WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewable energy-resource base

  1. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  2. Renewable energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Twidell, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s

  3. Renewable energy resources; Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Volker; Naumann, Karin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, Martin; Janczik, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Energiewirtschaft

    2015-07-01

    Although the need to decarbonise our global economy and thus in particular the supply of energy to limit the global temperature increase is internationally undisputed the German politics in 2014 has significantly contributed less compared to previous years in order to attain this objective. The expansion of renewable energies in the electricity sector has decelerated significantly; and in the heating and mobility area no new impulses were set in relation to renewable energies. In addition, a dramatic fallen oil price makes it difficult to increase the use of renewable energy supply. Based on these deteriorated framework conditions compared to conditions of the previous years, the developments in Germany of 2014 are shown in the electricity, heat and transport sector in the field of renewable energy. For this purpose - in addition to a discussion of the current energy economic framework - for each option to use renewable energies the state and looming trends are analyzed. [German] Obwohl die Notwendigkeit zur Dekarbonisierung unserer globalen Wirtschaft und damit insbesondere der Energiebereitstellung zur Begrenzung des globalen Temperaturanstiegs international unstrittig ist, hat die deutsche Politik im Jahr 2014 im Vergleich zu den Vorjahren deutlich weniger zur Erreichung dieses Zieles beigetragen. Der Ausbau der Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien im Stromsektor wurde deutlich verlangsamt; und im Waerme- und Mobilitaetsbereich wurden keine neuen Impulse in Bezug auf regenerative Energien gesetzt. Zusaetzlich erschwert ein drastisch gefallener Rohoelpreis die verstaerkte Nutzung des erneuerbaren Energieangebots. Ausgehend von diesen im Vergleich zu den Vorjahren verschlechterten Rahmenbedingungen werden nachfolgend die Entwicklungen in Deutschland des Jahres 2014 im Strom-, Waerme- und Transportsektor fuer den Bereich der erneuerbaren Energien aufgezeigt. Dazu werden - neben einer Diskussion des derzeitigen energiewirtschaftlichen Rahmens - fuer die

  4. Problems of effective use of new constructions of electric power installations, based on renewable energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balzannikov Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays hydraulic and power installations can be defined as power installations that are well-designed in terms of construction and technology and working on renewable energy resources (RER. However wide use of such power stations is interfered by their low performance in comparison with thermal stations, using organic fuel. The purpose of the conducted research in this article is – search of ways to increase the competitiveness of power stations, using RER, in comparison with traditional power stations. In order to achieve the specified purpose the authors solved the following tasks: they analyzed and developed new constructive solutions of the power stations using RER; they developed the power-economic viability method for the choice of key parameters of the power stations working on RER. The researchers also gained the set objectives, using theoretical and experimental methods of calculation connected with physical modeling, the theoretical analysis and use of an economic case of the made decisions. Thus, carried-out analysis of designs of the power stations, based on RER allowed to develop a method of efficiency enhancement of these installations and to solve a problem of wider use of power stations as a part of the installations working on RER. The provided technical solutions of power stations that give the chance to develop new suggestions for improvement of designs of power stations, based on RER and to promote development of recommendations about their competitive recovery. As a result it will allow to create conditions for production of the effective national power stations, based on RER, and cumulative scientific and technical potential, that can be used for further development of nonconventional wind power and hydropower both in Russia, and abroad.

  5. Possibilities and implications of an energy supply based on renewable energy resources; Moeglichkeiten und Implikationen der Energieversorgung mit erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Till; Haerdtlein, Marlies; Kruck, Christoph; Eltrop, Ludger [Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The use of renewable energy by municipalities has grown dynamically over the past years, with heat and electricity being delivered to single buildings, large residential units or entire housing or industrial estates. Renewable energy resources play an important role in the achievement of climate protection goals, development of local and regional value creation potential and increasing security of supply. Using the Scharnhauser Park as an example and based on model calculations the present article examines possibilities of using renewable energy and their implications for a new housing estate.

  6. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  7. Communication Systems for Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Resources

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, F Richard; Xiao, Weidong; Choudhury, Paul

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in renewable energy around the world. Since most renewable sources are intermittent in nature, it is a challenging task to integrate renewable energy resources into the power grid infrastructure. In this grid integration, communication systems are crucial technologies, which enable the accommodation of distributed renewable energy generation and play extremely important role in monitoring, operating, and protecting both renewable energy generators and power systems. In this paper, we review some communication technologies available for grid integration of renewable energy resources. Then, we present the communication systems used in a real renewable energy project, Bear Mountain Wind Farm (BMW) in British Columbia, Canada. In addition, we present the communication systems used in Photovoltaic Power Systems (PPS). Finally, we outline some research challenges and possible solutions about the communication systems for grid integration of renewable energy resources.

  8. Renewable Energy Resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Michael J.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines renewable energy and outlines possible sources of this energy. Supplies, and ethics are considered. The position of renewable energy sources in the energy policy of Great Britain are discussed. (CW)

  9. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakun V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  10. Estimating Renewable Energy Resources of Russia: Goals and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, S.; Rafikova, J.; Shakun, V.

    2012-10-01

    During the last several years in some regions of Russian Federation one can observe a growing interest in renewable energy projects motivated by a necessity to have stable, affordable and autonomous energy sources. Besides, there has been an advance in legal initiatives designed to regulate the development of renewable energy sources in Russia. Some governmental regulations having for an object to stimulate this area, have already been accepted. The regulation contains the target value parameters of the output volume of the electric energy output volumes with the use of renewable energy sources (except hydroelectric power plants with the established capacity exceeding 25 MW. The work shows the results of resource estimating wind, solar, biomass energy resources for Russia, using GIS methods, which allow one to provide more exact predictions for the energy development, and therefore to prove investments and to pass to working out the equipment design of energy plants based on renewable energy sources. Current matters are relating to opportunities and perspectives of renewable sector in Russia.

  11. Conservation and renewable energy resource directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Directory facilitates quick access to DOE offices responsible for conservation and renewable energy activities. Because several offices in DOE may have responsibility for various phases of a technology or service (i.e., research, development, demonstration, commercialization, information, education, etc.) the Directory lists the key contacts from the various phases by category. The Directory is organized in five main categories plus an index and relevant appendices. The categories are: revewable energy technologies (thermal and electric solar, wind energy systems, small scale hydroelectric, biomass, ocean systems); complementary technologies (appropriate technology, advanced engine design, cogeneration, energy storage, total energy systems); conservation technologies (buildings and community systems, transportation, industrial and agricultural energy conservation, state and local programs); environment; and support services (information, outreach, education, small business support, basic research, data and analysis, publication, films, Solar Energy Research Institute, regional offices laboratories, and information centers).

  12. Evaluating potential renewable energy resources in Poultney, Vermont: A GIS-based approach to supporting rural community energy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, John; Letendre, Steven (Green Mountain College, One Brennan Circle, Poultney, VT 05764, US)

    2010-09-15

    The current electricity infrastructure in the United States relies on a centralized distribution network that carries a heavy carbon footprint and is susceptible to disruption and failure. Rural communities are more susceptible to longer term interruption and should strive towards a local distributed energy model. This transition will require municipalities to engage with and seek input from community stakeholders. This paper describes a possible model for supporting rural community energy projects using a Geographic Information System (GIS), which was used to develop an inventory of energy resource potential in a rural Vermont town for biomass, wind, and solar technologies. (author)

  13. Renewable Energy Resources With Smart Microgrid Model In India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikant Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of civilization is increasing energy consumption. Due to which India is facing an energy crisis. It is estimated that global energy demand will double in 2030. India Trhurga other developing countries will face a crisis. Returning to the problem Fall growth of renewable energy resources will increase. Even for electricity generation from renewable sources. Naturally replenished renewable energy such as sunlight wind rain tides and geothermal heat as will have to depend on natural resources. High energy demand and environmental concerns in the papers smart microgrid is forced to change the existing power grid. This paper dynamic demand response and smart microgrid for residential and industrial consumption in the context of renewable energy production including the proposed management approach. The objectives of this research renewable energy resources with a smart microgrid has played an important role. Power system in rural areas in India to meet growing energy demand. The model deployed PLC networks data management system sensors Switchgears Transformers and other utility tools to integrate Smart Grid Smart homes are used together. Analytical results Residential renewable energy generation and smart meters show the effectiveness of the proposed system to optimize control of the electrical grid and is designed to improve energy conservation.

  14. Renewable energy resource and technology assessment: Southern Tier Central Region, New York, New York. Renewable Energy Resource Inventory; renewable energy technology handbook; technology assessment workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Resource Inventory contains regional maps that record the location of renewable energy resources such as insolation, wind, biomass, and hydropower in the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State. It contains an outline of a process by which communities can prepare local renewable energy resource inventories using maps and overlays. The process starts with the mapping of the resources at a regional scale and telescopes to an analysis of resources at a site-specific scale. The resource inventory presents a site analysis of Sullivan Street Industrial Park, Elmira, New York.

  15. Quantitative variability of renewable energy resources in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Konstantinos; Varlas, George; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Aalstad, Kristoffer; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Katsafados, Petros; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan

    2017-04-01

    Based on European Union (EU) targets for 2030, the share of renewable energy (RE) consumption should be increased at 27%. RE resources such as hydropower, wind, wave power and solar power are strongly depending on the chaotic behavior of the weather conditions and climate. Due to this dependency, the prediction of the spatiotemporal variability of the RE resources is more crucial factor than in other energy resources (i.e. carbon based energy). The fluctuation of the RE resources can affect the development of the RE technologies, the energy grid, supply and prices. This study investigates the variability of the potential RE resources in Norway. More specifically, hydropower, wind, wave, and solar power are quantitatively analyzed and correlated with respect to various spatial and temporal scales. In order to analyze the diversities and their interrelationships, reanalysis and observational data of wind, precipitation, wave, and solar radiation are used for a quantitative assessment. The results indicate a high variability of marine RE resources in the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea.

  16. Modeling renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D.; Neil, C.; Taylor, A. [RCG/Hagler, Bailly, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Including renewable energy resources in integrated resource planning (IRP) requires that utility planning models properly consider the relevant attributes of the different renewable resources in addition to conventional supply-side and demand-side options. Otherwise, a utility`s resource plan is unlikely to have an appropriate balance of the various resource options. The current trend toward regulatory set-asides for renewable resources is motivated in part by the perception that the capabilities of current utility planning models are inadequate with regard to renewable resources. Adequate modeling capabilities and utility planning practices are a necessary prerequisite to the long-term penetration of renewable resources into the electric utility industry`s resource mix. This report presents a review of utility planning models conducted for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The review examines the capabilities of utility planning models to address key issues in the choice between renewable resources and other options. The purpose of this review is to provide a basis for identifying high priority areas for advancing the state of the art.

  17. Energy Policy Case Study - California: Renewables and Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    The purpose of this document is to present a case study of energy policies in California related to power system transformation and renewable and distributed energy resources (DERs). Distributed energy resources represent a broad range of technologies that can significantly impact how much, and when, electricity is demanded from the grid. Key policies and proceedings related to power system transformation and DERs are grouped into the following categories: 1.Policies that support achieving environmental and climate goals 2.Policies that promote deployment of DERs 3.Policies that support reliability and integration of DERs 4.Policies that promote market animation and support customer choice. Major challenges going forward are forecasting and modeling DERs, regulatory and utility business model issues, reliability, valuation and pricing, and data management and sharing.

  18. Generation scheduling of renewable energy resources under uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad NEMATBAKHSH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, utilization of renewable energy resources (RERs has become an active and interesting area of research in energy management of power systems. In this paper, a new three-stage generation scheduling method is proposed for thermal units and renewable energy resources. In the method, all generation units are bidding in a competitive market along with the external energy tie-line at the point of common coupling. The scheduling problem is solved while considering uncertainties in both generation and demand. At the first stage, Generation Companies (GenCos use forecasted information (such as market price and climate conditions to determine their optimal bidding strategy for maximum revenue. In the next stages, independent system operator (ISO manages available contracts to minimize the operating cost of the power system. The proposed method is applied to a 10-unit network using GAMS software. Simulation results show that the effectiveness of this method is to the benefit of generation companies and ISO in the presence of traditional tie-line.

  19. Potential for natural evaporation as a reliable renewable energy resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, Ahmet-Hamdi; Chen, Xi; Gentine, Pierre; Sahin, Ozgur

    2017-09-26

    About 50% of the solar energy absorbed at the Earth's surface drives evaporation, fueling the water cycle that affects various renewable energy resources, such as wind and hydropower. Recent advances demonstrate our nascent ability to convert evaporation energy into work, yet there is little understanding about the potential of this resource. Here we study the energy available from natural evaporation to predict the potential of this ubiquitous resource. We find that natural evaporation from open water surfaces could provide power densities comparable to current wind and solar technologies while cutting evaporative water losses by nearly half. We estimate up to 325 GW of power is potentially available in the United States. Strikingly, water's large heat capacity is sufficient to control power output by storing excess energy when demand is low, thus reducing intermittency and improving reliability. Our findings motivate the improvement of materials and devices that convert energy from evaporation.The evaporation of water represents an alternative source of renewable energy. Building on previous models of evaporation, Cavusoglu et al. show that the power available from this natural resource is comparable to wind and solar power, yet it does not suffer as much from varying weather conditions.

  20. 75 FR 16173 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... submitting the information collection titled ``Tribal Energy Resource Agreements (TERAs)'' to the Office of... determine the capacity of tribes to manage the development of energy resources on tribal lands....

  1. Effective management of combined renewable energy resources in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, Khasan S; Akhmedov, Khakim M; Abid, Muhammad; Petrov, Georgiy N

    2013-09-01

    Water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in winter time for generation of electric power. This results in conflicts between downstream countries that utilize water mostly for irrigation and those upstream countries, which use water for generation of electric power. At present Uzbekistan is blocking railway connection that is going to Tajikistan to interfere to transportation of the equipment and materials for construction of Rogun hydropower plant. In order to avoid conflicts between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan a number of measures for the utilization of water resources of the trans-boundary Rivers Amu-Darya and Sir-Darya are discussed. In addition, utilization of water with the supplement of wind and solar energy projects for proper and efficient management of water resources in Central Asia; export-import exchanges of electric energy in summer and winter time between neighboring countries; development of small hydropower project, modern irrigation system in main water consuming countries and large water reservoir hydropower projects for control of water resources for hydropower and irrigation are also discussed. It is also concluded that an effective management of water resources can be achieved by signing Water treaty between upstream and downstream countries, first of all between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. In this paper management of water as renewable energy resource in Tajikistan and Central Asian Republics are presented. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. 78 FR 4867 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program... Information Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-4M-P ... comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the collection of...

  3. Awareness and Misconceptions of High School Students about Renewable Energy Resources and Applications: Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is the one of the countries in the world which has potential of renewable energy resource because of its geographical position. However, being usage of renewable energy resources and applications (RERAs) is low, it shows that awareness and consciousness of RERAs is very low too. Education must play a key role in growing out of an energy…

  4. Proceedings: Second Annual Pacific Northwest Alternative and Renewable Energy Resources Conference.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Papers presented at the conference are published in this volume. The purpose of the conference was to solicit regional cooperation in the promoting of near-term development of such alternative and renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest as: cogeneration; biomass; wind; small hydro; solar end-use applications; and geothermal direct heat utilization. Separate abstracts of selected papers were prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  5. 78 FR 37567 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... of energy resources on tribal lands. Information collection: Enables IEED to engage in a consultation... Assistant Director for Information Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-4M-P...

  6. 75 FR 4836 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... Affairs, is proposing to submit the information collection titled ``Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... resources on tribal lands. Information collected: Enables IEED to engage in a consultation process...

  7. The problem of non-renewable energy resources in the production of physical capital

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Barahona, Agustin

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the possibilities of technical progress to deal with the growth limit problem imposed by the usage of non-renewable energy resources, when physical capital production is relatively more energy-intensive than consumption. In particular, this work presents the conditions under which energy-saving technologies can sustain long-run growth, although energy is produced by means of non-renewable energy resources. The mechanism behind that is energy efficiency.

  8. Promotion of renewable energy resources with a focus on cost-based feed-in tariffs; Foerderung von erneuerbaren Energien mit Schwerpunkt auf kostenbasierter Einspeiseverguetung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweighofer, M.; Tretter, H.; Veigl, A.

    2006-07-01

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of possible systems that could be used to promote power production in Switzerland using renewable energy sources. Promotional models on both the provider and consumer sides that use both price and quantity as control factors are examined. Three models are compared: the submission-to-tender model, the quota model with certificates and a model that uses cost-based feed-in tariffs. On the basis of a comparison with Austria, interaction between increasing the proportion of renewable forms of energy and the realisation of energy-efficiency goals is discussed. A further part of the report deals with various options for the use of biomass as a source of energy.

  9. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  10. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  11. Renewable energy resources in a restructured electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen, P.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper highlights a conference presentation addressing changes in the residential energy sector in view of the increasing competitiveness of the energy market. Renewable energy characteristics are briefly outlined, and capacity and generation data for non-hydroelectric power in 1994 are listed. A review of critical factors in renewables development and policy responses to market impediments is made. Current market barriers are identified, and proposals for Federal policies are made. 17 tabs., 2 figs.

  12. 78 FR 23290 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Energy Resource Development Program... Burden: $0. Dated: April 12, 2013. John Ashley, Acting Assistant Director for Information Resources... comments on the renewal of Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the collection of...

  13. Technical and economic viability of electric power plants on the basis of renewable energy resources regarding hierarchical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balzannikov Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with power stations working on the basis of non-renewable energy resources and finite resources which will inevitably come to depletion in the future. These installations produce considerable negative impact on the environment, including air pollution. It is noted that considerable amounts of emissions of harmful substances accounts for the share of small thermal installations which aren’t always considered in calculations of pollution. The author specifies that emission reduction of harmful substances should be achieved due to wider use of environmentally friendly renewable energy resources. It is recommended to use hierarchical structure with the priority of ecological and social conditions of the region for technical and economic viability of consumers’ power supply systems and installations, based on renewable energy resources use. At the same time the author suggests considering federal, regional and object levels of viability. It is recommended to consider the main stages of lifecycle of an object for object level: designing, construction, operation, reconstruction of an object and its preservation. The author shows the example of calculation of power plant efficiency, based on renewable energy resources during its reconstruction, followed by power generation increase.

  14. Renewable energy resources for distributed generation systems in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczuk, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    The South African Government has objective to provide universal access of electricity for its citizens and its electrification programme has been successful but focus has moved from numbers of connections to one of achieving sustainable socio-economic benefits. First-hand understanding was obtained of the complexity of socio-economic development where CSIR undertook a project in the rural areas of South Africa to identify electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to economic activities. Lessons formed basis of a government funding implementation of pilot hybrid mini-grids to inform a future rollout. Results informed the development of distributed generation concepts and an integrated methodology.

  15. Incentive Driven Distributed Generation Planning with Renewable Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAUR, S.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Renewable DGs may not be economically viable due to the stochastic generation and huge capital investment, but are an inevitable choice for sustainable energy development and future planning. An appropriate incentive scheme for clean Distributed Generation (DG technologies is able to address this issue in an economical manner and is considered in proposed distributed generation planning model. The proposed model minimizes the annualized cost with Emission Offset Incentive (EOI and the penalty for Green-house Gas (GHG emissions. A meta-heuristic approach with dynamic tuning of control parameters is adopted to improve the success and the convergence rate of optimal solutions. The algorithm provides the optimal solution in terms of type, size, and location of DG. The proposed technique is implemented on IEEE 33-bus system. Proposed model helps the Distribution Network Operators (DNOs to decide the proper DG technology from an economic prospective for eco-friendly energy planning.

  16. GMLC Extreme Event Modeling -- Slow-Dynamics Models for Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkali, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Min, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The need for slow dynamics models of renewable resources in cascade modeling essentially arises from the challenges associated with the increased use of solar and wind electric power. Indeed, the main challenge is that the power produced by wind and sunlight is not consistent; thus, renewable energy resources tend to have variable output power on many different timescales, including the timescales that a cascade unfolds.

  17. The Project Activities of the Renewable Energy Resources Use in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Jovanović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the ratification of the Energy Community of Southeast Europe countries (14th July 2006 the Republic of Serbia, among other things, accepted the obligation to adopt and implement a plan of applying the Directive 2001/77/EC about promoting the production of electrical energy from renewable energy sources. The projects of the renewable energy resources use have a positive impact on the environment, in particular about the mitigation of global climate change and local environmental sustainability.

  18. 78 FR 19005 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Tribal Energy Resource Agreements... resources on tribal lands. Information collection: Enables IEED to engage in a consultation process with... Assistant Director for Information Resources. BILLING CODE 4310-4M-P...

  19. Hawaii energy strategy project 3: Renewable energy resource assessment and development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    RLA Consulting (RLA) has been retained by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT) to conduct a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. This three-phase program is part of the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES), which is a multi-faceted program intended to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Phase 1 of the project, Development of a Renewable Energy Resource Assessment Plan, is to better define the most promising potential renewable energy projects and to establish the most suitable locations for project development in the state. In order to accomplish this goal, RLA has identified constraints and requirements for renewable energy projects from six different renewable energy resources: wind, solar, biomass, hydro, wave, and ocean thermal. These criteria were applied to areas with sufficient resource for commercial development and the results of Phase 1 are lists of projects with the most promising development potential for each of the technologies under consideration. Consideration of geothermal energy was added to this investigation under a separate contract with DBEDT. In addition to the project lists, a monitoring plan was developed with recommended locations and a data collection methodology for obtaining additional wind and solar data. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Potential Utilization of Renewable Energy Resources for Electicity Generation in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajik Begić

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with the current processes of restructuring of Energy power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina, liberalisation of the electricity market, and modernisation of the existing power plants, Bosnia and Herzegovina must turn to the utilisation of renewable resources in reasonable dynamics as well. Respecting this policy, the initial evaluation of the potential of renewable energy resources in Bosnia and Herzegovina is performed. The methodology of evaluation of wind energy utilisation is presented in this paper, as well as some other aspects of utilisation of the renewable energy resources in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Implementation of selected projects should improve sustainability of energy power production in Bosnia and Herzegovina, by reducing the total emission of carbon dioxide originated from energy power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  1. Modeling and Simulation of Microgrid Connected Renewable Energy Resources with Svpwm Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Chukka,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing tension on the global energy supply has resulted in greater interest in renewable energy resources. This presents a significant opportunity for distributed power generation (DG systems using renewable energy resources, including wind turbines, photovoltaic (PV generators, small hydro systems, and fuel cells .However, these DG units produce a wide range of voltages due to the fluctuation of energy resources and impose stringent requirements for the inverter topologies and controls. Usually, a boost-type dc–dc converter is added in the DG units to step up the dc voltage. This kind of topology, although simple may not be able to provide enough dc voltage gain when the input is very low, even with an extreme duty cycle. Also, large duty cycle operation may result in serious reverse-recovery problems and increase the ratings of switching devices. Furthermore, the added converter may deteriorate system efficiency and increase system size, weight, and cost. This paper deals with modeling and simulation of microgrid connected with renewable energy resources like Photo Voltaic panel and fuel cell. The inverter circuit is controlled by Space vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique.

  2. Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Jasemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to technical and economic reasons, the distributed generation (DG units are widely connected to the low and medium voltage network and created a new structure called micro-grid. Renewable energies (especially wind and solar based DGs are one of the most important generations units among DG units. Because of stochastic behavior of these resources, the optimum and safe management and operation of micro-grids has become one of the research priorities for researchers. So, in this study, the optimal operation of a typical micro-grid is investigated in order to maximize the penetration of renewable energy sources with the lowest operation cost with respect to the limitations for the load supply and the distributed generation resources. The understudy micro-grid consists of diesel generator, battery, wind turbines and photovoltaic panels. The objective function comprises of fuel cost, start-up cost, spinning reserve cost, power purchasing cost from the upstream grid and the sales revenue of the power to the upstream grid. In this paper, the uncertainties of demand, wind speed and solar radiation are considered and the optimization will be made by using the GAMS software and mixed integer planning method (MIP. Article History: Received May 21, 2016; Received in revised form July 11, 2016; Accepted October 15, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Jasemi, M.,  Adabi, F., Mozafari, B., and Salahi, S. (2016 Optimal Operation of Micro-grids Considering the Uncertainties of Demand and Renewable Energy Resources Generation, Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3,233-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.233-248

  3. Using modeling, satellite images and existing global datasets for rapid preliminary assessments of renewable energy resources: The case of Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Rasmussen, K.; Badger, Jake

    2010-01-01

    in the irrigated areas of the Niger inland delta that might be interesting from a renewable energy resource perspective. Finally, the paper discusses the role that renewable energy resources might play in the energy systems of Mali, given the spatio-temporal distribution of renewable energy resources. It is argued...... that at the current price of about 70 US$/barrel for fossil fuels, renewable energy resources are becoming economically as well as environmentally attractive options.......This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing...

  4. Control scheme of three-level H-bridge converter for interfacing between renewable energy resources and AC grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a control strategy of multilevel converters for integration of renewable energy resources into power grid. The proposed technique provides compensation for active, reactive, and harmonic current components of grid-connected loads. A three-level H-bridge converter is proposed...... as the interfacing system between renewable energy resources and utility grid. High performance of the proposed technique is indicated with injection of maximum available power from renewable energy resources to the power grid, increases power factor of the utility grid, and reduces the total harmonic distortion...

  5. Distributed Control and Management of Renewable Electric Energy Resources for Future Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin

    2016-01-01

    It is anticipated that both medium- and low-voltage distribution networks will include high level of distributed renewable energy resources, in the future. The high penetration of these resources inevitably can introduce various power quality issues, including; overvoltage and overloading...... strategy is a promising approach to manage and utilise the resources in future distribution networks to effectively deal with grid electric quality issues and requirements. Jointly, utility and customers the owners of the resources in the network are considered as part of a practical coordination strategy...

  6. Recent Trends in Renewable Energy Resources for Power Generation in the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Ho Noh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for renewable energy in recent decades has continued to increase, despite adverse economic conditions such as world economic recessions, trade disputes, and falls in gas and oil prices. During this period, the United States and Europe have led the development of renewable energy technologies, but now emerging countries such as China, Brazil, India, and the Republic of Korea are also been actively participating in developing and deploying renewable energy. For example, since 1989, the Korea Electric Power Corporation has built a well-known test site for the application of renewable energy resources, including 500 kW photovoltaic systems with smooth integration into power grids in the Gochang area. The main objects of this study are (1 to review the recent trends in renewable energy systems, including solar, wind, bioenergy, hydroelectric, and tidal power, for electric power generation developed in Korea and (2 to introduce the test sites in Korea. For this purpose, this study examines the current activities of industry and government in Korea and compares them with global trends.

  7. Potential renewable energy resources of the Lerma Valley, Salta, Argentina for its strategic territorial planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte, S.; Viramonte, J.G. [Instituto GEONORTE, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Salta and CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150, Salta CP 4400 (Argentina); Nunez, V. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Ecodesarrollo (IRNED), Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Salta, Avda. Bolivia 5150, Campo Castanares, Salta CP 4400 (Argentina); Franco, J. [Instituto Nacional de Energias No Convencionales (INENCO), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de Salta, CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150, Salta CP 4400 (Argentina)

    2009-08-15

    Renewable energy sources are considered as strategic opportunities to improve the population's quality of life, to promote the development of more efficient and equitable economic systems, and to favor environmental sustainability in the territorial planning of Lerma Valley (Salta, Argentina). The mapping in raster format (each pixel having a reference value) of the potential renewable energy sources (solar, wind, biomass, hydraulic, mixed) is essential to define ideal locations for different types of renewable applications, and to plan suitable strategies for its implementation. It is necessary considering environmental diversity and site conditions (topographic, natural resource, infrastructure and service availability, social and economical) of the intervention area. Different methodologies are used for mapping of potential energy resources. Solar radiation is spatialized through the application of statistical regressions between altitude, latitude, precise incident solar radiation records, and radiation data estimated with the Geosol V.2.0. trademark software. The Argentina Map program is used for the wind potential resource modeling. It requires as inputs: a Digital Elevation Model, a land use and cover map (to determine roughness), and measured and/or estimated wind speed and frequency data. The hydroelectric potential for microturbine applications is calculated from the topographic drop and the annual mean flow in cumulative models, through the application of the Idrisi Kilimanjaro trademark 's runoff tool; while the power densities are compared at the watershed. Biomass potential (at this exploratory stage), is interpreted from the available biomass type (land use and cover map), its energy application availability, and some quantitative indicators associated with the biomass types identified as priority. In conclusion, the renewable energy potential in Lerma Valley is very high and diverse, and its close connection with social

  8. USDOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy joint collaboration for renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touryan, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a joint collaboration between the US and Russia to develop renewable energy resources. There are five main goals of the project. First is to establish Intersolarcenter as a sister organization to NREL for joint R&D activities, and to provide training to the staff. Second is to install demonstration systems in parks and selected locations around Moscow. Third is to install pilot projects: a wind/diesel hybrid system at 21 sites in the northern territories; a 500 kW biomass power plant in the Arkhangelsk Region. Fourth is to assist in the start-up operations of a 2 MW/yr Triple Junction amorphous-Si manufacturing facility in Moscow using US technology. Fifth is to explore the possibilities of financing large-scale wind/hybrid and biomass power systems for the nouthern territories (possibly 900 sites).

  9. Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Miller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small generation rates of kinetic energy to maintain the high wind velocities, and it is this generation rate that will ultimately limit the potential use of jet streams as a renewable energy resource. Here we estimate the maximum limit of jet stream wind power by considering extraction of kinetic energy as a term in the free energy balance of kinetic energy that describes the generation, depletion, and extraction of kinetic energy. We use this balance as the basis to quantify the maximum limit of how much kinetic energy can be extracted sustainably from the jet streams of the global atmosphere as well as the potential climatic impacts of its use. We first use a simple thought experiment of geostrophic flow to demonstrate why the high wind velocities of the jet streams are not associated with a high potential for renewable energy generation. We then use an atmospheric general circulation model to estimate that the maximum sustainable extraction from jet streams of the global atmosphere is about 7.5 TW. This estimate is about 200-times less than previous estimates and is due to the fact that the common expression for instantaneous wind power 12 ρv3 merely characterizes the transport of kinetic energy by the flow, but not the generation rate of kinetic energy. We also find that when maximum wind power is extracted from the jet streams, it results in significant

  10. Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Miller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small generation rates of kinetic energy to maintain the high wind velocities, and it is this generation rate that will ultimately limit the potential use of jet streams as a renewable energy resource. Here we estimate the maximum limit of jet stream wind power by considering extraction of kinetic energy as a term in the free energy balance of kinetic energy that describes the generation, depletion, and extraction of kinetic energy. We use this balance as the basis to quantify the maximum limit of how much kinetic energy can be extracted sustainably from the jet streams of the global atmosphere as well as the potential climatic impacts of its use. We first use a simple thought experiment of geostrophic flow to demonstrate why the high wind velocities of the jet streams are not associated with a high potential for renewable energy generation. We then use an atmospheric general circulation model to estimate that the maximum sustainable extraction from jet streams of the global atmosphere is about 7.5 TW. This estimate is about 200-times less than previous estimates and is due to the fact that the common expression for instantaneous wind power ½ ρ v3 merely characterizes the transport of kinetic energy by the flow, but not the generation rate of kinetic energy. We also find that when maximum wind power is extracted from the jet streams, it results in significant climatic impacts due to a substantial increase of heat transport across the jet streams in the upper atmosphere. This results in upper atmospheric temperature differences of >20 °C, greater atmospheric stability

  11. Harnessing Potential Evaporation as a Renewable Energy Resource With Water-Saving Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusoglu, A. H.; Chen, X.; Gentine, P.; Sahin, O.

    2015-12-01

    Water's large latent heat of vaporization makes evaporation a critical component of the energy balance at the Earth's surface. An immense amount of energy drives the hydrological cycle and is an important component of various weather and climate patterns. However, the potential of harnessing evaporation has received little attention as a renewable energy resource compared to wind and solar energy. Here, we investigate the potential of harvesting energy from naturally evaporating water. Using weather data across the contiguous United States and a modified model of potential evaporation, we estimate the power availability, intermittency, and the changes in evaporation rates imposed by energy conversion. Our results indicate that natural evaporation can deliver power densities similar to existing renewable energy platforms and require little to no energy storage to match the varying power demands of urban areas. This model also predicts additional, and substantial, water savings by reducing evaporative losses. These findings suggest that evaporative energy harvesting can address significant challenges with water/energy interactions that could be of interest to the hydrology community.

  12. 78 FR 15718 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iberdrola Renewables, Inc. PacifiCorp NextEra Energy Resources, LLC Invenergy Wind North America LLC Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice...

  13. 77 FR 2286 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice...

  14. Integrating renewable energy resources with energy storage for grid-connected systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joseph

    Renewable energy resources have been growing at a rapidly accelerating rate as an alternative for fossil fuels in the modern electric grid. As their penetration increases, variability in these resources, particularly wind and solar, poses a risk of instability on the grid. Energy storage can be used to mitigate this risk as well as provide other benefits to the larger grid. In this dissertation, a novel high frequency common bus multiport converter is proposed as a new integration scheme to improve efficiency of the power electronics interface by reducing the number of conversion steps and to reduce the system size by replacing the line frequency transformer with a high frequency transformer tied to the common bus. Two main innovations are introduced: a new switching scheme for the H-bridges on the common bus which allows them to operate in parallel without interfering in each others operation, and a novel single-phase to three-phase matrix converter which converts the high frequency bus to the line frequency in a single conversion stage. This proposed converter is simulated to develop the inner loop control methodology, then a low power prototype is constructed and tested to verify its operation. The results of these tests demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed ideas as well as suggesting new avenues of research to further improve the proposed system.

  15. Feasibility of Stochastic Voltage/VAr Optimization Considering Renewable Energy Resources for Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Salkuti, Surender Reddy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization technique for solving the Voltage/VAr control problem including the load demand and Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) variation. The RERs often take along some inputs like stochastic behavior. One of the important challenges i. e., Voltage/VAr control is a prime source for handling power system complexity and reliability, hence it is the fundamental requirement for all the utility companies. There is a need for the robust and efficient Voltage/VAr optimization technique to meet the peak demand and reduction of system losses. The voltages beyond the limit may damage costly sub-station devices and equipments at consumer end as well. Especially, the RERs introduces more disturbances and some of the RERs are not even capable enough to meet the VAr demand. Therefore, there is a strong need for the Voltage/VAr control in RERs environment. This paper aims at the development of optimal scheme for Voltage/VAr control involving RERs. In this paper, Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to cover full range of variables by maximally satisfying the marginal distribution. Here, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios effectively and maximally retain the fitting accuracy of samples. The developed optimization scheme is tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) considering the load demand and RERs variation.

  16. Parallel Harmony Search Based Distributed Energy Resource Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a harmony search based parallel optimization algorithm to minimize voltage deviations in three phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems and to maximize active power outputs of distributed energy resources (DR). The main contribution is to reduce the adverse impacts on voltage profile during a day as photovoltaics (PVs) output or electrical vehicles (EVs) charging changes throughout a day. The IEEE 123- bus distribution test system is modified by adding DRs and EVs under different load profiles. The simulation results show that by using parallel computing techniques, heuristic methods may be used as an alternative optimization tool in electrical power distribution systems operation.

  17. Alternatives to electricity for transmission and annual-scale firming - Storage for diverse, stranded, renewable energy resources: hydrogen and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighty, William

    2010-09-15

    The world's richest renewable energy resources 'of large geographic extent and high intensity' are stranded: far from end-users with inadequate or nonexistent gathering and transmission systems to deliver energy. Output of most renewables varies greatly, at time scales of seconds-seasons: energy capture assets operate at low capacity factor; energy delivery is not 'firm'. New electric transmission systems, or fractions thereof, dedicated to renewables, suffer the same low CF: substantial stranded capital assets, increasing the cost of delivered renewable-source energy. Electricity storage cannot affordably firm large renewables at annual scale. Gaseous hydrogen and anhydrous ammonia fuels can: attractive alternatives.

  18. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  19. Control scheme of three-level H-bridge converter for interfacing between renewable energy resources and AC grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a control strategy of multilevel converters for integration of renewable energy resources into power grid. The proposed technique provides compensation for active, reactive, and harmonic current components of grid-connected loads. A three-level H-bridge converter is proposed a...... (THD) of grid current through Matlab/Simulink under proposed operating conditions. © 2011 EPE Association - European Power Electr....

  20. Communication Network Architectures for Smart-House with Renewable Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the microgrid revolution, each house will have the ability to meet its own energy needs locally from renewable energy sources such as solar or wind. However, real-time data gathering, energy management and control of renewable energy systems will depend mainly on the performance of the communications infrastructure. This paper describes the design of a communication network architecture using both wired and wireless technologies for monitoring and controlling distributed energy systems involving small-scale wind turbines and photovoltaic systems. The proposed communication architecture consists of three layers: device layer, network layer, and application layer. Two scenarios are considered: a smart-house and a smart-building. Various types of sensor nodes and measurement devices are defined to monitor the condition of the renewable energy systems based on the international electrotechnical commission standard. The OPNET Modeler is used for performance evaluation in terms of end-to-end (ETE delay. The network performance is compared in view of ETE delay, reliability and implementation cost for three different technologies: Ethernet-based, WiFi-based, and ZigBee-based.

  1. Recent Trends in Renewable Energy Resources for Power Generation in the Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Chul-Ho Noh; Insu Kim; Won-Hyeok Jang; Chul-Hwan Kim

    2015-01-01

    The global demand for renewable energy in recent decades has continued to increase, despite adverse economic conditions such as world economic recessions, trade disputes, and falls in gas and oil prices. During this period, the United States and Europe have led the development of renewable energy technologies, but now emerging countries such as China, Brazil, India, and the Republic of Korea are also been actively participating in developing and deploying renewable energy. For example, since ...

  2. Renewable Energy Resources Portfolio Optimization in the Presence of Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behboodi, Sahand; Chassin, David P.; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2016-01-15

    In this paper we introduce a simple cost model of renewable integration and demand response that can be used to determine the optimal mix of generation and demand response resources. The model includes production cost, demand elasticity, uncertainty costs, capacity expansion costs, retirement and mothballing costs, and wind variability impacts to determine the hourly cost and revenue of electricity delivery. The model is tested on the 2024 planning case for British Columbia and we find that cost is minimized with about 31% renewable generation. We also find that demand responsive does not have a significant impact on cost at the hourly level. The results suggest that the optimal level of renewable resource is not sensitive to a carbon tax or demand elasticity, but it is highly sensitive to the renewable resource installation cost.

  3. An Intelligent Approach to Strengthening of the Rural Electrical Power Supply Using Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, F. C.; Sisodia, G. S.; Gopalan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The healthy growth of economy lies in the balance between rural and urban development. Several developing countries have achieved a successful growth of urban areas, yet rural infrastructure has been neglected until recently. The rural electrical grids are weak with heavy losses and low capacity. Renewable energy represents an efficient way to generate electricity locally. However, the renewable energy generation may be limited by the low grid capacity. The current solutions focus on grid reinforcement only. This article presents a model for improving renewable energy integration in rural grids with the intelligent combination of three strategies: 1) grid reinforcement, 2) use of storage and 3) renewable energy curtailments. Such approach provides a solution to integrate a maximum of renewable energy generation on low capacity grids while minimising project cost and increasing the percentage of utilisation of assets. The test cases show that a grid connection agreement and a main inverter sized at 60 kW (resp. 80 kW) can accommodate a 100 kWp solar park (resp. 100 kW wind turbine) with minimal storage.

  4. The contribution of renewable energy resources on the electrification and development at the Guantanamo Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, S.; Angel, J. [CUBASOLAR, Guantanamo (Cuba); Moreno Figueredo, C. [Centro de Estudio de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (Cuba); Montesinos Larrosa, A. [Sociedad Cubana para la Promocion de las Energias Renovables (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Cuba's Guantanamo province is a leader in the application of renewable energy technologies. This paper discussed the socio-economic impact of renewable energy projects that are underway in the Guantanamo province to improve the standard of living in rural areas. More than 400 rural schools and 70 rural medical offices get their electricity from photovoltaic systems. Hydropower provides the energy needs to 3000 rural houses with 11,000 inhabitants. Other applications include remote community solar systems, improved woodstoves for community kitchens, solar cookers and solar dryers. This paper demonstrated how the high penetration of these renewable energy technologies has contributed to the sustainable development of the province. The lessons learned in energy management by the local governments and research institutions were also outlined. 1 tab.

  5. Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for large scale and standalone applications in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina Terefe; Weesie, Peter D.M.; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the contribution of renewable energy to large scale and standalone application in Ethiopia. The assessment starts by determining the present energy system and the available potentials. Subsequently, the contribution of the available potentials for large scale and

  6. Utilizing a Flexibility Interface for Distributed Energy Resources Through a Cloud-Based Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orda, Lasse Dreisig; Bach, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders Bro;

    2013-01-01

    With governments around the world pushing for an ever increasing shift towards renewable energy production, large numbers of controllable distributed energy resources are starting to appear. Already a multitude of proposed control solutions have seen the light of day, but most are focused solely...

  7. Banana biomass as potential renewable energy resource: A Malaysian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tock, Jing Yan; Lai, Chin Lin; Lee, Keat Teong; Tan, Kok Tat; Bhatia, Subhash [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    The world has been relying on fossil fuels as its primary source of energy. This unsustainable energy source is not going to last long and thus, gradual shift towards green renewable energy should be practiced. In Malaysia, even though fossil fuel dominates the energy production, renewable energies such as hydropower and biomass are gaining popularity due to the implementation of energy policies and greater understanding on the importance of green energy. Malaysia has been well endowed with natural resources in areas such as agriculture and forestry. Thus, with the availability of feedstock, biomass energy is practical to be conducted and oil palm topped the ranking as biomass source here because of its high production. However, new sources should be sought after as to avoid the over dependency on a single source. Hence, other agriculture biomass should be considered such as banana plant biomass. This paper will discuss on its potential as a new biomass source in Malaysia. Banana plant is chosen as the subject due to its availability, high growth rates, carbon neutrality and the fact that it bears fruit only once a lifetime. Conversion of the biomass to energy can be done via combustion, supercritical water gasification and digestion to produce thermal energy and biogas. The theoretical potential power generation calculated reached maximum of 950 MW meeting more than half of the renewable energy requirement in the Fifth Fuel Policy (Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001-2005). Thus, banana biomass is feasible as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia and also other similar tropical countries in the world. (author)

  8. Wave energy resource assessment based on satellite observations around Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribal, Agustinus; Zieger, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of wave energy resource around Indonesian's ocean has been carried out by means of analyzing satellite observations. The wave energy flux or wave power can be approximated using parameterized sea states. Wave power scales with significant wave height, characteristic wave period and water depth. In this approach, the significant wave heights were obtained from ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) data which have been calibrated. However, as the characteristic wave period is rarely specified and therefore must be estimated from other variables when information about the wave spectra is unknown. Here, the characteristic wave period was calculated with an empirical model that utilizes altimeter estimates of wave height and backscatter coefficient originally proposed. For the Indonesian region, wave power energy is calculated over two periods of one year each and was compared with the results from global hindcast carried out with a recent release of wave model WAVEWATCH III. We found that, the most promising wave power energy regions around the Indonesian archipelago are located in the south of Java island and the south west of Sumatera island. In these locations, about 20 - 30 kW/m (90th percentile: 30-50 kW/m, 99th percentile: 40-60 kW/m) wave power energy on average has been found around south of Java island during 2010. Similar results have been found during 2011 at the same locations. Some small areas which are located around north of Irian Jaya (West Papua) are also very promising and need further investigation to determine its capacity as a wave energy resource.

  9. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  10. A Review on the Development of Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant as Alternative Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. M.; Tan, J. H.; Fadzlita, M. T.; Khairul Muzammil, A. R. Wan

    2017-07-01

    Gravitational water vortex power plant is a green technology that generates electricity from alternative or renewable energy source. In the vortex power plant, water is introduced into a circular basin tangentially that creates a free vortex and energy is extracted from the free vortex by using a turbine. The main advantages of this type of power plant is the generation of electricity from ultra-low hydraulic pressure and it is also environmental friendly. Since the hydraulic head requirement is as low as 1m, this type of power plant can be installed at a river or a stream to generate electricity for few houses. It is a new and not well-developed technology to harvest electricity from low pressure water energy sources. There are limited literatures available on the design, fabrication and physical geometry of the vortex turbine and generator. Past researches focus on the optimization of turbine design, inlets, outlets and basin geometry. However, there are still insufficient literatures available for the technology to proceed beyond prototyping stage. The maximum efficiency obtained by the researchers are approximately 30% while the commercial companies claimed about 50% of efficiency with 500W to 20kW of power generated. Hence, the aim of this paper is to determine the gap in the vortex power plant technology development through past works and a set of research recommendations will be developed as efforts to accelerate the development of GWVPP.

  11. Distributed generation for South Africa based on renewable energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available measures must take into account other conditions such as markets, water, infrastructure, telecommunications etc • sociological facilitation to ensure community ownership and sustainable enterprise management. • environmental externalities such as Green... activities New economic activities Natural resources - arable land - tourism potential - forestry potential - minerals, - etc Enterprise creation Sociological (Cultural) Facilitation Governance facilitation Capacity development Intervention...

  12. Mitigation of Power Quality problems by UPQC for Renewable Energy Resources using Fuzzy Logic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaneendra Venkat Gatta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The wind energy conversion system Wind Farms (WF are employ squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG. The injection of wind power into an electric grid causes the power quality problems such as variation of voltage, flicker, harmonics etc, and these are measured according to national/international guidelines. To solve these problems Custom Power Devices (CUPS are used. This paper has proposed a compensation strategy based on a particular cups device for Unified Power Quality Compensator (UPQC with an application of PI and Fuzzy Logic Controllers. The proposed strategy controls both active and reactive power in the converters of UPQC. This paper presents the comparison between without UPQC, UPQC with PI controller and UPQC with Fuzzy Logic Controller. By using MATLAB/SIMULINK software the control strategies are designed. The simulation results are shown for comparison of different control strategies and by performing FFT analysis Total Harmonic Distortions (THD are calculated.

  13. Uncertainty of biomass contributions from agriculture and forestry to renewable energy resources under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gutsch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the future, Germany's land-use policies and the impacts of climate change on yields will affect the amount of biomass available for energy production. We used recent published data on biomass potentials in the federal states of Germany to assess the uncertainty caused by climate change effects in the potential supply of biomass available for energy production. In this study we selected three climate scenarios representing the maximum, mean and minimum temperature increase for Germany out of 21 CMIP5-projections driven by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 8.5 scenario. Each of the three selected projections was downscaled using the regional statistical climate model STARS. We analysed the yield changes of four biomass feedstock crops (forest, short-rotation coppices (SRC, cereal straw (winter wheat and energy maize for the period 2031–2060 in comparison to 1981–2010. The mean annual yield changes of energy wood from forest and short-rotation coppices were modelled using the process-based forest growth model 4C. The yield changes of winter wheat and energy maize from agricultural production were simulated with the statistical yield model IRMA. Germany's annual biomass potential of 1500 PJ varies between minus 5 % and plus 8 % depending on the climate scenario realisation. Assuming that 1500 PJ of biomass utilisation can be achieved, climate change effects of minus 75 (5 % PJ or plus 120 (8 % PJ do not impede overall bioenergy targets of 1287 PJ in 2020 and 1534 PJ in 2050. In five federal states the climate scenarios lead to decreasing yields of energy maize and winter wheat. Impacts of climate scenarios on forest yields are mainly positive and show both positive and negative effects on yields of SRC.

  14. How much electricity really costs. Comparison of the state subsidisation and overall social costs of conventional and renewable energy resources; Was Strom wirklich kostet. Vergleich der staatlichen Foerderungen und gesamtgesellschaftlichen Kosten konventioneller und erneuerbarer Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuechler, Swantje; Meyer, Bettina

    2012-07-01

    This study explains how the costs of electricity are an aggregate of different components. The electricity price paid by the end consumer contains not only the actual costs of energy production, which make up only about a third of the actual price in an average household, but also different surcharges such as network charges, electricity tax, value added tax and the concession levy. It furthermore contains the allocation charge stipulated by the Renewable Energy Law (EEG reallocation charge) as a means of allocating the costs of the subsidisation of electricity from renewable resources to the consumers. On the other hand conventional energy resources such as nuclear energy, hard coal and brown coal have substantially benefited over many decades from state subsidies in the form of financial aids, tax rebates and other promotive measures. The main difference between this and the subsidisation of renewable energy is that the costs of conventional energy resources are largely charged to the state budget rather than being made transparent in the electricity price. Based on an evaluation of the literature, data, interviews and the authors' own methodological deliberations this study makes a systematic comparison of the direct as well as indirect state subsidisation of renewable and conventional energy resources during the period from 1970 until 2012. The annual totals obtained for each energy resources are then set in relation to the share of that resource in overall electricity production, yielding specific subsidisation rates in terms of cents per kWh for each resource. This does not yet take into account the high consequential costs in the form of environmental damage and climate-related damage caused by fossil and nuclear fuels as well as the risks associated with the latter (collectively referred to as ''external costs''), all of which are charged to the polluters only at a small fraction of the true amount. The two cost categories of state

  15. Grid of the Future: Quantification of Benefits from Flexible Energy Resources in Scenarios With Extra-High Penetration of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebic, Jovan [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting; Hinkle, Gene [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting; Matic, Slobodan [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting; Schmitt, William [General Electric International, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States). Energy Consulting

    2015-01-15

    The main objective of this study is to quantify the entitlement for system benefits attainable by pervasive application of flexible energy resources in scenarios with extra-high penetration of renewable energy. The quantified benefits include savings in thermal energy and reduction of CO2 emissions. Both are primarily a result of displacement of conventional thermal generation by renewable energy production, but there are secondary improvements that arise from lowering operating reserves, removing transmission constraints, and by partially removing energy-delivery losses due to energy production by distributed solar. The flexible energy resources in the context of this study include energy storage and adjustable loads. The flexibility of both was constrained to a time horizon of one day. In case of energy storage this means that the state of charge is restored to the starting value at the end of each day, while for load this means that the daily energy consumed is maintained constant. The extra-high penetration of renewable energy in the context of this study means the level of penetration resulting in significant number of hours where instantaneous power output from renewable resources added to the power output from baseload nuclear fleet surpasses the instantaneous power consumption by the load.

  16. 77 FR 71414 - M&R Energy Resources Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission M&R Energy Resources Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of M&R Energy Resources Corp.'s application for market-based rate...

  17. Determination of characteristic values now for renewable energy resources. Renewable energy resources in the air conditioning-refrigeration technology; Kennwertverfahren nun auch fuer regenerative Energiequellen. Regenerative Energien in der Klima-Kaelte Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Ronny [ILK Dresden gGmbH, Dresden (Germany). Hauptbereich Luft-und Klimatechnik

    2012-02-15

    In the construction of air-conditioned buildings with cooling systems in Germany, the requirements of the amended Energy Saving Ordinance and the Act on Power Generation from Renewable Energy Sources amended in 2011 have to be met and the mathematical proof is provided. Using the results of a research project funded by the research initiative 'Future Building' the calculation of the regulation DIN V 18 599 revised in 2011 enables the demand calculation of refrigeration systems using renewable energy sources.

  18. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  19. Efficient Simulation Methods of Large Power Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Resources: Theory and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shayesteh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical energy is one of the most common forms of energy these days. Consequently, electric power system is an indispensable part of any society. However, due to the deregulation of electricity markets and the growth in the share of power generation by uncontrollable renewable energies such as wi

  20. Research on the control strategy of distributed energy resources inverter based on improved virtual synchronous generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changwei; Liu, Xiaoming; Chen, Hai

    2017-08-22

    This paper focus on the power fluctuations of the virtual synchronous generator(VSG) during the transition process. An improved virtual synchronous generator(IVSG) control strategy based on feed-forward compensation is proposed. Adjustable parameter of the compensation section can be modified to achieve the goal of reducing the order of the system. It can effectively suppress the power fluctuations of the VSG in transient process. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy for distributed energy resources inverter, the simulation model is set up in MATLAB/SIMULINK platform and physical experiment platform is established. Simulation and experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed IVSG control strategy.

  1. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 1 - GIS mapping of potential renewable energy resources in the CVRD. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The first task in the project was the production of a series of thematic GIS maps and associated databases of potential renewable energy resources in the CVRD. The renewable energy sources mapped were solar, wind, micro hydro, and biomass (residues and waste). Other sources were also discussed (e.g. geothermal heat) but not mapped due to lack of spatially explicit input data. The task 1 findings are detailed in this report. (LN)

  2. Optimal Planning of an Off-grid Electricity Generation with Renewable Energy Resources using the HOMER Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Shahinzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several factors such as environmental pollution which is caused by fossil fuels and various diseases caused by them from one hand and concerns about the dwindling fossil fuels and price fluctuation of the products and resulting effects of these fluctuations in the economy from other hand has led most countries to seek alternative energy sources for fossil fuel supplies. Such a way that in 2006, about 18% of the consumed energy of the world is obtained through renewable energies. Iran is among the countries that are geographically located in hot and dry areas and has the most sun exposure in different months of the year. Except in the coasts of Caspian Sea, the percentage of sunny days throughout the year is between 63 to 98 percent in Iran. On the other hand, there are dispersed and remote areas and loads far from national grid which is impossible to provide electrical energy for them through transmission from national grid, therefore, for such cases the renewable energy technologies could be used to solve the problem and provide the energy. In this paper, technical and economic feasibility for the use of renewable energies for independent systems of the grid for a dispersed load in the area on the outskirts of Isfahan (Sepahan with the maximum energy consumption of 3Kwh in a day is studied and presented. In addition, the HOMER simulation software is used as the optimization tool.

  3. Assessment Planning and Evaluation of Renewable Energy Resources: an Interactive Computer Assisted Procedure. [hydroelectricity, biomass, and windpower in the Pittsfield metropolitan region, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, T. W.; Fabos, J. G.; Macdougall, E. B.

    1982-01-01

    Adaptation and derivation were used to develop a procedure for assessing the availability of renewable energy resources on the landscape while simultaneously accounting for the economic, legal, social, and environmental issues required. Done in a step-by-step fashion, the procedure can be used interactively at the computer terminals. Its application in determining the hydroelectricity, biomass, and windpower in a 40,000 acre study area of Western Massachusetts shows that: (1) three existing dam sites are physically capable of being retrofitted for hydropower; (2) each of three general areas has a mean annual windspeed exceeding 14 mph and is conductive to windpower; and (3) 20% of the total land area consists of prime agricultural biomass while 30% of the area is prime forest biomass land.

  4. Assessment Planning and Evaluation of Renewable Energy Resources: an Interactive Computer Assisted Procedure. [hydroelectricity, biomass, and windpower in the Pittsfield metropolitan region, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, T. W.; Fabos, J. G.; Macdougall, E. B.

    1982-01-01

    Adaptation and derivation were used to develop a procedure for assessing the availability of renewable energy resources on the landscape while simultaneously accounting for the economic, legal, social, and environmental issues required. Done in a step-by-step fashion, the procedure can be used interactively at the computer terminals. Its application in determining the hydroelectricity, biomass, and windpower in a 40,000 acre study area of Western Massachusetts shows that: (1) three existing dam sites are physically capable of being retrofitted for hydropower; (2) each of three general areas has a mean annual windspeed exceeding 14 mph and is conductive to windpower; and (3) 20% of the total land area consists of prime agricultural biomass while 30% of the area is prime forest biomass land.

  5. Stochastic Security and Risk-Constrained Scheduling for an Autonomous Microgrid with Demand Response and Renewable Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Rashidizadeh-Kermani, Homa; Najafi, Hamid Reza

    2017-01-01

    Increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) and the development of advanced information, give rise to questions on how responsive loads can be managed to optimize the use of resources and assets. In this context, demand response (DR) as a way for modifying the consumption...... procure energy from various sources including local generating units and demand-side resources to serve the customers. The operator sells electricity to customers under real-time pricing (RTP) scheme and the response of customers to electricity prices by adjusting their loads. The objective...

  6. 能量效率与可更新能源%Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈盖; 蓝盛芳

    2001-01-01

    一些可更新能源可减少甚至消除我们对化石能和核能的依赖,其中很多虽然已为人类使用数百年,但因为化石能的普遍使用,一直都为起人类的注意。人类已发明了新技术来利用这些可更新能源。其利用有赖于一定的技术是既定的事实,目前有成功建立这样的能源工业还是十分昂贵的。如果人类生产经济和市场允许的话,这些新技术经进一步改进和简化后,就可以降低成本,并且应用起来也很可靠。相对于开发应用核能,水能和化石能数以百万计的投资耗费来讲,用于可更新资源的资金可谓微乎其微。虽然传统能源和替代能源各具优点,但保护能源往往还是解决能源短缺最便宜,最容易的途径。%Exciting new technologies have been invented to use renewable energy sources.Ocean thermal electric conversion,tidal and wave power stations and geothermal steam source can produce useful amounts of energy in some localities.One of the most promising technologies is direct electricity generation by Photovoltaic cells.Since solar energy is available everywhere,Photovoltaic collectors could provide clean,inexpensive,non-polluting,renewable energy,independent of central power grids or fuel-supply systems.Biomass also may have some modern applications.In addition to direct combustion,biomass can be converted into Methane or Ethanol,which are lean-burning,easily storable and transportable fuels.These alternative uses of biomass also allow nutrients to be returned to the soil and help reduce our reliance on expensive,energy-consuming artificial fertilizers.Fuel wood,windmills and waterwheels,for instance,once supplied a major part of the external energy for human activities.More major conservation methods,such as home insulation and energy-efficient appliances and transportation,can drastically reduce energy consumption and similarty reduces energy expenses.Our natural resources

  7. Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management. Volume 1: Techniques, Procedures and Data Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfield, J. O. (Editor); Schiffman, Y. M. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Topics dealing with the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information system for application in energy resources management are discussed. Associated remote sensing and image analysis techniques are also addressed.

  8. Hawaii Energy Strategy: Program guide. [Contains special sections on analytical energy forecasting, renewable energy resource assessment, demand-side energy management, energy vulnerability assessment, and energy strategy integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy program, or HES, is a set of seven projects which will produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. It will include a comprehensive energy vulnerability assessment with recommended courses of action to decrease Hawaii's energy vulnerability and to better prepare for an effective response to any energy emergency or supply disruption. The seven projects are designed to increase understanding of Hawaii's energy situation and to produce recommendations to achieve the State energy objectives of: Dependable, efficient, and economical state-wide energy systems capable of supporting the needs of the people, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The seven projects under the Hawaii Energy Strategy program include: Project 1: Develop Analytical Energy Forecasting Model for the State of Hawaii. Project 2: Fossil Energy Review and Analysis. Project 3: Renewable Energy Resource Assessment and Development Program. Project 4: Demand-Side Management Program. Project 5: Transportation Energy Strategy. Project 6: Energy Vulnerability Assessment Report and Contingency Planning. Project 7: Energy Strategy Integration and Evaluation System.

  9. The German energy market. 2014 yearbook. Data and facts on conventional and renewable energy resources; Energiemarkt Deutschland. Jahrbuch 2014. Daten und Fakten zu konventionellen und erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, Hans-Wilhelm [RWE AG, Essen (Germany). Allgemeine Wirtschaftspolitik/Wissenschaft; RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Technologie der Energierohstoffe; World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom). World Energy Resources

    2014-07-01

    The present book provides an overview of the energy market of the German Federal Republic. Its main emphasis is on structures of demand and supply in the markets for crude oil, brown coal, hard coal, natural gas and electricity. A special chapter has been dedicated to renewable energy resources. Another focal area are the price formation mechanisms for oil, coal, natural gas and electricity. The development of energy demand is analysed, differentiating between the sectors industry, transport, households and trade/industry/services. The book addresses the international climate protection treaties, the legal framework for climate protection activities at the European level and the implementation of trade in greenhouse gas emission permits in Germany. It presents current forecasts and scenarios, thus pointing out possible perspectives in the German energy market. It also discusses the framework conditions for Germany's energy policy. The energy markets are portrayed through facts and figures compiled in a total of 125 tables and 148 diagrams. Details of ownership of more than 100 utility companies are made transparent. The chapter on energy in the coalition agreement of 27 November 2013 between the Christian Democratic Union, Christian Social Union and the Social Democratic Party is documented verbatim. Rounding off the publication is a detailed glossary that will facilitate the reader's understanding of complex matters in the field of energy economy.

  10. Sensitivity-Based Model of Low Voltage Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Di Fazio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A key issue in Low Voltage(LV distribution systems is to identify strategies for the optimal management and control in the presence of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs. To reduce the number of variables to be monitored and controlled, virtual levels of aggregation, called Virtual Microgrids (VMs, are introduced and identified by using new models of the distribution system. To this aim, this paper, revisiting and improving the approach outlined in a conference paper, presents a sensitivity-based model of an LV distribution system, supplied by a Medium/Low Voltage (MV/LV substation and composed by several feeders, which is suitable for the optimal management and control of the grid and for VM definition. The main features of the proposed method are: it evaluates the sensitivity coefficients in a closed form; it provides an overview of the sensitivity of the network to the variations of each DER connected to the grid; and it presents a limited computational burden. A comparison of the proposed method with both the exact load flow solutions and a perturb-and-observe method is discussed in a case study. Finally, the method is used to evaluate the impact of the DERs on the nodal voltages of the network.

  11. Proceedings of the National Conference on Energy Resource Management. Volume 1: Techniques, Procedures and Data Bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumfield, J.O.; Schiffman, Y.M.

    1982-01-01

    Topics dealing with the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information system for application in energy resources management are discussed. Associated remote sensing and image analysis techniques are also addressed. For individual titles, see N83-26156 through N83-26175.

  12. A mathematical method for verifying the validity of measured information about the flows of energy resources based on the state estimation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazderin, A. V.; Sof'in, V. V.; Samoylenko, V. O.

    2015-11-01

    Efforts aimed at improving energy efficiency in all branches of the fuel and energy complex shall be commenced with setting up a high-tech automated system for monitoring and accounting energy resources. Malfunctions and failures in the measurement and information parts of this system may distort commercial measurements of energy resources and lead to financial risks for power supplying organizations. In addition, measurement errors may be connected with intentional distortion of measurements for reducing payment for using energy resources on the consumer's side, which leads to commercial loss of energy resource. The article presents a universal mathematical method for verifying the validity of measurement information in networks for transporting energy resources, such as electricity and heat, petroleum, gas, etc., based on the state estimation theory. The energy resource transportation network is represented by a graph the nodes of which correspond to producers and consumers, and its branches stand for transportation mains (power lines, pipelines, and heat network elements). The main idea of state estimation is connected with obtaining the calculated analogs of energy resources for all available measurements. Unlike "raw" measurements, which contain inaccuracies, the calculated flows of energy resources, called estimates, will fully satisfy the suitability condition for all state equations describing the energy resource transportation network. The state equations written in terms of calculated estimates will be already free from residuals. The difference between a measurement and its calculated analog (estimate) is called in the estimation theory an estimation remainder. The obtained large values of estimation remainders are an indicator of high errors of particular energy resource measurements. By using the presented method it is possible to improve the validity of energy resource measurements, to estimate the transportation network observability, to eliminate

  13. Simulation based energy-resource efficient manufacturing integrated with in-process virtual management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchasuwanmanee, Kanet; Cheng, Kai; Bateman, Richard

    2016-09-01

    As energy efficiency is one of the key essentials towards sustainability, the development of an energy-resource efficient manufacturing system is among the great challenges facing the current industry. Meanwhile, the availability of advanced technological innovation has created more complex manufacturing systems that involve a large variety of processes and machines serving different functions. To extend the limited knowledge on energy-efficient scheduling, the research presented in this paper attempts to model the production schedule at an operation process by considering the balance of energy consumption reduction in production, production work flow (productivity) and quality. An innovative systematic approach to manufacturing energy-resource efficiency is proposed with the virtual simulation as a predictive modelling enabler, which provides real-time manufacturing monitoring, virtual displays and decision-makings and consequentially an analytical and multidimensional correlation analysis on interdependent relationships among energy consumption, work flow and quality errors. The regression analysis results demonstrate positive relationships between the work flow and quality errors and the work flow and energy consumption. When production scheduling is controlled through optimization of work flow, quality errors and overall energy consumption, the energy-resource efficiency can be achieved in the production. Together, this proposed multidimensional modelling and analysis approach provides optimal conditions for the production scheduling at the manufacturing system by taking account of production quality, energy consumption and resource efficiency, which can lead to the key competitive advantages and sustainability of the system operations in the industry.

  14. Study on wave energy resource assessing method based on altimeter data—A case study in Northwest Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yong; ZHANG Jie; MENG Junmin; WANG Jing; DAI Yongshou

    2016-01-01

    Wave energy resource is a very important ocean renewable energy. A reliable assessment of wave energy resources must be performed before they can be exploited. Compared with wave model, altimeter can provide more accuratein situ observations for ocean wave which can be as a novel method for wave energy assessment. The advantage of altimeter data is to provide accurate significant wave height observations for wave. In order to develop characteristic and advantage of altimeter data and apply altimeter data to wave energy assessment, in this study, we established an assessing method for wave energy in local sea area which is dedicated to altimeter data. This method includes three parts including data selection and processing, establishment of evaluation indexes system and criterion of regional division. Then a case study of Northwest Pacific was performed to discuss specific application for this method. The results show that assessing method in this paper can assess reserves and temporal and spatial distribution effectively and provide scientific references for the siting of wave power plants and the design of wave energy convertors.

  15. 中国不可再生能源消耗效率的关键影响因素研究%A Study of the Key Influencing Factors on Consumption Efficiency of China's Non-Renewable Energy Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武春友; 赵奥; 王晓岭

    2012-01-01

    随着中国工业化和城市化进程的加快,不可再生能源消耗在急剧增长,经济发展对能源供给与环境约束的压力已经濒临可持续发展平衡底线。无论从国家能源安全还是能源、经济、环境系统的和谐发展角度出发,提高不可再生能源消耗效率都是必然选择。在此背景下,基于C^2B—DEA、超效率DEA模型,测算出1990-2009年间中国不可再生能源消耗效率值,选定产业结构、对外开放程度、城市化进程、技术进步以及不可再生能源消耗结构等五大影响因素与效率值进行影响因素回归模型的实证分析。研究结果表明:第三产业比重、对外贸易进出口总额比重、城市化率以及不可再生能源消耗构成中煤炭消耗比重与不可再生能源消耗效率呈负相关,科技研发经费投入比重与不可再生能源消耗效率呈显著正相关。现阶段内,技术改造及创新与煤炭消耗比重的降低是提高我国不可再生能源消耗效率的重要途径。%With the acceleration of China's industrialization and urbanization, the consumption of non-renewable energy resources has been increasing rapidly; the pressure posed by economic develop- ment on energy supply and environment restriction has been on the verge of the bottom-line of the balanced sustainable development. No matter in terms of the national energy safety or harmonious de- velopment of the energy-economy-environment system, to improve the consumption efficiency of the non-renewable energy resources is an inevitable choice. Under this background, this article calculates the consumption efficiency of the non-renewable energy resources in China during 1990-2009 based on CZB-DEA and super-efficiency DEA model and makes an empirical analysis with the regression model of influencing factors, namely the five major factors of industrial structure, degree of openness, urbanization process, technical progress and non-renewable

  16. Disturbance observer based active and adaptive synchronization of energy resource chaotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Meng; Li, Donghai; Zuo, Min; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, synchronization of a three-dimensional energy resource chaotic system is considered. For the sake of achieving the synchronization between the drive and response systems, two different nonlinear control approaches, i.e. active control with known parameters and adaptive control with unknown parameters, have been designed. In order to guarantee the transient performance, finite-time boundedness (FTB) and finite-time stability (FTS) are introduced in the design of active control and adaptive control, respectively. Simultaneously, in view of the existence of disturbances, a new disturbance observer is proposed to estimate the disturbance. The conditions of the asymptotic stability for the closed-loop system are obtained. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the proposed approaches.

  17. Energy Resources - A Comprehensive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashhour Z Alqahtani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have presented the evolution of energy and how it influenced and impacted the human civilization. Alternative energy was the focus of this study where significant importance was given to renewable energy resources. We have also included, as part of our study, the functionality of most of the processes that extract energy from the energy reservoirs along with many references. A comparison is given between the renewable and non-renewable energy resources and various important factors on a particular power generating unit were critically analyzed. Coal, thermal, uranium as energy resources are discussed and a significant importance was given to the fact that these resources are vanishing on a daily basis. New means of providing energy that are enough to meet the demands of the word are pointed out and sunlight energy, wind energy, geothermal energy and tidal energy are discussed. Comparison is done along with the operating cost, maintenance cost and efficiency of the unit and finally suggestions are given for the use of proper planning and installation of the systems.

  18. Renewable Energy resources in the Guidelines on State Aid for Environmental Protection and Energy; Erneuerbare Energien in den neuen EU-Umwelt- und Energiebeihilfeleitlinien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Forschungsgebiet Berg-, Umwelt- und Europarecht

    2014-08-15

    Overall the provisions of the German Renewable Energy Law (EEG) of 2014 correspond to the stipulations of the EU Commission in its new Guidelines on State Aid for Environmental Protection and Energy, and their interpretation should therefore be strictly oriented to the latter. A point of concern in systematic respects is the participation of electricity self-producers in the EEG levy, because it violates the costs-by-cause principle. Irrespective of this issue, the exemption of old installations from this regulation is warranted for reasons of protection of legitimate expectation. For self-produced electricity from fossil-fuel-based cogeneration the EEG levy is to be reduced by 40%, following an agreement between the federal government and the EU Commission.

  19. Feasibility study of renewable energy resources and optimization of electrical hybrid energy systems: Case study for Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazelpour Farivar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energies are increasingly seen as the best solution to a growing global population demanding affordable access to electricity while reducing the need for fossil fuels. Country of Iran has vast untapped solar, wind, geothermal and hydroelectric sources that hold the potential to meet domestic needs. Renewable energy is also essential to Iran as it will curb massive air pollution. In this paper economical and feasibility study of various hybrid systems are performed by using HOMER software model for supplying electricity to the Engineering Department of Islamic Azad University. For this study, annual electricity demand of the university is 1,174,935 kWh with a peak demand of about 331 kW, average wind speeds, based on hourly data during the period of eleven years (2000-2010, are between 3 to 5 m/s in all months of the year. For solar radiation, six models are evaluated to select the best model for estimation of the daily global solar radiation (GSR on a horizontal surface in the study location. Among these six models, H/HO=a+b (S/S0+ c(S/S02 is chosen as the most optimum model for estimating solar irradiation. The results indicate that among the three hybrid systems for fulfilling electrical energy needs, the Wind/Diesel/Battery hybrid system with 9 wind turbines (20 kW, one diesel generator (300 kW, 50 batteries, and 50 kW power converters with net present cost of $4,281,800 and cost of energy of 0.285 $/kWh is the most economically efficient hybrid system. (based on 2015 US dollar.

  20. Hybrid mini-grid systems - distributed generation systems for communities based on renewable energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise creation Sociological (Cultural) Facilitation Governance facilitation Capacity development Intervention measures Other Conditions Policy Sanitation legislation Roads Markets Water Telecomms. etc Environmental externalities CDM... (supply side) • intervention measures to stimulate new activities • these intervention measures must take into account other conditions such as markets, water, infrastructure, telecommunications etc • sociological facilitation to ensure community...

  1. World energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    As energy is the main "fuel" for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC) has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER) 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  2. World energy resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As energy is the main “fuel” for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  3. Utilizing a Flexibility Interface for Distributed Energy Resources Through a Cloud-Based Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orda, Lasse Dreisig; Bach, Jesper; Pedersen, Anders Bro;

    2013-01-01

    on the control itself and not the more practical network- and data management issues that follows trying to handle such huge portfolios. This papers covers a cloud based solution to the aforementioned issues, greatly aiding aggregators scale to meet future demands. It also includes a flexibility interface...

  4. 1982 Oregon energy resource manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, R.; Ebert, J. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    This manual is divided into three distinct sections. Part one contains 40 passive solar home plans designed for the Pacific Northwest by Oregon architects and designers. Floor plans and exterior renderings of multi-family and single-family dwellings, earth sheltered and bermed designs, and light commercial structures are included. The degree of solar contribution each residence achieves is graphically presented for ease of understanding. Part two, renewable-energy-resource guide, is primarily designed as a locator to indepth publications that explain specific energy resources in detail. It contains illustrated book reviews of pertinent private and government publications available. Various tables, forms, diagrams, energy system evaluation criteria, an illustrated glossary, BPA energy programs, utility programs, financial outlooks and non-profit organizations are included. The product locator index makes up part three. This indexed directory contains the listings of businesses, including the address, phone number, contact person and a 30 to 50 word description of the product or services currently offered. These renewable energy companies range from architectural and engineering services to research and development firms.

  5. A Carbon Exergy Tax Evaluation Based on the Efficient Use of Energy Resources: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Santarelli

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available

    An instrument to promote the CO2 emission reductions, taking the Kyoto Protocol goal into account, can be the assignment to energy conversion plants of a monetary charge linked to their specific emission intensity. Once the choice of a charge is defined, the next problem is the choice of a strategy to determine the amount of the imposed charge, named Carbon Tax (CT.

    In this paper an analytical procedure for the Carbon Tax evaluation is proposed and applied. This approach is based on the concept of Efficiency Penalty of the energy system, that represents the evaluation of the cost of the exergy destroyed inside the system and the cost of the exergy rejected in the biosphere with the plant wastes; the Efficiency Penalty term is coupled with the evaluation of the Index of CO2 Emission, which connects the amount of the CO2 emitted by the plant with the Second Law efficiency of the plant itself. The evaluated charge on the CO2 emissions is defined as Carbon Exergy Tax (CET. The procedure is applied here to the analysis of a 700 MW combined plant burning fossil fuels in two different configurations: a typical natural gas fired combined plant, and a coal fired combined plant burning coal in a Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustor (PFBC.

  6. A wave energy resource assessment in the China's seas based on multi-satellite merged radar altimeter data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yong; ZHANG Jie; MENG Junmin; WANG Jing

    2015-01-01

    Wave energy resources are abundant in both offshore and nearshore areas of the China's seas. A reliable assessment of the wave energy resources must be performed before they can be exploited. First, for a water depth in offshore waters of China, a parameterized wave power density model that considers the effects of the water depth is introduced to improve the calculating accuracy of the wave power density. Second, wave heights and wind speeds on the surface of the China's seas are retrieved from an AVISO multi-satellite altim-eter data set for the period from 2009 to 2013. Three mean wave period inversion models are developed and used to calculate the wave energy period. Third, a practical application value for developing the wave energy is analyzed based on buoy data. Finally, the wave power density is then calculated using the wave field data. Using the distribution of wave power density, the energy level frequency, the time variability indexes, the to-tal wave energy and the distribution of total wave energy density according to a wave state, the offshore wave energy in the China's seas is assessed. The results show that the areas of abundant and stable wave energy are primarily located in the north-central part of the South China Sea, the Luzon Strait, southeast of Taiwan in the China's seas; the wave power density values in these areas are approximately 14.0–18.5 kW/m. The wave energy in the China’s seas presents obvious seasonal variations and optimal seasons for a wave energy utilization are in winter and autumn. Except for very coastal waters, in other sea areas in the China's seas, the energy is primarily from the wave state with 0.5 m≤Hs≤4 m, 4 s≤Te≤10 s whereHs is a significant wave height andTe is an energy period; within this wave state, the wave energy accounts for 80% above of the total wave energy. This characteristic is advantageous to designing wave energy convertors (WECs). The practical application value of the wave energy is higher

  7. International Data Base for the U.S. Renewable Energy Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1986-05-01

    The International Data Base for the US Renewable Energy Industry was developed to provide the US renewable energy industry with background data for identifying and analyzing promising foreign market opportunities for their products and services. Specifically, the data base provides the following information for 161 developed and developing countries: (1) General Country Data--consisting of general energy indicators; (2) Energy Demand Data--covering commercial primary energy consumption; (3) Energy Resource Data--identifying annual average insolation, wind power, and river flow data; (4) Power System Data--indicating a wide range of electrical parameters; and (5) Business Data--including currency and credit worthiness data.

  8. Strategy for the development of coal-based energy resources of Russia at the beginning of the third millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubetskoy, K.N. [IPCOM RAN, RUS-Moskva, Rossija (Russian Federation); Drebenstedt, C. [Freiberg Univ. of Mining and Technology, Freiberg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The Russian coal industry has a good opportunity for broad-scale high-rate development and growth of coal product consumption. This can be realized with the expected growth of industrial production in Russia and the adequate development of the energy sector in the country. The 'Energy Strategy of Russia for the period up to the year 2020' anticipates a substantial and gradual growth of coal importance with the expansion of the annual coal output from 250 to 500 mio t and more. Realization of the optimistic scenario of the Russian coal industry development in the forthcoming 20 years must be supported by the development and broad-scale application of low-waste and resource-saving technologies for the development and utilization of coal-based energy resources providing for utmost possible minimization, elimination and most comprehensive utilization of wastes and saving of mineral resources (through more complete extraction and comprehensive use of principal and associated minerals), with a parallel saving of labour and material resources. This will be achieved by the development and application of clean technologies, e.g. use of the surface miner, coal-water fuel, high-sulphur-coal processing and methane utilization. (orig.)

  9. Electric car with solar and wind energy may change the environment and economy: A tool for utilizing the renewable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanhua

    2014-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues are among the most important problems of public concern. Wind and solar energy may be one of the alternative solutions to overcome energy shortage and to reduce greenhouse gaseous emission. Using electric cars in cities can significantly improve the air quality there. Through our analyses and modeling on the basis of the National Centers for Environment Prediction data we confirm that the amount of usable solar and wind energy far exceeds the world's total energy demand, considering the feasibility of the technology being used. Storing the surplus solar and wind energy and then releasing this surplus on demand is an important approach to maintaining uninterrupted solar- and wind-generated electricity. This approach requires us to be aware of the available solar and wind energy in advance in order to manage their storage. Solar and wind energy depends on weather conditions and we know weather forecasting. This implies that solar and wind energy is predictable. In this article, we demonstrate how solar and wind energy can be forecasted. We provide a web tool that can be used by all to arrive at solar and wind energy amount at any location in the world. The tool is available at http://www.renewableenergyst.org. The website also provides additional information on renewable energy, which is useful to a wide range of audiences, including students, educators, and the general public.

  10. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J F

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary mate...

  11. Hydrokinetic energy resource estimates of River ERO at Lafiagi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrokinetic energy resource estimates of River ERO at Lafiagi, Kwara State, North-Central Nigeria. ... Exploiting the kinetic energy of water currents is considered a smart and cost-effective renewable energy solution without ... Article Metrics.

  12. Distributed energy resources in grid interactive AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Guerrero, Josep; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Increased penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) and large-scale deployment of renewable energy sources are challenging the entire architecture of traditional power system. Microgrid, featuring higher flexibility and reliability, becomes an attractive candidate for the configuration of...

  13. Soybean Biomass as a Renewable Energy Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Kiš

    2009-12-01

    The knowledge and use of soybean growing has a great importance for the development of certain regions in Croatia, as well as on the employment rate and entrepreneur encouragement. It would be even more important to start using unused land areas. Soybean growing makes it possible to introduce “the third culture“ (except for wheat and corn, which will result in additional and safer profit for farmers in Croatia, a more favourable use of agricultural machines, and the profitability of production.

  14. Wind as a renewable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawsey, R. A.; Ferraro, R. J.

    1988-12-01

    A description of the United States wind energy technology status, a discussion of recent milestones achieved in wind power, and a call for action in order for competitive wind systems to become practical in an international marketplace is presented in this report. An immediate opportunity to initiate a joint venture project with the government, equipment developers, equipment manufacturers, utilities, and the Electric Power Research Institute is described. The key technical areas of materials technology for reduced airfoil fatigue, airfoil design for optimum new-site performance, and power electronics for variable-speed wind turbines are highlighted.

  15. Integration of Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This Study proposes the feasibility of proposed restructured power system for the integration of distributed energy resources. Once the proposed power system network takes place, it will be able to provide opportunities for sustained economic growth. Main objectives of the proposed network are maximization of Distributed Generation (DGs penetration and decarbonization of electric utility. IEEE-14 bus test system with proposed configuration has been undertaken for MATLAB® Simulations, results shows that proposed power system configuration allows the operation of conventional energy generation and green energy generation efficiently. The results obtained from MATLAB ® simulations are compared with genetic algorithm based optimization approach.

  16. Into the new electricity age with Optimal integration of decentralized energy resources - The FENIX Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cech, Heinz; Fuchs, Erich; Heher, Anton; Ilo, Albana; Sezi, Tevfik; Trimmel, Johann; Werner, Thomas; Marti-Rodriguez, Juan

    2010-09-15

    Decentralized Energy Resources (DERs) will play a significant role in future energy scenarios. Today, the 'plug and forget' connection principle for renewable energy resources has the goal to maximize the active power transfer, without using their real capabilities. Other DERs based on fossil fuels are only activated in emergency situations. This paper describes the results of a demonstration project, where DERs installed in a large distribution area are utilized for participating in the day ahead energy market, frequency and voltage support for the transmission system, voltage support at specific distribution locations and feeders, and stability support in emergency situations.

  17. Towards a European renewable-based energy system enabled by smart grid: status and prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    Renewable energy plays an important role in the future energy framework of the European Union. The European Union will reach a 20% share of renewable energy in total energy consumption and increase energy efficiency by 20% by 2020. Smart grids will be the backbone of the future electricity network...... for integrating the high penetration of renewable energy resources. The plans and status of renewable energy resources development and energy policy in Europe are introduced in this paper. The development of smart grid technologies in the European Union is also discussed. The role of Denmark, one of the leading...... countries for developing renewable energy technologies and using renewable energy resources has been emphasized in this paper. ©2011 State Grid Electric Power Research Institute Press....

  18. Development direction of energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, A. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Architecture and Civil Engineering

    2002-01-01

    According to the prediction of the developmental trend of the economy and population of the world, the mineral energy resource is faced with exhaustion. Exploitation and combustion of minerals are seriously polluting the environment. In addition, the production areas of mineral resources are not the energy consumption areas. Therefore, the energy resource of the world is at the stage of structural reorganisation. The exploitation and utilisation of green energy resources such as solar energy, wind energy, oceanic energy, geothermic energy, biologic energy and hydrogen in China are introduced briefly. The green energy resources have abundant reserves. Their utilisation is propitious to environment protection, and the relevant technique has come to a generalised stage. It is believed that green energy should be the developmental direction of energy resource and that the speciality of green energy ought to be set up in energy resources colleges to train the required personnel. 10 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NREL's Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DERTF) is a working laboratory for interconnection and systems integration testing. This state-of-the-art facility...

  20. Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NREL's Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DERTF) is a working laboratory for interconnection and systems integration testing. This state-of-the-art facility...

  1. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  2. System Integration of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben

    Besides their primary product – electricity – large central power stations supply socalled ancillary services that are necessary to maintain a secure and stable operation state of the electric power system. As the need for electricity from these units is being displaced by renewable energy sources...... units, including the ICT solutions that can facilitate the integration. Specifically, the international standard "IEC 61850-7-420 Communications systems for Distributed Energy Resources" is considered as a possible brick in the solution. This standard has undergone continuous development...... have been established. These models can be used for future investigations as well. A mixture of empirical and analytical methods have been used when defining the models and their parameters. The project concludes that distributed energy resources, including flexible demand, can contribute significantly...

  3. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood

    2011-06-01

    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  4. Energy concepts for self-supplying communities based on local and renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens-Phillip

    2016-01-01

    settings. The current case study presents a community energy concept for the inner-city of Elmshorn. By estimating the energy demand, consideration of local energy saving potentials, and available energy potentials within the community, it was possible to develop several energy system variants...... that virtually allow a heating energy and electricity supply fully based on local, renewable energy resources. The most feasible and cost-efficient variant is the use of local food production waste in a CHP plant feeding a district heating grid. The overall aim is to show that a self-sufficient heat...

  5. Evaluation of offshore wind energy resources for power generation based on scatterometer and SAR data along the Indian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun Kumar, S. V. V.; Prajapati, Jagdish; Kumar, Raj

    2016-05-01

    India has the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world, mainly from onshore wind farms. As on today, there are no offshore wind power farms installed in the country. However, with the utilization of onshore and the proposed offshore wind farms, it is expected to reach 60,000 MW generation capacities by 2022. A large amount of data is necessary to assess the wind potential for these future wind farms. Offshore buoys and meteorological masts are both scarce and expensive. In the present study, we have utilized QuikSCAT (2000-2009), OSCAT (2010-2014), ASCAT (2012-2015) scatterometer and RISAT-1 SAR (2012-2014) data to evaluate the possible wind energy resources along the Indian coast. Orbit wise scatterometer wind products have been processed to generate long-term synoptic monthly means along the entire coast. The monthly average wind energy density (in W/m2) has been computed and extended up to 80 m height (standard wind turbine height) using power law. As scatterometer data are relatively coarser and unavailable near the coast, high resolution winds have been retrieved using RISAT-1 SAR data. However, due to inherent limitations of having lesser swath and data availability of SAR, presently the study has been conducted along Gujarat coast. Then, unit capacity of wind power was computed and potential sites are identified for the wind farms. The data is very useful in identifying potential sites of wind energy in the coastal and offshore regions. We are planning to extend this study for the entire Indian coast in the near future.

  6. 2007 Survey of Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This WEC study is a unique comprehensive compilation of global energy resources. Complementing the BP Statistical Review and the World Energy Outlook, it details 16 key energy resources with the latest data provided by 96 WEC Member Committees worldwide. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, NGOs, industry, academia and the finance community. This 21st edition is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy.

  7. 非再生能源资源使用者成本:一个新的估计%A New Estimation of User Costs for Non-Renewable Energy Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾先峰; 李国平

    2013-01-01

    Accurate estimates and compensation of user costs is critical for the sustainable use of renewable energy resources, resource tax reform, and China' s industrial transition. Here, we modify the traditional approach of calculating resource user costs, first put forward by El Serafy in 1981, by taking into account resource waste factors and the impact of inflation. In addition, we further improve deficits in existing research into index selection and data processing. We produce new estimates of the user costs of coal, oil, and gas extraction in China from 1985 to 2010. The results show that the user cost of coal resources is higher than previous results. After comparing estimated user costs with actual resource taxes on coal, oil, and gas exploitation, we found that current resource taxes only partially compensate for user costs. Under the 1% and 3% discount rate, user cost compensation rates are 3.02% and 21.5% respectively, and the rates for oil and gas are 3.81% and 7.88%. In order to fully internalize resource user costs, it is necessary to increase the total resource tax on coal mining from the current 9.2 CNY per ton to 42.7 CNY per ton, and to raise the total ad valorem resource tax on oil and gas to 21.06%. Chinese resource tax reform requires comprehensive coordinated reform of the tax and fee systems for mineral resources. Policymakers need to consider structural adjustment of the tax system and mining resources. The government should improve resource taxes in order to fully compensate user costs and realize inter-generational justice and reduce the general tax of mining resources.%对使用者成本的准确估算与补偿是非再生能源资源可持续利用的关键.本文对传统的使用者成本法做了两方面修正:一是考虑了资源开采中的耗损问题;二是强调了通货膨胀对使用者成本的影响.采用修正的使用者成本法计算了1985年-2010年中国煤炭、石油天然气等资源的使用者成本.研究发现,

  8. Unconventional Energy Resources: 2015 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Energy Minerals Division

    2015-12-15

    This paper includes 10 summaries for energy resource commodities including coal and unconventional resources, and an analysis of energy economics and technology prepared by committees of the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Unconventional energy resources, as used in this report, are those energy resources that do not occur in discrete oil or gas reservoirs held in structural or stratigraphic traps in sedimentary basins. Such resources include coalbed methane, oil shale, U and Th deposits and associated rare earth elements of industrial interest, geothermal, gas shale and liquids, tight gas sands, gas hydrates, and bitumen and heavy oil. Current U.S. and global research and development activities are summarized for each unconventional energy resource commodity in the topical sections of this report, followed by analysis of unconventional energy economics and technology.

  9. Development of synthetic analysis program concerning on the safety of energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S. H.; Choi, S. S.; Cheong, Y. H.; Ahn, S. H.; Chang, W. J. [Atomic Creative Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Methodology development of synthetic analysis of energy resources: build system methodology of synthetic analysis of energy resources. Development of web-based enquete program, develop web-based enquete program to support synthetic analysis of energy resources. Aggregation Software development, develop AHP algorithm and aggregation software for the synthetic analysis of energy resources.

  10. Quality goals for energy resources - an innovative approach to transposing the EU requirements for energy efficiency and use of renewables to the national level; Energietraegerqualitaetsziele - ein innovativer Ansatz zur Weitergabe der Synergie von Energieeffizienz- und REN-Verpflichtungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhmann, H.J.; Lechtenboehmer, S.; Venjakob, J. [Wuppertal Inst. fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH (Germany). Forschungsgruppe 1 - Zukuenftige Energie- und Mobilitaetsstrukturen

    2008-06-15

    One of the main commitments contained in the EU package of 23 January 2008 for the realisation of the so-called 20-20-20 goals is to increase the share of renewable energies in the energy mix. This is to be achieved by means of a EU directive to be transposed into national law. The directive already exists as a draft. Although there is still some discussion about the alternatives of having either an EU-wide uniform system based on the trade in quotas or permits or national promotion systems, ultimately there is likely to be some form of coexistence at the national level of legislation similar to the German Electricity Feed Law on one side and quota-based systems on the other. With this situation in mind the following article explores innovative options for member states given the new legal situation at the EU level.

  11. Wave energy resource assessment and review of the technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Nik, W.B.: Sulaiman, O.O. [Maritime Technology Department, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia); Rosliza, R. [TATI University College, Teluk Kalong, 24000 Kemaman, Terengganu, (Malaysia); Prawoto, Y. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Muzathik, A.M. [Institute of Technology, University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2011-07-01

    Increase in human population has increased the demand for more energy. Technical improvement in transport and electrical appliances gives a lot of facilities to our life nowadays. Still we need to generate or convert this energy. Energy generation based on conventional technologies is always accompanied by environmental pollution. It gives overheating and greenhouse effects that later result in biosphere degradation. Nowadays sea wave energy is being increasingly regarded in many countries as a major and promising resource. It is renewable and environmentally friendly. In this paper wave parameters related to wave energy is analyzed. Then the paper describes the development of many different types of wave-energy converters. Several topics are addressed; the characterization of the wave energy resource, range of devices and how such devices can be organized into classes.

  12. 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scott, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Draxl, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report, the 2016 Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessment for the United States, was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and updates a previous national resource assessment study, and refines and reaffirms that the available wind resource is sufficient for offshore wind to be a large-scale contributor to the nation's electric energy supply.

  13. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.

  14. Path Renewal Method in Filtering Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ho Cho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In applications of wireless sensor networks, there are many security issues. Attackers can create false reports and transmit the reports to the networks. These false reports can lead not only false alarms, but also the depletion of limited energy resources. In order to filter out such false reports during the forwarding process, Ye et al. proposed the statistical en-route filtering (SEF. Several research efforts to enhance the efficiency of SEF have been made. Especially, the path selection method proposed by Sun et al. can improve the detection power of SEF by considering the information on the filtering keys of and distances of upstream paths. However, such selection mechanism could lead to favored paths in heavy traffic, which would result in unbalanced energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a path renewal method to provide load balancing for sensor networks in terms of energy consumption. In our method, a node renews its upstream path to save energy resources if the remaining energy of and the communication traffic of the node exceed some threshold values. We show the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of balanced energy consumption and filtering power by providing simulation results.

  15. Interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    This is a presentation on interconnection of distributed energy resources, including the relationships between different aspects of interconnection, best practices and lessons learned from different areas of the U.S., and an update on technical advances and standards for interconnection.

  16. GIS-Based Approach for Municipal Renewable Energy Planning to Support Post-Earthquake Revitalization: A Japanese Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianna Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a regional-level study conducted in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan (Wang et al., 2014 [1], this paper presents an approach for municipal renewable energy planning and its experimental application in a Japanese municipality using a Geographic Information System (GIS. The proposed approach is comprised of local issue identification, renewable energy potential evaluation and visualization, site comparison and scenario analysis. GIS was used to analyze and visualize solar, wind and biomass (forest and agriculture residue potential within Kawamata Town, Fukushima, Japan. According to local conditions, all potential sites were coded and then compared based on different criteria, such as solar radiation, wind speed, slope and land uses, among others. In the scenario analysis section, two scenarios, “renewable energy prioritized” and ”evacuation area prioritized”, were adopted and compared. The scenarios are altered in terms of placement and the number of renewable energy facilities inside and outside evacuation areas within the town. The results generated through the proposed approach can provide information on local potentials of renewable energy resources, as well as renewable energy development alternatives at the municipal level. They can be used in the interactive dialogue for the municipal renewable energy planning process, to help to fulfill the municipality’s post-earthquake energy developmental vision.

  17. Hawai‘i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-09-30

    HNEI has conducted research to address a number of issues important to move Hawai‘i to greater use of intermittent renewable and distributed energy resource (DER) technologies in order to facilitate greater use of Hawai‘i's indigenous renewable energy resources. Efforts have been concentrated on the Islands of Hawai‘i, Maui, and O‘ahu, focusing in three areas of endeavor: 1) Energy Modeling and Scenario Analysis (previously called Energy Road mapping); 2) Research, Development, and Validation of Renewable DER and Microgrid Technologies; and 3) Analysis and Policy. These efforts focused on analysis of the island energy systems and development of specific candidate technologies for future insertion into an integrated energy system, which would lead to a more robust transmission and distribution system in the state of Hawai‘i and eventually elsewhere in the nation.

  18. Sustainable energy resources and economics in Iceland and Greenland

    CERN Document Server

    Kristjánsdóttir, Helga

    2015-01-01

    This book provides fascinating examples of the ways renewable and sustainable energy can support economic growth, which will be illuminating for academic researchers and students, as well as those interested in green investment opportunities. The distinctive glacial, volcanic and oceanic environments of Iceland and Greenland supply abundant renewable energy resources in the form of hydropower and geothermal energy. As one of the few nations in the world with 100% renewable electricity production, Iceland is a compelling case study of a sustainable energy driven economy. Consideration of Green

  19. Draft for an European Parliament and Council directive to foster domestic market of electricity produced from renewable energy resources; Proposition de Directive du Parlement Europeen et du Conseil relative a la promotion de l'electricite produite a partir de sources d'energie renouvelables sur le marche interieur de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-06

    This document contains two parts, an exposition of motives and the proposal. The draft of directive has as objective the creation of an EU frame for boosting on a medium term the electricity production from renewable energy resources (RER). It presents a number of important measures to implement the commitment of reducing the greenhouse gas releases accepted by EU in Kyoto, particularly to increase twice, i.e., from 6% to 12%, the net domestic energy consumption, as established by the White Book on renewable energies and approved by the European Council in May 1998. RER include: Wind Power, Solar Energy, Geothermal Energy, Wave Power, Tidal Power, Hydroelectric Power (of capacity lower than 10 MW) and Biomass The exposition of motives contains six sections: - 1. Introduction; - 2. Detailed outlook of the proposal;- 3. Expertise panel; - 4. Impact on enterprises; - 5. Consulting during drafting the proposal; - 6. Conclusions. The second part displays the proposal in the following six chapters: - 1. Domain of application and definitions; -2. National objectives of the consumption of electricity produced from renewable energy resources; -3. Access of electricity produced from renewable energy resources to the interior domestic energy market; -4. Management procedures; -5. Questions concerning the distribution grid; -6. Final directions. An Appendix is given presenting the indicative figures as objectives of the Member States. So, the RER fraction in the total electricity consumption in the Member States in 2010 as percentage/TWh should looks like: Austria, 78.1/55.3; Belgium, 6.0/6.3; Denmark, 29.0/12.9; Finland, 35.0/33.7; France, 21.0/112.9; Germany, 12.5/76.4; Greece, 20.1/14.5; Ireland, 13.2/4.5; Italy, 25.0/89.6; Luxemburg, 5.7/0.5; Netherlands, 12.0/15.9; Portugal, 45.6/28.3; Spain, 29.4/76.6; Sweden, 60.0/97.5; United Kingdom, 10.0/50.0. Thus, the global figures for the European Union would be 22.1/674.9.

  20. Power Electronics and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Sera, Dezso

    2007-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources...

  1. Renewable-emodin-based wearable supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengfei; Chen, Tinghan; Yang, Yun; Wang, Hua; Luo, Zihao; Yang, Jie; Fu, Haoran; Guo, Lin

    2017-01-26

    With the increasing dependency of human life on wearable electronics, the development of corresponding energy-storage devices is being insensitively pursued. Considering the special usage locations of wearable energy-storage devices, the safety and non-toxicity of electrode materials adopted should be of concern. In this work, a novel all-solid-state wearable supercapacitor based on the renewable-biomolecule emodin, naturally derivable from traditional Chinese herbal rhubarb or Polygonum cuspidatum, was successfully fabricated. Such supercapacitors exhibited excellent charge storage and rate capability with great flexibility and could be integrated into wearable electronics. As a proof of concept, a strap-shaped supercapacitor was fabricated, and it was capable of powering an electronic watch. Our work will promote the development of safe wearable electronics.

  2. Best mix of primary energy resources by renewable energy and fossil fuel with CCS in view of security,stability and sustainability——A vision on hydrogen supply chain by organic chemical hydride method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junichi; SAKAGUCHI

    2010-01-01

    The best mix scenario by renewable energy and fossil fuel with or without CCS(Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage) would be a solution to compromise Greenhouse Gases emission issue caused by carbon dioxide(CO2),and depletion of crude oil and natural gas reserves.As fossil fuel with pre-combustion CCS means hydrogen manufacturing and also hydrogen can be produced via electrolysis with renewable energy,it is desirable to establish transportation and storage systems of hydrogen as a clean energy.In this paper a vision on Hydrogen Supply Chain by Organic Chemical Hydride(OCH) Method as well as comparison of CCS configuration are discussed.

  3. Smoothing out the volatility of South Africa’s wind and solar energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, Crescent

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past, renewables were mainly driven by the US, Europe and China, but South Africa is slowly picking up. This presentation discusses South Africa's wind and solar resources as alternative energy resources....

  4. Assessment of grid-friendly collective optimization framework for distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Robinson, Matthew; Heine, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in the advanced control of renewable energy resources and distributed generation systems are resulting in pressures to adopt tariffs of increasing complexity. Independently of the tariff structure, utility customers can programmatically optimize their schedule consumption for ...

  5. Robust Adaptive Synchronization of the Energy Resource System with Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different chaos synchronization methods are proposed for a class of energy resource demand supply-system with input constraint. Firstly, chaotic synchronization is achieved for a class of energy resource demand supply system with known system parameters based on the Lyapunov theory. Secondly, an adaptive control approach is investigated for a class of energy resource demand supply system with input constraint, and the parameters of the system are unknown based on the Lyapunov stability and robust adaptive theory. To address the input constraint, new auxiliary signals and design systems are employed. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  6. WEB-BASED DATABASE ON RENEWAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    As U.S. utilities continue to shore up their aging infrastructure, renewal needs now represent over 43% of annual expenditures compared to new construction for drinking water distribution and wastewater collection systems (Underground Construction [UC], 2016). An increased unders...

  7. A compact versatile matrix converter to integrate various energy resources to utility network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng;

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a multi-inputs versatile matrix converter (VMC) to integrate various energy resources and energy storages to a power grid. The VMC is developed based on a traditional indirect matrix converter (IMC) and a nineswitch converter. The six input terminals provide flexibility...... for the connection of two three-phase AC sources or one threephase AC and three DC sources, which make it possible to integrate both DC and AC renewable sources in a single gridtied power electronics interface. The control and modulation schemes are proposed to extract the commanded current from the input AC...

  8. Terminology Guideline for Classifying Offshore Wind Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to establish a clear and consistent vocabulary for conveying offshore wind resource potential and to interpret this vocabulary in terms that are familiar to the oil and gas (O&G) industry. This involves clarifying and refining existing definitions of offshore wind energy resource classes. The terminology developed in this guideline represents one of several possible sets of vocabulary that may differ with respect to their purpose, data availability, and comprehensiveness. It was customized to correspond with established offshore wind practices and existing renewable energy industry terminology (e.g. DOE 2013, Brown et al. 2015) while conforming to established fossil resource classification as best as possible. The developers of the guideline recognize the fundamental differences that exist between fossil and renewable energy resources with respect to availability, accessibility, lifetime, and quality. Any quantitative comparison between fossil and renewable energy resources, including offshore wind, is therefore limited. For instance, O&G resources are finite and there may be significant uncertainty associated with the amount of the resource. In contrast, aboveground renewable resources, such as offshore wind, do not generally deplete over time but can vary significantly subhourly, daily, seasonally, and annually. The intent of this guideline is to make these differences transparent and develop an offshore wind resource classification that conforms to established fossil resource classifications where possible. This guideline also provides methods to quantitatively compare certain offshore wind energy resources to O&G resource classes for specific applications. Finally, this guideline identifies areas where analogies to established O&G terminology may be inappropriate or subject to misinterpretation.

  9. Energy resources in the CDCC member countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This is a background document describing the energy resources of the Caribbean nations. Under the heading of conventional-energy resources, petroleum, natural gas, coal, hydropower, thermal electricity, and fuel-wood and charcoal resources are considered. Non-conventional energy resources of 5 tyupes are examined: solar, geothermal, nuclear, wind, and biological.

  10. Energy Resources in the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tomabechi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent statistics indicate that in 2005 the world consumed about 0.5 ZJ (ZJ = 1021 Joules of energy. If one assumes that the future world population stabilizes at 10 billions, and the people consume a similar amount of energy per capita to that of the people in the presently developed countries, the world will need about 2 ZJ a year. A recent survey of the available future energy resources indicates that the energies recoverable from coal, oil and gas are only 23 ZJ, 6.7 ZJ and 6.4 ZJ, respectively. Other energy resources such as solar and wind have problems of fluctuation due to the weather conditions. However, the energy expected from known Uranium resources by breeder reactors is 227 ZJ and that from Lithium by fusion reactors is more than 175 ZJ. Therefore, it is important to make efforts to develop and use breeder reactors and fusion reactors to supply a major part of the energy need in the future.

  11. Power electronics for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources......, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system....

  12. Mapping the Future of Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    This EC-LEDS fact sheet describes the NREL Geospatial Toolkit (GsT), an open-source, map-based software application that provide an intuitive, user-friendly interface for visualizing data and renewable energy potential. The GsT is a country-specific tool that maps renewable energy resources (e.g., for solar, wind, and biomass) in relation to enabling infrastructure like roads and transmission lines, providing necessary information for deploying new clean energy generation.

  13. Multi-objective generation scheduling with hybrid energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Manas

    In economic dispatch (ED) of electric power generation, the committed generating units are scheduled to meet the load demand at minimum operating cost with satisfying all unit and system equality and inequality constraints. Generation of electricity from the fossil fuel releases several contaminants into the atmosphere. So the economic dispatch objective can no longer be considered alone due to the environmental concerns that arise from the emissions produced by fossil fueled electric power plants. This research is proposing the concept of environmental/economic generation scheduling with traditional and renewable energy sources. Environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is a multi-objective problem with conflicting objectives since emission minimization is conflicting with fuel cost minimization. Production and consumption of fossil fuel and nuclear energy are closely related to environmental degradation. This causes negative effects to human health and the quality of life. Depletion of the fossil fuel resources will also be challenging for the presently employed energy systems to cope with future energy requirements. On the other hand, renewable energy sources such as hydro and wind are abundant, inexhaustible and widely available. These sources use native resources and have the capacity to meet the present and the future energy demands of the world with almost nil emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The costs of fossil fuel and renewable energy are also heading in opposite directions. The economic policies needed to support the widespread and sustainable markets for renewable energy sources are rapidly evolving. The contribution of this research centers on solving the economic dispatch problem of a system with hybrid energy resources under environmental restrictions. It suggests an effective solution of renewable energy to the existing fossil fueled and nuclear electric utilities for the cheaper and cleaner production of electricity with hourly

  14. Polymers based on renewable raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic raw materials for the chemical industry, which also means for polymer production, are mineral oil and natural gas. Mineral oil and natural gas resources are limited so that sooner or later they will be consumed. For this reason alternative, renewable raw materials for the chemical industry have become the object of intensive investigation all over the world. Some of the results of these investigations concerning renewable raw materials for the production of polymer materials are presented in this paper.

  15. Wind Energy Resource Assessment of the Caribbean and Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DL Elliott; CI Aspliden; GL Gower; CG Holladay, MN Schwartz

    1987-04-01

    A wind energy resource assessment of the Caribbean and Central America has identified many areas with good to outstanding wind resource potential for wind turbine applications. Annual average wind resource maps and summary tables have been developed for 35 island/country areas throughout the Caribbean and Central America region. The wind resource maps highlight the locations of major resource areas and provide estimates of the wind energy resource potential for typical well-exposed sites in these areas. The average energy in the wind flowing in the layer near the ground is expressed as a wind power class: the greater the average wind energy, the higher the wind power class. The summary tables that are included with each of the 35 island/country wind energy maps provide information on the frequency distribution of the wind speeds (expressed as estimates of the Weibull shape factor, k) and seasonal variations in the wind resource for the major wind resource areas identified on the maps. A new wind power class legend has been developed for relating the wind power classes to values of mean wind power density, mean wind speed, and Weibull k. Guidelines are presented on how to adjust these values to various heights above ground for different roughness and terrain characteristics. Information evaluated in preparing the assessment included existing meteorological data from airports and other weather stations, and from ships and buoys in offshore and coastal areas. In addition, new data from recent measurement sites established for wind energy siting studies were obtained for a few areas of the Caribbean. Other types of information evaluated in the assessment were climatological data and maps on winds aloft, surface pressure, air flow, and topography. The various data were screened and evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. Much of the surface data from airports and other land-based weather stations were determined to be from sheltered

  16. Auctions for coastal energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Robert M.

    It is becoming increasingly common to allocate public resources to the private sector for the purpose of developing these resources. One of the earliest uses of auctions in the U.S. for allocating rights to public resources was in the offshore oil and gas industry. The U.S. Federal government, through the Department of Interior (DOI), has used auctions to allocate development rights to offshore oil and gas resources to the private sector since the 1950's. Since then many things have changed. Oil and gas markets have gone through boom and bust cycles, giant technological advances in extraction and assessment have taken place, and alternative energy based in the coastal zone is now in demand in markets as well. There has been an enormous amount of research into the drivers of bidder behavior in auctions and optimal auction design in the last 60 years as well. Throughout all of this, the DOI has continued to use basically the same exact auction design to allocate oil and gas leases. The U.S. offshore oil and gas resources sold by the Department of Interior have accounted for more than $65 billion in revenue since the program started. These offshore resources are an important source of government revenue and national wealth. Additionally, the expansion of the energy sector offshore has enormous potential for electricity generation in the U.S., estimated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as approaching 54 gigawatts by 2030 (U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). Taken together, the DOI controls access to a large part of the future of energy in the U.S. The research herein assesses the auction formats used to allocate both fossil fuels and renewable resources on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The first manuscript looks at the current method used by the DOI to allocate oil and gas leases on the OCS, and is primarily interested in how bidders behave in this environment. Using latent class estimation techniques to separate distinct bidding behavior in a laboratory

  17. Process Design and Evaluation for Chemicals Based on Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing

    One of the key steps in process design is choosing between alternative technologies, especially for processes producing bulk and commodity chemicals. Recently, driven by the increasing oil prices and diminishing reserves, the production of bulk and commodity chemicals from renewable feedstocks has...... development of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks. As an example, this thesis especially focuses on applying the methodology in process design and evaluation of the synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from the renewable feedstock glucose/fructose. The selected example is part of the chemoenzymatic...... gained considerable interest. Renewable feedstocks usually cannot be converted into fuels and chemicals with existing process facilities due to the molecular functionality and variety of the most common renewable feedstock (biomass). Therefore new types of catalytic methods as well as new types...

  18. Utah-Based Washakie Renewable Energy, LLC Settles Renewable Fuel Standard Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) today announced a settlement with Utah-based Washakie Renewable Energy, LLC, that resolves allegations that the company generated more than 7.2 million inv

  19. A New Heuristic Providing an Effective Initial Solution for a Simulated Annealing approach to Energy Resource Scheduling in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Tiago M; Morais, Hugo; Castro, R.

    2014-01-01

    to be used in the energy resource scheduling methodology based on simulated annealing previously developed by the authors. The case study considers two scenarios with 1000 and 2000 electric vehicles connected in a distribution network. The proposed heuristics are compared with a deterministic approach......An intensive use of dispersed energy resources is expected for future power systems, including distributed generation, especially based on renewable sources, and electric vehicles. The system operation methods and tool must be adapted to the increased complexity, especially the optimal resource...... scheduling problem. Therefore, the use of metaheuristics is required to obtain good solutions in a reasonable amount of time. This paper proposes two new heuristics, called naive electric vehicles charge and discharge allocation and generation tournament based on cost, developed to obtain an initial solution...

  20. Coordinated Collaboration between Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Abdollahy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A power distribution feeder, where a heterogeneous set of distributed energy resources is deployed, is examined by simulation. The energy resources include PV, battery storage, natural gas GenSet, fuel cells, and active thermal storage for commercial buildings. The resource scenario considered is one that may exist in a not too distant future. Two cases of interaction between different resources are examined. One interaction involves a GenSet used to partially offset the duty cycle of a smoothing battery connected to a large PV system. The other example involves the coordination of twenty thermal storage devices, each associated with a commercial building. Storage devices are intended to provide maximum benefit to the building, but it is shown that this can have a deleterious effect on the overall system, unless the action of the individual storage devices is coordinated. A network based approach is also introduced to calculate some type of effectiveness metric to all available resources which take part in coordinated operation. The main finding is that it is possible to achieve synergy between DERs on a system; however this required a unified strategy to coordinate the action of all devices in a decentralized way.

  1. A GIS-Based Approach in Support of Spatial Planning for Renewable Energy: A Case Study of Fukushima, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianna Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach in support of spatial planning for renewable energy at the regional level. It aims to establish an elaborate and informative procedure, as well as integrated quantification and visualization, to support decision making. The proposed approach is composed of a set of sequential steps that include primary energy consumption estimation, renewable energy potential estimation, energy self-sufficiency analysis, and composite map preparation using Geographic Information System (GIS. GIS is used to analyze solar, wind, biomass, geothermal, and hydro-power potential within Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Potential sites are determined based on geographic, topographic, and land use constraints. Evacuees’ population and forest radiation levels are specifically considered in the context of consequent issues emanating from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear crisis. Energy self-sufficiency analysis has been conducted for years 2020 and 2030. A composite map showing potential sites and their interrelation to the above renewable energy resources has also been presented. These results may support decision making in regional renewable energy planning, by providing information on regional potentials and restrictions to different energy stakeholders. This can help to build an energy developmental vision, which can drive regional energy development towards sustainability. The proposed approach can also be applied to other Japanese municipalities or regions. It provides an example on how to establish local GIS databases through the utilization of various online open GIS resources in Japan.

  2. Interaction and Impact Studies for Distributed Energy Resource, Transactive Energy, and Electric Grid, using High Performance Computing ?based Modeling and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, B M

    2017-02-10

    The electric utility industry is undergoing significant transformations in its operation model, including a greater emphasis on automation, monitoring technologies, and distributed energy resource management systems (DERMS). With these changes and new technologies, while driving greater efficiencies and reliability, these new models may introduce new vectors of cyber attack. The appropriate cybersecurity controls to address and mitigate these newly introduced attack vectors and potential vulnerabilities are still widely unknown and performance of the control is difficult to vet. This proposal argues that modeling and simulation (M&S) is a necessary tool to address and better understand these problems introduced by emerging technologies for the grid. M&S will provide electric utilities a platform to model its transmission and distribution systems and run various simulations against the model to better understand the operational impact and performance of cybersecurity controls.

  3. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw Materials – Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the production and application of polymer materials based on renewable raw materials – biopolymers. It is pointed out that, investment of resources in the study of renewable raw materials in the last twenty years has led to the improvement of old and development of completely new chemical and biochemical processes for using biomass for the production of low molecular weight chemical substances, and especially for the production of biopolymers, which are biodegradable and compostable, and biopolymers which are nonbiodegradable. In the same period, producers of polymers based on fossil raw materials have also developed biopolymers that are biodegradable and some of them compostable and, most important, compatible with biopolymers based on renewable raw materials. The facts considering the state of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials on the market, and prediction of production increase over the next five years are also stated. Additionally, the main renewable raw materials and the biopolymers made from them that are already present in the world market are briefly listed. A short review of biopolymers based on cellulose from wood and annual plants is also given.

  4. Foundational Report Series: Advanced Distribution Management Systems for Grid Modernization, DMS Integration of Distributed Energy Resources and Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ravindra [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Reilly, James T. [Reilly Associates, Pittston, PA (United States); Wang, Jianhui [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lu, Xiaonan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kang, Ning [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Deregulation of the electric utility industry, environmental concerns associated with traditional fossil fuel-based power plants, volatility of electric energy costs, Federal and State regulatory support of “green” energy, and rapid technological developments all support the growth of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) in electric utility systems and ensure an important role for DERs in the smart grid and other aspects of modern utilities. DERs include distributed generation (DG) systems, such as renewables; controllable loads (also known as demand response); and energy storage systems. This report describes the role of aggregators of DERs in providing optimal services to distribution networks, through DER monitoring and control systems—collectively referred to as a Distributed Energy Resource Management System (DERMS)—and microgrids in various configurations.

  5. World Energy Resources and New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of civilisation is linked inextricably with growing demand for electricity. Thus, the still-rapid increase in the level of utilisation of natural resources, including fossil fuels, leaves it more and more urgent that conventional energy technologies and the potential of the renewable energy sources be made subject to re-evaluation. It is estimated that last 200 years have seen use made of more than 50% of the available natural resources. Equally, if economic forecasts prove accurate, for at least several more decades, oil, natural gas and coal will go on being the basic primary energy sources. The alternative solution represented by nuclear energy remains a cause of considerable public concern, while the potential for use to be made of renewable energy sources is seen to be very much dependent on local environmental conditions. For this reason, it is necessary to emphasise the impact of research that focuses on the further sharpening-up of energy efficiency, as well as actions aimed at increasing society's awareness of the relevant issues. The history of recent centuries has shown that rapid economic and social transformation followed on from the industrial and technological revolutions, which is to say revolutions made possible by the development of power-supply technologies. While the 19th century was "the age of steam" or of coal, and the 20th century the era of oil and gas, the question now concerns the name that will at some point come to be associated with the 21st century. In this paper, the subjects of discussion are primary energy consumption and energy resources, though three international projects on the global scale are also presented, i.e. ITER, Hydrates and DESERTEC. These projects demonstrate new scientific and technical possibilities, though it is unlikely that commercialisation would prove feasible before 2050. Research should thus be focused on raising energy efficiency. The development of high-efficiency technologies that

  6. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  7. Distributed energy resources and benefits to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akorede, Mudathir Funsho; Hizam, Hashim; Pouresmaeil, Edris

    2010-01-01

    with widespread adoption of distributed generation (DG) technologies that feed on renewable energy sources, in the generation of electric power. This paper gives a detailed overview of distributed energy resources technologies, and also discusses the devastating impacts of the conventional power plants feeding......The recently released report of the International Energy Outlook (IEO2009) projects an increase of 44% in the world energy demand from 2006 to 2030, and 77% rise in the net electricity generation worldwide in the same period. However, threatening in the said report is that 80% of the total...

  8. 含可再生能源的热电联供型微网经济运行优化%Economic and Optimal Operation of a Combined Heat and Power Microgrid with Renewable Energy Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 顾伟; 吴志

    2011-01-01

    Featured by its energy saving capability, environment friendliness and economic benefit, the combined heat and power (CHP) system has a great prospect for further development and wider applications. A mathematical model is developed to achieve economic and optimal operation of a CHP. Microgrid which consists of wind turbine driven generators, photovoltaic cells, fuel cells, heat recovery and gas fired boilers, battery storage systems and thermal as well as electrical loads. The model uses chance constrained programming (CCP) method to consider the stochastic nature of wind power, photovoltaic power, thermal and electrical loads. A stochastic simulation based particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve the optimization model. The optimal operation scheme is studied under different ways of deployment of micro-sources. Simulation results show that the proposed method can be adopted to find the optimal deployment of micro-sources, such that the dynamic economic dispatch of the microgrid is possible to reduce the operation cost effectively.%热电联供系统具有节能、环保、经济等特点,有着良好的发展前景和应用价值.文中针对由风电机组、光伏电池、燃料电池、余热锅炉、燃气锅炉、蓄电池以及热电负荷构成的热电联供型微网系统,考虑风电、光伏功率以及热电负荷的随机性,应用机会约束规划理论建立经济运行优化模型,并提出一种基于随机模拟技术的粒子群优化(PSO)算法求解模型.根据不同的微源配置,对系统的运行方案进行优化.实例分析结果表明,所提出的方法可以提供微源优化配置建议,实现微源动态经济调度,有效降低系统运行费用.

  9. Management of a power system based on renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronay Karoly

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article main purpose is to highlight the main advantage of the hardware and software implementation for an energy management system based on renewable energy sources. By using implemented and dedicated hardware and software the evolution of energy production and consumption can be monitored. The advantages of such system are highlighted by the results obtained from experimental simulations. An experimental model for the power system based on renewable energy sources was implemented, where the actual status of the system in different situations when the equipments change their own statuses can be shown.

  10. Hydrogen based global renewable energy network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akai, Makoto [Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, AIST, MITI, Namiki, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    In the last quarter of this century, global environmental problem has emerged as a major scientific, political and social issue. Specific Problems include: depletion of ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), acid rain, destruction of tropical forests and desertification, pollution of the sea and global wanning due to the greenhouse effect by carbon dioxide and others. Among these problems, particular attention of the world has been focused on the global warming because it has direct linkage to energy consumption which our economic development depends on so far. On the other hand, the future program of The Sunshine Project for alternative energy technology R&D, The Moonlight Project for energy conservation technology R&D, and The Global Environmental Technology Program for environmental problem mitigating technology R&D which are Japan`s national projects being promoted by their Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry have been reexamined in view of recent changes in the situations surrounding new energy technology. In this regard, The New Sunshine Program will be established by integrating these three activities to accelerate R&D in the field of energy and environmental technologies. In the reexamination, additional stress has been laid on the contribution to solving global environmental problem through development of clean renewable energies which constitute a major part of the {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes}, a comprehensive, long-term and international cooperative program proposed by MITI. The present paper discusses the results of feasibility study on hydrogen energy system leading to the concept of WE-NET following a brief summary on R&D status on solar and wind energy in Japan.

  11. Transportable Hydrogen Research Plant Based on Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikel Fernandez; Carlos Madina; Asier Gil de Muro [LABEIN, Parque Tecnologico, edificio 700, 48160 Derio, Bizkaia (Spain); Jose Angel Alzolab; Iker Marino; Javier Garcia-Tejedor [ROBOTIKER, Parque Tecnologico, edificio 202, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia, (Spain); Juan Carlos Mugica; Inaki Azkkrate; Jose Angel Alzola [INASMET, Mikeletegi Pasalekua, Parque Tecnologico, E-20009 San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Efficiency and cost are nowadays the most important barriers for the penetration of systems based on hydrogen and renewable energies. According to this background, TECNALIA Corporation has started in 2004 the HIDROTEC project: 'Hydrogen Technologies for Renewable Energy Applications'. The ultimate aim of this project is the implementation of a multipurpose demonstration and research plant in order to explore diverse options for sustainable energetic solutions based on hydrogen. The plant is conceived as an independent system that can be easily transported and assembled. Research and demonstration activities can thus be carried out at very different locations, including commercial renewable facilities. Modularity and scalability have also been taken into account for an optimised exploitation. (authors)

  12. Bioethanol sources in Pakistan: A renewable energy resource

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-30

    Dec 30, 2011 ... 1Department of Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology ... wastes. The basic steps included in ethanol production from agricultural wastes composed of ... 2006) since agricultural and various industries generate ... European Union ... mango, water melon, sugarcane (Figure 1) and other.

  13. Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Systems - Status and Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, the energy paradigms in many countries are experiencing significant change from fossil-based resources to cleaner renewables. It is expected that the scenario of highly penetrated renewables is going to be further enhanced. This requires that the production, distribution...... electronics in generation, transmission/distribution and end-user application, together with advanced controls, can pave the way for renewable energy resources. In view of this, some of the most promising renewable candidates like wind power and photovoltaic, which are becoming a significant part...

  14. A renewable energy based hydrogen demonstration park in Turkey. HYDEPARK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilhan, Niluefer; Ersoez, Atilla [TUEBITAK Marmara Research Center Energy Institute, Gebze Kocaeli (Turkey); Cubukcu, Mete [Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Inst.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this national project is to research hydrogen technologies and renewable energy applications. Solar and wind energy are utilized to obtain hydrogen via electrolysis, which can either be used in the fuel cell or stored in cylinders for further use. The management of all project work packages was carried by TUeBITAK Marmara Research Center (MRC) Energy Institute (EI) with the support of the collaborators. The aim of this paper is to present the units of the renewable energy based hydrogen demonstration park, which is in the demonstration phase now and share the experimental results. (orig.)

  15. Likelihood based inference for partially observed renewal processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.N.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with inference for renewal processes on the real line that are observed in a broken interval. For such processes, the classic history-based approach cannot be used. Instead, we adapt tools from sequential spatial point process theory to propose a Monte Carlo maximum likelihoo

  16. Renewable Energy for Electric Vehicles: Price Based Charging Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Schuller, A.; Dinther, C.; Ketter, W.; Weinhardt, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the charging coordination of battery electric vehicles (BEV) with respect to the availability of intermittent renewable energy generation considering individual real world driving profiles in a deterministic simulation based analysis, mapping a part of the German power

  17. Renewable Energy for Electric Vehicles: Price Based Charging Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Schuller, A.; Dinther, C.; Ketter, W.; Weinhardt, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the charging coordination of battery electric vehicles (BEV) with respect to the availability of intermittent renewable energy generation considering individual real world driving profiles in a deterministic simulation based analysis, mapping a part of the German power s

  18. Study on the Development of Western Energy Resource Based on the Analysis of Investment Effect in Shaanxi Province%基于陕西投资效应分析的西部能源开发策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪涛; 郭菊娥; 席酉民; 郭广涛

    2009-01-01

    Since the great developing of west China, a lot of national investment concentrated in developing energy resource in west China. This paper comparatively analyzes the investment effects such as GDP growth, energy consumption per GDP and employment brought by industrial national investment based on the Energy Input-Occupation-Output table. The investment effect in energy or high energy consumption industries are lower in Shaanxi than in China, and the energy consumption per GDP would increase. Based on Shaanxi experience, some energy resource development strategies have been proposed for the harmonious western economy development.%西部大开发以来,国家大量投资集中于开发西部地区丰富的能源资源.基于能源投入占用产出表,对比分析了陕西和全国行业投资带来的GDP增长、单位GDP能耗、就业等影响效应,结果表明陕西能源行业和高能耗重工业的投资带动效应远低于全国平均水平,且增大了陕西单位GDP能耗.吸取陕西的经验和教训,为实现西部地区经济的和谐发展,系统地提出了西部能源资源开发策略.

  19. Power Electronics and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Sera, Dezso

    2007-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources......, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system....

  20. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  1. A Review of Barriers to and Opportunities for the Integration of Renewable Energy in the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, Ben W [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to prepare a summary report that examines the opportunities for and obstacles to the integration of renewable energy resources in the Southeast between now and the year 2030. The report, which is based on a review of existing literature regarding renewable resources in the Southeast, includes the following renewable energy resources: wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, biomass, and tidal. The evaluation was conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Energy Foundation and is a subjective review with limited detailed analysis. However, the report offers a best estimate of the magnitude, time frame, and cost of deployment of renewable resources in the Southeast based upon the literature reviewed and reasonable engineering and economic estimates. For the purposes of this report, the Southeast is defined as the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. In addition, some aspects of the report (wind and geothermal) also consider the extended Southeast, which includes Maryland, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. A description of the existing base of renewable electricity installations in the region is given for each technology considered. Where available, the possible barriers and other considerations regarding renewable energy resources are listed in terms of availability, investment and maintenance costs, reliability, installation requirements, policies, and energy market. As stated above, the report is a comprehensive review of renewable energy resources in the southeastern region of United States based on a literature study that included information obtained from the Southern Bio-Power wiki, sources from the Energy Foundation, sources available to ORNL, and sources found during the review. The report consists of an executive summary, this introductory chapter describing report objectives, a chapter on analysis methods and

  2. Review of geothermal energy resources in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam Zaigham, Nayyer [Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Alam Nayyar, Zeeshan [Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Hisamuddin, Noushaba [422 Wycliffe, Irvine, CA 92602 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy resources, remains energy deficient and has to rely heavily on imports of hydrocarbon products to satisfy hardly its needs. Moreover, a very large part of the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities because they are either too remote and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential renewable energy sources, conventional and as well non-conventional. Many of them have not been adequately explored, exploited and developed. Geothermal energy is one of them. Pakistan can be benefited by harnessing the geothermal option of energy generation as substitute energy in areas where sources exist. Most of the high enthalpy geothermal resources of the world are within the seismic belts associated with zones of crustal weakness like the seismo-tectonic belt that passes through Pakistan having inherited a long geological history of geotectonic events. The present study of the geotectonic framework suggests that Pakistan should not be lacking in commercially exploitable sources of geothermal energy. This view is further strengthened by (a) the fairly extensive development of alteration zones and fumeroles in many regions of Pakistan, (b) the presence of a fairly large number of hot springs in different parts of the country, and (c) the indications of Quaternary volcanism associated with the Chagai arc extending into Iran and Afghanistan border areas. These manifestations of geothermal energy are found within three geotectonic or geothermal environments, i.e., (1) geo-pressurized systems related to basin subsidence, (2) seismo-tectonic or suture-related systems, and (3) systems related to Neogene-Quaternary volcanism. A few localities, scattered sporadically all over the country, have been studied to evaluate only some of the basic characteristic parameters of the geothermal prospects. The present review study the geothermal activities of varying intensity and

  3. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  4. Hybrid mini-grid systems – electricity for communities not connected to the national electricity grid based on renewable energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Africa’s first hybrid mini-grid energy system at the Hluleka Nature Reserve on the Wild Coast of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. This paper describes the three-year investigative project in the Eastern Cape province, the formulation...

  5. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  6. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  7. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  8. Renewable-Biomolecule-Based Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yun; Yang, Jie; Lin, Jie; Guo, Lin

    2016-05-01

    A renewable-biomolecule-based full lithium-ion battery is successfully fabricated for the first time. Naturally derivable emodin and humic acid based electrodes are used as cathode and anode, respectively. The as-assembled batteries exhibit superb specific capacity and substantial operating voltage capable of powering a wearable electronic watch, suggesting the great potential for practical applications with the significant merits of sustainability and biocompatibility.

  9. Wind energy resource assessment in Madrid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migoya, Emilio; Crespo, Antonio; Jimenez, Angel; Garcia, Javier; Manuel, Fernando [Laboratorio de Mecanica de Fluidos, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Escuela Tecnica Superior Ingenieros Industriales (ETSII), Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid (Autonomous Community of Madrid, in the following Madrid Region), is a region located at the geographical centre of the Iberian Peninsula. Its area is 8.028 km{sup 2}, and its population about five million people. The Department of Economy and Technological Innovation of the Madrid Region, together with some organizations dealing on energy saving and other research institutions have elaborated an Energy Plan for the 2004-12 period. As a part of this work, the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory of the Superior Technical School of Industrial Engineers of the Polytechnic University of Madrid has carried out the assessment of the wind energy resources [Crespo A, Migoya E, Gomez Elvira R. La energia eolica en Madrid. Potencialidad y prospectiva. Plan energetico de la Comunidad de Madrid, 2004-2012. Madrid: Comunidad Autonoma de Madrid; 2004]; using for this task the WAsP program (Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program), and the own codes, UPMORO (code to study orography effects) and UPMPARK (code to study wake effects in wind parks). Different kinds of data have been collected about climate, topography, roughness of the land, environmentally protected areas, town and village distribution, population density, main facilities and electric power supply. The Spanish National Meteorological Institute has nine wind measurement stations in the region, but only four of them have good and reliable temporary wind data, with time measurement periods that are long enough to provide representative correlations among stations. The Observed Wind Climates of the valid meteorological stations have been made. The Wind Atlas and the resource grid have been calculated, especially in the high wind resource areas, selecting appropriate measurements stations and using criteria based on proximity, similarity and ruggedness index. Some areas cannot be used as a wind energy resource mainly because they have environmental regulation or, in some cases, are very close

  10. Algal-Based Renewable Energy for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsen, Christian [Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    To help in the overall evaluation of the potential for growing algal biomass in high productivity systems, we conducted a study that evaluated water from geothermal sources and cultivated mixed consortia from hot springs in Nevada, we evaluated their growth at moderately high varying temperatures and then evaluated potential manipulations that could possibly increase their biomass and oleaginous production. Studies were conducted at scales ranging from the laboratory benchtop to raceways in field settings. Mixed consortia were readily grown at all scales and growth could be maintained in Nevada year round. Moderate productivities were attained even during the shoulder seasons- where temperature control was maintained by hot water and seasonally cold temperatures when there was still plentiful solar radiation. The results enhance the prospects for economic feasibility of developing algal based industries in areas with geothermal energy or even other large alternative sources of heat that are not being used for other purposes. The public may benefit from such development as a means for economic development as well as development of industries for alternative energy and products that do not rely on fossil fuels.

  11. Bulgarian geothermal energy resources - state and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramatikov, P.S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Dept. of Physical Engineering, South West Univ. `Neofit Rilsky`, Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria)

    1997-12-01

    As special attention is paid to geothermal energy because the geothermal sources are distributed all over the territory of Bulgaria. Governmental incentives for initiating national action programs for energy efficiency, new renewable sources and the environment as well as educational activities are particularly important. The energy sector, as any other sector of the national economy, is currently undergoing considerable changes on its way to market relations, primarily connected to determining the role of the state as well as the form of ownership. The state energy policy is based on a long - term energy strategy complying with the natural conditions of the country, the expected macro - economic development, the geopolitical situation and regional development of energy cooperation with neighboring and closely situated countries. Limited reserves of fossil fuels, increased local and global environmental risks and recent technological achievements have straightened the global importance of renewable sources of thermal and electric energy. This is even more relevant for Bulgaria with small fossil fuel reserves (lignite) to be nearly exhausted and the environment notably polluted. Concerning local renewable sources of thermal energy and electricity, it is necessary to re-estimate their strategic role, to complete the input data for the resources, also to establish national programs supported by research and educational activities and international cooperation. (orig./AKF)

  12. COMPLEX MAPPING OF ENERGY RESOURCES FOR ALLOCATION OF SOLAR AND WIND ENERGY OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Novakovskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents developed methodology of solar and wind energy resources complex mapping at the regional level, taking into account the environmental and socio-economic factors affecting the placement of renewable energy facilities. Methodology provides a reasonable search and allocation of areas, the most promising for the placement of wind and solar power plants.

  13. Unconventional energy resources: 2007-2008 review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes five 2007-2008 resource commodity committee reports prepared by the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Current United States and global research and development activities related to gas hydrates, gas shales, geothermal resources, oil sands, and uranium resources are included in this review. These commodity reports were written to advise EMD leadership and membership of the current status of research and development of unconventional energy resources. Unconventional energy resources are defined as those resources other than conventional oil and natural gas that typically occur in sandstone and carbonate rocks. Gas hydrate resources are potentially enormous; however, production technologies are still under development. Gas shale, geothermal, oil sand, and uranium resources are now increasing targets of exploration and development, and are rapidly becoming important energy resources that will continue to be developed in the future. ?? 2009 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  14. Analysis of performance with variable stroke of a torque based renewable micro hydro power generation plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahbubul; Rahman, Md. Shad; Sultan, Rasel A.; Naif, M. Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    The most important addition of modern science is renewable energy. And the most useful and the most cheaply renewable power generation source is Hydropower. Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. This is called Hydroelectric power or Hydropower. Hydropower is considered a renewable energy resource because it uses the earth's water cycle to generate electricity. Water evaporates from the earth's surface, forms clouds, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean. As far as Bangladesh is concerned, only a small fraction of electricity is generated by hydropower. The government has set a target of meeting 5 per cent of the electricity demand by 2015 by utilizing renewable energy and 10 per cent by the year 2020. Currently, renewable energies contribute to less than 1 per cent of the country's total electricity generation. The aim of our analysis is to demonstrate and observe the hydropower of our country in micro-scale by our experimental setup which is completely new in concept. This paper consists results of our findings and we find larger the number of stroke higher the rpm correspondingly higher efficiency. We find maximum rpm for 2stroke when fixed fly wheel weight was 18Kg and water was 10liter. It might help in case of utilizing this renewable energy potential at high scale.

  15. Process Design and Evaluation for Chemicals Based on Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing

    with recycle of the aqueous phase back to the enzymatic reaction. Costing analysis indicates the HMF production cost by the designed process is very sensitive to the dehydration reaction yield, the amount of solvent used in the whole process and the glucose price. In addition, increasing scale is also help......One of the key steps in process design is choosing between alternative technologies, especially for processes producing bulk and commodity chemicals. Recently, driven by the increasing oil prices and diminishing reserves, the production of bulk and commodity chemicals from renewable feedstocks has....... In addition, another characteristic of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks is that many alternative technologies and possible routes exist, resulting in many possible process flowsheets. The challenge for process engineers is then to choose between possible process routes and alternative technologies...

  16. Wind energy resource assessment based on ENVISAT ASAR images for the Zhejiang coastal waters%基于ENVISAT ASAR影像的浙江沿海风能资源评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常俊芳; 黄韦艮; 楼琇林; 史爱琴; 张华国

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of the offshore wind energy resources along the Zhejiang coast was researched based on the space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images.The data of long time sequence sea surface wind filed at the height of 10m along the Zhejiang coast were retrieved from 443 scenes of ENVISAT ASAR images obtained from 2005 to 2011.The wind direction data from the global reanalysis data of NCEP-NCAR were used as an input to the geophysical model function CMOD4 for SAR wind retrieval.Based on the wind field data,the wind energy resources were assessed accurately.The Weibull probability density function,parameters of scale (A) and shape (k),from the ENVISAT ASAR-derived wind speed,were respectively compared with that from the buoy observation wind speed,and the results showed that the relative error was 6.36% forA,but 9.67% for k.The characteristics of the Zhejiang coast wind resource distribution were researched.The results showed that the wind energy resources along the Zhejiang coast were rich.The sea surface annual average wind speed at the height of 10m was 5~10m/s,and the annual average wind power density reached 100 ~ 300W/m2 within 50km away from the coastline.The region richest in wind energy resources was located in south sea of the Zhejiang coast,and the largest wind power density reached 500W/m2.The seasonal feature of wind resource showed that the wind power was rich in autumn and winter,while it was relatively poor in spring and summer.%基于星载含成孔径雷达(SAR)遥感影像,研究了浙江近岸海域风能资源的分布.利用2005-2011年443景ENVISAT ASAR影像反演了浙江沿海长时间序列高分辨率海面10m高度处的风场数据,风速反演采用CMOD4模式,风向信息来自全球再分析场资料NCEP-NCAR.基于所提取的风场数据,对浙江沿海风能资源进行了评估.利用研究海域浮标观测的风速数据对基于ENVISAT ASAR影像的风能资源评估结果进行了对比验证,结果显示

  17. Information Modeling for Direct Control of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    a desired accumulated response. In this paper, we design such an information model based on the markets that the aggregator participates in and based on the flexibility characteristics of the remote controlled DERs. The information model is constructed in a modular manner making the interface suitable...... for a whole range of different DERs. The devised information model can serve as input to the international standardization efforts on distributed energy resources....

  18. Exploration policy on primary energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consejo Superior de Colegios de Ingenieros de Minas

    1978-02-01

    This paper comprises a study of Spain's energy prospects or to be more exact, hydrocarbons, uranium and coal. It gives details of the most important deposits of these fuels, the estimated reserves and the State policy directed towards the exploration of new primary energy resources. (In Spanish)

  19. A review of renewable energy activities in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadhi, S.M.B.; Mukbel, M.A. [University of Aden (Yemen). Renewable Energy Group

    1998-05-01

    Republic of Yemen is a developing country depending on oil for their energy needs. A look at the availability of renewable energy resources shows that the country is endowed with considerable solar, wind, bio-gas energy resources. This paper presents a review of activities in the field of renewable energy applications in Yemen and future trends, some suggestions and recommendations for using these renewable energy resources are also drawn. (author)

  20. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw Materials – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović, S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A short review of biopolymers based on starch (starch derivatives, thermoplastic starch, lignin and hemicelluloses, chitin (chitosan and products obtained by degradation of starch and other polysaccharides and sugars (poly(lactic acid, poly(hydroxyalkanoates, as well as some of their basic properties and application area, are given in this part. The problem of environmental and economic feasibility of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials and their competitiveness with polymers based on fossil raw materials is discussed. Also pointed out are the problems that appear due to the increasing use of agricultural land for the production of raw materials for the chemical industry and energy, instead for the production of food for humans and animals. The optimistic assessments of experts considering the development perspectives of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials in the next ten years have also been pointed out.At the end of the paper, the success of a team of researchers gathered around the experts from the company Bayer is indicated. They were the first in the world to develop a catalyst by which they managed to effectively activate CO - and incorporate it into polyols, used for the synthesis of polyurethanes in semi-industrial scale. By applying this process, for the first time a pollutant will be used as a basic raw material for the synthesis of organic compounds, which will have significant consequences on the development of the chemical industry, and therefore the production of polymers.

  1. Energy resource management in smart grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kartheepan; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein

    2012-01-01

    behavior. This paper1 addresses communication and control challenges to achieve a plug'n'play type of DER management. A use case with Electric Vehicles is considered because of its high dynamic behavior in smart grid. In particular, the problem of making correct decisions on which controller out of many......Smart grids are characterized by a dynamic nature in which distributed energy resources (DER's) changes internal states and availability over time. Distributed Energy Resources (DER's) and the distributed control system will thus be required to automatically configure itself to this dynamic......, an EV shall be operated by will be addressed. This is not an isolated control problem, but for reliable decisions also requires to take into account characteristics of the involved networks in combination with the dynamics of the decision information at the controllers. In the paper we propose...

  2. Assessment of wave energy resources in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopa, Justin E.; Cheung, Kwok Fai [Department of Ocean and Resources Engineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chen, Yi-Leng [Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Hawaii is subject to direct approach of swells from distant storms as well as seas generated by trade winds passing through the islands. The archipelago creates a localized weather system that modifies the wave energy resources from the far field. We implement a nested computational grid along the major Hawaiian Islands in the global WaveWatch3 (WW3) model and utilize the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model to provide high-resolution mesoscale wind forcing over the Hawaii region. Two hindcast case studies representative of the year-round conditions provide a quantitative assessment of the regional wind and wave patterns as well as the wave energy resources along the Hawaiian Island chain. These events of approximately two weeks each have a range of wind speeds, ground swells, and wind waves for validation of the model system with satellite and buoy measurements. The results demonstrate the wave energy potential in Hawaii waters. While the episodic swell events have enormous power reaching 60 kW/m, the wind waves, augmented by the local weather, provide a consistent energy resource of 15-25 kW/m throughout the year. (author)

  3. Multi-time Scale Coordination of Distributed Energy Resources in Isolated Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony; Xie, Le; Butler-Purry, Karen

    2016-03-31

    In isolated power systems, including microgrids, distributed assets, such as renewable energy resources (e.g. wind, solar) and energy storage, can be actively coordinated to reduce dependency on fossil fuel generation. The key challenge of such coordination arises from significant uncertainty and variability occurring at small time scales associated with increased penetration of renewables. Specifically, the problem is with ensuring economic and efficient utilization of DERs, while also meeting operational objectives such as adequate frequency performance. One possible solution is to reduce the time step at which tertiary controls are implemented and to ensure feedback and look-ahead capability are incorporated to handle variability and uncertainty. However, reducing the time step of tertiary controls necessitates investigating time-scale coupling with primary controls so as not to exacerbate system stability issues. In this paper, an optimal coordination (OC) strategy, which considers multiple time-scales, is proposed for isolated microgrid systems with a mix of DERs. This coordination strategy is based on an online moving horizon optimization approach. The effectiveness of the strategy was evaluated in terms of economics, technical performance, and computation time by varying key parameters that significantly impact performance. The illustrative example with realistic scenarios on a simulated isolated microgrid test system suggests that the proposed approach is generalizable towards designing multi-time scale optimal coordination strategies for isolated power systems.

  4. Integration of Renewable Energy for the Harmonic Current and Reactive Power Compensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Shaker, Hamid Reza; Mehrasa, Majid;

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a control technique for multilevel converter topologies base on Direct Lyapunov Control Method (DLCM) for integration of Renewable Energy Resources (RER) into the power grid. The compensation of variations in reference current components is considered properly in this control...

  5. Alaska Energy Inventory Project: Consolidating Alaska's Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, K.; Clough, J.; Swenson, R.; Crimp, P.; Hanson, D.; Parker, P.

    2007-12-01

    Alaska has considerable energy resources distributed throughout the state including conventional oil, gas, and coal, and unconventional coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass. While much of the known large oil and gas resources are concentrated on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet regions, the other potential sources of energy are dispersed across a varied landscape from frozen tundra to coastal settings. Despite the presence of these potential energy sources, rural Alaska is mostly dependent upon diesel fuel for both electrical power generation and space heating needs. At considerable cost, large quantities of diesel fuel are transported to more than 150 roadless communities by barge or airplane and stored in large bulk fuel tank farms for winter months when electricity and heat are at peak demands. Recent increases in the price of oil have severely impacted the price of energy throughout Alaska, and especially hard hit are rural communities and remote mines that are off the road system and isolated from integrated electrical power grids. Even though the state has significant conventional gas resources in restricted areas, few communities are located near enough to these resources to directly use natural gas to meet their energy needs. To address this problem, the Alaska Energy Inventory project will (1) inventory and compile all available Alaska energy resource data suitable for electrical power generation and space heating needs including natural gas, coal, coalbed and shalebed methane, gas hydrates, geothermal, wind, hydro, and biomass and (2) identify locations or regions where the most economic energy resource or combination of energy resources can be developed to meet local needs. This data will be accessible through a user-friendly web-based interactive map, based on the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Land Records Information Section's (LRIS) Alaska Mapper, Google Earth, and Terrago Technologies' Geo

  6. Assessment of grid-friendly collective optimization framework for distributed energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Robinson, Matthew; Heine, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Mammoli, Andrea

    2015-11-04

    Distributed energy resources have the potential to provide services to facilities and buildings at lower cost and environmental impact in comparison to traditional electric-gridonly services. The reduced cost could result from a combination of higher system efficiency and exploitation of electricity tariff structures. Traditionally, electricity tariffs are designed to encourage the use of ‘off peak’ power and discourage the use of ‘onpeak’ power, although recent developments in renewable energy resources and distributed generation systems (such as their increasing levels of penetration and their increased controllability) are resulting in pressures to adopt tariffs of increasing complexity. Independently of the tariff structure, more or less sophisticated methods exist that allow distributed energy resources to take advantage of such tariffs, ranging from simple pre-planned schedules to Software-as-a-Service schedule optimization tools. However, as the penetration of distributed energy resources increases, there is an increasing chance of a ‘tragedy of the commons’ mechanism taking place, where taking advantage of tariffs for local benefit can ultimately result in degradation of service and higher energy costs for all. In this work, we use a scheduling optimization tool, in combination with a power distribution system simulator, to investigate techniques that could mitigate the deleterious effect of ‘selfish’ optimization, so that the high-penetration use of distributed energy resources to reduce operating costs remains advantageous while the quality of service and overall energy cost to the community is not affected.

  7. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...... vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport...

  8. 77 FR 43592 - System Energy Resources, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ..., 2012, System Energy Resources, Inc. (System Energy Resources), submitted a supplement to its petition... supplement, System Energy Resources supplements its March 28 petition to provide additional information and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  9. The Mass Flux of Non-renewable Energy for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Edwin

    The global energy supply relies on non-renewable energy sources, coal, crude oil, and natural gas, along with nuclear power from uranium and these finite resources are located within the upper few kilometers of the Earth's crust. The total quantity of non-renewable energy resources consumed relative to the total quantity available is an essential question facing humanity. Analyses of energy consumption was conducted for the period 1800--2014 using data from the U. S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) and World Energy Production, 1800--1985 to determine the balance between non-renewable energy resources consumed and ultimately recoverable reserves. Annual energy consumption was plotted for each non-renewable resource followed by analyses to determine annual growth rates of consumption. Results indicated total energy consumption grew approximately exponentially 3.6% per year from 1800--1975 and was linear from 1975--2014. The ultimately recoverable reserves (URR) plus the total quantity consumed to date equals the total energy resource reserve prior to exploitation (7.15 x 1018 grams). Knowing the original resource quantity and the annual consumption and growth rates, we can forecast the duration of remaining resources using different scenarios. Alternatively, we can use population growth models and consumption trends to determine the per capita allocation trends and model that into the future. Alternative modeling of future resource allocation on a per capita bases suggests that resource lifetime may be significantly less than that predicted from consumption and production dynamics alone.

  10. State of the States 2008: Renewable Energy Development and the Role of Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Busche, S.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides insights into the status of renewable energy development at the state level. Renewable resources are increasing in development overall, but state development varies by resource and rates of change. The factors contributing to renewable energy development at the state level are identified and discussed, including the challenges of understanding the role of different factors in development. The report also compiles and evaluates the status of 'best practice' state policy design and connects the existence of some policies with increased renewable energy development through correlation analysis. The report also proposes a strategy for better understanding the role of policy in renewable energy development, based on market-transformation principles. Correlation analysis illustrates the potential for further application of these principles to renewable energy. The final section provides resources for state policy makers for better understanding and developing renewable energy resources.

  11. Utilization of wind-energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, V.I.; Sidorov, V.V.; Kuznetsov, V.M.

    A review of developments in wind-energy in the Soviet Union, U.S., and West Europe is presented. The resources of the USSR are evaluated in three zones with the highest wind-energy potential, and designs of a 5 MW wind generator are analyzed along with a multirotor unit of 40 MW which will serve as the basis of an experimental 1000 MW system. The latter will be used as the first stage of utilization of wind-energy resources for electrical power generation. The wind-energy programs in the U.S., West Germany, Denmark, and Sweden are described which plan to produce 2 to 10% of electrical energy from wind energy by the year 2000.

  12. The utilization of wind-energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, V. I.; Sidorov, V. V.; Kuznetsov, V. M.

    1980-06-01

    A review of developments in wind-energy in the Soviet Union, U.S., and West Europe is presented. The resources of the USSR are evaluated in three zones with the highest wind-energy potential, and designs of a 5 MW wind generator are analyzed along with a multirotor unit of 40 MW which will serve as the basis of an experimental 1000 MW system. The latter will be used as the first stage of utilization of wind-energy resources for electrical power generation. The wind-energy programs in the U.S., West Germany, Denmark, and Sweden are described which plan to produce 2 to 10% of electrical energy from wind energy by the year 2000.

  13. Distribution System Pricing with Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hledik, Ryan [The Brattle Group, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lazar, Jim [The Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-16

    Technological changes in the electric utility industry bring tremendous opportunities and significant challenges. Customers are installing clean sources of on-site generation such as rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. At the same time, smart appliances and control systems that can communicate with the grid are entering the retail market. Among the opportunities these changes create are a cleaner and more diverse power system, the ability to improve system reliability and system resilience, and the potential for lower total costs. Challenges include integrating these new resources in a way that maintains system reliability, provides an equitable sharing of system costs, and avoids unbalanced impacts on different groups of customers, including those who install distributed energy resources (DERs) and low-income households who may be the least able to afford the transition.

  14. Renewable Energy Atlas of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K. [Environmental Science Division; Greenwood, H. [Environmentall Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-12-13

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software. The report also includes: A description of each of the components of the Atlas; Lists of the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and A brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies. The Atlas includes the following: A GIS database organized as a set of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS Personal GeoDatabases, and ESRI ArcReader and ArcGIS project files providing an interactive map visualization and analysis interface.

  15. Three Affliated Tribes Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belvin Pete; Kent Good; Krista Gordon; Ed McCarthy,

    2006-05-26

    The Three Affliated Tribes on the Fort Berthold Reservation studied the feasibility of a commercial wind facility on land selected and owned by the Tribes and examined the potential for the development of renewable energy resources on Tribal Lands.

  16. Mapping Thermal Energy Resource Potentials from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Neugebauer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater heat recovery via heat exchangers and heat pumps constitutes an environmentally friendly, approved and economically competitive, but often underestimated technology. By introducing the spatial dimension in feasibility studies, the results of calculations change considerably. This paper presents a methodology to estimate thermal energy resource potentials of wastewater treatment plants taking spatial contexts into account. In close proximity to settlement areas, wastewater energy can ideally be applied for heating in mixed-function areas, which very likely have a continuous heat demand and allow for an increased amount of full-load hours compared to most single-use areas. For the Austrian case, it is demonstrated that the proposed methodology leads to feasible results and that the suggested technology might reduce up to 17% of the Austrian global warming potential of room heating. The method is transferrable to other countries as the input data and calculation formula are made available. A broad application of wastewater energy with regard to spatial structures and spatial development potentials can lead to (1 increasing energy efficiency by using a maximum of waste heat and (2 a significant reduction of (fossil energy consumption which results in a considerable reduction of the global warming potential of the heat supply (GWP if electricity from renewables is used for the operation of heat pumps.

  17. Wave Energy Resource along the Coast of Santa Catarina (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Contestabile

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has one of the largest electricity markets in South America, which needs to add 6000 MW of capacity every year in order to satisfy growing the demand from an increasing and more prosperous population. Apart from biomass, no other renewable energy sources, besides hydroelectricity, play a relevant role in the energy mix. The potential for wind and wave energy is very large. Brazil's Santa Catarina state government is starting a clean energy program in the state, which is expected to bring more than 1 GW of capacity. Assessment of wave energy resources is needed along the coastline. This work studied the potential wave energy along the north-central coasts of Santa Catarina, in Southern Brazil, by analysis of the hindcast data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. The annual offshore wave power was found to be equal to 15.25 kW/m, the bulk of which is provided by southeastern waves. The nearshore energetic patterns were studied by means of a numerical coastal propagation model (Mike21 SW. The mean wave power of 20 m isobaths is 11.43 kW/m. Supplementary considerations are drawn on realistic perspectives for wave energy converters installations.

  18. Energy Resources and the Next Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, S. M.

    2002-05-01

    At this time, approximately 85 percent of the energy needs of the United States are supplied by fossil fuels. Crude oil currently supports transportation, generally as gasoline or jet fuel. The United States is importing roughly 60 percent of the crude oil we are now using and our domestic refining capacity is declining. Coal is providing more than 56 percent of the nation's electricity, although the use of natural gas as a fuel for electricity generation has been increasing. Natural gas, with today's technology, is considered a cleaner fuel as we continue to move toward decarbonization. The next logical phase in this historical progress will probably be the transition to pure hydrogen as an energy source, chiefly as a fuel for fuel cells. The initial source of hydrogen will probably be natural gas, given the existing infrastructure for natural gas, its cost, and its availability. Demand for natural gas is expected to peak in approximately 2050. But in the transition to an affordable, efficient, reliable, market-driven, carbon-free energy economy, substantial demand will still exist for coal and crude oil, even as these energy fuels are phased out. A massive requirement will exist for natural gas as the transition fuel since renewables will probably continue to supply only about 10 percent of our nation's electricity demand. The implied demand for coal and oil in the U. S. and the World can readily be met with existing known or probable resources; the challenge will be in assuring supplies that are secure, priced reasonably, and made ever cleaner. The implied demand for natural gas, however, exceeds the currently estimated resource base both in the U. S. and globally. For example, the currently estimated remaining resource of natural gas in the U. S. is about 2,000 TCF. The implied demand for natural gas in a methane economy, during the transition to a non-fossil source of hydrogen, is on the order of 3,000 to 4,000 TCF, half again to twice currently estimated

  19. Analysis of a hybrid renewable energy system on the Mures valley using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragoş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth, and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. This paper deals with the modeling and analysis of a hybrid system based on renewable energy resources, located on the Mureş valley, using a dedicated software named HOMER. Different types and topologies of renewable resources for the energy supply are analyzed; a small consumer situated on the Mureş Valley is modeled based on a load curve. Finally, the energy flows between the renewable energy system and the local supplying network are analyzed.

  20. Waste and biomass as energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, Donald L.

    1978-11-01

    Organic fuels can be manufactured by converting major sources of continuously renewable nonfossil carbon to synfuels that are interchangeable with, or can be substituted for, natural gas and petroleum-derived fuels. Promising sources of this carbon are waste materials, such as urban refuse, and biomass produced from solar energy by photosynthesis. The development of this concept is presented in this paper. The broad scope of the technology and its potential impact on energy supplies are reviewed. The renewable feature of both wastes and biomass makes them valuable natural resources that inevitably will be fully developed and commercialized as sources of energy-intensive products and synfuels. The perpetual availability of organic fuels will permit the conservation of valuable fossil fuel reserves, and, as time passes, offer a long-term solution to independence from foreign energy supplies and fossil fuel depletion.

  1. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-06-01

    The goal of this work is to create an integrated framework for forecasting the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER), both by electricity customers and by the various institutions within the industry itself, and for evaluating the effect of this adoption on the power system, particularly on the overall reliability and quality of electrical service to the end user. This effort and follow on contributions are intended to anticipate and explore possible patterns of DER deployment, thereby guiding technical work on microgrids towards the key technical problems. An early example of this process addressed is the question of possible DER adopting customer disconnection. A deployment scenario in which many customers disconnect from their distribution company (disco) entirely leads to a quite different set of technical problems than a scenario in which customers self generate a significant share or all of their on-site electricity requirements and additionally buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) locally and/or into wider markets. The exploratory work in this study suggests that the economics under which customers disconnect entirely are unlikely.

  2. Two-Stage Coordinated Operational Strategy for Distributed Energy Resources Considering Wind Power Curtailment Penalty Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qiu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of virtual power plant (VPP has been proposed to facilitate the integration of distributed renewable energy. VPP behaves similar to a single entity that aggregates a collection of distributed energy resources (DERs such as distributed generators, storage devices, flexible loads, etc., so that the aggregated power outputs can be flexibly dispatched and traded in electricity markets. This paper presents an optimal scheduling model for VPP participating in day-ahead (DA and real-time (RT markets. In the DA market, VPP aims to maximize the expected profit and reduce the risk in relation to uncertainties. The risk is measured by a risk factor based on the mean-variance Markowitz theory. In the RT market, VPP aims to minimize the imbalance cost and wind power curtailment by adjusting the scheduling of DERs in its portfolio. In case studies, the benefits (e.g., surplus profit and reduced wind power curtailment of aggregated VPP operation are assessed. Moreover, we have investigated how these benefits are affected by different risk-aversion levels and uncertainty levels. According to the simulation results, the aggregated VPP scheduling approach can effectively help the integration of wind power, mitigate the impact of uncertainties, and reduce the cost of risk-aversion.

  3. 76 FR 23198 - Segregation of Lands-Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management 43 CFR Parts 2090 and 2800 RIN 1004-AE19 Segregation of Lands--Renewable Energy... (202) 912-7350 for information relating to the BLM's renewable energy program or the substance of the... renewable energy resources. Promoting renewable energy is one of this Administration's and this...

  4. 76 FR 23230 - Segregation of Lands-Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management 43 CFR Parts 2090 and 2800 RIN 1004-AE19 Segregation of Lands--Renewable Energy... BLM's renewable energy program or the substance of the proposed rule, or Ian Senio at (202) 912-7440... (Department) to facilitate the development of renewable energy resources. Promoting renewable energy is one...

  5. Synthesis of the Carbon Nanomaterials Based on Renewable Bioresources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness and feasibility of producing nanoscale carbon materials from renewable bioresources were shown as an example marsh mass. The mechanisms of synthesis of amorphous organic carbon from sphagnum moss species modified by a liquid peat phase of humic nature are discussed. A fundamentally new way of producing carbon nanotubes by mechanical activation of amorphous organic carbon is described.

  6. Renewable energy sources offering flexibility through electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago

    All over the world, penetration of renewable energy sources in power systems has been increasing, creating new challenges in electricity markets and for operation and management of power systems, since power production from these resources is by nature uncertain and variable. New methods and tools...... governments. Renewable energy sources are characterized by their uncertain and variable production that limits the current operation and management tools of the power system. Nevertheless, recent developments of renewable energy technologies enable these resources to provide, to some extent, ancillary...... of future energy and reserve markets. Towards a power system based on distributed energy resources, mainly comprising renewable sources, new operation and management of distribution systems needs to be thought of. In fact, the existing passive distribution grid management does not provide the flexibility...

  7. RENEWABLE FIBERS AND BIO-BASED MATERIALS FOR PACKAGING APPLICATIONS – A REVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caisa Johansson,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the state-of-the-art of material derived from the forest sector with respect to its potential for use in the packaging industry. Some innovative approaches are highlighted. The aim is to cover recent developments and key challenges for successful introduction of renewable materials in the packaging market. The covered subjects are renewable fibers and bio-based polymers for use in bioplastics or as coatings for paper-based packaging materials. Current market sizes and forecasts are also presented. Competitive mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties along with material availability and ease of processing are identified as fundamental issues for sustainable utilization of renewable materials.

  8. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  9. Investigating Urban Eighth-Grade Students' Knowledge of Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated urban eighth-grade students' knowledge of energy resources and associated issues including energy acquisition, energy generation, storage and transport, and energy consumption and conservation. A 39 multiple-choice-item energy resources knowledge assessment was completed by 1043 eighth-grade students in urban schools in two…

  10. A DSP based power electronics interface for alternative /renewable energy system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-28

    This report is an update on the research project involving the implementation of a DSP-based power electronics interface for alternate/renewable energy systems, that was funded by the Department of Energy under the Inventions and Innovations program.

  11. Renewal processes based on generalized Mittag-Leffler waiting times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoy, Dexter O.; Polito, Federico

    2013-03-01

    The fractional Poisson process has recently attracted experts from several fields of study. Its natural generalization of the ordinary Poisson process made the model more appealing for real-world applications. In this paper, we generalized the standard and fractional Poisson processes through the waiting time distribution, and showed their relations to an integral operator with a generalized Mittag-Leffler function in the kernel. The waiting times of the proposed renewal processes have the generalized Mittag-Leffler and stretched-squashed Mittag-Leffler distributions. Note that the generalizations naturally provide greater flexibility in modeling real-life renewal processes. Algorithms to simulate sample paths and to estimate the model parameters are derived. Note also that these procedures are necessary to make these models more usable in practice. State probabilities and other qualitative or quantitative features of the models are also discussed.

  12. Pre-Feasibility Analysis of Pellet Manufacturing on the Former Loring Air Force Base Site. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. This site, in Limestone, Maine -- formerly the location of the Loring Air Force Base but now owned by the Aroostook Band of Micmac -- was selected for the potential to produce heating pellets from woody feedstock. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource to evaluate based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. NREL also evaluates potential savings from converting existing Micmac property from oil-fired heating to pellet heating.

  13. Terminology used for renewable liquid and gaseous fuels based on the conversion of electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    As the transport sector transitions away from fossil fuels and renewable fuels shift into focus, it is important that the terminology around renewable fuels is clarified. A number of terms such as synthetic fuel and electrofuel are used to describe both renewable and alternative fuels. The aim...... of this article is to identify and review these terms to avoid any potential misuse. An integrative review of terminology has been made. This review did not differentiate the articles in terms of the methodologies applied, but had the main objective to identify the terminology used and its definition. The results...... confirm that the term synthetic fuel is used generically in the majority of articles, without providing information about the production process of the fuel or differentiating between fossil-based and renewable-based synthetic fuels. The majority of the articles use the term synthetic fuel to describe...

  14. GIS-based approach for optimal siting and sizing of renewables considering techno-environmental constraints and the stochastic nature of meteorological inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalou, Olympia; Karanastasi, Maria; Markonis, Yannis; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koukouvinos, Antonis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    Following the legislative EU targets and taking advantage of its high renewable energy potential, Greece can obtain significant benefits from developing its water, solar and wind energy resources. In this context we present a GIS-based methodology for the optimal sizing and siting of solar and wind energy systems at the regional scale, which is tested in the Prefecture of Thessaly. First, we assess the wind and solar potential, taking into account the stochastic nature of the associated meteorological processes (i.e. wind speed and solar radiation, respectively), which is essential component for both planning (i.e., type selection and sizing of photovoltaic panels and wind turbines) and management purposes (i.e., real-time operation of the system). For the optimal siting, we assess the efficiency and economic performance of the energy system, also accounting for a number of constraints, associated with topographic limitations (e.g., terrain slope, proximity to road and electricity grid network, etc.), the environmental legislation and other land use constraints. Based on this analysis, we investigate favorable alternatives using technical, environmental as well as financial criteria. The final outcome is GIS maps that depict the available energy potential and the optimal layout for photovoltaic panels and wind turbines over the study area. We also consider a hypothetical scenario of future development of the study area, in which we assume the combined operation of the above renewables with major hydroelectric dams and pumped-storage facilities, thus providing a unique hybrid renewable system, extended at the regional scale.

  15. Iceland's renewable power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverrisdottir, V.

    2000-07-01

    The base of Iceland's natural resource consists of the fish stocks in the sea surrounding the country, the land with its soil and vegetation, enormous quantity of hot and cold spring water and renewable energy resources - both geothermal and hydro. The clean environment of the country, on which food-processing and tourism are based, may also be regarded as one of our most important natural resources. At last but not least the utilization of these resources are based on the highly educated and civilized people living in the country. In terms of the population size, Iceland has considerable untapped reserves of renewable energy. Further harnessing of these reserves for economic and sustainable development is an important task for the future and will probably play a large role in maintaining a high standards of living in Iceland in the near future. In this address I would like to say a few words about Iceland's energy resources, how we have utilized them, the main environmental aspects of the future utilisation and the governmental energy policy. (orig.)

  16. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  17. A Reserve-based Method for Mitigating the Impact of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krad, Ibrahim

    The fundamental operating paradigm of today's power systems is undergoing a significant shift. This is partially motivated by the increased desire for incorporating variable renewable energy resources into generation portfolios. While these generating technologies offer clean energy at zero marginal cost, i.e. no fuel costs, they also offer unique operating challenges for system operators. Perhaps the biggest operating challenge these resources introduce is accommodating their intermittent fuel source availability. For this reason, these generators increase the system-wide variability and uncertainty. As a result, system operators are revisiting traditional operating strategies to more efficiently incorporate these generation resources to maximize the benefit they provide while minimizing the challenges they introduce. One way system operators have accounted for system variability and uncertainty is through the use of operating reserves. Operating reserves can be simplified as excess capacity kept online during real time operations to help accommodate unforeseen fluctuations in demand. With new generation resources, a new class of operating reserves has emerged that is generally known as flexibility, or ramping, reserves. This new reserve class is meant to better position systems to mitigate severe ramping in the net load profile. The best way to define this new requirement is still under investigation. Typical requirement definitions focus on the additional uncertainty introduced by variable generation and there is room for improvement regarding explicit consideration for the variability they introduce. An exogenous reserve modification method is introduced in this report that can improve system reliability with minimal impacts on total system wide production costs. Another potential solution to this problem is to formulate the problem as a stochastic programming problem. The unit commitment and economic dispatch problems are typically formulated as deterministic

  18. Renewable energy scenario in India: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Souvik; Ganguly, Sourav; Das, Ayanangshu; Sen, Joyjeet; Dey, Sourav

    2016-10-01

    Majority of the power generation in India is carried out by conventional energy sources, coal and fossil fuels being the primary ones, which contribute heavily to greenhouse gas emission and global warming. The Indian power sector is witnessing a revolution as excitement grips the nation about harnessing electricity from various renewable energy sources. Electricity generation from renewable sources is increasingly recognized to play an important role for the achievement of a variety of primary and secondary energy policy goals, such as improved diversity and security of energy supply, reduction of local pollutant and global greenhouse gas emissions, regional and rural development, and exploitation of opportunities for fostering social cohesion, value addition and employment generation at the local and regional level. This focuses the solution of the energy crisis on judicious utilization of abundant the renewable energy resources, such as biomass, solar, wind, geothermal and ocean tidal energy. This paper reviews the renewable energy scenario of India as well as extrapolates the future developments keeping in view the consumption, production and supply of power. Research, development, production and demonstration have been carried out enthusiastically in India to find a feasible solution to the perennial problem of power shortage for the past three decades. India has obtained application of a variety of renewable energy technologies for use in different sectors too. There are ample opportunities with favorable geology and geography with huge customer base and widening gap between demand and supply. Technological advancement, suitable regulatory policies, tax rebates, efficiency improvement in consequence to R&D efforts are the few pathways to energy and environment conservation and it will ensure that these large, clean resource bases are exploited as quickly and cost effectively as possible. This paper gives an overview of the potential renewable energy resources

  19. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 10. Alaska region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J.L.; Wentink, T. Jr.; Becker, R. Jr.; Comiskey, A.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-12-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each subregion of Alaska. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a state scale is given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each subregion are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the Alaska wind energy resource. An outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each subregion is included. Assessments for individual subregions are presented as separate chapters. The subregion wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the Alaska wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the subregion chapters.

  20. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 4. The Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, K.E.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled in this chapter into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline are provided for in the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state. Assessments for individual states are presented. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters.

  1. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  2. Modelling distributed energy resources in energy service networks

    CERN Document Server

    Acha, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Focuses on modelling two key infrastructures (natural gas and electrical) in urban energy systems with embedded technologies (cogeneration and electric vehicles) to optimise the operation of natural gas and electrical infrastructures under the presence of distributed energy resources

  3. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 9. The Southwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, R.L.; Norman, G.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in Nevada and California. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted is presented. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state are given. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed.

  4. Expansion and Enhacement of the Wyoming Coalbed Methane Clearinghouse Website to the Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulme, Diana [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Hamerlinck, Jeffrey [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Bergman, Harold [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Oakleaf, Jim [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2010-03-25

    Energy development is expanding across the United States, particularly in western states like Wyoming. Federal and state land management agencies, local governments, industry and non-governmental organizations have realized the need to access spatially-referenced data and other non-spatial information to determine the geographical extent and cumulative impacts of expanding energy development. The Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse (WERIC) is a web-based portal which centralizes access to news, data, maps, reports and other information related to the development, management and conservation of Wyoming's diverse energy resources. WERIC was established in 2006 by the University of Wyoming's Ruckelshaus Institute of Environment and Natural Resources (ENR) and the Wyoming Geographic Information Science Center (WyGISC) with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The WERIC web portal originated in concept from a more specifically focused website, the Coalbed Methane (CBM) Clearinghouse. The CBM Clearinghouse effort focused only on coalbed methane production within the Powder River Basin of northeast Wyoming. The CBM Clearinghouse demonstrated a need to expand the effort statewide with a comprehensive energy focus, including fossil fuels and renewable and alternative energy resources produced and/or developed in Wyoming. WERIC serves spatial data to the greater Wyoming geospatial community through the Wyoming GeoLibrary, the WyGISC Data Server and the Wyoming Energy Map. These applications are critical components that support the Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse (WERIC). The Wyoming GeoLibrary is a tool for searching and browsing a central repository for metadata. It provides the ability to publish and maintain metadata and geospatial data in a distributed environment. The WyGISC Data Server is an internet mapping application that provides traditional GIS mapping and analysis

  5. More Exact Approaches to Modernization and Renewal of the Manufacturing Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naqib Daneshjo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Globalized development strategies in industry are currently focused on developing intelligent manufacturing concepts called Industry 4.0. Companies around the world will be forced to adopt this concept, especially in terms of maintaining competitiveness. One of the most serious obstacles of developing the concept of intelligent production is physical and moral obsolescence of the manufacturing base in general. Despite the fact that companies have historically renewed their manufacturing base, automated and robotized manufacturing processes and systems, nowadays highly current question of determining the form and timing of further modernization and renewal of the manufacturing base for intelligent production purposes. The authors present a model to determine optimal time to start upgrading and renewing the production base based on formulating and comparing costs of means of production throughout their lifecycle, including consideration of their moral obsolescence.

  6. Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

  7. Energy minimization strategies and renewable energy utilization for desalination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Oppenheimer, Joan; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2011-02-01

    Energy is a significant cost in the economics of desalinating waters, but water scarcity is driving the rapid expansion in global installed capacity of desalination facilities. Conventional fossil fuels have been utilized as their main energy source, but recent concerns over greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have promoted global development and implementation of energy minimization strategies and cleaner energy supplies. In this paper, a comprehensive review of energy minimization strategies for membrane-based desalination processes and utilization of lower GHG emission renewable energy resources is presented. The review covers the utilization of energy efficient design, high efficiency pumping, energy recovery devices, advanced membrane materials (nanocomposite, nanotube, and biomimetic), innovative technologies (forward osmosis, ion concentration polarization, and capacitive deionization), and renewable energy resources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Utilization of energy efficient design combined with high efficiency pumping and energy recovery devices have proven effective in full-scale applications. Integration of advanced membrane materials and innovative technologies for desalination show promise but lack long-term operational data. Implementation of renewable energy resources depends upon geography-specific abundance, a feasible means of handling renewable energy power intermittency, and solving technological and economic scale-up and permitting issues.

  8. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them.

  9. Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-30

    Since 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been asked by Installation Management Command (IMCOM) to conduct strategic assessments at selected US Army installations of the potential use of renewable energy resources, including solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, waste, and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). IMCOM has the same economic, security, and legal drivers to develop alternative, renewable energy resources overseas as it has for installations located in the US. The approach for continental US (CONUS) studies has been to use known, US-based renewable resource characterizations and information sources coupled with local, site-specific sources and interviews. However, the extent to which this sort of data might be available for outside the continental US (OCONUS) sites was unknown. An assessment at Camp Zama, Japan was completed as a trial to test the applicability of the CONUS methodology at OCONUS installations. It was found that, with some help from Camp Zama personnel in translating and locating a few Japanese sources, there was relatively little difficulty in finding sources that should provide a solid basis for conducting an assessment of comparable depth to those conducted for US installations. Project implementation will likely be more of a challenge, but the feasibility analysis will be able to use the same basic steps, with some adjusted inputs, as PNNL’s established renewable resource assessment methodology.

  10. ERG--Energy Resources Game: Simulation Gaming of Regional Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Lyle P.; Laessig, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    ERG--the Energy Resources Game--is a computer based game which explores questions regarding regional energy supply and demand, such as population and economic growth goals; acceptable levels of dependence on imported energy; and acceptable levels of environmental impact. (JA)

  11. Comparison of SAR Wind Speed Retrieval Algorithms for Evaluating Offshore Wind Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozai, K.; Ohsawa, T.; Takeyama, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Envisat/ASAR-derived offshore wind speeds and energy densities based on 4 different SAR wind speed retrieval algorithms (CMOD4, CMOD-IFR2, CMOD5, CMOD5.N) are compared with observed wind speeds and energy densities for evaluating offshore wind energy resources. CMOD4 ignores effects of atmospheric...

  12. Evaluation of the wind conditions for the acquisition of energy from renewable sources on the base of Sosnowiec city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapata, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    Inherent in the continuous development of civilization is a constant increase in demand for electricity. The result of this situation could be a threat to cover domestic demand for electricity generated from domestic sources. It is significant therefore, to increase the energy security of the country, as well as to generate a positive impact on the development and dynamics of social and economic processes which is carried by the development of renewable energy sources. A crucial argument for the need to implement new sustainable solutions is growing environmental degradation and pollution resulting from the acquisition and use of non-renewable energy resources. Renewable energy resource for interest of this analysis is the wind. A crucial feature of the wind is its high volatility. Wind speed is characterized by diurnal, seasonal and long-term variation. The study area is Sosnowiec city. The analysis covers the data from the period 2002 - 2011 obtained using a meteorological station located in the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia in Sosnowiec. Analyzed data are observations of wind speed measured at the height of 10m above the ground - average values of 10 minutes. The mean and maximum daily, monthly and annual values of wind speed have been calculated, and on their basis, a relevant analysis have been made. Average wind speed value for the analyzed area of the analyzed period (2002 - 2011) is 1,70m/s, while the maximum wind speed value is 3,78m/s. Sosnowiec is located in zone IV - unfavorable for the use of wind energy.

  13. PUEBLO OF ZIA RENEWABLE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT FEASIBILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pino, Peter M. [Tribal Administrator (Ret.), Pueblo of Zia; Lakshman, Jai [Project Manager (NDA) for Pueblo of Zia; Toole, G. Loren [Principal Investigator, Los Alamos National Laboratory - Energy Analysis Team/ CCS-3, D-4; Hand, Dan [P.E., Sustainable Enginerring; Witcher, James; Emerson, Michael A. [Senior V.P., ARES Corporation; Turner, Jeremy [Executive Director, NM Renewable Energy Transmission Authority; Sandidge, Wendy [Director of Operations, NM Community Capital

    2014-06-30

    The Pueblo of Zia will conduct a comprehensive feasibility study for best-use application(s) for development of renewable energy resources on its tribally held TRUST lands (i.e., Trust Lands of Zia Indian Reservation). The feasibility study is essential for determining the technical and economic viability of a future renewable project(s) on Zia tribal lands, including the potential economic and environmental benefits for the Tribe. Project Objectives: The feasibility study is essential for determining the technical and economic viability of future renewable project(s) on Zia tribal lands, including the potential economic and environmental benefits for the Tribe to: 1. Provide a balanced local renewable power supply for Zia Pueblo, its members, tribal offices, schools and buildings, and businesses on tribal lands 2. Provide a firm power supply for export and commercial market distribution 3. Provide economic development for the Tribe and its members, including job training and creation, each in accordance with the goals and objectives as conveyed by the Pueblo of Zia Tribal Council, Tribal Administration, and outlined in The Pueblo of Zia Comprehensive Plan and Pueblo of Zia — Zia Enterprise Zone Master Plan. A key goal of the study is to analyze the integrated development of solar, geothermal, and wind renewable energy resources at Zia Pueblo, with added potential to combine gas-fired generation to accomplish energy firming. Geothermal offers a base load source of energy, providing power continuously for end users. Wind and solar offer intermediate and peaking sources of energy, which can be harvested throughout the day, with periods of variable but predicable output. Variability will be managed in an integrated manner, using Zia Pueblo's combined renewable resources to generate high-quality power. Tasks are intended to collect, catalog, map, and analyze existing data on Zia Pueblo's renewable energy resource base and then match resource attributes with

  14. Rural versus urban preferences for renewable energy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Ariel; Hanley, Nick [Environmental Economics Research Group, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Colombo, Sergio [Department of Agricultural Economics, Instituto Andaluz de Investigacion Agraria IFAPA, Huelva (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    Development of renewable energy resources, such as wind farms and hydro-electric schemes, are being promoted as a new method of expanding and diversifying employment in rural areas. However, such energy projects are associated with a range of environmental impacts which might be detrimental to other economic activities, such as those based on nature tourism. The authors use a Choice Experiment to quantify peoples' preferences over environmental and employment impacts that may result from the deployment of renewable energy projects in rural areas of Scotland, focussing in particular on any differences between the preferences of urban and rural dwellers, and on heterogeneity within these groups. Rural and urban households are shown to have different welfare gains which are dependent on the type of renewable energy technology and on the scale of project under consideration. (author)

  15. Renewable fibers and bio-based materials for packaging applications - A review of recent developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Caisa; Bras, Julien; Mondragon, Inaki

    2012-01-01

    materials in the packaging market. The covered subjects are renewable fibers and bio-based polymers for use in bioplastics or as coatings for paper-based packaging materials. Current market sizes and forecasts are also presented. Competitive mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties along with material...

  16. Enhancement Factors in Ozone Absorption Based on the Surface Renewal Model and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the Danckwerts surface renewal model, a simple explicit expression of theenhancement factor in ozone absorption with a first order ozone self-decomposition and parallel secondorder ozonation reactions has been derived. The results are compared with our previous work based onthe film theory. The 2,4-dichlorophenol destruction rate by ozonation is predicted using the enhancementfactor model in this paper.

  17. Military Base Off-Taker Opportunities for Tribal Renewable Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nangle, J.

    2013-05-01

    This white paper surveys DOD installations that could have an increased potential interest in the purchase of energy from renewable energy projects on tribal lands. Identification of likely purchasers of renewable energy is a first step in the energy project development process, and this paper aims to identify likely electricity customers that tribal commercial-scale projects could serve. This white paper builds on a geospatial analysis completed in November 2012 identifying 53 reservations within 10 miles of military bases (DOE 2012). This analysis builds on those findings by further refining the list of potential opportunity sites to 15 reservations (Table ES-1), based on five additional factors: 1) The potential renewable resources required to meet the installation energy loads; 2) Proximity to transmission lines; 3) Military installation energy demand; 4) State electricity prices; 5) Local policy and regulatory environment.

  18. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, Jason S. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Grace, Robert C. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Rickerson, Wilson H. [Meister Consultants Group, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  19. Study on Numerical Simulation of Wind Energy Resources Based on WRF and CFD Models%基于WRF和CFD软件结合的风能资源数值模拟试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方艳莹; 徐海明; 朱蓉; 王鹏; 何晓凤; Didier Delaunay; 付斌; 王黎

    2012-01-01

    运用中尺度数值模式WRF与法国CFD软件MeteodynwT相结合的方法(WRF/WT),进行了广东省海陵岛地区的水平分辨率100m×100m的风能资源数值模拟试验,采用海陵岛上7座测风塔观测资料对WRF/WT模式的模拟风场进行误差检验,并与WRF/WAsP模式系统对单点风能参数模拟误差进行对比,研究WRF/WT模式系统在风电场微观选址和分散式风电开发利用中应用的可行性。结果表明:中尺度模式与CFD软件结合的数值模拟方法对区域风能资源分布趋势的模拟比单纯应用CFD软件更准确;WRF/WT模式系统应用于复杂地形风能资源数值模拟评估是可行的,其对区域风能资源参数分布模拟的准确率与WRF/WAsP对2km范围内风能资源参数模拟的准确率相当;WRF/WT模式系统在风速频率分布不满足Weibull分布的情况下和陡峭地形条件下有较好的模拟效果,相对WRF/wAsP有明显优势。今后需进一步研究中尺度模式与CFD软件的衔接方法,以及对中尺度模式模拟结果的误差订正。%A combined model system (WRF/WT) of the mesoscale model WRF and the Meteodyn WT, a CFD model from France, was carried out the numerical simulation experiments of regional wind resources over Hailing Island of Guangdong Province with a horizontal resolution of 100 m × 100 m. The observa- tional data from 7 wind towers in Hailing Island were used to test the results modeled by WRF/WT, and compared with the simulated errors to the single-point wind parameters, thus studying the feasibility of WRF/WT model system in micro-siting for wind farm and the application of distributed development of wind power and utilization. The results showed that, the combined model system of mesoscale model and CFD model in simulating the trends of the regional wind energy resource distribution is more accurate than CFD model used only~ the WRF/WT model system used in complex terrain for wind

  20. The U.S.Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources are an essential component of modern society. Adequate, reliable, and affordable energy supplies obtained using environmentally sustainable practices underpin economic prosperity, environmental quality and human health, and political stability. National and global demands for all forms of energy are forecast to increase significantly over the next several decades. Throughout its history, our Nation has faced important, often controversial, decisions regarding the competing uses of public lands, the supply of energy to sustain development and enable growth, and environmental stewardship. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) provides information to address these challenges by supporting scientific investigations of energy resources, such as research on the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of oil, gas, coal, heavy oil and natural bitumen, oil shale, uranium, and geothermal resources, emerging resources such as gas hydrates, and research on the effects associated with energy resource occurrence, production, and (or) utilization. The results from these investigations provide impartial, robust scientific information about energy resources and support the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI's) mission of protecting and responsibly managing the Nation's natural resources. Primary consumers of ERP information and products include the DOI land- and resource-management Bureaus; other Federal, State, and local agencies; the U.S. Congress and the Administration; nongovernmental organizations; the energy industry; academia; international organizations; and the general public.

  1. Coal as South East Asia' energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balce, G.; Zamora, C.G.; Bakker, P. de [ASEAN Centre for Energy, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2000-06-01

    Coal is by far the most abundant energy resource in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), regions. Although many planned capacity additions of coal-fired power plants were stopped or postponed by 1998 as a result of the economic crisis, it is certain that within the next 10 years, more than 30,000 MW of coal-fired plants will be installed. The article quotes figures from the ASEAN 2020 Energy Demand Outlook, updated by the ASEAN Centre for Energy and from other projections in the APEC Energy Demand and Supply Outlook. It compares forecast coal-based power demand in business-as-usual and environment-friendly scenarios in the first case ASEAN coal reserves would last 287 years as oppose to 427 years in the latter case. Clean coal technologies (both pre and post combustion) will enable coal to remain competitive even with natural gas. The paper is an edited version of a presentation to the Mining Indonesian Conference 2000, Jakarta, Indonesia, 5-7 April 2000. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Renewable energy annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as data on US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, ethanol, and biodiesel); municipal solid waste; geothermal; wind; and solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic). The first chapter of the report provides an overview of renewable energy use and capability from 1992 through 1996. It contains renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as descriptive text. Chapter 2 presents current (through 1996) information on the US solar energy industry. A glossary of renewable energy terms is also included. 15 figs., 42 tabs.

  3. Strategies for optimal penetration of intermittent renewables in complex energy systems based on techno-operational objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Alessandro; Salza, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Energetica ' ' L. Poggi' ' , Universita di Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino, 2, 56126 PISA (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    Renewable energy sources (RES) are mainly used in the electrical sector. Electricity is not a storable commodity. Hence it is necessary to produce the requested quantity and distribute it through the system in such a way as to ensure that electricity supply and demand are always evenly balanced. This constraint is actually the main problem related to the penetration of new renewables (wind and photovoltaic power) in the context of complex energy systems. Moreover the design of optimal energy resource mixes in climate change mitigation actions is a challenge faced in many places. The paper analyzes the problem of new renewable energy sources penetration. The case of Italian scenario is considered as a meaningful reference due to the characteristic size and the complexity of the same. The various energy scenarios are evaluated with the aid of a multipurpose software taking into account the interconnections between the different energetic uses. In particular it is shown how the penetration of new renewable energy sources is limited at an upper level by technological considerations and it will be more sustainable if an integration of the various energy uses (thermal, mobility and electrical) will be considered. A series of optimized scenarios are developed. In each case the maximum RES penetration feasible with the constraints was defined. Then analysis is applied to an energy system model of Italy showing how an integrated development of CHP and electric mobility can aid a further integration of wind and photovoltaic energy power. Finally the primary energy consumption saving possible in case of consistent penetration of intermittent renewables and CHP was identified. (author)

  4. The selfish brain: Competition for energy resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes have become the major health problems in many industrialized countries. Here, I present the unconventional concept that a healthy organism maintains its systemic homeostasis by a "competent brain-pull", i.e., the brain's ability to properly demand glucose from the body, and that the underlying cause of obesity is "incompetent brain-pull." I describe the energy fluxes from the environment, through the body, toward the brain as the final consumer in a "supply chain" model. There is data-based support for the hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food abundance incompetent brain-pull will lead to build ups in the supply chain culminating in obesity and type 2 diabetes. There is also support for the related hypothesis, which states that under conditions of food deprivation, a competent brain-pull mechanism is indispensable for the continuation of the brain's high energy level. To experimentally determine how the competent brain-pull functions to demand for cerebral energy, healthy young men undergoing psychosocial stress were studied. It was found that the brain under stressful conditions demands for energy from the body by using a brain-pull mechanism, which is referred to as "cerebral insulin suppression" and in so doing it can satisfy its excessive needs during stress. This article gives an overview about the recent work on the "Selfish Brain" theory dealing with the maintenance of the cerebral and peripheral energy homeostasis. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Momentum is increasing towards a flexible electricity system based on renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Total global energy use is rising, and remains based on fossil fuels. Yet, the challenge of climate change requires a deep decarbonization of our energy system. Here I argue that the global energy policy discourse is moving rapidly towards one of renewable, energy-efficient and flexible electricity systems. This is primarily because of a rapid take-up within a few countries of variable renewable electricity sources over the past decade, resulting from falling renewable electricity prices, new and more economic means of flexible system operation, and changing social preferences. This in turn has led to widespread and supportive public policy announcements. I also argue that a ‘no-regrets’ energy policy is one that increases the energy system flexibility. Although the changing discourse is welcome, it is not to say that the challenge of climate change has been met. Policy statements must be backed up by more effective governance support and pressure to speed up change.

  6. The Technology Roadmap for Plant/Crop-Based Renewable Resources 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-02-01

    The long-term well-being of the nation and maintenance of a sustainable leadership position in agriculture, forestry, and manufacturing, clearly depend on current and near-term support of multidisciplinary research for the development of a reliable renewable resource base. This document sets a roadmap and priorities for that research. America needs leadership that will continue to recognize, support, and move rapidly to meet the need to expand the use of sustainable renewable resources. This roadmap has highlighted potential ways for progress and has identified goals in specific components of the system. Achieving success with these goals will provide the opportunity to hit the vision target of a fivefold increase in renewable resource use by 2020.

  7. Western Energy Resources and the Environment: Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    This document on geothermal energy is the first in a series of summary reports prepared by the Office of Energy, Minerals and Industry of the Environmental Protection Agency. The series describes what environmental effects are known or expected from new energy resource development in the western third of the United States. The series indicates some of the research and development activities under way and reviews the non-environmental constraints to resource development. It also serves as a reference for planners and policymakers on the entire range of problems and prospects associated with the development of new energy resources. [DJE-2005

  8. Energy resource management for energy-intensive manufacturing industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, C.W.; Levangie, J.

    1981-10-01

    A program to introduce energy resource management into an energy-intensive manufacturing industry is presented. The food industry (SIC No. 20) was chosen and 20 companies were selected for interviews, but thirteen were actually visited. The methodology for this program is detailed. Reasons for choosing the food industry are described. The substance of the information gained and the principal conclusions drawn from the interviews are given. Results of the model Energy Resource Management Plan applied to three companies are compiled at length. Strategies for dissemination of the information gained are described. (MCW)

  9. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  10. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  11. Proportional derivative based stabilizing control of paralleled grid converters with cables in renewable power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Resonant interactions of grid-connected converters with each other and with cable capacitance are challenging the stability and power quality of renewable energy sources based power plants. This paper addresses the instability of current control of converters with the multiple resonance frequenci...

  12. Securing renewable resource supplies for changing market demands in a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Struik, P.C.; Rabbinge, R.

    2005-01-01

    Establishment of a bio-based economy has been recognised as one of the key issues for sustainable development For future developments renewable resources will play a key role as CO2 neutral raw material for sustainable industrial production to curb depletion of fossil resources. Options to fully exp

  13. Securing renewable resource supplies for changing market demands in a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Struik, P.C.; Rabbinge, R.

    2005-01-01

    Establishment of a bio-based economy has been recognised as one of the key issues for sustainable development For future developments renewable resources will play a key role as CO2 neutral raw material for sustainable industrial production to curb depletion of fossil resources. Options to fully

  14. Securing renewable resource supplies for changing market demands in a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Struik, P.C.; Rabbinge, R.

    2005-01-01

    Establishment of a bio-based economy has been recognised as one of the key issues for sustainable development For future developments renewable resources will play a key role as CO2 neutral raw material for sustainable industrial production to curb depletion of fossil resources. Options to fully exp

  15. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  16. 77 FR 47625 - Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based...

  17. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  18. Distributed energy resources scheduling considering real-time resources forecast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M.; Sousa, T.; Ramos, S.

    2014-01-01

    grids and considering day-ahead, hour-ahead and realtime time horizons. This method considers that energy resources are managed by a VPP which establishes contracts with their owners. The full AC power flow calculation included in the model takes into account network constraints. In this paper...

  19. Capacity of Distribution Feeders for Hosting Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanassiou, S.; Hatziargyriou, N.; Anagnostopoulos, P.

    The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of distributed energy resources (DER) all over the world. Several countries have adopted a variety of support schemes (feed-in tariffs, green certificates, direct subsidies, tax exemptions etc.) so as to promote distributed generation (DG...

  20. Valuation Model for Adding Energy Resource into Autonomous Energy Cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, E.; Negeri, E.O.; Van Wijk, A.; Baken, N.

    2013-01-01

    With the availability of distributed generation (DG), clusters that can autonomously manage their energy profile are emerging in the power grid. These autonomous clusters manage their load profiles by orchestrating their energy resources, such as DG, storage, flexible energy consuming appliances, et

  1. 78 FR 78466 - Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... should be limited to one printed page. Written comments are also invited and may be mailed to the Regional Energy Resource Council, Tennessee Valley Authority, 400 West Summit Hill Drive, WT-11 B... Tennessee Valley Authority, 400 West Summit Hill Drive, Knoxville, TN 37902 and will be open to the...

  2. Valuation Model for Adding Energy Resource into Autonomous Energy Cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kok, E.; Negeri, E.O.; Van Wijk, A.; Baken, N.

    2013-01-01

    With the availability of distributed generation (DG), clusters that can autonomously manage their energy profile are emerging in the power grid. These autonomous clusters manage their load profiles by orchestrating their energy resources, such as DG, storage, flexible energy consuming appliances,

  3. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  4. Distributed optimal coordination for distributed energy resources in power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Di; Yang, Tao; Stoorvogel, A.

    2017-01-01

    Driven by smart grid technologies, distributed energy resources (DERs) have been rapidly developing in recent years for improving reliability and efficiency of distribution systems. Emerging DERs require effective and efficient coordination in order to reap their potential benefits. In this paper...

  5. Renewable Energy in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipkovs, P.; Kashkarova, G. [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M. [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

    1997-12-31

    Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

  6. Carbohydrate-based renewable biosurfactants: Rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, and novel liamocins

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-yield, glycolipid-based biosurfactants are of increasing interest for use in environmentally benign cleaning or emulsifying agents. We have developed a MALDI-TOF/MS screen for the rapid analysis of several types of biosurfactants, including various acylated rhamnolipids in Pseudomonas extracts...

  7. Integrated energy resources planning for Sao Paulo state region; Proposicao para o interior paulista do planejamento integrado de recursos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Ino, William Takanori; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baeso; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia], e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2004-07-01

    The present work has in view the elaboration of projections based on IRP (Integrated Energy Resources Planning) in order to propose an alternative of sustainable development to one region of the State of Sao Paulo. Using the data of the region, gathered in the past years by several researches of the GEPEA-USP, scenarios of the development and consume of energy have been created. In these scenarios, two possibilities to supply the demand of the region were considered: energy of clean sources and/or renewable as well as energy of sources that have lower costs. In order to simulate the behavior of several factors of the offer and demand, the LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning) has been used. Both scenarios have vantages and disadvantages, but the clean sources scenario certainly could supply the needs of the region for the next twenty years. Uncertainties in longer periods make the forecasts no much reliable, because changes in both, demand and offer, could invalidate the study. The best is an accompaniment of the sector's behavior in order to make shorter projections, ten years for example, to set the generator estate and policies of consumption. Long forecasts are good to show the limits of the system and the reserve to preview emergency situations as occurred in 2001 with shortness of water supply and consequently broke of energy catering. (author)

  8. Bio-based polyurethane foams from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzione, M.; Russo, V.; Sorrentino, A.; Tesser, R.; Lavorgna, M.; Oliviero, M.; Di Serio, M.; Iannace, S.; Verdolotti, L.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decades, bio-derived natural materials, such as vegetable oils, polysaccharides and biomass represent a rich source of hydroxyl precursors for the synthesis of polyols which can be potentially used to synthesize "greener" polyurethane foams. Herein a bio-based precursor (obtained from succinic acid) was used as a partial replacement of conventional polyol to synthesize PU foams. A mixture of conventional and bio-based polyol in presence of catalysts, silicone surfactant and diphenylmethane di-isocyanate (MDI) was expanded in a mold and cured for two hours at room temperature. Experimental results highlighted the suitability of this bio-precursor to be used in the production of flexible PU foams. Furthermore the chemo-physical characterization of the resulting foams show an interesting improvement in thermal stability and elastic modulus with respect to the PU foams produced with conventional polyol.

  9. Evaluation of development prospects of renewable energy: agent based modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevakina, E. A.; Zabelina, I. A.; Murtazina, M. Sh

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes the agent-based model usage to evaluate the dynamics and the perspectives of alternative energy adopting in the Eastern regions of Russia. It includes a brief review of the agent-based models that can be used for estimation of alternatives in the process of transition to “green” economics. The authors show that active usage of solar energy in Russia is possible at the rural household level, when the climate conditions are appropriate. Adoption of solar energy sources decreases the energy production based on the conventional sources and improves the quality of environment in the regions. A complex regional multi-agent model is considered in this paper. The model consists of several private models and uses GIS technologies. These private models are a demographic and migration model of the region and a diffusion of the innovations model. In these models, agents are humans who live within the boundaries of the agents-municipalities, and agents as well are large-scale producers of electricity that pollutes the environment. Such a structure allows us to determine the changes in the demand for electricity generated by traditional sources. A simulation software will assist to identify the opportunities for implementation of alternative energy sources in the Eastern regions of Russia.

  10. Enhancement Factors in Ozone Absorption Based on the Surface Renewal Model and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程江; 杨卓如; 陈焕钦; C.H.Kuo; M.E.Zappi

    2000-01-01

    Based on the Danckwerts surface renewal model, a simple explicit expression of the enhancement factor in ozone absorption with a first order ozone self-decomposition and parallel second order ozonation reactions has been derived. The results are compared with our previous work based on the film theory. The 2,4-dichlorophenol destruction rate by ozonation is predicted using the enhancement factor model in this paper.

  11. Study on the coordinated development of energy resources based on low-carbon economy%基于低碳经济的能源资源协调发展的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    慕庆国

    2011-01-01

    The lifeblood of economic development is energy. The driving force of social development is the coordinated development of economy and energy. Economic development left the basis of energy, it would be a river without water, without trees. Therefore, economic and energy development should be coordinated, community can forge ahead. Development of low-carbon economy is the use of advanced technology and effective management methods and means to protect resources, protect the environment and achieve sustainable social and economic development the only way; is the transformation of China's economic development, industrial structure adjustment process must be completed urgent tasks. The world's industrial structure changes will inevitably affect the increasing openness of China, it is in this context, China's exports of coal and other minerals growing. In our country into the economic globalization process, pay attention to the acceptance of international industrial restructuring of the beneficial effects of China's economic development while use of low-carbon economic development strategy model avoiding negative effects endanger our economy's long-term, fundamental interests. Should in this context, China's natural resources in a planned development and to improve the efficient use of natural resources. China to achieve sustainable development has become an important social andeconomic development of the basic principle of sustainable development is not only to emphasize protection of the environment, and should include how to address the population has a high concentration, the per capita resources are relatively scarce, the natural environment already fragile conditions, how to achieve high long-term economic development, while also protecting the environment of such an unprecedented social practice. Low-carbon economy and the coordinated development of energy resources has become the only way to solve this problem. Energy is both important and essential to the

  12. Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Menges

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the important goals of European energy policy is to increase the share of renewable energy resources in the energy supply. The instruments used in the member states are not fully compatible with the rules of the European internal market. In a theoretical section, this paper analyses possible different instruments for promoting renewable energy. Some countries use feed in tariffs - using fixed prices to increase incentives for producers to invest into renewable energy, other countries use quantity-based systems like quotas that lead to a premium above the market price. In an institutional analysis we show that on the basis of effectiveness and efficiency considerations for the European Union, in the long-term quantity oriented systems of promotion are preferable if combined with elements of a capacity market. The main reason for this conclusion is that price-based systems cannot give enough incentives for backup capacities necessary to cope with intermittent production of renewable sources. In addition price-based systems violate the basic rules of the open internal European market because feed in tariffs are a considerable barrier for trade of renewable energy products.

  13. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING TEACHING THE CONCEPT of RENEWABLE ENERGY in TECHNOLOGY ASSISTED ENVIRONMENTS AND DESIGNING PROCESSES in THE DISTANCE EDUCATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seda YUCEL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out what to take into account in creating renewable energy awareness. In this study, certain factors thought to affect the development of renewable energy awareness were investigated. The awareness was created through a technology-assisted renewable energy module and assessed using a renewable energy assessment tool. The effects of the students’ self-directed learning readiness with Guglielmino (1977, inner-individual orientation, and anxiety orientation on the awareness were examined. These three factors were found to have significant effects on renewable energy, which was developed through technology utilization. In addition, based on the finding that delivering the subject of renewable energy in technology assisted environments is more effective, the criteria that should be taken into consideration in transforming this subject into a design model that is more suitable for distance education were identified.

  15. Integrated Agent-Based and Production Cost Modeling Framework for Renewable Energy Studies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Giulia

    2015-10-07

    The agent-based framework for renewable energy studies (ARES) is an integrated approach that adds an agent-based model of industry actors to PLEXOS and combines the strengths of the two to overcome their individual shortcomings. It can examine existing and novel wholesale electricity markets under high penetrations of renewables. ARES is demonstrated by studying how increasing levels of wind will impact the operations and the exercise of market power of generation companies that exploit an economic withholding strategy. The analysis is carried out on a test system that represents the Electric Reliability Council of Texas energy-only market in the year 2020. The results more realistically reproduce the operations of an energy market under different and increasing penetrations of wind, and ARES can be extended to address pressing issues in current and future wholesale electricity markets.

  16. Integrated Agent-Based and Production Cost Modeling Framework for Renewable Energy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Giulia

    2016-01-08

    The agent-based framework for renewable energy studies (ARES) is an integrated approach that adds an agent-based model of industry actors to PLEXOS and combines the strengths of the two to overcome their individual shortcomings. It can examine existing and novel wholesale electricity markets under high penetrations of renewables. ARES is demonstrated by studying how increasing levels of wind will impact the operations and the exercise of market power of generation companies that exploit an economic withholding strategy. The analysis is carried out on a test system that represents the Electric Reliability Council of Texas energy-only market in the year 2020. The results more realistically reproduce the operations of an energy market under different and increasing penetrations of wind, and ARES can be extended to address pressing issues in current and future wholesale electricity markets.

  17. An Approach to Develop Embedded System For Web Based Monitoring & Controlling of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akansha S. Fating

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The widespread application of Renewable Energy Sources (RESrequires centralized monitoring and controlling System. To makethese operations control room independent, there is need todevelop smart servers and web based applications. Cost is anessential factor of any embedded system design. This paperdiscusses a novel concept of designing of cost effective server/client embedded system Renewable Energy sources. Hereembedded server is developed with ARM9 controller loaded withwindows CE operating system. Low cost client are designedusing Atmega32 microcontroller with LAN connection. Server/client are connected in LAN system and server basedapplications has been developed to monitor/ controlling the clientoperation. The server has web based applications that can beaccessed via internet. Author has presented developed systemand results.

  18. Current Renewable Energy Technologies and Future Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Smith, Barton [ORNL; Grubb, Kimberly R [ORNL; Lee, Russell [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    The generally acknowledged sources of renewable energy are wind, geothermal, biomass, solar, hydropower, and hydrogen. Renewable energy technologies are crucial to the production and utilization of energy from these regenerative and virtually inexhaustible sources. Furthermore, renewable energy technologies provide benefits beyond the establishment of sustainable energy resources. For example, these technologies produce negligible amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants in providing energy, and they exploit domestically available energy sources, thereby reducing our dependence on both the importation of fossil fuels and the use of nuclear fuels. The market price of renewable energy technologies does not reflect the economic value of these added benefits.

  19. Development of a Neural Network-Based Renewable Energy Forecasting Framework for Process Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soobin; Ryu, Jun-Hyung; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lee, In-Beum

    2016-06-25

    This paper presents a neural network-based forecasting framework for photovoltaic power (PV) generation as a decision-supporting tool to employ renewable energies in the process industry. The applicability of the proposed framework is illustrated by comparing its performance against other methodologies such as linear and nonlinear time series modelling approaches. A case study of an actual PV power plant in South Korea is presented.

  20. 2010 survey of energy resources. 22nd edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    This, the 22nd edition of the World Energy Council's Survey of Energy Resources (SER), is the latest in a long series of reviews of the status of the world's major energy resources. It covers not only the fossil fuels but also the major types of traditional and novel sources of energy. The Survey is a flagship publication of the World Energy Council (WEC), prepared triennially and timed for release at each World Energy Congress. It is a unique document in that no entity other than the WEC compiles such wideranging information on a regular and consistent basis. This highly regarded publication is an essential tool for governments, industry, investors, NGOs and academia.

  1. Optimum selection of an energy resource using fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouelnaga, Ayah E., E-mail: ayahabouelnaga@hotmail.co [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, 21544 Alexandria (Egypt); Metwally, Abdelmohsen; Nagy, Mohammad E.; Agamy, Saeed [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, 21544 Alexandria (Egypt)

    2009-12-15

    Optimum selection of an energy resource is a vital issue in developed countries. Considering energy resources as alternatives (nuclear, hydroelectric, gas/oil, and solar) and factors upon which the proper decision will be taken as attributes (economics, availability, environmental impact, and proliferation), one can use the multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT) to optimize the selection process. Recently, fuzzy logic is extensively applied to the MAUT as it expresses the linguistic appraisal for all attributes in wide and reliable manners. The rise in oil prices and the increased concern about environmental protection from CO{sub 2} emissions have promoted the attention to the use of nuclear power as a viable energy source for power generation. For Egypt, as a case study, the nuclear option is found to be an appropriate choice. Following the introduction of innovative designs of nuclear power plants, improvements in the proliferation resistance, environmental impacts, and economics will enhance the selection of the nuclear option.

  2. Real-time Energy Resource Scheduling considering a Real Portuguese Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Marco; Sousa, Tiago; Morais, Hugo;

    2014-01-01

    The development in power systems and the introduction of decentralized gen eration and Electric Vehicles (EVs), both connected to distribution networks, represents a major challenge in the planning and operation issues. This new paradigm requires a new energy resources management approach which...... scheduling in smart grids, considering day - ahead, hour - ahead and real - time scheduling. The case study considers a 33 - bus distribution network with high penetration of distributed energy resources . The wind generation profile is base d o n a rea l Portuguese wind farm . Four scenarios are presented...... taking into account 0, 1, 2 and 5 periods (hours or minutes) ahead of the scheduling period in the hour - ahead and real - time scheduling...

  3. An initial assessment of Ocean Energy Resources in the Western Indian Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammar, Linus; Ehnberg, Jimmy

    2011-07-01

    The demand for modern energy is accelerating in the Western Indian Ocean (coastal East Africa). A mixture of different energy sources will by necessity be the option for the long-term future and the most adequate solutions naturally vary between locations. The vast coastlines and many islands of the region make ocean energy (OE) a relevant field to explore. With an early understanding of the resources strategic planning towards sustainable development is facilitate. Moreover, early awareness facilitates a respectful integration of new technologies in the fragile and for local people invaluable ecosystems. This study provides a first assessment of the frontier OE technologies and corresponding resources in the region. Five renewable Ocean Energy technologies have been reviewed and the physical resource abundance for respective energy source has been screened based on available literature and databases. The Western Indian Ocean is shared between nine African countries and two French departments. The studied countries are the Comoros, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Mozambique, the Seychelles, Tanzania, and Reunion. The energy situation is insufficient throughout the region, either as consequence of lacking domestic energy sources or rudimentary grid extension. The results indicate that ocean energy resources are abundant in much of the region, but different sources have potential in different areas. Several countries have favourable physical conditions for extracting energy from waves and from the temperature gradient between the surface and deep water. Wave power is a young but currently available technology which can be utilized for both large- and small-scale applications. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion is a technology under development that, once proven, may be applicable for large-scale power production. The physical conditions for small-scale tidal barrage power, tidal stream power, and ocean current power are less pronounced but may be of interest at

  4. Federal Energy Resources Modernization Coordinating Committee; Semiannual report, April 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, G. B.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the broad range of activities that are focused on meeting the President's Executive Order on Federal Energy Management promulgated to meet energy savings goals and encourage more efficient management of all federal energy resources. These activities are reported semiannually under the auspices of the Federal Energy Resource Modernization (FERM) Coordinating Committee, and as such include activities undertaken from April 1, 1992, through September 30, 1992. The activities reported are classified into four major categories: (1) technology-base support, which includes development of processes, software, metering and monitoring equipment and strategies, and other tools for federal energy managers to better understand and characterize their energy resources; (2) federal energy systems testing and monitoring; (3) federal energy systems revitalization projects at federal installations in cooperation with the utilities serving the sites; and (4) energy supply, distribution and end-use conservation assessment for federal agencies and/or facilities. Lighting systems and air conditioning projects at federal facilities, especially military bases are updated.

  5. RENEWABLE ENERGY IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA MIHĂILĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports published by the International Energy Agency and U.S. Department of Energy, regarding the global energy outlook for the first three decades of the XXI century, warns of global trends on energy demand, increasing dependence on energy imports, coal use and volume emissions of greenhouse gases, torism industry being one of the biggest energy consumption industry. Uncertainties on different models of regional development and access of the world to traditional energy resources require a change of orientation towards long-term scenarios for assessing energy domain, increasing the share of energy from renewable resources beeing one of the solutions. Intourism the renewable energy is a solution for a positive impact on enviroment , reduced operational costs and even won an extra-profit.

  6. World potential of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessus, B.; Devin, B.; Pharabod, F.

    1991-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis, region by region, of the actually accessible renewable energies at a given horizon, is presented. The same methodology as the one employed to derive ``proven fossil energy reserves`` from ``energy resources`` is adopted, in which resources are defined by quantitative information on physical potential, while reserves take into account technical and economical accessibility. As renewable resources are fluctuating with time and are diluted in space and not readily transportable or storeable, it is necessary to consider the presence of populations or activities near enough to be able to profit by these diluted and volatile energies.

  7. Planning of community-scale renewable energy management systems in a mixed stochastic and fuzzy environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y.P.; Tan, Q. [Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, Unversity of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada); Huang, G.H. [Environmental Systems Engineering Program, Faculty of Engineering, Unversity of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)]|[Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100012-100875 (China); Yang, Z.F. [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Enviroment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2009-07-15

    In this study, an interval-parameter superiority-inferiority-based two-stage programming model has been developed for supporting community-scale renewable energy management (ISITSP-CREM). This method is based on an integration of the existing interval linear programming (ILP), two-stage programming (TSP) and superiority-inferiority-based fuzzy-stochastic programming (SI-FSP). It allows uncertainties presented as both probability/possibilistic distributions and interval values to be incorporated within a general optimization framework, facilitating the reflection of multiple uncertainties and complexities during the process of renewable energy management systems planning. ISITSP-CREM can also be used for effectively addressing dynamic interrelationships between renewable energy availabilities, economic penalties and electricity-generation deficiencies within a community scale. Thus, complexities in renewable energy management systems can be systematically reflected, highly enhancing applicability of the modeling process. The developed method has then been applied to a case of long-term renewable energy management planning for three communities. Useful solutions for the planning of renewable energy management systems have been generated. Interval solutions associated with different energy availabilities and economic penalties have been obtained. They can be used for generating decision alternatives and thus help decision makers identify desired policies under various economic and system-reliability constraints. The generated solutions can also provide desired energy resource/service allocation plans with a minimized system cost (or economic penalties), a maximized system reliability level and a maximized energy security. Tradeoffs between system costs and energy security can also be tackled. Higher costs will increase potential energy generation amount, while a desire for lower system costs will run into a risk of energy deficiency. They are helpful for supporting

  8. Renewable energy-based electricity for rural social and economic development in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingart, J.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a project whose goals include the establishment of a pilot renewable energy-based rural energy services enterprise to serve communities in the Mamprusi East District, focused on: economically productive activities; community services; household non-thermal energy. The program also seeks to establish the technical, economic, financial, institutional, and socio-cultural requirements for sustainability, to demonstrate bankability and financial sustainability, as a pre-investment prelude to commercial growth of such projects, and to establish technical, financial, and service performance standards for private sector rural energy service companies. This project is being implemented now because the government is undergoing structural reform, including privatization of the power sector, there is active foreign capital available for international development, and the government and people are committed to and able to pay for renewable energy services.

  9. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinec, A.; Jovanovski, B.; Gajduk, A.; Markovska, N.; Kocarev, L.

    2016-05-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  10. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    CERN Document Server

    Dedinec, Aleksandar; Gajduk, Andrej; Markovska, Natasa; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  11. Incentive-based Financial Support Scheme for Immature Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2015-01-01

    Most of today’s renewable energy systems rely heavily on investments as well as public financial support. This support is often given by means of a higher sales price for each kWh produced, i.e. feed-in tariffs (FITs), green certificates or Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROCs), or by a fixed...... amount, being a percentage of the construction costs of the facility. All these ways of financing have different downsides. The feed-in tariff based kWh prices have some incentives to improve the technology, but enables infeasible solutions to stay financially supported even while R&D is in status quo....... The fixed amount only helps with installation costs, which should not be an issue once the technology is sufficiently feasible. This means that the current ways of granting financial support all lack incentives for increasing production or decreasing construction costs. This paper presents a unique scheme...

  12. Ruled-based control of off-grid desalination powered by renewable energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Serna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A rule-based control is presented for desalination plants operating under variable, renewable power availability. This control algorithm is based on two sets of rules: first, a list that prioritizes the reverse osmosis (RO units of the plant is created, based on the current state and the expected water demand; secondly, the available energy is then dispatched to these units following this prioritized list. The selected strategy is tested on a specific case study: a reverse osmosis plant designed for the production of desalinated water powered by wind and wave energy. Simulation results illustrate the correct performance of the plant under this control.

  13. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Hunt, Andrew J; Sherwood, James

    2015-07-28

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  14. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Clark

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  15. Comparative Cost-Benefit Analysis of Renewable Energy Resource Trade Offs for Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Palms Fully Operational Energy Products Minus Outlier ........81  Figure 18.  MCAS Beaufort Fully Operational Energy Projects...vast forests , agricultural waste in the large agricultural areas, and manure and other animal by-products. According to the Energy Information...total costs for wind turbines captured in an NREL report (NREL/TP- 500-40566) minus the utilities and insurance costs, which are assumed costs for our

  16. Improved electrical properties of free standing blend polymer for renewable energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Anil; Sharma, Sweety; Sharma, A. L.

    2016-05-01

    Blend polymer electrolytes are prepared for salt concentration (Ö/Li = 4) with the constant ratio (0.5 gm) of PEO and PAN using solution casting technique. The prepared free standing solid polymeric film is characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) which confirms the homogeneous distribution of dissociated salt in blend polymer matrix. After addition of salt the ionic conductivity value is found to be of the order of 7.13 × 10-5 Scm-1 which is three orders higher when compared with pure blend polymer films. The microscopic interaction among the polymer-ion, ion-ion has been confirmed by the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. A very fine correlation has been built in the electrical conductivity and FTIR result. On the basis of above finding, a prepared free standing solid polymeric film appears to be appropriate for the energy storage/conversion device applications.

  17. Geospatial Analysis of Renewable Energy Technical Potential on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Lopez, A.; Beckley, D.

    2013-02-01

    This technical report uses an established geospatial methodology to estimate the technical potential for renewable energy on tribal lands for the purpose of allowing Tribes to prioritize the development of renewable energy resources either for community scale on-tribal land use or for revenue generating electricity sales.

  18. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers: Conceptual issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbruggen, Aviel, E-mail: aviel.verbruggen@ua.ac.b [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Fischedick, Manfred [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy (Germany); Moomaw, William [Tufts University, Center for International Environment and Resource Policy (United States); Weir, Tony [University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands (Fiji); Nadai, Alain [Centre International de Recherche sur nvironnement et le Developpement CIRED (France); Nilsson, Lars J. [University of Lund (Sweden); Nyboer, John [Simon Fraser University, School of Resource and Environmental Management (Canada); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies.

  19. Foundations for Protecting Renewable-Rich Distribution Systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brahma, Sukumar [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Ranade, Satish [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    High proliferation of Inverter Interfaced Distributed Energy Resources (IIDERs) into the electric distribution grid introduces new challenges to protection of such systems. This is because the existing protection systems are designed with two assumptions: 1) system is single-sourced, resulting in unidirectional fault current, and (2) fault currents are easily detectable due to much higher magnitudes compared to load currents. Due to the fact that most renewables interface with the grid though inverters, and inverters restrict their current output to levels close to the full load currents, both these assumptions are no longer valid - the system becomes multi-sourced, and overcurrent-based protection does not work. The primary scope of this study is to analyze the response of a grid-tied inverter to different faults in the grid, leading to new guidelines on protecting renewable-rich distribution systems.

  20. Optimal Management Of Renewable-Based Mgs An Intelligent Approach Through The Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nafar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- This article proposes a probabilistic frame built on Scenario fabrication to considerate the uncertainties in the finest action managing of Micro Grids MGs. The MG contains different recoverable energy resources such as Wind Turbine WT Micro Turbine MT Photovoltaic PV Fuel Cell FC and one battery as the storing device. The advised frame is based on scenario generation and Roulette wheel mechanism to produce different circumstances for handling the uncertainties of altered factors. It habits typical spreading role as a probability scattering function of random factors. The uncertainties which are measured in this paper are grid bid alterations cargo request calculating error and PV and WT yield power productions. It is well-intentioned to asset that solving the MG difficult for 24 hours of a day by considering diverse uncertainties and different constraints needs one powerful optimization method that can converge fast when it doesnt fall in local optimal topic. Simultaneously single Group Search Optimization GSO system is presented to vision the total search space globally. The GSO algorithm is instigated from group active of beasts. Also the GSO procedure one change is similarly planned for this algorithm. The planned context and way is applied o one test grid-connected MG as a typical grid.

  1. Electricity system based on 100% renewable energy for India and SAARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulagi, Ashish; Choudhary, Piyush; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Breyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The developing region of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) is home to a large number of people living below the poverty line. In future, providing affordable, universally accessible, reliable, low to zero carbon electricity in this region will be the main aim. A cost optimal 100% renewable energy system is simulated for SAARC for the year 2030 on an hourly resolved basis. The region was divided into 16 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current (HVDC) grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) showed a decrease from 71.6 €/MWh in a decentralized to 67.2 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An additional scenario was simulated to show the benefits of integrating industrial gas production and seawater reverse osmosis desalination demand, and showed the system cost decreased by 5% and total electricity generation decreased by 1%. The results show that a 100% renewable energy system could be a reality in the SAARC region with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS) alternatives. One of the limitations of this study is the cost of land for installation of renewables which is not included in the LCOE calculations, but regarded as a minor contribution. PMID:28723937

  2. Electricity system based on 100% renewable energy for India and SAARC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulagi, Ashish; Choudhary, Piyush; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Breyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The developing region of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) is home to a large number of people living below the poverty line. In future, providing affordable, universally accessible, reliable, low to zero carbon electricity in this region will be the main aim. A cost optimal 100% renewable energy system is simulated for SAARC for the year 2030 on an hourly resolved basis. The region was divided into 16 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current (HVDC) grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) showed a decrease from 71.6 €/MWh in a decentralized to 67.2 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An additional scenario was simulated to show the benefits of integrating industrial gas production and seawater reverse osmosis desalination demand, and showed the system cost decreased by 5% and total electricity generation decreased by 1%. The results show that a 100% renewable energy system could be a reality in the SAARC region with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS) alternatives. One of the limitations of this study is the cost of land for installation of renewables which is not included in the LCOE calculations, but regarded as a minor contribution.

  3. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  4. Monitoring and Control by Virtual Tools of an Educational Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligor Adrian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the present paper is to present the architecture and design of an effective tool useful for monitoring, maintenance and training of specialists in the field of photovoltaic renewable energy Among renewable energy resources, solar energy represents an easy to use, accessible and green source of energy. An important goal is the efficient use of solar energy which can only be achieved by the knowledge of solar datum and equipment characteristics from a studied area. Based on this idea, the paper presents a concept of virtual tools developed on web technologies and virtual instrumentation for monitoring and control of solar renewable energy. These tools are mainly designed as a base for a virtual laboratory that can be used for the study of photovoltaic and thermal solar energy parameters, representing, by didactical point of view, a handful way for students to study the phenomenology and also a training tool for specialists in the field of solar photovoltaic energy.

  5. The true cost of renewables: An analytic response to the coal industry`s attack on renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B G; Wan, Yih-huei

    1995-10-01

    In April 1995, the Center for Energy and Economic Development (CEED), an umbrella organization of pro-coal interests, released a report entitled Energy Choices in a Competitive Era: The Role of Renewable and Traditional Energy Resources in America`s Electric Generation Mix. The report purports to show that a very modest growth in the use of renewable energy in the U.S. power sector would entail unaffordable costs for the nation`s electricity ratepayers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to review the assumptions contained in the report, which was prepared for CEED by Resource Data International, Inc. (RDI). The NREL analysis finds that the conclusions of the CEED/RDI study are based on faulty data and assumptions regarding the comparative economics of coal and renewable energy development. After correcting these errors, NREL finds that a modest growth path of renewable resource development would essentially cost the nation little more than projected electricity market costs for coal-fired generation, even before considering the environmental benefits that would accompany this development.

  6. Capacity of Distribution Feeders for Hosting Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanassiou, S.; Hatziargyriou, N.; Anagnostopoulos, P.

    The last two decades have seen an unprecedented development of distributed energy resources (DER) all over the world. Several countries have adopted a variety of support schemes (feed-in tariffs, green certificates, direct subsidies, tax exemptions etc.) so as to promote distributed generation (DG...... standards of the networks. To address this need in a timely and effective manner, simplified methodologies and practical rules of thumbs are often applied to assess the DER hosting capacity of existing distribution networks, avoiding thus detailed and time consuming analytical studies. The scope...

  7. 78 FR 37876 - Establishment of Regional Energy Resource Council and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Establishment of Regional Energy Resource Council and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Notice of Establishment of the Regional Energy Resource Council and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Tennessee Valley...

  8. Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Groza, Voicu; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn

    2012-01-01

    Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads......Experimental Testing for Stability Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources Components with Storage Devices and Loads...

  9. Estimates of the global tidal range energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Peter; Walkington, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energy generation through tidal lagoons and barrages is an attractive energy source due to tidal predictability and the potential for energy storage. Yet so far, the annual tidal range resource has only been estimated at relatively coarse spatial resolutions and without detailed investigation of the temporal variation from individual or aggregated sites. In this study, we estimate the theoretical tidal range resource of the northwest European shelf seas, using the 3D Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) at roughly 1 km spatial resolution. Through tidal analysis of model output, we calculate the potential energy in both the rising and falling tides and, hence, show temporal variations in PE throughout the year. Based on a range of energy yield thresholds (rather than thresholds based on M2 range and water depth), we calculate the total annual theoretical resource from dual (flood and ebb) strategies. Using the FES global tidal model, which resolves tidal elevations at 1/16° resolution, the global resource was also estimated with the regions with the highest energy yield isolated. We discuss our estimates in relation to the yield that can actually be obtained mechanically, and in relation to the total energy flux of a region and the potential impacts of different lagoon scenarios on the local and far-field energy fluxes.

  10. The RenewElec Project: Variable Renewable Energy and the Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apt, Jay

    2014-02-14

    Variable energy resources, such as wind power, now produce about 4% of U.S. electricity. They can play a significantly expanded role if the U.S. adopts a systems approach that considers affordability, security and reliability. Reaching a 20-30% renewable portfolio standard goal is possible, but not without changes in the management and regulation of the power system, including accurately assessing and preparing for the operational effects of renewable generation. The RenewElec project will help the nation make the transition to the use of significant amounts of electric generation from variable and intermittent sources of renewable power.

  11. Economic and optimal dispatching of power microgrid with renweable energy resources based on stochastic optimization%考虑随机性的微网能量优化调度模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳丹; 李强; 袁晓冬

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization model considering the volatility of wind power and photovoltaic power in microgrid. The model optimizes the economic operation of a microgrid as well as minimizes the flow deviation at the point of common coupling (PCC) from scheduled values. First, the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) and simultaneous backward reduction (SBR) technique are introduced to describe the stochastic nature of wind power and photovoltaic power. Then the random characteristic is introduced into the objective function of the stochastic model which is solved based on the genetic algorithm (GA). Simulation results demonstrate its rationality and effectiveness for day-ahead scheduling of a microgrid.%针对微网中风能和太阳能等可再生能源具有随机性和波动性的特点,提出了一种考虑随机性的微网能量优化调度模型,用以降低可再生能源发电预测不确定性带来的微电网和主网连接点(Point of common coupling,PCC)处的功率波动,使得微网对于主网成为一个可调度的单元,同时实现微网的经济调度。首先,采用拉丁超立方采样法(Latin hypercube sampling,LHS)和同步回带削减(Simultaneous backward reduction,SBR)技术生成可能的出力场景来描述风电和太阳能光伏发电出力的随机性。然后将PCC处能量波动引入目标函数,使得在系统期望成本最小的同时减小风电和光伏出力波动性对电网的影响,采用遗传算法求解该问题。仿真结果表明,该模型对含风电和太阳能光伏发电的微网优化调度的合理性和有效性。

  12. GIS-Based Planning and Modeling for Renewable Energy: Challenges and Future Research Avenues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Resch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the face of the broad political call for an “energy turnaround”, we are currently witnessing three essential trends with regard to energy infrastructure planning, energy generation and storage: from planned production towards fluctuating production on the basis of renewable energy sources, from centralized generation towards decentralized generation and from expensive energy carriers towards cost-free energy carriers. These changes necessitate considerable modifications of the energy infrastructure. Even though most of these modifications are inherently motivated by geospatial questions and challenges, the integration of energy system models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS is still in its infancy. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of previous approaches in using GIS in renewable energy-related projects, extracts distinct challenges from these previous efforts and, finally, defines a set of core future research avenues for GIS-based energy infrastructure planning with a focus on the use of renewable energy. These future research avenues comprise the availability base data and their “geospatial awareness”, the development of a generic and unified data model, the usage of volunteered geographic information (VGI and crowdsourced data in analysis processes, the integration of 3D building models and 3D data analysis, the incorporation of network topologies into GIS, the harmonization of the heterogeneous views on aggregation issues in the fields of energy and GIS, fine-grained energy demand estimation from freely-available data sources, decentralized storage facility planning, the investigation of GIS-based public participation mechanisms, the transition from purely structural to operational planning, data privacy aspects and, finally, the development of a new dynamic power market design.

  13. Wave energy resource assessment for the Indian shelf seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anoop, T.R.

    As a renewable energy, the assessment of wave power potential around a country is crucial. Knowledge of the temporal and spatial variations of wave energy is required for locating a wave power plant. This study investigates the variations in wave...

  14. Method to Reduce the Computational Intensity of Offshore Wind Energy Resource Assessments Using Cokriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, M. J.; Boucher, A.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2009-12-01

    Wind energy represents the fastest growing renewable energy resource, sustaining double digit growth for the past 10 years with approximately 94,000 MW installed by the end of 2007. Although winds over the ocean are generally stronger and often located closer to large urban electric load centers, offshore wind turbines represent about 1% of installed capacity. In order to evaluate the economic potential of an offshore wind resource, wind resource assessments typically involve running large mesoscale model simulations, validated with sparse in-situ meteorological station data. These simulations are computationally expensive limiting their temporal coverage. Although a wealth of other wind data does exist (e.g. QuickSCAT satellite, SAR satellite, radar/SODAR wind profiler, and radiosounde) these data are often ignored or interpolated trivially because of the widely varying spatial and temporal resolution. A spatio-temporal cokriging approach with non-parametric covariances was developed to interpolate these empirical data and compare it with previously validated surface winds output by the PSU/NCAR MM5 for coastal California. The spatio-temporal covariance model is assumed to be the product of a spatial and a temporal covariance component. The temporal covariance is derived from in-situ wind speed measurements at 10 minutes intervals measured by offshore buoys and variograms are calculated non-parametrically using a FFT. Spatial covariance tables are created using MM5 or QuikSCAT data with a similar 2D FFT method. The cokriging system was initially validated by predicting “missing” hours of PSU/NCAR MM5 data and has displayed reasonable skill. QuikSCAT satellite winds were also substituted for MM5 data when calculating the spatial covariance, with the goal of reducing the computer time needed to accurately predict a wind energy resource.

  15. Novel class of eco-flame retardants based on the renewable raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharov, A. M.; Sakharov, P. A.; Lomakin, S. M.; Zaikov, G. E.

    2012-07-01

    The present study is focused on development of environmentally friendly intumescent/char forming coatings for wood and polymeric materials. For this purpose we have developed the method of oxidation of raw materials: polysaccharides, seeds and lignin by oxygen in the presence of catalyst. The main products of oxidation of such substrates are the salts of polyoxy- and polyphenoxy acids. The efficiency of fireproofing action of novel surface protecting intumescent coating for wood and polymeric materials based on modified renewable raw materials was studied. Flammability tests of wood and polymers samples treated by oxidized raw materials confirm their high-performance fire protection.

  16. Multi-objective optimal dispatch of distributed energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Ayomide

    This thesis is composed of two papers which investigate the optimal dispatch for distributed energy resources. In the first paper, an economic dispatch problem for a community microgrid is studied. In this microgrid, each agent pursues an economic dispatch for its personal resources. In addition, each agent is capable of trading electricity with other agents through a local energy market. In this paper, a simple market structure is introduced as a framework for energy trades in a small community microgrid such as the Solar Village. It was found that both sellers and buyers benefited by participating in this market. In the second paper, Semidefinite Programming (SDP) for convex relaxation of power flow equations is used for optimal active and reactive dispatch for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Various objective functions including voltage regulation, reduced transmission line power losses, and minimized reactive power charges for a microgrid are introduced. Combinations of these goals are attained by solving a multiobjective optimization for the proposed ORPD problem. Also, both centralized and distributed versions of this optimal dispatch are investigated. It was found that SDP made the optimal dispatch faster and distributed solution allowed for scalability.

  17. 78 FR 40473 - Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC's application for...

  18. 78 FR 28214 - Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Gainesville Renewable Energy Center, LLC's application...

  19. 77 FR 64980 - Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC's application...

  20. Institutional and Policy Assessment of Renewable Energy Sector in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Murtaza Ershad

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy resources could play a vital role in the sustainable economic, social, and environmental development of Afghanistan. Heavy reliance of rural households on firewood, rising costs of fossil fuels, outdoor and indoor air pollution, and climate change are some of the challenges that can be addressed by diversifying our power production fuel inputs and adopting renewable energy technologies. In order to deploy and scale up renewable energy technologies and improve access to sustai...

  1. America's Changing Energy Landscape - USGS National Coal Resources Data System Changes to National Energy Resources Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, J. A., II

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Eastern Energy Resources Science Center (EERSC) has an ongoing project which has mapped coal chemistry and stratigraphy since 1977. Over the years, the USGS has collected various forms of coal data and archived that data into the National Coal Resources Data System (NCRDS) database. NCRDS is a repository that houses data from the major coal basins in the United States and includes information on location, seam thickness, coal rank, geologic age, geographic region, geologic province, coalfield, and characteristics of the coal or lithology for that data point. These data points can be linked to the US Coal Quality Database (COALQUAL) to include ultimate, proximate, major, minor and trace-element data. Although coal is an inexpensive energy provider, the United States has shifted away from coal usage recently and branched out into other forms of non-renewable and renewable energy because of environmental concerns. NCRDS's primary method of data capture has been USGS field work coupled with cooperative agreements with state geological agencies and universities doing coal-related research. These agreements are on competitive five-year cycles that have evolved into larger scope research efforts including solid fuel resources such as coal-bed methane, shale gas and oil. Recently these efforts have expanded to include environmental impacts of the use of fossil fuels, which has allowed the USGS to enter into agreements with states for the Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Assessment as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act. In 2016 they expanded into research areas to include geothermal, conventional and unconventional oil and gas. The NCRDS and COALQUAL databases are now online for the public to use, and are in the process of being updated to include new data for other energy resources. Along with this expansion of scope, the database name will change to the National Energy Resources Data System (NERDS) in FY 2017.

  2. A DSP based power electronics interface for alternate/renewable energy systems. Quarterly report 3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-31

    This report is an update on the research project involving the implementation of a DSP based power electronics interface for alternate/renewable energy systems that was funded by the Department of Energy under the Inventions and Innovations program 1998. The objective of this research is to develop a utility interface (dc to ac converter) suitable to interconnect alternate/renewable energy sources to the utility system. The DSP based power electronics interface in comparison with existing methods will excel in terms of efficiency, reliability and cost. Moreover DSP-based control provides the flexibility to upgrade/modify control algorithms to meet specific system requirements. The proposed interface will be capable of maintaining stiffness of the ac voltages at the point of common coupling regardless of variation in the input dc bus voltage. This will be achieved without the addition of any extra components to the basic interface topology but by inherently controlling the inverter switching strategy in accordance to the input voltage variation.

  3. Techno-Economic Optimization of a Sustainable Energy System for a 100% Renewables Smart House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Vasile Simion; Blarke, Morten; Trifa, Viorel

    2012-01-01

    , and hot tap water demand, balancing fluctuating wind power and both solar power and solar thermal supply utilizing advanced heat pump and both electro-chemical electricity storage, and hot and cold thermal storages. Our research is basically concerned with the question of how to design 100 % renewable...... for a sustainable energy system for a 100% renewables based Smart House (SH). We have devised and analysed an innovative high-efficiency approach to residential energy supply. The analysis involves detailed technical specifications and considerations for providing optimal supply of electricity, heating, cooling...... technical and economic challenges. One such challenge is the discontinuity, or intermittency, of generation, as most renewable energy resources depend on the climate, which is why their use requires complex design, planning and control optimization strategies. This paper presents a model and optimization...

  4. Overview of Power Generation Sector of Bangladesh and Proposed Grid Connected Hybrid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Raju Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is the most usable form of energy, and one of the most crucial strategic issues for the sustainable development of a country. The projection of demand of electricity is an integral part of the planning process. Severe power crisis compelled the government to enter into contractual agreements for high-cost temporary solution such as rental power and small IPPS, on an emergency basis, most of these are diesel or liquid-fuel based. Load shading is an acute problem for the country. The country is confronting a simultaneous shortage of electricity. However, the country has substantial amount of renewable energy resources. The overview of power generation section of Bangladesh is presented; the potentiality of renewable energy sources in Bangladesh is discussed. Finally, a grid connected hybrid renewable energy system is proposed to overcome the problem of power crisis using sustainable clean energy at rural area.

  5. The Potential of Indigenous Energy Resources for Remote Military Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    lected from a limited number of widely distributed ocean stations are Inherently unreliable as a measure of the precise amount of potential power...more widely distributed mirror system that reflects and focuses solar radiation on a central receiver. The mirrors ( heliostats ) required are quite...data from India Station in the North Atlantic as analyzed more precisely by S. H. Salter (1974) of Edinburgh. Our results differed from Salter’s by

  6. A Three-Phase Dual-Input Matrix Converter for Grid Integration of Two AC Type Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Chiang Loh, Poh

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel dual-input matrix converter (DIMC) to integrate two three-phase ac type energy resources to a power grid. The proposed matrix converter is developed based on the traditional indirect matrix converter under reverse power flow operation mode, but with its six...

  7. Resources of Renewable Energy in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surmadhur Pant

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources sector growth in India has been significant, even for electricity generation from renewable sources. Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished. Even for the decentralized systems, the growth for solar home lighting systems has been 300%, solar lanterns 99% and solar photovoltaic water pumps 196%. This is a phenomenal growth in the renewable energy sector mainly for applications that were considered to be supplied only through major electricity utilities. Some large projects have been proposed, and a 35,000 km2 area of the Thar Desert has been set aside for solar power projects, sufficient to generate 700 to 2,100 giga watts. Renewable energy systems are also being looked upon as a major application for electrification of 20,000 remote and unelectrified villages and hamlets by 2007 and all households in such villages and hamlets by 2018.

  8. Wind and solar energy resources on the 'Roof of the World'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandler, Harald; Morche, Thomas; Samimi, Cyrus

    2015-04-01

    The Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan, often referred to as 'Roof of the World', are an arid high mountain plateau characterized by severe energy poverty that may have great potential for renewable energy resources due to the prevailing natural conditions. The lack of energetic infrastructure makes the region a prime target for decentralized integration of wind and solar power. However, up to date no scientific attempt to assess the regional potential of these resources has been carried out. In this context, it is particularly important to evaluate if wind and solar energy are able to provide enough power to generate thermal energy, as other thermal energy carriers are scarce or unavailable and the existing alternative, local harvest of dwarf shrubs, is unsustainable due to the slow regeneration in this environment. Therefore, this study examines the feasibility of using wind and solar energy as thermal energy sources. Financial frame conditions were set on a maximum amount of five million Euros. This sum provides a realistic scenario as it is based on the current budget of the KfW development bank to finance the modernization of the local hydropower plant in the regions only city, Murghab, with about 1500 households. The basis for resource assessment is data of four climate stations, erected for this purpose in 2012, where wind speed, wind direction, global radiation and temperature are measured at a half hourly interval. These measurements confirm the expectation of a large photovoltaic potential and high panel efficiency with up to 84 percent of extraterrestrial radiation reaching the surface and only 16 hours of temperatures above 25°C were measured in two years at the village stations on average. As these observations are only point measurements, radiation data and the ASTER GDEM was used to train a GIS based solar radiation model to spatially extrapolate incoming radiation. With mean validation errors ranging from 5% in July (minimum) to 15% in December (maximum

  9. Lancashire and Yorkshire Renewable Energy Planning Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The central aims of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Renewable Energy Planning Study (LYREPS) are to: identify renewable energy resources in the region and evaluate the opportunities for their deployment; promote a local-level development plan policy framework for the utilisation of renewable energy sources which is fully integrated with established land use and economic development strategies in the region. The availability of the following resources was investigated: landfill gas; municipal and industrial wastes; animal slurry; biomass; straw; active solar; passive solar design; photovoltaics; hydro; and wind. (author)

  10. Resource constraints in a hydrogen economy based on renewable energy sources: An exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleijn, Rene; Voet, Ester van der [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    In order to tackle climate change, a transition to a renewable based energy system is crucial. A renewable based hydrogen economy is one of the possible implementations of such a system. The world receives ample energy from the sun that can be harvested by PV solar cells and, indirectly, by wind turbines. In order to use the most optimal locations for collecting and concentrating energy from these diffuse sources, a long distance transmission network is needed. Mature and semi-mature technologies are available for all parts of the system: from collection to transmission to end-use. In an early stage of development, when new technologies have to win market share from the existing energy system, their development is driven almost exclusively by the reduction of costs per J delivered. However, if a technology should be able to deliver tens to hundreds of EJ, resource constraints can become show stoppers. Many of the newest, most cost-efficient, energy technologies make use of scarce resources and, although they may play an important role in the transition process, they can not be scaled up the level we need for a complete transition. In most cases however other technologies are available that use more abundant materials, be it often at a cost of efficiency. The issue is not only with scarce resources. The sheer size of the energy transition will also challenge the industrial capacity for the mining and production of bulk materials like steel and copper. (author)

  11. High-Efficiency Food Production in a Renewable Energy Based Micro-Grid Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David; Meiners, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) systems can be used to produce high-quality, desirable food year round, and the fresh produce can positively contribute to the health and well being of residents in communities with difficult supply logistics. While CEA has many positive outcomes for a remote community, the associated high electric demands have prohibited widespread implementation in what is typically already a fully subscribed power generation and distribution system. Recent advances in CEA technologies as well as renewable power generation, storage, and micro-grid management are increasing system efficiency and expanding the possibilities for enhancing community supporting infrastructure without increasing demands for outside supplied fuels. We will present examples of how new lighting, nutrient delivery, and energy management and control systems can enable significant increases in food production efficiency while maintaining high yields in CEA. Examples from Alaskan communities where initial incorporation of renewable power generation, energy storage and grid management techniques have already reduced diesel fuel consumption for electric generation by more than 40% and expanded grid capacity will be presented. We will discuss how renewable power generation, efficient grid management to extract maximum community service per kW, and novel energy storage approaches can expand the food production, water supply, waste treatment, sanitation and other community support services without traditional increases of consumable fuels supplied from outside the community. These capabilities offer communities with a range of choices to enhance their communities. The examples represent a synergy of technology advancement efforts to develop sustainable community support systems for future space-based human habitats and practical implementation of infrastructure components to increase efficiency and enhance health and well being in remote communities today and tomorrow.

  12. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Chard, Joseph S.; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Lipman, Timothy; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-08-01

    This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ({mu}Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a {mu}Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the {mu}Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into {mu}Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular {mu}Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a {mu}Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a

  13. Assessment of regional wind energy resources over the Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobchenko, Anastasiia; Khomenko, Inna

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study has been to provide a preliminary assessment of different regions of the Ukraine. Investigation is based on thirty-minute wind observations collected through an 8-year period (January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2008) for seven airports of the Ukraine. For renewal of vertical profile of the wind direction and speed radiosounding data were used. By applying of the probabilistic analysis techniques to series of wind data and the wind extreme values, yearly, monthly and diurnal variation of wind speed and direction are derived. Based on these results theoretical distribution functions and exceeding probability are found for each airport. The statistic characteristics obtained were compared with the correspondent values provided for 1936-1960 and 1961-1990 periods and site-related temporal changeability is determined. For each period considered assessment of wind resources at 10 meters height is carried out. Since the geostrophic wind are frequently used to calculate the surface wind at heights between 10 and 200 m, in the research the distribution of the geostrophic wind for each airport were determined. Comparative analysis of distribution and statistic characteristics of geostrophic and surface winds are made. The relation between a set of values of the geostrophic wind and a set of values of the surface wind speed was provided for each airport. Using different relationship for variation of wind speed with height wind resources at heights between 10 and 200 were assessed. The results obtained show that with the lapse of the time wind speed and wind resources is decreased half the size. It is reflected general tendencies in the wind speed changeability over the European territory. Places which are most perspective for wind turbine installation are off-shore sites such as Odessa, and sites situated in the Crimea mountain (Simferopol) and the Donetsk ridge (Donetsk). The results derived in the contribution may be used for modeling and mapping wind

  14. Biomass as energy resource of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvero, P. (University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegowina)); Petrovic, S. (IGT R and D Centre for Gas Technology, Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina)); Ballard Tremeer, G. (ECO Ltd., London (United Kingdom)); Maslac, S. (UNDP, Banja Luka Office (Bosnia and Herzegowina))

    2007-07-01

    The production, harvesting and processing of timber is one of the country's oldest economic activities, and has a major strategic importance for the country's economic development, especially in post war period. Some statistical estimations shows that the wood export value within the total Bosnia and Herzegovina export value is probably in order of 15%. It is further estimated that 15% of the total population receives its livelihood through the activities in forestry and forest industry. Sustainable development of the present and future energy systems has to be based on two strategies: energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. Bosnia and Herzegovina thanking to great hydro potential, biomass, geothermal energy etc. belongs to the list of the countries which will development of energy sector mainly based on renewable energy sources. In a present period biomass plays significant role in households and wood processing industry sectors. Bosnia and Herzegovina has large biomass resources: the growing stock is equivalent to 7.44 x 106 m3 of wood giving an annual sustainable production volume of about 4.43 x 106 m3. Because of large potential of biomass, this energy source will play more important role in whole energy sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This paper gives some data regarding to biomass energy potential collected from different sources in Republic of Srpska and Federation of B and H as consisting parts of the Bosnia and Herzegovina and recouped on one place. This paper also gives short analysis of potential biomass resource use. There are a lot of large industrial energy systems in the Country, mainly in wood processing industry, which was passed through privatization process in last couple years. Now, new owners of this mainly to large capacities for them, looking for the chances in ESCO business, electricity production, district heating systems. This paper gives short analysis of potential cogeneration systems based on biomass. Some analysis

  15. Facilitating a generic communication interface to distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Hauksson, Einar Bragi; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2010-01-01

    As the power system evolves into a smarter and more flexible state, so must the communication technologies that support it. A key requirement for facilitating the distributed production of future grids is that communication and information are standardized to ensure interoperability. The IEC 61850...... standard, which was originally aimed at substation automation, has been expanded to cover the monitoring and control of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). By having a consistent and well-defined data model the standard enables a DER aggregator, such as a Virtual Power Plant (VPP), in communicating...... with a broad array of DERs. If the data model of IEC 61850 is combined with a set of contemporary web protocols, it can result in a major shift in how DERs can be accessed and coordinated. This paper describes how IEC 61850 can benefit from the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) service concept and how...

  16. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wei, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leow, Woei Ling [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Levin, Todd [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Plotkin, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  17. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  18. Can Hawaii Meet Its Renewable Fuel Target? Case Study of Banagrass-Based Cellulosic Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinh Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Banagrass is a biomass crop candidate for ethanol production in the State of Hawaii. This study examines: (i whether enough banagrass can be produced to meet Hawaii’s renewable fuel target of 20% highway fuel demand produced with renewable sources by 2020 and (ii at what cost. This study proposes to locate suitable land areas for banagrass production and ethanol processing, focusing on the two largest islands in the state of Hawaii—Hawaii and Maui. The results suggest that the 20% target is not achievable by using all suitable land resources for banagrass production on both Hawaii and Maui. A total of about 74,224,160 gallons, accounting for 16.04% of the state’s highway fuel demand, can be potentially produced at a cost of $6.28/gallon. Lower ethanol cost is found when using a smaller production scale. The lowest cost of $3.31/gallon is found at a production processing capacity of about 9 million gallons per year (MGY, which meets about 2% of state demand. This cost is still higher than the average imported ethanol price of $3/gallon. Sensitivity analysis finds that it is possible to produce banagrass-based ethanol on Hawaii Island at a cost below the average imported ethanol price if banagrass yield increases of at least 35.56%.

  19. Green technology for conversion of renewable hydrocarbon based on plasma-catalytic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirchyk, Igor; Nedybaliuk, Oleg; Chernyak, Valeriy; Demchina, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    The ability to convert renewable biomass into fuels and chemicals is one of the most important steps on our path to green technology and sustainable development. However, the complex composition of biomass poses a major problem for established conversion technologies. The high temperature of thermochemical biomass conversion often leads to the appearance of undesirable byproducts and waste. The catalytic conversion has reduced yield and feedstock range. Plasma-catalytic reforming technology opens a new path for biomass conversion by replacing feedstock-specific catalysts with free radicals generated in the plasma. We studied the plasma-catalytic conversion of several renewable hydrocarbons using the air plasma created by rotating gliding discharge. We found that plasma-catalytic hydrocarbon conversion can be conducted at significantly lower temperatures (500 K) than during the thermochemical ( 1000 K) and catalytic (800 K) conversion. By using gas chromatography, we determined conversion products and found that conversion efficiency of plasma-catalytic conversion reaches over 85%. We used obtained data to determine the energy yield of hydrogen in case of plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol and compared it with other plasma-based hydrogen-generating systems.

  20. Distributed Renewable Generation and Storage System Sizing Based on Smart Dispatch of Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Atia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the contribution of independent owners (IOs operating within microgrids (MGs toward green power generation in deregulated energy markets. An optimization scheme is introduced for sizing distributed renewable generation (DRG and a distributed energy storage system (DESS based on a novel energy management system (EMS that accounts for demand response (DR, DESS dispatch and performance degradation, dynamic pricing environments, power distribution loss and irregular renewable generation. The proposed EMS utilizes an iterative Newton-Raphson linear programming algorithm that schedules resources in order to minimize the objective function, to deal with the complicated nonlinear nature of the problem and to enable efficient long-term assessments. The EMS is used to evaluate candidate solutions that are generated by a genetic algorithm (GA to determine the optimal combination of DRG and DESS. A case study for IEEE 34-bus distribution MG in Okinawa, Japan, is used for testing the algorithm and analyzing the potential for IO/MG investments and their strategies.

  1. The NASA's Long-Term Global Solar Energy Resource: Current Solar Resource Variability and Future Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Cox, S. J.; Zhang, T.; Chandler, W.; Westberg, D.; Hoell, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Considering the likelihood of global climate change and the global competition for energy resources, there is an increasing need to provide improved global Earth surface solar resource information. The improved long-term records are needed to better understand and quantify potential shifts in the solar resource with anticipated changes in climatic weather patterns. As part of the World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP) Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), NASA has an active Surface Radiation Budget project that has produced long-term global gridded estimates of the surface solar fluxes. These fluxes have been processed and made available to the solar energy community over the years through NASA's Surface meteorology and Solar Energy web site (SSE). This web site provides solar resource and accompanying meteorological variables specifically tailored to the renewable energy community spanning a 22 year period. The web application has been improved over time with usage growing nearly exponentially over the last few years. This paper presents the global and regional variability of the solar resource from the current data available at the SSE web application. The variability is compared for large different spatial scales and compared to other data sets where appropriate. We assess the interannual variability compared against surface sites and other satellite based data sets. These comparisons quantify the limits of usefulness of this data set. For instance, we find long-term linear trends that are dominated by satellite based artifacts in some areas, but agree well with surface measurements in others. Nevertheless, the extremes of solar variability are quantified and show agreement with surface observations good enough for most feasibility studies of solar energy systems. This presentation also contains a description of work currently on going to replace the current solar resource information available on SSE with a completely reprocessed version. The

  2. Renewable energy from wind and sun. Status quo and development perspectives at the global level; Erneuerbare Energie aus Sonne und Wind. Status quo und Entwicklungsperspektiven weltweit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graichen, Patrick; Grotewold, Lars [Agora Energiewende, Berlin (Germany); Kordowski, Klaus; Wesemann, Philipp [Stiftung Mercator, Essen (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    The global market for renewable energy technologies has experienced strong growth since the year 2000. In 2013 newly installed electricity production plants based on renewable energy for the first time outnumbered the aggregate of newly installed plants based on coal, gas or nuclear energy. In more and more parts of the world, wind and solar energy plants are becoming the most cost-effective means of electricity production. As renewable energy resources begin to claim significant shares in the energy mix they also become more system-relevant, resulting in a need for more investment as well as regulatory changes. Due to their specific features (high capital intensity, low incremental costs, fluctuating electricity production), and in spite of the marked decline in costs, wind and solar energy are still dependent on proactive policies in support of renewable energy.

  3. Renewable Energy: The Future of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mamunur Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical energy is versatile and considered as the back bone of our daily life. It is directly or indirectly used in everyone’s daily activities. But for having the availability of the sources, we cannot but depend on the renewable resources. The renewable resources can be replaced through the natural process at a rate which is equal or greater than this rate at which they are used. Actually, renewable energy is generated from natural resources like sunlight, wind, tide, geothermal heat, ocean energy etc. that are renewable. A prediction is that in 2030, energy comes from renewable sources is 28% of total generation. Though Bangladesh having lots of natural resources, but still now facing and struggling with the shortage of power, while our neighboring countries are utilizing their sources properly and being richer with better economic growth. The vision for increasing economic growth to 10% by 2017 can be come into reality through the proper utilization of renewable energy resources for having a sustainable development of our country. This paper shows an analytical study on recent energy scenario of Bangladesh and describes the potentiality of available renewable energy resources that should be incorporated in the national energy planning.

  4. Synchrophasor Sensing and Processing based Smart Grid Security Assessment for Renewable Energy Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huaiguang

    With the evolution of energy and power systems, the emerging Smart Grid (SG) is mainly featured by distributed renewable energy generations, demand-response control and huge amount of heterogeneous data sources. Widely distributed synchrophasor sensors, such as phasor measurement units (PMUs) and fault disturbance recorders (FDRs), can record multi-modal signals, for power system situational awareness and renewable energy integration. An effective and economical approach is proposed for wide-area security assessment. This approach is based on wavelet analysis for detecting and locating the short-term and long-term faults in SG, using voltage signals collected by distributed synchrophasor sensors. A data-driven approach for fault detection, identification and location is proposed and studied. This approach is based on matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) using Gaussian atom dictionary, hidden Markov model (HMM) of real-time frequency and voltage variation features, and fault contour maps generated by machine learning algorithms in SG systems. In addition, considering the economic issues, the placement optimization of distributed synchrophasor sensors is studied to reduce the number of the sensors without affecting the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed approach. Furthermore, because the natural hazards is a critical issue for power system security, this approach is studied under different types of faults caused by natural hazards. A fast steady-state approach is proposed for voltage security of power systems with a wind power plant connected. The impedance matrix can be calculated by the voltage and current information collected by the PMUs. Based on the impedance matrix, locations in SG can be identified, where cause the greatest impact on the voltage at the wind power plants point of interconnection. Furthermore, because this dynamic voltage security assessment method relies on time-domain simulations of faults at different locations, the proposed approach

  5. Renewable energy annual 1998, with data for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This is the fourth annual report published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) which presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data; US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities; and US geothermal heat pump manufacturing activities. It updates and provides more detail on renewable energy information than what`s published in the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Annual Energy Review 1997. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, wood waste, municipal solid waste, ethanol, and biodiesel); geothermal; wind; solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic); and hydropower. However, hydropower is also regarded as a conventional energy source because it has furnished a significant amount of electricity for more than a century. Therefore, the contribution of hydropower to total renewable energy consumption is discussed, although hydropower as an individual energy source is not addressed. Since EIA collects data only on terrestrial (land-based) systems, satellite and military applications are not included in this report. 13 figs., 44 tabs.

  6. Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Paul T; Hagerman, George; Scott, George

    2011-12-01

    This project estimates the naturally available and technically recoverable U.S. wave energy resources, using a 51-month Wavewatch III hindcast database developed especially for this study by National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Centers for Environmental Prediction. For total resource estimation, wave power density in terms of kilowatts per meter is aggregated across a unit diameter circle. This approach is fully consistent with accepted global practice and includes the resource made available by the lateral transfer of wave energy along wave crests, which enables wave diffraction to substantially reestablish wave power densities within a few kilometers of a linear array, even for fixed terminator devices. The total available wave energy resource along the U.S. continental shelf edge, based on accumulating unit circle wave power densities, is estimated to be 2,640 TWh/yr, broken down as follows: 590 TWh/yr for the West Coast, 240 TWh/yr for the East Coast, 80 TWh/yr for the Gulf of Mexico, 1570 TWh/yr for Alaska, 130 TWh/yr for Hawaii, and 30 TWh/yr for Puerto Rico. The total recoverable wave energy resource, as constrained by an array capacity packing density of 15 megawatts per kilometer of coastline, with a 100-fold operating range between threshold and maximum operating conditions in terms of input wave power density available to such arrays, yields a total recoverable resource along the U.S. continental shelf edge of 1,170 TWh/yr, broken down as follows: 250 TWh/yr for the West Coast, 160 TWh/yr for the East Coast, 60 TWh/yr for the Gulf of Mexico, 620 TWh/yr for Alaska, 80 TWh/yr for Hawaii, and 20 TWh/yr for Puerto Rico.

  7. Gulf Stream marine hydrokinetic energy resource characterization off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglia, M.; He, R.; Lowcher, C.; Bane, J.; Gong, Y.; Taylor, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf Stream off North Carolina has current velocities that approach 3 m/s and an average volume transport of 90 Sv (1 Sv= 106 m3/s) off of Cape Hatteras, making it the most abundant MHK (Marine Hydrokinetic Energy) resource for the state. Resource availability at a specific location depends primarily on the variability in Gulf Stream position, which is least offshore of Cape Hatteras after the stream exits the Florida Straits. Proximity to land and high current velocities in relatively shallow waters on the shelf slope make this an optimal location to quantify the MHK energy resource for NC. 3.5 years of current measurements beginning in August of 2013 from a moored 150 kHz ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) at an optimal location for energy extraction quantify the available energy resource and its variability, and establish the skill of a Mid-Atlantic Bight and South Atlantic Bight Regional Ocean Model in predicting the MHK energy resource. The model agrees well with long-term observed current averages and with weekly to monthly fluctuations in the current speeds. Model and observations over the first 9 months of the ADCP deployment period both averaged 1.15 m/s thirty meters below the surface. The model under estimates observed current speeds for the higher frequency current fluctuations of days to weeks. Comparisons between the model and ADCP observed currents, and velocity derived power density over the entire 3.5 years of observations demonstrate the significant inter-annual variability in power density. Shipboard 300 kHz ADCP cross-stream transects and hourly surface currents measurements off Cape Hatteras from a network of land based HF (high frequency) radars further quantify available MHK energy and assess model skill. Cross-stream transects were made with a vessel-mounted 300 kHz ADCP on a line from the 100-1000m isobaths, and measured currents in the top 100m. These measurements demonstrate the variability in the resource with water depth, and

  8. Advanced Communication and Control Solutions of Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgeirsson, Haukur; Seguin, Richard; Sherding, Cameron; de Bruet, Andre, G.; Broadwater, Robert; Dilek, Murat

    2007-01-10

    This report covers work performed in Phase II of a two phase project whose objective was to demonstrate the aggregation of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and to offer them into the energy market. The Phase I work (DE-FC36-03CH11161) created an integrated, but distributed, system and procedures to monitor and control multiple DERs from numerous manufacturers connected to the electric distribution system. Procedures were created which protect the distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. Using the web as the communication medium for control and monitoring of the DERs, the integration of information and security was accomplished through the use of industry standard protocols such as secure SSL,VPN and ICCP. The primary objective of Phase II was to develop the procedures for marketing the power of the Phase I aggregated DERs in the energy market, increase the number of DER units, and implement the marketing procedures (interface with ISOs) for the DER generated power. The team partnered with the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), the local ISO, to address the energy market and demonstrate the economic dispatch of DERs in response to market signals. The selection of standards-based communication technologies offers the ability of the system to be deployed and integrated with other utilities’ resources. With the use of a data historian technology to facilitate the aggregation, the developed algorithms and procedures can be verified, audited, and modified. The team has demonstrated monitoring and control of multiple DERs as outlined in phase I report including procedures to perform these operations in a secure and safe manner. In Phase II, additional DER units were added. We also expanded on our phase I work to enhance communication security and to develop the market model of having DERs, both customer and utility owned, participate in the energy market. We are proposing a two-part DER energy market model--a utility

  9. Data-driven planning of distributed energy resources amidst socio-technical complexities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rishee K.; Qin, Junjie; Rajagopal, Ram

    2017-08-01

    New distributed energy resources (DER) are rapidly replacing centralized power generation due to their environmental, economic and resiliency benefits. Previous analyses of DER systems have been limited in their ability to account for socio-technical complexities, such as intermittent supply, heterogeneous demand and balance-of-system cost dynamics. Here we develop ReMatch, an interdisciplinary modelling framework, spanning engineering, consumer behaviour and data science, and apply it to 10,000 consumers in California, USA. Our results show that deploying DER would yield nearly a 50% reduction in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) over the status quo even after accounting for socio-technical complexities. We abstract a detailed matching of consumers to DER infrastructure from our results and discuss how this matching can facilitate the development of smart and targeted renewable energy policies, programmes and incentives. Our findings point to the large-scale economic and technical feasibility of DER and underscore the pertinent role DER can play in achieving sustainable energy goals.

  10. NASA Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource High Resolution Meteorology Data For Sustainable Building Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, William S.; Hoell, James M.; Westberg, David; Zhang, Taiping; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    A primary objective of NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project is to adapt and infuse NASA's solar and meteorological data into the energy, agricultural, and architectural industries. Improvements are continuously incorporated when higher resolution and longer-term data inputs become available. Climatological data previously provided via POWER web applications were three-hourly and 1x1 degree latitude/longitude. The NASA Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data set provides higher resolution data products (hourly and 1/2x1/2 degree) covering the entire globe. Currently POWER solar and meteorological data are available for more than 30 years on hourly (meteorological only), daily, monthly and annual time scales. These data may be useful to several renewable energy sectors: solar and wind power generation, agricultural crop modeling, and sustainable buildings. A recent focus has been working with ASHRAE to assess complementing weather station data with MERRA data. ASHRAE building design parameters being investigated include heating/cooling degree days and climate zones.

  11. The Evaluation of the Cognitive Learning Process of the Renewed Bloom Taxonomy Using a Web Based Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksu, Idris

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the Web Based Expert System (WBES) which provides analyses and reports based on the cognitive processes of Renewed Bloom Taxonomy (RBT), and to put forward the impact of the supportive education provided in line with these reports, on the academic achievement and mastery learning state of the students. The study…

  12. Phase Change Material Based Accumulation Panels in Combination with Renewable Energy Sources and Thermoelectric Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Skovajsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of modern materials and technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the design and usage of a special accumulation device, which is composed of thermal panels based on phase change materials (PCMs. The thermal panels have an integrated tube heat exchanger and heating foils. The technology can be used as a passive or active system for heating and cooling. It is designed as a “green technology”, so it is able to use renewable energy sources, e.g., photovoltaic (PV panels, solar thermal collectors and heat pumps. Moreover, an interesting possibility is the ability to use thermoelectric coolers. In the research, measurements of the different operating modes were made, and the results are presented in the text. The measurement approves that the technology improves the thermal capacity of the building, and it is possible to use it for active heating and cooling.

  13. Assesment of Emerging Renewable Energy-based Cogeneration Systems for nZEB Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2016-01-01

    technologies based on renewable energy sources has increased tremendously in the last decade. A significant amount of experimental and modelling research has recently been presented on emerging technologies. In this paper, four main technologies are assessed: Fuel Cells (FC), Photovoltaic thermal (PV/T), solar...... thermal reversible heat pump /organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) and cogeneration solar Thermoelectric generators (TEG). This paper aims to give an overview of the state-of-the-art developments, discuss the fundamental and technical challenges facing commercial adoption and prospects of these technologies......Net Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) imply reduced consumption by means of good insulation, passive strategies and highly efficient energy supply systems. Among others, micro cogeneration systems are considered as one of the system solutions with the highest potential to enable nZEB. These systems...

  14. Assessment of Emerging Renewable Energy-based Cogeneration Systemsfor nZEB Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    technologies based on renewable energy sources has increased tremendously in the last decade. A significant amount of experimental and modelling research has recently been presented on emerging technologies. In this paper, four main technologies are assessed: Fuel Cells (FC), Photovoltaic thermal (PV/T), solar...... thermal reversible heat pump /organic Rankine cycle (HP/ORC) and cogeneration solar Thermoelectric generators (TEG).This paper aims to give an overview of the state-of-the-art developments, discuss the fundamental and technical challenges facing commercial adoption and prospects of these technologies......Net Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) imply reduced consumption by means of good insulation, passive strategies and highly efficient energy supply systems. Among others, micro cogeneration systems are considered as one of the system solutions with the highest potential to enable nZEB.These systems...

  15. Microwave-Assisted Syntheses in Recyclable Ionic Liquids: Photoresists Based on Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Charlotte; Luef, Klaus P; Edler, Matthias; Griesser, Thomas; Kremsner, Jennifer M; Stadler, Alexander; Grassl, Bruno; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Wiesbrock, Frank

    2015-10-26

    The copoly(2-oxazoline) pNonOx80 -stat-pDc(=) Ox20 can be synthesized from the cationic ring-opening copolymerization of 2-nonyl-2-oxazoline NonOx and 2-dec-9'-enyl-2-oxazoline Dc(=) Ox in the ionic liquid n-hexyl methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate under microwave irradiation in 250 g/batch quantities. The polymer precipitates upon cooling, enabling easy recovery of the polymer and the ionic liquid. Both monomers can be obtained from fatty acids from renewable resources. pNonOx80 -stat-pDc(=) Ox20 can be used as polymer in a photoresist (resolution of 1 μm) based on UV-induced thiol-ene reactions. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  16. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  17. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  18. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Joergensen, K.

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO{sub 2}-emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market

  19. A cost optimization model for 100% renewable residential energy supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2012-01-01

    for the interdependencies between the different supply technologies as well as the construction energy of the installations, consumption profiles and on-site energy resource availability. This paper aims at developing such a model for the optimal sizing of renewable energy supply systems (RES) for residential Net ZEB......'s involving on-site production of heat and electricity in combination with electricity exchanged with the public grid. The model is based on linear programming and determines the optimal capacities for each relevant supply technology in terms of the overall system costs. It has been successfully applied...

  20. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

    2011-05-01

    This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

  1. Renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitov, Kosto V

    2014-01-01

    This monograph serves as an introductory text to classical renewal theory and some of its applications for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and probability theory. Renewal processes play an important part in modeling many phenomena in insurance, finance, queuing systems, inventory control and other areas. In this book, an overview of univariate renewal theory is given and renewal processes in the non-lattice and lattice case are discussed. A pre-requisite is a basic knowledge of probability theory.

  2. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures) provides an analysis of the grid integration opportunities, challenges, and implications of high levels of renewable electricity generation for the U.S. electric system. The study is not a market or policy assessment. Rather, RE Futures examines renewable energy resources and many technical issues related to the operability of the U.S. electricity grid, and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. RE Futures results indicate that a future U.S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and that further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway.

  3. HIGH-RESOLUTION NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF WIND ENERGY RESOURCE IN HAINAN PROVINCE AND ITS OFFSHORE WATERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Xu-huang; ZHU Rong; ZHAI Pan-mao; YU Wei

    2010-01-01

    With high resolution(1 km),the distribution of wind energy resources in Hainan province and over its offshore waters is numerically simulated by using the Wind Energy Simulation Toolkit(WEST)model developed by Meteorological Research Branch of Environment Canada.Compared with observations from eight coastal anemometric towers and 18 existing stations in the province,the simulations show good reproduction of the real distribution of wind resources in Hainan and over its offshore waters,with the relative error of annual mean wind speed being no more than 9% at the 70-m level.Moreover,based on the simulated results of WEST grids that are closest to where the eight wind towers are located,the annual mean wind speeds are further estimated by using the Danish software WasP(Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program).The estimated results are then compared with the observations from the towers.It shows that the relative error is also less than 9%.Therefore,WEST and WEST+WAsP will be useful tools for the assessment of wind energy resources in high resolution and selection of wind farm sites in Hainan province and over its offshore waters.

  4. Power electronics for renewable and distributed energy systems a sourcebook of topologies, control and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kramer, William E

    2013-01-01

    While most books approach power electronics and renewable energy as two separate subjects, Power Electronics for Renewable and Distributed Energy Systems takes an integrative approach; discussing power electronic converters topologies, controls and integration that are specific to the renewable and distributed energy system applications. An overview of power electronic technologies is followed by the introduction of various renewable and distributed energy resources that includes photovoltaics, wind, small hydroelectric, fuel cells, microturbines and variable speed generation. Energy storage s

  5. Geothermal energy resource investigations at Mt. Spurr, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, D.L.; Wescott, E.M. (eds.)

    1986-12-01

    Spurr volcano is a composite Quaternary cone of largely andesitic composition located on the west side of Cook Inlet about 80 miles west of Anchorage and about 40 miles from the Beluga electrical transmission line. Geologic mapping (Plate 1-1) shows that the present summit depression was produced by a Mt. St. Helens-type sector collapse, rather than by a caldera collapse. Geochronologic and previous tephrachronologic studies show that there has been an active magmatic system at Spurr volcano during the late Pleistocene-to-Holocene time interval that is of critical interest for geothermal energy resource assessment. Major effort was devoted to geochemical and geophysical surveys of the accessible area south of Mt. Spurr, in addition to geologic mapping and geochronologic studies. Many coincident mercury and helium anomalies were found, suggesting the presence of geothermal systems at depth. Extremely large electrical self-potential anomalies were also found, together with extensive zones of low resistivity discovered by our controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey. The juxtaposition of all of these different types of anomalies at certain areas on the south slope of Crater Peak indicates the presence of a geothermal system which should be accessible by drilling to about 2000 ft depth. It is also evident that there is a strong volcanic hazard to be evaluated in considering any development on the south side of Mt. Spurr. This hazardous situation may require angle drilling of production wells from safer areas and placement of power generation facilities at a considerable distance from hazardous areas.

  6. Assessment of Global Wind Energy Resource Utilization Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M.; He, B.; Guan, Y.; Zhang, H.; Song, S.

    2017-09-01

    Development of wind energy resource (WER) is a key to deal with climate change and energy structure adjustment. A crucial issue is to obtain the distribution and variability of WER, and mine the suitable location to exploit it. In this paper, a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) model is constructed by integrating resource richness and stability, utilization value and trend of resource, natural environment with weights. The global resource richness is assessed through wind power density (WPD) and multi-level wind speed. The utilizable value of resource is assessed by the frequency of effective wind. The resource stability is assessed by the coefficient of variation of WPD and the frequency of prevailing wind direction. Regression slope of long time series WPD is used to assess the trend of WER. All of the resource evaluation indicators are derived from the atmospheric reanalysis data ERA-Interim with spatial resolution 0.125°. The natural environment factors mainly refer to slope and land-use suitability, which are derived from multi-resolution terrain elevation data 2010 (GMTED 2010) and GlobalCover2009. Besides, the global WER utilization potential map is produced, which shows most high potential regions are located in north of Africa. Additionally, by verifying that 22.22 % and 48.8 9% operational wind farms fall on medium-high and high potential regions respectively, the result can provide a basis for the macroscopic siting of wind farm.

  7. Role for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in the Digital Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, Thomas S [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2007-11-01

    A large, and growing, part of the Nation's economy either serves or depends upon the information technology industry. These high-tech or "digital" enterprises are characterized by a dependence on electronic devices, need for completely reliable power supply, and intolerance to any power quality problems. In some cases these enterprises are densely populated with electronic loads and have very high energy usage per square foot. Serving these enterprises presents both electric power and equipment cooling challenges. Traditional electric utilities are often hard-pressed to deliver power that meets the stringent requirements of digital customers, and the economic and social consequences of a service quality or reliability problem can be large. New energy delivery and control options must be developed to effectively serve a digital economy. This report explores how distributed energy resources, partnerships between utility and customer to share the responsibility for service quality, innovative facility designs, higher energy efficiencies and waste-heat utilization can be coupled to meet the needs of a growing digital economy.

  8. Factors Affecting Teaching the Concept of Renewable Energy in Technology Assisted Environments and Designing Processes in the Distance Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, A. Seda

    2007-01-01

    The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating…

  9. Renewable energy: GIS-based mapping and modelling of potentials and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Biberacher, Markus; Schardinger, Ingrid.; Gadocha, Sabine; Zocher, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Worldwide demand of energy is growing and will continue to do so for the next decades to come. IEA has estimated that global primary energy demand will increase by 40 - 50% from 2003 to 2030 (IEA, 2005) depending on the fact whether currently contemplated energy policies directed towards energy-saving and fuel-diversification will be effectuated. The demand for Renewable Energy (RE) is undenied but clear figures and spatially disaggregated potentials for the various energy carriers are very rare. Renewable Energies are expected to reduce pressures on the environment and CO2 production. In several studies in Germany (North-Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony) and Austria we studied the current and future pattern of energy production and consumption. In this paper we summarize and benchmark different RE carriers, namely wind, biomass (forest and non-forest, geothermal, solar and hydro power. We demonstrate that GIS-based scalable and flexible information delivery sheds new light on the prevailing metaphor of GIS as a processing engine serving needs of users more on demand rather than through ‘maps on stock'. We compare our finding with those of several energy related EU-FP7 projects in Europe where we have been involved - namely GEOBENE, REACCESS, ENERGEO - and demonstrate that more and more spatial data will become available together with tools that allow experts to do their own analyses and to communicate their results in ways which policy makers and the public can readily understand and use as a basis for their own actions. Geoportals in combination with standardised geoprocessing today supports the older vision of an automated presentation of data on maps, and - if user privileges are given - facilities to interactively manipulate these maps. We conclude that the most critical factor in modelling energy supply and demand remain the economic valuation of goods and services, especially the forecast of future end consumer energy costs.

  10. Discussion on the Assessment Method of Wind Energy Resources by Using Regional Meteorological Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The exploitation status of wind energy resources was analyzed, and the distribution of wind energy resources and regional meteorological stations were introduced, and then the assessment method of wind energy resources by using data from regional meteorological station was studied taking Huangjin Regional Meteorological Station in Xinning County in Hunan Province for example, besides, corresponding software was compiled. By means of SQL database and program, the method was used simply and easily and had pos...

  11. Renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven as lithium-ion battery separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhihong; Kong, Qingshan; Zhang, Chuanjian; Pang, Shuping; Yue, Liping; Wang, Xuejiang; Yao, Jianhua; Cui, Guanglei

    2013-01-01

    A renewable and superior thermal-resistant cellulose-based composite nonwoven was explored as lithium-ion battery separator via an electrospinning technique followed by a dip-coating process. It was demonstrated that such nanofibrous composite nonwoven possessed good electrolyte wettability, excellent heat tolerance, and high ionic conductivity. The cells using the composite separator displayed better rate capability and enhanced capacity retention, when compared to those of commercialized polypropylene separator under the same conditions. These fascinating characteristics would endow this renewable composite nonwoven a promising separator for high-power lithium-ion battery.

  12. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as 'industry bread', is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the producers; hence, prices rise at their will, of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. Present study focuses on electric energy industry, yet bearing over the whole length of the chain producer-to-end-consumer, thus revealed as particularly complex. The question is do alternative energy sources meet the prerequisite of market being competitive meanwhile environment protection being highly observed. We identify limits in point, of the energy market; effects of market liberalization; entry barriers; interchangeability level of energy sources; active forces on the energy market. Competitive rivalry has been expressed as per market micro-economic analysis, based on Michael Porter's 5-forces model. It will thus be noticed that, morphologically, competition evolution depends firstly on the market type. For the time being, the consumer on the energy market stays captive, for various reasons such as: legislation; limits of energy transfer infrastructure; scarcity of resources; resources availability imbalance; no integrative strategy available, of renewable energy resources usage. Energy availability is vital for human society to function. Comparative advantages of renewable energy resources are twofold, as manifested: in terms of economics, i.e. improving competition by substitute products entered at the same time as new producers enter market; and in terms of ecology, by reducing CO2 emissions. As to energy production technology and transfer, the complementary nature will

  13. Case Studies of Successful Assistance in Urban School Improvement Programs. II. Constituency-Based School Renewal Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Vernay

    As part of a research project on "Patterns of Successful Assistance in Urban School Improvement Programs," this paper presents a case study of an assister's work in the Constituency-Based School Renewal Program (CSR), implemented in an elementary school in Brooklyn, New York. CSR is a program aiming to institute a process by which a school will…

  14. Assessing climate change impacts on the near-term stability of the wind energy resource over the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J

    2011-05-17

    The energy sector comprises approximately two-thirds of global total greenhouse gas emissions. For this and other reasons, renewable energy resources including wind power are being increasingly harnessed to provide electricity generation potential with negligible emissions of carbon dioxide. The wind energy resource is naturally a function of the climate system because the "fuel" is the incident wind speed and thus is determined by the atmospheric circulation. Some recent articles have reported historical declines in measured near-surface wind speeds, leading some to question the continued viability of the wind energy industry. Here we briefly articulate the challenges inherent in accurately quantifying and attributing historical tendencies and making robust projections of likely future wind resources. We then analyze simulations from the current generation of regional climate models and show, at least for the next 50 years, the wind resource in the regions of greatest wind energy penetration will not move beyond the historical envelope of variability. Thus this work suggests that the wind energy industry can, and will, continue to make a contribution to electricity provision in these regions for at least the next several decades.

  15. Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project, Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric, and energy alternatives. Volume III. Alaska's alternative energies and regional assessment inventory update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project is presented in three volumes. This volume, Vol. III, considers alternative energies and the regional assessment inventory update. The introductory chapter, Chapter 12, examines the historical background, current technological status, environmental impact, applicability to Alaska, and siting considerations for a number of alternative systems. All of the systems considered use or could use renewable energy resources. The chapters that follow are entitled: Very Small Hydropower (about 12 kW or less for rural and remote villages); Low-Temperature Geothermal Space Heating; Wind; Fuel Cells; Siting Criteria and Preliminary Screening of Communities for Alternate Energy Use; Wood Residues; Waste Heat; and Regional Assessment Invntory Update. (MCW)

  16. Wave energy resource in the Estaca de Bares area (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, G.; Carballo, R. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela, EPS, Hydraulic Eng., Campus Univ. s/n, 27002 Lugo (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The area around Cape Estaca de Bares (the northernmost point of Iberia) presents a great potential for wave energy exploitation owing to its prominent position, with average deepwater wave power values exceeding 40 kW/m. The newly available SIMAR-44 dataset, composed of hindcast data spanning 44 years (1958-2001), is used alongside wave buoy data and numerical modelling to assess this substantial energy resource in detail. Most of the energy is provided by waves from the IV quadrant, generated by the prevailing westerlies blowing over the long Atlantic fetch. Combined scatter and energy diagrams are used to characterise the wave energy available in an average year in terms of the sea states involved. The lion's share is shown to correspond to significant wave heights between 2 and 5 m and energy periods between 11 and 14 s. The nearshore energy patterns are then examined using a coastal wave model (SWAN) with reference to four situations: average wave energy, growing wave energy (at the approach of a storm), extreme wave energy (at the peak of the storm) and decaying wave energy (as the storm recedes). The irregular bathymetry is found to produce local concentrations of wave energy in the nearshore between Cape Prior and Cape Ortegal and in front of Cape Estaca de Bares, with similar patterns (but varying wave power) in the four cases. These nearshore areas of enhanced wave energy are of the highest interest as prospective sites for a wave energy operation. The largest of them is directly in the lee of a large underwater mount west of Cape Ortegal. In sum, the Estaca de Bares area emerges as one of the most promising for wave energy exploitation in Europe. (author)

  17. The Effect of Distributed Energy Resource Competition with Central Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, SW

    2003-12-10

    Distributed Energy Resource (DER) has been touted as a clean and efficient way to generate electricity at end-use sites, potentially allowing the exhaust heat to be put to good use as well. However, despite its environmental acceptability compared to many other types of generation, it has faced some disapproval because it may displace other, cleaner generation technologies. The end result could be more pollution than if the DER were not deployed. On the other hand, the DER may be competing against older power plants. If the DER is built then these other plants may be retired sooner, reducing their emissions. Or it may be that DER does not directly compete against either new or old plant capacity at the decision-maker level, and increased DER simply reduces the amount of time various plants operate. The key factor is what gets displaced if DER is added. For every kWh made by DER a kWh (or more with losses) of other production is not made. If enough DER is created, some power plants will get retired or not get built so not only their production but their capacity is displaced. Various characteristics of the power system in a region will influence how DER impacts the operation of the grid. The growth in demand in the region may influence whether new plants are postponed or old plants retired. The generation mix, including the fuel types, efficiencies, and emission characteristics of the plants in the region will factor into the overall competition. And public policies such as ease of new construction, emissions regulations, and fuel availability will also come into consideration.

  18. Optimal Control of Renewable Resources Based on the Effective Utilization Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective utilization rate of exploited renewable resources affects the final total revenue and the further exploitation of renewable resources. Considering the effective utilization rate, we propose an optimal control model for the exploitation of the renewable resources in this study. Firstly, we can prove that the novel model is nonsingular compared with the singular basic model. Secondly, we solve the novel model and obtain the optimal solution by Bang-Bang theory. Furthermore, we can determine the optimal total resources and the maximal total revenue. Finally, a numerical example is provided to verify the obtained theoretical results.

  19. An analysis of wind and solar energy resources for the State of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusainan, Haya Nasser

    Kuwait because, compared to the cost of conventional electricity in Kuwait, the cost of renewable energy-based electricity is very high. However, the abundant availability of the solar and wind energy as clean renewable energy in Kuwait offers the country significant opportunities to become a leader in the renewable energy sector. In a competition with subsidized oil and gas energy, the success of renewable energy technologies in Kuwait will be subject to the ability of the state to introduce supporting policies, including financial incentives and a regulatory framework to encourage deployment and reduce cost.

  20. Renewable energy projects in Croatia: Present situation and future activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granić Goran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources should play an important role in the promotion of numerous Croatian energy goals. The development of a successful sector of renewable could in the long run contribute to energy efficiency improvement, diversification of production and supply safety, domestic production and lesser imports of energy sources and significant reduction of the environmental influences. Targets and strategy of the implementation for every renewable energy resource depends on the specifics of the particular one, with general trends in the European Union of renewable resource ratio increase in the energy balance.

  1. Renewable Energy Development In Africa - Challenges, Opportunities, Way Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Babu

    2010-09-15

    The unexploited potential of renewable energy in Sub-Saharan Africa can be traced back to national energy policies, which concentrate on the conventional electricity sector while the support for renewable resources remains on the fringes. This Paper reviews public policies and funding instruments to exploit renewable energy resources for increasing electricity and energy access rate in Africa. Estimates indicate that 8,500 MW renewable energy projects could be developed in short-term. Way forward, conclusions and recommendations are presented in this regard in the paper.

  2. An Economic Basis for Littoral Land-Based Production of Low Carbon Fuel from Renewable Electrical Energy and Seawater for Naval Use: Diego Garcia Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    Based Production of Low Carbon Fuel from Renewable Electrical Energy and Seawater for Naval Use: Diego Garcia Evaluation Heather D. Willauer, Dennis R...difficult challenges to the U.S. Navy for the future production of low carbon fuel from renewable electrical energy from photovoltaic (PV) arrays and...gallons of fuel delivered annually to Diego Garcia. Using published capital cost estimates and a range of solar and wind renewable electrical energy

  3. Generic Virtual Power Plants: Management of Distributed Energy Resources under Liberalized Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of Virtual Power Plant (VPP) can be attributed to the major boost of distributed energy resources (DER), which satisfies the changing needs of modern society on energy industry. Based on this concept, DER units disregarding the differences in each individualtechnology are loosely...... that are necessary for the efficient operation of GVPP. By applying with the function-based design (FBD) method, GVPP developers with different system requirements are able to get the most flexibility out of the GVPP model. This is demonstrated in a case study wherein different GVPP scenarios are employed. Tools...... aggregated with a unique interface to the external grid and energy market. This paper gives a broad overview of state-of-the-art VPP concepts and proposes a detailed generic VPP (GVPP) model running in liberalized electricity market environment. An attempt is made to provide an outline of the main functions...

  4. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Eltamaly, Ali M; Alolah, Abdulrahman I

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers.

  5. Recent developments and future prospects on bio-based polyesters derived from renewable resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Noreen, Aqdas; Zuber, Mohammad; Tabasum, Shazia; Mujahid, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A significantly growing interest is to design a new strategy for development of bio-polyesters from renewable resources due to limited fossil fuel reserves, rise of petrochemicals price and emission of green house gasses. Therefore, this review aims to present an overview on synthesis of biocompatible, biodegradable and cost effective polyesters from biomass and their prospective in different fields including packaging, coating, tissue engineering, drug delivery system and many more. Isosorbide, 2,4:3,5-di-O-methylene-d-mannitol, bicyclic diacetalyzed galactaric acid, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid, citric, 2,3-O-methylene l-threitol, dimethyl 2,3-O-methylene l-threarate, betulin, dihydrocarvone, decalactone, pimaric acid, ricinoleic acid and sebacic acid, are some important monomers derived from biomass which are used for bio-based polyester manufacturing, consequently, replacing the petrochemical based polyesters. The last part of this review highlights some recent advances in polyester blends and composites in order to improve their properties for exceptional biomedical applications i.e. skin tissue engineering, guided bone regeneration, bone healing process, wound healing and wound acceleration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Earthquake forecasting based on data assimilation: sequential Monte Carlo methods for renewal point processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Werner

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Data assimilation is routinely employed in meteorology, engineering and computer sciences to optimally combine noisy observations with prior model information for obtaining better estimates of a state, and thus better forecasts, than achieved by ignoring data uncertainties. Earthquake forecasting, too, suffers from measurement errors and partial model information and may thus gain significantly from data assimilation. We present perhaps the first fully implementable data assimilation method for earthquake forecasts generated by a point-process model of seismicity. We test the method on a synthetic and pedagogical example of a renewal process observed in noise, which is relevant for the seismic gap hypothesis, models of characteristic earthquakes and recurrence statistics of large quakes inferred from paleoseismic data records. To address the non-Gaussian statistics of earthquakes, we use sequential Monte Carlo methods, a set of flexible simulation-based methods for recursively estimating arbitrary posterior distributions. We perform extensive numerical simulations to demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of forecasting earthquakes based on data assimilation.

  7. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Eltamaly, Ali M.; Alolah, Abdulrahman I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers. PMID:27513000

  8. Johnson Space Center's Solar and Wind-Based Renewable Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, A.; Ewert, M.; Rowlands, J.; Post, K.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas has a Sustainability Partnership team that seeks ways for earth-based sustainability practices to also benefit space exploration research. A renewable energy gathering system was installed in 2007 at the JSC Child Care Center (CCC) which also offers a potential test bed for space exploration power generation and remote monitoring and control concepts. The system comprises: 1) several different types of photovoltaic panels (29 kW), 2) two wind-turbines (3.6 kW total), and 3) one roof-mounted solar thermal water heater and tank. A tie to the JSC local electrical grid was provided to accommodate excess power. The total first year electrical energy production was 53 megawatt-hours. A web-based real-time metering system collects and reports system performance and weather data. Improvements in areas of the CCC that were detected during subsequent energy analyses and some concepts for future efforts are also presented.

  9. Development of Electrolysis System Powered by Solar-Cell Array to Supply Hydrogen Gas for Fuel-Cell Energy Resource Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priambodo, Purnomo Sidi; Yusivar, Feri; Subiantoro, Aries; Gunawan, Ridwan

    2009-09-01

    The huge demand of energy worldwide and the depletion of fossil based energy, is a strong reason to rapidly develop any kind of renewable energy resources, which has economical advantages and zero pollution effect. One of the renewable energy technologies aimed in this paper is the generation of electric-energy based on fuel-cell technology, where the input hydrogen (H2) gas is supplied by electrolysis system powered by renewable energy system based on solar cell. In this paper, the authors explain the development of electrolysis system which is powered by solar cell array to supply hydrogen for fuel-cell system. The authors explain in detail how to design an efficient electrolysis system to obtain high ratio conversion of electric energy to hydrogen gas volume. It includes the explanation of the usage of multiple anodes with a single cathode for many solar cell inputs in a single electrolysis system. Hereinafter this is referred as multiple anode electrolysis system. This multiple anode electrolysis system makes the management of hydrogen gas becomes more efficient and effective by using only a single hydrogen gas storage system. This paper also explain the careful design of the resistance value of the electrolysis system to protect or avoid the solar cell panel to deliver excessive current to the electrolysis system which can cause damage on the solar cell panel. Moreover, the electrolyte volume detector is applied on the system as a tool to measure the electrolyte concentration to assure the system resistance is still in the allowed range. Further, the hydrogen gas produced by electrolysis system is stored into the gas storage which consists of silica-gel purifier, first stage low pressure gas bottle, vacuum pump, and second stage high pressure gas bottle. In the first step, the pump will vacuum the first bottle. The first bottle will collect the hydrogen from the electrolysis system through the silica gel to get rid of water vapor. When the first bottle

  10. Design, integration and control of proton exchange membrane electrolyzer for wind based renewable energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kevin W.

    This research endeavor began with the design and construction of a new hydrogen test facility at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). To improve the electrical link of wind-based electrolysis the characterization of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer under varying input power was performed at NRELs new test facility. The commercially available electrolyzer from Proton Energy Systems (PES) was characterized using constant direct current (DC), sinusoidally varying DC, photovoltaics and variable magnitude and frequency energy from a 10 kW wind turbine. At rated stack current and ˜ 40°C the system efficiency of the commercial electrolyzer was measured to be 55%. At lower stack current it was shown that commercial electrolyzer system efficiency falls because of the continuous hydrogen purge (˜0.1 Nm3 hr-1) used to maintain the hydrogen desiccant drying system. A novel thermoelectric-based dew point controller is designed and modeled to reduce the penalty to renewable sources because they do not always operate at 100% of rated stack current. It is predicted that the thermoelectric design when operated 100% of the time at full current to the thermoelectric modules would consume 3.1 kWh kg -1 of hydrogen. Using the higher heating value of hydrogen and a stack efficiency of 60% to produce the hydrogen that is continuously vented, the desiccant system consumes about 5.7 kWh kg-1. Design of the UND electrolyzer sub-systems responsible for all aspects of water, power to the stack, and hydrogen conditioning enables more flexible and precise experimental data to be obtained than from an off-the-shelf system. Current-voltage (IV) characteristic curves were obtained on the UND system at temperatures between 7--70°C. The anode and cathode exchange current densities are fitted to 2.0 E-06 e0.043T and 0.12 e 0.026T A cm-2 respectively. Stack conductivity was fitted to 0.001T + 0.03 S cm-1. The three coefficients represent physical stack parameters and are

  11. Energy Optimization for Distributed Energy Resources Scheduling with Enhancements in Voltage Stability Margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Perez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    The need for developing new methodologies in order to improve power system stability has increased due to the recent growth of distributed energy resources. In this paper, the inclusion of a voltage stability index in distributed energy resources scheduling is proposed. Two techniques were used...... resources is presented to analyse the proposed methodology. Additionally, the methodology is tested in a real distribution network....

  12. 78 FR 28005 - System Energy Resources, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station; Order Approving Direct and Indirect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION System Energy Resources, Inc.; Grand Gulf Nuclear Station; Order Approving Direct and Indirect Transfers of Early Site Permit and Approving Conforming Amendment I System Energy Resources, Inc. (SERI), is...

  13. The Renewable Energy Data Explorer: Mapping Our Renewable Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-13

    The Renewable Energy (RE) Data Explorer, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is an innovative web-based platform that allows users to visualize and analyze renewable energy potential. The RE Data Explorer informs prospecting, integrated planning, and policymaking to enable low emission development.

  14. Using Ground Source Heat Pumps for Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Xhevat BERISHA

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides background information on the current energy supply, energy demand, and energy sources in Kosovo. Moreover, it presents the country‟s current level of applying alternative energy sources. Additionally, this paper focuses on geothermal energy as a renewable energy resource with the potential to contribute to a sustainable use of resources to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency requirements of the European Union (EU), “EU 20 20 by 2020” policy. Hence, a careful analy...

  15. Bioindustry development based on citronella essential oil to meet the needs for renewable energy: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, M.; Wiharna, S.; Wahyudi, A.

    2017-05-01

    In 2015, national domestic fuel consumption is already above 1.5 million barrels per day, while production is under 800,000 barrels per day. The gap between production and consumption will be considerably widened, serious efforts is needed to save the use of petroleum and also look for alternative replacement with renewable natural energy. Two approaches that can be taken: First, save the use of fossil fuel directly by using citronella essential oil-based bioadditive by 20 percents, equal to at least Rp. 55.2 trillions of national petroleum subsidies. Second, encourage increased utilization of biofuel mixed with that bioaditives that gradually reduce dependence on fossil fuels while developing machines which will fully operated with biofuels. Development of Sustainable Agricultural Bioindustry (SAB) system by integrating crops (candle nut, citronella) with livestock (dairy cattle) in a specific region. could contribute to: a) production of biodiesel and bioadditive feedstocks, b) production foodstuffs like beef and/or milk, c) utilitization of non-productive land, d) employment, by absorbing large number of farmer, e) increase the farmers income, f), biogas that can be used to meet daily household energy needs, and g) environmental conservation and sequestration of carbon emissions.

  16. Polylactide-based renewable green composites from agricultural residues and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambo, Calistor; Mohanty, Amar K; Misra, Manjusri

    2010-06-14

    Agricultural natural fibers like jute, kenaf, sisal, flax, and industrial hemp have been extensively studied in green composites. The continuous supply of biofibers in high volumes to automotive part makers has raised concerns. Because extrusion followed by injection molding drastically reduces the aspect ratio of biofibers, the mechanical performance of injection molded agricultural residue and agricultural fiber-based composites are comparable. Here, the use of inexpensive agricultural residues and their hybrids that are 8-10 times cheaper than agricultural fibers is demonstrated to be a better way of getting sustainable materials with better performance. Green renewable composites from polylactide (PLA), agricultural residues (wheat straw, corn stover, soy stalks, and their hybrids) were successfully prepared through twin-screw extrusion, followed by injection molding. The effect on mechanical properties of varying the wheat straw amount from 10 to 40 wt % in PLA-wheat straw composites was studied. Tensile moduli were compared with theoretical calculations from the rule of mixture (ROM). Combination of agricultural residues as hybrids is proved to reduce the supply chain concerns for injection molded green composites. Densities of the green composites were found to be lower than those of conventional glass fiber composites.

  17. Effects of Fuel Quantity on Soot Formation Process for Biomass-Based Renewable Diesel Fuel Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Jing, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Soot formation process was investigated for biomass-based renewable diesel fuel, such as biomass to liquid (BTL), and conventional diesel combustion under varied fuel quantities injected into a constant volume combustion chamber. Soot measurement was implemented by two-color pyrometry under quiescent type diesel engine conditions (1000 K and 21% O2 concentration). Different fuel quantities, which correspond to different injection widths from 0.5 ms to 2 ms under constant injection pressure (1000 bar), were used to simulate different loads in engines. For a given fuel, soot temperature and KL factor show a different trend at initial stage for different fuel quantities, where a higher soot temperature can be found in a small fuel quantity case but a higher KL factor is observed in a large fuel quantity case generally. Another difference occurs at the end of combustion due to the termination of fuel injection. Additionally, BTL flame has a lower soot temperature, especially under a larger fuel quantity (2 ms injection width). Meanwhile, average soot level is lower for BTL flame, especially under a lower fuel quantity (0.5 ms injection width). BTL shows an overall low sooting behavior with low soot temperature compared to diesel, however, trade-off between soot level and soot temperature needs to be carefully selected when different loads are used.

  18. Optimal combination of energy storages for prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weitemeyer, Stefan; Siemer, Lars; Agert, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Prospective power supply systems based on Renewable Energy Sources require measures to balance power generation and load at all times. The utilisation of storage devices and backup power plants is widely suggested for this purpose, whereas the best combination is still to be found. In this work, we present a modelling approach to systematically study scenarios of future power supply systems with a high share of electricity originating from wind and solar resources. By considering backup as a subordinate source of electricity with energy-only costs, the approach is independent of the actual full-load hours of the backup power plants. Applying the approach to multi-year meteorological data for Germany, cost-optimised combinations of storage devices and backup power are identified. We find that even in scenarios with significant excess generation capacities there is a need for storage devices or backup power plants with discharging power on the same order as the average load to balance the system at all times. F...

  19. The Energy Optimization Mathematic Algorithm on Multi-energy Resource Powertrain of Fuel Cell Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; GUO Hai-tao; YANG Lin; ZHUO Bin

    2007-01-01

    In order to solve the core issue of the energy regulation (ER) on multi-energy resource powertrain of fuel cell vehicle, the work functions of each component were defined; the mathematical algorithm model of energy regulation was established and the relevant solution was found. This algorithm was evaluated successfully on the hardware in loop (HIL) platform under three typical urban nmning cycles. The results showed ER control target had been realized and the mathematical algorithm was effective and reasonable. Based on the HIL simulation, some conclusions and ER strategies were made. According to the different power component parameters and real time control request, this algorithm should be modified and calibrated for application in the actual control system.

  20. Novel methodology for optimal reconfiguration of distribution networks with distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chittur Ramaswamy, Parvathy; Tant, Jeroen; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna;

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops three novel methodologies for optimal reconfiguration of distribution networks in the presence of distributed energy resources (DERs). The novelty is in achieving a non-conservative and robust solution to grid reconfiguration. The optimal solution is the minimum......-loss-configuration of the distribution network taking into account the cost of switching and the grid operational constraints. The methods are based on the concepts of receding horizon control (RHC) and scenario analysis (SA) which inherently optimize switching costs and losses. The salient feature of incorporating RHC and SA...... benefits with respect to the objective of reconfiguration under all scenarios. Depending on the desired level of robustness and non-conservatism, one of the three methods developed in this paper can be used to find the optimal configuration. The methods can be used for planning as well as for operation...

  1. Numerical evaluation of the wave energy resource along the Atlantic European coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes Soares, C.; Bento, A. Rute; Gonçalves, Marta; Silva, Dina; Martinho, Paulo

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper a hindcast system is applied to the analysis of the Atlantic European coast as a whole with specific nestings for sites of interest in each country. The areas included in this study were: Ireland west coast, UK South Western coast, France west coast, northern Spain and Canary Islands and Portugal's continental coast. Two contemporary spectral models were used: WaveWatch III for wave generation, covering almost the entire North Atlantic basin, which outputs are then used as boundary conditions for SWAN which simulates wave transformation in coastal areas. Wind fields were taken from the ERA Interim data base. Results are validated against buoy data. These validations allowed a reformulation, when needed, of the model's configurations in order to better tune its outcomes to the real data. Using the energy transport vectors given by SWAN, the wave power is afterwards calculated and an energy resource assessment is done for a period of several years.

  2. Review of Integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) into Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Xu, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    of the integration of electric vehicles (EVs) to the DER integration concepts have been analyzed as well based on the energy storage potential of EVs.   Two main concepts for DER integration, virtual power plant (VPP) and microgrids, are described and a comparison of the two concepts have been done. The comparison......An overview of the integration of distributed energy resources (DER) into power systems has been presented in this report. Different aspects of integration of DER into power systems have been reviewed and discussed which are listed below.    needs of DER integration into power systems  various...... state‐of‐the‐art DER integration concepts  relations existing DER integration concepts to the EV system The power balancing challenges of power systems brought by high penetration of intermittent DER have been discussed, especially the wind power integration in the Danish context. The relevance...

  3. Modeling and analysis of renewable energy obligations and technology bandings in the UK electricity market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurkan, G.; Langestraat, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the UK electricity market, generators are obliged to produce part of their electricity with renewable energy resources in accordance with the Renewable Obligation Order. Since 2009 technology banding has been added, meaning that different technologies are rewarded with a different number of certi

  4. Tribal Energy Program, Assisting Tribes to Realize Their Energy Visions (Brochure), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-06-01

    This 12-page brochure provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Tribal Energy Program and describes the financial, technical, and educational assistance it provides to help tribes develop their renewable energy resources and reduce their energy consumption.

  5. Protection of Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Browne, Matthew; Calone, Roberto

    of 17 months of work of the Joint Working Group B5/C6.26/CIRED “Protection of Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources”. The working group used the CIGRE report TB421 “The impact of Renewable Energy Sources and Distributed Generation on Substation Protection and Automation”, published...... concepts and future trends accordingly. The report is structured as follows: After this preface (chapter 1), the scope of the technical brochure according to the Terms of Reference (TOR) is stated (chapter 2). Then, in the glossary, symbols and abbreviations used throughout the technical brochure...... are listed (chapter 3). The first main part of the report starts with a summary of the backgrounds on DER and current practices in protection at the distribution level (chapter 4). This chapter contains an analysis of CIGRE TB421, protection relevant characteristics of DER, a review of current practices...

  6. Availability of grasses, weeds and leaves as energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osadolor, Odia O. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State (Nigeria)

    2009-03-15

    The forest and savanna are already denuded of trees, hence this study focused on grasses, weeds and leaves as a possible source of sustainable, highly renewable replacement for wood as an energy source. A study of the availability and productivity of the material across Nigeria showed that it varies from 381 g/m{sup 2} a in Gombe, 732 g/m{sup 2} a in Ekpoma, 610 g/m{sup 2} a in Auchi to 1421 g/m{sup 2} a in the Benue-Plateau forest of Jos area. The turnover rate was, however, positive across the country ranging from 0.097 to 0.130 while the annual incremental yield varied from 26 g to 402 g. (author)

  7. Renewable power production in a Pan-Caribbean energy grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David

    The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are victims of geography and geopolitics. Lacking access to large fossil fuel reserves, they are forced to import fuel at prices they have no control over. Renewable energy resources, particularly wind, have the potential to help break the Caribbean dependency on fossil fuels and allow for increased development at the same time. Working from a sustainable development point of view, this project discusses the history of the area, the theoretical background for the idea of large scale renewable power production, the regional initiatives already in place that address both the cost of fossil fuels and the policy hurdles that need to be overcome to assist the region in gaining energy independence. Haiti is highlighted as a special case in the region and the potential use of several renewable resources are discussed, along with a potential business model based on the idea of the Internet. Power storage is covered, specifically the potential of battery operated vehicles to have a positive impact on the Caribbean region and other developing states. The role of government regulation and policy comes into play next, followed by a discussion on the need for developed states to change patterns of behavior in order to achieve sustainability. Finally, nuclear power and liquefied natural gas are reviewed and rejected as power options for the region.

  8. The state of solar energy resource assessment in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Alberto; Escobar, Rodrigo [Mechanical and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Colle, Sergio [Laboratorios de Engenharia de Processos de Conversao e Tecnologia de Energia - LEPTEN, Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil); de Abreu, Samuel Luna [IFSC - Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Sao Jose, Sao Jose - SC (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The Chilean government has determined that a renewable energy quota of up to 10% of the electrical energy generated must be met by 2024. This plan has already sparked interest in wind, geothermal, hydro and biomass power plants in order to introduce renewable energy systems to the country. Solar energy is being considered only for demonstration, small-scale CSP plants and for domestic water heating applications. This apparent lack of interest in solar energy is partly due to the absence of a valid solar energy database, adequate for energy system simulation and planning activities. One of the available solar radiation databases is 20-40 years old, with measurements taken by pyranographs and Campbell-Stokes devices. A second database from the Chilean Meteorological Service is composed by pyranometer readings, sparsely distributed along the country and available from 1988, with a number of these stations operating intermittently. The Chilean government through its National Energy Commission (CNE) has contracted the formulation of a simulation model and also the deployment of network of measurement stations in northern Chile. Recent efforts by the authors have resulted in a preliminary assessment by satellite image processing. Here, we compare the existing databases of solar radiation in Chile. Monthly mean solar energy maps are created from ground measurements and satellite estimations and compared. It is found that significant deviation exists between sources, and that all ground-station measurements display unknown uncertainty levels, thus highlighting the need for a proper, country-wide long-term resource assessment initiative. However, the solar energy levels throughout the country can be considered as high, and it is thought that they are adequate for energy planning activities - although not yet for proper power plant design and dimensioning. (author)

  9. Status report on renewable energy in the States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, B.; Sinclair, K.

    1992-12-01

    As the concept of integrated resource planning has spread among states and utilities, a reexamination of the role of renewable energy sources in the utility resource mix is taking place. This report documents the findings of a study of state regulatory commissions undertaken to: (1) help assess the state of knowledge and awareness about renewable energy resources and technologies; (2) assess the impacts of state policies on renewable energy development; and (3) identify important information needs. The key findings from this effort are: Renewable energy development has occurred only slowly over the last decade, and a small number of states account for the bulk of development. The development that has occurred has been limited to non-utility entities. Directed state policies have been a key driver in renewable energy development. Those states not currently addressing renewables may need more data and information before they proceed with directed policies. Other important observations are: The cost of renewables is an overriding concern. Regulators distinguish between 'emerging' and 'established' renewable energy technologies. Specific data are lacking on state-level renewable energy development. Detailed renewable resource assessments have yet to be performed in many states. This report identifies renewable energy information needs of state regulators. However, a number of concerns are also identified that must be addressed before renewables will receive serious attention in many of those states with limited renewables experience. Finally, the report catalogs a wide variety of policies that have been utilized in the states to promote greater development of renewable energy.

  10. Implementation and Control of a Residential Electrothermal Microgrid Based on Renewable Energies, a Hybrid Storage System and Demand Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an energy management strategy for a residential electrothermal microgrid, based on renewable energy sources. While grid connected, it makes use of a hybrid electrothermal storage system, formed by a battery and a hot water tank along with an electrical water heater as a controllable load, which make possible the energy management within the microgrid. The microgrid emulates the operation of a single family home with domestic hot water (DHW consumption, a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC system as well as the typical electric loads. An energy management strategy has been designed which optimizes the power exchanged with the grid profile in terms of peaks and fluctuations, in applications with high penetration levels of renewables. The proposed energy management strategy has been evaluated and validated experimentally in a full scale residential microgrid built in our Renewable Energy Laboratory, by means of continuous operation under real conditions. The results show that the combination of electric and thermal storage systems with controllable loads is a promising technology that could maximize the penetration level of renewable energies in the electric system.

  11. Sizing Study of Second Life Li-ion Batteries for Enhancing Renewable Energy Grid Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Stroe, Daniel Loan

    2016-01-01

    economically viable, the use of second life batteries is investigated in the present work. This paper proposes a method to determine the optimal sizing of a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS). SLBESS performance is also validated and, as an ultimate step, the power exchanged with the batteries......Renewable power plants must comply with certain codes and requirements to be connected to the grid, being the ramp rate compliance one of the most challenging requirements, especially for photovoltaic or wind energy generation plants. Battery based energy storage systems represent a promising...... solution due to the fast dynamics of electrochemical storage systems, besides their scalability and flexibility. However, large-scale battery energy storage systems are still too expensive to be a mass market solution for the renewable energy resources integration. Thus, in order to make battery investment...

  12. An iterative approach for symmetrical and asymmetrical Short-circuit calculations with converter-based connected renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2012-01-01

    As more renewable energy sources, especially more wind turbines are installed in the power system, analysis of the power system with the renewable energy sources becomes more important. Short-circuit calculation is a well known fault analysis method which is widely used for early stage analysis...... and design purposes and tuning of the network protection equipments. However, due to current controlled power converter-based grid connection of the wind turbines, short-circuit calculation cannot be performed with its current form for networks with power converter-based wind turbines. In this paper......, an iterative approach for short-circuit calculation of networks with power converter-based wind turbines is developed for both symmetrical and asymmetrical short-circuit grid faults. As a contribution to existing solutions, negative sequence current injection from the wind turbines is also taken into account...

  13. The Analysis of Renewable Energy Researches in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S. O.; Toku, T.; Türker, İ.

    2016-11-01

    The rapid consumption of limited conventional energy resources mobilizes many countries in the world against global energy crisis. As well as the energy crisis, the environmental pollution caused by existing energy sources also encourages the researchers to study in new energy technologies and also renewable energy resources. From this point of view, it is important for each country to identify its wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydro and other renewable energy potentials. Considering this urgent energy requirement, the researches and especially the academic studies have been increased on renewable energy resources to meet the energy demand by means of indigenous resources in each country. Consequently, the main purpose of this study is to analyze the academic studies in Turkey to find out the increment rate of researches, their publication years and the more focusing branch on renewable energy by illustrating the statistical distribution of these data. Automated Data Retrieval Methods have been employed to achieve data from Web of Science database and statistical analyses have been made by SQL server management studio program. The academic studies in all variety of renewable energy areas have a tendency to increase which indicates the importance ratio of renewable energy in Turkey.

  14. Revised CTUIR Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Cox; Thomas Bailor; Theodore Repasky; Lisa Breckenridge

    2005-10-31

    This preliminary assessment of renewable energy resources on the Umatilla Indian Reservation (UIR) has been performed by CTUIR Department of Science and Engineering (DOSE). This analysis focused primarily identifying renewable resources that may be applied on or near the Umatilla Indian Reservation. In addition preliminary technical and economic feasibility of developing renewable energy resources have been prepared and initial land use planning issues identified. Renewable energies examined in the course of the investigation included solar thermal, solar photovoltaic, wind, bioethanol, bio-diesel and bio-pellet fuel. All renewable energy options studied were found to have some potential for the CTUIR. These renewable energy options are environmentally friendly, sustainable, and compliment many of the policy goals of the CTUIR. This report seeks to provide an overall review of renewable energy technologies and applications. It tries to identify existing projects near to the CTUIR and the efforts of the federal government, state government and the private sector in the renewable energy arena. It seeks to provide an understanding of the CTUIR as an energy entity. This report intends to provide general information to assist tribal leadership in making decisions related to energy, specifically renewable energy deve lopment.

  15. Retrospective validation of renewal-based, medium-term earthquake forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondi, R.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, some methods for scoring the performances of an earthquake forecasting probability model are applied retrospectively for different goals. The time-dependent occurrence probabilities of a renewal process are tested against earthquakes of Mw ≥ 5.3 recorded in Italy according to decades of the past century. An aim was to check the capability of the model to reproduce the data by which the model was calibrated. The scoring procedures used can be distinguished on the basis of the requirement (or absence) of a reference model and of probability thresholds. Overall, a rank-based score, information gain, gambling scores, indices used in binary predictions and their loss functions are considered. The definition of various probability thresholds as percentages of the hazard functions allows proposals of the values associated with the best forecasting performance as alarm level in procedures for seismic risk mitigation. Some improvements are then made to the input data concerning the completeness of the historical catalogue and the consistency of the composite seismogenic sources with the hypotheses of the probability model. Another purpose of this study was thus to obtain hints on what is the most influential factor and on the suitability of adopting the consequent changes of the data sets. This is achieved by repeating the estimation procedure of the occurrence probabilities and the retrospective validation of the forecasts obtained under the new assumptions. According to the rank-based score, the completeness appears to be the most influential factor, while there are no clear indications of the usefulness of the decomposition of some composite sources, although in some cases, it has led to improvements of the forecast.

  16. Building a sustainable market for renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, N.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions regarding marketing approaches for electricity generation from renewable resources are presented in the paper. The Renewables Portfolio Standard of the California Public Utilities Commission is described. This system is based on renewable energy credits. Other marketing approaches, including surcharges, auctioned renewables credit, green pricing, and green marketing are also assessed. It is concluded that the Renewables Portfolio Standard creates a stable economic environment for the renewable energy industries.

  17. Assessment of (mu)grid distributed energy resource potential using DER-CAM and GIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris; Bartholomew, Emily; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; LaCommare, Kristina S.H.

    2002-01-01

    This report outlines an approach to assess the local potential for deployment of distributed energy resources (DER), small power-generation installations located close to the point where the energy they produce will be consumed. Although local restraints, such as zoning, building codes, and on-site physical barriers are well-known frustrations to DER deployment, no analysis method has been developed to address them within a broad economic analysis framework. The approach developed here combines established economic optimization techniques embedded in the Distributed Energy Resource Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of local land-use constraint. An example case in the San Diego area is developed from a strictly customer perspective, based on the premise that future development of DER may take the form of microgrids ((mu)Grids) under the control of current utility customers. Beginning with assumptions about which customer combinations h ave complementary energy loads, a GIS was used to locate specific neighborhoods in the San Diego area with promising customer combinations. A detailed energy analysis was conducted for the commercial/residential area chosen covering both electrical and heat energy requirements. Under various scenarios, different combinations of natural gas reciprocating engines were chosen by DER-CAM, ranging in size from 25 kW to 500 kW, often with heat recovery or absorption cooling. These generators typically operate throughout the day and are supplemented by purchased electricity during late-night and early-morning hours, when utility time-of-use prices are lowest. Typical (mu)Grid scenarios displaced about 80 percent of their annual gas heat load through CHP. Self-generation together with absorption cooling dramatically reduce electricity purchases, which usually only occur during nighttime hours.

  18. INTEGRATED RENEWAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyono .

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The marginal distribution of integrated renewal process is derived in this paper. Our approach is based on the theory of point processes, especially Poisson point processes. The results are presented in the form of Laplace transforms.

  19. Knowledge-based renewable energy and environmental technology and services.; En kunnskapsbasert fornybar energi- og miljoenaering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenfeld, Leo A.; Espelien, Anne

    2011-07-01

    This report presents a study of the Norwegian industry for renewable energy and environmental technology and services (abbreviated to the REETS-industry). The study is a part of the large research program 'A Knowledge based Norway' organized by the Norwegian School of Management. It is one of 14 industry studies that investigates how knowledge investments and knowledge management contributes to strengthen clusters of industrial activity in Norway. A primary research question in this report concerns whether the Norwegian REETS-industry has sufficient resources and cluster strengths to succeed in international markets and stay competitive over time. For the first time, we present statistics covering all firms in the REETS-industry in Norway. The report contains a thorough mapping of industry activities, in terms of turnover, value added, growth, access to financial capital and human capital, internationalization and last but not least cluster properties in the industry as well as its links to other industries in Norway and abroad. The industry consists of approximately 2200 companies with a total turnover of Nok 151 bn in 2009. Industry value added has grown by 15 percent per year over the last decade and reached Nok 60 bn in 2009. The REETS-industry is now the eighth largest industry in Norway.The REETS-industry contains a large variety of activities and technologies. Consequently, we have divided the industry into four main groups and 11 sub-segments. The main groups are: renewable energy production, environmental technology and services, waste and recycling and finally energy distribution and sales. Since activities are highly heterogeneous, knowledge activities and cluster configurations must be studied at a more detailed level. Norway is a European giant in terms of hydro power production, producing close to 20 percent of such energy in Europe. In Norway, this part of the industry provides 35 percent of the revenues. Consequently, we devote

  20. South east England renewable energy planning study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, A.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on a study into planning for renewable energy development in the South East region of the United Kingdom (UK). The study was performed by ETSU under contract to Directorate General XVII (DGXVII) of the European Commission (EC) under the ALTENER programme. Half the funding was provided by the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) through the UK`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. The study is one of a series concerned with regional assessment of and planning for renewable energies. A number of studies have already been completed by ETSU. These include ``An Assessment of the Potential Renewable Energy Resource in Scotland``, Planning and Renewable Energy in Cumbria``, An Assessment of Renewable Energy in the Southern Electric Region`` and ``Southern Region Renewable Energy Planning Study``. These reports are available through ETSU`s New and Renewable Enquiries Bureau. ETSU is also currently performing two similar studies covering Strathclyde and the East Midlands region of the UK under separate contracts and is about to begin work on two more, the first covering the Eastern region of the UK and the second Yorkshire and Lancashire. (author)

  1. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  2. A Game Theoretical Approach Based Bidding Strategy Optimization for Power Producers in Power Markets with Renewable Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a competitive electricity market with substantial involvement of renewable electricity, maximizing profits by optimizing bidding strategies is crucial to different power producers including conventional power plants and renewable ones. This paper proposes a game-theoretic bidding optimization method based on bi-level programming, where power producers are at the upper level and utility companies are at the lower level. The competition among the multiple power producers is formulated as a non-cooperative game in which bidding curves are their strategies, while uniform clearing pricing is considered for utility companies represented by an independent system operator. Consequently, based on the formulated game model, the bidding strategies for power producers are optimized for the day-ahead market and the intraday market with considering the properties of renewable energy; and the clearing pricing for the utility companies, with respect to the power quantity from different power producers, is optimized simultaneously. Furthermore, a distributed algorithm is provided to search the solution of the generalized Nash equilibrium. Finally, simulation results were performed and discussed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed non-cooperative game-based bi-level optimization approach.

  3. Factors Affecting Teaching the Concept of Renewable Energy In Technology Assisted Environments and Designing Processes In The Distance Education Model

    OpenAIRE

    YUCEL, A. Seda

    2007-01-01

    The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out w...

  4. Factors Affecting Teaching the Concept of Renewable Energy In Technology Assisted Environments and Designing Processes In The Distance Education Model

    OpenAIRE

    YUCEL, A. Seda

    2015-01-01

    The energy policies of today focus mainly on sustainable energy systems and renewable energy resources. Chemistry is closely related to energy recycling, energy types, renewable energy, and nature-energy interaction; therefore, it is now an obligation to enrich chemistry classes with renewable energy concepts and related awareness. Before creating renewable energy awareness, the factors thought to affect such awareness should be determined. Knowing these factors would facilitate finding out w...

  5. Lubricants based on renewable resources--an environmentally compatible alternative to mineral oil products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, A

    2001-04-01

    The development of lubricants like, e.g. engine and hydraulic oils was traditionally based on mineral oil as a base fluid. This fact is related to the good technical properties and the reasonable price of mineral oils. The Report to the Club of Rome (W.W. Behrens III, D.H. Meadows, D.I. Meadows, J. Randers, The limits of growth, A Report to the Club of Rome, 1972) and the two oil crises of 1979 and 1983, however, elucidated that mineral oil is on principle a limited resource. In addition, environmental problems associated with the production and use of chemicals and the limited capacity of nature to tolerate pollution became obvious (G.H. Brundtland, et al., in: Hauff, Volker (Ed.), World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), Report of the Brundtland-Commission, Oxford, UK, 1987), and the critical discussion included besides acid rain, smog, heavy metals, and pesticides also mineral oil (especially oil spills like the case Exxon Valdes). A disadvantage of mineral oil is its poor biodegradability and thus its potential for long-term pollution of the environment. From the early development of lubricants for special applications (e.g. turbojet engine oils) it was known, that fatty acid polyol esters have comparable or even better technical properties than mineral oil. Subsequently, innumerable synthetic esters have been synthesized by systematic variation of the fatty acid and the alcohol components. Whereas the alcohol moiety of the synthetic esters are usually of petrochemical origin, the fatty acids are almost exclusively based on renewable resources. The physico-chemical properties of oleochemical esters can cover the complete spectrum of technical requirements for the development of high-performance industrial oils and lubricants (e.g. excellent lubricating properties, good heat stability, high viscosity index, low volatility and superior shear stability). For a comprehensive review of their technical properties see F. Bongardt, in: Jahrbuchf

  6. Renewable-based low-temperature district heating for existing buildings in various stages of refurbishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    and, for 98% of the year, to below 60 °C. However for the temperatures below 60 °C a low-temperature DH substation is required for DHW (domestic hot water) heating. This research shows that renewable sources of heat can be integrated into the DH system without problems and contribute to the fossil...

  7. Resins and additives for powder coatings and alkyd paints, based on renewable resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Oostveen, E.A.; Micciche, F.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Koning, C.E.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; Frissen, A.E.; Weijnen, J.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Due to limited fossil resources and an increased need for environmentally friendly, sustainable technologies, the importance of using renewable feedstocks in the paint and coatings area will increase in the decades to come. This paper highlights some of the perspectives in this area. Alkyd resins

  8. Resins and additives for powder coatings and alkyd paints, based on renewable resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveren, van J.; Oostveen, E.A.; Micciche, F.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Koning, C.E.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; Frissen, A.E.; Weijnen, J.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Due to limited fossil resources and an increased need for environmentally friendly, sustainable technologies, the importance of using renewable feedstocks in the paint and coatings area will increase in the decades to come. This paper highlights some of the perspectives in this area. Alkyd resins fo

  9. Agent-based model of intermittent renewables: Simulating emerging changes in energy markets in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Viebahn, P.; Richstein, J.C.; Lechtenböhmer, S.; Nebel, A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy transition is taking shape in the German and, to a lesser extent also its neighbouring electricity markets. We have proposed adaptations to an existing model to represent the increasing shares of intermittent renewables, that may alter the structure of the market and the viability of stra

  10. Comparison of renewable fuels based on their land use using energy densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, T. J.; Benders, R. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article energy densities of selected renewable fuels are determined. Energy density is defined here as the annual energy production per hectare, taking energy inputs into account. Using 5 scenarios, consisting of 1 set focusing on technical differences and 1 set focusing on geographical

  11. Comparison of renewable fuels based on their land use using energy densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, T. J.; Benders, R. M. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article energy densities of selected renewable fuels are determined. Energy density is defined here as the annual energy production per hectare, taking energy inputs into account. Using 5 scenarios, consisting of 1 set focusing on technical differences and 1 set focusing on geographical vari

  12. Agent-based model of intermittent renewables: Simulating emerging changes in energy markets in transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Viebahn, P.; Richstein, J.C.; Lechtenböhmer, S.; Nebel, A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy transition is taking shape in the German and, to a lesser extent also its neighbouring electricity markets. We have proposed adaptations to an existing model to represent the increasing shares of intermittent renewables, that may alter the structure of the market and the viability of

  13. Multi-agent system-based event-triggered hybrid control scheme for energy internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Chunxia; Yue, Dong; Han, Qing Long

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an event-triggered hybrid control for the energy Internet based on a multi-agent system approach with which renewable energy resources can be fully utilized to meet load demand with high security and well dynamical quality. In the design of control, a multi-agent system...... framework is first constructed. Then, to describe fully the hybrid behaviors of all distributed energy resources and logical relationships between them, a differential hybrid Petri-net model is established, which is an original work. The most important contributions based on this model propose four types...

  14. Advanced Distribution Network Modelling with Distributed Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Alison

    The addition of new distributed energy resources, such as electric vehicles, photovoltaics, and storage, to low voltage distribution networks means that these networks will undergo major changes in the future. Traditionally, distribution systems would have been a passive part of the wider power system, delivering electricity to the customer and not needing much control or management. However, the introduction of these new technologies may cause unforeseen issues for distribution networks, due to the fact that they were not considered when the networks were originally designed. This thesis examines different types of technologies that may begin to emerge on distribution systems, as well as the resulting challenges that they may impose. Three-phase models of distribution networks are developed and subsequently utilised as test cases. Various management strategies are devised for the purposes of controlling distributed resources from a distribution network perspective. The aim of the management strategies is to mitigate those issues that distributed resources may cause, while also keeping customers' preferences in mind. A rolling optimisation formulation is proposed as an operational tool which can manage distributed resources, while also accounting for the uncertainties that these resources may present. Network sensitivities for a particular feeder are extracted from a three-phase load flow methodology and incorporated into an optimisation. Electric vehicles are the focus of the work, although the method could be applied to other types of resources. The aim is to minimise the cost of electric vehicle charging over a 24-hour time horizon by controlling the charge rates and timings of the vehicles. The results demonstrate the advantage that controlled EV charging can have over an uncontrolled case, as well as the benefits provided by the rolling formulation and updated inputs in terms of cost and energy delivered to customers. Building upon the rolling optimisation, a

  15. Non Isolated and Non-Inverting Cockcroft Walton Multiplier Based Hybrid 2Nx Interleaved Boost Converter For Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar; Padamanaban, Sanjeevi Kumar; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    In this paper hybrid non isolated and non-invertingCockcroft-Walton multiplier based 2Nx InterleavedBoost converter (2Nx IBC) for renewable energy applications is presented. The presented hybrid boost converter topology is derived from non-inverting Nx Multilevel Boost Converter (Nx MBC......) and inverting Nx Multilevel Boost Converter (Nx MBC). In renewable energy applications, generated voltage needs to be stepped up with high conversion ratio using a DC-DC converter at voltage levels as per the application requirement. The advantages of the presentedtopology of interleaved converter are high...... voltage conversion ratio, reduce ripple, low voltage stress, non-inverting output voltage without utilizing the high duty cycle, coupled inductors and transformer. The main advantage of presented topology consists in increasing voltage gain by adding capacitor and diode into circuitry without disturbing...

  16. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo Villela Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

  17. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  18. Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid. This pa......It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid....... This paper investigates the impact on a Danish distribution system when the EV charging aims to reduce the charging cost by charging at the cheapest hours. Results show that the charging based on the price signal only will have adverse effect on the grid. The paper also proposes an alternate EV charging...

  19. Transient stability and control of renewable generators based on Hamiltonian surface shaping and power flow control. Part II, analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Wilson, David Gerald

    2010-11-01

    The swing equations for renewable generators connected to the grid are developed and a wind turbine is used as an example. The swing equations for the renewable generators are formulated as a natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. A two-step process referred to as Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) is used to analyze and design feedback controllers for the renewable generators system. This formulation extends previous results on the analytical verification of the Potential Energy Boundary Surface (PEBS) method to nonlinear control analysis and design and justifies the decomposition of the system into conservative and non-conservative systems to enable a two-step, serial analysis and design procedure. The first step is to analyze the system as a conservative natural Hamiltonian system with no externally applied non-conservative forces. The Hamiltonian surface of the swing equations is related to the Equal-Area Criterion and the PEBS method to formulate the nonlinear transient stability problem. This formulation demonstrates the effectiveness of proportional feedback control to expand the stability region. The second step is to analyze the system as natural Hamiltonian system with externally applied non-conservative forces. The time derivative of the Hamiltonian produces the work/rate (power flow) equation which is used to ensure balanced power flows from the renewable generators to the loads. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is applied to the power flow equations to determine the stability boundaries (limit cycles) of the renewable generators system and enable design of feedback controllers that meet stability requirements while maximizing the power generation and flow to the load. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of renewable generators systems are determined based on the concepts of Hamiltonian systems, power flow, exergy (the maximum work that can be extracted from an energy flow) rate

  20. Adaptive prediction model accuracy in the control of residential energy resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negenborn, R.R.; Houwing, M.; De Schutter, B.; Hellendoorn, H.

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing use of distributed energy resources and intelligence in the electricity infrastructure, the possibilities for minimizing costs of household energy consumption increase. Technology is moving toward a situation in which automated energy management systems could control domestic

  1. Least-cost model predictive control of residential energy resources when applying μmCHP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; Heijnen, P.W.; De Schutter, B.; Hellendoorn, H.

    2007-01-01

    With an increasing use of distributed energy resources and intelligence in the electricity infrastructure, the possibilities for minimizing costs of household energy consumption increase. Technology is moving toward a situation in which households manage their own energy generation and consumption,

  2. Evaluation Framework and Tools for Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumerman, Etan Z.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit R.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Marnay , Chris

    2003-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 2002 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) forecast anticipates the need for 375 MW of new generating capacity (or about one new power plant) per week for the next 20 years, most of which is forecast to be fueled by natural gas. The Distributed Energy and Electric Reliability Program (DEER) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has set a national goal for DER to capture 20 percent of new electric generation capacity additions by 2020 (Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 2000). Cumulatively, this amounts to about 40 GW of DER capacity additions from 2000-2020. Figure ES-1 below compares the EIA forecast and DEER's assumed goal for new DER by 2020 while applying the same definition of DER to both. This figure illustrates that the EIA forecast is consistent with the overall DEER DER goal. For the purposes of this study, Berkeley Lab needed a target level of small-scale DER penetration upon which to hinge consideration of benefits and costs. Because the AEO2002 forecasted only 3.1 GW of cumulative additions from small-scale DER in the residential and commercial sectors, another approach was needed to estimate the small-scale DER target. The focus here is on small-scale DER technologies under 500 kW. The technology size limit is somewhat arbitrary, but the key results of interest are marginal additional costs and benefits around an assumed level of penetration that existing programs might achieve. Berkeley Lab assumes that small-scale DER has the same growth potential as large scale DER in AEO2002, about 38 GW. This assumption makes the small-scale goal equivalent to 380,000 DER units of average size 100 kW. This report lays out a framework whereby the consequences of meeting this goal might be estimated and tallied up. The framework is built around a list of major benefits and a set of tools that might be applied to estimate them. This study lists some of the major effects of an emerging paradigm shift away from

  3. EVOLUTION OF THE DEMAND AND SUPPLY IN ENERGY RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestru MAXIMILIAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic, social and political development of human society in recent decades put to the fore the issue of natural resources available to the earth; scientists are asking ever more seriously the question to what extent these resources can support the economic development in the future, can provide food and survival of a growing population and will be able to contribute to the eradication of underdevelopment. The emphasis of major events – the population explosion, the trend of depletion of natural resources, environmental deterioration, underdevelopment etc. – was and it is still discussed with increasing responsibility by specialists, being drafted a large number of forecasts for a variable duration perspective. The trend of depletion of natural resources is another phenomenon of the contemporary world and that will become, certainly, even more pronounced in the near future. Harnessing the increasing exhaustible natural resources with low reserves and a slow recovery of renewable resources raises acutely the issue regarding the conservation of these resources. In recent decades, there is a tendency to waste energy and raw materials in the society. There are produced goods without an absolute utility, being imposed artificially by advertising or fashion swings and many products are designed in such a way that it takes little to compel the buyer to replace them. The "consumption" civilization is characterized as a "society that throws" the population of developed countries (18% of world population dispelling waste form 20 to 25% of the material production of the world. Excessive consumption of raw materials and fuel was favoured by their relatively low prices, maintained under the pressure of interests of transnational companies, prices that disfavoured, however, the developing countries. Consequently, consumption of raw materials and fuel turned to the easily accessible resources that have been heavily exploited, partially abandoning some

  4. Simulated Annealing Approach Applied to the Energy Resource Management Considering Demand Response for Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Tiago; Vale, Zita; Morais, Hugo

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation and management of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) by an Virtual Power Players (VPP) is an important task in a smart grid context. The Energy Resource Management (ERM) of theses DERs can become a hard and complex optimization problem. The large integration of several DERs, including Electric Vehicles (EVs), may lead to a scenario in which the VPP needs several hours to have a solution for the ERM problem. This is the reason why it is necessary to use metaheuristic methodolo...

  5. Optimal investment paths for future renewable based energy systems - Using the optimisation model Balmorel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Meibom, Peter

    2008-01-01

    that with an oil price at 100 $/barrel, a CO2 price at40 €/ton and the assumed penetration of hydrogen in the transport sector, it is economically optimal to cover more than 95% of the primary energy consumption for electricity and district heat by renewables in 2050. When the transport sector is converted......This paper investigates a possible long term investment path for the Nordic energy system focussing on renewable energy in the supply sector and on hydrogen as the main fuel for transportation, covering up to 70% of all transport in 2050. The optimisation model Balmorel [Ravn H, et al. Balmorel......: A model for analyses of the electricity and CHP markets in the Baltic Sea Region. 〈www.Balmorel.com〉; 2001. [1

  6. A diffusion approximation based on renewal processes with applications to strongly biased run–tumble motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2016-01-01

    not previously been applied in this context. Our results extend previous work, which has established the mean drift but not the diffusivity. For a classical model of tumble rates applied to chemotaxis, we find that the resulting chemotactic drift saturates to the swimming velocity of the organism when......We consider organisms which use a renewal strategy such as run–tumble when moving in space, for example to perform chemotaxis in chemical gradients. We derive a diffusion approximation for the motion, applying a central limit theorem due to Anscombe for renewal-reward processes; this theorem has......, in limit of high chemotactic sensitivity, the chemotactic drift is 64 % of the swimming velocity, independent of the magnitude of the Brownian rotation. We finally derive characteristic timescales of the motion that can be used to assess whether the diffusion limit is justified in a given situation...

  7. How to Sustainably Feed a Microbe: Strategies for Biological Production of Carbon-Based Commodities with Renewable Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Caitlyn S; Lovley, Derek R

    2016-01-01

    As interest and application of renewable energy grows, strategies are needed to align the asynchronous supply and demand. Microbial metabolisms are a potentially sustainable mechanism for transforming renewable electrical energy into biocommodities that are easily stored and transported. Acetogens and methanogens can reduce carbon dioxide to organic products including methane, acetic acid, and ethanol. The library of biocommodities is expanded when engineered metabolisms of acetogens are included. Typically, electrochemical systems are employed to integrate renewable energy sources with biological systems for production of carbon-based commodities. Within these systems, there are three prevailing mechanisms for delivering electrons to microorganisms for the conversion of carbon dioxide to reduce organic compounds: (1) electrons can be delivered to microorganisms via H2 produced separately in a electrolyzer, (2) H2 produced at a cathode can convey electrons to microorganisms supported on the cathode surface, and (3) a cathode can directly feed electrons to microorganisms. Each of these strategies has advantages and disadvantages that must be considered in designing full-scale processes. This review considers the evolving understanding of each of these approaches and the state of design for advancing these strategies toward viability.

  8. Risk factors during construction of power plants using renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nefedova Lyudmila Veniaminovna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider main characteristics of modern development of renewable energy sources (RES. It is dedicated that there are some technical and economic barriers to the widespread use of renewable energy. For example, RES are inconstancy in time and space and have low density of energy flow. High capital intensity and cost price, long-term construction, a considerable degree of different kinds of risk, lack of competitiveness with hydrocarbon species generation in the existing regulatory environment are also inherent to RES. The role of the regulatory framework is shown according to perspective plans of construction of power plants using renewable energy sources. The main requirements which are applied to measures of state support of construction industry of renewable energy development are formulated. Current condition of construction industry of RES in Russia is assessed. The problems of risks which arise during construction of renewable energy facilities according to results of practical use of RES are discussed. And it is rather important to use stage assessment for the construction phase of the project during risk analysis of construction of alternative energy sources. The main groups of RES risks are described. The importance of regulatory and resource risks for effective development of renewable energy in Russia according to the method of strategic planning with the identification of the adverse effects of gradation factors are determined. The analysis of financial risks types and methods of its management during construction power generation projects based on different types of renewable energy resources are made. In the end of the article the authors make a conclusion, that the development of projects for the construction of power plants with the use of innovative technical solutions to ensure minimal risks to the environment and safe operation in various climatic conditions is a priority.

  9. U.S. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials. A GIS-Based Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Billy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blair, Nate [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report presents the state-level results of a spatial analysis effort calculating energy technical potential, reported in square kilometers of available land, megawatts of capacity, and gigawatt-hours of generation, for six different renewable technologies. For this analysis, the system specific power density (or equivalent), efficiency (capacity factor), and land-use constraints were identified for each technology using independent research, published research, and professional contacts. This report also presents technical potential findings from previous reports.

  10. U.S. Renewable Energy Technical Potentials: A GIS-Based Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, A.; Roberts, B.; Heimiller, D.; Blair, N.; Porro, G.

    2012-07-01

    This report presents the state-level results of a spatial analysis effort calculating energy technical potential, reported in square kilometers of available land, megawatts of capacity, and gigawatt-hours of generation, for six different renewable technologies. For this analysis, the system specific power density (or equivalent), efficiency (capacity factor), and land-use constraints were identified for each technology using independent research, published research, and professional contacts. This report also presents technical potential findings from previous reports.

  11. Renewable energy costs, potentials, barriers. Conceptual issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbruggen, Aviel [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Fischedick, Manfred [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment, Energy (Germany); Moomaw, William [Tufts University, Center for International Environment and Resource Policy (United States); Weir, Tony [University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands (Fiji); Nadai, Alain [Centre International de Recherche sur Environnement et le Developpement CIRED (France); Nilsson, Lars J. [University of Lund (Sweden); Nyboer, John [Simon Fraser University, School of Resource and Environmental Management (Canada); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Renewable energy can become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies. Disruptive transformations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable energy resources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the 21st century. Technological innovation, the economy (costs and prices) and policies have to be aligned to achieve full renewable energy potentials, and barriers impeding that growth need to be removed. These issues are also covered by IPCC's special report on renewable energy and climate change to be completed in 2010. This article focuses on the interrelations among the drivers. It clarifies definitions of costs and prices, and of barriers. After reviewing how the third and fourth assessment reports of IPCC cover mitigation potentials and commenting on definitions of renewable energy potentials in the literature, we propose a consistent set of potentials of renewable energy supplies. (author)

  12. A new model for commercially sustainable renewable energy-based rural electrification in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walt, Robb [Integrated Power Corporation-Indonesia, (United states)

    1995-12-31

    Rapidly increasing demands and requirements for access to electricity throughout the remote areas of Indonesia coupled with annual subsidies in excess of $500 million of dollars for rural electrification have forced the Government of Indonesia to search for alternatives to the conventional utility model for rural electrification. In 1992-1993 a study was conducted in collaboration with the Government of Indonesia`s Agency Application and Assessment of Technology (BPPT) and the national power utility, PLN to support the search for sustainable solutions for electrification of remote communities. This study produced a New commercial model for electrification of off-grid rural communities in Indonesia with utility quality electricity services. This new model is characterized by the use of new technologies for power generation, distribution, and sales of electricity. Key to the success of the new model are renewable energy-based hybrid power plants and the use of flexible, on-demand electricity dispensing meters. Estimated fees for electricity service are based on the current amounts now being paid by rural households for kerosene, candles and battery services at different income levels. The study showed that most rural households are willing and able to pay additional amounts for reliable, utility grade electricity for valuable services, such as better lighting, TV entertainment and for productive (economic) uses during daytime hours. A financial assessment was conducted for investments in hybrid power systems for off-grid communities with revenues generated on the basis of market fees, and collected through new technology for electricity purchase and prepayment on a commodity basis. The assessment demonstrates that this approach would provide superior electricity services on a full-time basis, with little or no subsidy required during the three- to five-year commercialization phase, and with profitability as an achievable goal in the full commercial phase. [Espanol

  13. A new model for commercially sustainable renewable energy-based rural electrification in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walt, Robb [Integrated Power Corporation-Indonesia, (United states)

    1995-12-31

    Rapidly increasing demands and requirements for access to electricity throughout the remote areas of Indonesia coupled with annual subsidies in excess of $500 million of dollars for rural electrification have forced the Government of Indonesia to search for alternatives to the conventional utility model for rural electrification. In 1992-1993 a study was conducted in collaboration with the Government of Indonesia`s Agency Application and Assessment of Technology (BPPT) and the national power utility, PLN to support the search for sustainable solutions for electrification of remote communities. This study produced a New commercial model for electrification of off-grid rural communities in Indonesia with utility quality electricity services. This new model is characterized by the use of new technologies for power generation, distribution, and sales of electricity. Key to the success of the new model are renewable energy-based hybrid power plants and the use of flexible, on-demand electricity dispensing meters. Estimated fees for electricity service are based on the current amounts now being paid by rural households for kerosene, candles and battery services at different income levels. The study showed that most rural households are willing and able to pay additional amounts for reliable, utility grade electricity for valuable services, such as better lighting, TV entertainment and for productive (economic) uses during daytime hours. A financial assessment was conducted for investments in hybrid power systems for off-grid communities with revenues generated on the basis of market fees, and collected through new technology for electricity purchase and prepayment on a commodity basis. The assessment demonstrates that this approach would provide superior electricity services on a full-time basis, with little or no subsidy required during the three- to five-year commercialization phase, and with profitability as an achievable goal in the full commercial phase. [Espanol

  14. Knowledge-based renewable energy and environmental technology and services.; En kunnskapsbasert fornybar energi- og miljoenaering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenfeld, Leo A.; Espelien, Anne

    2011-07-01

    This report presents a study of the Norwegian industry for renewable energy and environmental technology and services (abbreviated to the REETS-industry). The study is a part of the large research program 'A Knowledge based Norway' organized by the Norwegian School of Management. It is one of 14 industry studies that investigates how knowledge investments and knowledge management contributes to strengthen clusters of industrial activity in Norway. A primary research question in this report concerns whether the Norwegian REETS-industry has sufficient resources and cluster strengths to succeed in international markets and stay competitive over time. For the first time, we present statistics covering all firms in the REETS-industry in Norway. The report contains a thorough mapping of industry activities, in terms of turnover, value added, growth, access to financial capital and human capital, internationalization and last but not least cluster properties in the industry as well as its links to other industries in Norway and abroad. The industry consists of approximately 2200 companies with a total turnover of Nok 151 bn in 2009. Industry value added has grown by 15 percent per year over the last decade and reached Nok 60 bn in 2009. The REETS-industry is now the eighth largest industry in Norway.The REETS-industry contains a large variety of activities and technologies. Consequently, we have divided the industry into four main groups and 11 sub-segments. The main groups are: renewable energy production, environmental technology and services, waste and recycling and finally energy distribution and sales. Since activities are highly heterogeneous, knowledge activities and cluster configurations must be studied at a more detailed level. Norway is a European giant in terms of hydro power production, producing close to 20 percent of such energy in Europe. In Norway, this part of the industry provides 35 percent of the revenues. Consequently, we devote

  15. A comparative analysis for multiattribute selection among renewable energy alternatives using fuzzy axiomatic design and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, Cengiz; Kaya, Ihsan; Cebi, Selcuk [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Industrial Engineering, 34367, Macka-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    Renewable energy is the energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat which are renewable. Energy resources are very important in perspective of economics and politics for all countries. Hence, the selection of the best alternative for any country takes an important role for energy investments. Among decision-making methodologies, axiomatic design (AD) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) are often used in the literature. The fuzzy set theory is a powerful tool to treat the uncertainty in case of incomplete or vague information. In this paper, fuzzy multicriteria decision- making methodologies are suggested for the selection among renewable energy alternatives. The first methodology is based on the AHP which allows the evaluation scores from experts to be linguistic expressions, crisp, or fuzzy numbers, while the second is based on AD principles under fuzziness which evaluates the alternatives under objective or subjective criteria with respect to the functional requirements obtained from experts. The originality of the paper comes from the fuzzy AD application to the selection of the best renewable energy alternative and the comparison with fuzzy AHP. In the application of the proposed methodologies the most appropriate renewable energy alternative is determined for Turkey. (author)

  16. Multi-agent coordination algorithms for control of distributed energy resources in smart grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Andres

    Sustainable energy is a top-priority for researchers these days, since electricity and transportation are pillars of modern society. Integration of clean energy technologies such as wind, solar, and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), is a major engineering challenge in operation and management of power systems. This is due to the uncertain nature of renewable energy technologies and the large amount of extra load that PEVs would add to the power grid. Given the networked structure of a power system, multi-agent control and optimization strategies are natural approaches to address the various problems of interest for the safe and reliable operation of the power grid. The distributed computation in multi-agent algorithms addresses three problems at the same time: i) it allows for the handling of problems with millions of variables that a single processor cannot compute, ii) it allows certain independence and privacy to electricity customers by not requiring any usage information, and iii) it is robust to localized failures in the communication network, being able to solve problems by simply neglecting the failing section of the system. We propose various algorithms to coordinate storage, generation, and demand resources in a power grid using multi-agent computation and decentralized decision making. First, we introduce a hierarchical vehicle-one-grid (V1G) algorithm for coordination of PEVs under usage constraints, where energy only flows from the grid in to the batteries of PEVs. We then present a hierarchical vehicle-to-grid (V2G) algorithm for PEV coordination that takes into consideration line capacity constraints in the distribution grid, and where energy flows both ways, from the grid in to the batteries, and from the batteries to the grid. Next, we develop a greedy-like hierarchical algorithm for management of demand response events with on/off loads. Finally, we introduce distributed algorithms for the optimal control of distributed energy resources, i

  17. Advanced Communication and Control of Distributed Energy Resources at Detroit Edison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukur Asgeirsson; Richard Seguin

    2004-01-31

    The project objective was to create the communication and control system, the process and the economic procedures that will allow owners (e.g., residential, commercial, industrial, manufacturing, etc.) of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) connected in parallel to the electric distribution to have their resources operated in a manner that protects the electric utility distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. The Distribution Engineering Workstation (DEW) (a power flow and short circuit modeling tool) was modified to calculate the real-time characteristics of the distribution network based on the real-time electric distribution network information and provide DER operating suggestions to the Detroit Edison system operators so that regional electric stability is maintained. Part of the suggestion algorithm takes into account the operational availability of DER’s, which is known by the Energy Aggregator, DTE Energy Technologies. The availability information will be exchanged from DTE Energy Technologies to Detroit Edison. For the calculated suggestions to be used by the Detroit Edison operators, procedures were developed to allow an operator to operate a DER by requesting operation of the DER through DTE Energy Technologies. Prior to issuing control of a DER, the safety of the distribution network and personnel needs to be taken into account. This information will be exchanged from Detroit Edison to DTE Energy Technologies. Once it is safe to control the DER, DTE Energy Technologies will issue the control signal. The real-time monitoring of the DECo system will reflect the DER control. Multi-vendor DER technologies’ representing approximately 4 MW of capacity was monitored and controlled using a web-based communication path. The DER technologies included are a photovoltaic system, energy storage, fuel cells and natural gas/diesel internal combustion engine generators. This report documents Phase I result for the Detroit Edison

  18. Financing renewable energy for Village Power application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santibanez-Yeneza, G.

    1997-12-01

    When one talks of rural development, no doubt, the issue of rural energy is not far behind. As a significant component of any development strategy, rural energy is seen as the engine for growth that can bring about economic upliftment in the countryside. Many approaches to rural energy development have been tried. These approaches differ from country to country. But regardless of structure and approach, the goal remain essentially the same: to provide rural communities access to reliable energy services at affordable prices. In recent years, as global concern for the environment has increased, many governments have turned to renewable energy as a more environment friendly alternative to rural electrification. Technological advances in renewable energy application has helped to encourage this use. System reliability has improved, development costs have, to some extent been brought down and varied application approaches have been tried and tested in many areas. Indeed, there is huge potential for the development of renewable energy in the rural areas of most developing countries. At the rural level, renewable energy resources are almost always abundantly available: woodwaste, agricultural residues, animal waste, small-scale hydro, wind, solar and even sometimes geothermal resources. Since smaller scale systems are usually expected in these areas, renewable energy technologies can very well serve as decentralized energy systems for rural application. And not only for rural applications, new expansion planning paradigms have likewise led to the emergence of decentralized energy systems not only as supply options but also as corrective measures for maintaining end of line voltage levels. On the other hand, where renewable energy resource can provide significant blocks of power, they can be relied upon to provide indigenous power to the grids.

  19. SECOND1. Security concept for DER (Distributed Energy Resources). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Secure communication is becoming increasingly more relevant in a power system where there is a high impact of distributed energy resources (DER). The purpose of this project has been to analyse and develop a proof of concept implementation for a security concept that can be used in a power system with a high degree of decentralized production and with many actors (BRP, DSO, TSO, utilities, retailers) in an unbundled market. One way to maintain flexibility in the communication system for the power grid is to assign access roles to specific operations and not just to a network or server. Security then becomes a matter of verification, namely that an applicant holds a role with privileges to perform the action applied for. The SECOND1 project has investigated various forms of role based access control (RBAC) as well as the underlying security mechanism identification and verification of the actor identity. The project analysed the needs for communication between energy operators and match these needs with a design for secure role based access control. (LN)

  20. Impact of distributed energy resources on the reliability of a critical telecommunications facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David; Zuffranieri, Jason V.; Atcitty, Christopher B.; Arent, Douglas (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO)

    2006-03-01

    This report documents a probabilistic risk assessment of an existing power supply system at a large telecommunications office. The focus is on characterizing the increase in the reliability of power supply through the use of two alternative power configurations. Telecommunications has been identified by the Department of Homeland Security as a critical infrastructure to the United States. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to major telecommunications outages. A logical approach to improve the robustness of telecommunication facilities would be to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power in the face of power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide one more onsite electric power source to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. The analysis is based on a hierarchical Bayesian approach and focuses on the failure probability associated with each of three possible facility configurations, along with assessment of the uncertainty or confidence level in the probability of failure. A risk-based characterization of final best configuration is presented.

  1. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  2. Impact of Uncertainty from Load-Based Reserves and Renewables on Dispatch Costs and Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bowen; Maroukis, Spencer D.; Lin, Yashen; Mathieu, Johanna L.

    2016-11-21

    Aggregations of controllable loads are considered to be a fast-responding, cost-efficient, and environmental-friendly candidate for power system ancillary services. Unlike conventional service providers, the potential capacity from the aggregation is highly affected by factors like ambient conditions and load usage patterns. Previous work modeled aggregations of controllable loads (such as air conditioners) as thermal batteries, which are capable of providing reserves but with uncertain capacity. A stochastic optimal power flow problem was formulated to manage this uncertainty, as well as uncertainty in renewable generation. In this paper, we explore how the types and levels of uncertainty, generation reserve costs, and controllable load capacity affect the dispatch solution, operational costs, and CO2 emissions. We also compare the results of two methods for solving the stochastic optimization problem, namely the probabilistically robust method and analytical reformulation assuming Gaussian distributions. Case studies are conducted on a modified IEEE 9-bus system with renewables, controllable loads, and congestion. We find that different types and levels of uncertainty have significant impacts on dispatch and emissions. More controllable loads and less conservative solution methodologies lead to lower costs and emissions.

  3. A Diffusion Approximation Based on Renewal Processes with Applications to Strongly Biased Run-Tumble Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2016-03-01

    We consider organisms which use a renewal strategy such as run-tumble when moving in space, for example to perform chemotaxis in chemical gradients. We derive a diffusion approximation for the motion, applying a central limit theorem due to Anscombe for renewal-reward processes; this theorem has not previously been applied in this context. Our results extend previous work, which has established the mean drift but not the diffusivity. For a classical model of tumble rates applied to chemotaxis, we find that the resulting chemotactic drift saturates to the swimming velocity of the organism when the chemical gradients grow increasingly steep. The dispersal becomes anisotropic in steep gradients, with larger dispersal across the gradient than along the gradient. In contrast to one-dimensional settings, strong bias increases dispersal. We next include Brownian rotation in the model and find that, in limit of high chemotactic sensitivity, the chemotactic drift is 64% of the swimming velocity, independent of the magnitude of the Brownian rotation. We finally derive characteristic timescales of the motion that can be used to assess whether the diffusion limit is justified in a given situation. The proposed technique for obtaining diffusion approximations is conceptually and computationally simple, and applicable also when statistics of the motion is obtained empirically or through Monte Carlo simulation of the motion.

  4. Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Godfrey

    2004-05-01

    Stimulated by recent technological developments and increasing concern over the sustainability and environmental impact of conventional fuel usage, the prospect of producing clean, sustainable power in substantial quantities from renewable energy sources arouses interest around the world. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the principal types of renewable energy--including solar, thermal, photovoltaics, bioenergy, hydro, tidal, wind, wave, and geothermal. In addition, it explains the underlying physical and technological principles of renewable energy and examines the environmental impact and prospects of different energy sources. With more than 350 detailed illustrations, more than 50 tables of data, and a wide range of case studies, Renewable Energy, 2/e is an ideal choice for undergraduate courses in energy, sustainable development, and environmental science. New to the Second Edition ·Full-color design ·Updated to reflect developments in technology, policy, attitides ·Complemented by Energy Systems and Sustainability edited by Godfrey Boyle, Bob Everett and Janet Ramage, all of the Open University, U.K.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey Studies of Energy Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Government and the American public need access to information on energy resources in sub-Saharan Africa.Sub-Saharan Africa (mostly Nigeria) produces 5 percent of the world's oil, while supplying the United States with 15 percent of our imports (Energy Information Administration). In the next 10 years, sub-Saharan oil and gas will become increasingly more important to the export market. New discoveries in offshore provinces of West Africa ensure a bright future for the region. Projections indicate that increased oil production in sub-Saharan Africa will far outpace the growth of intraregional consumption, providing greater quantities of oil for export (Forman, 1996). Also, West Africa, although a marginal supplier of liquefied natural gas (LNG) today, will become an important LNG source to the international market by the year 2000 (Oil & Gas Journal, 1996). The United States needs up-to-date information about petroleum resources and the energy balance within the region to predict the future role of sub-Saharan Africa as a major oil and gas exporter. The data required to generate the needed information are often disseminated in archives of oil companies and African geologic surveys, or in obscure publications. For these reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting data on sub-Saharan energy and constructing a regional energy bibliography. The team of geoscientists will assure that this information is available quickly and from a scientifically based, objective view point.

  6. Performance Audit of the U.S. Geological Survey, Energy Resource Program Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Janke, Louis G.; McCord, Jamey D.; Bullock, John H.; Brazeau, Lisa; Affronter, Ronald H.

    2007-01-01

    A performance audit of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Energy Resource Program (ERP) Inorganic Geochemistry Laboratory (IGL) was conducted between August, 2003 and October, 2005. The goals were to ensure that a high level of analytical performance was maintained and identify any areas that could be enhanced. The audit was subdivided into three phases. Phase 1 was a preliminary assessment of current performance based on recent performance on CANSPEX samples. IGL performance was also compared to laboratories world-wide with similar scope. Phase 2 consisted of the implementation of the recommended changes made in Phase 1. Phase 3 of the audit consisted of a reassessment effort to evaluate the effectiveness of the recommendations made in the Phase 1 and an on-site audit of the laboratory facilities. Phases 1 and 3 required summary reports that are included in Appendices A and B of this report. The audit found that the IGL was one of the top two laboratories compared for trace element analyses. Several recommendations to enhance performance on major and minor elemental parameters were made and implemented. Demonstrated performance improvements as a result of the recommended changes were documented. Several initiatives to sustain the performance improvements gained from the audit have been implemented.

  7. 76 FR 36532 - Iberdrola Renewables, Inc., PacifiCorp, NextEra Energy Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ..., Invenergy Wind North America LLC, Horizon Wind Energy LLC v. Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of... Resources, LLC, Invenergy Wind North America LLC, and Horizon Wind Energy LLC (Complainants) filed a formal... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  8. Energy resources of the 21st century: problems and forecasts. Can renewable energy sources replace fossil fuels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, V. S.; Lisichkin, G. V.

    2017-08-01

    The state of the art and the major trends of development of world energy engineering are analyzed. It is concluded that throughout the 21st century the role of alternative sources will remain rather modest. Fossil fuel will still be the major source of energy until the end of the century. Because of depletion of accessible oil resources, the proportion of crude oil in the world energy balance will constantly decline, while the proportion of natural gas will grow. It is shown that energy production from any source, including alternative sources, cannot be environmentally benign if the scale of production is large. In the long term, humanity has no sources other than fusion energy, but transition to this source would not solve the problem of the planet's heat balance. The bibliography includes 70 references.

  9. A practical eco-environmental distribution network planning model including fuel cells and non-renewable distributed energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soroudi, Alireza [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Ehsan, Mehdi [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Center of Excellence in Power System Management and Control, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Zareipour, Hamidreza [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents a long-term dynamic multi-objective planning model for distribution network expansion along with distributed energy options. The proposed model optimizes two objectives, namely costs and emissions and determines the optimal schemes of sizing, placement and specially the dynamics (i.e., timing) of investments on distributed generation units and network reinforcements over the planning period. An efficient two-stage heuristic method is proposed to solve the formulated planning problem. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated by applying it to a distribution network and comparing the simulation results with other methods and models. (author)

  10. Optimization of Renewable Energy Hybrid System for Grid Connected Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaqimah Mustaqimah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Hybrid energy systems are pollution free, takes low cost and less gestation period, user and social friendly. Such systems are important sources of energy for shops, schools, and clinics in village communities especially in remote areas. Hybrid systems can provide electricity at a comparatively economic price in many remote areas. This paper presents a method to jointly determine the sizing and operation control of hybrid energy systems. The model, PV wind hydro and biomass hybrid system connects to grid. The system configuration of the hybrid is derived based on a theoretical domestic load at a typical location and local solar radiation, wind and water flow rate data and biomass availability. The hybrid energy system is proposed for 10 of teacher’s houses of Industrial Training Institute, Mersing. It is predicted 10 kW load consumption per house. The hybrid energy system consists of wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and grid power. Approximately energy consumption is 860 kWh/day with a 105 kW peak demand load. The proposed hybrid renewable consists of solar photovoltaic (PV panels, wind turbine, hydro turbine and biomass. Battery and inverter are included as part of back-up and storage system. It provides the economic sensitivity of hybridization and the economic and environmental benefits of using a blend of technologies. It also presents the trade off that is involved in optimizing a hybrid energy system to harness and utilize the available renewable energy resources efficiently.

  11. A renewable energy scenario for Aalborg Municipality based on low-temperature geothermal heat, wind power and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Möller, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    in industrial fuel use and savings and fuel-substitutions in the transport sector. With biomass resources being finite, the two marginal energy resources in Aalborg are geothermal heat and wind power. If geothermal heat is utilised more, wind power may be limited and vice versa. The system still relies...

  12. Prediction of Wind Energy Resources (PoWER) Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    used for fixed-site generators). PoWER is hosted on Apple iOS and Android (mobile device operating systems) based smartphones and tablets (referred...henceforth referred to as the “ app ”) provides information on the instantaneous electrical power and energy that can be generated by a wind generator...to from here on as the “device”). The functionality is identical between the iOS and Android device and the screen displays are similar between the 2

  13. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren`t always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation.

  14. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 3. Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paton, D.L.; Bass, A.; Smith, D.G.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Great Lakes Region atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data, one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Great Lakes region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin. At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than in the regional discussion and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations over several time scales in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and of hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  15. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  16. Trading Strategies for Distribution Company with Stochastic Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to address the trading strategies of a proactive distribution company (PDISCO) engaged in the transmission-level (TL) markets. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is presented to formulate the gaming framework between the PDISCO and markets. The lower......-level (LL) problems include the TL day-ahead market and scenario-based real-time markets, respectively with the objectives of maximizing social welfare and minimizing operation cost. The upper-level (UL) problem is to maximize the PDISCO's prot across these markets. The PDISCO's strategic oers....../bids interactively in uence the outcomes of each market. Since the LL problems are linear and convex, while the UL problem is non-linear and non-convex, an equivalent primal-dual approach is used to reformulate this bilevel model to a solvable mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC...

  17. The use of urban wood waste as an energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakova, G. I.; Danilova, D. A.; Khasanov, R. R.

    2017-06-01

    The capabilities use of wood waste in the Ekaterinburg city, generated during the felling of trees and sanitation in the care of green plantations in the streets, parks, squares, forest parks was investigated in this study. In the cities at the moment, all the wood, that is removed from city streets turns into waste completely. Wood waste is brought to the landfill of solid household waste, and moreover sorting and evaluation of the quantitative composition of wood waste is not carried out. Several technical solutions that are used in different countries have been proposed for the energy use of wood waste: heat and electrical energy generation, liquid and solid biofuel production. An estimation of the energy potential of the city wood waste was made, for total and for produced heat and electrical energy based on modern engineering developments. According to our estimates total energy potential of wood waste in the city measure up more 340 thousand GJ per year.

  18. Wind energy resource atlas: Volume 6. The Southeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabransky, J.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Southeast atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Southeast region (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, and South Carolina). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  19. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  20. Trading strategies for distribution company with stochastic distributed energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui; Korpås, Magnus; Pinson, Pierre; Østergaard, Jacob; Khodayar, Mohammad E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to address the trading strategies of a proactive distribution company (PDISCO) engaged in the transmission-level (TL) markets. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is presented to formulate the gaming framework between the PDISCO and markets. The lower-level (LL) problems include the TL day-ahead market and scenario-based real-time markets, respectively with the objectives of maximizing social welfare and minimizing operation cost. The upper-level (UL) problem is to maximize the PDISCO’s profit across these markets. The PDISCO’s strategic offers/bids interactively influence the outcomes of each market. Since the LL problems are linear and convex, while the UL problem is non-linear and non-convex, an equivalent primal–dual approach is used to reformulate this bilevel model to a solvable mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). The effectiveness of the proposed model is verified by case studies.