...

  9. Renewable energy sources 1991, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicka, L.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources was held in Prague on 1-4 Jul. 1991. Part 2 of the proceedings is devoted to the use of the energy of wind, biogas, and small hydroelectric sources. The publication contains 14 contributions, of which 3 were inputted in INIS. Topics covered include: a wind power plant in Sweden and its environmental impacts, economic aspects of the introduction of alternative energy sources in Czechoslovakia, and the efficiency of application of a Fresnel lens-based solar collector.

  10. Renewable energy sources 1991, part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalicka, L.

    1991-12-01

    The Fourth International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources was held at Prague Technical University from 1-4 Jul. 1991. Part 3 of the proceedings contains a report on the conference and 10 contributions, of which 2 were inputted in INIS: one deals with the economic problems of wind-, solar- and oil-driven water pumps, the other deals with the decrease in sunshine brought about by the operation of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants.

  11. Meeting the U.S. renewable fuel standard: a comparison of biofuel pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Y. Menetrez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The production of renewable energy is undergoing rapid development. Ethanol primarily derived from corn and biodiesel made from recycled cooking oil and agricultural grains are established sources of renewable transportation fuel. Cellulosic ethanol production is increasing substantially, but at a rate below expectations. If future renewable fuel projections are to be accomplished, additional sources will be needed. Ideally, these sources should be independent of competing feedstock use such as food grains, and require a minimal footprint. Although the uses of algae seem promising, a number of demonstrations have not been economically successful in today‟s market. This paper identifies efforts being conducted on ethanol and biodiesel production and how algae might contribute to the production of biofuel in the United States. Additionally, the feedstock and land requirements of existing biofuel pathways are compared and discussed.

  12. Microalgae as a Renewable Source of Energy: A Niche Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jegan Porphy Jegathese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Algae are believed to be a good source of renewable energy because of its rapid growth rate and its ability to be cultivated in waste water or waste land. Several companies and government agencies are making efforts to reduce capital cost and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. Algae are the fastest growing plant and theoretically have the potential to produce more oil or biomass per acre when compared to other crops and plants. However, the energy efficiency ratio and carbon and water footprint for algal based biofuels still need to be evaluated in order to fully understand the environmental impact of algal derived biofuels.

  13. Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V. [and others

    1995-06-01

    In the fundamental biological process of photosynthesis, atmospheric carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrate using water as the source of electrons with simultaneous evolution of molecular oxygen: H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + light {yields} O{sub 2} + (CH{sub 2}O). It is well established that two light reactions, Photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) working in series, are required to perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Experimental data supporting the two-light reaction model are based on the quantum requirement for complete photosynthesis, spectroscopy, and direct biochemical analysis. Some algae also have the capability to evolve molecular hydrogen in a reaction energized by the light reactions of photosynthesis. This process, now known as biophotolysis, can use water as the electron donor and lead to simultaneous evolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen. In green algae, hydrogen evolution requires prior incubation under anaerobic conditions. Atmospheric oxygen inhibits hydrogen evolution and also represses the synthesis of hydrogenase enzyme. CO{sub 2} fixation competes with proton reduction for electrons relased from the photosystems. Interest in biophotolysis arises from both the questions that it raises concerning photosynthesis and its potential practical application as a process for converting solar energy to a non-carbon-based fuel. Prior data supported the requirement for both Photosystem I and Photosystem II in spanning the energy gap necessary for biophotolysis of water to oxygen and hydrogen. In this paper we report the at PSII alone is capable of driving sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen in an anaerobically adapted PSI-deficient strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutant B4, and that CO{sub 2} competes as an electron acceptor.

  14. AC Motor Drive Fed by Renewable Energy Sources with PWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pavalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this fast aproaching nature of technology the ned of Electricity becomes a mandatory in developing technology. The ned of Electricity increases the power demand where the power demand met by the conventional sources of energy has some disadvantage of polution, this disadvantage can be decreased by the use of the Renewable energy sources like Fuel Cel and available solar energy. When a FUEL cel produces AC power, basicaly two stages are required for conversion first a bosting stage and second is inversion stage. In this paper the Bost inverter topology is achieved where in the conventional methods the normal DC - AC power conversion method is used where as in this paper the PWM based DC - AC inverter has ben used which is useful in reducing the harmonics in the output of the Inverter. The voltage controled output is produced in the bost inverter the curent controled output is taken from dc-dc bidirectional converter. The Fuel cel canot be relied as a whole so a Solar PV module is conected acros the Load so while the Sunlight days the PV arays generate power and in the night time the Fuel cel is used to generate power for the load. Since, the Fuel cel and PV arays can generate power in Partial load they are prefered than any other sources. When the output from the Solar PV aray is low or when the sunlight available is not eficient in generating the power a automatic switch over is provided in the junction betwen the Solar PV aray and Fuel cel so that whenever it hapens the switch automaticaly switch over to another source. The simulation results are presented to confirm the operational feature of the proposed system.

  15. System and method for integration of renewable energy and fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a system and method for integrating renewable energy and a fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen, wherein this comprises the use of renewable energy as fluctuating energy source for the production of electricity and also comprises the use of at least one f

  16. THE NEED FOR THE USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorash O. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals main reasons for developing tendencies to the using of new types of energy, which are limited supply of traditional fuels and environmental problems associated with its processing. It is shown that new forms of energy plays an important role in the energy supply of many countries of the world, and in the future they can become the main sources of energy to meet the growing needs of the global economy. We reveal main reasons of the increasing interest in renewable energy, and we show the obvious prospects of their use, due to two factors. First, according to experts, the global reserves of traditional fuels are limited, and secondly, this was evidenced by the investments of leading countries in this promising industry. The article lists reasons for the need for the use of renewable energy sources in Russia. Increased consumption of natural resources has become a real threat to the security of the life of human society. The basis of solving modern social and environmental problems is a transition to a regulated process of safe use of natural energy potential to meet the vital needs of people not only in the coming decades, but in the long run. It is concluded, that the determining condition for the development of the human civilization at present and in the future would be the level of natural resources which ensures the needs of the population without making harm to the environment

  17. Capacitive Bioanodes Enable Renewable Energy Storage in Microbial Fuel Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deeke, A.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an integrated system for storage of renewable electricity in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The system contained a capacitive electrode that was inserted into the anodic compartment of an MFC to form a capacitive bioanode. This capacitive bioanode was compared with a noncapacitive

  18. Market analysis. Renewable fuels; Marktanalyse. Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR) had on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture created a study on the market development of renewable resources in Germany and published this in the year of 2006. The aim of that study was to identify of actual status and market performance of the individual market segments of the material and energetic use as a basis for policy recommendations for accelerated and long term successful market launch and market share expansion of renewable raw materials. On behalf of the FNR, a market analysis of mid-2011 was carried out until the beginning of 2013, the results of which are hereby resubmitted. This market analysis covers all markets of material and energetic use in the global context, taking account of possible competing uses. A market segmentation, which was based on the product classification of the Federal Statistical Office, formed the basis of the analysis. A total of ten markets have been defined, seven material and three energetic use. [German] Die Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR) hatte im Auftrag des BMEL eine Studie zur Marktentwicklung von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen in Deutschland erstellen lassen und diese im Jahr 2006 veroeffentlicht. Ziel der damaligen Studie war die Ermittlung von Ist-Zustand und Marktentwicklung der einzelnen Marktsegmente der stofflichen und energetischen Nutzung als Basis fuer Handlungsempfehlungen fuer eine beschleunigte und langfristig erfolgreiche Markteinfuehrung bzw. Marktanteilsausweitung nachwachsender Rohstoffe. Im Auftrag der FNR wurde erneut eine Marktanalyse von Mitte 2011 bis Anfang 2013 durchgefuehrt, deren Ergebnisse hiermit vorgelegt werden. Diese Marktanalyse umfasst alle Maerkte der stofflichen und energetischen Nutzung im globalen Kontext unter Beruecksichtigung moeglicher Nutzungskonkurrenzen. Eine Marktsegmentierung, die sich an der Produktklassifikation des Statistischen Bundesamtes orientierte, bildete die Grundlage der Analyse. Insgesamt

  19. 40 CFR 80.1415 - How are equivalence values assigned to renewable fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Non-ester renewable diesel with a lower heating value of at least 123,500 Btu/gal shall have an... renewable fuel that came from renewable biomass, expressed as a fraction, on an energy basis. EC = Energy... renewable fuel? 80.1415 Section 80.1415 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  20. U.S. Air Force Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    aircraft certification; airworthiness certification; fuel certification; hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ); hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids...and R-8X Hydrotreated Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel,” AFRL-RZ-WP-TR-2011-2020, May 2010. Bessee, G. et al. “Analysis of Synthetic Aviation Fuels... Hydrotreated Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel,” AFRL-RZ-WP-TR-2011-2020, May 2010. 4. Hadaller, O. J., Johnson, J. M., “World Fuel Sampling Program

  1. FINANCING RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES INVESTMENT IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Piotr Gwizdała

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, as in other European Union countries, the project finance structure is used to finance investments in the field of energy. This method investment financing is often used in the world. The upward trend inhibition in recent periods has been due to the global financial crisis and financial instability in the euro zone. On account of the necessity to develop the energy infrastructure associated with renewable sources, the considerable strengthening in the use of project finance techniques can be expected. The particular progression may be observed in the case of public-private partnership (ppp, where public investments are carried out by private companies. Companies, in case of investment realization in the field of ppp, almost always use project finance, because it is a beneficial way to separate the risks associated with an investment from the balance sheet of the compa-ny.

  2. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use...

  3. 77 FR 59458 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... water supply; The impact of renewable fuels on the energy security of the United States; The expected... taking this view generally did not offer any data or information to support their belief that 1.28...

  4. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Harold T.

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  5. Electric Vehicles - Promoting Fuel Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Danish Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)......Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)...

  6. Electric Vehicles - Promoting Fuel Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Danish Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)......Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)...

  7. Sustainable hydrocarbon fuels by recycling CO2 and H2O with renewable or nuclear energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Christopher R.; Ebbesen, Sune; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    . The dominant costs of the process are the electricity cost and the capital cost of the electrolyzer, and this capital cost is significantly increased when operating intermittently (on renewable power sources such as solar and wind). The potential of this CO2 recycling process is assessed, in terms of what......) and biofuels have received the most attention, similar hydrocarbons can be produced without using fossil fuels or biomass. Using renewable and/or nuclear energy, carbon dioxide and water can be recycled into liquid hydrocarbon fuels in non-biological processes which remove oxygen from CO2 and H2O (the reverse...... dissociation, and fuel synthesis. Dissociation methods include thermolysis, thermochemical cycles, electrolysis, and photoelectrolysis of CO2 and/or H2O. High temperature co-electrolysis of H2O and CO2 makes very efficient use of electricity and heat (near-100% electricity-to-syngas efficiency), provides high...

  8. Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1995 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO95) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources--wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. The RFM also reads in hydroelectric facility capacities and capacity factors from a data file for use by the NEMS Electricity Market Module (EMM). The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological, cost and resource size characteristics of renewable energy technologies. These characteristics are used to compute a levelized cost to be competed against other similarly derived costs from other energy sources and technologies. The competition of these energy sources over the NEMS time horizon determines the market penetration of these renewable energy technologies. The characteristics include available energy capacity, capital costs, fixed operating costs, variable operating costs, capacity factor, heat rate, construction lead time, and fuel product price.

  9. Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1995 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO95) forecasts. The report catalogs and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources -- wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. The RFM also reads in hydroelectric facility capacities and capacity factors from a data file for use by the NEMS Electricity Market Module (EMM). The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological, cost, and resource size characteristics of renewable energy technologies. These characteristics are used to compute a levelized cost to be competed against other similarly derived costs from other energy sources and technologies. The competition of these energy sources over the NEMS time horizon determines the market penetration of these renewable energy technologies. The characteristics include available energy capacity, capital costs, fixed operating costs, variable operating costs, capacity factor, heat rate, construction lead time, and fuel product price.

  10. Hydrogen as a renewable and sustainable solution in reducing global fossil fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, Adnan; Dincer, Ibrahim [Energy Division, Mechanical Engineering Department, Nigde University, 51100 Nigde (Turkey); Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for reducing global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions are derived depending primarily upon the exergetic utilization ratios of fossil fuels and hydrogen: the fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency, fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator. These relations incorporate predicted exergetic utilization ratios for hydrogen energy from non-fossil fuel resources such as water, etc., and are used to investigate whether or not exergetic utilization of hydrogen can significantly reduce the fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient (ranging from 1 to +{infinity}) indicating the fossil fuel consumption and contribute to increase the hydrogen based global exergetic indicator (ranging from 0 to 1) indicating the hydrogen utilization at a certain ratio of fossil fuel utilization. In order to verify all these exergetic expressions, the actual fossil fuel consumption and production data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. For the verification of these parameters, the variations of fossil fuel based global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based global exergetic indicator as the functions of fossil fuel based global waste exergy factor, hydrogen based global exergetic efficiency and exergetic utilization of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels are analyzed and discussed in detail. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels

  11. Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V.; Blankinship, S.L.

    1996-06-01

    In the current and prevailing concept of photosynthesis, the Z-scheme, first proposed by Hill and Bendall, PSII can split water, but is not thought to be able to perform one of PSI`s assigned functions-the reduction of ferredoxin/NADP{sup +} essential for CO{sub 2} assimilation. The Z-scheme therefore requires both PSII and PSI working in sequence for complete photosynthesis using water as the source of electrons and CO{sub 2} as the terminal electron acceptor. Despite disagreement from several investigators, the Z-scheme has become the textbook model of photosynthesis. Recently, we have demonstrated that sustained photoassimilation of CO{sub 2} and evolution of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} in minimal medium can be achieved by the PSII light reaction without involvement of PSI in a PSI-deficient mutant of Chlamydomonas grown photoheterotrophically using an organic nutrient (acetate). In this paper, we report a more exciting discovery that PSI-deficient mutants of Chlamydomonas were capable of growing photoautotrophically with CO{sub 2} as the sole source of carbon. Since the Z-scheme requires both PSI and PSII working together in series for complete photosynthesis, it predicts that PSI-deficient mutants of green algae will not grow photoautotrophically. The discovery of photoautotrophic growth of PSI-deficient green algae without any organic nutrients, therefore, provides clear and solid evidence for the existence of a new type of photosynthesis-{open_quotes}PSII photosynthesis{close_quotes} that is an alternative to the Z-scheme. Our discovery may also provide an explanation for many {open_quotes}anomalous{close_quotes} quantum requirements that have been reported over the last 50 years, but failed to be explained by the Z-scheme.

  12. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  13. Biochar As a Renewable Energy Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Biochar is a form of charcoal prepared by heating biomass in limited air. It is porous and has high surface area, maintaining much of the morphology of the biomass. The heat for its preparation arises primarily from burning volatiles emitted upon heating. About half the chemical energy in the biomass is contained in the biochar, about 40% is used for the conversion, and about 10% may be used as a local heat source. The biochar can serve as a soil additive where it acts as a template for the growth of bacteria and fungi which then lead to improved growth of biomass by as much as several hundred percent. It remains inert in the soil for many years. Thus, it sequesters the carbon, originally coming from the carbon dioxide absorbed during the photosynthesis occurring during the growth of the biomass. Its use reduces fertilizer and water needs and to pollution arising from the run-off of fertilizer and emission of noxious vapors. Its use is best done at a local level, close to sources of biomass from farm and forest waste. The Pioneer Valley Biochar Initiative along with the Center of Agriculture of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst is promoting the use of biochar on local farms which reduces their dependence on energy arising from fossil fuel and nuclear sources.

  14. Effective Land Use for Renewable Energy Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Teunis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the energy densities for different methods to produce renew-able energy. Energy density is defined here as the energy that is annually produced on a certain area. Using low, average, and high energy density scenari

  15. An Analysis of the Development of Renewable Energy Sources in the Western Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yanfei; Liu Mingyang

    2016-01-01

    The biggest challenge for China’s energy is sustainability of the environment. Espe-cially in recent years, global warming, frequent natural disasters, and the serious reduction of the natural resources and energy are gravely affecting normal production and mankind’s existence. Burn-ing large amounts of fossil fuel produces green-house gases and polluted soot. The development and utilization of renewable energy is extremely ur-gent. In other words, renewable energy sources must grow briskly. Under the guidance of the na-tional policy of the“13 th Five Year Plan”, the de-velopment and utilization of renewable energy sources in the Western Minority Areas must be strengthened based on local conditions, by paying attention to relevant personnel training, and en-couraging innovation and entrepreneurship so that the development of local renewable energy sources can reach a new level.

  16. Final Progress Report, Renewable and Logistics Fuels for Fuel Cells at the Colorado School of Mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Neal P. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-08-06

    The objective of this program is to advance the current state of technology of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to improve performance when operating on renewable and logistics hydrocarbon fuel streams. Outcomes will include: 1.) new SOFC materials and architectures that address the technical challenges associated with carbon-deposit formation and sulfur poisoning; 2.) new integration strategies for combining fuel reformers with SOFCs; 3.) advanced modeling tools that bridge the scales of fundamental charge-transfer chemistry to system operation and control; and 4.) outreach through creation of the Distinguished Lecturer Series to promote nationwide collaboration with fuel-cell researchers and scientists.

  17. Six-Phase Vehicular Drive with Renewable DC Sources and Hybrid PWM Control of Four Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Ermuratskii, Vladimir; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents results of research of quad-inverter-based automotive system with combined scheme of PWM control of inverters, supplied by two renewable dc sources (by fuel cells and by battery). It has been shown, that hybrid switching techniques can be used successfully for control of vehicle...

  18. A potential of utilizing renewable energy sources and the state support in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Bodonská

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy supplies and the diversification of energy sources. The utilization of such sources complies with the environmental acceptability requirement and leads to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumers and uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more, the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society.Several renewable energy technologies are established in world markets, building global industries and infrastructures. Other renewables become competitive in growing markets, and some are widely recognised as the lowest cost option for stand-alone and offgrid applications. An increased utilization of renewable energy sources in the heat and electricity generation is one of priority tasks of the Slovak Republic to boost the use of domestic energy potential and thus to decrease the Slovakia’s dependence on imported fossil fuels.

  19. Policy Enabling Environment for Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-09

    Interest in renewable energy (RE) procurement in new markets is on the rise. Corporations are increasing their commitments to procuring RE, motivated by an interest in using clean energy sources and reducing their energy expenses. Many large companies have facilities and supply chains in multiple countries, and are interested in procuring renewable energy in the grids where they use energy. The policy environment around the world plays a key role in shaping where and how corporations will invest in renewables. This fact sheet details findings from a recent 21st Century Power Partnership report, Policies to Enable Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing Internationally.

  20. Hydrothermal Conversion in Near-Critical Water – A Sustainable Way of Producing Renewable Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Liquid fuels from biomass will form an essential part of meeting the grand challenges within energy. The need for renewable and sustainable energy sources is triggered by a number of factors; like increase in global energy demand, depletion of conventional resources, climate issues and the desire...... for national/regional energy independence. Especially in marine, aviation and heavy land transport suitable carbon neutral drop-in fuels from biomass are needed, since electrification of those is rather unlikely. Hydrothermal conversion (HTC) of biomass offers a solution and is a sustainable way of converting...

  1. Hydrothermal Conversion in Near-Critical Water – A Sustainable Way of Producing Renewable Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Liquid fuels from biomass will form an essential part of meeting the grand challenges within energy. The need for renewable and sustainable energy sources is triggered by a number of factors; like increase in global energy demand, depletion of conventional resources, climate issues and the desire...... for national/regional energy independence. Especially in marine, aviation and heavy land transport suitable carbon neutral drop-in fuels from biomass are needed, since electrification of those is rather unlikely. Hydrothermal conversion (HTC) of biomass offers a solution and is a sustainable way of converting...

  2. New renewable energy sources; Nye fornybare energikilder. Revidert utgave 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewables in the energy system of the future.

  3. Pollutant emissions and environmental assessment of ethyl 3-ethoxybutyrate, a potential renewable fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, John M E; Bunce, Michael P; Clarke, Edwina M; Edmonds, Jennifer W; Findlay, Robert H; Ritchie, Stephen M C; Eyers, Laurent; McMurry, Zackery A; Smoot, James C

    2016-09-01

    Renewable and bio-based transportation fuel sources can lower the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles. We present an initial assessment of ethyl 3-ethoxybutyrate (EEB) as a biofuel in terms of its performance as a fuel oxygenate and its persistence in the environment. EEB can be produced from ethanol and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, a bacterial storage polymer that can be produced from non-food biomass and other organic feedstocks. Physicochemical properties of EEB and fuel-relevant properties of EEB-gasoline blends were measured, emissions of criteria pollutants from EEB as a gasoline additive in a production vehicle were evaluated, and fate and persistence of EEB in the environment were estimated. EEB solubility in water was 25.8 g/L, its Kow was 1.8, and its Henry's Law constant was 1.04 × 10(-5) atm-m(3)/mole. The anti-knock index values for 5 and 20 % v/v EEB-gasoline blends were 91.6 and 91.9, respectively. Reductions in fuel economy were consistent with the level of oxygenation, and criteria emissions were met by the vehicle operated over the urban dynamometer driving cycle (FTP 75). Predicted environmental persistence ranged from 15 to 30 days which indicates that EEB is not likely to be a persistent organic pollutant. In combination, these results suggest a high potential for the use of EEB as a renewable fuel source.

  4. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint. Given the positive role renewable energy plays in the energy mix, this paper examined the pattern of operational energy use with particular reference to the renewable and non-renewable energy content in medium and high density public residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey research method was adopted for primary data collection while data analysis was by descriptive statistics. The study found that renewable energy use in the residential units is very low. In contrast, there was high dependence of the occupants on non-renewable direct fuel combustion through the use of fossil fuel-driven privately-owned electricity generators for electricity supply as a result of the inadequate supply from the national grid. In addition to the relatively high operational energy intensity observed in the studied buildings, the findings have implications for the safety, health and wellbeing of the building occupants as well as for carbon emissions from the buildings and for overall environmental sustainability. Recommendations to increase renewable energy use in new buildings and as retrofits in existing buildings were made. Article History: Received Oct 18, 2015; Received in revised form January 14, 2016; Accepted January 30, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Ezema, I.C., Olotuah, A.O., and Fagbenle, O.I, S. (2016 Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1,15-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.15-24 

  5. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN POLAND - CONDITIONS AND POSSIBILITES OF DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, L.; Mokrzycki, E.; Ney, R.

    2007-07-01

    The paper describes the state of the art in renewable energy sources development. The obligation resulting from the membership of Poland in the European Union as well as from other international agreements in the scope of renewable energy sources development are described. The production of electricity, heat and biofuels in Poland is given and the perspectives of development of particular renewable energy sources in Poland are discussed in the view of potential reserves and other constrains. The economic aspects of renewable energy technologies are shown. The environmental pros and cons of biomass energy development are described. Arguments for development of renewable energy sources use are stated: the decrease of dependence from primary energy sources, the decrease the emission of green house gases and the recovery of agricultural regions of the country. In conclusion it is stated that the significance of renewable energy sources in Polish conditions is constrained to local societies. Their development should be adjusted to conditions predominating in a given region and that wider consumption of renewable energy sources should develop in conformity with sustainable development, so it is necessary to reach agreement between local societies, institutions dealing with environment protection and representatives of power sector. (auth)

  6. BIOMASS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, M. Murtala

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide demand for cleaner burning fuels and ‘clean’ chemicals has been increasing from the global issues of environmental concern. This lead to a greater utilization of renewable resources to replace the old and existing fossil based feedstock for liquid fuels and chemicals. The ability to re-grow harvested biomass and recapture the carbon emitted to the atmosphere through photosynthesis allows the possibility of carbon neutrality encouraged the use of biomass. Moreso, the unstable rise of oil prices, the negative effects of petroleum on the environment and the advantages of biomass towards sustainability of resources accelerated the development and utilization of unused biomass. This paper reviewed some of the potentials of biomass as a source of chemicals for industrial applications. Pyrolysis is considered to be one of the most employed technologies for the conversion of biomass into bio-oil, char and gases. The utilization of biomass for chemical manufacture can significantly eliminate the harmful effects of fossil based chemicals on the environment.

  7. A comparison between renewable transport fuels that can supplement or replace biofuels in a 100% renewable energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Ridjan, Iva

    2014-01-01

    Identifying renewable energy alternatives in transport is particularly complicated, since the end-user can vary from a single-person car to a cargo ship. The aim of this paper is to aid this process by comparing 7 different methods for producing transport fuels in terms of the resources required...... for these fuels. Based on the assumptions in this study, some of the renewable fuels proposed here would be cheaper than oil in the year 2050. However, this is based on fuel production costs only and does do not consider other key costs, such as the infrastructure costs, which will be considered in the future...

  8. Terminology used for renewable liquid and gaseous fuels based on the conversion of electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    As the transport sector transitions away from fossil fuels and renewable fuels shift into focus, it is important that the terminology around renewable fuels is clarified. A number of terms such as synthetic fuel and electrofuel are used to describe both renewable and alternative fuels. The aim...... of this article is to identify and review these terms to avoid any potential misuse. An integrative review of terminology has been made. This review did not differentiate the articles in terms of the methodologies applied, but had the main objective to identify the terminology used and its definition. The results...... confirm that the term synthetic fuel is used generically in the majority of articles, without providing information about the production process of the fuel or differentiating between fossil-based and renewable-based synthetic fuels. The majority of the articles use the term synthetic fuel to describe...

  9. Hydrothermal Liquefaction: A Promising Pathway Towards Renewable Jet Fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biller, Patrick; Roth, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Conversion of wet biomass and waste products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) has been evolving as an alternative thermochemical technology for the production of liquid biofuels. Processing of biomass slurries with approximately 20 % solids content under high temperature and pressure mimics...... the natural formation of fossil crude on earth. With reaction times of around 10 to 30 minutes, temperatures of 350 °C and pressures of around 200 bar, HTL converts any biomass feedstock to a liquid bio-crude. This raw product roughly resembles petroleum, but exhibits higher oxygen contents (~10 %) and has...... of feedstocks and products represents a major advantage over other thermochemical conversion processes. Future developments should address tailoring the process to meet specific fuel requirements, e.g. those of renewable aviation fuels. Recent HTL reactor developments have led to proven continuous operation...

  10. People’s Perceptions on Renewable Energy Sources Penetration Prospects in the Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahtiyor R. ESHCHANOV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The energy sectors of fossil fuel-rich Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are heavily dependent on non-renewable resources. The abundance of these resources acts as a retardant the process of energy diversification in the above mentioned Central Asian states. Nevertheless, the future diversification of energy sources is an inevitable process due to many reasons; man-made climate change, the need for transition to reliable and secure energy sources and availability of a vast potential for renewable energy generation being the most important ones.

  11. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  12. Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Xhevat BERISHA

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides background information on the current energy supply, energy demand, and energy sources in Kosovo. Moreover, it presents the country‟s current level of applying alternative energy sources. Additionally, this paper focuses on geothermal energy as a renewable energy resource with the potential to contribute to a sustainable use of resources to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency requirements of the European Union (EU), “EU 20 20 by 2020” policy. Hence, a careful analy...

  13. Covering of heating load of object by using ground heat as a renewable energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čenejac Aleksandra R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational use of energy, improving energy performance of buildings and use of renewable energy sources are the most important measures for reducing consumption of non-renewable primary energy (solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, environmental protection and for the future sustainable development of mankind. In the total primary energy consumption great part is related to building industry, for heating spaces in which people stay and live. Renewable energy sources (RES present natural resources and they are one of the alternatives that allow obtaining heat for heating buildings, and by that they provide a significant contribution to the energy balance of a country. This paper analyzes the participation of ground source as RES, when the vertical (the probe in the ground and horizontal (registry in the ground heat exchangers are used for covering heating load of the building.

  14. Waste-to-energy: A way from renewable energy sources to sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothari, Richa [Babasaheb BhimRao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P. (India); Tyagi, V.V.; Pathak, Ashish [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, 110016 (India)

    2010-12-15

    Nowadays, energy is key consideration in discussions of sustainable development. So, sustainable development requires a sustainable supply of clean and affordable renewable energy sources that do not cause negative societal impacts. Energy sources such as solar radiation, the winds, waves and tides are generally considered renewable and, therefore, sustainable over the relatively long term. Wastes and biomass fuels are usually viewed as sustainable energy sources. Wastes are convertible to useful energy forms like hydrogen (biohydrogen), biogas, bioalcohol, etc., through waste-to-energy technologies. In this article, possible future energy utilization patterns and related environmental impacts, potential solutions to current environmental problems and renewable energy technologies and their relation to sustainable development are discussed with great emphasis on waste-to-energy routes (WTERs). (author)

  15. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  16. Renewable energy sources offering flexibility through electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago

    All over the world, penetration of renewable energy sources in power systems has been increasing, creating new challenges in electricity markets and for operation and management of power systems, since power production from these resources is by nature uncertain and variable. New methods and tools...... governments. Renewable energy sources are characterized by their uncertain and variable production that limits the current operation and management tools of the power system. Nevertheless, recent developments of renewable energy technologies enable these resources to provide, to some extent, ancillary...... of future energy and reserve markets. Towards a power system based on distributed energy resources, mainly comprising renewable sources, new operation and management of distribution systems needs to be thought of. In fact, the existing passive distribution grid management does not provide the flexibility...

  17. Renewable energy based catalytic CH4 conversion to fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Jansen, I.; Schuttlefield, J.D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas is envisioned as a primary source of hydrocarbons in the foreseeable future. With the abundance of shale gas, the main concerns have shifted from the limited hydrocarbon availability to the sustainable methods of CH4 conversion to fuels. This is necessitated by high costs of natural gas

  18. Oilseeds for use in biodiesel and drop-in renewable jet fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseeds, primarily soybean and canola, are currently used as feedstocks for biodiesel production. Oilseeds can also be used to produce drop-in renewable jet fuel and diesel products. While soybean and canola are the most common oilseed crops used for renewable fuel production in the U.S., many othe...

  19. Iceland's renewable power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverrisdottir, V.

    2000-07-01

    The base of Iceland's natural resource consists of the fish stocks in the sea surrounding the country, the land with its soil and vegetation, enormous quantity of hot and cold spring water and renewable energy resources - both geothermal and hydro. The clean environment of the country, on which food-processing and tourism are based, may also be regarded as one of our most important natural resources. At last but not least the utilization of these resources are based on the highly educated and civilized people living in the country. In terms of the population size, Iceland has considerable untapped reserves of renewable energy. Further harnessing of these reserves for economic and sustainable development is an important task for the future and will probably play a large role in maintaining a high standards of living in Iceland in the near future. In this address I would like to say a few words about Iceland's energy resources, how we have utilized them, the main environmental aspects of the future utilisation and the governmental energy policy. (orig.)

  20. Study of renewable energy, fuel cell and demotics integration for stationary energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andaloro, L.; Ferraro, M.; Sergi, F.; Brunaccini, G.; Antonucci, V. [National Research Inst., Messina (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described a study in which a small house equipped with various renewable technologies was modelled. The aim of the study was to evaluated the integration of fuel cells with various other energy sources. Technologies installed in the house included a photovoltaic (PV) system; a hydrogen system; fuel cells; a battery-storage system; and a thermal solar panel. Maximum energy savings were evaluated for different configurations and combinations of the installed energy sources. A domotic system was also used to automatically control the use of electrical appliances and improve safety and comfort. An energy side management system was designed and compared with a demand side management system. Various scenarios were simulated in order to test the energy management systems in relation to the automated domotic system.

  1. Production of Solid Fuel by Torrefaction Using Coconut Leaves As Renewable Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Domnina Bote Pestaño

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The reserves of non-renewable energy sources such as coal, crude oil and natural gas are not limitless, they gradually get exhausted and their price continually increases. In the last four decades, researchers have been focusing on alternate fuel resources to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to avoid dependence on crude oil. Amongst different sources of renewable energy, biomass residues hold special promise due to their inherent capability to store solar energy and amenability to subsequent conversion to convenient solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. At present, among the coconut farm wastes such as husks, shell, coir dust and coconut leaves, the latter is considered the most grossly under-utilized by in situ burning in the coconut farm as means of disposal. In order to utilize dried coconut leaves and to improve its biomass properties, this research attempts to produce solid fuel by torrefaction using dried coconut leaves for use as alternative source of energy. Torrefaction is a thermal method for the conversion of biomass operating in the low temperature range of 200oC-300oC under atmospheric conditions in absence of oxygen. Dried coconut leaves were torrefied at different feedstock conditions. The key torrefaction products were collected and analyzed. Physical and combustion characteristics of both torrefied and untorrefied biomass were investigated. Torrefaction of dried coconut leaves significantly improved the heating value compared to that of the untreated biomass.  Proximate compositions of the torrefied biomass also improved and were comparable to coal. The distribution of the products of torrefaction depends highly on the process conditions such as torrefaction temperature and residence time. Physical and combustion characteristics of torrefied biomass were superior making it more suitable for fuel applications. Article History: Received June 24th 2016; Received in revised form August 16th 2016; Accepted 27th 2016; Available

  2. Capacitive bioanodes enable renewable energy storage in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeke, Alexandra; Sleutels, Tom H J A; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2012-03-20

    We developed an integrated system for storage of renewable electricity in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). The system contained a capacitive electrode that was inserted into the anodic compartment of an MFC to form a capacitive bioanode. This capacitive bioanode was compared with a noncapacitive bioanode on the basis of performance and storage capacity. The performance and storage capacity were investigated during polarization curves and charge-discharge experiments. During polarization curves the capacitive electrode reached a maximum current density of 1.02 ± 0.04 A/m(2), whereas the noncapacitive electrode reached a current density output of only 0.79 ± 0.03 A/m(2). During the charge-discharge experiment with 5 min of charging and 20 min of discharging, the capacitive electrode was able to store a total of 22,831 C/m(2), whereas the noncapacitive electrode was only able to store 12,195 C/m(2). Regarding the charge recovery of each electrode, the capacitive electrode was able to recover 52.9% more charge during each charge-discharge experiment compared with the noncapacitive electrode. The capacitive electrode outperformed the noncapacitive electrode throughout each charge-discharge experiment. With a capacitive electrode it is possible to use the MFC simultaneously for production and storage of renewable electricity.

  3. Economic and Emissions Impacts of Renewable Fuel Goals for Aviation in the US

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has a goal that one billion gallons of renewable jet fuel is consumed by the US aviation industry each year from 2018. We examine the economic and emissions impacts of this goal using renewable fuel produced from a Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) process from renewable oils. Our approach employs an economy-wide model of economic activity and energy systems and a detailed partial equilibrium model of the aviation industry. If soybean oi...

  4. Biologically Produced Methane as a Renewable Energy Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D E; Smith, J A

    2016-01-01

    Methanogens are a unique group of strictly anaerobic archaea that are more metabolically diverse than previously thought. Traditionally, it was thought that methanogens could only generate methane by coupling the oxidation of products formed by fermentative bacteria with the reduction of CO2. However, it has recently been observed that many methanogens can also use electrons extruded from metal-respiring bacteria, biocathodes, or insoluble electron shuttles as energy sources. Methanogens are found in both human-made and natural environments and are responsible for the production of ∼71% of the global atmospheric methane. Their habitats range from the human digestive tract to hydrothermal vents. Although biologically produced methane can negatively impact the environment if released into the atmosphere, when captured, it can serve as a potent fuel source. The anaerobic digestion of wastes such as animal manure, human sewage, or food waste produces biogas which is composed of ∼60% methane. Methane from biogas can be cleaned to yield purified methane (biomethane) that can be readily incorporated into natural gas pipelines making it a promising renewable energy source. Conventional anaerobic digestion is limited by long retention times, low organics removal efficiencies, and low biogas production rates. Therefore, many studies are being conducted to improve the anaerobic digestion process. Researchers have found that addition of conductive materials and/or electrically active cathodes to anaerobic digesters can stimulate the digestion process and increase methane content of biogas. It is hoped that optimization of anaerobic digesters will make biogas more readily accessible to the average person. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Renewable source controls for grid stability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Elliott, Ryan Thomas; Neely, Jason C.; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Schoenwald, David Alan; Grant, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the small signal and transient stability of the Western Electric- ity Coordinating Council (WECC) under high penetrations of renewable energy, and to identify control technologies that would improve the system performance. The WECC is the regional entity responsible for coordinating and promoting bulk electric system reliability in the Western Interconnection. Transient stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a large disturbance while small signal stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism after a small disturbance. Tran- sient stability analysis usually focuses on the relative rotor angle between synchronous machines compared to some stability margin. For this study we employed generator speed relative to system speed as a metric for assessing transient stability. In addition, we evaluated the system transient response using the system frequency nadir, which provides an assessment of the adequacy of the primary frequency control reserves. Small signal stability analysis typically identi es the eigenvalues or modes of the system in response to a disturbance. For this study we developed mode shape maps for the di erent scenarios. Prony analysis was applied to generator speed after a 1.4 GW, 0.5 second, brake insertion at various locations. Six di erent WECC base cases were analyzed, including the 2022 light spring case which meets the renewable portfolio standards. Because of the di culty in identifying the cause and e ect relationship in large power system models with di erent scenarios, several simulations were run on a 7-bus, 5-generator system to isolate the e ects of di erent con gurations. Based on the results of the study, for a large power system like the WECC, incorporating frequency droop into wind/solar systems provides a larger bene t to system transient response than replacing the lost inertia with synthetic inertia. From a small signal stability

  6. Renewable energy sources for sustainable tourism in the Carpathian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandryk, O. M.; Arkhypova, L. M.; Pobigun, O. V.; Maniuk, O. R.

    2016-08-01

    The use of renewable energy in sustainable tourism development of the region is grounded in the paper. There are three stages of selecting areas for projects of renewable energy sources: selection of potentially suitable area; consideration of exclusion criteria, detailed assessment of potential sites or areas. The factors of impact on spatial constraints and opportunities for building wind, solar and small hydro power plants on the parameters of sustainable tourism development in the Carpathian region were determined.

  7. Wind, hydro or mixed renewable energy source: Preference for electricity products when the share of renewable energy increases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    While the share of renewable energy, especially wind power, increases in the energy mix, the risk of temporary energy shortage increases as well. Thus, it is important to understand consumers' preference for the renewable energy towards the continuous growing renewable energy society. We use...... a discrete choice experiment to infer consumers' preferences when the share of renewable energy increases. The study results indicate that consumers are generally willing to pay extra for an increasing share of renewable energy, but the renewable energy should come from a mixture of renewable energy sources...

  8. Analysis The Potential Implementation And Use Of The Renewable Energy Sources In The Murmansk Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekardovskiy, S. M.; Zakirzakov, A. G.; Gordievskaya, E. F.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the geographical location of the Murmansk region and possibilities of using different renewable energy sources. Present the results of the analysis of using and practicality wind power to wind turbines to generate electricity. The paper presents of average annual consumption of electricity settlements in the Murmansk region, options for replacing the use of diesel fuel by wind energy and recommendations for possible areas of utilization of wind energy.

  9. Opportunities for renewable energy sources in Central Asia countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obozov, A.J. [Project KUN (Kyrgyzstan); Loscutoff, W.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the state of conventional energy sources and the potential for development of renewable energy sources in the Central Asia countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan. The region has a population of about 50 million in an area of more than four million square kilometers. The per capita gross internal product is more than $2,500, although the economy has been declining the past five years. The area has substantial coal, oil, uranium, and natural gas reserves, although they are not distributed equally among the five countries. Energy production is such that the countries do not have to rely heavily on imports. One of the problems in Central Asia is that the energy prices are substantially below the world prices. This is a factor in development of renewable energy sources. The primary renewable energy resources available are wind in Kazakhstan, solar in the entire region, biomass in Kyrgyzstan, and micro-hydropower stations in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. All of these have the potential to provide a significant amount of the required energy for the region. However, all of the countries have an abundance of various renewable energy resources. To effectively use these resources, however, a number of barriers to their development and commercialization must be overcome. These include low prices of conventional energy sources, absence of legislative support, lack of financing for new technologies, and lack of awareness of renewable energy sources by the population. A number of specific actions are proposed to overcome these barriers. These include establishment of a Central Asia coordinating council for renewable energy, development of a regional renewable energy program, and setting up a number of large demonstration projects. 16 figs.

  10. Renewable energy sources in Europe; Erneuerbare Energien in Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thorsten; Kahl, Hartmut (eds.)

    2015-07-01

    The book on renewable energy sources in Europe includes contributions on the following issues: Europe's energy and climate policy on the crossroad; possible promotion of renewable energy in Europe; regulation and innovations in a multi-level system - European energy and climate protection legislation - freedom of action for the member states; lessons learned - in the implementation of the European renewable energy guideline; Options for the development of the renewable energy guideline; status and development of the legal system of the energy domestic market; actual developments in the legislation of the EuGH on the compatibility of green electricity promotion systems with free movement on goods; Europe without critical power situations; prerequisites and consequences of a European electricity market coupling; selected grants of the EU commission for green energy promotion; assistance guidelines of the EU commission for energy and environment purposes.

  11. Investigation of the effects of renewable diesel fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Ogunkoya, Dolanimi

    2015-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate renewable fuels in a compression-ignition internal combustion engine. The focus of this study was the effect of newly developed renewable fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions. Eight fuels were investigated, and they include diesel, jet fuel, a traditional biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester: FAME), and five next generation biofuels. These five fuels were derived using a two-step process: hydrolysis of the oil into fatty acids (if necessary) and then a thermo-catalytic process to remove the oxygen via a decarboxylation reaction. The fuels included a fed batch deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids (DCFA), a fed batch deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids with varying amounts of H2 used during the deoxygenation process (DCFAH), a continuous deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids (CDCFA), fed batch deoxygenation of lauric acid (DLA), and a third reaction to isomerize the products of the deoxygenated canola derived fatty acid alkanes (IPCF). Diesel, jet fuel, and biodiesel (FAME) have been used as benchmarks for comparing with the newer renewable fuels. The results of the experiments show slightly lower mechanical efficiency but better brake specific fuel consumption for the new renewable fuels. Results from combustion show shorter ignition delays for most of the renewable (deoxygenated) fuels with the exception of fed batch deoxygenation of lauric acid. Combustion results also show lower peak in-cylinder pressures, reduced rate of increase in cylinder pressure, and lower heat release rates for the renewable fuels. Emission results show an increase in hydrocarbon emissions for renewable deoxygenated fuels, but a general decrease in all other emissions including NOx, greenhouse gases, and soot. Results also demonstrate that isomers of the alkanes resulting from the deoxygenation of the canola derived fatty acids could be a potential replacement to conventional fossil diesel and biodiesel based on the

  12. Can Hawaii Meet Its Renewable Fuel Target? Case Study of Banagrass-Based Cellulosic Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Banagrass is a biomass crop candidate for ethanol production in the State of Hawaii. This study examines: (i whether enough banagrass can be produced to meet Hawaii’s renewable fuel target of 20% highway fuel demand produced with renewable sources by 2020 and (ii at what cost. This study proposes to locate suitable land areas for banagrass production and ethanol processing, focusing on the two largest islands in the state of Hawaii—Hawaii and Maui. The results suggest that the 20% target is not achievable by using all suitable land resources for banagrass production on both Hawaii and Maui. A total of about 74,224,160 gallons, accounting for 16.04% of the state’s highway fuel demand, can be potentially produced at a cost of $6.28/gallon. Lower ethanol cost is found when using a smaller production scale. The lowest cost of $3.31/gallon is found at a production processing capacity of about 9 million gallons per year (MGY, which meets about 2% of state demand. This cost is still higher than the average imported ethanol price of $3/gallon. Sensitivity analysis finds that it is possible to produce banagrass-based ethanol on Hawaii Island at a cost below the average imported ethanol price if banagrass yield increases of at least 35.56%.

  13. International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Garcia, Angel; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Muljadi, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European...... Union to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve a target of deriving 20% of the European Union's final energy consumption from renewable sources, and to achieve 20% improvement in energy efficiency both by the year 2020 [1]. Member states have different individual goals to meet...

  14. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources. Annual performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, J.V.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year`s research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

  15. [U.S. renewable fuel standard implementation mechanism and market tracking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Liping; Earley, Robert; An, Feng; Zhang, Yu

    2013-03-01

    U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) is a mandatory policy for promoting the utilization of biofuels in road transpiration sector in order to reduce the country's dependency on foreign oil and greenhouse gas emissions. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines the proportion of renewable fuels according to RFS annual target, and requests obligated parties such like fossil fuel refiner, blenders and importer in the U.S. to complete Renewable Volume Obligation (RVO) every year. Obligated parties prove they have achieved their RVO through a renewable fuels certification system, which generates Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) for every gallon of qualified renewable fuels produced or imported into U.S., RINs is a key for tracking renewable fuel consumption, which in turn is a key for implementing the RFS in the U.S., separated RINs can be freely traded in market and obligated parties could fulfill their RVO through buying RINs from other stakeholders. This briefing paper highlights RFS policy implementing mechanism and marketing tracking, mainly describes importance of RINs, and the method for generating and tracking RINs by both government and fuels industry participants.

  16. FUEL CELL MANPACK POWER SOURCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    battery provides required power density and instantly available power while the fuel cell efficiently converts a primary fuel to electrical power at a...field supply, afford an extremely high energy density making the hybrid fuel cell system competitive on cost per kilowatt hour with standard military zinc-carbon primary batteries. (Author)

  17. Non-renewable and intermittent renewable energy sources: friends and foes?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranes, Edmond; JACQMIN, Julien; Jean-Christophe POUDOU

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the links between non-renewable and intermittent renewable energy sources in the production of electricity. Using U.S. state-level data from 1998 to 2015, we find that the relationship between the price of natural gas and investments in solar and wind capacity is non-linear and can be represented by an inverted U-shape. Hence, for relatively low natural gas prices, the two modes of production are substitutes. After a price threshold is reached, the two ...

  18. Stochastic Optimization of Power System Operation in Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumbrava V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization process of the energy market structure determined significant changes in the electric utility industry, from both generating and transmission perspectives, and new generation technologies emerged, deeply influencing the industry profile. Nowadays, based on the governmental incentives and free access to the power systems, the share of renewable energy sources in the bulk power system generation is increasing. With respect to the classical fuel-based sources, the renewable energy sources (like photovoltaic and wind turbines have an intermittent character determined by the meteorological conditions. Their production cannot be known exactly, but can be forecasted with some degree of accuracy. Thus, within the power system, network measures must be adopted for ensuring its safe operation.

  19. Control and design of full-bridge three-level converter for renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Zhilei; Xu, Jing; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Output voltage of renewable energy sources, such as fuel cell and PV cell, is often low and varies widely with load and environmental conditions. Therefore, the high step-up DC-DC converter is needed between renewable energy sources and the grid-connected inverter. However, voltage stress...... of rectifier diodes is high and filter is large in traditional voltage-source converters in a wide input-voltage range. In order to solve the aforementioned problems, a full-bridge (FB) three-level (TL) converter is proposed. It can operate at both two-level and three-level modes, so it is suitable for wide...... input-voltage range application. Compared with FB converter, voltage stress of rectifier diodes and the filter can be reduced. Operating principle and control strategy of the proposed converter are illustrated. Design guidelines and example are given. Simulation results of a 1-kW FB TL converter verify...

  20. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    There is a global effort to expand the use of alternative fuels due to their several benefits such as improving air quality with reducing some criteria emissions, reducing dependency on fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. This dissertation is focused on investigating the impact of two popular alternative fuels, biodiesel and natural gas (NG), on emissions from heavy-duty engines. Biodiesel is one of the most popular renewable fuels with diesel applications. Although biodiesel blends are reported to reduce particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and total hydrocarbon emissions; there is uncertainty on their impact on nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. This dissertation evaluated the effect of biodiesel feedstock, biodiesel blend level, engine technology, and driving conditions on NOx emissions. The results showed that NOx emissions increase with 20% and higher biodiesel blends. Also, in this study some strategies were proposed and some fuel formulations were found for mitigating NOx emissions increases with biodiesel. The impact of 5% biodiesel on criteria emissions specifically NOx was also fully studied in this thesis. As a part of the results of this study, 5% animal-based biodiesel was certified for use in California based on California Air Resources Board emissions equivalent procedure. NG is one of the most prominent alternative fuels with larger reserves compared to crude oil. However, the quality of NG depends on both its source and the degree to which it is processed. The current study explored the impact of various NG fuels, ranging from low methane/high energy gases to high methane/low energy gases, on criteria and toxic emissions from NG engines with different combustion and aftertreatment technologies. The results showed stronger fuel effects for the lean-burn technology bus. Finally, this thesis investigated the impact of changing diesel fuel composition on the criteria emissions from a variety of heavy-duty engine

  1. Solar hydrogen production: renewable hydrogen production by dry fuel reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Jamie; Miyamoto, Henry K.

    2006-09-01

    SHEC LABS - Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation constructed a pilot-plant to demonstrate a Dry Fuel Reforming (DFR) system that is heated primarily by sunlight focusing-mirrors. The pilot-plant consists of: 1) a solar mirror array and solar concentrator and shutter system; and 2) two thermo-catalytic reactors to convert Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Water into Hydrogen. Results from the pilot study show that solar Hydrogen generation is feasible and cost-competitive with traditional Hydrogen production. More than 95% of Hydrogen commercially produced today is by the Steam Methane Reformation (SMR) of natural gas, a process that liberates Carbon Dioxide to the atmosphere. The SMR process provides a net energy loss of 30 to 35% when converting from Methane to Hydrogen. Solar Hydrogen production provides a 14% net energy gain when converting Methane into Hydrogen since the energy used to drive the process is from the sun. The environmental benefits of generating Hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas and criteria air contaminant reductions.

  2. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economi

  3. On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogwijk, Monique Maria

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the central research question is: what can be the contribution of renewable energy sources to the present and future world and regional energy supply system. The focus is on wind, solar PV and biomass energy (energy crops) for electricity generation. For the assessment of the economi

  4. Modeling of an autonomous microgrid for renewable energy sources integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serban, I.; Teodorescu, Remus; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2009-01-01

    The frequency stability analysis in an autonomous microgrid (MG) with renewable energy sources (RES) is a continuously studied issue. This paper presents an original method for modeling an autonomous MG with a battery energy storage system (BESS) and a wind power plant (WPP), with the purpose...

  5. A NMR-Based Carbon-Type Analysis of Diesel Fuel Blends From Various Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.

    2013-05-10

    In collaboration with participants of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Advanced Vehicle/Fuels/Lubricants (AVFL) Committee, and project AVFL-19, the characteristics of fuels from advanced and renewable sources were compared to commercial diesel fuels. The main objective of this study was to highlight similarities and differences among the fuel types, i.e. ULSD, renewables, and alternative fuels, and among fuels within the different fuel types. This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of 14 diesel fuel samples. The diesel fuel samples come from diverse sources and include four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels (ULSD), one gas-to-liquid diesel fuel (GTL), six renewable diesel fuels (RD), two shale oil-derived diesel fuels, and one oil sands-derived diesel fuel. Overall, the fuels examined fall into two groups. The two shale oil-derived samples and the oil-sand-derived sample closely resemble the four commercial ultra-low sulfur diesels, with SO1 and SO2 most closely matched with ULSD1, ULSD2, and ULSD4, and OS1 most closely matched with ULSD3. As might be expected, the renewable diesel fuels, with the exception of RD3, do not resemble the ULSD fuels because of their very low aromatic content, but more closely resemble the gas-to-liquid sample (GTL) in this respect. RD3 is significantly different from the other renewable diesel fuels in that the aromatic content more closely resembles the ULSD fuels. Fused-ring aromatics are readily observable in the ULSD, SO, and OS samples, as well as RD3, and are noticeably absent in the remaining RD and GTL fuels. Finally, ULSD3 differs from the other ULSD fuels by having a significantly lower aromatic carbon content and higher cycloparaffinic carbon content. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information regarding the various diesel fuels, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of NMR

  6. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  7. The role of local renewable energy sources in regional energy production: The case of South-East Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laihanen, A. Karhunen, T. Ranta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the paper was on discussing the challenges and possibilities of promoting and utilising various renewable energy sources at the regional level. National obligations and the rising prices of fossil fuels have put pressure on energy producers and end users to start utilising renewable energy sources. South-East Finland has one of Europe’s highest forest industry concentrations, and renewable energy sources such as wood fuels are utilised widely. The study utilises earlier regional studies and statistics as well as new results from this study. These results are combined into regional potentials which are presented by regional energy balance. The analyses provide important background information for decision making. The various regions of Finland have different operational environments and local participants need motivation and activation regarding these local possibilities.

  8. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muradov, Nazim; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Gujar, Amit; Rochfort, Simone; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-01-01

    ... and production of value-added products. In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored...

  9. 78 FR 11870 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... Fuel Producer Co-products Report RFS0801: RFS2 Renewable Biomass Report RFS0901: RFS2 Production... domestic plantation/forest land owners and foreign biofuel feedstock producers which were not reflected in...

  10. Evaluation of Suppression of Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel Fires with Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2011-0101 EVALUATION OF SUPPRESSION OF HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE JET (HRJ) FUEL FIRES WITH AQUEOUS FILM FORMING FOAM ( AFFF ...Forming Foam ( AFFF ) has the capability of extinguishing HRJ fuel fires and HRJ/JP-8 blended fuel fires . The assessment included extinguishment...whether existing aqueous film- forming foam ( AFFF ) firefighting agents and equipment are capable of extinguishing alternative- fuel fires or

  11. Santilli's new fuels as sources of clean combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Indrani B. Das

    2013-10-01

    Molecular combustion or nuclear fission is the conventional source of energy, which are not clean as they generate large amount of green house gas or nuclear waste. Clean energy can be obtained by harnessing renewable energy sources like solar, wind, etc. However, each of these sources has their own limitations and is dependent on geographical locations. The modern day demand of clean, cheap and abundant energy gets fulfilled by the novel fuels that have been developed through hadronic mechanics/chemistry. In the present paper, a short review on such novel fuels like Hadronic energy of non-nuclear type (combustion of MagneGas) and nuclear type (intermediate controlled nuclear fusion and particle type like stimulated neutron decay) has been presented.

  12. Renewable energy sources in the Mexican electrical sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, V. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Div. de Estudios de Postrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Coyoacan (Mexico); Martinez, J.H. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Posgrado en Estudios Latinoamericanos, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Div. de Estudios de Posgrado, Coyoacan (Mexico); Ruiz, B.J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyzes the role of the renewable energy sources (RES) in the Mexican electrical sector in the context of the proposed renewable energy bill currently under consideration in the Mexican Congress. This paper was divided in three parts. The first part consists of a chronology of institutional background related to RES. The second part is an analysis of the coordination and management system of the Mexican electrical sector, which can facilitate the promotion of RES without significant structural changes. Finally, the pros and cons of the renewable energy bill are analyzed in order to demonstrate the need for greater coherence between the bill and the coordination system. It is concluded that when inconsistency is eliminated, RES would strongly be promoted in Mexico. (orig.)

  13. Renewable energy sources in the Mexican electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, B.J.; Rodriguez-Padilla, V. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, DEPFI, Edificio A 1 piso Bernardo Quintana, Circuito Exterior, C.U., Coyoacan, C.P. (Mexico); Martinez, J.H. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Posgrado en Estudios Latinoamericanos, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Circuito Exterior, C.U., Coyoacan (Mexico)

    2008-06-15

    This paper analyzes the role of renewable energy sources (RES) in the Mexican electricity sector in the context of the proposed renewable energy bill currently under consideration in the Mexican Congress. This paper was divided into three parts. The first part presents a chronology of institutional background related to the RES. This is followed by an analysis of the coordination and management system of the Mexican electricity sector, which can facilitate the promotion and integration of the RES without significant structural changes. Finally, the pros and cons of the renewable energy bill are analyzed in order to demonstrate the need for greater coherence between the bill and the coordination system of the sector. It is concluded that when inconsistency is eliminated, RES would strongly be promoted in Mexico. (author)

  14. 77 FR 61281 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... at least 80 percent mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal... fuel must contain at least 80 percent mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from... activities. Fuel oils used to generate process heat, power, or other functions will not be included in...

  15. Global responsibility for our environment. Increased use of renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels and field test of photovoltaic pump systems for drinking water supply started in 8 Third World countries. Globale Verantwortung fuer unsere Umwelt. Verstaerkter Einsatz erneuerbarer Energien statt fossiler Brennstoffe und Felderprobung photovoltaischer Pumpsysteme fuer die Trinkwasserversorgung in 8 Laendern der Dritten Welt gestartet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-05-01

    The increased use of renewable energy sources in place of fossil fuels is an important contribution to ecological energy supply. The energy research program of the federal government of the FRG which has been adopted a few weeks ago is sponsored with about 300 mio. DM annualy with a tendency to rise in the next four years and this emphasizes the importance the German government attaches to the research and development of this technology. This intense engagement - stronger developed as in all other European countries, comparable to the United States and Japan - is effected on the one hand in view of the use of these energy sources in the FRG, but on the other hand particularly with regard to the supply of the constantly increasing energy demand of the Third World and thus by taking the responsibility for the Third World. (orig.).

  16. Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Menges

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the important goals of European energy policy is to increase the share of renewable energy resources in the energy supply. The instruments used in the member states are not fully compatible with the rules of the European internal market. In a theoretical section, this paper analyses possible different instruments for promoting renewable energy. Some countries use feed in tariffs - using fixed prices to increase incentives for producers to invest into renewable energy, other countries use quantity-based systems like quotas that lead to a premium above the market price. In an institutional analysis we show that on the basis of effectiveness and efficiency considerations for the European Union, in the long-term quantity oriented systems of promotion are preferable if combined with elements of a capacity market. The main reason for this conclusion is that price-based systems cannot give enough incentives for backup capacities necessary to cope with intermittent production of renewable sources. In addition price-based systems violate the basic rules of the open internal European market because feed in tariffs are a considerable barrier for trade of renewable energy products.

  17. Renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenhofer, O. (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Potsdam (Germany)); Pichs Madruga, R. (Centro de Investigaciones de la Economia Mundial (CIEM), Hanoi (Viet Nam)); Sokona, Y. (African Climate Policy Centre, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)) (and others)

    2012-07-01

    Climate change is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Its most severe impacts may still be avoided if efforts are made to transform current energy systems. Renewable energy sources have a large potential to displace emissions of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossil fuels and thereby to mitigate climate change. If implemented properly, renewable energy sources can contribute to social and economic development, to energy access, to a secure and sustainable energy supply, and to a reduction of negative impacts of energy provision on the environment and human health. This Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) impartially assesses the scientific literature on the potential role of renewable energy in the mitigation of climate change for policymakers, the private sector, academic researchers and civil society. It covers six renewable energy sources - bioenergy, direct solar energy, geothermal energy, hydropower, ocean energy and wind energy - as well as their integration into present and future energy systems. It considers the environmental and social consequences associated with the deployment of these technologies, and presents strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion. The authors also compare the levelized cost of energy from renewable energy sources to recent non-renewable energy costs. (Author)

  18. Financial mechanisms for renewable energy sources; Mecanismos financeiros para fontes de energia renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya Chaves, Francisco David [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This work presents three different financial mechanisms in the world as choices in the electricity generation investment from alternative energy sources. It shows a description of the following methods developed in the world: payment capacity, social costs of energy, and markets that trade renewable energies certificates. Finally, a recommendation about the best choice that could be implemented in Brazil is suggested. Given the importance in the use of the renewable energy of electric energy generation, most of the electric systems in the world have developed mechanisms to encourage the use of alternative energies. With the capacity payment the power plants that employ alternative sources, can receive extra payment as benefits for their initial investment. A possibility could be fixing taxes for the generation of electricity with fossil fuel that could finance the renewable energy sources. A renewable energy market dealing with trade able certificates, forces the electricity purchasers to have a percentage from alternative energies of the totally energy acquired. In this way the forced purchasing of energy from power plants which use energy certificates allows the expansion of these technologies. (author)

  19. 2007 Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels Gordon Research Conference - January 21-26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel G. Nocera

    2008-02-01

    This Gordon Research Conference seeks to brings together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable

  20. ACCELERATING THE ADOPTION PROCESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AMONG SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Leloux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, intermittent renewable small scale energy sources (e.g. wind and solar energy are expected to represent about 17% of the EU’s total electricity consumption. All national overriding energy policy objectives are to ensure competitive, secure and sustainable energy for the economy and for society. Renewable energy, allied with energy efficiency, is often found crucial to meet these goals of secure sustainable and competitive energy supplies reducing dependency on expensive fossil imports and underpinning the move towards a low carbon economy while delivering green jobs to the economy. This all contributes to national competitiveness and the jobs and economic growth agenda. However, a straight forward implementation of renewable energy options is not easy, due to various barriers and obstacles. For most SMEs, the concept of generating their own renewable energy is still more of academic than genuine interest. In general, several barriers are experienced, such as high capital investments, slow return on investment, and the lack of knowledge of the benefits. There is a need for education on the benefits and drawbacks of sustainable energy, as well as a greater contribution to costs for this to work. In this paper we describe the intermediate outcomes of a European Partnership under the name of GREAT (Growing Renewable Energy Applications and Technologies, funded under the INTERREG IVB NWE Programme. GREAT aims to encourage communities and small to medium size enterprises (SMEs in Ireland, the United Kingdon, Belgium and The Netherlands to develop technological solutions for Smart Grid, Renewable Energy and Distributive Generation; research and develop policy issues for regulatory authorities and provide structured co-operation opportunities between SMEs and research institutes / technology developers. We developed GREAT spreadsheets to facilitate SMEs in each country to calculate the return-on-investment of renewable energy sources, such as

  1. Understanding and Informing the Policy Environment: State-Level Renewable Fuels Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Cory, K.; Arent, D.

    2007-01-01

    Renewable fuels standard (RFS) policies are becoming a popular public policy mechanism for developing the market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. During the past decade, U.S. states and several countries began implementing these more market-based (less command and control) policies to support increased biofuels production and use. This paper presents an overview of current and proposed U.S. state-level policies, as well as selected electric sector policies and international fuel standard policies. Current U.S. state-level renewable fuel policies list drivers including an improved economy and environment, as well as fuel self-sufficiency. Best practices and experience from an evaluation of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in the United States and international RFS policies can inform U.S. state-level policy by illustrating the importance of policy flexibility, binding targets, effective cost caps, and tradable permits. Understanding and building on the experiences from these previous policies can improve the policy mechanism and further develop a market for renewable fuels to meet the goals of improved economy, environment, and fuel self-sufficiency.

  2. A Flexible Power Electronics Configuration for Coupling Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Filippini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A combination of series, parallel and multilevel power electronics has been investigated as a potential interface for two different types of renewable energy sources and in order to reach higher power levels. Renewable energy sources are typically dispersed in a territory, and sources, like wind and solar, allow small to medium-scale generation of electricity. The configuration investigated in this article aims at adapting the coupling solution to the specific generation characteristics of the renewable energy source to make it fit the electrical network. The configuration consists of a combination of three-phase multilevel converters and single-phase inverters, which are designed to provide flexibility, high power quality and high efficiency. A detailed analysis and simulation is performed to identify the properties in conjunction with the electrical grid requirements and the potential challenges encountered during operation. An optimized operation example of wind generation combined with solar PV generation is presented to exemplify the flexibility and benefits of the proposed configuration.

  3. Changing the renewable fuel standard to a renewable material standard: bioethylene case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posen, I Daniel; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott; Azevedo, Inês L

    2015-01-01

    The narrow scope of the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS2) is a missed opportunity to spur a wider range of biomass use. This is especially relevant as RFS2 targets are being missed due to demand-side limitations for ethanol consumption. This paper examines the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of a more flexible policy based on RFS2, which includes credits for chemical use of bioethanol (to produce bioethylene). A Monte Carlo simulation is employed to estimate the life-cycle GHG emissions of conventional low-density polyethylene (LDPE), made from natural gas derived ethane (mean: 1.8 kg CO2e/kg LDPE). The life-cycle GHG emissions from bioethanol and bio-LDPE are examined for three biomass feedstocks: U.S. corn (mean: 97g CO2e/MJ and 2.6 kg CO2e/kg LDPE), U.S. switchgrass (mean: -18g CO2e/MJ and -2.9 kg CO2e/kg LDPE), and Brazilian sugar cane (mean: 33g CO2e/MJ and -1.3 kg CO2e/kg LDPE); bioproduct and fossil-product emissions are compared. Results suggest that neither corn product (bioethanol or bio-LDPE) can meet regulatory GHG targets, while switchgrass and sugar cane ethanol and bio-LDPE likely do. For U.S. production, bioethanol achieves slightly greater GHG reductions than bio-LDPE. For imported Brazilian products, bio-LDPE achieves greater GHG reductions than bioethanol. An expanded policy that includes bio-LDPE provides added flexibility without compromising GHG targets.

  4. International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Garcia, Angel; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Muljadi, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European...... Union to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve a target of deriving 20% of the European Union's final energy consumption from renewable sources, and to achieve 20% improvement in energy efficiency both by the year 2020 [1]. Member states have different individual goals to meet...... these overall objectives, and they each need to provide a detailed roadmap describing how they will meet these legally binding targets [2]. At this time, RES are an indispensable part of the global energy mix, which has been partially motivated by the continuous increases in hydropower as well as the rapid...

  5. The feasibility of synthetic fuels in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, D.

    2013-01-01

    While all other sectors had significant renewable energy penetrations, transport is still heavily dependent on oil displaying rapid growth in the last decades. There is no easy renewable solution to meet transport sector demand due to the wide variety of modes and needs in the sector. Nowadays, b...

  6. Biotechnology for a renewable resources chemicals and fuels industry, biochemical engineering R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villet, R.H.

    1980-04-01

    To establish an effective biotechnology of biomass processing for the production of fuels and chemicals, an integration of research in biochemical engineering, microbial genetics, and biochemistry is required. Reduction of the costs of producing chemicals and fuels from renewable resources will hinge on extensive research in biochemical engineering.

  7. Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhevat BERISHA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides background information on the current energy supply, energy demand, and energy sources in Kosovo. Moreover, it presents the country‟s current level of applying alternative energy sources. Additionally, this paper focuses on geothermal energy as a renewable energy resource with the potential to contribute to a sustainable use of resources to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency requirements of the European Union (EU, “EU 20 20 by 2020” policy. Hence, a careful analysis is included on how to approach the aforementioned targets through investments in geothermal energy through providing an energy consumption forecast and analysing geothermal energy projects in Europe and specifically in Kosovo. This paper carefully represents the potential usage of geothermal energy in Kosovo, renewable energy source targets, and it addresses the importance of laws, regulations, and reports regarding the utilization of this type of energy. Economic and environmental implications of investing in geothermal energy - geothermal heat pumps for the case of International Village are additionally analysed. Lastly, recommendations and conclusions, for future actions, are derived and addressed to relevant stakeholders, primarily policy-makers, and government representatives.

  8. Electrocatalytic processing of renewable biomass-derived compounds for production of chemicals, fuels and electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Le

    The dual problems of sustaining the fast growth of human society and preserving the environment for future generations urge us to shift our focus from exploiting fossil oils to researching and developing more affordable, reliable and clean energy sources. Human beings had a long history that depended on meeting our energy demands with plant biomass, and the modern biorefinery technologies realize the effective conversion of biomass to production of transportation fuels, bulk and fine chemicals so to alleviate our reliance on fossil fuel resources of declining supply. With the aim of replacing as much non-renewable carbon from fossil oils with renewable carbon from biomass as possible, innovative R&D activities must strive to enhance the current biorefinery process and secure our energy future. Much of my Ph.D. research effort is centered on the study of electrocatalytic conversion of biomass-derived compounds to produce value-added chemicals, biofuels and electrical energy on model electrocatalysts in AEM/PEM-based continuous flow electrolysis cell and fuel cell reactors. High electricity generation performance was obtained when glycerol or crude glycerol was employed as fuels in AEMFCs. The study on selective electrocatalytic oxidation of glycerol shows an electrode potential-regulated product distribution where tartronate and mesoxalate can be selectively produced with electrode potential switch. This finding then led to the development of AEMFCs with selective production of valuable tartronate or mesoxalate with high selectivity and yield and cogeneration of electricity. Reaction mechanisms of electrocatalytic oxidation of ethylene glycol and 1,2-propanediol were further elucidated by means of an on-line sample collection technique and DFT modeling. Besides electro-oxidation of biorenewable alcohols to chemicals and electricity, electrocatalytic reduction of keto acids (e.g. levulinic acid) was also studied for upgrading biomass-based feedstock to biofuels while

  9. Life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from renewable jet fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Sierk; Antonissen, Kay; Hoefnagels, Ric; Lonza, Laura; Wang, Michael; Faaij, André; Junginger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of renewable jet fuel (RJF) is considered an important emission mitigation measure for the aviation industry. This study compares the well-to-wake (WtWa) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission performance of multiple RJF conversion pathways and explores the impact of different co-product allocation methods. The insights obtained in this study are of particular importance if RJF is included as an emission mitigation instrument in the global Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA). Fischer-Tropsch pathways yield the highest GHG emission reduction compared to fossil jet fuel (86-104%) of the pathways in scope, followed by Hydrothermal Liquefaction (77-80%) and sugarcane- (71-75%) and corn stover-based Alcohol-to-Jet (60-75%). Feedstock cultivation, hydrogen and conversion inputs were shown to be major contributors to the overall WtWa GHG emission performance. The choice of allocation method mainly affects pathways yielding high shares of co-products or producing co-products which effectively displace carbon intensive products (e.g., electricity). Renewable jet fuel can contribute to significant reduction of aviation-related GHG emissions, provided the right feedstock and conversion technology are used. The GHG emission performance of RJF may be further improved by using sustainable hydrogen sources or applying carbon capture and storage. Based on the character and impact of different co-product allocation methods, we recommend using energy and economic allocation (for non-energy co-products) at a global level, as it leverages the universal character of energy allocation while adequately valuing non-energy co-products.

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE TRAINING NEEDS IN RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES FOR AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana PALKOVA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Global climate changes, the greenhouse gas emissions and reduced sources of traditional fossil fuels are one of themost serious environmental problems of present time. This fact was the starting point for Directive 2009/28/EC,which defined two objectives in the area of RES, the mandatory 20% share of RES in gross final energyconsumption in the European Community and the mandatory 10% share of RES in transport, which all MemberStates must achieve by 2020. In 2011 was the share of renewable energy sources in total energy production in theEuropean Union 13%. Promoting the use of renewable sources for electricity, heat, hot water, as well as promotingthe use of biomass energy and construction of energy efficient buildings brings, in addition to environmentalaspects, the development of innovative technologies, the transition to an energy-efficient economy and increaseemployment opportunities. Development in clean technologies becomes a strategic not only in terms of ecology, buthas a significant impact on economic development and employment. This paper presents an analysis of trainingneeds in clean technologies and renewable energy sources and through the Leonardo da Vincis’ projects – AVARESand C-TEST – supported by European Commission to show how to increase the attractiveness and accessibility ofvocational education and training for employees in agricultural sector in the European Union.

  11. Electrochemical energy storage for renewable sources and grid balancing

    CERN Document Server

    Moseley, Patrick T

    2015-01-01

    Electricity from renewable sources of energy is plagued by fluctuations (due to variations in wind strength or the intensity of insolation) resulting in a lack of stability if the energy supplied from such sources is used in 'real time'. An important solution to this problem is to store the energy electrochemically (in a secondary battery or in hydrogen and its derivatives) and to make use of it in a controlled fashion at some time after it has been initially gathered and stored. Electrochemical battery storage systems are the major technologies for decentralized storage systems and hydrogen

  12. 77 FR 61313 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard and Diesel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... contains at least 80 percent mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or..., the fuel must contain at least 80 percent mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from... heat, power, or other functions would not be included in the amended definition. Producers or...

  13. 48 CFR 217.175 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.175 Section 217.175 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... renewable energy sources. (a) The head of the contracting activity may enter into a contract for a period not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that...

  14. Comparative analyses of seven technologies to facilitate the integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of seven different technologies is presented. The technologies integrate fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) such as wind power production into the electricity supply, and the Danish energy system is used as a case. Comprehensive hour-by-hour energy system analyses are conducted...... and feasibility analyses. Large-scale heat pumps prove to be especially promising as they efficiently reduce the production of excess electricity. Flexible electricity demand and electric boilers are low-cost solutions, but their improvement of fuel efficiency is rather limited. Battery electric vehicles...

  15. Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, J.; Sidek, L. M.; Desa, M. N. M.; Julien, P. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

  16. Issues, Challenges, Causes, Impacts and Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources - Grid Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Mamatha Sandhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources have increased significantly due to environmental issues and fossil fuels elevated cost. Integration of renewable energy sources to utility grid depends on the scale of power generation. Large scale power generations are connected to transmission systems where as small scale distributed power generation is connected to distribution systems. There are certain challenges in the integration of both types of systems directly. Due to this, wind energy has gained a lot of investments from all over the world. However, due to the wind speed‘s uncertain behavior it is difficult to obtain good quality power, since wind speed fluctuations reflect on the voltage and active power output of the electric machine connected to the wind turbine. Solar penetration also changes the voltage profile and frequency response of the system and affects the transmission and distribution systems of utility grid. This paper presents a review in the issues, challenges, causes, impacts and utilization of renewable energy sources (RES - Grid Integration.

  17. Advanced Combustion and Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigler, Brad

    2015-06-08

    Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, held June 8-12, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia. It addresses technical barriers of inadequate data and predictive tools for fuel and lubricant effects on advanced combustion engines, with the strategy being through collaboration, develop techniques, tools, and data to quantify critical fuel physico-chemical effects to enable development of advanced combustion engines that use alternative fuels.

  18. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  19. The Examining of Prospective Teachers? Views about Renewable and Non-Renewable Energy Sources: A Case Study of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine prospective teachers? views about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. To collect data, a questionnaire with 5 open-ended questions was conveyed to 463 prospective teachers selected from Agri Ibrahim Cecen University. The results showed that almost three fourths of the prospective teachers tend to…

  20. The renewable energies sources in France 1970-2000; Les energies renouvelables en France 1970-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the energy production from renewable sources in France since 1970. In France the rate of using renewable energy sources is unequal. Some of them as hydro energy show a confirmed industrial and commercial interest when other techniques have not still reach the same level of maturity. The renewable energy sources chosen to calculate the electric and thermal production of France are: for electric power, hydro energy, wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas. For the thermal production, the thermal solar energy, the geothermal energy, the urban wastes, the wood and wood wastes, the harvesting residues, the biogas and bio fuels. The figures are marked in thirty tables. (N.C.)

  1. Opportunities of energy supply of farm holdings on the basis of small-scale renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendiev, A. M.; Nikolaev, Yu. E.; Evstaf'ev, D. P.

    2016-02-01

    One of the major national economic problems of Russia is raising of agricultural production, which will provide strategic security and sustainable supply of the population with provisions. Creation of subsidiary small holdings, farm holdings, and peasant farm holdings will require addressing issues of energy supply. At considerable distance of small farms from centralized energy systems (by fuel, electricity and thermal energy) it is proposed to create a system of local energy networks on the basis of low-powered power plants using renewable energy sources (RES). There is economic unreasonableness of use of imported components of small power plants. Creation of new combined small power plants on renewable energy sources produced by domestic manufacturers is recommended. Schemes of arrangements of small power plants based on renewable energy sources are proposed, variants and characteristics of a basic source are provided—biogas plants developed by the authors. Calculations revealed that heat and power supply of self-contained farms distant from small power plants based on renewable energy sources is 2.5-2.6 times cheaper than from centralized networks. Production of biogas through anaerobic fermentation of organic waste of cattle complexes is considered as the basis. The analysis of biowaste output in various cattle farms is carried out, and the volume of biogas is determined to meet the requirements of these farms in electrical and thermal energy. The objective of the present article is to study the possibility of creating small combined power plants in Russia based on renewable sources of energy for independent consumers.

  2. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  3. POTENTIAL AND PROPERTIES OF THE GRANULAR SEWAGE SLUDGE AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The predominant method of the sewage sludge management in Poland is land dis-posal. However, since 01/01/2013, this method will be prohibited. Therefore, there is a strong need for the development of thermal methods of sludge disposal. In Polish legal system sewage sludge may be named as biomass or waste. For the purposes of determining the obligations of environmental regulations the definitionof the Minister of Environment should be used. When disposing of sewage sludge in an amount up to 1% by weight of fuel, emission standards for fuel do not change. At the disposal of sewage in quantities of more than 1%, should be conducted continuous measurement of emissions, including HCl, HF, and continuous measurements of fluegas param-eters (as for the installation of waste disposal. In order to meet the requirement to porduce energy from renewable sources we use the definitionof Minister of Economy. In this case, in accordance with applicable law, sewage sludge shall be considered as pure biomass, thus it is CO2 neutral. The use of sewage sludge as a fuel requires the determination of fundamental combustible properties. These properties should be in accordance with the requirements put fuels as an energy source. The paper presents the results of a detailed physico-chemical analysis of dried sewage sludge produced in the two Polish wastewater treatment plants. The results were compared with fiverepresentatives of biomass fuels: straw of wheat, straw of rape, willow, pine and oak sawdust. Ultimate and proximate analyses include a detailed analysis of fuel and ash. The results clearly indicate that sludge is a very valuable fuel similar to “traditional” biomass.

  4. Drop-in Jet and Diesel Fuels from Renewable Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    WWII Germany • Gasify coal or other biomass to CO and H2 • Catalytically convert syngas to hydrocarbons • Paraffins and isoparaffins • Hydrotreated ...Renewable Jet (HRJ) • Converts renewable plant oils or fats • Conventional catalytic petroleum refining processes • Hydrotreating , hydrocracking...CHJatropha ~ f J I j l 1 ~ ~ -~AAA-----------====-~~~~~~ 14 GC of Hydrotreated CH Crude Jatropha Oil 9e+07 8.5e+07 8e+07 7.5e+07 Hydrotreated

  5. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Gujar, Amit; Rochfort, Simone; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-02-28

    Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of "green" gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants' metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for efficient bio

  6. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-06-10

    This presentation provides a summary of NREL's FY15 fuel cell electric vehicle evaluation project activities and accomplishments. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 10, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia.

  7. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Evaluation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-06-10

    This presentation provides a summary of NREL's FY15 fuel cell electric vehicle evaluation project activities and accomplishments. It was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 2015 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting on June 10, 2015, in Arlington, Virginia.

  8. Consideration on a Low Power Solar Energy Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Marusca

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the implementation of a low powersolar energy renewable source. To optimize theconversion efficiency of the solar irradiance intoelectrical energy an embedded system was designed. Theembedded system can accomplish the maximum powerpoint tracking by evaluation the output voltage andcurrent of the photovoltaic panels and calculate a propercommand for the DC-DC converter of the renewablesource. The key device in this system is a midrange 8 bitmicrocontroller that consists of acquisition, commandand control integrated hardware resources.

  9. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Helbra Tenrini; Sidiq Suryo Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil ind...

  10. A Novel Method of Utilizing Hybrid Generator as Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Fathima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy production and consumption in the future may depend on renewable energy sources and also depends on the efficiency of utilizing it. Here, a hybrid system, a combination of solar cells and thermoelectric generators is controlled by open circuit voltage method which is normally used for linear electrical characteristics. The proposed system is supported by theoretical analysis and simulation. Lead acid battery is used to accumulate the harvested energy. Cuk converters are used here to improve the efficiency and helps in reduction of noises. Hybrid generators are found to be efficient and more stable.

  11. Micro-fuel cell power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, Jeffrey D. [Center for Meso, Micro, and Nano Technology, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-222, Livermore, CA 94550, (United States)

    2007-01-19

    This paper presents a review and discussion of micro-fuel cell technologies, providing insight into the innovations that have been made to date. Discussion of concepts and results leading towards increased levels of integration and performance for micro-fuel cell systems will elucidate the potential of thin film and microfabrication methods in meeting the challenges and requirements necessary for consumer applications. While the amount of literature in this area is substantial, a representative sampling of key developments will be presented in this paper, in order to gain a sense of the design methodologies being implemented for micro-fuel cell power sources. (Author)

  12. 21st Century Renewable Fuels, Energy, and Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, K. Joel [Kettering Univ., Flint, MI (United States); Das, Susanta K. [Kettering Univ., Flint, MI (United States)

    2012-11-29

    The objectives of this project were multi-fold: (i) conduct fundamental studies to develop a new class of high temperature PEM fuel cell material capable of conducting protons at elevated temperature (180°C), (ii) develop and fabricate a 5k We novel catalytic flat plate steam reforming process for extracting hydrogen from multi-fuels and integrate with high-temperature PEM fuel cell systems, (iii) research and develop improved oxygen permeable membranes for high power density lithium air battery with simple control systems and reduced cost, (iv) research on high energy yield agriculture bio-crop (Miscanthus) suitable for reformate fuel/alternative fuel with minimum impact on human food chain and develop a cost analysis and production model, and (v) develop math and science alternative energy educator program to include bio-energy and power.

  13. Experimental investigation of jojoba as a renewable energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Widyan, Mohamad I. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Jordan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 3030, Irbid 22110 (Jordan); Al-Muhtaseb, Mu' taz A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Jordan, PO Box 961060, Amman 11196 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    This work examined jojoba (oil and cake) as possible alternative fuel sources. Jojoba is a shrub that grows very well in deserts and its cake is the solid part produced upon processing of the jojoba seeds for oil extraction. In this study, pure jojoba oil and 50/50 blends with diesel fuel were tested as fuels in a single cylinder diesel engine. The diesel fuel was the baseline of comparison throughout the runs. The cake was tested for both direct combustion (pellets) and as a substrate for biogas production. The pellets were formed by compacting the cake in cylindrical dies using a hydraulic press while the biogasification was conducted in an anaerobic digester model Bioflo 110 from Brunswick. The findings indicate that the optimum injection pressure for jojoba oil in the engine is 210 bars at which engine speed was maximum (2700 rpm), NO{sub x} and CO emissions as well as exhaust temperature were minimum. Using jojoba cake for biogasification resulted in a yield of about 600 ml biogas per 400 g of jojoba cake. Burning jojoba compacted cake (pellets) for direct combustion in a stove indicated that jojoba cake sustained a temperature in excess of 300 C for a reasonable amount of time and that the cake was very competitive to wood and has energy content more than most types of wood. Overall, it may be stated that both jojoba oil and cake hold real promise as alternative energy sources. (author)

  14. The feasibility of synthetic fuels in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    The transport sector is the only sector in which there have been no significant renewable energy penetrations, it is heavily dependent on oil with rapid growth in the last decades. Moreover, it is challenging to obviate the oil dependence due to the wide variety of modes and needs in the sector. ...

  15. Feasibility of synthetic fuels in renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    The transport sector is the only sector in which there have been no significant renewable energy penetrations and it is heavily dependent on oil with rapid growth in the last decades. Moreover, it is challenging to obviate the oil dependence due to the wide variety of modes and needs in the secto...

  16. Bio-, recycling- and waste fuels. How does the transition to renewable energy-sources affect the Swedish power and heat preparedness; Bio-, retur- och avfallsbraenslen. Hur oevergaangen till foernybara energikaellor paaverkar Sveriges el- och vaermeberedskap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    The total energy supply in Sweden amounted to 600 TWh in 2000. Close to 100 TWh of these were Bio-, recycling- and waste-fuels (BRW), which means that the use of these fuels has tripled during the last decade. BRW stand for half the energy supply to district heating in Sweden. A large number of heat and power plants built for fossil fuels have been converted to BRW, and several new plants designed for biofuels have been taken into operation. Upgraded biofuels (briquets, pellets and powders) have substituted fuel oil in households and small heating networks. These developments make it important to study issues about safety of supply and emergency planning. In difference to fossil fuels there is no obligation to set up emergency stocks of BRW in Sweden. In combination with an increased dependence on logistics this means that the preparedness in short time emergency situations has deteriorated. For short periods, fuel oil and coal can however be used as replacement fuels. The increased know-how on producing, handling, transport and combustion of BRW is, on the other hand, a great asset for Sweden both in normal and emergency situations.

  17. 2011 RENEWABLE ENERGY: SOLAR FUELS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Hupp

    2011-01-21

    The conference will present and discuss current science that underlies solar fuels production, and will focus on direct production pathways for production. Thus, recent advances in design and understanding of molecular systems and materials for light capture and conversion of relevance for solar fuels will be discussed. An important set of topics will be homogeneous, heterogeneous and biological catalysts for the multi-electron processes of water oxidation, hydrogen production and carbon dioxide reduction to useful fuels. Also, progress towards integrated and scalable systems will be presented. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program.

  18. Evaluation of Energy Use in Public Housing in Lagos, Nigeria: Prospects for Renewable Energy Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isidore Chukwunweike Ezema; Abiodun O Olotuah; Olabosipo I Fagbenle

    2016-01-01

      Even though domestic energy can be from either renewable or non-renewable sources, the former is preferred because of its role in reducing both the operational energy intensity and carbon footprint...

  19. CAS institute, US national lab ink MOU on renewable energy sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Amemorandum of understanding (MOU) for cooperation on renewable energy sources was signed between the CAS Institute of Electrical Engineering (IEE) and the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on 11 November,2008, in Beijing.

  20. Development of a multi-criteria assessment model for ranking of renewable and non-renewable transportation fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safaei Mohamadabadi, H.; Tichkowsky, G.; Kumar, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Several factors, including economical, environmental, and social factors, are involved in selection of the best fuel-based vehicles for road transportation. This leads to a multi-criteria selection problem for multi-alternatives. In this study, a multi-criteria assessment model was developed to rank different road transportation fuel-based vehicles (both renewable and non-renewable) using a method called Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment and Evaluations (PROMETHEE). This method combines qualitative and quantitative criteria to rank various alternatives. In this study, vehicles based on gasoline, gasoline-electric (hybrid), E85 ethanol, diesel, B100 biodiesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG) were considered as alternatives. These alternatives were ranked based on five criteria: vehicle cost, fuel cost, distance between refueling stations, number of vehicle options available to the consumer, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit distance traveled. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to study the impact of changes in various parameters on final ranking. Two base cases and several alternative scenarios were evaluated. In the base case scenario with higher weight on economical parameters, gasoline-based vehicle was ranked higher than other vehicles. In the base case scenario with higher weight on environmental parameters, hybrid vehicle was ranked first followed by biodiesel-based vehicle. (author)

  1. Utah-Based Washakie Renewable Energy, LLC Settles Renewable Fuel Standard Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) today announced a settlement with Utah-based Washakie Renewable Energy, LLC, that resolves allegations that the company generated more than 7.2 million inv

  2. AP fuels and the potential of renewable diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkley, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; O' Shea, Michael; Peters, Christopher

    2010-09-15

    The decrease in demand for forestry products has been detrimental to the Province of Quebec's industrial base. With increasing energy security and environmental concerns the promotion of innovative technologies is adamant. AP Fuels Inc. has undertaken the development of a biomass-to-liquids facility proposed herein as a hybrid design, combining biomass and natural gas capable of producing diesel and other liquid fuels. The facility would consume 2,200,000 tonnewet per year of biomass and produce 10,600 bbl/day of liquid fuels. Forestry-derived F-T fuels have notable advantages including: improved performance; ultra-low sulphur content; reduced emissions, particulates and fouling; and production of fewer by-products.

  3. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyysalo, S.; Rinkinen, J. [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E. [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

  4. Corrigendum to "A comparison between renewable transport fuels that can supplement or replace biofuels in a 100% renewable energy system" [Energy 73, (2014), 110-125], doi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, D.; Mathiesen, B. V.; Ridjan, I.

    2015-01-01

    In this communication, we give the following corrigendum to the original paper, “A comparison between renewable transport fuels that can supplement or replace biofuels in a 100% renewable energy system” [1], to correct some typos and a figure which could mislead the readers: • Firstly, the incorr...

  5. Biomass as a Source of Renewable Carbon for Iron and Steelmaking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norgate, Terry; Haque, Nawshad; Somerville, Michael; Jahanshahi, Sharif

    2012-01-01

    Fossil fuel-based carbon is widely used in iron and steelmaking in a number of forms, and the replacement of these materials with renewable carbon derived from biomass is seen as offering the greatest...

  6. Photocatalysis for Renewable Energy Production Using PhotoFuelCells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Michal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a short review of our recent studies on PhotoFuelCells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume a fuel to produce electricity or hydrogen, and presents some unpublished data concerning both electricity and hydrogen production. PhotoFuelCells have been constructed using nanoparticulate titania photoanodes and various cathode electrodes bearing a few different types of electrocatalyst. In the case where the cell functioned with an aerated cathode, the cathode electrode was made of carbon cloth carrying a carbon paste made of carbon black and dispersed Pt nanoparticles. When the cell was operated in the absence of oxygen, the electrocatalyst was deposited on an FTO slide using a special commercial carbon paste, which was again enriched with Pt nanoparticles. Mixing of Pt with carbon paste decreased the quantity of Pt necessary to act as electrocatalyst. PhotoFuelCells can produce electricity without bias and with relatively high open-circuit voltage when they function in the presence of fuel and with an aerated cathode. In that case, titania can be sensitized in the visible region by CdS quantum dots. In the present work, CdS was deposited by the SILAR method. Other metal chalcogenides are not functional as sensitizers because the combined photoanode in their presence does not have enough oxidative power to oxidize the fuel. Concerning hydrogen production, it was found that it is difficult to produce hydrogen in an alkaline environment even under bias, however, this is still possible if losses are minimized. One way to limit losses is to short-circuit anode and cathode electrode and put them close together. This is achieved in the “photoelectrocatalytic leaf”, which was presently demonstrated capable of producing hydrogen even in a strongly alkaline environment.

  7. Photocatalysis for renewable energy production using PhotoFuelCells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Robert; Sfaelou, Stavroula; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2014-11-27

    The present work is a short review of our recent studies on PhotoFuelCells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume a fuel to produce electricity or hydrogen, and presents some unpublished data concerning both electricity and hydrogen production. PhotoFuelCells have been constructed using nanoparticulate titania photoanodes and various cathode electrodes bearing a few different types of electrocatalyst. In the case where the cell functioned with an aerated cathode, the cathode electrode was made of carbon cloth carrying a carbon paste made of carbon black and dispersed Pt nanoparticles. When the cell was operated in the absence of oxygen, the electrocatalyst was deposited on an FTO slide using a special commercial carbon paste, which was again enriched with Pt nanoparticles. Mixing of Pt with carbon paste decreased the quantity of Pt necessary to act as electrocatalyst. PhotoFuelCells can produce electricity without bias and with relatively high open-circuit voltage when they function in the presence of fuel and with an aerated cathode. In that case, titania can be sensitized in the visible region by CdS quantum dots. In the present work, CdS was deposited by the SILAR method. Other metal chalcogenides are not functional as sensitizers because the combined photoanode in their presence does not have enough oxidative power to oxidize the fuel. Concerning hydrogen production, it was found that it is difficult to produce hydrogen in an alkaline environment even under bias, however, this is still possible if losses are minimized. One way to limit losses is to short-circuit anode and cathode electrode and put them close together. This is achieved in the "photoelectrocatalytic leaf", which was presently demonstrated capable of producing hydrogen even in a strongly alkaline environment.

  8. Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

  9. Life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from renewable jet fuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Sierk; Antonissen, Kay; Hoefnagels, Ric; Lonza, Laura; Wang, Michael; Faaij, André; Junginger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background: The introduction of renewable jet fuel (RJF) is considered an important emission mitigation measure for the aviation industry. This study compares the well-to-wake (WtWa) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission performance of multiple RJF conversion pathways and explores the impact of different

  10. 40 CFR 80.1429 - Requirements for separating RINs from volumes of renewable fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or biogas for which RINs have been generated in accordance with § 80.1426(f) must separate any RINs that have been assigned to that volume of renewable electricity or biogas if: (i) The party designates the electricity or biogas as transportation fuel; and (ii) The electricity or biogas is used...

  11. Status of DOE efforts to renew acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, C.R.

    1997-08-01

    This presentation summarizes the efforts being made by the Department of Energy to renew acceptance of spent nuclear fuel shipments from foreign research reactors. The author reviews the actions undertaken in this process in a fairly chronological manner, through the present time, as well as the development of an environmental impact statement to support the proposed actions.

  12. 78 FR 71607 - Notice of Receipt of Petitions for a Waiver of the Renewable Fuel Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... renewable fuel standards that would apply in 2014. The American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American... requirements would severely harm the economy or environment of a State, a region, or the United States, or that... opportunity for comment, that implementation of the RFS volume requirement would severely harm the economy...

  13. Model documentation Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analaytical approach and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1996 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described.

  14. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass product...

  15. Comparison of renewable fuels based on their land use using energy densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, T. J.; Benders, R. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article energy densities of selected renewable fuels are determined. Energy density is defined here as the annual energy production per hectare, taking energy inputs into account. Using 5 scenarios, consisting of 1 set focusing on technical differences and 1 set focusing on geographical

  16. Comparison of renewable fuels based on their land use using energy densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, T. J.; Benders, R. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article energy densities of selected renewable fuels are determined. Energy density is defined here as the annual energy production per hectare, taking energy inputs into account. Using 5 scenarios, consisting of 1 set focusing on technical differences and 1 set focusing on geographical vari

  17. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  18. Subsidy regulation in WTO Law : Some implications for fossil fuels and renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean

  19. Life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from renewable jet fuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Sierk; Antonissen, Kay; Hoefnagels, Ric; Lonza, Laura; Wang, Michael; Faaij, André; Junginger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background: The introduction of renewable jet fuel (RJF) is considered an important emission mitigation measure for the aviation industry. This study compares the well-to-wake (WtWa) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission performance of multiple RJF conversion pathways and explores the impact of different co

  20. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Terlouw, H.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a

  1. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Terlouw, H.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a

  2. Subsidy regulation in WTO Law : Some implications for fossil fuels and renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean en

  3. Subsidies in WTO Law and Energy Regulation : Some Implications for Fossil Fuels and Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhold, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This contribution discusses WTO subsidies disciplines in the context of the energy sector. After laying out the relevant disciplines, it will discuss the paradox of WTO law with respect to subsidies towards fossil fuels vis-à-vis those towards renewable energy. It is clear that subsidies on clean en

  4. Analyzing hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) feedstock availability using crop simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    While hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ) has been demonstrated for use in commercial and military aviation, a challenge to large-scale adoption is availability of cost competitive feedstocks. Brassica oilseed crops like Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, B. carinata, Sinapis alba, and Camelina s...

  5. Impacts of renewable fuel regulation and production on agriculture, energy, and welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Lihong Lu

    The purpose of this dissertation is to study the impact of U.S. federal renewable fuel regulations on energy and agriculture commodity markets and welfare. We consider two federal ethanol policies: the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) contained in the Energy Security and Independence Act of 2007 and tax credits to ethanol blenders contained in the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008. My first essay estimates the distribution of short-run impacts of changing federal ethanol policies on U.S. energy prices, agricultural commodity prices, and welfare through a stochastic partial equilibrium model of U.S. corn, ethanol, and gasoline markets. My second essay focuses on studying the price behavior of the renewable fuel credit (RFC) market, which is the mechanism developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to meet the RFS. RFCs are a tradable, bankable, and borrowable accounting mechanism to ensure that all obligated parties use a mandated level of renewable fuel. I first develop a conceptual framework to understand how the market works and then apply stochastic dynamic programming to simulate prices for RFCs, examine the sensitivity of prices to relevant shocks, and estimate RFC option premiums. My third essay assesses the impact of policy led U.S. ethanol on the markets of global crude oil and U.S. gasoline using a structural Vector Auto Regression model of global crude oil, U.S. gasoline and ethanol markets.

  6. Biogas as a fuel source for SOFC co-generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van herle, Jan; Membrez, Yves; Bucheli, Olivier

    This study reports on the combination of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generators fueled with biogas as renewable energy source, recoverable from wastes but at present underexploited. From a mobilisable near-future potential in the European Union (EU-15) of 17 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe), under 15% appears to be converted today into useful heat and power (2 Mtoe). SOFCs could improve and promote the exploitation of biogas on manifold generation sites as small combined heat and power (5-50 kW el), especially for farm and sewage installations, raising the electrical conversion efficiency on such reduced and variable power level. Larger module packs of the high temperature ceramic converter would also be capable of operating on contaminated fuel of low heating value (less than 40% that of natural gas) which can emanate from landfill sites (MW-size). Landfill gas delivers 80% of current world biogas production. This document compiles and estimates biogas data on actual production and future potential and presents the thermodynamics of the biogas reforming and electrochemical conversion processes. A case study is reported of the energy balance of a small SOFC co-generator operated with agricultural biogas, the largest potential source.

  7. Environmental and economic effects of renewable energy sources use on a local case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosmi, C.; Salvia, M. [Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Unita di Napoli (Italy). Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia; Macchiato, M. [Universita Federico II, Napoli (Italy). Dpto. di Scienze Fisiche; Mangiamele, L.; Marmo, G. [Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy); Pietrapertosa, F. [Istituto di Metodologie Avanzate di Analisi Ambientali, Tito Scalo (Italy); Universita degli Studi della Basilicata, Potenza (Italy)

    2003-04-01

    Renewable sources represent an effective alternative to fossil fuels for preventing resources depletion and for reducing air pollution. However, their diffusion requires huge capital investment and major infrastructure changes, which have to be assessed to verify their effectiveness. The article present an application of the R-MARKAL model to investigate the feasibility of renewable use on a local case study for electricity and thermal energy production. A comprehensive modelling approach is used to emphasise the relationships and feedback between conversion and demand sectors (residential, services and commercial), taking into account contemporaneously legal issues and physical limits of the system. The model's solutions represent the minimum cost choice and the results show that even in absence of erogenous environmental constraints, many renewable technologies are profitable demand device and their investment costs are paid off in a medium term by lower operating and maintenance expenditures. In this context the use of thermal energy from incinerator allows one to achieve a consistent reduction of atmospheric pollutant emissions and, particularly, of greenhouse gases emissions due to waste degradation. (author)

  8. Biofuels for fuel cells: renewable energy from biomass fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Westermann, P.; Haberbauer, M.; Moreno, A.

    2005-01-01

    This book has been produced under the auspices of the Network ‘Biomass Fermentation Towards Usage in Fuel Cells’. The Network comprises nine partners from eight European countries and is funded by the European Science Foundation. This volume includes a chapter, from each of the member institutions,

  9. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable

  10. Winter School 2011 of the North Rhine Westphalia Research School "Fuel production based on renewable resources" associated with the Cluster of Excellence "Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass"

    CERN Document Server

    Pischinger, Stefan; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The book reports on the results of the BrenaRo Winterschool 2011, held on November 21-22 in Aachen, Germany. The different chapters cover a number of aspects of the topic of energy generation, with a particular focus on energy generation from biomass. They presents new findings concerning engine development, process engineering, and biological and chemical conversion of biomass to fuels, and highlight the importance of an interdisciplinary approach, combining chemistry, biology and engineering research, to the use of renewable energy sources. All in all, this book provides readers with a snapshot of the state-of-the-art in renewable energy conversion, and gives an overview of the ongoing work in this field in Germany.

  11. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananyev, S. S., E-mail: Ananyev-SS@nrcki.ru; Spitsyn, A. V., E-mail: spitsyn-av@nrcki.ru; Kuteev, B. V., E-mail: Kuteev-BV@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion–fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium–tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m{sup 3}Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium–tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  12. Fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananyev, S. S.; Spitsyn, A. V.; Kuteev, B. V.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a tokamak-based stationary fusion neutron source (FNS) for scientific research (neutron diffraction, etc.), tests of structural materials for future fusion reactors, nuclear waste transmutation, fission reactor fuel production, and control of subcritical nuclear systems (fusion-fission hybrid reactor) is being developed in Russia. The fuel cycle system is one of the most important systems of FNS that provides circulation and reprocessing of the deuterium-tritium fuel mixture in all fusion reactor systems: the vacuum chamber, neutral injection system, cryogenic pumps, tritium purification system, separation system, storage system, and tritium-breeding blanket. The existing technologies need to be significantly upgraded since the engineering solutions adopted in the ITER project can be only partially used in the FNS (considering the capacity factor higher than 0.3, tritium flow up to 200 m3Pa/s, and temperature of reactor elements up to 650°C). The deuterium-tritium fuel cycle of the stationary FNS is considered. The TC-FNS computer code developed for estimating the tritium distribution in the systems of FNS is described. The code calculates tritium flows and inventory in tokamak systems (vacuum chamber, cryogenic pumps, neutral injection system, fuel mixture purification system, isotope separation system, tritium storage system) and takes into account tritium loss in the fuel cycle due to thermonuclear burnup and β decay. For the two facility versions considered, FNS-ST and DEMO-FNS, the amount of fuel mixture needed for uninterrupted operation of all fuel cycle systems is 0.9 and 1.4 kg, consequently, and the tritium consumption is 0.3 and 1.8 kg per year, including 35 and 55 g/yr, respectively, due to tritium decay.

  13. Active Power Deficit Estimation in Presence of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    following outage of SMs during cascading events. Therefore, the active power deficit following the disturbance/s may not be properly estimated by existing conventional System Frequency Response (SFR) methods in which the total inertia of the power system is required to be known. In this paper, the actual......The inertia of the power system is reduced in the presence of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) due to their low or even no contribution in the inertial response as it is inherently available in the Synchronous Machines (SMs). The total inertia of the grid becomes unknown or at least uncertain...... active power deficit is estimated independent of grid inertia, type and number of occurred cascading events after each Load Shedding (LS) stage using shed load amount, pre-shed and post-shed Rate of Change of Frequency (ROCOF). Numerical simulations conducted on IEEE 39 bus standard test system in Dig...

  14. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.; Gendelis, S.

    2016-02-01

    The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  15. Stochastic Optimal Scheduling of Residential Appliances with Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hongyu; Pratt, Annabelle; Chakraborty, Sudipta

    2015-07-03

    This paper proposes a stochastic, multi-objective optimization model within a Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework, to determine the optimal operational schedules of residential appliances operating in the presence of renewable energy source (RES). The objective function minimizes the weighted sum of discomfort, energy cost, total and peak electricity consumption, and carbon footprint. A heuristic method is developed for combining different objective components. The proposed stochastic model utilizes Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) for representing uncertainties in electricity price, outdoor temperature, RES generation, water usage, and non-controllable loads. The proposed model is solved using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver and numerical results show the validity of the model. Case studies show the benefit of using the proposed optimization model.

  16. Quantification of aldehydes emissions from alternative and renewable aviation fuels using a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Altaher, Mohamed A.; Wilson, Chris W.; Blakey, Simon; Chung, Winson; Rye, Lucas

    2014-02-01

    In this research three renewable aviation fuel blends including two HEFA (Hydrotreated Ester and Fatty Acid) blends and one FAE (Fatty Acids Ethyl Ester) blend with conventional Jet A-1 along with a GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel have been tested for their aldehydes emissions on a small gas turbine engine. Three strong ozone formation precursors: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were measured in the exhaust at different operational modes and compared to neat Jet A-1. The aim is to assess the impact of renewable and alternative aviation fuels on aldehydes emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines so as to provide informed knowledge for the future deployment of new fuels in aviation. The results show that formaldehyde was a major aldehyde species emitted with a fraction of around 60% of total measured aldehydes emissions for all fuels. Acrolein was the second major emitted aldehyde species with a fraction of ˜30%. Acetaldehyde emissions were very low for all the fuels and below the detention limit of the instrument. The formaldehyde emissions at cold idle were up to two to threefold higher than that at full power. The fractions of formaldehyde were 6-10% and 20% of total hydrocarbon emissions in ppm at idle and full power respectively and doubled on a g kg-1-fuel basis.

  17. Biogas, as a renewable energy source, produced during the anaerobic digestion of organic waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying alternative sources of energy is a matter of urgency, since conventional energy sources are becoming exhausted. Renewable energy sources, such as biogas, can be generated from organic waste, through the anaerobic digestion (AD...

  18. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  19. Renewing Liquid Fueled Molten Salt Reactor Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towell, Rusty; NEXT Lab Team

    2016-09-01

    Globally there is a desperate need for affordable, safe, and clean energy on demand. More than anything else, this would raise the living conditions of those in poverty around the world. An advanced reactor that utilizes liquid fuel and molten salts is capable of meeting these needs. Although, this technology was demonstrated in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL in the 60's, little progress has been made since the program was cancelled over 40 years ago. A new research effort has been initiated to advance the technical readiness level of key reactor components. This presentation will explain the motivation and initial steps for this new research initiative.

  20. On the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable resources: dirty vs clean energy sources and the relative efficiency of generators

    OpenAIRE

    Elettra Agliardi; Luigi Sereno

    2012-01-01

    We develop a model on the optimal timing of switching from non-renewable to renewable energy sources with endogenous extraction choices under emission taxes, subsidies on renewable resources and abatement costs. We assume that non-renewable resources are "dirty" inputs and create environmental degradation, while renewable resources are more environmentally friendly, although they may be more or less productive than the exhaustible resources. The value of the switching option from non-renewabl...

  1. A Stochastic Calculus for Network Systems with Renewable Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Kui; Marinakis, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    We consider the performance modeling and evaluation of network systems powered with renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy. Such energy sources largely depend on environmental conditions, which are hard to predict accurately. As such, it may only make sense to require the network systems to support a soft quality of service (QoS) guarantee, i.e., to guarantee a service requirement with a certain high probability. In this paper, we intend to build a solid mathematical foundation to help better understand the stochastic energy constraint and the inherent correlation between QoS and the uncertain energy supply. We utilize a calculus approach to model the cumulative amount of charged energy and the cumulative amount of consumed energy. We derive upper and lower bounds on the remaining energy level based on a stochastic energy charging rate and a stochastic energy discharging rate. By building the bridge between energy consumption and task execution (i.e., service), we study the QoS guarantee under...

  2. Potential of renewable energy sources and its applications in Yakushima Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Kai, Takami; Natori, Rintarou; Takahashi, Takeshige; Hatate, Yasuo; Yoshida, Masahiro [Kagoshima University (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2004-04-01

    A study was carried out to see if the potential of renewable energy sources other than hydroelectric power, such as wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, biomass and waste energy sources, can meet the current energy consumption in Yakushima. The current electricity consumption can be covered by wind and photovoltaic energy sources. The total potential of wind and photovoltaic energy sources is 5.4 times as much as the current electricity consumption. LP gas and kerosene can be replaced by solar thermal and biogas energy. The potential of plant biomass and municipal waste is not sufficient (approximately one third) to cover the rest of the fossil fuels (gasoline, diesel oil and heavy oil). Also, plant biomass and municipal waste must be converted into fluid form. This shortage can be covered by the potential of wind and photovoltaic energy sources. We also investigated the possibility of tourism expansion using the potential of wind and photovoltaic energy sources. Taking into account three types of capacity (energy, accommodation and transportation), Yakushima can accept approximately four times as many tourists as the current number of tourists. (author)

  3. Renewable Fuel Utilization in a Cogeneration Arrangement with Hydrate Storage Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Soe; Yamada, Takanobu; Nakanishi, Kimio

    According to the third conference of parties (COP3), Japan has set a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 6% by the year 2010. Many believe that the bulk utilization of fossil fuel influences to the damaging environmental effect. The objective of this paper is to propose an effective method for this goad which is possible to clarify a noticeable utilization of renewable fuel in a micro gas turbine cogeneration system in cold region. Moreover, analysis of renewable fuel, biogas production indicates that production amount becomes largest in hot season, while the total heat energy demand is lowest on during three years. Biogas storage is also adapted for the delay between peak energy supply and demand. Biogas hydrate formation is examined by resource from laboratory experiments and simulation of integration into an existing cogeneration arrangement. The proposed system can be successfully supported the use and reuse of renewable fuel for providing to substantial emission and clean development mechanism for reducing greenhouse gas emission.

  4. Sustainable energy policy: the impact of government subsidies on ethanol as a renewable fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Denis Ahamarula

    The United States Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1978 to promote ethanol production and reduce American dependence on foreign oil. The provision of subsidies in the act is indicative of the importance of energy in the economy. America needs a national energy policy that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. Considering the importance of these needs, this study examines (a) the implementation of the Energy Policy Act of 1978 in regard to government subsidies and its effect on ethanol production, (b) the effect of gasoline consumption and cost on ethanol production, (c) the effect of corn production and price on ethanol fuel, and (d) the role of mandates and global crises on ethanol production. Secondary qualitative and quantitative data collected from various sources in 1978 through 2005 study the effect of ethanol subsidies on ethanol production. An autoregression error model is used to estimate the relevance of the explanatory variables on variations in ethanol production. The following are major study findings: (1) there is a positive correlation between corn production and ethanol production, is statistically significant; (2) government subsidies have a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production; (3) oil import has a statistically significant positive correlation with ethanol production, but has not contributed to a reduction the quantity of imported oil; (4) the price of corn has a statistically significant inverse relationship with ethanol production; (5) though not statistically significant, the price per barrel of oil is inversely related to ethanol production; (6) the budget surplus or deficit is associated with ethanol production; and (7) advocacy and lobbying for renewable fuel have encouraged support of ethanol production. The findings also show that global crises in the oil producing regions tend to influence the passage of favorable legislation for ethanol production. Furthermore, the

  5. Inventory of concepts for mixed diesel fuels containing renewable components. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, B. [Inst. for Surface Chemistry, Stockholm (Sweden); Berg, R. [Befri Konsult, Solna (Sweden); Berg, J. [Svenska Lantmaennen/Agro Oil, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-08-01

    The present report has involved the assembly of two sub-reports, which have been put together to form this final report. Both of the sub-reports deal with the incorporation of ethanol in diesel fuels. The potential advantages are the decreased net emissions of carbon dioxide, due to the renewable nature of ethanol (if obtained from renewable raw materials), and the decrease of NO{sub x} emissions, due to the decreased combustion temperature. The first sub-report is a compilation of scientific articles and patents/patent applications regarding the possibility to blend ethanol into diesel to form a stable solution in the form of a so called microemulsion, with the aid of surfactants and/or co-solvents. The second sub-report briefly describes the test work, both in the laboratory and in field tests, that is being done in various countries, regarding the blending of ethanol into diesel fuel.

  6. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This article investigates upgrading biomass pyrolysis vapors to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals using catalysts with different concentrations of acid sites. It shows that greater separation of acid sites makes catalysts more efficient at producing hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. The conversion of biomass into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant attention because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Biomass is a renewable resource, which is abundant worldwide and can potentially be exploited to produce transportation fuels that are less damaging to the environment. This renewable resource consists of cellulose (40–50%), hemicellulose (25–35%), and lignin (16–33%) biopolymers in addition to smaller quantities of inorganic materials such as silica and alkali and alkaline earth metals (calcium and potassium). Fast pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical technology for converting biomass into precursors for hydrocarbon fuels because it produces up to 75 wt% bio-oil,1 which can be upgraded to feedstocks and/or blendstocks for further refining to finished fuels. Bio-oil that has not been upgraded has limited applications because of the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups, derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which gives rise to high acidity, high viscosity, low heating value, immiscibility with hydrocarbons and aging during storage. Ex situ catalytic vapor phase upgrading is a promising approach for improving the properties of bio-oil. The goal of this process is to reject oxygen and produce a bio-oil with improved properties for subsequent downstream conversion to hydrocarbons.

  7. Will Aerosol Hygroscopicity Change with Biodiesel, Renewable Diesel Fuels and Emission Control Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Diep; Short, Daniel; Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas D; Asa-Awuku, Akua

    2017-02-07

    The use of biodiesel and renewable diesel fuels in compression ignition engines and aftertreatment technologies may affect vehicle exhaust emissions. In this study two 2012 light-duty vehicles equipped with direct injection diesel engines, diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) were tested on a chassis dynamometer. One vehicle was tested over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle on seven biodiesel and renewable diesel fuel blends. Both vehicles were exercised over double Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Highway fuel economy test (HWFET) cycles on ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a soy-based biodiesel blend to investigate the aerosol hygroscopicity during the regeneration of the DPF. Overall, the apparent hygroscopicity of emissions during nonregeneration events is consistently low (κ < 0.1) for all fuels over the FTP cycle. Aerosol emitted during filter regeneration is significantly more CCN active and hygroscopic; average κ values range from 0.242 to 0.439 and are as high as 0.843. Regardless of fuel, the current classification of "fresh" tailpipe emissions as nonhygroscopic remains true during nonregeneration operation. However, aftertreatment technologies such as DPF, will produce significantly more hygroscopic particles during regeneration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a significant enhancement of hygroscopic materials emitted during DPF regeneration of on-road diesel vehicles. As such, the contribution of regeneration emissions from a growing fleet of diesel vehicles will be important.

  8. Fiscal Policy for Renewable Energy Sources and Its Economic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Helbra Tenrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the largest producers of palm oil. Along with the increasing demand for renewable energy source, palm oil will turn to be a very important commodity in the future. The palm oil industry will gain more value-added if they export the commodities in processed materials rather than raw materials. On the other hands palm oil industry more likely to export raw material, because there’s no incentives for them to export processed materials. Therefore, to give an incentive to palm oil industry, the government of Indonesia should give fiscal incentives to encourage palm oil industry to produce processed materials. The purpose of this study is to identify the appropriate fiscal policy to palm oil industry and to estimate the economic impact due to the implementation of fiscal incentives policy. The methodology used in this research is analysis using Social Accounting Matrix (SAM that can give an overview the impact of policy implementation to factors of production, an institution such as government and household, and other sectors including palm oil sectors itself. The result of this study that is the proposed fiscal policy in palm oil industry was fiscal incentives in the form of VAT exemption. Economic impact analysis that came from SAM indicates that implementation of the policy has an overall positive impact to factors of production, institution and sector.

  9. Multi-port power electronic interface for renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei

    Energy intensive products and services are penetrating people's daily life as well as different sectors of industry during recent decades. Further effort to improve efficiency, reduce green house gas and hazardous particle emission lead to the emergence of the "more electric" concept in several industries including transportation. This trend, however, burdens the aging power system and existing local power networks. To offer a remedy to the problem and a smooth transition to a more reliable, more diverse, and more efficient power grid of the future, the concept of Multi-port Power Electronic Interface (MPEI) for localized power processing is introduced in this dissertation, which interfaces and manages various sources, loads and storages. Different means of integrating multiple sources and storages into the existing power system are studied and evaluated; the six phase-leg structure is chosen to interface five sources/loads: fuel cell, wind turbine, solar cell, battery and utility grid. Partitioning of source-interface and load-interface on a system level as well as analysis and modeling on small signal level are performed. A novel control structure for source-interface is proposed in the design, which forms Controlled Quasi Current Source (CQCS) during the load sharing operation and offers several salient advantages: • Inherent average current-mode control. • Easy share of steady state current/power. • Share of load dynamics for better source protection. Local control loops for various input ports are designed based on linearized system model; controller performance is tuned to accommodate the characteristics of different sources. To maintain a sustainable operation, different modes of operation are defined for MPEI; detailed state-transition with associated events are also defined in each operation mode. Prototype of MPEI is built and control system is implemented digitally in a digital signal processor; steady state and transient performance of MPEI is

  10. Analysing Renewable Energy Source Impacts on Power System National Network Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Balaban

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact on renewable energy sources integrated into the Romanian power system on the electrical network operation considering the reduction of electricity consumption with respect to the 1990s. This decrease has led to increased difficulties in integrating the renewable energy sources into the power system (network reinforcements, as well as issues concerning the balance of production/consumption. Following the excess of certain proportions of the energy mix, intermittent renewable energy sources require the expansion of networks, storage, back-up capacities and efforts for a flexible consumption, in the absence of which renewable energy sources cannot be used or the grid can be overloaded. To highlight the difficulty of connecting some significant capacities installed in wind power plants and photovoltaic installation, the paper presents a case study for Dobrogea area that has the most installed capacity from renewable energy sources in operation.

  11. Model documentation: Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it related to the production of the 1994 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO94) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves two purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The RFM consists of six analytical submodules that represent each of the major renewable energy resources -- wood, municipal solid waste (MSW), solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and alcohol fuels. Of these six, four are documented in the following chapters: municipal solid waste, wind, solar and biofuels. Geothermal and wood are not currently working components of NEMS. The purpose of the RFM is to define the technological and cost characteristics of renewable energy technologies, and to pass these characteristics to other NEMS modules for the determination of mid-term forecasted renewable energy demand.

  12. Diversity of fuel sources for electricity generation in an evolving U.S. power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLuccia, Janelle G.

    Policymakers increasingly have shown interest in options to boost the relative share of renewable or clean electricity generating sources in order to reduce negative environmental externalities from fossil fuels, guard against possible resource constraints, and capture economic advantages from developing new technologies and industries. Electric utilities and non-utility generators make decisions regarding their generation mix based on a number of different factors that may or may not align with societal goals. This paper examines the makeup of the electric power sector to determine how the type of generator and the presence (or lack) of competition in electricity markets at the state level may relate to the types of fuel sources used for generation. Using state-level electricity generation data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration from 1990 through 2010, this paper employs state and time fixed-effects regression modeling to attempt to isolate the impacts of state-level restructuring policies and the emergence of non-utility generators on states' generation from coal, from fossil fuel and from renewable sources. While the analysis has significant limitations, I do find that state-level electricity restructuring has a small but significant association with lowering electricity generation from coal specifically and fossil fuels more generally. Further research into the relationship between competition and fuel sources would aid policymakers considering legislative options to influence the generation mix.

  13. An Indian scenario on renewable and sustainable energy sources with emphasis on algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemaiswarya, S.; Carvalho, Isabel S. [Algarve Univ., Faro (Portugal). Food Science Lab.; Raja, Rathinam [Algarve Univ., Faro (Portugal). Food Science Lab.; Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Bioprocess, Biotechnology and Renewable Energy; Ravikumar, R. [Aquatic Energy LLC, Lake Charles, LA (United States); Zambare, Vasudeo [Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Bioprocess, Biotechnology and Renewable Energy; Barh, Debmalya [Institute of Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology (IIOAB), Purba Medinipur (India). Centre for Genomics and Applied Gene Technology

    2012-12-15

    India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, India's economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 %/year. There is an extreme dependence on petroleum products with considerable risks and environmental issues. Petroleum-derived transport fuels are of limited availability and contribute to global warming, making renewable biofuel as the best alternative. The focus on biogas and biomass-based energy, such as bioethanol and biohydrogen, will enhance cost-effectiveness and provide an opportunity for the rural community. Among all energy sources, microalgae have received, so far, more attention due to their facile adaptability to grow in the photobioreactors or open ponds, high yields, and multiple applications. Microalgae can produce a substantial amount of triacylglycerols as a storage lipid under photooxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. In addition to renewable biofuels, they can provide different types of high-value bioproducts added to their advantages, such as higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to any other energy crops. The viability of first-generation biofuels production is, however, questionable because of the conflict with food supply. In the future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic, and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency so as to plan a road map for the industry to produce third-generation biofuels. (orig.)

  14. A Review of Nipa Palm as a Renewable Energy Source in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.T. Okugbo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the renewable energy potential of Nipa Palm, a bio-energy crop widely available yet underutilized in Nigeria. The combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas has increased the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere. The carbon dioxide and other socalled greenhouse gases allow solar energy to enter the Earth's atmosphere, but reduce the amount of energy that can re-radiate back into space, trapping energy and causing global warming. Nipa Palm which has been regarded as an environmental menace is now regarded as one of the candidates for renewable energy to fulfill the requirement of clean carbon emission. Abundant quantity of Nipa Palm provides an impetus for the sustainable generation of bio-ethanol. This sugar based bio-ethanol source development in Nigeria provides not only profitable use to a problem plant but also provides an opportunity and incentive to generate some Carbon Emission Reduction (CERs credits.

  15. An Indian scenario on renewable and sustainable energy sources with emphasis on algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemaiswarya, S; Raja, Rathinam; Carvalho, Isabel S; Ravikumar, R; Zambare, Vasudeo; Barh, Debmalya

    2012-12-01

    India is the fifth largest primary energy consumer and fourth largest petroleum consumer after USA, China, and Japan. Despite the global economic crisis, India's economy is expected to grow at 6 to 8 %/year. There is an extreme dependence on petroleum products with considerable risks and environmental issues. Petroleum-derived transport fuels are of limited availability and contribute to global warming, making renewable biofuel as the best alternative. The focus on biogas and biomass-based energy, such as bioethanol and biohydrogen, will enhance cost-effectiveness and provide an opportunity for the rural community. Among all energy sources, microalgae have received, so far, more attention due to their facile adaptability to grow in the photobioreactors or open ponds, high yields, and multiple applications. Microalgae can produce a substantial amount of triacylglycerols as a storage lipid under photooxidative stress or other adverse environmental conditions. In addition to renewable biofuels, they can provide different types of high-value bioproducts added to their advantages, such as higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to any other energy crops. The viability of first-generation biofuels production is, however, questionable because of the conflict with food supply. In the future, biofuels should ideally create the environmental, economic, and social benefits to the communities and reflect energy efficiency so as to plan a road map for the industry to produce third-generation biofuels.

  16. 77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA... comment on EPA's analyses of palm oil used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel and renewable diesel...

  17. 77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... types of biofuel shows that biodiesel and renewable diesel produced from palm oil have estimated... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil...

  18. Fusion - An energy source for synthetic fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, J. A.; Powell, J.; Steinberg, M.

    1980-05-01

    An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  19. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  20. Policies for Enabling Corporate Sourcing of Renewable Energy Internationally: A 21st Century Power Partnership Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny; O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Speer, Bethany; Volpi, Christina; Cook, Orrin; Jones, Todd; Taylor, Michael; Ralon, Pablo; Nilson, Emily

    2017-05-25

    This paper explores the policy and regulatory enabling environment for corporate sourcing of renewables. The paper has been developed in support of the Corporate Sourcing of Renewables Campaign, which was launched at the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) meeting in June 2016. Through the campaign, a subset of CEM member governments is collaborating with corporate and nongovernmental organization partners to facilitate increased corporate procurement of renewables and pursue supportive policies for corporate procurement. This paper finds that policy certainty is essential to creating vibrant markets for renewable energy. While policymakers may need to adjust policy mechanisms over time as markets go through different stages of maturity, they must also consider the economic decisions that end-users make in evaluating projects. Policy interaction is also important to consider because buyers seek assurances that their investments in renewables have impact and wish to make clear claims about their renewable energy purchases.

  1. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  2. Modeling a drip irrigation system powered by a renewable energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoheiry, Ahmed M.

    Food production is a problem in many of the regions in the world. Today, the process of producing food is very dependent on energy. The dependency on fossil fuels causes the cost of producing crops to increase as the prices of fuel increases. Using a renewable energy sources to power an irrigation system is a mean of decreasing the dependency of food products on the prices of fuel and minimize the impact of the irrigation system on the environment. A model was developed to simulate and predict the performance of an irrigation system powered by a renewable energy source. Both solar energy and wind energy were considered for the modeling of the system. The solar energy was simulated using the difference between the maximum and the minimum daily temperatures as an indicator of the amount of clouds in the atmosphere. The model is a modification of earlier models and has the advantage of not needing to be calibrated for each new site. Results showed that a model that calibrates it self for the upper and the lower expected values of the solar radiation can be developed using metrological data such as the location of the site, the daily temperatures, and the minimum relative humidity. The wind energy was predicted using the power coefficient of the turbine and statistical representation of the daily wind speeds. The average hourly values of the wind speed were used for finding the distribution constants for the Weibull distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The results showed that the Weibull distribution is more accurate in predicting the expected power output of the turbine when the daily wind speed coefficient of variation (Cv) was less than 0.5. When the Cv is greater than 0.5 the Rayleigh distribution gives better results. A computer model was developed using Visual Basic to model the system and the resulting model was tested and used in comparing the economics of a traditional irrigation system and an irrigation system powered by solar panels. The system powered by

  3. Can renewable energy sources satiate Slovakia's future energy needs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomis, Igor; Koval, Peter; Janicek, Frantisek; Darula, Ivan

    2010-09-15

    The paper examines the options for replacing the current energy mix of non-renewable, conventional energy sources solely with renewable sources in the long term within the context of the Slovak environment, possibly combined with nuclear energy in the 50-year horizon. Vital needs are outlined in household energy consumption and energy consumption for industrial and transportation purposes to fulfil in order for Slovakia to become independent of foreign sources in energy supplies.

  4. Renewable sustainable biocatalyzed electricity production in a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strik, David P B T B; Terlouw, Hilde; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2008-12-01

    Electricity production via solar energy capturing by living higher plants and microalgae in combination with microbial fuel cells are attractive because these systems promise to generate useful energy in a renewable, sustainable, and efficient manner. This study describes the proof of principle of a photosynthetic algal microbial fuel cell (PAMFC) based on naturally selected algae and electrochemically active microorganisms in an open system and without addition of instable or toxic mediators. The developed solar-powered PAMFC produced continuously over 100 days renewable biocatalyzed electricity. The sustainable performance of the PAMFC resulted in a maximum current density of 539 mA/m2 projected anode surface area and a maximum power production of 110 mW/m2 surface area photobioreactor. The energy recovery of the PAMFC can be increased by optimization of the photobioreactor, by reducing the competition from non-electrochemically active microorganisms, by increasing the electrode surface and establishment of a further-enriched biofilm. Since the objective is to produce net renewable energy with algae, future research should also focus on the development of low energy input PAMFCs. This is because current algae production systems have energy inputs similar to the energy present in the outcoming valuable products.

  5. Renewable energy sources and climate change mitigation: special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    ... and economic development, to energy access, to a secure and sustainable energy supply, and to a reduction of negative impacts of energy provision on the environment and human health. This Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) impartially assesses the scientific literature on the potential role of renew...

  6. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lawler, J.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  7. Biosynthesis of planet friendly bioplastics using renewable carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Roopesh; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Plastics are uniquely flexible materials that offer considerable benefits as a simple packing to complex engineering material. Traditional synthetic polymers (often called plastics), such as polypropylene and polyethylene have been derived from non-renewable petrochemicals and known to cause environmental concerns due to their non-biodegradable nature. The enormous use of petroleum-based plastic compounds emphasized a need for sustainable alternatives derived from renewable resources. Bioplastics have attracted widespread attention, as eco-friendly and eco-tolerable alternative. But they have got certain limitations as well, such as high cost of production and unsatisfactory mechanical properties. In this study we have found agriculture waste (AW) as low-cost and renewable substrate for the production of bioplastics in bacterial fermentation. Improvement in tensile properties of produced bioplastic film has also been documented upon blending with Cellulose Acetate Butyrate (CAB).

  8. Solid waste as renewable source of energy. Current and future possibility in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taqiy Eddine, Boukelia; Salah, Mecibah Med [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Mechanical Dept.

    2012-11-01

    Algeria has created a green momentum by launching an ambitious program to develop renewable energies and promote energy efficiency. Solid waste is one of most important sources of biomass potential in Algeria, which can be used as renewable energy sources. With economic development and the evolution of population, the quantity of solid waste is increasing rapidly in Algeria; according to the National Cadastre for Solid Waste Generation, the overall generation of municipal solid waste was more than 10.3 million tons per year, and the amount of industrial solid waste, including non-hazardous and inert industrial waste was 2,547,000 tons per year, with a stock quantity of 4,483,500 tons. The hazardous waste generated amounts to 325,100 tons per year; the quantities of waste in stock and awaiting a disposal solution amount to 2,008,500 tons. Healthcare waste reaches to 125,000 tons per year. The management of solid waste and its valorization is based on the understanding of solid waste composition by its categories and physicochemical characteristics. Elimination is the solution applied to 97% of waste produced in Algeria. Wastes are disposed in the following ways: open dumps (57%), burned in the open air in public dumps or municipal uncontrolled ones (30%), and controlled dumps and landfill (10%). On the other side, the quantities destined for recovery are too low: only 2% for recycling and 1% for composting. Waste to energy is very attractive option for elimination solid waste with energy recovery. In this paper, we give an overview for this technology, including its conversion options and its useful products (such as electricity, heat and transportation fuel), and waste to energy-related environmental issues and its challenges. (orig.)

  9. Chapter 2: International Requirements for Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Garcia, A.; Hansen, A. D.; Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Fortmann, J.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.

    2017-03-01

    Most European countries have concerns about the integration of large amounts of renewable energy sources (RES) into electric power systems, and this is currently a topic of growing interest. In January 2008, the European Commission published the 2020 package, which proposes committing the European Union to a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, to achieve a target of deriving 20% of the European Union's final energy consumption from renewable sources, and to achieve 20% improvement in energy efficiency both by the year 2020 [1]. Member states have different individual goals to meet these overall objectives, and they each need to provide a detailed roadmap describing how they will meet these legally binding targets [2]. At this time, RES are an indispensable part of the global energy mix, which has been partially motivated by the continuous increases in hydropower as well as the rapid expansion of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV). The International Energy Agency's 2012 edition of the World Energy Outlook stated that the rapid increases in RES integration are underpinned by falling technology costs as well as rising fossilfuel prices and carbon pricing, but RES integration is also encouraged by continued subsidies: from $88 billion globally in 2011 (compared to $523 billion in fossil-fuel subsidies in 2012 [3], with a share of $131 billion for electricity generation) to an estimated $240 billion in 2035 [4]. According to [3], in 2015 RES accounted for 22% of electricity generation, which was approximately the same level as gas and about one-half the level of coal.

  10. Adaptive control paradigm for photovoltaic and solid oxide fuel cell in a grid-integrated hybrid renewable energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sidra; Khan, Laiq

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system. A comprehensive simulation testbed for a grid-connected hybrid power system (wind turbine, PV cells, SOFC, electrolyzer, battery storage system, supercapacitor (SC), micro-turbine (MT) and domestic load) is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness and superiority of the proposed indirect adaptive control paradigm are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system testbed by comparison with a conventional PI (proportional and integral) control system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigm.

  11. Adaptive control paradigm for photovoltaic and solid oxide fuel cell in a grid-integrated hybrid renewable energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Laiq

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system. A comprehensive simulation testbed for a grid-connected hybrid power system (wind turbine, PV cells, SOFC, electrolyzer, battery storage system, supercapacitor (SC), micro-turbine (MT) and domestic load) is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness and superiority of the proposed indirect adaptive control paradigm are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system testbed by comparison with a conventional PI (proportional and integral) control system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigm. PMID:28329015

  12. Comparison study between a Renewable Energy Supply System and a supergrid for achieving 100% from renewable energy sources in Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    Numerous efforts have been done for achieving the maximum penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in the autonomous grids of Greek islands, which never exceeded 10%, despite the exceptional wind and solar potential. Large fluctuations on demand during summer, winter, and 24-h period...... in combination with the technical restrictions of diesel generators of the existing conventional power stations are a major concern of power supply system. Reversing the roles of diesel generators and wind farms (WFs), to use WF as the basic energy source and diesel generators as stand-by system changed in fact...... the stochastic behavior of wind energy to the demand, to provide the system with guaranteed power. This Wind–Hydro Plants in combination with the most adequate RES forming an Renewable Energy Supply System (RESS), increase further the economical penetration of RES into autonomous grids up to 90% or even 100...

  13. Energy and chemicals from the selective electrooxidation of renewable diols by organometallic fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Marco; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Filippi, Jonathan; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Marchionni, Andrea; Miller, Hamish A; Oberhauser, Werner; Vizza, Francesco; Annen, Samuel P; Grützmacher, H

    2014-09-01

    Organometallic fuel cells catalyze the selective electrooxidation of renewable diols, simultaneously providing high power densities and chemicals of industrial importance. It is shown that the unique organometallic complex [Rh(OTf)(trop2NH)(PPh3)] employed as molecular active site in an anode of an OMFC selectively oxidizes a number of renewable diols, such as ethylene glycol , 1,2-propanediol (1,2-P), 1,3-propanediol (1,3-P), and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-B) to their corresponding mono-carboxylates. The electrochemical performance of this molecular catalyst is discussed, with the aim to achieve cogeneration of electricity and valuable chemicals in a highly selective electrooxidation from diol precursors.

  14. Main types of technical facilities used in poland agricultural sector for obtaining energy from renewable sources of various nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Kalinichenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the main ways of heat and electric energy supply of farms in Poland, using energy from renewable sources. Particular attention is paid to the relevant requirements for technical support of energy supply processes. It is assumed that in agriculture production and rural areas in Poland soon the number of used conventional fuels, including natural gas and coal, will change significantly, for the use of biomass, solar, geothermal and wind energy. Devices that are designed for use almost unlimited supply of renewable energy are: heat pumps, solar panels, photo-electric elements, wind and hydrostations. The main effect is as traditional energy saving and reduction of technogenic impact on the environment, and increasing of energy security level, creating new workplaces and promote regional development

  15. An approach for evaluating the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on transmission expansion planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongrit CHATTHAWORN; Surachai CHAITUSANEY

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new robust optimization approach to evaluate the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on transmission expansion planning (TEP). The objective function of TEP is composed of the investment cost of the transmission line and the operating cost of conventional generators. A method to select suitable scenarios representing the intermittent renewable energy generation and loads is proposed to obtain robust expansion planning for all possible scenarios. A meta-heuristic algorithm called adaptive tabu search (ATS) is employed in the proposed TEP. ATS iterates between the main problem, which minimizes the investment and operating costs, and the subproblem, which minimizes the cost of power generation from conventional generators and curtailments of renewable energy generation and loads. The subproblem is solved by nonlinear programming (NLP) based on an interior point method. Moreover, the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on TEP was evaluated by comparing expansion planning with and without consideration of a renewable energy source. The IEEE Reliability Test System 79 (RTS 79) was used for testing the proposed method and evaluating the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on TEP. The results show that the proposed robust optimization approach provides a more robust solution than other methods and that the impact of an intermittent renewable energy source on TEP should be considered.

  16. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  17. Green Aerospace Fuels from Nonpetroleum Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; DeLaRee, Ana B.; Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark; Hensel, Joseph D.; Kimble, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to produce green aerospace propellants from nonpetroleum sources are outlined. The paper begins with an overview of feedstock processing and relevant small molecule or C1 chemistry. Gas-to-liquid technologies, notably Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processing of synthesis gas (CO and H2), are being optimized to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to aviation (and other transportation) fuels at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Efforts to produce optimized catalysts are described. Given the high cost of space launch, the recycling of human metabolic and plastic wastes to reduce the need to transport consumables to orbit to support the crew of a space station has long been recognized as a high priority. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon or beyond are taken into account, the importance of developing waste recycling systems becomes still more imperative. One promising way to transform organic waste products into useful gases is steam reformation; this well-known technology is currently being optimized by a Colorado company for exploration and planetary surface operations. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. A technology that has successfully demonstrated production of fuels and related chemicals from waste plastics developed in Northeast Ohio is described. Technologies being developed by a Massachusetts company to remove sulfur impurities are highlighted. Common issues and concerns for nonpetroleum fuel production are emphasized. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether a terrestrial operation or on the lunar (or Martian) surface; the term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of grid-energy usage. For space exploration, energy efficiency can be an essential concern. Other issues of great concern include minimizing

  18. Fire Protection Safety Evaluations of Hydro-Treated Renewable Jet (HRJ) and Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    first responder must be established. The objective of this study was to measure alternative fuel safety parameters. Flame propagation tests documented the flame spread rate on liquid fuel surfaces. Flame visible spectrum emissions were measured in normal and elevated oxygen concentration environments. Commercial optical flame detectors (OFDs) and commercial combustible gas detectors (CGDs) were evaluated for their relative response to and ability to detect bio-oil derived hydroprocessed renewable jet (HRJ) and synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) fuel fires and vapors as

  19. The Optimal Use of Renewable Energy Sources-The Case of Lemnos Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koroneos, C.; Xydis, George; Polyzakis, A.

    2012-01-01

    energy needs from Renewable Energy Sources taking into consideration a multiplicity of criteria such as environmental impacts, energy demand, energy cost, and resources availability. A series of solutions have resulted, based on deterministic model runs, providing decision makers the flexibility...

  20. Renewable energy source use in Brazil; Utilizacao de energia renovavel no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Joseph; Rosa, Fabio, e-mails: jnewman@winrock.org.br, e-mail: fabrosa@terra.com.br

    2003-08-15

    This article evaluates the programs (PROINFA and CCC) developed by the State to deploy a policy of using renewable energy sources in Brazil, highlighting the biodiesel, which should be inserted in its energy matrix.

  1. Guide to funding sources for renewable energy in schools and colleges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This guide has been designed specifically to identify sources of funding for renewable energy projects in schools, such as a wind generator or a solar water heating system. It is intended for teachers or Friends of associations. (author)

  2. International Standards to Develop and Promote Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    International Standards are a powerful tool for disseminating new technologies and good practices, developing global markets and supporting the harmonization of government policies on energy efficiency and renewable sources on a global scale.

  3. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  4. Rural population and renewable energy sources: Experiences of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade of the twentieth century the use of green (renewable energy has become the imperative not only in developed countries worldwide, but also in poorer countries like Asia and Africa. The change from traditional to renewable energy sources carries valuable improvements in environmental protection and economic efficacy. This paper through individual examples, explores the possibility of replacing traditional with renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, energy of small hydroelectric power plants, etc. worldwide and in rural Serbian communities.

  5. Pollutant Emissions and Lean Blowoff Limits of Fuel Flexible Burners Operating on Gaseous Renewable and Fossil Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado, Andres

    This study provides an experimental and numerical examination of pollutant emissions and stability of gaseous fueled reactions stabilized with two premixed-fuel-flexible and ultra-low NOx burner technologies. Both burners feature lean combustion technology to control the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The first fuel--flexible burner is the low-swirl burner (LSB), which features aerodynamic stabilization of the reactions with a divergent flow-field; the second burner is the surface stabilized combustion burner (SSCB), which features the stabilization of the reactions on surface patterns. For combustion applications the most commonly studied species are: NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). However these are not the only pollutants emitted when burning fossil fuels; other species such as nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3) and formaldehyde (CH2O) can be directly emitted from the oxidation reactions. Yet the conditions that favor the emission of these pollutants are not completely understood and require further insight. The results of this dissertation close the gap existing regarding the relations between emission of pollutants species and stability when burning variable gaseous fuels. The results of this study are applicable to current issues such as: 1. Current combustion systems operating at low temperatures to control formation of NOx. 2. Increased use of alternative fuels such as hydrogen, synthetic gas and biogas. 3. Increasing recognition of the need/desire to operate combustion systems in a transient manner to follow load and to offset the intermittency of renewable power. 4. The recent advances in measurement methods allow us to quantify other pollutants, such as N 2O, NH3 and CH2O. Hence in this study, these pollutant species are assessed when burning natural gas (NG) and its binary mixtures with other gaseous fuels such as hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), ethane (C 2H6) and propane (C3H8) at variable operation modes including

  6. Experimental Study of the Combustion Dynamics of Renewable & Fossil Fuel Co-Fire in Swirling Flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaķe, M.; Barmina, I.; Kriško, V.; Gedrovičs, M.; Descņickis, A.

    2009-01-01

    The complex experimental research into the combustion dynamics of rene-wable (wood biomass) and fossil (propane) fuel co-fire in a swirling flame flow has been carried out with the aim to achieve clean and effective heat production with reduced carbon emissions. The effect of propane co-fire on the formation of the swirling flame velocity, temperature and composition fields as well as on the combustion efficiency and heat output has been analysed. The results of experimental study show that the propane supply into the wood biomass gasifier provides faster wood fuel gasification with active release of volatiles at the primary stage of swirling flame flow formation, while the swirl-induced recirculation with enhanced mixing of the flame components results in a more complete burnout of wood volatiles downstream of the combustor with reduced mass fraction of polluting impurities in the emissions.

  7. An Economic Basis for Littoral Land-Based Production of Low Carbon Fuel from Renewable Electrical Energy and Seawater for Naval Use: Diego Garcia Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    Based Production of Low Carbon Fuel from Renewable Electrical Energy and Seawater for Naval Use: Diego Garcia Evaluation Heather D. Willauer, Dennis R...difficult challenges to the U.S. Navy for the future production of low carbon fuel from renewable electrical energy from photovoltaic (PV) arrays and...gallons of fuel delivered annually to Diego Garcia. Using published capital cost estimates and a range of solar and wind renewable electrical energy

  8. Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Mitigation versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation in U.S has been developed; the model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints. The non-renewable energy sources include three types of fossil fuels: coal, natural gas and petroleum, and renewable energy sources include nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass wood, biomass waste and geothermal. Energy demand sectors include households, industrial manufacturing and non-manufacturing commercial enterprises. Energy supply takes into account the electricity delivered to the consumer by the utility companies at a certain price which maybe different for retail and wholesale customers. Environmental risks primarily take into account the CO2 generation from fossil fuels. The model takes into account the employment in various sectors and labor supply and demand. Detailed electricity supply and demand data, electricity cost data, employment data in various sectors and CO2 generation data are collected for a period of nineteen years from 1990 to 2009 in U.S. The model is employed for policy analysis experiments if a switch is made in sources of electricity generation, namely from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. As an example, we consider a switch of 10% of electricity generation from coal to 5% from wind, 3% from solar photovoltaic, 1% from biomass wood and 1% from biomass waste. The model is also applied to a switch from 10% coal to 10% from clean coal technologies. It should be noted that the cost of electricity generation from different sources is different and is taken into account. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1 energy prices are fully regulated, (2 energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3 energy prices and

  9. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022

  10. The Economics of Renewable Energy Sources into Electricity Generation in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraka Kichonge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the economics of renewable energy sources into electricity generation in Tanzania. Business as usual (BAU scenario and renewable energy (RE scenario which enforce a mandatory penetration of renewable energy sources shares into electricity generations were analyzed. The results show total investment cost for the BAU scenario is much lower as compared to RE scenario while operating and maintenance variable costs are higher in BAU scenario. Primary energy supply in BAU scenario is higher tied with less investment costs as compared to RE scenario. Furthermore, the share of renewable energy sources in BAU scenario is insignificant as compared to RE scenario due to mandatory penetration policy imposed. Analysis concludes that there are much higher investments costs in RE scenario accompanied with less operating and variable costs and lower primary energy supply. Sensitivity analysis carried out suggests that regardless of changes in investments cost of coal and CCGT power plants, the penetration of renewable energy technologies was still insignificant. Notwithstanding the weaknesses of renewable energy technologies in terms of the associated higher investments costs, an interesting result is that it is possible to meet future electricity demand based on domestic resources including renewables.

  11. Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

  12. Design, engineering, and construction of photosynthetic microbial cell factories for renewable solar fuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Oliveira, Paulo; Stensjö, Karin; Heidorn, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H(2) production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted.

  13. Sorghum as a renewable feedstock for production of fuels and industrial chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable efforts have been made in the USA and other countries to develop renewable feedstocks for production of fuels and chemicals. Among these, sorghum has attracted strong interest because of its many good characteristics such as rapid growth and high sugar accumulation, high biomass production potential, excellent nitrogen usage efficiency, wide adaptability, drought resistance, and water lodging tolerance and salinity resistance. The ability to withstand severe drought conditions and its high water usage efficiency make sorghum a good renewable feedstock suitable for cultivation in arid regions, such as the southern US and many areas in Africa and Asia. Sorghum varieties include grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, and biomass sorghum. Grain sorghum, having starch content equivalent to corn, has been considered as a feedstock for ethanol production. Its tannin content, however, may cause problems during enzyme hydrolysis. Sweet sorghum juice contains sucrose, glucose and fructose, which are readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and hence is a good substrate for ethanol fermentation. The enzyme invertase, however, needs to be added to convert sucrose to glucose and fructose if the juice is used for production of industrial chemicals in fermentation processes that employ microorganisms incapable of metabolizing sucrose. Biomass sorghum requires pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to generate fermentable sugars to be used in the subsequent fermentation process. This report reviews the current knowledge on bioconversion of sorghum to fuels and chemicals and identifies areas that deserve further studies.

  14. Economic analysis of using excess renewable electricity to displace heating fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Kempton, Willett

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has shown that for high-penetration renewable electricity systems, it is less expensive to install higher capacity of renewables and to allow generation to exceed load during some hours, rather than to build so much storage that all electricity can be used to meet electrical load. Bec...... energy storage was found to be crucial when it comes to reducing the need for fossil fuels for heating (in this model, as backup heat)........ Because excess electricity appears to be cost-optimum, this raises the question as to whether the excess electricity, which in the case of wind power is predominately produced in colder weather, might displace other fuels for purposes such as heat. This study models using excess electricity for heating......, based on an analysis of electricity and heat use in a TSO in the North-Eastern part of the United States (PJM Interconnection). The heating system was modeled as heat pump based district heating (HPDH) with thermal energy storage (TES). Thus, excess electricity is transformed into heat, which is easy...

  15. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell for natural gas/renewable hybrid power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Shi, Yixiang; Zheng, Yi; Cai, Ningsheng

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy (RE) is expected to be the major part of the future energy. Presently, the intermittence and fluctuation of RE lead to the limitation of its penetration. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) as the energy storage device can effectively store the renewable energy and build a bidirectional connection with natural gas (NG). In this paper, the energy storage strategy was designed to improve the RE penetration and dynamic operation stability in a distributed system coupling wind generators, internal combustion engine, RSOFC and lithium-ion batteries. By compromising the relative deviation of power supply and demand, RE penetration, system efficiency and capacity requirement, the strategy that no more than 36% of the maximum wind power output is directly supplied to users and the other is stored by the combination of battery and reversible solid oxide fuel cell is optimal for the distributed system. In the case, the RE penetration reached 56.9% and the system efficiency reached 55.2%. The maximum relative deviation of power supply and demand is also lower than 4%, which is significantly superior to that in the wind curtailment case.

  16. Compositional and Agronomic Evaluation of Sorghum Biomass as a Potential Feedstock for Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, J.; Wolfrum, E.; Bean, B.; Rooney, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    One goal of the Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee was to replace 30% of current U.S. petroleum consumption with biofuels by 2030. This will take mixtures of various feedstocks; an annual biomass feedstock such as sorghum will play an important role in meeting this goal. Commercial forage sorghum samples collected from field trials grown in Bushland, TX in 2007 were evaluated for both agronomic and compositional traits. Biomass compositional analysis of the samples was performed at the National Renewable Energy Lab in Golden, CO following NREL Laboratory Analytical Procedures. Depending on the specific cultivar, several additional years of yield data for this location were considered in establishing agronomic potential. Results confirm that sorghum forages can produce high biomass yields over multiple years and varied growing conditions. In addition, the composition of sorghum shows significant variation, as would be expected for most crops. Using theoretical estimates for ethanol production, the sorghum commercial forages examined in this study could produce an average of 6147 L ha{sup -1} of renewable fuels. Given its genetic variability, a known genomic sequence, a robust seed industry, and biomass composition, sorghum will be an important annual feedstock to meet the alternative fuel production goals legislated by the US Energy Security Act of 2007.

  17. Addressing Palm Biodiesel as Renewable Fuel for the Indonesian Power Generation Sector: Java-Madura-Bali System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarianto Indrawan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy security defined as how to equitably provide available, affordable, reliable efficient, environmentally friendly, proactively governed and socially acceptable energy services to end user. It has in recent years taken attention of policymakers in different parts of the world. Formulating policy to improve energy security is mandatory, not only because of depleting fossil resource, but also implementing diversity of energy source since utilization abundant renewable energy resources can increase the security of energy supply. One of the abundant renewable energy resources in Indonesia is palm oil. This study analyses the utilization of palm biodiesel for Indonesian power generation sector in the Java-Madura-Bali (JAMALI system. Two scenarios were created by projecting the demand and environmental impact as well as GHG emissions reduction over the next 25 years. The first scenario subjects on current energy policy, while the second scenario is to substitute of fossil fuel which is still used in the JAMALI power generation system. Effect of palm biodiesel on emission of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, and Volatile Organic Compounds were estimated for each scenario. An externality analysis to complete the environmental analysis was conducted and resource analysis of palm oil plantation based biodiesel was also estimated. Finally, the economics feasibility of palm biodiesel in the power generation sector was analyzed.

  18. The Analysis of the Usage And Perspectives of Renewable Energy Sources in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominykas Vasarevičius

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current situation with the renewable energy sources in Lithuania. An overview of legislation promoting the production and usage of renewable energy in Lithuania is presented. Renewable energy production methods suitable for Lithuanian conditions, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. It is shown that there is no any promotion from the state for usage of solar energy in private households. The potential of solar energy usage is determined. In order to show the effectiveness of solar thermal energy utilization under similar climatic conditions presented the example of promotion policy model and its results in Poland.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Performance of Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF) on Large-Scale Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2012-0012 PERFORMANCE OF AQUEOUS FILM FORMING FOAM ( AFFF ) ON LARGE-SCALE HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE JET (HRJ) FUEL FIRES ...Performance of Aqueous Film Forming Foam ( AFFF ) on Large-Scale Hydroprocessed Renewable Jet (HRJ) Fuel Fires FA4819-09-C-0030 0602102F 4915 D0 QD103001...Forming Foam ( AFFF )”. AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2011-0101, July 2011 7. Sokri, M., Beyler, CL. “Radiation from Larger Pool Fires ” SFPE Journal of Fire Protection

  20. Performance of nickel-based oxygen carrier produced using renewable fuel aloe vera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afandi, NF; Devaraj, D.; Manap, A.; Ibrahim, N.

    2017-04-01

    Consuming and burning of fuel mainly fossil fuel has gradually increased in this upcoming era due to high-energy demand and causes the global warming. One of the most effective ways to reduce the greenhouse gases is by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) during the combustion process. Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is one of the most effective methods to capture the CO2 without the need of an energy intensive air separation unit. This method uses oxygen carrier to provide O2 that can react with fuel to form CO2 and H2O. This research focuses on synthesizing NiO/NiAl2O4 as an oxygen carrier due to its properties that can withstand high temperature during CLC application. The NiO/NiAl2O4 powder was synthesized using solution combustion method with plant extract renewable fuel, aloe vera as the fuel. In order to optimize the performance of the particles that can be used in CLC application, various calcination temperatures were varied at 600°C, 800°C, 1050°C and 1300°C. The phase and morphology of obtained powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Microscopy (FESEM) respectively together with the powder elements. In CLC application, high reactivity can be achieved by using smaller particle size of oxygen carrier. This research succeeded in producing nano-structured powder with high crystalline structure at temperature 1050°C which is suitable to be used in CLC application.

  1. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  2. Green power grids: how energy from renewable sources affects network and markets

    CERN Document Server

    Mureddu, Mario; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources, fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and introducing new criticalities that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations causing an increased request of conventional energy sources oriented to balance energy requests on short notices. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources and to their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies among the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations on the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players behavior. Our model is a data-d...

  3. Production of jet fuel from alternative source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Zoltan; Papp, Anita; Hancsok, Jenoe [Pannonia Univ., Veszprem (Hungary). MOL Dept. of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing

    2013-06-01

    Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Furthermore, the quality requirements have become more aggravated for jet fuels. Nowadays reduced aromatic hydrocarbon fractions are necessary for the production of jet fuels with good burning properties, which contribute to less harmful material emission. In the recent past the properties of gasolines and diesel gas oils were continuously severed, and the properties of jet fuels will be more severe, too. Furthermore, it can become obligatory to blend alternative components into jet fuels. With the aromatic content reduction there is a possibility to produce high energy content jet fuels with the desirable properties. One of the possibilities is the blending of biocomponents from catalytic hydrogenation of triglycerides. Our aim was to study the possibilities of producing low sulphur and aromatic content jet fuels in a catalytic way. On a CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst we studied the possibilities of quality improving of a kerosene fraction and coconut oil mixture depending on the change of the process parameters (temperature, pressure, liquid hourly space velocity, volume ratio). Based on the quality parameters of the liquid products we found that we made from the feedstock in the adequate technological conditions products which have a high smoke point (> 35 mm) and which have reduced aromatic content and high paraffin content (90%), so these are excellent jet fuels, and their stack gases damage the environment less. (orig.)

  4. Sources of evaluation of nuclear and renewable energy contained in the local press

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Spears, R.; Eiser, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the sources of evaluative coverage concerning nuclear power and renewable alternatives contained in local UK daily press coverage. 10 categories of source were defined for their relevance to the nuclear debate and energy issues. Out of these, only pronuclear industries and national

  5. Sources of evaluation of nuclear and renewable energy contained in the local press

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Spears, R.; Eiser, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the sources of evaluative coverage concerning nuclear power and renewable alternatives contained in local UK daily press coverage. 10 categories of source were defined for their relevance to the nuclear debate and energy issues. Out of these, only pronuclear industries and national governme

  6. Large Scale Integration of Renewable Power Sources into the Vietnamese Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Schyska, Bruno; Thanh Viet, Dinh; von Bremen, Lueder; Heinemann, Detlev; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The Vietnamese Power system is expected to expand considerably in upcoming decades. Power capacities installed are projected to grow from 39 GW in 2015 to 129.5 GW by 2030. Installed wind power capacities are expected to grow to 6 GW (0.8 GW 2015) and solar power capacities to 12 GW (0.85 GW 2015). This goes hand in hand with an increase of the renewable penetration in the power mix from 1.3% from wind and photovoltaics (PV) in 2015 to 5.4% by 2030. The overall potential for wind power in Vietnam is estimated to be around 24 GW. Moreover, the up-scaling of renewable energy sources was formulated as one of the priorized targets of the Vietnamese government in the National Power Development Plan VII. In this work, we investigate the transition of the Vietnamese power system towards high shares of renewables. For this purpose, we jointly optimise the expansion of renewable generation facilities for wind and PV, and the transmission grid within renewable build-up pathways until 2030 and beyond. To simulate the Vietnamese power system and its generation from renewable sources, we use highly spatially and temporally resolved historical weather and load data and the open source modelling toolbox Python for Power System Analysis (PyPSA). We show that the highest potential of renewable generation for wind and PV is observed in southern Vietnam and discuss the resulting need for transmission grid extensions in dependency of the optimal pathway. Furthermore, we show that the smoothing effect of wind power has several considerable beneficial effects and that the Vietnamese hydro power potential can be efficiently used to provide balancing opportunities. This work is part of the R&D Project "Analysis of the Large Scale Integration of Renewable Power into the Future Vietnamese Power System" (GIZ, 2016-2018).

  7. Lifecycle analysis of renewable natural gas and hydrocarbon fuels from wastewater treatment plants’ sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uisung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Urgun Demirtas, Meltem [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) produce sludge as a byproduct when they treat wastewater. In the United States, over 8 million dry tons of sludge are produced annually just from publicly owned WWTPs. Sludge is commonly treated in anaerobic digesters, which generate biogas; the biogas is then largely flared to reduce emissions of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Because sludge is quite homogeneous and has a high energy content, it is a good potential feedstock for other conversion processes that make biofuels, bioproducts, and power. For example, biogas from anaerobic digesters can be used to generate renewable natural gas (RNG), which can be further processed to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). Sludge can be directly converted into hydrocarbon liquid fuels via thermochemical processes such as hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Currently, the environmental impacts of converting sludge into energy are largely unknown, and only a few studies have focused on the environmental impacts of RNG produced from existing anaerobic digesters. As biofuels from sludge generate high interest, however, existing anaerobic digesters could be upgraded to technology with more economic potential and more environmental benefits. The environmental impacts of using a different anaerobic digestion (AD) technology to convert sludge into energy have yet to be analyzed. In addition, no studies are available about the direct conversion of sludge into liquid fuels. In order to estimate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of these alternative pathways (sludge-to-RNG and sludge-to-liquid), this study performed a lifecycle analysis (LCA) using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model. The energy uses and GHG emissions associated with the RNG and hydrocarbon liquid are analyzed relative to the current typical sludge management case, which consists of a single-stage mesophilic

  8. Model documentation renewable fuels module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the 1997 Annual Energy Outlook forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs. and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. This documentation report serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document for model analysts, model users, and the public interested in the construction and application of the RFM. Second, it meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Finally, such documentation facilitates continuity in EIA model development by providing information sufficient to perform model enhancements and data updates as part of EIA`s ongoing mission to provide analytical and forecasting information systems.

  9. GIS to support cost-effective decisions on renewable sources applications for low temperature geothermal energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gemelli, Alberto; Diamantini, Claudia; Longhi, Sauro

    2013-01-01

    Through the results of a developed case study of information system for low temperature geothermal energy, GIS to Support Cost-effective Decisions on Renewable Sources addresses the issue of the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in evaluating cost-effectiveness of renewable resource exploitation regional scale. Focusing on the design of a Decision Support System, a process is presented aimed to transform geographic data into knowledge useful for analysis and decision-making on the economic exploitation of geothermal energy. This detailed description includes a literature review and technical issues related to data collection, data mining, decision analysis for the informative system developed for the case study. A multi-disciplinary approach to GIS design is presented which is also an innovative example of fusion of georeferenced data acquired from multiple sources including remote sensing, networks of sensors and socio-economic censuses. GIS to Support Cost-effective Decisions on Renewable Sources ...

  10. Model documentation, Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98) forecasts. The report catalogues and describes modeling assumptions, computational methodologies, data inputs, and parameter estimation techniques. A number of offline analyses used in lieu of RFM modeling components are also described. For AEO98, the RFM was modified in three principal ways, introducing capital cost elasticities of supply for new renewable energy technologies, modifying biomass supply curves, and revising assumptions for use of landfill gas from municipal solid waste (MSW). In addition, the RFM was modified in general to accommodate projections beyond 2015 through 2020. Two supply elasticities were introduced, the first reflecting short-term (annual) cost increases from manufacturing, siting, and installation bottlenecks incurred under conditions of rapid growth, and the second reflecting longer term natural resource, transmission and distribution upgrade, and market limitations increasing costs as more and more of the overall resource is used. Biomass supply curves were also modified, basing forest products supplies on production rather than on inventory, and expanding energy crop estimates to include states west of the Mississippi River using information developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Finally, for MSW, several assumptions for the use of landfill gas were revised and extended.

  11. Development of renewable energy sources in Germany in 2011; Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiol, Frank; Nieder, Thomas; Ruether, Thorsten; Walker, Marion [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    With its energy concept of September 2010 and the energy transformation decision of June 2011, The German government has set ambitious goals for renewable energy sources: By 2020, at least 35 % of the electricity demand is to be covered by renewables; for 2030, the goal is 50 %. In consequence, the wind power industry, solar industry and others have valiantly proved their efficiency in 2011. Power generation from renewables increased dramatically in 2011 as a result of enhanced expansion of power generation capacities and favourable climate conditions. With a total of 20.3 %, wind power, solar power and other renewables for the first time ever had a bigger share in power supply than coal and nuclear power.

  12. Renewable energy sources: resistance to change; Energies renouvelables: les resistances au changement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubreuil, Th.; Audrain-Demey, G.; Attal, J.Ph.; Lormeteau, B. [Nantes Univ., Droit de l' Environnement et du Developpement Durable, 44 (France)

    2011-10-15

    This paper is the summary of a conference day organised by the students of the 'environment and sustainable development law' Master of Nantes university (France). This interdisciplinary meeting brought together professionals of renewable energy industries who could testify about the resistance of both politicians and the public opinion against the energy transition towards renewable sources. Legal, political, sociological and cultural considerations are put forward to explain this resistance. The French specificity, with an over-representation of nuclear energy, a constraining legal framework for renewable energies, a regional opposition to renewable energy projects (NIMBY syndrome), and a lack of trust in the political class and in its representatives are as many factors that have contributed to build this French 'cultural exception'. (J.S.)

  13. Synchronization of grid-connected renewable energy sources under highly distorted voltages and unbalanced grid faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadjidemetriou, Lenos; Kyriakides, Elias; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    renewable energy systems. Therefore, the performance of the new PLL can increase the quality of the injected power under abnormal conditions and in addition enable the renewable energy systems to provide the appropriate support to the grid under balanced and unbalanced grid faults.......Renewable energy sources require accurate and appropriate performance not only under normal grid operation but also under abnormal and faulty grid conditions according to the modern grid codes. This paper proposes a novel phase-locked loop algorithm (MSHDC-PLL), which can enable the fast...... and dynamic synchronization of the interconnected renewable energy system under unbalanced grid faults and under highly harmonic distorted voltage. The outstanding performance of the suggested PLL is achieved by implementing an innovative multi-sequence/harmonic decoupling cell in order to dynamically cancel...

  14. 77 FR 34915 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Grain Sorghum Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ...-HQ-OAR- 2011-0542. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included in the public docket..., 2012, Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS... and included as part of the comment that is placed in the public docket and made available on...

  15. 77 FR 74592 - Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program From Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program (77 FR 4300... use change GHG emissions related to grain sorghum ethanol by approximately 1.2 kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per million British thermal units of grain sorghum ethanol (kgCO 2...

  16. The feasibility of short-term production strategies for renewable jet fuels – a comprehensive techno-economic comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.A.; Hoefnagels, E.T.A.; Faaij, André; Slade, Raphael; Mawhood, Rebecca; Junginger, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the short-term economic feasibility of six conversion pathways for renewable jet fuel (RJF) production. The assessment combines (i) a harmonized techno-economic analysis of conversion pathways expected to be certified for use in commercial aviation by 2020, (ii) a pioneer plant a

  17. Solar Production of Fuels from Water and CO2: Perspectives and Opportunities for a Sustainable Use of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passalacqua R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing energy demand, the depletion of fossil fuels and the concern of maintaining clean environment have become the main reasons for a worldwide attention on renewable energy production. Fuel and energy productions from sunlight represent exciting challenges in the next future thank to the recent developments in related technologies, catalysts and materials. It will be discussed the present economic data concerning energy request, the current technological issues required to face an increase of the use of renewable energy, the main drawbacks related to low conversion efficiency in energy applications, the new routes for producing renewable hydrogen and the bio-mimicking approach provided by artificial leaves. Finally, the critical role of nanoscale engineered processes for the development of efficient and cost-effective systems will be evidenced.

  18. SIMULATION OF THE SYSTEMS WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES USING HOMER SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRINCĂ S.D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper simulates by using the Homer software, a distributed energy system with capacity below 1 MW. Among the renewable energy sources are used wind and solar energy. For photovoltaic panels, we are considering two situations: fixed panels, oriented at 45° and panels with tracking system with two axis. Simulation results contain information regarding operation hours of the system throughout the year, energy produced from the renewable energy sources, energy consumption for the load, and excess of electrical energy. The Homer software also allows an economic analysis of these systems.

  19. SIMULATION OF THE SYSTEMS WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES USING HOMER SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRINCĂ S.D.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper simulates by using the Homer software, distributed energy systems with capacity below 1 MW. Among the renewable energy sources are used wind and solar energy. For photovoltaic panels, we are considering two situations: fixed panels, oriented at 45 ° and panels with tracking system with two axis. Simulation results contain information regarding operation hours of the system throughout the year, energy produced from the renewable energy sources, energy consumption for the load, and excess of electrical energy. The Homer software also allows an economic analysis of these systems.

  20. Summary for Policy Makers: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Renewable Energy Sources (SRREN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu, Dan; Bruckner, Thomas; Christensen, John; Devernay, Jean-Michel; Faaij , Andre; Fischedick, Manfred; Goldstein, Barry; Hansen, Gerrit; Huckerby , John; Jager-Waldau, Arnulf; Kadner, Susanne; Kammen, Daniel; Krey, Volker; Kumar, Arun; Lewis , Anthony; Lucon, Oswaldo; Matschoss, Patrick; Maurice, Lourdes; Mitchell , Catherine; Moomaw, William; Moreira, Jose; Nadai, Alain; Nilsson, Lars J.; Nyboer, John; Rahman, Atiq; Sathaye, Jayant; Sawin, Janet; Schaeffer, Roberto; Schei, Tormod; Schlomer, Steffen; Sims, Ralph; von Stechow, Christoph; Verbruggen, Aviel; Urama, Kevin; Wiser, Ryan; Yamba, Francis; Zwickel, Timm

    2011-05-08

    The Working Group III Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) presents an assessment of the literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of the contribution of six renewable energy (RE) sources to the mitigation of climate change. It is intended to provide policy relevant information to governments, intergovernmental processes and other interested parties. This Summary for Policymakers provides an overview of the SRREN, summarizing the essential findings. The SRREN consists of 11 chapters. Chapter 1 sets the context for RE and climate change; Chapters 2 through 7 provide information on six RE technologies, and Chapters 8 through 11 address integrative issues.

  1. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers; Energies renouvelables. Documents de la Commission Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  2. Renewable energy sources - an option for the future. Federal Government voices opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-31

    Despite unfavourable market conditions, the Federal Government wants to continue the research and development of renewable energy sources up to the 'threshold of market maturity' and - wherever practical - increase them. A 'technological gap' should be avoided. However, the current lack of economy of these forms of energy cannot be compensated for by permanent subsidies. This information is contained in the Federal Government's reply to a parliamentary question from the coalition parties of the CDU/CSU and FDP on the subject of 'Production and use of renewable energy sources in the Federal Republic of Germany'.

  3. Transmission grid requirements with scattered and flutuating renewable electricity sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2002-01-01

    Denmark is in a situation with many scattered sources of electricity, that are not controlled by the central load dispatch. At the same time, Denmark is being used as an electricity transit corridor between Norway/Sweden and Germany. Through energy systems analyses and load-flow analyses, it is d......Denmark is in a situation with many scattered sources of electricity, that are not controlled by the central load dispatch. At the same time, Denmark is being used as an electricity transit corridor between Norway/Sweden and Germany. Through energy systems analyses and load-flow analyses...

  4. Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Godfrey

    2004-05-01

    Stimulated by recent technological developments and increasing concern over the sustainability and environmental impact of conventional fuel usage, the prospect of producing clean, sustainable power in substantial quantities from renewable energy sources arouses interest around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the principal types of renewable energy--including solar, thermal, photovoltaics, bioenergy, hydro, tidal, wind, wave, and geothermal. In addition, it explains the underlying physical and technological principles of renewable energy and examines the environmental impact and prospects of different energy sources. With more than 350 detailed illustrations, more than 50 tables of data, and a wide range of case studies, Renewable Energy, 2/e is an ideal choice for undergraduate courses in energy, sustainable development, and environmental science. New to the Second Edition ·Full-color design ·Updated to reflect developments in technology, policy, attitides ·Complemented by Energy Systems and Sustainability edited by Godfrey Boyle, Bob Everett and Janet Ramage, all of the Open University, U.K.

  5. Risk factors during construction of power plants using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nefedova Lyudmila Veniaminovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider main characteristics of modern development of renewable energy sources (RES. It is dedicated that there are some technical and economic barriers to the widespread use of renewable energy. For example, RES are inconstancy in time and space and have low density of energy flow. High capital intensity and cost price, long-term construction, a considerable degree of different kinds of risk, lack of competitiveness with hydrocarbon species generation in the existing regulatory environment are also inherent to RES. The role of the regulatory framework is shown according to perspective plans of construction of power plants using renewable energy sources. The main requirements which are applied to measures of state support of construction industry of renewable energy development are formulated. Current condition of construction industry of RES in Russia is assessed. The problems of risks which arise during construction of renewable energy facilities according to results of practical use of RES are discussed. And it is rather important to use stage assessment for the construction phase of the project during risk analysis of construction of alternative energy sources. The main groups of RES risks are described. The importance of regulatory and resource risks for effective development of renewable energy in Russia according to the method of strategic planning with the identification of the adverse effects of gradation factors are determined. The analysis of financial risks types and methods of its management during construction power generation projects based on different types of renewable energy resources are made. In the end of the article the authors make a conclusion, that the development of projects for the construction of power plants with the use of innovative technical solutions to ensure minimal risks to the environment and safe operation in various climatic conditions is a priority.

  6. Transmission grid requirements with scattered and flutuating renewable electricity sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2002-01-01

    Denmark is in a situation with many scattered sources of electricity, that are not controlled by the central load dispatch. At the same time, Denmark is being used as an electricity transit corridor between Norway/Sweden and Germany. Through energy systems analyses and load-flow analyses, it is d...

  7. Hydrogen and renewable energy sources integrated system for greenhouse heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Blanco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A research is under development at the Department of Agro- Environmental Sciences of the University of Bari “Aldo Moro” in order to investigate the suitable solutions of a power system based on solar energy (photovoltaic and hydrogen, integrated with a geothermal heat pump for powering a self sustained heated greenhouse. The electrical energy for heat pump operation is provided by a purpose-built array of solar photovoltaic modules, which supplies also a water electrolyser system controlled by embedded pc; the generated dry hydrogen gas is conserved in suitable pressured storage tank. The hydrogen is used to produce electricity in a fuel cell in order to meet the above mentioned heat pump power demand when the photovoltaic system is inactive during winter night-time or the solar radiation level is insufficient to meet the electrical demand. The present work reports some theoretical and observed data about the electrolyzer operation. Indeed the electrolyzer has required particular attention because during the experimental tests it did not show a stable operation and it was registered a performance not properly consistent with the predicted performance by means of the theoretical study.

  8. Microwave-Assisted Decarboxylation of Sodium Oleate and Renewable Hydrocarbon Fuel Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yunpu; Liu Yuhuan; Ruan Rongsheng; Wen Pingwei; Wan Yiqin; Zhang Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    The carboxyl terminal of sodium oleate has a stronger polarity than that of oleic acid;this terminal is more likely to be dipole polarized and ionically conductive in a microwave ifeld. Sodium oleate was used as the model compound to study the decarboxylation of oleic acid leading to hydrocarbon formation via microwave-assisted pyrolysis technology. The pyrolysis gas, liquid, and solid products were precisely analyzed to deduce the mechanism for decarboxylation of sodium oleate. Microwave energy was able to selectively heat the carboxyl terminal of sodium oleate. During decarboxylation, the double bond in the long hydrocarbon chain formed a p-πconjugated system with the carbanion intermediate. The resulting p-πconjugated system was more stable and beneifcial to the pyrolysis reaction (decarboxylation, terminal allylation, isomeriza-tion, and aromatization). The physical properties of pyrolysis liquid were generally similar to those of diesel fuel, thereby demonstrating the possible use of microwaves for controlling the decarboxylation of sodium oleate in order to manufacture renewable hydrocarbon fuels.

  9. Chemical storage of renewable electricity in hydrocarbon fuels via H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilers, H.; Iglesias Gonzalez, M.; Schaub, G. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler-Bunte-Institute I

    2012-07-01

    The increased generation of renewable electricity leads to an increasing demand for storage due to its fluctuating production. Electrical energy can be stored as chemical energy carriers e.g. in form of H{sub 2} that can be further processed to hydrocarbons. Storage in form of hydrocarbons is advantageous compared to H{sub 2} storage since (i) a higher volumetric energy density in the product can be achieved and (ii) the infrastructure for hydrocarbon distribution, storage and utilization already exists. The present contribution introduces the potential of H{sub 2} integration in upgrading/production processes to hydrocarbon fuels, based on stoichiometry and kind of carbon feedstock. Processes include petroleum refining, vegetable oil hydrogenation, production of synfuel from lignocellulosic biomass and substitute natural gas from H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}. In the case of fossil raw materials, yields per feedstock can be increased and fossil CO{sub 2} emissions decreased since fossil resources for H{sub 2} production can be avoided. In the case of biomass conversion to synfuels, product yields per biomass/hectare can be increased. If CO{sub 2} is hydrogenated to fuels, no gasification step is needed, however lower hydrocarbon product yields per H{sub 2} are achieved since CO{sub 2} has the highest oxygen content. (orig.)

  10. Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 into value-added and renewable fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lan; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2015-07-01

    The increasing energy crisis and the worsening global climate caused by the excessive utilization of fossil fuel have boosted tremendous research activities about CO2 capture, storage and utilization. Artificial photosynthesis that uses solar light energy to convert CO2 to form value-added and renewable fuels such as methane or methanol has been consistently drawing increasing attention. It is like killing two birds with one stone since it can not only reduce the greenhouse effects caused by CO2 emission but also produce value added chemicals for alternative energy supplying. This review provides a brief introduction about the basic principles of artificial photosynthesis of CO2 and the progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts from the viewpoint of light harvesting and photogenerated charge carriers boosting. Moreover, the undergoing mechanisms of CO2 photoreduction are discussed with selected examples, in terms of adsorption of reactants, CO2 activation as well as the possible reaction pathways. Finally, perspectives on future research directions and open issues in CO2 photoreduction are outlined.

  11. Electrochemical power sources batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Bagotsky, Vladimir S; Volfkovich, Yurij M

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical Power Sources (EPS) provides in a concise way theoperational features, major types, and applications of batteries,fuel cells, and supercapacitors Details the design, operational features, andapplications of batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors Covers improvements of existing EPSs and thedevelopment of new kinds of EPS as the results of intense R&Dwork Provides outlook for future trends in fuel cells andbatteries Covers the most typical battery types, fuel cells andsupercapacitors; such as zinc-carbon batteries, alkaline manganesedioxide batteries, mercury-zinc cells, lead

  12. Chemical recycling of carbon dioxide to methanol and dimethyl ether: from greenhouse gas to renewable, environmentally carbon neutral fuels and synthetic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Goeppert, Alain; Prakash, G K Surya

    2009-01-16

    Nature's photosynthesis uses the sun's energy with chlorophyll in plants as a catalyst to recycle carbon dioxide and water into new plant life. Only given sufficient geological time can new fossil fuels be formed naturally. In contrast, chemical recycling of carbon dioxide from natural and industrial sources as well as varied human activities or even from the air itself to methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) and their varied products can be achieved via its capture and subsequent reductive hydrogenative conversion. The present Perspective reviews this new approach and our research in the field over the last 15 years. Carbon recycling represents a significant aspect of our proposed Methanol Economy. Any available energy source (alternative energies such as solar, wind, geothermal, and atomic energy) can be used for the production of needed hydrogen and chemical conversion of CO(2). Improved new methods for the efficient reductive conversion of CO(2) to methanol and/or DME that we have developed include bireforming with methane and ways of catalytic or electrochemical conversions. Liquid methanol is preferable to highly volatile and potentially explosive hydrogen for energy storage and transportation. Together with the derived DME, they are excellent transportation fuels for internal combustion engines (ICE) and fuel cells as well as convenient starting materials for synthetic hydrocarbons and their varied products. Carbon dioxide thus can be chemically transformed from a detrimental greenhouse gas causing global warming into a valuable, renewable and inexhaustible carbon source of the future allowing environmentally neutral use of carbon fuels and derived hydrocarbon products.

  13. Photocatalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} into value-added and renewable fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Lan [State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); College of Chemistry, New Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Xu, Yi-Jun, E-mail: yjxu@fzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); College of Chemistry, New Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Artificial photosynthesis that uses solar light energy to convert CO{sub 2} to form value-added and renewable fuels is considered to be a promising avenue to solve the problems relating to CO{sub 2}. However, the state-of-the-art photocatalytic efficiency of CO{sub 2} reduction is far from being optimal as a viable economical process. The present review is mainly focused on the progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts for CO{sub 2} photoreduction and the undergoing mechanisms, which is anticipated to contribute to further advancement in CO{sub 2} photoreduction with on-going efforts. - Highlights: • Brief introduction about the basic principle of artificial photosynthesis of CO{sub 2}. • Progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts for CO{sub 2} reduction. • Efforts devoted to excavate the in-depth mechanism of CO{sub 2} photoreduction. • Perspectives on future research directions and open issues in CO{sub 2} photoreduction. - Abstract: The increasing energy crisis and the worsening global climate caused by the excessive utilization of fossil fuel have boosted tremendous research activities about CO{sub 2} capture, storage and utilization. Artificial photosynthesis that uses solar light energy to convert CO{sub 2} to form value-added and renewable fuels such as methane or methanol has been consistently drawing increasing attention. It is like killing two birds with one stone since it can not only reduce the greenhouse effects caused by CO{sub 2} emission but also produce value added chemicals for alternative energy supplying. This review provides a brief introduction about the basic principles of artificial photosynthesis of CO{sub 2} and the progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts from the viewpoint of light harvesting and photogenerated charge carriers boosting. Moreover, the undergoing mechanisms of CO{sub 2} photoreduction are discussed with selected examples, in terms of adsorption of

  14. Life-cycle assessment of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of soybean-derived biodiesel and renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hong; Wang, Michael; Bloyd, Cary; Putsche, Vicky

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we used Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model to assess the life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of four soybean-derived fuels: biodiesel fuel produced via transesterification, two renewable diesel fuels (I and II) produced from different hydrogenation processes, and renewable gasoline produced from catalytic cracking. Five approaches were employed to allocate the coproducts: a displacement approach; two allocation approaches, one based on the energy value and the other based on the market value; and two hybrid approaches that integrated the displacement and allocation methods. The relative rankings of soybean-based fuels in terms of energy and environmental impacts were different under the different approaches, and the reasons were analyzed. Results from the five allocation approaches showed that although the production and combustion of soybean-based fuels might increase total energy use, they could have significant benefits in reducing fossil energy use (>52%), petroleum use (>88%), and GHG emissions (>57%) relative to petroleum fuels. This study emphasized the importance of the methods used to deal with coproduct issues and provided a comprehensive solution for conducting a life-cycle assessment of fuel pathways with multiple coproducts.

  15. Analysis of different research activities and description of parties within the Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, Joakim [Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Wallberg, Ola [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels (f3) is a nationwide centre, which through cooperation and a systems approach will contribute to the development of sustainable fossil free fuels for transportation. The centre will, through joint efforts by the centre partners, perform syntheses of current research about the production of renewable fuels as well as supplementing research, such as comparative systems analyses of fuels, processes, raw materials and plant design. f3 provides a platform for collaboration between centre partners, with a common vision of sustainable fuels for transportation and common objectives. The centre partners include Sweden's most active universities and research institutes within the field, as well as a number of highly relevant industrial companies. New fuels will be an important component of a strategy to reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and our dependence on petroleum. The Swedish Government has established a vision for the Swedish transport industry to function without fossil fuels by 2030. Such a development requires a concerted response, with participation from all stake holders. Swedish researchers in various disciplines and at various colleges and institutes have a unique breadth and they are at the forefront in several areas of knowledge appropriate for a centre for renewable fuels. Through collaboration, f3 should help to link engineering and systems research and communicate results and conclusions from these research efforts. Within the f3 centre, several parties with different research activities are represented. This document is a snapshot of the different parties at the end of 2011 where the stake holders are described and their current research is highlighted. Also, the different projects conducted by the parties have been categorized and presented at the end of the document.

  16. Designing and Testing Energy Harvesters Suitable for Renewable Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synkiewicz, B.; Guzdek, P.; Piekarski, J.; Zaraska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Energy harvesters convert waste power (heat, light and vibration) directly to electric power . Fast progress in their technology, design and areas of application (e.g. “Internet of Things”) has been observed recently. Their effectiveness is steadily growing which makes their application to powering sensor networks with wireless data transfer reasonable. The main advantage is the independence from wired power sources, which is especially important for monitoring state of environmental parameters. In this paper we describe the design and realization of a gas sensor monitoring CO level (powered by TEG) and two, designed an constructed in ITE, autonomous power supply modules powered by modern photovoltaic cells.

  17. A review of renewable energy sources, sustainability issues and climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phebe Asantewaa Owusu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is fast becoming a global village due to the increasing daily requirement of energy by all population across the world while the earth in its form cannot change. The need for energy and its related services to satisfy human social and economic development, welfare and health is increasing. Returning to renewables to help mitigate climate change is an excellent approach which needs to be sustainable in order to meet energy demand of future generations. The study reviewed the opportunities associated with renewable energy sources which includes: Energy Security, Energy Access, Social and Economic development, Climate Change Mitigation, and reduction of environmental and health impacts. Despite these opportunities, there are challenges that hinder the sustainability of renewable energy sources towards climate change mitigation. These challenges include Market failures, lack of information, access to raw materials for future renewable resource deployment, and our daily carbon footprint. The study suggested some measures and policy recommendations which when considered would help achieve the goal of renewable energy thus to reduce emissions, mitigate climate change and provide a clean environment as well as clean energy for all and future generations.

  18. Renewable energy sources at decisive turning; Le energie rinnovabili a una svolta decisiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riboldi, S.

    2000-11-01

    The renewable energy sources will be very important for planetary environmental emergency and for technological evolution. [Italian] Marginali da molti anni, le rinnovabili diverranno di primaria importanza grazie all'emergenza ambientale planetaria e all'evoluzione tecnologica. Siamo giunti finalmente a una vera svolta epocale?.

  19. Representation of variable renewable energy sources in TIMER, an aggregated energy system simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Harmen Sytze (H S.).; van Vuuren, Detlef (D P.).|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X

    2017-01-01

    The power system is expected to play an important role in climate change mitigation. Variable renewable energy (VRE) sources, such as wind and solar power, are currently showing rapid growth rates in power systems worldwide, and could also be important in future mitigation strategies. It is

  20. Capacity Optimization of Renewable Energy Sources and Battery Storage in an Autonomous Telecommunication Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Pandžić, Hrvoje; Škrlec, Davor

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a robust optimization approach to minimize the total cost of supplying a remote telecommunication station exclusively by renewable energy sources (RES). Due to the intermittent nature of RES, such as photovoltaic (PV) panels and small wind turbines, they are normally supported...

  1. PROSPECTS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN PROVINCE OF VOJVODINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvozdenac, D.; Ciric, R.; Tesic, M.

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents the outcome of the research in the field of energy efficiency improvement and development of the renewable energy sources in province of Vojvodina (Serbia). The summarized results of the paper are: - Potentials for energy efficiency improvement in Vojvodina, - Potentials for development of renewable energy sources in Vojvodina, - Proposal of measures of the energy policy for the promotion of research and development (R and D) which will use local scientific and technical potentials in the field of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and improve the sustainability on the long run. - Proposal of measures for the energy policy in the domain of renewable energy sources development and energy efficiency and estimation of potentials for improvements by applying proposed measures in order to accomplish established tasks. - Synthesizing findings and proposals in the Action Plan of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for the realization of the medium term program as well as the establishment of the monitoring plan for the assessment of program objectives progress. (auth)

  2. Renewable Energies, Present & Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X. S. Cai

    2005-01-01

    Fossil fuels are major cause of environmental destruction in pollutions. It has created much needed momentum for renewable energies, which are environmentally benign, generated locally, and can play a significant role in developing economy. As a sustainable energy sources, it can grow at a rapid pace to meet increasing demands for electricity in a cost-effective way.

  3. Sources of evaluation of nuclear and renewable energy contained in the local press

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    Examined the sources of evaluative coverage concerning nuclear power and renewable alternatives contained in local UK daily press coverage. 10 categories of source were defined for their relevance to the nuclear debate and energy issues. Out of these, only pronuclear industries and national government produced more positive than negative appraisals of nuclear power. However, detractors of nuclear power were more varied, the most prolific category being the general public. Alternative technolo...

  4. POLICIES AND MEASURES FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND ACHIEVEMENT OF TARGETS BY 2020 IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Raguzin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is considering set up a longer-term perspective and plan of actions for the development of renewable energy infrastructure in Croatia in accordance with the new Croatian Energy Sector Development Strategy. Overall target till the year 2020 has been calculated in accordance with effort sharing methodology used for Directive 2009/28/EC. The paper presents some main existing policies and measures for achieving this ambitious target, including feed-in tariffs, guarantees of origin, and greenhouse gas emissions taxation. It is addressed the necessity for creating enabling environment for promotion of renewable energy sources and gradually remove barriers for its stronger penetration on the energy market.

  5. Electricity sector in Mexico. Current status. Contribution of renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino-Solorzano, Yoreley [Departamento de Ing. Electrica-Electronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, Calzada Miguel A. de Quevedo 2779, 91860 Veracruz (Mexico); Villicana-Ortiz, Eunice; Gutierrez-Trashorras, Antonio J.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge [Departamento de Energia, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Independencia, 13, 2a Planta, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The challenge facing the world electricity sector is the cost incurred in maintaining the system and seeing to the environmental effects it causes. In Mexico the grid is supplied by thermal plants fed by oil products. Its great potential of renewable energies clearly shown in studies by national and international scholars has led the government to become more committed to take advantage of these energies. The goal is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to generate electricity and to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In this article we analyse the current state of renewable energies, the conditions needed to foster them and the legislative changes already introduced to promote their greater part in the national electricity grid. (author)

  6. Renewable energy sources: Jobs created, skills required (and identified gaps, education and training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malamatenios Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As has been documented, renewables contribute significantly to employment growth, creating relatively more jobs than the fossil fuels they displace, an important fact due to the dramatic rise in unemployment experienced nowadays. The results of various studies made are presented, along with projections for the future. The jobs per installed megawatt of various renewable energy (RE technologies are estimated for Greece and compared to conventional power production methods. Then, the variety of professions involved in each sub-sector of the RE industry (equipment manufacture and distribution, project development, construction and installation, operation and maintenance of plants are presented, along with the recognized skills they should have to properly fulfil their tasks. Finally, selected initiatives undertaken by universities and vocational training providers aiming to address the identified skill shortages in all RE industry's parts are listed.

  7. Apples with apples: accounting for fuel price risk in comparisons of gas-fired and renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2003-12-18

    For better or worse, natural gas has become the fuel of choice for new power plants being built across the United States. According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), natural gas combined-cycle and combustion turbine power plants accounted for 96% of the total generating capacity added in the US between 1999 and 2002--138 GW out of a total of 144 GW. Looking ahead, the EIA expects that gas-fired technology will account for 61% of the 355 GW new generating capacity projected to come on-line in the US up to 2025, increasing the nationwide market share of gas-fired generation from 18% in 2002 to 22% in 2025. While the data are specific to the US, natural gas-fired generation is making similar advances in other countries as well. Regardless of the explanation for (or interpretation of) the empirical findings, however, the basic implications remain the same: one should not blindly rely on gas price forecasts when comparing fixed-price renewable with variable-price gas-fired generation contracts. If there is a cost to hedging, gas price forecasts do not capture and account for it. Alternatively, if the forecasts are at risk of being biased or out of tune with the market, then one certainly would not want to use them as the basis for resource comparisons or investment decisions if a more certain source of data (forwards) existed. Accordingly, assuming that long-term price stability is valued, the most appropriate way to compare the levelized cost of these resources in both cases would be to use forward natural gas price data--i.e. prices that can be locked in to create price certainty--as opposed to uncertain natural gas price forecasts. This article suggests that had utilities and analysts in the US done so over the sample period from November 2000 to November 2003, they would have found gas-fired generation to be at least 0.3-0.6 cents/kWh more expensive (on a levelized cost basis) than otherwise thought. With some renewable resources, in particular wind

  8. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  9. Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-06-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in China. This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented. Currently, only approximately 13% of MSW generated in China is disposed in WTE facilities. With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Sethakul, Panarit [Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Chunkag, Viboon [Department of Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Sikkabut, Suwat [Thai-French Innovation Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Pierfederici, Serge; Davat, Bernard [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN: UMR 7037), Nancy Universite, INPL-ENSEM, 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, Lorraine 54516 (France)

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an original control algorithm for a hybrid energy system with a renewable energy source, namely, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a photovoltaic (PV) array. A single storage device, i.e., a supercapacitor (ultracapacitor) module, is in the proposed structure. The main weak point of fuel cells (FCs) is slow dynamics because the power slope is limited to prevent fuel starvation problems, improve performance and increase lifetime. The very fast power response and high specific power of a supercapacitor complements the slower power output of the main source to produce the compatibility and performance characteristics needed in a load. The energy in the system is balanced by d.c.-bus energy regulation (or indirect voltage regulation). A supercapacitor module functions by supplying energy to regulate the d.c.-bus energy. The fuel cell, as a slow dynamic source in this system, supplies energy to the supercapacitor module in order to keep it charged. The photovoltaic array assists the fuel cell during daytime. To verify the proposed principle, a hardware system is realized with analog circuits for the fuel cell, solar cell and supercapacitor current control loops, and with numerical calculation (dSPACE) for the energy control loops. Experimental results with small-scale devices, namely, a PEMFC (1200 W, 46 A) manufactured by the Ballard Power System Company, a photovoltaic array (800 W, 31 A) manufactured by the Ekarat Solar Company and a supercapacitor module (100 F, 32 V) manufactured by the Maxwell Technologies Company, illustrate the excellent energy-management scheme during load cycles. (author)

  11. Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Reinhard; Meyer, Niels I.; Held, Anne; Finon, Dominique; Lorenzoni, Arturo; Wiser, Ryan; Nishio, Ken-ichiro

    2007-06-01

    The promotion of electricity generated from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) has recently gained high priority in the energy policy strategies of many countries in response to concerns about global climate change, energy security and other reasons. This chapter compares and contrasts the experience of a number of countries in Europe, states in the US as well as Japan in promoting RES, identifying what appear to be the most successful policy measures. Clearly, a wide range of policy instruments have been tried and are in place in different parts of the world to promote renewable energy technologies. The design and performance of these schemes varies from place to place, requiring further research to determine their effectiveness in delivering the desired results. The main conclusions that can be drawn from the present analysis are: (1) Generally speaking, promotional schemes that are properly designed within a stable framework and offer long-term investment continuity produce better results. Credibility and continuity reduce risks thus leading to lower profit requirements by investors. (2) Despite their significant growth in absolute terms in a number of key markets, the near-term prognosis for renewables is one of modest success if measured in terms of the percentage of the total energy provided by renewables on a world-wide basis. This is a significant challenge, suggesting that renewables have to grow at an even faster pace if we expect them to contribute on a significant scale to the world's energy mix.

  12. Estimating Source Terms for Diverse Spent Nuclear Fuel Types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett Carlsen; Layne Pincock

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is responsible for developing a defensible methodology for determining the radionuclide inventory for the DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be dispositioned at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. SNF owned by DOE includes diverse fuels from various experimental, research, and production reactors. These fuels currently reside at several DOE sites, universities, and foreign research reactor sites. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these fuels will require radiological source terms as inputs to safety analyses that support design and licensing of the necessary equipment and facilities. This paper summarizes the methodology developed for estimating radionuclide inventories associated with DOE-owned SNF. The results will support development of design and administrative controls to manage radiological risks and may later be used to demonstrate conformance with repository acceptance criteria.

  13. Monolithic fuel cell based power source for burst power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, D. C.; Blackburn, P. E.; Busch, D. E.; Dees, D. W.; Dusek, J.; Easler, T. E.; Ellingson, W. A.; Flandermeyer, B. K.; Fousek, R. J.; Heiberger, J. J.

    A unique fuel cell coupled with a low power nuclear reactor presents an attractive approach for SDI burst power requirements. The monolithic fuel cell looks attractive for space applications and represents a quantum jump in fuel cell technology. Such a breakthrough in design is the enabling technology for lightweight, low volume power sources for space based pulse power systems. The monolith is unique among fuel cells in being an all solid state device. The capability for miniaturization, inherent in solid state devices, gives the low volume required for space missions. In addition, the solid oxide fuel cell technology employed in the monolith has high temperature reject heat and can be operated in either closed or open cycles. Both these features are attractive for integration into a burst power system.

  14. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mureddu

    Full Text Available The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  15. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  16. Analysis of fuel management in the KIPT neutron source facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Zhaopeng, E-mail: zzhong@anl.gov [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Gohar, Yousry; Talamo, Alberto [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > Fuel management of KIPT ADS was analyzed. > Core arrangement was shuffled in stage wise. > New fuel assemblies was added into core periodically. > Beryllium reflector could also be utilized to increase the fuel life. - Abstract: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine have been collaborating on the conceptual design development of an experimental neutron source facility consisting of an electron accelerator driven sub-critical assembly. The neutron source driving the sub-critical assembly is generated from the interaction of 100 KW electron beam with a natural uranium target. The sub-critical assembly surrounding the target is fueled with low enriched WWR-M2 type hexagonal fuel assemblies. The U-235 enrichment of the fuel material is <20%. The facility will be utilized for basic and applied research, producing medical isotopes, and training young specialists. With the 100 KW electron beam power, the total thermal power of the facility is {approx}360 kW including the fission power of {approx}260 kW. The burnup of the fissile materials and the buildup of fission products continuously reduce the system reactivity during the operation, decrease the neutron flux level, and consequently impact the facility performance. To preserve the neutron flux level during the operation, the fuel assemblies should be added and shuffled for compensating the lost reactivity caused by burnup. Beryllium reflector could also be utilized to increase the fuel life time in the sub-critical core. This paper studies the fuel cycles and shuffling schemes of the fuel assemblies of the sub-critical assembly to preserve the system reactivity and the neutron flux level during the operation.

  17. Modelling fuel consumption in kerbside source segregated food waste collection: separate collection and co-collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, T W; Heaven, S; Gredmaier, L

    2015-01-01

    Source separated food waste is a valuable feedstock for renewable energy production through anaerobic digestion, and a variety of collection schemes for this material have recently been introduced. The aim of this study was to identify options that maximize collection efficiency and reduce fuel consumption as part of the overall energy balance. A mechanistic model was developed to calculate the fuel consumption of kerbside collection of source segregated food waste, co-mingled dry recyclables and residual waste. A hypothetical city of 20,000 households was considered and nine scenarios were tested with different combinations of collection frequencies, vehicle types and waste types. The results showed that the potential fuel savings from weekly and fortnightly co-collection of household waste range from 7.4% to 22.4% and 1.8% to 26.6%, respectively, when compared to separate collection. A compartmentalized vehicle split 30:70 always performed better than one with two compartments of equal size. Weekly food waste collection with alternate weekly collection of the recyclables and residual waste by two-compartment collection vehicles was the best option to reduce the overall fuel consumption.

  18. Substitutability of Electricity and Renewable Materials for Fossil Fuels in a Post-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Olivares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A feasible way to avoid the risk of energy decline and combat climate change is to build a 100% renewable global energy mix. However, a globally electrified economy cannot grow much above 12 electric terawatts without putting pressure on the limits of finite mineral reserves. Here we analyze whether 12 TW of electricity and 1 TW of biomass (final power will be able to fuel a future post-carbon economy that can provide similar services to those of a contemporary economy. Contrarily to some pessimistic expectations, this analysis shows that the principle economic processes can be replaced with sustainable alternatives based on electricity, charcoal, biogas and hydrogen. Furthermore, those services that cannot be replaced are not as crucial so as to cause a return to a pre-industrial society. Even so, land transport and aviation are at the limit of what is sustainable, outdoor work should be reorganized, metal primary production should be based on hydrogen reduction when possible, mineral production should be increasingly based on recycling, the petrochemical industry should shrink to a size of 40%–43% of the 2012 petrochemical sector, i.e., a size similar to that the sector had in 1985–1986, and agriculture may require organic farming methods to be sustainable.

  19. Challenges towards Economic Fuel Generation from Renewable Electricity: The Need for Efficient Electro-Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formal, Florian Le; Bourée, Wiktor S; Prévot, Mathieu S; Sivula, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing renewable sources of energy is very attractive to provide the growing population on earth in the future but demands the development of efficient storage to mitigate their intermittent nature. Chemical storage, with energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds such as hydrogen or carbon-containing molecules, is promising as these energy vectors can be reserved and transported easily. In this review, we aim to present the advantages and drawbacks of the main water electrolysis technologies available today: alkaline and PEM electrolysis. The choice of electrode materials for utilization in very basic and very acid conditions is discussed, with specific focus on anodes for the oxygen evolution reaction, considered as the most demanding and energy consuming reaction in an electrolyzer. State-of-the-art performance of materials academically developed for two alternative technologies: electrolysis in neutral or seawater, and the direct electrochemical conversion from solar to hydrogen are also introduced.

  20. Domestic use of overseas renewable energy -Potential as power generating fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Tomofumi; Murata, Kenji; Kamiya, Shoji; Ota, Ken-ichiro; Sakata, Ko; Fukuda, Kenzo; Ishimoto, Yuki

    2010-09-15

    For Japan, it will be very important in the future to establish a social system that can consistently import or produce a set amount of resource supplies without green house gas emissions. In this study, we developed a concept for a global hydrogen energy system using wind power generation as a hydrogen source, investigated its economic efficiency, compared it with power generating fuels used at existing thermal power plants, and examined the feasibility of the global hydrogen energy system. As a result, it would be more effective to decommission existing oil-fired thermal power plants and construct new hydrogen turbine plants.

  1. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael [Div. of Electricity, Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Uppsala University, Angstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Skoglund, Annika [Dep. of Industrial Economics, Royal Institute of Technology Lindstedts vaeg 30, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Rehn, Alf [Dep. of Business Administration, Abo Akademi University, Henriksgatan 7 FIN-20500 Abo (Finland); Lindahl, Marcus [Div. of Industrial Management, Uppsala University, Box 534, Angstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-15

    Environmental concerns have increasingly led to the installation of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) despite the fact that they are recognized as expensive. Innovative efforts within the area are beset with difficulties, and they are at risk of producing misdirected or insignificant improvements in terms of the cost effectiveness of total energy conversion systems. This paper investigates how RETs can be evaluated, in terms of economy and engineering solutions, by studying the fundamental physics of renewable energy sources and how it matches with the RETs. This match is described by the ''Degree of Utilization''. The findings indicate that new innovations should focus on the possible number of full loading hours. RETs that are correctly matched to their energy source generate a higher amount of electric energy and have a higher potential of becoming more competitive. In cases where this aspect has been ignored, leading to relatively small degrees of utilization, it can be understood as an engineering mismatch between installed power, converted energy, and the fundamental physics of the renewable energy sources. Since there is a strong and possibly biased support for so-called mature RETs and already existing solutions, a clarification of how fundamental physical laws affect the cost of investments and payback of investments is needed. The present paper is part I out of II and it focuses on the difference between power and energy and the physics of different energy sources and their utilization. (author)

  2. Renewable energy sources (RES: alternative possibilities, which could be implemented in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor-Sułkowska Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kyoto Protocol and the EU’s Renewable Energy Directive [1] are the World and the EU’s legal regulations, which put pressure on most of the countries to extensive use of renewable energy sources (RES, in exchange for a reduction of energy from conventional sources. The main goal of the legal regulations is to reduce greenhouse gas emission. In European Union, from 1990 till 2014, share of the renewable energy sources has increased about 173% [2]. The data show that RES share in energy mix is increasing, and still has to increase. Therefore, all European’s countries are obligated to build new RES installations and to improve the efficiency of existing installations. That is the reason of that paper. In this article, on the base of own field research carried out in Germany and in Poland, author presents two alternative methods of energy obtaining, in which former mining excavations are used. In first method the excavations are adapted as the elements of the hydroelectric power stations and in second method they are used as a source of geothermal energy. In the end of the paper, author presents the proposals for the implementation of similar solutions in Poland.

  3. Social Attitudes towards Wind Farms and other Renewable Energy Sources in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Mroczek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The development of the wind power industry brings benefits for humans and the natural environment through the reduction of pollution emitted into the atmosphere, the creation of new jobs, and the improvement of the energy security of the country. At the same time, however, it causes people’s anxiety about adverse effects of wind farms on the environment and human health. The purpose of the study was to analyze the social attitudes of Poles toward wind power and other renewable energy sources. Material and methods. The research was carried out using the street survey method throughout the whole of Poland It involved 1,169 respondents, including 680 (58.2% from urban and 489 (41.8% from rural areas; 354 (17.2% respondents lived at a distance of more than 3 km from wind farms. Results. The majority of those he surveyed support the development of the renewable energy source and wind industry, and can see the sense of investments in this sector. Every fifth respondent is prepared to pay more for renewable energy, bearing in mind that it reduces the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere. The use of wind power contributes to: the protection of human health, the purity of the natural environment, the creation of new jobs, technological progress of Poland, the reduction of the air pollution, the improvement of energy security of the country, the prosperity of the region and its dwellers. Conclusions. Poles who do not live near renewable energy investments support the development of this sector. Nevertheless, the NIMBY syndrome cannot be excluded. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on two groups – a group of people living near renewable energy investments and residents of places where such investments are not planned. Polish people also support for pro-ecological actions and demonstrate positive attitudes toward wind power and other renewable energy sources. They can see benefits for humans and the environment resulting from

  4. Development Track of Renewable Power Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Jianchao; Tan Zhongfu; Zhao Jianbao; Li Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ Introduction Within the context of deeper global energy shortage and increasingly more polluted environment, countries throughout the world have been actively developing renewable energy sources to replace the fossil fuel, enhance the energy supply efficiency and relieve the environmental pollution. The renewable energy sources consist of hydropower and new energy sources, which are not defined exactly the same in different countries.

  5. Renewable energy sources for the world's poor: a review of current international development assistance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J. H.

    1979-10-01

    Foreign assistance funding of the creation, testing, and use of renewable energy sources concerning worldwide efforts to provide energy for Third World development is examined. Donor agencies and developing nations give serious attention to technologies that have been considered exotic and marginal: small-scale hydroelectric generation, solar water heating and distillation, biomass conversion to methane gas and alcohol, wind power, photovoltaic-powered small-scale irrigation, and village-level solar-powered absorption refrigeration. An initial effort to assist in the international coordination of donor activity and in the sharing of information generated by foreign-assistance projects that use renewable energy sources is reported. The report mainly provides information about specific development projects. It contains only a few of the projects that have been approved and funded by 1 June 1979. (MCW)

  6. Renewable energy sources monitoring systems; Sistema de monitoramento de fontes de energias renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Teofilo Miguel de; Canto, Mario Afonso Ribeiro do [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis], e-mail: teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    The development of techniques and products for use of sources of energy renewed it depends on economic and technical parameters that result of revenue analyses and acting for its improvement. With the objective of to provide and to facilitate the access the information on the future acting of products and techniques of generation of energy of alternative sources and you renewed of energy, it was developed a collection project and storage of data of reduced cost and of facilitated visualization. The system developed in platform of software LabView controls a system of acquisition of data through interface RS-232 and it stores the data in files Excel or Files text, depending on the application type. The system of acquisition of data consists of a circuit of conditioning of analogic signs for digital signs, a control circuit and a circuit of communication type interface serial asynchronous RS-232. (author)

  7. An Approach to Develop Embedded System For Web Based Monitoring & Controlling of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akansha S. Fating

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The widespread application of Renewable Energy Sources (RESrequires centralized monitoring and controlling System. To makethese operations control room independent, there is need todevelop smart servers and web based applications. Cost is anessential factor of any embedded system design. This paperdiscusses a novel concept of designing of cost effective server/client embedded system Renewable Energy sources. Hereembedded server is developed with ARM9 controller loaded withwindows CE operating system. Low cost client are designedusing Atmega32 microcontroller with LAN connection. Server/client are connected in LAN system and server basedapplications has been developed to monitor/ controlling the clientoperation. The server has web based applications that can beaccessed via internet. Author has presented developed systemand results.

  8. Hair Follicle Melanocyte Cells as a Renewable Source of Melanocytes for Culture and Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon, Ho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Advances in melanocyte culture techniques have not yet led to reliable clinical methods for treating hypopigmentation disorders. We hypothesized that melanocytes harvested from plucked hair follicles may provide a renewable source of melanocytes for the treatment of hypopigmentation. Methods: Hairs with attached cells from the follicles were plucked from Yucatan pigs and implanted in a collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix for either immediate or delayed implantation into full-thickness excisional porcine wounds. Wounds were allowed to heal and were biopsied at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Results: Fully healed wounds with transplanted hair follicles showed central areas of dark pigmentation corresponding to the location of implanted hair follicles. Corresponding collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix wounds showed no central areas of pigmentation. Conclusions: Hair follicle--derived melanocytes may potentially serve as a renewable source of pigment-producing cells for treating hypopigmentation disorders.

  9. Control system renewal for efficient operation in RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, A., E-mail: a-uchi@riken.jp; Ozeki, K.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Komiyama, M.; Nakagawa, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A RIKEN 18 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (18 GHz ECRIS) is used as an external ion source at the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory (RIBF) accelerator complex to produce an intense beam of medium-mass heavy ions (e.g., Ca and Ar). In most components that comprise the RIBF, the control systems (CSs) are integrated by the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). On the other hand, a non-EPICS-based system has hardwired controllers, and it is used in the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as an independent system. In terms of efficient and effective operation, the 18 GHz ECRIS CS as well as the RIBF CS should be renewed using EPICS. Therefore, we constructed an 18 GHz ECRIS CS by using programmable logic controllers with embedded EPICS technology. In the renewed system, an operational log system was developed as a new feature, for supporting of the 18 GHz ECRIS operation.

  10. National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC); (NREL) National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer; Sprik, Sam

    2014-03-11

    This presentation gives an overview of the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC), describes how NFCTEC benefits the hydrogen and fuel cell community, and introduces a new fuel cell cost/price aggregation project.

  11. Energy Planning in Selected European Regions - Methods for Evaluating the Potential of Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sliz-Szkliniarz, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Given their potentially positive impact on climate protection and the preservation of fossil resources, alternative energy sources have become increasingly important for the energy supply over the past years. However, the questions arises what economic and ecological impacts and potential conflicts over land use resources are associated with the promotion of renewable energy production. Using the examples of three selected European Regions in Poland, France and German, the dissertation discus...

  12. Regensim – Matlab toolbox for renewable energy sources modelling and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Dragoş Dumitru

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the implementation and development of a Matlab Simulink library named RegenSim designed for modeling, simulations and analysis of real hybrid solarwind-hydro systems connected to local grids. Blocks like wind generators, hydro generators, solar photovoltaic modules and accumulators are implemented. The main objective is the study of the hybrid power system behavior, which allows employing renewable and variable in time energy sources while providing a continuous supply.

  13. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  14. Using Remote Sensing Data for Integrating different Renewable Energy Sources at Coastal Site in South Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Feudo, Teresa Lo; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Italian coastal sites have the advantage of favorable climatic conditions to use mixed renewable energy sources, such as solar and wind. Harbors are safe places to install wind turbines where wind conditions are almost offshore. Space-borne remote sensing can provide information to determine solar...... and wind energy production potential cheaper than usual observational activity to identify and assess suitable areas. Here, we present a case study for both energy resources assessment from satellite in harbors....

  15. Renewable energy sources. Research activities of German universities. Erneuerbare Energiequellen. Aktivitaeten deutscher Hochschulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuser, F.A.; Weiss, R. (comps.)

    1992-01-01

    An overview on research and development works in German colleges in the field of renewable energy sources is given. 1. Solar thermal utilization (heat) - 56 projects; 2. Heat pumps - 8 projects; 3. Storage technology - 10 projects; 4. Solar architecture - 17 projects; 5. Photovoltaics - 70 projects; 6. Wind power - 24 projects; 7. Biomass - 24 projects; 8. Further themes - 14 projects; altogether - 223 projects. For each of the projects a separate subject analysis has been carried out. (HW).

  16. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, M.J.; Antunez, E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to remain competitive, it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them, is also given.

  17. Biomass and waste as a renewable and sustainable energy source in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Schirmer, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Due to Vietnam’s economic development its energy demand will continue to rise by 12–16% annually over the next few years. The government has realized that supply problems in the energy sector pose a significant threat to further development. Therefore, it is making concerted efforts to modernize the existing energy sector and expand the generating structure. There are ambitious expansion plans in the field of renewable energy sources, too. Owing to its very high potential, biomass could play ...

  18. Simultaneous determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel contents in diesel fuel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Julio Cesar Laurentino; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2013-11-07

    Highly polluting fuels based on non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels need to be replaced with potentially less polluting renewable fuels derived from vegetable or animal biomass, these so-called biofuels, are a reality nowadays and many countries have started the challenge of increasing the use of different types of biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters), often mixed with petroleum derivatives, such as gasoline and diesel, respectively. The quantitative determination of these fuel blends using simple, fast and low cost methods based on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been reported. However, advanced biofuels based on a mixture of hydrocarbons or a single hydrocarbon molecule, such as farnesane (2,6,10-trimethyldodecane), a hydrocarbon renewable diesel, can also be used in mixtures with biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel and the use of NIR spectroscopy for the quantitative determination of a ternary fuel blend of these two hydrocarbon-based fuels and biodiesel can be a useful tool for quality control. This work presents a development of an analytical method for the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon renewable diesel (farnesane), biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel blends using NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods, such as partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). This development leads to a more accurate, simpler, faster and cheaper method when compared to the standard reference method ASTM D6866 and with the main advantage of providing the individual quantification of two different biofuels in a mixture with petroleum diesel fuel. Using the developed PLS model the three fuel blend components were determined simultaneously with values of root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.25%, 0.19% and 0.38% for hydrocarbon renewable diesel, biodiesel and petroleum diesel, respectively, the values obtained were in agreement with those suggested by

  19. A practical algorithm for distribution state estimation including renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher [Electronic and Electrical Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Modares Blvd., P.O. 71555-313, Shiraz (Iran); Firouzi, Bahman Bahmani [Islamic Azad University Marvdasht Branch, Marvdasht (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy is energy that is in continuous supply over time. These kinds of energy sources are divided into five principal renewable sources of energy: the sun, the wind, flowing water, biomass and heat from within the earth. According to some studies carried out by the research institutes, about 25% of the new generation will be generated by Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) in the near future. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of RESs on the power systems, especially on the distribution networks. This paper presents a practical Distribution State Estimation (DSE) including RESs and some practical consideration. The proposed algorithm is based on the combination of Nelder-Mead simplex search and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms, called PSO-NM. The proposed algorithm can estimate load and RES output values by Weighted Least-Square (WLS) approach. Some practical considerations are var compensators, Voltage Regulators (VRs), Under Load Tap Changer (ULTC) transformer modeling, which usually have nonlinear and discrete characteristics, and unbalanced three-phase power flow equations. The comparison results with other evolutionary optimization algorithms such as original PSO, Honey Bee Mating Optimization (HBMO), Neural Networks (NNs), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), and Genetic Algorithm (GA) for a test system demonstrate that PSO-NM is extremely effective and efficient for the DSE problems. (author)

  20. Renewable Energy Sources in the Function of Sustainable Business in Tourism and Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljerka Cerović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trends on the international tourist market are recording numerous changes almost on a daily basis, regarding the development of ecological tourist offer. Modern tourists are becoming more and more aware of the necessity of applying the principles of sustainable development in everyday life, so the same preferences are being expressed during their stay in their chosen tourist destination. The management of ecologically oriented tourist destination must pay special attention to the use of renewable energy sources, and in its micro-environment encourage an approach to business according to modern ecological standards. The implementation of renewable energy sources in tourism and hospitality industry aims at ensuring the improvement of business, profiling of an ecologically responsible tourist destination, repositioning of the current tourist offer on the international tourist market and achieving competitive advantages and conquest of a specific tourist segment of ecologically-oriented consumers. The aim of the research is to point out the advantages which sustainable development and application of renewable energy sources has on business development in tourism and hospitality industry, with a goal of improving competitive advantages and positive effect on the environment

  1. Investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy sources in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sredojević Slađana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency and renewable energy are areas that are very promising, with the growing importance on the global marketplace. These are based on large and complex sets of regulations and controls, at both domestic and international level. In order to successfully fulfill the targets set in these areas including the greater registered use of renewable energy sources, it is required to boost cooperation with the banking sector, which may, primarily owing to its financial support and know-how, be the key partner in the implementation of many public and commercial projects. The paper analyzes the opportunities that the regulatory framework in the Republic of Serbia introduced in the field of renewable energy, including the legal framework and mechanisms that regulate the nature of the relationship between various stakeholders. The basic premise of the research is that the good regulations aim to provide predictability of income in the project, which has a direct impact on the reduction of costs and risks related to financing. Also, the paper analyzes the challenges that should be overcome in the future and recommends the possible further activities towards the more comprehensive funding, improvement of the general level of awareness about the importance of renewable energy projects and the role of banks in financing their further development.

  2. Renewable liquid fuels from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher J.

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and growing concerns about global warming require the development of sustainable sources of energy. Fuels for use in the transportation sector must have specific physical properties that allow for efficient distribution, storage, and combustion; these requirements are currently fulfilled by petroleum-derived liquid fuels. The focus of this work has been the development of two new biofuels that have the potential to become widely used transportation fuels from carbohydrate intermediates. Our first biofuel has cetane numbers ranging from 63 to 97 and is comprised of C7 to C15 straight chain alkanes. These alkanes can be blended with diesel like fuels or with P-series biofuel. Production involves a solid base catalyzed aldol condensation with mixed Mg-Al-oxide between furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acetone, followed by hydrogenation over Pd/Al2O3, and finally hydrogenation/dehydration over Pt/SiO2-Al2O3. Water was the solvent for all process steps, except for the hydrogenation/dehydration stage where hexadecane was co-fed to spontaneously separate out all alkane products and eliminate the need for energy intensive distillation. A later optimization identified Pd/MgO-ZrO2 as a hydrothermally stable bifunctional catalyst to replace Pd/Al2O3 and the hydrothermally unstable Mg-Al-oxide catalysts along with optimizing process parameters, such as temperature and molar ratios of reactants to maximize yields to heavier alkanes. Our second biofuel involved creating an improved process to produce HMF through the acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose in a biphasic reactor. Additionally, we developed a technique to further convert HMF into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) by hydrogenolysis of C-O bonds over a copper-ruthenium catalyst. DMF has many properties that make it a superior blending agent to ethanol: it has a high research octane number at 119, a 40% higher energy density than ethanol, 20 K higher boiling point, and is insoluble in

  3. THE USE OF THE RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES – AS THE WAY TO GET OVER MACRO-ECONOMIC IMBALANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khmelnitsky L.Y.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes major groups of current macroeconomic risks. Major challenges of modern world energy development are described and the spotlight on renewable energy sources as one of mechanisms of the described problems solution. Major requirements applied to government support schemes for renewable energy development are stated as well.

  4. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoglund, Annika [Dep. of Industrial Economics, Royal Institute of Technology, Lindstedts vaeg 30, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael [Div. of Electricity, Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Uppsala University, Aangstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Rehn, Alf [Dep. of Business Administration, Aabo Akademi University, Henriksgatan 7FIN-20500 Aabo (Finland); Lindahl, Marcus [Div. of Industrial Management, Uppsala University, Aangstroem 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-15

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO{sub 2} neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable

  5. Multicriteria analysis for sources of renewable energy using data from remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejicek, L.

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy sources are major components of the strategy to reduce harmful emissions and to replace depleting fossil energy resources. Data from remote sensing can provide information for multicriteria analysis for sources of renewable energy. Advanced land cover quantification makes it possible to search for suitable sites. Multicriteria analysis, together with other data, is used to determine the energy potential and socially acceptability of suggested locations. The described case study is focused on an area of surface coal mines in the northwestern region of the Czech Republic, where the impacts of surface mining and reclamation constitute a dominant force in land cover changes. High resolution satellite images represent the main input datasets for identification of suitable sites. Solar mapping, wind predictions, the location of weirs in watersheds, road maps and demographic information complement the data from remote sensing for multicriteria analysis, which is implemented in a geographic information system (GIS). The input spatial datasets for multicriteria analysis in GIS are reclassified to a common scale and processed with raster algebra tools to identify suitable sites for sources of renewable energy. The selection of suitable sites is limited by the CORINE land cover database to mining and agricultural areas. The case study is focused on long term land cover changes in the 1985-2015 period. Multicriteria analysis based on CORINE data shows moderate changes in mapping of suitable sites for utilization of selected sources of renewable energy in 1990, 2000, 2006 and 2012. The results represent map layers showing the energy potential on a scale of a few preference classes (1-7), where the first class is linked to minimum preference and the last class to maximum preference. The attached histograms show the moderate variability of preference classes due to land cover changes caused by mining activities. The results also show a slight increase in the more

  6. Multifunctional Voltage Source Inverter for Renewable Energy Integration and Power Quality Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundame...

  7. Dynamic energy management employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xin; Phillips, Chris; Wang, Jiayuan

    2013-01-01

    The continued growth of energy consumption has been one of the main constraints for the development of the Internet. The increasing emissions of greenhouse gases associated with electricity generation also raise public concern for the environment. In this paper, we propose a dynamic energy...... management framework employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM core networks. The main concept is to combine infrastructure sleeping and virtual router migration to improve the network energy efficiency. By using the energy source information provided by the smart grid, the nodes that are powered...

  8. New fuel cell plants and power sources for submarines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikiforov, B.; Sokolov, V. [CDB ME ' ' Rubin' ' (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The existing storage batteries for submarines have been analyzed, the quality of their design has been estimated and a power plant with electrochemical generators (fuel cells) has been suggested as an electric energy source. The history and the status of power plant design in Russia have been reflected. (authors)

  9. Forecast of power generation and heat production from renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pydych Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The share of renewable energy sources (RES in the end use of energy in the UE will increase from the present level of about 25% to 50 % in 2030 according to the assumptions of the European Commission. In Poland the RES Act was passed in 2015. The act defines mechanisms and instruments for supporting the production of electricity and heat from renewable energy sources. Statistics (2003–2014 of electricity generation and heat production from RES in Poland were used in the research. Because of amendments to regulations connected with promoting RES and the emissions trading system (ETS as well as the uncertainty associated with further directions of the energy and environmental policy, generation of electricity and heat based on the use of RES must be modelled while taking risk into account. A number of dynamic processes incorporating random events may be modelled by stochastic equations using Ito calculus. By applying Euler’s method to solve stochastic differential equations (SDE, it is possible to simulate the development of the use of renewable energy carriers in electricity generation and heat production in the future.

  10. Renewable energy sources and nuclear installations; Erneuerbare Energien und neue Nuklearanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschberg, S.; Bauer, Ch.; Burgherr, P.; Stucki, S.; Vogel, F.; Biollaz, S.; Schulz, T.; Durisch, W.; Hardegger, P.; Foskolos, K.; Meier, A.; Schenler, W.

    2005-02-15

    This comprehensive work report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI takes a look at work done in connection with the updating of the office's Energy Perspectives. In particular, the topic of electricity is reviewed in the light of pending important decisions in the area of nuclear energy and the newer renewable sources of energy. The report makes an attempt to estimate the effect on Swiss power production that the new renewables and new nuclear installations could have in the next 30-40 years and to what costs this could be done and which obstacles would have to overcome. The renewable energy sources include small hydro, wind, photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, biogas, geothermal energy, wave-power and solar chemistry. The methods used include literature study and contacts with internal PSI experts on the various areas involved. The most important system characteristics were noted and learning curves for the various technologies were taken into account. Ecological and social factors were also considered

  11. “Team Play” between Renewable Energy Sources and Vehicle Fleet to Decrease Air Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Longo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of air pollutants for the purpose of maintaining or improving air quality across the globe is a fundamental concern to which all modern governments are allocating varying amounts of attention and resources. The successful amelioration of air pollution requires strategic investments in the commercialization and adoption of “clean energy technologies” by both private and public entities, the conversion of contemporary houses to “smart houses”, the diffusion of Renewable Energy Sources (RES including photovoltaic systems (PV, wind farms, and different forms of bioenergy, and the integration of electric-powered vehicles. In concert with these ideas, this paper aims to discuss the possibility of undertaking a feasibility study in two countries Canada and Italy concerning the integration of electric vehicles (EVs and electric motorcycles (EMs. The proposed feasibility study would seek to assess the prospect of replacing the current vehicle fleets in these two countries with EVs in a manner that utilizes renewable energy sources and, thus, does not generate new toxic emissions. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a pronounced introduction and distribution of RES, EVs, and EMs can operate as a great opportunity for both the environment and the capacities and needs of energy production. Today, the EV is not widespread. With this contribution, it is shown how EVs can be well integrated with renewable energy. Therefore, it is the duty of governments to implement policy strategies, in order to spread them across more territory.

  12. Valuation of flexible solutions with alternative fuel cell energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haahtela, T.; Surakka, T.; Malinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). BIT Research Centre

    2009-07-01

    Fuel cells are an emerging technology with high potential, but also with significant market uncertainty. Fuel cells are currently in the transition from field trials to commercial introduction, and firms need to consider whether the technology fulfils the reliability and cost requirements of their current and upcoming products. This paper presented a framework to assist managers in finding the suitable valuation method for comparing different alternatives with emerging fuel cell technology. The dynamic valuation approaches of decision tree analysis, real options and system dynamics were discussed as they help in choosing the optimal timing and product structure over a long time period. Three examples of applications with fuel cells were briefly presented. The paper also addressed how the suggested valuation methods could be applied to them. These applications included maritime buoys; removable crisis management energy source container; and electrification of public transportation. It was concluded that the fuel cell technology has already become economically feasible in certain application areas. Improving technical reliability and cost reductions will make fuel cells even more competitive alternatives in new application areas. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  13. Design, Operation, Control, and Economics of a Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Renewable Energy System for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary S. Whiteman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Meeting rapidly growing global energy demand—without producing greenhouse gases or further diminishing the availability of non-renewable resources—requires the development of affordable low-emission renewable energy systems. Here, we develop a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES for automotive applications—specifically, a roof-installed photovoltaic (PV array combined with a PEM fuel cell/NiCd battery bus currently operating shuttle routes on the University of Delaware campus. The system’s overall operating objectives—meeting the total power demand of the bus and maintaining the desired state of charge (SOC of the NiCd battery—are achieved with appropriately designed controllers: a logic-based “algebraic controller” and a standard PI controller. The design, implementation, and performance of the hybrid system are demonstrated via simulation of real shuttle runs under various operating conditions. The results show that both control strategies perform equally well in enabling the HRES to meet its objectives under typical operating conditions, and under sudden cloud cover conditions; however, at consistently high bus speeds, battery SOC maintenance is better, and the system consumes less hydrogen, with PI control. An economic analysis of the PV investment necessary to realize the HRES design objectives indicates a return on investment of approximately 30% (a slight, but nonetheless positive, ~$550 profit over the bus lifetime in Newark, DE, establishing the economic viability of the proposed addition of a PV array to the existing University of Delaware fuel cell/battery bus.

  14. Fuel Consumption Analysis and Optimization of a Sustainable Energy System for a 100% Renewables Smart House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile Simion; Blarke, Morten; Trifa, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    . In case of renewable energies, one main challenge is the discontinuity of generation which can be solved with planning and control optimization methods. The results of the economic analysis and the feasibility of the sustainable energy system for a 100% renewables SH show that this could be possible...

  15. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15

  16. Utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumathi, S.; Chai, S.P.; Mohamed, A.R. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2008-12-15

    Malaysia is currently the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia produces about 47% of the world's supply of palm oil. Malaysia also accounts the highest percentage of global vegetable oils and fats trade in year 2005. Besides producing oils and fats, at present there is a continuous increasing interest concerning oil palm renewable energy. One of the major attentions is bio-diesel from palm oil. Bio-diesel implementation in Malaysia is important because of environmental protection and energy supply security reasons. This palm oil bio-diesel is biodegradable, non-toxic, and has significantly fewer emissions than petroleum-based diesel (petro-diesel) when burned. In addition to this oil, palm is also a well-known plant for its other sources of renewable energy, for example huge quantities of biomass by-products are developed to produce value added products such as methane gas, bio-plastic, organic acids, bio-compost, ply-wood, activated carbon, and animal feedstock. Even waste effluent; palm oil mill effluent (POME) has been converted to produce energy. Oil palm has created many opportunities and social benefits for the locals. In the above perspective, the objective of the present work is to give a concise and up-to-date picture of the present status of oil palm industry enhancing sustainable and renewable energy. This work also aims to identify the prospects of Malaysian oil palm industry towards utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy. (author)

  17. Alternative Sources of Energy - An Introduction to Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merewether, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cells are important future sources of electrical power and could contribute to a reduction in the amount of petroleum imported by the United States. They are electrochemical devices similar to a battery and consist of a container, an anode, a cathode, catalysts, an intervening electrolyte, and an attached electrical circuit. In most fuel cell systems, hydrogen is supplied to the anode and oxygen to the cathode which results in the production of electricity, water, and heat. Fuel cells are comparatively efficient and reliable, have no moving parts, operate without combustion, and are modular and scale-able. Their size and shape are flexible and adaptable. In operation, they are nearly silent, are relatively safe, and generally do not pollute the environment. During recent years, scientists and engineers have developed and refined technologies relevant to a variety of fuel cells. Types of fuel cells are commonly identified by the composition of their electrolyte, which could be either phosphoric acid, an alkaline solution, a molten carbonate, a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane. The electrolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid, molten carbonates, or solid metal oxides. For vehicles and smaller devices, the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane. For most fuel cell systems, the fuel is hydrogen, which can be extracted by several procedures from many hydrogen-bearing substances, including alcohols, natural gas (mainly methane), gasoline, and water. There are important and perhaps unresolved technical problems associated with using fuel cells to power vehicles. The catalysts required in several systems are expensive metals of the platinum group. Moreover, fuel cells can freeze and not work in cold weather and can be damaged by impacts. Storage tanks for the fuels, particularly hydrogen, must be safe, inexpensive, of a reasonable size, and contain a supply sufficient for a trip of several hundred miles

  18. Legislative and policy in energy efficient designing and renewable energy sources: Application in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses political and legislative frames in the field of energy efficient building and renewable energy sources in planning and implementation in Serbia. „Development strategy until 2015.“ is reviewed in concise portrait. This strategy maps a way for the application of energy services of much higher quality than ones offered at a present day. It reviews relevant laws concerning the subject, as well as institutions, programs and their implementation. Basic principles of energy policy in Serbia and their achievement are also given by that strategy. Serbia's energy policies are designed to allow new legislative, structural, organizational, institutional, and economic frames and visions of unification of Serbian energetics into regional and Pan-European integrations. One of the key factors is the inclusion of sustainable development and energy efficient design concerned policies. Application of these, almost completely neglected, energy sources, for which there is high potential in Serbia, would allow preservation of primary energy sources and local environment. This potential hasn't seen significant research, and therefore, neither the technical improvement. Apart from that, one of the goals of wider application of renewable energy sources is lowering the poverty level. This helps avoiding the already used “dirty development” method. .

  19. Funding of renewable energy sources in the deregulated German electricity market; Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien im liberalisierten deutschen Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawer, T.

    2007-12-14

    This study intends to develop an efficient market design for the German electricity market, with particular regard to renewable energy sources. The German electricity market is disintegrated, i.e. market sectors are not coordinated by a central agency but by their own interactions. The first part of the investigation analyzes the interdependences of market sectors, while the second part will analyze funding instruments for renewable energy sources on this basis. (orig.)

  20. Using the “Footprint” Approach to Examine the Potentials and Impacts of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hastik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of renewable energies is regarded as a key way to mitigate global climate change and to ensure the provision of energy in the long term. However, conflicts between these goals and local nature conservation goals are likely to increase because of the additional space required for renewable energies. This is particularly true for mountainous areas with biodiversity-rich ecosystems. Little effort has been undertaken to systematically compare different renewable energy sources and to examine their environmental impacts using an interdisciplinary approach. This study adapted the concept of the “ecological footprint” to examine the impact on ecosystem services of land use changes involved in exploiting renewable energy sources. This innovative approach made it possible to assess and communicate the potentials of those energy sources in light of both space consumption and sustainability. The European Alps are an ideal test area because of their high energy potentials and biodiversity-rich ecosystems and the high demand for multiple ecosystem services. Our results demonstrate that energy consumption in the Alps could not be covered with the available renewable energy potentials, despite the utilization of large parts of the Alpine land area and the majority of larger rivers. Therefore, considerable effort must be invested in resolving conflicting priorities between expanding renewable energies and nature conservation, but also in realizing energy-saving measures. To this end, the approach presented here can support decision-making by revealing the energy potentials, space requirements, and environmental impacts of different renewable energy sources.

  1. Renewable hot dry rock geothermal energy source and its potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaigham, Nayyer Alam [Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Nayyar, Zeeshan Alam [Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Geothermal energy source, one of the viable renewable energy sources, has encouraging potential to generate full base-load electricity, which has not been explored so far in Pakistan. Though the country can be benefited by harnessing the hydro-geothermal options of energy generation in areas where sources exist, but most of these sources lie in extreme remote and inaccessible rugged mountainous ranges away from the urban-industrial centers. On the other hand, the present study shows that the HDR geothermal option is one of the most viable renewable sources considering the tectonic setup of Pakistan. Results of the study highlight the HDR geothermal energy prospects at relatively deeper depths than hydro-geothermal resources in water-free condition. The basement tectonic analyses reveal that the HDR prospects could be found even just below the urban-industrial centers of Pakistan where there are no hot springs and/or geysers like southern Indus basin in Sindh province or the Kharan trough in the western Balochistan province. Presence of high earth-skin temperature gradient trends derived from satellite temperature data and the high geothermal gradient anomalous zone derived from scanty data of bottom-hole temperatures of some of the oil and gas exploratory wells, indicates encouraging prospects for HDR energy sources in southern Indus and Thar Desert regions inclusive of Karachi synclinorium area. These high geothermal gradients have been inferred to be the result of the deep-seated southern Indus and the Thar fossil-rift structures. Moreover, the prospects of the HDR geothermal energy sources have also been inferred in the Chagai Arc region and the Kharan-Panjgur tectonic depression in the western part of Pakistan based on the analysis of integrated geophysical data. If HDR prospects are developed, they can offer the sustainable, CO{sub 2}-free and independent of time, of day, of weather or season, and the base-load energy-generation resource. (author)

  2. Advanced reactors and novel reactions for the conversion of triglyceride based oils into high quality renewable transportation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, Michael James

    Sustainable energy continues to grow more important to all societies, leading to the research and development of a variety of alternative and renewable energy technologies. Of these, renewable liquid transportation fuels may be the most visible to consumers, and this visibility is further magnified by the long-term trend of increasingly expensive petroleum fuels that the public consumes. While first-generation biofuels such as biodiesel and fuel ethanol have been integrated into the existing fuel infrastructures of several countries, the chemical differences between them and their petroleum counterparts reduce their effectiveness. This gives rise to the development and commercialization of second generation biofuels, many of which are intended to have equivalent properties to those of their petroleum counterparts. In this dissertation, the primary reactions for a second-generation biofuel process, known herein as the University of North Dakota noncatalytic cracking process (NCP), have been studied at the fundamental level and improved. The NCP is capable of producing renewable fuels and chemicals that are virtually the same as their petroleum counterparts in performance and quality (i.e., petroleum-equivalent). In addition, a novel analytical method, FIMSDIST was developed which, within certain limitations, can increase the elution capabilities of GC analysis and decrease sample processing times compared to other high resolution methods. These advances are particularly useful for studies of highly heterogeneous fuel and/or organic chemical intermediates, such as those studied for the NCP. However the data from FIMSDIST must be supplemented with data from other methods such as for certain carboxylic acid, to provide accurate, comprehensive results, From a series of TAG cracking experiments that were performed, it was found that coke formation during cracking is most likely the result of excessive temperature and/or residence time in a cracking reactor. Based on this

  3. Gasification in a CFB reactor : a simple and economic way of co-firing renewable fuels in existing power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, H.; Zotter, T. [AE Energietechnik, Graz (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    The use of biomass for power generation offers many environmental advantages and shorter carbon dioxide cycles compared to fossil fuels. However, biomass is not suitable as the principal fuel in large biomass-fired power plants because of its low specific volumetric energy density and the high transport and handling volume. Biomass is suitable for decentralized, small power plants but these often require high investment and operational costs. This paper discussed the suitability of biomass for co-firing in existing coal-fired thermal power plants. AE Energietechnik and partners, implemented a pilot biomass gasifier in Zeltweg, Austria in 1997. The plant operates a circulating fluidized bed reactor with a hot, low-calorific product gas produced and transported into an existing coal-fired boiler. The thermal capacity is up to 20 MW compared to the thermal capacity of 344 MW for the PC-boiler. This represents a coal substitution of 5 per cent. Commercial production began in December 1997 following gasification tests with alternative fuels such as wood wastes and plastics. The demonstration program has increased the awareness for the potential to use renewable fuels in fossil-fired power plants not originally designed to accept such fuels. 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. Analytic Methods for Benchmarking Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc; Saur, Genevieve; Ramsden, Todd; Eichman, Joshua

    2015-05-28

    This presentation summarizes NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis work in three areas: resource potential, greenhouse gas emissions and cost of delivered energy, and influence of auxiliary revenue streams. NREL's hydrogen and fuel cell analysis projects focus on low-­carbon and economic transportation and stationary fuel cell applications. Analysis tools developed by the lab provide insight into the degree to which bridging markets can strengthen the business case for fuel cell applications.

  5. Long-Term Hydrocarbon Trade Options for the Maghreb Region and Europe—Renewable Energy Based Synthetic Fuels for a Net Zero Emissions World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Fasihi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and increasing emission costs are drivers for new sources of fuels for Europe. Sustainable hydrocarbons can be produced synthetically by power-to-gas (PtG and power-to-liquids (PtL facilities, for sectors with low direct electrification such as aviation, heavy transportation and chemical industry. Hybrid PV–Wind power plants can harvest high solar and wind potentials of the Maghreb region to power these systems. This paper calculates the cost of these fuels for Europe, and presents a respective business case for the Maghreb region. Calculations are hourly resolved to find the least cost combination of technologies in a 0.45° × 0.45° spatial resolution. Results show that, for 7% weighted average cost of capital (WACC, renewable energy based synthetic natural gas (RE-SNG and RE-diesel can be produced in 2030 for a minimum cost of 76 €/MWhHHV (0.78 €/m3SNG and 88 €/MWhHHV (0.85 €/L, respectively. While in 2040, these production costs can drop to 66 €/MWhHHV (0.68 €/m3SNG and 83 €/MWhHHV (0.80 €/L, respectively. Considering access to a WACC of 5% in a de-risking project, oxygen sales and CO2 emissions costs, RE-diesel can reach fuel-parity at crude oil prices of 101 and 83 USD/bbl in 2030 and 2040, respectively. Thus, RE-synthetic fuels could be produced to answer fuel demand and remove environmental concerns in Europe at an affordable cost.

  6. Influence of macro and micro economical environments of energetical effectiveness for business activity of renewable power sources in the Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Antošová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the contribution is to explain evaluation of economical environment that firms must respect during their business activity.External environment of mining firm includes except others technological development, economical situation, legislative by the wayof regulation, but in last time also stimulations from the government, competition behavior and other. Contribution is dealing also withenergetical effectiveness in the frame of economical evaluation applied in conditions of Slovak republic.The renewable energy sources are domestic sources of energy that help to enhance the safety of energy suppliesand the diversification of energy sources. The renewable energy is proved to be commercially viable for a growing list of consumersand uses. The renewable energy technologies provide many benefits that go well beyond the energy alone. More and more,the renewable energies contribute to the three pillars of the sustainable development in the economy, environment and the society.

  7. Renewable energy made easy free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, David

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average North American family will spend more than a quarter of a million dollars on energy in a lifetime. What many other countries, including Germany, Spain, France, Denmark, China, Brazil, and even Iceland, have realized is that there is a better way to power our homes, businesses, and cars by using renewable energy sources. Recently, the United States has begun to understand the importance of reducing its reliance on coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydropower plants, which comprise the majority of the nation's electricity, due to increasing oil prices.

  8. Assessment of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels in Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zografakis, Nikolaos [Regional Energy Agency of Crete, Region of Crete, 71202 Heraklion (Greece); Gillas, Konstantinos; Pollaki, Antrianna; Profylienou, Maroulitsa; Bounialetou, Fanouria [Department of Economics, University of Crete, University Campus, 74100 Rethymno (Greece); Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-05-15

    This study aims to assess the state of the art of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels. This will contribute to determining the potential of efficient and sustainable energy technologies integration. Hotel managers were interviewed face to face and information sessions were provided. Special energy and environmental awareness campaigns, sectoral tourism programs for climate change mitigation and adaptation, supportive policies and hotel energy investments and renovation programs are some recommendations elicited from the results of this study. (author)

  9. Assessment of Alder Tree Bark Potential as a Renewable Source of Proanthocyanidins in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janceva Sarmīte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to assess potential of alder tree bark as a renewable source of bioactive polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant properties of hydrophilic extracts and proanthocyanidins (PAC isolated from bark of two alder species (grey alder and black alder growing in Latvia have been examined employing two test systems, ABTS●+, DPPH● assays. In the tests the high free radical scavenging capacities of the PAC were demonstrated. The polyphenolic nature of the bark PAC opens the possibility of its application as food additive. The PAC has good potential as an antioxidant for mayonnaise.

  10. ENERGY RECOVERY FROM WASTE IN THE ASPECT OF ELECTRICITY AND HEAT QUALIFICATIONS AS COMING FROM RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND PARTICIPATION IN THE SYSTEM OF EMISSIONS TRADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Wasielewski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the qualification of heat and electricity produced in plants using waste as a fuel. It also concerns the issues related with the possibilities of participation in the system of emissions trading. The basis for such considerations is the content of biodegradable fraction in waste, which is treated as “biomass”, based on the definitions set out in relevant legislation. It is necessary to determine content of biodegradable fraction in waste in order to establish the purposes. Two ways of settling share of energy from renewable energy sources were introduced. The first, was based on direct measurement of the share of biodegradable fraction in the tested waste. On the other hand, the second is involved with certain types of waste. Thus, the share of biodegradable fraction is determined by flat-rate value. An applicable auction system does not guarantee the financial support for electricity produced from renewable energy sources, even if it is classified so. A company selling heat to end users is obliged to purchase the heat from renewable energy sources, including thermal treatment plants using municipal waste. The maximum level that the company is obliged to purchase is equal to the customers’ demand. Both the municipal waste incineration and hazardous waste incineration plants are exempted from the obligations provided in the Act on system of emission trading. This applies only to the waste incineration plants, which incinerate only the municipal waste or hazardous waste and the plants which are processing waste, not producing of heat. When an installation uses alternative fuel, it is not automatically excluded from participation in the system of emission trading. For biodegradable fraction of alternative fuel, the emission factor equal to 0 can be used. For the remaining alternative fuels, an emission factor determined on the basis of laboratory tests must be assigned. In order to demonstrate that an alternative fuel

  11. 77 FR 22067 - Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Publication of Inflation Adjustment Factor, Nonconventional Source Fuel Credit, and Reference Price for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the inflation adjustment factor, nonconventional source fuel credit, and...

  12. Molecular sieve adsorbents and membranes for applications in the production of renewable fuels and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajiv

    Metal organic frameworks (MOF), a new class of porous materials, have emerged as promising candidate for gas storage, separation membrane and chemical sensors. We used secondary growth method to grow microporous metal organic framework (MMOF) films on porous alumina supports. Examination of the film using SEM and XRD showed that the crystals were well inter-grown and preferentially oriented. Gas permeation study showed that membranes were defect free and moderate selectivity was achieved for H2/N2 gas pairs. The next project had to do with ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass as an alternate energy source. However, toxic inhibitors produced from the hydrolysis of biomass decrease ethanol yield during the fermentation process. We demonstrated the use of zeolites for the pretreatment of hydrolyzate in order to remove inhibitors like 5-Hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (HMF) and furfural from aqueous solution. Zeolites exhibit preferential adsorption of the inhibitors and in effect improve the ethanol yield during fermentation. Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST) was also used to predict adsorption isotherms for HMF-furfural mixtures using single component adsorption data. We also studied production of HMF, a potential substitute as a building block for plastic and chemical production, from renewable biomass resources. Catalytic dehydration of fructose for HMF production faces problems like low conversion and yield. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) can be used as the solvent as well as the catalyst resulting in high HMF yield. We studied a reaction-separation system for this dehydration reaction where the product (HMF) could be recovered by selective adsorption on solid adsorbents from the reaction mixture.

  13. Utilizing hydropower for load balancing non-storable renewable energy sources - technical and environmental challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsen, K. T.; Killingtveit, A.

    2011-12-01

    About 99% of the total energy production in Norway comes from hydropower, and the total production of about 120 TWh makes Norway Europe's largest hydropower producer. Most hydropower systems in Norway are based on high-head plants with mountain storage reservoirs and tunnels transporting water from the reservoirs to the power plants. In total, Norwegian reservoirs contributes around 50% of the total energy storage capacity in Europe. Current strategies to reduce emission of greenhouse gases from energy production involve increased focus on renewable energy sources, e.g. the European Union's 202020 goal in which renewable energy sources should be 20% of the total energy production by 2020. To meet this goal new renewable energy installations must be developed on a large scale in the coming years, and wind power is the main focus for new developments. Hydropower can contribute directly to increase renewable energy through new development or extensions to existing systems, but maybe even more important is the potential to use hydropower systems with storage for load balancing in a system with increased amount of non-storable renewable energies. Even if new storage technologies are under development, hydro storage is the only technology available on a large scale and the most economical feasible alternative. In this respect the Norwegian system has a high potential both through direct use of existing reservoirs and through an increased development of pump storage plants utilizing surplus wind energy to pump water and then producing during periods with low wind input. Through cables to Europe, Norwegian hydropower could also provide balance power for the North European market. Increased peaking and more variable operation of the current hydropower system will present a number of technical and environmental challenges that needs to be identified and mitigated. A more variable production will lead to fluctuating flow in receiving rivers and reservoirs, and it will also

  14. Heliodromus: Renewable energy from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change and the related running out of fossil fuel reserves drive the development of renewable energy sources. To contribute to a solution of these problems, we present the results of a BSc student design synthesis exercise project on Space Based Solar Power (SBSP). A SBSP system generates po

  15. Development Track of Renewable Power Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Within the context of deeper global energy shortage and increasingly more polluted environment,countries throughout the world have been actively developing renewable energy sources to replace the fossil fuel,

  16. Use of Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Source for Powering Hot-Mix Asphalt Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of paved roads and highways are surfaced with Hot-Mix Asphalt. Environmental Life-Cycle Assessment studies have shown that, in the production of Hot-Mix Asphalt pavements, major consumption of energy takes place during asphalt mixing and drying of aggregates, more than what is consumed during the extraction of crude oil and the distillation of bitumen. Currently, natural gas is the primarily source of fossil fuel used to produce 70 to 90 percent of the Hot-Mix Asphalt in the USA, while the remainder of the Hot-Mix Asphalt is produced using oil, propane, waste oil, or other fuels. Energy-related CO2 emissions resulting from the use of fossil fuels in various industry and transportation sectors represent a significant portion of human-made greenhouse gas emissions. This study investigates the technical feasibility of using a hybrid wind energy system as a clean source of energy for operating an entire Hot-Mix Asphalt production facility. Since wind blows intermittently, the extracted wind energy will be stored in the form of hydrogen which is considered a lightweight, compact energy carrier, for later use, thus creating a ready source of electricity for the Hot-Mix Asphalt plant when wind is not present or when electricity demand is high.

  17. Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. Update 2010. Methodology for the calculation and recording of the amounts of energy produced from renewable sources in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Te Buck, S.; Van Keulen, B.; Bosselaar, L.; Gerlagh, T.; Skelton, T.

    2010-07-15

    This is the fifth, updated edition of the Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol. The protocol, compiled on behalf of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, can be considered as a policy document that provides a uniform calculation method for determining the amount of energy produced in the Netherlands in a renewable manner. Because all governments and organisations use the calculation methods described in this protocol, this makes it possible to monitor developments in this field well and consistently. The introduction of this protocol outlines the history and describes its set-up, validity and relationship with other similar documents and agreements. The Dutch Renewable Energy Monitoring Protocol is compiled by NL Agency, and all relevant parties were given the chance to provide input. This has been incorporated as far as is possible. Statistics Netherlands (CBS) uses this protocol to calculate the amount of renewable energy produced in the Netherlands. These data are then used by the Ministry of Economic Affairs to gauge the realisation of policy objectives. In June 2009 the European Directive for energy from renewable sources was published with renewable energy targets for the Netherlands. This directive used a different calculation method - the gross energy end-use method - whilst the Dutch definition is based on the so-called substitution method. NL Agency was asked to add the calculation according to the gross end use method, although this is not clearly defined on a number of points. In describing the method, the unanswered questions become clear, as do, for example, the points the Netherlands should bring up in international discussions.

  18. Windmill Noise Annoyance, Visual Aesthetics, and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Klæboe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A small focused socio-acoustic after-study of annoyance from a windmill park was undertaken after local health officials demanded a health impact study to look into neighborhood complaints. The windmill park consists of 31 turbines and is located in the South of Norway where it affects 179 dwellings. Simple exposure-effect relationships indicate stronger reactions to windmills and wind turbine noise than shown internationally, with the caveat that the sample size is small (n = 90 and responses are colored by the existing local conflict. Pulsating swishing sounds and turbine engine hum are the main causes of noise annoyance. About 60 per cent of those who participated in the survey were of the opinion that windmills degrade the landscape aesthetically, and were far from convinced that land-based windmills are desirable as a renewable energy source (hydropower is an important alternative source of renewables in Norway. Attitudes play an important role in addition to visual aesthetics in determining the acceptance of windmills and the resulting noise annoyance. To compare results from different wind turbine noise studies it seems necessary to assess the impact of important modifying factors.

  19. Multifunctional Voltage Source Inverter for Renewable Energy Integration and Power Quality Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NingYi Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity.

  20. Multifunctional voltage source inverter for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, NingYi; Lam, Chi-Seng; Zhang, WenChen

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity.

  1. Optimization of energy consumption and cost effectiveness of modular buildings by using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tauš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problems of the temporary structures are generally dealt with by the use of modular buildings. These actually meet the terms of low costs, as appose to the terms of convenience of use, or energy efficiency in operation. Using the latest technologies in the production of the modular buildings has improved the operation sufficiently; it is now possible to use them entirely for purposes associated with the use of the buildings. Office buildings, warehouses, and conference rooms have become common standard. In Slovakia, we can already see it as a normal part of cities and municipalities: social housing, schools, and kindergartens, which were all built using this technology. During the assessment phase of these buildings, energy efficiency is always the priority. This article is aimed at establishing the economic potential of modular buildings in the field of use of renewable energy sources. For the formulation of the problem and the definition of borders of studied parameters, we proposed a four-dimensional competency decision-making space. This determines the examination process that should identify areas in which it is appropriate to consider and assess the use of renewable energy sources.

  2. Windmill Noise Annoyance, Visual Aesthetics, and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klæboe, Ronny; Sundfør, Hanne Beate

    2016-07-23

    A small focused socio-acoustic after-study of annoyance from a windmill park was undertaken after local health officials demanded a health impact study to look into neighborhood complaints. The windmill park consists of 31 turbines and is located in the South of Norway where it affects 179 dwellings. Simple exposure-effect relationships indicate stronger reactions to windmills and wind turbine noise than shown internationally, with the caveat that the sample size is small (n = 90) and responses are colored by the existing local conflict. Pulsating swishing sounds and turbine engine hum are the main causes of noise annoyance. About 60 per cent of those who participated in the survey were of the opinion that windmills degrade the landscape aesthetically, and were far from convinced that land-based windmills are desirable as a renewable energy source (hydropower is an important alternative source of renewables in Norway). Attitudes play an important role in addition to visual aesthetics in determining the acceptance of windmills and the resulting noise annoyance. To compare results from different wind turbine noise studies it seems necessary to assess the impact of important modifying factors.

  3. Pretreated Landfill Gas Conversion Process via a Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Renewable Combined Fuel Cell-Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ziaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new landfill gas-based reforming catalytic processing system for the conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons, such as incoming methane to hydrogen and carbon oxide mixtures, is described and analyzed. The exit synthesis gas (syn-gas is fed to power effectively high-temperature fuel cells such as SOFC types for combined efficient electricity generation. The current research work is also referred on the description and design aspects of permreactors (permeable reformers carrying the same type of landfill gas-reforming reactions. Membrane reactors is a new technology that can be applied efficiently in such systems. Membrane reactors seem to perform better than the nonmembrane traditional reactors. The aim of this research includes turnkey system and process development for the landfill-based power generation and fuel cell industries. Also, a discussion of the efficient utilization of landfill and waste type resources for combined green-type/renewable power generation with increased processing capacity and efficiency via fuel cell systems is taking place. Moreover, pollution reduction is an additional design consideration in the current catalytic processors fuel cell cycles.

  4. Economic and Environmental Analysis of Cool Thermal Energy Storage as an Alternative to Batteries for the Integration of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Matthew John

    2015-01-01

    The balance of the supply of renewable energy sources with electricity demand will become increasingly difficult with further penetration of renewable energy sources. Traditionally, large stationary batteries have been used to store renewable energy in excess of electricity demand and dispatch the stored energy to meet future electricity demand. Cool thermal energy storage is a feasible renewable energy balancing solution that has economic and environmental advantages over utility scale stati...

  5. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    complexities and uncertainties in this kind of hybrid system, a hybrid supervisory control with an adaptive fuzzy sliding power control strategy is proposed to regulate the amount of requested fuel from a fuel cell power source to produce the electrical power and heat. Then, simulation results are used......This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because...... of the controllability of fuel cell power, this power sources plays the main role for providing heat and electric power to zero emission buildings. First, the power flow structure between hybrid power resources is described. To do so, all necessary electrical and thermal equations are investigated. Next, due to the many...

  6. Hierarchical Control Strategy of Heat and Power for Zero Energy Buildings including Hybrid Fuel Cell/Photovoltaic Power Sources and Plug-in Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Iman; Aliakbar Golkar, Masoud; Hajizadeh, Amin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical control strategy for heat and electric power control of a building integrating hybrid renewable power sources including photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery energy storage with Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) in smart distribution systems. Because...... of the controllability of fuel cell power, this power sources plays the main role for providing heat and electric power to zero emission buildings. First, the power flow structure between hybrid power resources is described. To do so, all necessary electrical and thermal equations are investigated. Next, due to the many...... complexities and uncertainties in this kind of hybrid system, a hybrid supervisory control with an adaptive fuzzy sliding power control strategy is proposed to regulate the amount of requested fuel from a fuel cell power source to produce the electrical power and heat. Then, simulation results are used...

  7. Accounting for fuel price risk when comparing renewable togas-fired generation: the role of forward natural gas prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Golove, William

    2004-07-17

    Unlike natural gas-fired generation, renewable generation (e.g., from wind, solar, and geothermal power) is largely immune to fuel price risk. If ratepayers are rational and value long-term price stability, then--contrary to common practice--any comparison of the levelized cost of renewable to gas-fired generation should be based on a hedged gas price input, rather than an uncertain gas price forecast. This paper compares natural gas prices that can be locked in through futures, swaps, and physical supply contracts to contemporaneous long-term forecasts of spot gas prices. We find that from 2000-2003, forward gas prices for terms of 2-10 years have been considerably higher than most contemporaneous long-term gas price forecasts. This difference is striking, and implies that comparisons between renewable and gas-fired generation based on these forecasts over this period have arguably yielded results that are biased in favor of gas-fired generation.

  8. Current Harmonics Compensation in Microgrids Exploiting the Power Electronics Interfaces of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Bouloumpasis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method of current harmonic reduction in a distorted distribution system. In order to evaluate the proposed method a grid with high-order current harmonics is assumed. The reduction of current distortion is feasible due to the pulse modulation of an active filter, which consists of a buck-boost converter connected back-to-back to a polarity swapping inverter. For a practical application, this system would be the power electronic interface of a Renewable Energy Source (RES and therefore it changes a source of harmonics to a damping harmonics system. Using the proposed method, the current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD of the grid is reduced below the acceptable limits and thus the general power quality of the system is improved. Simulations in the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform and experiments have been performed in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Renewable fuels as feedstocks in industrial organic chemistry; Nachwachsende Rohstoffe als Feedstock in der industriellen organischen Chemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquardt, J.

    1995-10-01

    Fossil fuels are used in the chemical industry for providing process energy but primarily as chemical feedstocks. In view of the necessity ofsaving fossil resources and reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, the author investigates inhowfar renewable fuels may serve as substitutes for the fossil carbon carriers now used in the chemical industry. He starts with a bibliographic research which also takes account of studies on the uses of biomass for power generation. On this basis, an outline of current production processes (including specific data for cultivation and processing), production volumes and consumption structures is given for the main types of renewable raw materials (sugar, starch, cellulose and vegetable fats and oils). (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Fossile Energietraeger werden in der chemischen Industrie ausser zur Bereitstellung von Prozessenergie vor allem nichtenergetisch, d.h. als chemische Rohstoffe (sog. Feedstock), eingesetzt. Angesichts der Notwendigkeit, die fossilen Rohstoffvorraete zu schonen und die anthropogenen Klimagasemissionen zu vermindern, stellt sich die Frage, inwieweit nachwachsende Rohstoffe die im Chemiesektor fuer nichtenergetische Zwecke eingesetzten fossilen Kohlenstofftraeger ersetzen koennen. Im Rahmen der Studienarbeit soll zunaechst eine Literaturrecherche zu diesem Themenkomplex durchgefuehrt werden, wobei auch Untersuchungen zur energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse zu beruecksichtigen sind. Auf dieser Basis soll fuer die Haupttypen nachwachsender Rohstoffe (Zucker, Staerke, Cellulose und pflanzliche Fette/Oele) ein Ueberblick zu den heutigen Produktionsverfahren (inkl. Anbau- und verarbeitungsspezifischer Daten), Produktionsmengen und Verbrauchsstrukturen gegeben werden. (orig./SR)

  10. Renewable energy sources, the internet of things and the third industrial revolution: Smart grid and contemporary information and communication technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsios, Aristidis; Bousakas, Konstantinos; Salame, Takla; Bogno, Bachirou; Papageorgas, Panagiotis; Vokas, Georgios A.; Mauffay, Fabrice; Petit, Pierre; Aillerie, Michel; Charles, Jean-Pierre

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the energy efficiency of a contemporary Smart Grid that is based on Distributed Renewable Energy Sources (DRES) is examined under the scope of the communication systems utilized between the energy loads and the energy sources. What is evident is that the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies that are based on the existing Web infrastructure can be heavily introduced in this direction especially when combined with long range low bandwidth networking technologies, power line communication technologies and optimization methodologies for renewable energy generation. The renewable energy generation optimization will be based on devices embedded in the PV panels and the wind power generators, which will rely on bidirectional communications with local gateways and remote control stations for achieving energy efficiency. Smart meters and DRES combined with IoT communications will be the enabling technologies for the ultimate fusion of Internet technology and renewable energy generation realizing the Energy Internet.

  11. Sustainable renewable energy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geothermal heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Key goals in the improvement of desalination technology are to reduce overall energy consumption, make the process "greener," and reduce the cost of the delivered water. Adsorption desalination (AD) is a promising new technology that has great potential to reduce the need for conventional power, to use solely renewable energy sources, and to reduce the overall cost of water treatment. This technology can desalt seawater or water of even higher salinity using waste heat, solar heat, or geothermal heat. An AD system can operate effectively at temperatures ranging from 55 to 80 °C with perhaps an optimal temperature of 80 °C. The generally low temperature requirement for the feedwater allows the system to operate quite efficiently using an alternative energy source, such as solar power. Solar power, particularly in warm dry regions, can generate a consistent water temperature of about 90 °C. Although this temperature is more than adequate to run the system, solar energy collection only can occur during daylight hours, thereby necessitating the use of heat storage during nighttime or very cloudy days. With increasing capacity, the need for extensive thermal storage may be problematic and could add substantial cost to the development of an AD system. However, in many parts of the world, there are subsurface geothermal energy sources that have not been extensively used. Combining a low to moderate geothermal energy recovery system to an AD system would provide a solution to the thermal storage issue. However, geothermal energy development from particularly Hot Dry Rock is limited by the magnitude of the heat flow required for the process and the thermal conductivity of the rock material forming the heat reservoir. Combining solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle would reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of renewable energy. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  12. Emissions balancing of renewable energy sources. Avoided emissions due to the use of renewable energies in 2007; Emissionsbilanz erneuerbarer Energietraeger. Durch Einsatz erneuerbarer Energien vermiedene Emissionen im Jahr 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memmler, Michael; Mohrbach, Elke; Schneider, Sven; Dreher, Marion; Herbener, Reinhard

    2009-10-15

    The report on the emissions accounting with respect to renewable energy covers the following issues: 1. Introduction and purpose. 2. Methodology concerning the balancing for electricity, heat and traffic, uncertainties due to lack of data. 3. Energy supply from renewable energy sources in 2007. 4. Fossil energy substitution by renewable energy sources: electricity, heat and traffic. 5. Emissions from different energy supply lines: electricity, heat, traffic. 6. Results of the emissions accounting for renewable energy sources: electricity, heat, traffic and comprehensive review. 7. Retroacting accounting and forward projection.

  13. Addressing Palm Biodiesel as Renewable Fuel for the Indonesian Power Generation Sector: Java-Madura-Bali System

    OpenAIRE

    Natarianto Indrawan; Muhammad Ery Wijaya

    2011-01-01

    Energy security defined as how to equitably provide available, affordable, reliable efficient, environmentally friendly, proactively governed and socially acceptable energy services to end user. It has in recent years taken attention of policymakers in different parts of the world. Formulating policy to improve energy security is mandatory, not only because of depleting fossil resource, but also implementing diversity of energy source since utilization abundant renewable energy resources can ...

  14. Comparative study of fuel cell, battery and hybrid buses for renewable energy constrained areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempien, J. P.; Chan, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Fuel cell- and battery-based public bus technologies are reviewed and compared for application in tropical urban areas. This paper scrutinizes the reported literature on fuel cell bus, fuel cell electric bus, battery electric bus, hybrid electric bus, internal combustion diesel bus and compressed natural gas bus. The comparison includes the capital and operating costs, fuel consumption and fuel cycle emissions. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first study to holistically compare hydrogen and battery powered buses, which is the original contribution of this paper. Moreover, this is the first study to focus on supplying hydrogen and electricity from fossil resources, while including the associated emissions. The study shows that compressed natural gas and hybrid electric buses appear to be the cheapest options in terms of total cost of ownership, but they are unable to meet the EURO VI emissions' standard requirement. Only fuel cell based buses have the potential to achieve the emissions' standard when the fuel cycle based on fossil energy was considered. Fuel cell electric buses are identified as a technology allowing for the largest CO2 emission reduction, making ∼61% decrease in annual emissions possible.

  15. The effect of real-time pricing on load shifting in a highly renewable power system dominated by generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Brown, Tom; Schlachtberger, David; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The supply-demand imbalance is a major concern in the presence of large shares of highly variable renewable generation from sources like wind and photovoltaics (PV) in power systems. Other than the measures on the generation side, such as flexible backup generation or energy storage, sector coupling or demand side management are the most likely option to counter imbalances, therefore to ease the integration of renewable generation. Demand side management usually refers to load shifting, which comprises the reaction of electricity consumers to price fluctuations. In this work, we derive a novel methodology to model the interplay of load shifting and provided incentives via real-time pricing in highly renewable power systems. We use weather data to simulate generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics, as well as historical load data, split into different consumption categories, such as, heating, cooling, domestic, etc., to model a simplified power system. Together with renewable power forecast data, a simple market model and approaches to incorporate sector coupling [1] and load shifting [2,3], we model the interplay of incentives and load shifting for different scenarios (e.g., in dependency of the risk-aversion of consumers or the forecast horizon) and demonstrate the practical benefits of load shifting. First, we introduce the novel methodology and compare it with existing approaches. Secondly, we show results of numerical simulations on the effects of load shifting: It supports the integration of PV power by providing a storage, which characteristics can be described as "daily" and provides a significant amount of balancing potential. Lastly, we propose an experimental setup to obtain empirical data on end-consumer load-shifting behaviour in response to price incentives. References [1] Brown, T., Schlachtberger, D., Kies. A., Greiner, M., Sector coupling in a highly renewable European energy system, Proc. of the 15th International Workshop on

  16. Probabilistic evaluation of reserve requirements of generating systems with renewable power sources: The Portuguese and Spanish cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Manuel; Lopes, Joao Pecas; Rosa, Mauro; Ferreira, Ricardo [INESC Porto, Fac. Engenharia Univ. do Porto., Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 378, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Leite da Silva, Armando; Sales, Warlley; Resende, Leonidas; Manso, Luiz [Federal University of Itajuba, UNIFEI (Brazil); Cabral, Pedro; Martins, Nuno [Rede Electrica Nacional, REN (Portugal); Ferreira, Marco [REN Servicos, S.A, Divisao de Planeamento de Longo Prazo, Rua Sa da Bandeira, 567-4 , 4000-437 Porto (Portugal); Artaiz, Carlos; Soto, Fernando; Lopez, Ruben [Red Electrica de Espana, REE (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents an application of probabilistic methodologies to evaluate the reserve requirements of generating systems with a large penetration of renewable energy sources. The idea is to investigate the behavior of reliability indices, including those from the well-being analysis, when the major portion of the renewable sources comes from wind power and other intermittent sources. A new simulation process to address operating reserve adequacy is introduced, and the correspondent reliability indices are observed. Case studies on the Portuguese and Spanish generating systems are presented and discussed. (author)

  17. Promoting renewable energy sources for heating and cooling in EU-27 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansino, Jose M., E-mail: jmcansino@us.es [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain); Pablo-Romero, Maria del P. [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain); Roman, Rocio, E-mail: rroman@us.es [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain); Yniguez, Rocio [Department of Economic Analysis and Political Economy, Seville University, Avda. Ramon y Cajal, no. 1, 41018 Seville (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    In addition to public policies aimed at improving the energy efficiency of buildings, EU authorities have also promoted the use of Renewable Energy Sources for heating and cooling uses (RES H and C). This paper analyses the main policy measures implemented in EU-27 countries up to 2009: i.e. subsidies, tax incentives, financial support and feed-in tariffs. Twenty-three Member States (MSs) have developed some of these policy measures. The most widespread measure is the subsidy (22 MSs have implemented these) because from a political point of view, subsidies provide a straightforward approach to promote the use of RES H and C. Secondly, tax incentives have been used for reducing investment costs and making renewable energy profitable. Thirdly, financial incentives and feed-in tariffs have been used sparingly. While financial incentives might be used more extensively for promoting RES H and C if they are accompanied by other policy measures, feed-in tariffs are not likely to be implemented significantly in the future because this measure is not designed for household heat producers. - Highlights: > Main EU policies to reduce energy consumption are focused on buildings' efficiency. > Alternative incentives to promote the use of RES H and C in EU-27 are now studied. > Subsidies are the most widespread measure. > Tax incentives are used for reducing investment costs and making RES profitable. > Financial incentives and feed-in tariffs have been used sparingly.

  18. PROFIT MAXIMIZATION AND OPTIMAL SIZING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN A HYBRID SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAJVENDER PAL VERMA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The renewable energy sources wind, solar etc. have become very essential and important in the generation mix as a result of rising energy demand and environmental reasons. In addition tax is being imposed on high carbon emission. But the uncertainty and variability associated with renewable such as wind may result in economical andtechnical problems in the power system. In order to compensate wind intermittency, generation resources such as gas plant, pumped storage unit etc. are employed due to their lesser start up time, lower operating cost and good ramping capabilities. This paper proposes a model which investigates the combined operation of thermal, wind andpumped storage units for the profit maximization in varying wind, load, and price scenarios. The optimal size of the pumped storage unit to be used has been obtained after putting the system to different operating conditions such as varying wind power and load demand, imposing tax on carbon emission and varying ramping limits etc. The model has been applied on IEEE-30 bus test data and satisfactory results have been obtained for optimal hybrid systemoperation.

  19. Barriers on the propagation of renewable energy sources and sustainable solid waste management practices in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boemi, Sn; Papadopoulos, Am; Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, S

    2010-11-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES), excluding large hydroelectric plants, currently produce 4.21% of total electricity production in Greece. Even when considering the additional production from large hydroelectric plants, which accounts for some 7.8%, the distance to be covered towards the objective of 20% electricity produced from RES by 2010 and respectively towards 20% of total energy production by 2020 is discouraging. The potential, however, does exist; unfortunately so do serious barriers. On the other hand, solid waste management (SWM) is an issue that generates continuously increasing interest due to the extra amounts of solid waste generated; the lack of existing disposal facilities with adequate infrastructure and integrated management plans, also often accompanied by legislative and institutional gaps. However, socio-economic and public awareness problems are still met in the planning and implementation of RES and SWM projects, together with the lack of a complete national cadastre and a spatial development master plan, specifying areas eligible for RES and SWM development. Specific barriers occur for individual RES and the on-going inclusion of waste-derived renewable energy in the examined palette further increases the complexity of the entire issue. The consolidated study of this broad set of barriers was a main task of the present study which was carried out within the frame of a Hellenic-Canadian research project; the main results will be discussed herein.

  20. Renewable energy sources. Activities of German universities. Erneuerbare Energiequellen. Aktivitaeten deutscher Hochschulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    With the presentation of this report, an attempt is made for the first time to provide the interested public with a survey about ongoing projects and investigations carried out at universities and colleges, dealing with subjects in the associated field and sphere of influence regarding renewable energy sources. These considerations even go beyond the sponsorship through the BMFT (Federal Ministry for Research and Technology). An efficient science which rapidly takes up new subjects is especially important for a successful solar energy utilization. Initiatives from private industry and science in the field of application oriented fundamental research are necessary to help to further spread solar technology. With this, especially those works are of importance that are oriented to photovoltaic, photochemical, photo-electrochemical as well as to electrochemical investigations. The present description shows in an impressive way that numerous institutes and scientists, even in fields which are not solar specific such as crystallography, metallurgy, surface phsics, material science, physical chemistry or meteorology, this means fundamental research in the broadest sense, presently increasingly deal with subjects which might contribute to open important impetus and promising future perspectives for renewable energies and efficient energy utilization by means of materials with new unknown properties, innovative procedures and cost-effective manufacturing processes or improved design and prediction methods for example. (orig.).

  1. Oligomannuronates from Seaweeds as Renewable Sources for the Development of Green Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvegnu, Thierry; Sassi, Jean-François

    The development of surfactants based on natural renewable resources is a concept that is gaining recognition in detergents, cosmetics, and green chemistry. This new class of biodegradable and biocompatible products is a response to the increasing consumer demand for products that are both "greener", milder, and more efficient. In order to achieve these objectives, it is necessary to use renewable low-cost biomass that is available in large quantities and to design molecular structures through green processes that show improved performance, favorable ecotoxicological properties and reduced environmental impact. Within this context, marine algae represent a rich source of complex polysaccharides and oligosaccharides with innovative structures and functional properties that may find applications as starting materials for the development of green surfactants or cosmetic actives. Thus, we have developed original surfactants based on mannuronate moieties derived from alginates (cell-wall polyuronic acids from brown seaweeds) and fatty hydrocarbon chains derived from vegetable resources. Controlled chemical and/or enzymatic depolymerizations of the algal polysaccharides give saturated and/or unsaturated functional oligomannuronates. Clean chemical processes allow the efficient transformation of the oligomers into neutral or anionic amphiphilic molecules. These materials represent a new class of surface-active agents with promising foaming/emulsifying properties.

  2. Resource constraints in a hydrogen economy based on renewable energy sources: An exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleijn, Rene; Voet, Ester van der [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    In order to tackle climate change, a transition to a renewable based energy system is crucial. A renewable based hydrogen economy is one of the possible implementations of such a system. The world receives ample energy from the sun that can be harvested by PV solar cells and, indirectly, by wind turbines. In order to use the most optimal locations for collecting and concentrating energy from these diffuse sources, a long distance transmission network is needed. Mature and semi-mature technologies are available for all parts of the system: from collection to transmission to end-use. In an early stage of development, when new technologies have to win market share from the existing energy system, their development is driven almost exclusively by the reduction of costs per J delivered. However, if a technology should be able to deliver tens to hundreds of EJ, resource constraints can become show stoppers. Many of the newest, most cost-efficient, energy technologies make use of scarce resources and, although they may play an important role in the transition process, they can not be scaled up the level we need for a complete transition. In most cases however other technologies are available that use more abundant materials, be it often at a cost of efficiency. The issue is not only with scarce resources. The sheer size of the energy transition will also challenge the industrial capacity for the mining and production of bulk materials like steel and copper. (author)

  3. Economic costs and benefits of the renewable energy sources; Costi e benefici economici delle fonti rinnovabili

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leo, G. A. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali; Rizzi, L. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica; Caizzi, A. [Cesi Spa, Business Unit Ambiente, Milan (Italy)

    2001-08-01

    In this work it has been analysed the potential diffusion of renewable energy sources and co-generation in the Italian market on the basis of the level of maturation of the different technologies, predicted market growth and environmental impacts associated to them. A sensitivity analysis on external costs generated by global climate changes has allowed everybody to assess how possible errors in estimating the potential impact of greenhouse gasses can affect the estimate of the economic performances of different scenarios of energetic development. On the basis of these considerations, it can be outlined a potential doubling of energy production by renewable energies in the next 10 years, with specific reference of small hydroelectric, biogass and eolic power plants. [Italian] Viene analizzata la capacita' di penetrazione delle fonti di energia rinnovabile e della cogenerazione nel mercato italiano sulla base dello stato di maturazione delle varie tecnologie e gli impatti ambientali ad esse associate. L'articolo mostra che il rispetto del vincolo di Kyoto comporterebbe in ultima analisi non un aggravio dei costi per la collettivita', ma addirittura un risparmio di 11 lire per ogni kWh prodotto, ovvero oltre il 10% rispetto ai costi totali.

  4. Solid waste as renewable source of energy: current and future possibility in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Hamad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste holds the greatest potential as biomass source in Libya. The rapid expansion of industry has led to increased urbanization and growing population. These factors have dramatically increased the amount of MSW (municipal solid waste generated in Libya. However, issues related to environmentally sound MSW management—including waste decrease and clearance—have not been addressed sufficiently. This study presents an overview on solid waste that can be used as a source of bioenergy in Libya including MSW, ISW (industrial solid waste, and HSW (health care wastes as biomass sources. The management of solid waste and valorization is based on an understanding of MSW׳s composition and physicochemical characteristics. The results show that organic matter represents 59% of waste, followed by paper–cardboard 12%, plastic 8%, miscellaneous 8%, metals 7%, glass 4%, and wood 2%. The technology of WTE (waste-to-energy incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in Libya. This paper provides an overview of this technology, including both its conversion options and its useful products (e.g., electricity, heat, greenhouse gas emissions. The WTE benefits and the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in Libya are discussed. It also demonstrates that Libya could become an exporter of hydrogen in lieu of oil and natural gas.

  5. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  6. New technologies in the production of motor fuels from renewable materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnađević Borivoj K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents resources of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina available for bioethanol and motor fuels (gasoline and diesel fuel from sustainable resources: corn-stalks, straw, sweet sorghum, pork fat. The physicochemical basis for novel processes for motor fuel production is coupling microwave pyrolysis of oil shale and catalytic cracking of purified pyrolysis oil, hydrothermal liquefaction of algae and swine manure. The effects of the degree of purification of crude pyrolysis oil and oil shale on the degree of their conversion to gasoline and diesel fuel, as well as the product distribution are investigated. The effects of the duration and temperature of hydrothermal liquefaction of microalga, Botryoccocus braunii, and swine manure on their degrees of conversion into bio-oil and its thermal properties are investigated. The development of novel strategy of biofuel in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is presented.

  7. Factors of impact on the evolution of electricity markets from renewable energy sources: a comparison between Romania and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodnițchi Roxana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When talking about the future of Europe we also think about alternative energy sources. It is up to national governments to decide how to encourage investments in this field in order to contribute to the 20-20-20 EU-objective. Until the network delivery cost for electricity produced from renewable sources will be comparable to the cost for energy from traditional sources ("grid parity", the development of businesses and markets for electricity from renewable sources is going to be driven by support schemes. The state of the grids and the facility of grid-access constitute another two key factors influencing the development of this sector. Last but not least, the question of policy consistency is raised within the business community. Over the past years some support schemes have proved to be more effective than others, and grid conditions have also evolved. Policies supporting the development of renewables also changed at EU-level and at national levels. Based on statistics, scientific literature and the feedback of the business community, this study aims to analyse the development of renewable energy sectors in the European Union by comparing Germany’s and Romania’s experience. Also this study describes the current and expected future market situation in these countries relying on data gained from questionnaires and interviews with specialists in the renewable field.

  8. Optimal Scheduling of a Battery-Based Energy Storage System for a Microgrid with High Penetration of Renewable Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulout, Jeremy; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    A new scheduling method is proposed to manage efficiently the integration of renewable sources in microgrids (MGs) with energy storage systems (ESSs). The purpose of this work is to take into account the main stress factors influencing the ageing mechanisms of a battery energy storage system (BESS......) in order to make an optimal dispatch of resources in the microgrid and enhance the storage system lifetime while minimizing the cost of electric consumption. The load demand and generation profiles are derived from the analysis of consumption and renewable production (solar photovoltaic sources and wind...... turbines) of the Western Denmark electric grid. Thus, the proposed microgrid is mainly fed by renewable sources and few electricity is coming from the main grid (which helps operating costs minimization). In this respect, a cost analysis is performed to find the optimal hourly power output of the BESS...

  9. The combustion properties analysis of various liquid fuels based on crude oil and renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab-Rogalinski, K.; Szwaja, S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents results of investigation on combustion properties analysis of hydrocarbon based liquid fuels commonly used in the CI engine. The analysis was performed with aid of the CRU (Combustion Research Unit). CRU is the machine consisted of a constant volume combustion chamber equipped with one or two fuel injectors and a pressure sensor. Fuel can be injected under various both injection pressure and injection duration, also with two injector versions two stage combustion with pilot injection can be simulated, that makes it possible to introduce and modify additional parameter which is injection delay (defined as the time between pilot and main injection). On a basis of this investigation such combustion parameters as pressure increase, rate of heat release, ignition delay and combustion duration can be determined. The research was performed for the four fuels as follows: LFO, HFO, Biofuel from rape seeds and Glycerol under various injection parameters as well as combustion chamber thermodynamic conditions. Under these tests the change in such injection parameters as injection pressure, use of pilot injection, injection delay and injection duration, for main injection, were made. Moreover, fuels were tested under different conditions of load, what was determined by initial conditions (pressure and temperature) in the combustion chamber. Stored data from research allows to compare combustion parameters for fuels applied to tests and show this comparison in diagrams.

  10. Development of Innovative Heating and Cooling Systems Using Renewable Energy Sources for Non-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and commercial areas are synonymous with high energy consumption, both for heating/cooling and electric power requirements, which are in general associated to a massive use of fossil fuels producing consequent greenhouse gas emissions. Two pilot systems, co-funded by the Italian Ministry for the Environment, have been created to upgrade the heating/cooling systems of two existing buildings on the largest industrial estate in Umbria, Italy. The upgrade was specifically designed to improve the system efficiency and to cover the overall energy which needs with renewable energy resources. In both cases a solar photovoltaic plant provides the required electric power. The first system features a geothermal heat pump with an innovative layout: a heat-storage water tank, buried just below ground level, allows a significant reduction of the geothermal unit size, hence requiring fewer and/or shorter boreholes (up to 60%–70%. In the other system a biomass boiler is coupled with an absorption chiller machine, controlling the indoor air temperature in both summer and winter. In this case, lower electricity consumption, if compared to an electric compression chiller, is obtained. The first results of the monitoring of summer cooling are presented and an evaluation of the performance of the two pilot systems is given.

  11. Phase Change Material Based Accumulation Panels in Combination with Renewable Energy Sources and Thermoelectric Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Skovajsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of modern materials and technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the design and usage of a special accumulation device, which is composed of thermal panels based on phase change materials (PCMs. The thermal panels have an integrated tube heat exchanger and heating foils. The technology can be used as a passive or active system for heating and cooling. It is designed as a “green technology”, so it is able to use renewable energy sources, e.g., photovoltaic (PV panels, solar thermal collectors and heat pumps. Moreover, an interesting possibility is the ability to use thermoelectric coolers. In the research, measurements of the different operating modes were made, and the results are presented in the text. The measurement approves that the technology improves the thermal capacity of the building, and it is possible to use it for active heating and cooling.

  12. Introduction of renewable energy sources in the district heating system of Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Margaritis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The district heating (DH system of Greece, mainly supported from lignite fired stations, is facing lately significant challenges. Stricter emission limits, decreased efficiency due to old age and increased costs are major challenges of the lignite sector and are expected to result in the decommissioning of several lignite-fired units in the coming years. As a result, managers of DH networks are currently investigating alternative scenarios for the substitution of thermal power that it is expected to be lost, through the integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES into the system. In this paper, the DH systems of Kozani and Ptolemaida are examined regarding possible introduction of RES. The first study examines district heating of Kozani and alternative future options for covering a part of city’s thermal load whereas the second study refers to a biomass CHP plant (ORC technology, 1MWe, 5MWth to be powered from a biomass mixture (wood chips and straw.

  13. Regulation of Renewable Energy Sources to Optimal Power Flow Solutions Using ADMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yijian [Iowa State University; Hong, Mingyi [Iowa State University; Dhople, Sairaj [University of Minnesota; Xu, Zi [Shanghai University

    2017-07-03

    This paper considers power distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources (RESs), and develops a distributed optimization method to steer the RES output powers to solutions of AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The design of the proposed method leverages suitable linear approximations of the AC-power flow equations, and is based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). Convergence of the RES-inverter output powers to solutions of the OPF problem is established under suitable conditions on the stepsize as well as mismatches between the commanded setpoints and actual RES output powers. In a broad sense, the methods and results proposed here are also applicable to other distributed optimization problem setups with ADMM and inexact dual updates.

  14. Regulation of Renewable Energy Sources to Optimal Power Flow Solutions Using ADMM: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yijian; Hong, Mingyi; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Dhople, Sairaj; Xu, Zi

    2017-03-03

    This paper considers power distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources (RESs), and develops a distributed optimization method to steer the RES output powers to solutions of AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The design of the proposed method leverages suitable linear approximations of the AC-power flow equations, and is based on the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). Convergence of the RES-inverter output powers to solutions of the OPF problem is established under suitable conditions on the stepsize as well as mismatches between the commanded setpoints and actual RES output powers. In a broad sense, the methods and results proposed here are also applicable to other distributed optimization problem setups with ADMM and inexact dual updates.

  15. Demonstration and Verification of a Turbine Power Generation System Utilizing Renewable Fuel: Landfill Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    weight of the equipment and concrete pads. The heaviest integrated components (turbine, oxidizer, piping and supporting steel work) weigh about 25...DataTaker™ data logger and retrieved via cellular router on a weekly basis. Raw data were retrieved each week and appended into the ‘raw data’ tab of...Poster presentation 2010 ESTCP Symposium Poster presentation 2011 ESTCP Symposium Poster and presentation in renewable energy panel 2011 Exhibition

  16. Concept of DT fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan' ev, S.; Spitsyn, A.V.; Kuteev, B.V.; Cherkez, D.I. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shirnin, P.N.; Kazakovsky, N.T. [FSUE RFNC - VNIIEF, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    A concept of DT-fusion neutron source (FNS) with the neutron yield higher than 10{sup 18} neutrons per second is under design in Russia. Such a FNS is of interest for many applications: 1) basic and applied research (neutron scattering, etc); 2) testing the structural materials for fusion reactors; 3) control of sub-critical nuclear systems and 4) nuclear waste processing (including transmutation of minor actinides). This paper describes the fuel cycle concept of a compact fusion neutron source based on a small spherical tokamak (FNS-ST) with a MW range of DT fusion power and considers the key physics issues of this device. The major and minor radii are ∼0.5 and ∼0.3 m, magnetic field ∼1.5 T, heating power less than 15 MW and plasma current 1-2 MA. The system provides the fuel mixture with equal fractions of D and T (D:T = 1:1) for all FNS technology systems. (authors)

  17. Solar Fuels: Vision and Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Styring, Stenbjörn

    2012-01-01

    The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to allow an exchange from fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and ‘endless’ resources that are available everywhere. The new research area on solar fuels, which are made from solar energy and water, aims to meet this demand. The paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The present research strategies, involv...

  18. Evaluation of microbial triglyceride oil purification requirements for the CelTherm process: an efficient biochemical pathway to renewable fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, Michael; Seames, Wayne; Kubatova, Alena; Menon, Suresh; Alisala, Kashinatham; Hash, Sara

    2014-10-01

    CelTherm is a biochemical process to produce renewable fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. The present study's objective was to determine the level of treatment/purity of the microbial triacylglyceride oil (TAG) necessary to facilitate fuel production. After a unique microbe aerobically synthesizes TAG from biomass-derived sugars, the microbes were harvested and dried then crude TAG was chemically extracted from the residual biomass. Some TAGs were further purified to hydrotreating process requirements. Both grades were then noncatalytically cracked into a petroleum-like intermediate characterized by gas chromatography. Experiments were repeated using refined soybean oil for comparison to previous studies. The products from crude microbial TAG cracking were then further refined into a jet fuel product. Fuel tests indicate that this jet fuel corresponds to specifications for JP-8 military turbine fuel. It was thus concluded that the crude microbial TAG is a suitable feedstock with no further purification required, demonstrating CelTherm's commercial potential.

  19. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Hunt, Andrew J; Sherwood, James

    2015-07-28

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  20. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Clark

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  1. An integrated system for the energy production and accumulation from renewable sources: a rural tower prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Montesarchio, Valeria

    2014-05-01

    This research work presents the implementation of an architectural prototype aiming at the complete energy self-sufficiency through an integrated system based on renewable energy. It is suitable for historical buildings in rural areas, isolated but important from natural and architectonical point of view. In addition to the energy aspects, it is important to protect the impact in terms of land-use and environment. This idea is also especially powerful because in the rural countries there are many little building centers abandoned because they are devoid of a connection to the electric energy grid and methane piping. Thus, taking inspiration from dove towers, architectural typology widespread in central Italy, a virtual model has been developed as an integrated system for renewable energy production, storage and supply. While recovering the ancient tower, it is possible to design and assembly an integrated intelligent system, able to combine energy supply and demand: a new tower that should be flexible, efficient and replicable in other contexts as manufacturing, commercial and residential ones. The prototype has been applied to a real case of study, an ancient complex located in Umbria Region. The sources for electric production installed on the tower are photovoltaics, on the head and shaft of the tower, hydropower and a biomass gasifier providing thermal too. A tank at the head of the tower allows an available hydraulic potential energy, for the turbine at any time, to cover photovoltaic lacks, caused by sudden loss of production, for environmental causes. Conversely, photovoltaic peaks, otherwise unusable, can be used to reload the water from the receiving tank at the foot of the tower, up to the tank in the head. The same underground tank acts as a thermal flywheel to optimize the geothermal heat pumps for the heat and cold production. Keywords: hydropower, photovoltaics, dove tower.

  2. 78 FR 71731 - 2014 Standards for the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... production capacities, company production plans, the progress made in 2013, expected production distribution... ranges for each of the individual companies and a production probability distribution within the range... involved with the production, distribution, and sale of transportation fuels, including gasoline and...

  3. Electricity production by intermittent renewable sources: a synthesis of French and German studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, D.; Le Brun, Ch.; Vidil, R.; Wagner, F.

    2016-09-01

    Wind and solar electricity is produced without direct CO2 emissions. However, the introduction of this electricity in the grid is delicate due to the intermittent character of its sources. Wind and solar production is characterized by multiple, strong variations in the electric power. These variations put stress on the grid where the total production of electricity must always be equal to the consumption. We present a synthesis of five studies conducted for Germany and France with different assumptions of electricity mixes, all with large shares of wind and solar power. These mixes are subjected to the dynamics of wind and solar production as recorded in 2010 (Germany), 2012 and 2013 (Germany and France). Common structural trends are exhibited when the results of simulations (instantaneous power distributions and average annual values) are expressed as a percentage of the annual reduced load to be produced by these intermittent energies. We focus on the evaluation of these trends and the resulting constraints on the grid. The results obtained make it possible to anticipate the problems brought about by a large share of renewable intermittent energies in the production of electricity. They show the need for backup production in order to complement the intermittent sources. This leads to CO2 emissions unless storage systems of large capacity are available.

  4. The current status of the development of renewable energy sources worldwide and in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, V. E.; Popel', O. S.

    2014-06-01

    Resorting to renewable energy sources (RESs) as one of the bases of the promising world energy industry has become a logical result of the historical development and the recognition that is necessary to diversify primary energy sources being used, with the aim of enhancing both energy and ecological security of countries, regions, and concrete energy consumers. The review of the development of new technologies used for conversion of RESs, the progress of which can be characterized by the fact that by the year 2013 the total generating capacity of RES-based power plants now in operation has amounted to 500 GW—by a factor of 1.5 more than the total generating capacity of all nuclear power stations in the world. The paper presents an analysis of the current status of RESs and problems that restrain their development in Russia. It is noted that the peculiarities of the energy situation in Russia impose the specific requirements upon drawing up the programs of the development of RESs. Along with the use of RESs as part of systems of centralized energy supply, which is a priority for most industrially developed countries and promises the most large-scale introduction of RESs in Russia, it is necessary, first of all, to give attention to the development and creation of systems for independent supply of consumers with power and heat and the development of distributed powergenerating systems using RESs.

  5. Spatiotemporal Modeling for Assessing Complementarity of Renewable Energy Sources in Distributed Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camargo, L.; Zink, R.; Dorner, W.

    2015-07-01

    Spatial assessments of the potential of renewable energy sources (RES) have become a valuable information basis for policy and decision-making. These studies, however, do not explicitly consider the variability in time of RES such as solar energy or wind. Until now, the focus is usually given to economic profitability based on yearly balances, which do not allow a comprehensive examination of RES-technologies complementarity. Incrementing temporal resolution of energy output estimation will permit to plan the aggregation of a diverse pool of RES plants i.e., to conceive a system as a virtual power plant (VPP). This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis methodology to estimate RES potential of municipalities. The methodology relies on a combination of open source geographic information systems (GIS) processing tools and the in-memory array processing environment of Python and NumPy. Beyond the typical identification of suitable locations to build power plants, it is possible to define which of them are the best for a balanced local energy supply. A case study of a municipality, using spatial data with one square meter resolution and one hour temporal resolution, shows strong complementarity of photovoltaic and wind power. Furthermore, it is shown that a detailed deployment strategy of potential suitable locations for RES, calculated with modest computational requirements, can support municipalities to develop VPPs and improve security of supply.

  6. Energy from Waste: Reuse of Compost Heat as a Source of Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Irvine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-vessel tunnel composting facility in Scotland was used to investigate the potential for collection and reuse of compost heat as a source of renewable energy. The amount of energy offered by the compost was calculated and seasonal variations analysed. A heat exchanger was designed in order to collect and transfer the heat. This allowed heated water of 47.3oC to be obtained. The temperature could be further increased to above 60oC by passing it through multiple tunnels in series. Estimated costs for installing and running the system were calculated. In order to analyse these costs alternative solar thermal and ground source heat pump systems were also designed. The levels of supply and economic performance were then compared. A capital cost of £11,662 and operating cost of £1,039 per year were estimated, resulting in a cost of £0.50 per kWh for domestic water and £0.10 per kWh for spatial heat. Using the heat of the compost was found to provide the most reliable level of supply at a similar price to its rivals.

  7. Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Oil palm is one of the major economic crops in many countries. Malaysia alone produces about 47% of the world's palm oil supply and can be considered as the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia also generates huge quantity of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches (EFB), shells and fibers as waste from palm oil fruit harvest and oil extraction processing. At present there is a continuously increasing interest in the utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of clean energy. One of the major interests is hydrogen from oil palm biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is a clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take a significant role in future energy demand due to the raw material availability. This paper presents a review which focuses on different types of thermo-chemical processes for conversion of oil palm biomass to hydrogen rich gas. This paper offers a concise and up-to-date scenario of the present status of oil palm industry in contributing towards sustainable and renewable energy. (author)

  8. SPATIOTEMPORAL MODELING FOR ASSESSING COMPLEMENTARITY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ramirez Camargo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial assessments of the potential of renewable energy sources (RES have become a valuable information basis for policy and decision-making. These studies, however, do not explicitly consider the variability in time of RES such as solar energy or wind. Until now, the focus is usually given to economic profitability based on yearly balances, which do not allow a comprehensive examination of RES-technologies complementarity. Incrementing temporal resolution of energy output estimation will permit to plan the aggregation of a diverse pool of RES plants i.e., to conceive a system as a virtual power plant (VPP. This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis methodology to estimate RES potential of municipalities. The methodology relies on a combination of open source geographic information systems (GIS processing tools and the in-memory array processing environment of Python and NumPy. Beyond the typical identification of suitable locations to build power plants, it is possible to define which of them are the best for a balanced local energy supply. A case study of a municipality, using spatial data with one square meter resolution and one hour temporal resolution, shows strong complementarity of photovoltaic and wind power. Furthermore, it is shown that a detailed deployment strategy of potential suitable locations for RES, calculated with modest computational requirements, can support municipalities to develop VPPs and improve security of supply.

  9. Optimal combination of energy storages for prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weitemeyer, Stefan; Siemer, Lars; Agert, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources require measures to balance power generation and load at all times. The utilisation of storage devices and backup power plants is widely suggested for this purpose, whereas the best combination is still to be found. In this work, we present a modelling approach to systematically study scenarios of future power supply systems with a high share of electricity originating from wind and solar resources. By considering backup as a subordinate source of electricity with energy-only costs, the approach is independent of the actual full-load hours of the backup power plants. Applying the approach to multi-year meteorological data for Germany, cost-optimised combinations of storage devices and backup power are identified. We find that even in scenarios with significant excess generation capacities there is a need for storage devices or backup power plants with discharging power on the same order as the average load to balance the system at all times. F...

  10. Finding synergies in fuels properties for the design of renewable fuels--hydroxylated biodiesel effects on butanol-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukjit, E; Herreros, J M; Piaszyk, J; Dearn, K D; Tsolakis, A

    2013-04-02

    This article describes the effects of hydroxylated biodiesel (castor oil methyl ester - COME) on the properties, combustion, and emissions of butanol-diesel blends used within compression ignition engines. The study was conducted to investigate the influence of COME as a means of increasing the butanol concentration in a stable butanol-diesel blend. Tests were compared with baseline experiments using rapeseed methyl esters (RME). A clear benefit in terms of the trade-off between NOX and soot emissions with respect to ULSD and biodiesel-diesel blends with the same oxygen content was obtained from the combination of biodiesel and butanol, while there was no penalty in regulated gaseous carbonaceous emissions. From the comparison between the biodiesel fuels used in this work, COME improved some of the properties (for example lubricity, density and viscosity) of butanol-diesel blends with respect to RME. The existence of hydroxyl group in COME also reduced further soot emissions and decreased soot activation energy.

  11. Fuel sensor-less control of a liquid feed fuel cell under dynamic loading conditions for portable power sources (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.L. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), No. 1000, Wunhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546 (China); National Taiwan University (China); Chen, C.Y.; Liou, D.H. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), No. 1000, Wunhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546 (China); Sung, C.C. [National Taiwan University (China)

    2008-07-15

    This work presents a novel fuel sensor-less control scheme for a liquid feed fuel cell system that operates under dynamic loading conditions and is suitable for portable power sources. The proposed technique utilizes the operating characteristics of a fuel cell, such as voltage, current and power, to control the supply of liquid fuel and regulate its concentration. As verified by systematic experiments, this scheme controls effectively the supply of fuel under dynamic loading conditions and pushes the system toward higher power output. The primary features and advantages of sensor-less fuel control are as follows. When the fuel concentration sensor is excluded, the cost of a liquid feed fuel cell system is decreased and system volume and weight are reduced, thereby increasing specific energy density and design simplicity, and shortening system response time. Notably, temperature compensation for measurement data is unnecessary. With a decreased number of components, the control scheme improves durability and reliability of liquid feed fuel cells. These advantages will help commercialization of liquid feed fuel cells as portable power sources. (author)

  12. Heat sources in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramousse, Julien; Lottin, Olivier; Didierjean, Sophie; Maillet, Denis

    In order to model accurately heat transfer in PEM fuel cell, a particular attention had to be paid to the assessment of heat sources in the cell. Although the total amount of heat released is easily computed from its voltage, local heat sources quantification and localization are not simple. This paper is thus a discussion about heat sources/sinks distribution in a single cell, for which many bold assumptions are encountered in the literature. The heat sources or sinks under consideration are: (1) half-reactions entropy, (2) electrochemical activation, (3) water sorption/desorption at the GDL/membrane interfaces, (4) Joule effect in the membrane and (5) water phase change in the GDL. A detailed thermodynamic study leads to the conclusion that the anodic half-reaction is exothermic (Δ Sr ev a = - 226 J mo l-1 K-1) , instead of being athermic as supposed in most of the thermal studies. As a consequence, the cathodic half-reaction is endothermic (Δ Sr ev c = + 62.8 J mo l-1 K-1) , which results in a heat sink at the cathode side, proportional to the current. In the same way, depending on the water flux through the membrane, sorption can create a large heat sink at one electrode and an equivalent heat source at the other. Water phase change in the GDL - condensation/evaporation - results in heat sources/sinks that should also be taken into account. All these issues are addressed in order to properly set the basis of heat transfer modeling in the cell.

  13. Fuel from Wastewater - Harnessing a Potential Energy Source in Canada through the Co-location of Algae Biofuel Production to Sources of Effluent, Heat and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Roach, J. D.; Passell, H. D.; Moreland, B. D.; O'Leary, S. J.; Pienkos, P. T.; Whalen, J.

    2010-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the “production” footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada’s NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific

  14. Impacts of large-scale Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources on electricity systems, and how these can be modeled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd; Van Den Broek, Machteld; Seebregts, Ad; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    The electricity sector in OECD countries is on the brink of a large shift towards low-carbon electricity generation. Power systems after 2030 may consist largely of two low-carbon generator types: Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources (IRES) such as wind and solar PV and thermal generators such as p

  15. Impacts of large-scale Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources on electricity systems, and how these can be modeled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; Van Den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Seebregts, Ad; Faaij, André

    The electricity sector in OECD countries is on the brink of a large shift towards low-carbon electricity generation. Power systems after 2030 may consist largely of two low-carbon generator types: Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources (IRES) such as wind and solar PV and thermal generators such as

  16. Renewable hydrocarbons for jet fuels from biomass and plastics via microwave-induced pyrolysis and hydrogenation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuesong

    This dissertation aims to enhance the production of aromatic hydrocarbons in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis, and maximize the production of renewable cycloalkanes for jet fuels in the hydrogenation process. In the process, ZSM-5 catalyst as the highly efficient catalyst was employed for catalyzing the pyrolytic volatiles from thermal decomposition of cellulose (a model compound of lignocellulosic biomass). A central composite experiment design (CCD) was used to optimize the product yields as a function of independent factors (e.g. catalytic temperature and catalyst to feed mass ratio). The low-density polyethylene (a mode compound of waste plastics) was then carried out in the catalytic microwave-induced pyrolysis in the presence of ZSM-5 catalyst. Thereafter, the catalytic microwave-induced co-pyrolysis of cellulose with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was conducted over ZSM-5 catalyst. The results showed that the production of aromatic hydrocarbons was significantly enhanced and the coke formation was also considerably reduced comparing with the catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose or LDPE alone. Moreover, practical lignocellulosic biomass (Douglas fir sawdust pellets) was converted into aromatics-enriched bio-oil by catalytic microwave pyrolysis. The bio-oil was subsequently hydrogenated by using the Raney Ni catalyst. A liquid-liquid extraction step was implemented to recover the liquid organics and remove the water content. Over 20% carbon yield of liquid product regarding lignocellulosic biomass was obtained. Up to 90% selectivity in the liquid product belongs to jet fuel range cycloalkanes. As the integrated processes was developed, catalytic microwave pyrolysis of cellulose with LDPE was conducted to improve aromatic production. After the liquid-liquid extraction by the optimal solvent (n-heptane), over 40% carbon yield of hydrogenated organics based on cellulose and LDPE were achieved in the hydrogenation process. As such, real

  17. The Challenge of Efficient Synthesis of Biofuels from Lignocellulose for Future Renewable Transportation Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Mäki-Arvela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration of sugars to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF has recently been under intensive study by a multitude of research groups. On the other hand, when lignocellulosic biomass is applied as the starting material, very few studies can be found in the open literature. The direct synthesis of HMF, in line with the idea of “one-pot” synthesis strategy from lignocellulose, is demanding since the overall process should encompass dissolution, hydrolysis, and dehydration steps in a single processing unit. Ionic liquid-assisted methods to produce hydroxymethyl-furfural directly from lignocellulosic biomass are reported here together with a short overview of the most important biofuels. In reality, HMF is not suitable to be used as a single-component fuel as such, and, consequently, methods to produce HMF derivatives suitable as liquid fuels are reported.

  18. Dynamic analyses of regenerative fuel cell power for potential use in renewable residential applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maclay, JD; J. Brouwer; Samuelsen, GS

    2006-01-01

    A model of a solar-hydrogen powered residence, in both stand-alone and grid parallel configurations, was developed using Matlab / Simulink®. The model assesses the viability of employing a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) as an energy storage device to be used with photovoltaic (PV) electrical generation. Other modes of energy storage such as batteries and hybrid storage were also evaluated. Analyses of various operating conditions, system configurations, and control strategies were performed. De...

  19. Fuel Characteristics of Vine Prunings (Vitis vinifera L. as a Potential Source for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan A. Nasser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven varieties of vine prunings (Vitis vinifera L. grown under Riyadh conditions were considered as renewable sources for fuelwood. Significant effects (P<0.01 were found for total extractives, benzene-ethanol extractives, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, cold water solubility, and hot water solubility among the seven vine varieties. Highly significant positive correlations (P<0.01 were observed between the higher heating value (HHV and benzene-ethanol extractives (r=0.74 and lignin content (r=0.94. Additionally, elemental composition (C, H, N, O, and S exhibited a significant effect on HV (P<0.01 and ash content of the seven vine varieties. There were highly significant positive correlations (P<0.01 between the HV and C (r=0.96 and H (r=0.93. Ash content showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 on HV with a negative coefficient (r=-0.93. The heating value of vine prunings ranged from 18.74 to 19.19 MJ/kg, i.e. higher than some well-known biomass fuels. The results suggested that the vine prunings could be suitable as a source for energy production in Saudi Arabia.

  20. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs.