WorldWideScience

Sample records for renewable energy electricity

  1. Renewable energies for decentralized electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report deals with the influence of laws and tariffs on the production and on the transport of electricity by auto producers. Most of all, it analyzes their consequence on the development of renewable energy. This study shows that some important modifications of the laws and of the tariffs may be necessary to develop renewable energy. (TEC). 18 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Renewable energy promotion in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    The opening of electricity markets to competition involves fundamental structural changes in the electricity supply industry. There is, however, doubt that the new industrial organisation will provide the right price signals that will ensure that renewable energy options will be adopted. Therefore, one of the numerous challenges in the energy industry restructuring process is to ensure that renewable energy has a fair opportunity to compete with other supply resources. This paper presents mechanisms to promote the use of renewable energy in competitive electricity markets. These mechanisms include the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), the Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) and the Systems Benefit Charge (SBC). The paper discusses merits and disadvantages of these mechanisms, given the experience made in the United States and the United Kingdom. (author)

  3. Renewable, ethical? Assessing the energy justice potential of renewable electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Banerjee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy justice is increasingly being used as a framework to conceptualize the impacts of energy decision making in more holistic ways and to consider the social implications in terms of existing ethical values. Similarly, renewable energy technologies are increasingly being promoted for their environmental and social benefits. However, little work has been done to systematically examine the extent to which, in what ways and in what contexts, renewable energy technologies can contribute to achieving energy justice. This paper assesses the potential of renewable electricity technologies to address energy justice in various global contexts via a systematic review of existing studies analyzed in terms of the principles and dimensions of energy justice. Based on publications including peer reviewed academic literature, books, and in some cases reports by government or international organizations, we assess renewable electricity technologies in both grid integrated and off-grid use contexts. We conduct our investigation through the rubric of the affirmative and prohibitive principles of energy justice and in terms of its temporal, geographic, socio-political, economic, and technological dimensions. Renewable electricity technology development has and continue to have different impacts in different social contexts, and by considering the different impacts explicitly across global contexts, including differences between rural and urban contexts, this paper contributes to identifying and understanding how, in what ways, and in what particular conditions and circumstances renewable electricity technologies may correspond with or work to promote energy justice.

  4. Revitalize Electrical Program with Renewable Energy Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karns, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Starting a renewable energy technology (RET) program can be as simple as shifting the teaching and learning focus of a traditional electricity program toward energy production and energy control systems. Redirecting curriculum content and delivery to address photovoltaic solar (PV solar) technology and small wind generation systems is a natural…

  5. Wind energy status in renewable electrical energy production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Main electrical energy sources of Turkey are thermal and hydraulic. Most of the thermal sources are derived from natural gas. Turkey imports natural gas; therefore, decreasing usage of natural gas is very important for both economical and environmental aspects. Because of disadvantages of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are getting importance for sustainable energy development and environmental protection. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. The estimated wind power capacity of Turkey is about 83,000 MW while only 10,000 MW of it seems to be economically feasible to use. Start 2009, the total installed wind power capacity of Turkey was only 4.3% of its total economical wind power potential (433 MW). However, the strong development of wind energy in Turkey is expected to continue in the coming years. In this study, Turkey's installed electric power capacity, electric energy production is investigated and also Turkey current wind energy status is examined. (author)

  6. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Cho, K. J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Ferraris, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Balkus, Ken [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Chabal, Yves [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Gnade, Bruce [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Rotea, Mario [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Vasselli, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  7. Renewable energy policy and electricity market reforms in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherni, Judith A.; Kentish, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the potential effectiveness of the renewable energy policy in China and its regulatory Law framework. It frames the option of renewable energy technology within the background of the long-lasting electricity problems that China has faced including serious supply shortages, reliance on coal, and severe environmental contamination. Its dual administrative and ownership system based on state and privately owned industry is discussed together with the market reform measures adopted in the sector. Current renewable energy policy is analysed, and the scope of the 2005 Renewable Energy Promotion Law is investigated. This is conducted within the context of the electricity sector reform that China adopted, and its effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy. This study draws upon primary information collected from interviews with stakeholders on the policy adequacy, and identifies three main types of shortcomings that have interfered with a more successful expansion of renewable energy in China

  8. Electric power from renewable energy: resources and stakes for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the essential of the last thematic letter published by the IFEN (French institute of the environment), devoted to the resources and stakes of the electric power produced by the renewable energies in France. (A.L.B.)

  9. Renewable energy supply for electric vehicle operations in California

    OpenAIRE

    Papavasiliou, Anthony; Oren, Shmuel S.; Sidhy, Ikhlaq; Kaminsky, Phil; 32nd IAEE International Conference

    2009-01-01

    Due to technological progress, policy thrust and economic circumstances, the large scale integration of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power is becoming a reality in California, however the variable and unpredictable supply of these renewable resources poses a significant obstacle to their integration. At the same time we are witnessing a strong thrust towards the large scale deployment of electric vehicles which can ideally complement renewable power supply by acting as stor...

  10. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  11. Renewable Electricity: How Do You Know You Have It?; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    When electricity is generated - either from a renewable or non-renewable power plant - the electrons added to the grid are indistinguishable. So, on what basis can a consumer of electricity claim to be using renewables? In the United States, renewable energy certificates (RECs) were developed as states passed renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and were requiring fuel mix disclosure labels. RECs are also used in the voluntary market, where customers are buying renewables to meet sustainability goals. The concept of RECs is used most widely in the United States, but international markets also have tradable renewable electricity certificates. This fact sheet reviews how to ensure that RECs are not double-counted, roles of electricity regulators, renewable generators and purchasers. It concludes with a discussion of the international use of RECs.

  12. Guest Editorial Electric Machines in Renewable Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliprantis, Dionysios; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed; Muljadi, Eduard; Brown, Ian; Chiba, Akira; Dorrell, David; Erlich, Istvan; Kerszenbaum, Isidor Izzy; Levi, Emil; Mayor, Kevin; Mohammed, Osama; Papathanassiou, Stavros; Popescu, Mircea; Qiao, Wei; Wu, Dezheng

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this special issue is to collect and disseminate publications that highlight recent advances and breakthroughs in the area of renewable energy resources. The use of these resources for production of electricity is increasing rapidly worldwide. As of 2015, a majority of countries have set renewable electricity targets in the 10%-40% range to be achieved by 2020-2030, with a few notable exceptions aiming for 100% generation by renewables. We are experiencing a truly unprecedented transition away from fossil fuels, driven by environmental, energy security, and socio-economic factors.Electric machines can be found in a wide range of renewable energy applications, such as wind turbines, hydropower and hydrokinetic systems, flywheel energy storage devices, and low-power energy harvesting systems. Hence, the design of reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and controllable electric machines is crucial in enabling even higher penetrations of renewable energy systems in the smart grid of the future. In addition, power electronic converter design and control is critical, as they provide essential controllability, flexibility, grid interface, and integration functions.

  13. Renewable sources of electric energy: state and prospects (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, Jordan

    1995-01-01

    Limited reserves of fossil fuels, increased local and global environmental risks and recent technological achievements, have straightened the global importance of renewable sources of electric energy. This is even more relevant fore Macedonia, with the only fossil fuel reserves (lignite) to be nearly exhausted, the environment notably polluted and energy strategy absent. Concerning indigenous renewable sources of electricity, it is necessary to re-estimate their strategic role, to complete the input data for the resources, as well as to establish national programs supported by research and educational activities and international cooperation. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab., 3 ills

  14. Renewable energy policy in South Africa: policy options for renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, H.

    2005-01-01

    Investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency is important to reduce the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of energy production and consumption in South Africa. Currently, renewable energy contributes relatively little to primary energy and even less to the consumption of commercial energy. This article examines policy options for promoting renewable electricity. Feed-in tariffs guarantee prices for developers, but lack certainty on the amount of renewable electricity such laws would deliver under local conditions. Portfolio standards set a fixed quantity, which would guarantee diversity of supply. The question is whether the incremental upfront cost to be paid by society may be unacceptably high, compared to future health and environmental benefits. A renewables obligation combines the setting of a target with a tendering process, but may be bureaucratic to administer. Neither setting targets or regulating prices alone, however, will be sufficient. Power purchase agreements, access to the grid and creating markets for green electricity are some supporting activities that should be considered. Given that renewable electricity technologies have to compete with relatively low electricity tariffs, funding will be needed. Possible sources, both locally and internationally, are identified. The extent to which these are utilised will determine the future mix of renewable energy in South Africa. (author)

  15. Renewable energy policy in South Africa: policy options for renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency is important to reduce the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of energy production and consumption in South Africa. Currently, renewable energy contributes relatively little to primary energy and even less to the consumption of commercial energy. This article examines policy options for promoting renewable electricity. Feed-in tariffs guarantee prices for developers, but lack certainty on the amount of renewable electricity such laws would deliver under local conditions. Portfolio standards set a fixed quantity, which would guarantee diversity of supply. The question is whether the incremental upfront cost to be paid by society may be unacceptably high, compared to future health and environmental benefits. A renewables obligation combines the setting of a target with a tendering process, but may be bureaucratic to administer. Neither setting targets or regulating prices alone, however, will be sufficient. Power purchase agreements, access to the grid and creating markets for green electricity are some supporting activities that should be considered. Given that renewable electricity technologies have to compete with relatively low electricity tariffs, funding will be needed. Possible sources, both locally and internationally, are identified. The extent to which these are utilised will determine the future mix of renewable energy in South Africa

  16. Entirely renewable energy-based electricity supply system (small scale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A. [Monash Univ., Caulfield (Australia). Div. of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a system comprising of a renewable source of energy and an energy storage device to smooth the power fluctuations. In order to investigate the performance of the system, an exact mathematical model for the system has been developed. Because of non-linearity of the mathematical model a computational method is used for performance investigation of the system. The objective of the paper is to present an entirely renewable energy based electricity supply system (small scale), to suggest the mathematical model of the system and computational method to analyze the performance of the system.

  17. Renewable Energy for Electric Vehicles : Price Based Charging Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Schuller, A.; Dinther, C.; Ketter, W.; Weinhardt, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the charging coordination of battery electric vehicles (BEV) with respect to the availability of intermittent renewable energy generation considering individual real world driving profiles in a deterministic simulation based analysis, mapping a part of the German power

  18. Efficient integration of renewable energies in the German electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabe, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity sector aims to carry out coordination tasks within the system by markets and market prices. This study examines how markets need to be designed to carry out coordination tasks caused by integration of renewable energies in an efficient way. This question is applied to the German electricity system and recommendations are derived from identified deficits. The examination uses the structure-conduct-performance approach of industrial organisation economics. Integration of renewable energies does not result in entirely new coordination tasks but complicates those that exist in any electricity supply system. Within the short-term coordination tasks provision and operation of reserve capacity is affected by renewable energies. Long-term coordination means that the relation between fixed and variable costs of generators as well as generator flexibility has to be adjusted to the characteristics of renewable energies. The relevant short-term coordination task with the network is congestion management. In the long run costs of grid expansion and permanent congestion management have to be balanced. For the execution of short-run coordination tasks integrated and centralised market architectures are superior to decentralised architectures. The increase of short-term coordination tasks due to renewable energies caused by inflexibilities of consumers and conventional generators results in more information that has to be considered. By centralising that information in one market, an increase in productive efficiency can be obtained. In Germany the increased coordination tasks are determined by the integration of wind generators into the electricity system. The present German market architecture results in inefficiencies in short-term coordination. This is demonstrated by an analysis of procedural rules and prices of the ancillary service markets. They demonstrate that market performance is low and significant deviations from competitive prices

  19. Willingness to pay for electricity from renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.; Houston, A.H.

    1996-09-01

    National polls reveal widespread public preference and willingness to pay more for renewables. ``Green pricing`` programs attempt to capitalize on these preferences and on an expressed willingness to pay more for environmental protection. This report explores the utility option of green pricing as a method of aggregating public preferences for renewables. It summarizes national data on public preferences for renewables and willingness to pay (WTP) for electricity from renewable energy sources; examines utility market studies on WTP for renewables and green-pricing program features; critiques utility market research on green pricing; and discusses experiences with selected green-pricing programs. The report draws inferences for program design and future research. Given the limited experiences with the programs so far, the evidence suggests that programs in which customers pay a monthly premium for a specific renewable electricity product elicit a higher monthly financial commitment per customer than programs asking for contributions to unspecified future actions involving renewables. The experience with green-pricing programs is summarized and factors likely to affect customer participation are identified.

  20. Renewable energy sources offering flexibility through electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago

    in the day-ahead market and to correct for potential energy imbalances in the intraday market and ultimately in the balancing market. However, the design and rules of electricity markets do not support the transition from conventional generation to renewable energy sources as recently sought by many...... (generators and consumers) promoting equity, fairness, impartiality and equality. The hybrid methodology combines different costs (fixed, network usage/congestion and losses) covering all the gaps of each conventional cost allocation method.......All over the world, penetration of renewable energy sources in power systems has been increasing, creating new challenges in electricity markets and for operation and management of power systems, since power production from these resources is by nature uncertain and variable. New methods and tools...

  1. Electric power generation from renewable energy sources in Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackstein, G.; Riedel, J.; Rindelhardt, U.; Schwanitz, M.

    1997-08-01

    The report sums up the potentials for electric energy generation from different renewable energy sources in Saxony. Natural potentials, technical potentials and economic potentials are considered separately. The established technical potential (without biomass) corresponds roughly to an electic power generation of 7400 GW hours annually. About 2/3 of this is wind energy, the rest is divided equally among hydro power and photo-voltaics. The harnessing of these potentials since 1990 is described in detail. Apart from hydro power, which has a long history as an energy source, wind energy, especially, is experiencing a very dynamic development. In 1997 still, wind power will outstrip hydro power as the most important renewable energy source in Saxony. But the further extension of these two energy sources meets increasingly with ecological objections or opposition. In 1996, about 1.3 per cent of the electric power consumed in Saxony came from renewable energy sources. It seems possible to increase this share to 5 per cent by the year 2000. (orig.) [de

  2. Tradable certificates for renewable electricity and energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, Paolo; Huld, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Tradable green certificates (TGCs) schemes have been developed and tested in several European countries to foster market-driven penetration of renewables. These certificates guarantee that a specific volume of electricity is generated from renewable-energy source (RES). More recently certificates (tradable white certificates (TWCs)) for the electricity saved by demand-side energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) have been introduced in some European countries. Recent advances in information and communication technology have opened up new possibilities for improving energy efficiency and increasing utilization of RESs. Use of technological resources such as the Internet and smart metering can permit real-time issuing and trading of TGCs. These technologies could also permit issuing of TWC. This paper reviews current renewable TGC and TWCs schemes in Europe and describes the possibilities for combining them in an Internet-based system. In the proposed combined tradable certificate scheme, both RESs and demand-side EEMs could bid in real time through the Internet to meet a specific obligation. The energy savings from the demand-side measures would be equivalent to the same amount of green electricity production. The paper describes the needed common targets and obligations, the certificate trading rules and the possible monitoring protocol. In particular, the paper focuses on the TWCs verification issues, including the assessment of the baseline, as these poses additional problems for TWCs compared to TGCs

  3. Mathematical modelling of electricity market with renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, O.V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper addresses the electricity market with conventional energy sources on fossil fuel and non-conventional renewable energy sources (RESs) with stochastic operating conditions. A mathematical model of long-run (accounting for development of generation capacities) equilibrium in the market is constructed. The problem of determining optimal parameters providing the maximum social criterion of efficiency is also formulated. The calculations performed have shown that the adequate choice of price cap, environmental tax, subsidies to RESs and consumption tax make it possible to take into account external effects (environmental damage) and to create incentives for investors to construct conventional and renewable energy sources in an optimal (from the society view point) mix. (author)

  4. The impacts of renewable energy policies on renewable energy sources for electricity generating capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bryan Bonsuk

    Electricity generation from non-hydro renewable sources has increased rapidly in the last decade. For example, Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity (RES-E) generating capacity in the U.S. almost doubled for the last three year from 2009 to 2012. Multiple papers point out that RES-E policies implemented by state governments play a crucial role in increasing RES-E generation or capacity. This study examines the effects of state RES-E policies on state RES-E generating capacity, using a fixed effects model. The research employs panel data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia, for the period 1990 to 2011, and uses a two-stage approach to control endogeneity embedded in the policies adopted by state governments, and a Prais-Winsten estimator to fix any autocorrelation in the panel data. The analysis finds that Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and Net-metering are significantly and positively associated with RES-E generating capacity, but neither Public Benefit Funds nor the Mandatory Green Power Option has a statistically significant relation to RES-E generating capacity. Results of the two-stage model are quite different from models which do not employ predicted policy variables. Analysis using non-predicted variables finds that RPS and Net-metering policy are statistically insignificant and negatively associated with RES-E generating capacity. On the other hand, Green Energy Purchasing policy is insignificant in the two-stage model, but significant in the model without predicted values.

  5. Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

  6. 48 CFR 217.175 - Multiyear contracts for electricity from renewable energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electricity from renewable energy sources. 217.175 Section 217.175 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... renewable energy sources. (a) The head of the contracting activity may enter into a contract for a period not to exceed 10 years for the purchase of electricity from sources of renewable energy, as that term...

  7. Electric Vehicles - Promoting Fuel Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Danish Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)......Analysis of electric vehicles as energy carrier for renewable energy and fossil fuels, including comparisons with other energy carriers (hydrogen, bio-fuels)...

  8. Energy droughts in a 100% renewable electricity mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, Damien; Hingray, Benoît; François, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2017-04-01

    During the 21st conference of parties, 175 countries agreed on limiting the temperature increase due to global warming to 2°C above preindustrial levels. Such an ambitious goal necessitates a deep transformation of our society in order to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Europe has started its energy transition years ago by, for instance, increasing the share of renewables in the European electricity generation and should continue in this direction. Variable renewable energies (VRE) and especially those driven by weather conditions (namely wind, solar and hydro power from river flow), are expected to play a key role in achieving the GHG reduction target. However, these renewables are often criticized for their intermittency and for the resulting difficult integration in the power supply system, especially for large shares of VRE in the energy mix. Assessing the feasibility of electricity generation using large contributions of VRE requires a deep understanding and characterization of the VRE spatiotemporal variations. In the last decade, many studies have focused on the short-term intermittency of VRE generation, but the persistency and the characteristics of periods of low/high electricity generation have been rarely studied. Yet, these particular situations require some demanding adaptations of the power supply system in term of back-up sources or production curtailment respectively. This study focuses on what we call "energy droughts" which, by analogy with hydrological or meteorological droughts, are defined as periods of very low energy production. We consider in turn "energy droughts" associated to wind, solar and hydro power (run-of-the-river). Their characteristics are estimated for 12 European regions being subjected to different climatic regimes. For each region and energy source, "droughts" are evaluated from a 30-yr time series of power generation (1983-2012). These series are simulated by using a suite of weather-to-energy conversion models with

  9. Renewable electricity generation: supporting documentation for the Renewables Advisory Board submission to the 2006 UK energy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Renewables Advisory Board (RAB) is an independent, non-departmental public body, sponsored by the DTI, which brings together representatives of the renewable sector and the unions. Electricity generation from renewable energy sources offers a range of advantages to the UK electricity-generating sector. This document, prepared as supporting documentation for the RAB submission to the 2006 Energy Review, examines the role of renewable energy in improving security of supply, lowering financial risk for energy portfolios, and reducing electricity cost volatility and fuel costs for the UK. Key topics addressed in this report include: resource security; security of supply; price security; and operational security. Also covered are variability patterns, financial costs and benefits of renewable generation. Maintaining the option and flexibility of future renewables development has a real option value, with overseas evidence showing that this can be significant

  10. Use of derivative instruments to integrate renewable energies into the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Kilian; Nelles, Michael; Candra, Dodiek Ika

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of renewable energies to the electricity market is inefficient and expensive with current measures. Further these measures are prejudicial for the existing energy-only-market. The combination of fluctuating and controllable renewable powers in virtual power plants enables the marketing of this power as a derivate on the future market. Thus would relieve the spot market and stabilize pricing on both markets. Subsequently the renewable energy obligation will reduce and renewable energies could be marketed as secured power.

  11. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedinec, A.; Jovanovski, B.; Gajduk, A.; Markovska, N.; Kocarev, L.

    2016-05-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  12. Can renewable energy be financed with higher electricity prices? evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Barreiro Hurlé, Jesús; Gracia Royo, Azucena; Pérez y Pérez, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess willingness to pay for renewable energy electricity. We used a choice experiment to elicit willingness-to-pay for different electricity service attributes: renewable sources (wind, solar and biomass) and the regional origin of the electricity with data from a survey conducted in Spain in 2010. Findings indicate that a majority of consumers are not willing to pay a premium for increases in the renewable component of their electricity mix. Moreover, they would...

  13. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  14. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  15. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  16. Electric vehicle charging to support renewable energy integration in a capacity constrained electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearre, Nathaniel S.; Swan, Lukas G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Examination of EV charging in a wind rich area with transmission constraints. • Multiple survey instruments to determine transportation needs, when charging occurs. • Simple charging, time-of-day scheduled, and ideal smart charging investigated. • Export power peaks reduced by 2% with TOD, 10% with smart charging 10% of fleet. • Smart charging EVs enables enough added wind capacity to power the fleet. - Abstract: Digby, Nova Scotia, is a largely rural area with a wealth of renewable energy resources, principally wind and tidal. Digby’s electrical load is serviced by an aging 69 kV transmission line that often operates at the export capacity limit because of a local wind energy converter (WEC) field. This study examines the potential of smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) to achieve two objectives: (1) add load so as to increase export capacity; (2) charge EVs using renewable energy. Multiple survey instruments were used to determine transportation energy needs and travel timing. These were used to create EV charging load timeseries based on “convenience”, “time-of-day”, and idealized “smart” charging. These charging scenarios were evaluated in combination with high resolution data of generation at the wind field, electrical flow through the transmission system, and electricity load. With a 10% adoption rate of EVs, time-of-day charging increased local renewable energy usage by 20% and enables marginal WEC upgrading. Smart charging increases charging by local renewable energy by 73%. More significantly, it adds 3 MW of load when power exports face constraints, allowing enough additional renewable electricity generation capacity to fully power those vehicles.

  17. Guide to purchasing green power. Renewable electricity, renewable energy certificates and on-site renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-09-30

    The Guide to Purchasing Green Power is intended for organizations that are considering the merits of buying green power as well as those that have decided to buy it and want help doing so. The Guide was written for a broad audience, including businesses, government agencies, universities, and all organizations wanting to diversify their energy supply and to reduce the environmental impact of their electricity use.The Guide provides an overview of green power markets and describes the necessary steps to buying green power. This section summarizes the Guide to help readers find the information they need.

  18. The impact of renewable energies on EEX day-ahead electricity prices

    OpenAIRE

    Schürle, Michael; Paraschiv, Florentina

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the impact of renewable energies, wind and photovoltaic, on the formation of day-ahead electricity prices at EEX. We give an overview of the policy decisions concerning the promotion of renewable energy sources in Germany, and discuss their consequences on day-ahead prices. An analysis of electricity spot prices reveals that the introduction of renewable energies enhances extreme price changes. In the frame of a dynamic fundamental model, we show that there has been a continuous el...

  19. Seminar on support mechanisms to renewable energy sources and on electricity markets evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Pierre-Marie; Leinekugel Le Cocq, Thibaut; Najdawi, Celine; Rathmann, Max; Soekadar, Ann-Christin

    2013-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a Seminar on support mechanisms to renewable energy sources and on electricity markets evolution. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 150 participants exchanged views on support instruments to renewable energy sources in a context of decentralized power generation and evolving market design. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Overview of Support mechanisms to renewable energy sources and electricity market evolution in France (Pierre-Marie Abadie); 2 - Support mechanisms in Germany and in France. Similarities and Synergy potentials (Celine Najdawi); 3 - Keynote 'introduction to the French capacity market' (Thibaut Leinekugel Le Cocq); 4 - Power market design for a high renewables share (Max Rathmann); 5 - German electricity System and Integration of Renewable energies. The Current Discussion on the Necessity of Adapting the electricity Market Design (Ann-Christin Soekadar)

  20. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs), are tradable, non-tangible energy commodities in the United States that represent proof that 1 megawatt-hour (MWh) of electricity was generated from an eligible renewable energy resource.

  1. 2016 barometer of electric renewable energies in France - Observ'ER 7. issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigneur, Vincent Jacques le; Lescot, Diane; Courtel, Julien; Richard, Aude; Talpin, Juliette; Tuille, Frederic; David, Romain; L'escale, Charlotte de; Baratte, Lucie; Guillier, Alice; Pintat, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Illustrated by many maps, graphs and tables, this publication proposes a rather detailed overview of the status and development (production and location, employment, sector turnover, market and tariffs) of the different electricity-producing renewable energies: wind energy, photovoltaic energy, hydraulic energy, solid biomass, biogas, renewable urban wastes, geothermal energy, sea energy, thermodynamic solar energy). It also proposes a regional overview of these different electricity-producing renewable sectors, of the regional climate-air-energy schemes and regional wind schemes. A focus is proposed on each French region

  2. The 2013 barometer of electric renewable energies in France - 4. issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebard, Alain; Civel, Yves-Bruno; Lescot, Diane; Richard, Aude; Houot, Geraldine; Talpin, Juliette; Tuille, Frederic; Augereau, Laurence; David, Romain; Bernard, Cecile; Baratte, Lucie; Guichard, Marie Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Illustrated by many maps, graphs and tables, this publication proposes a rather detailed overview of the status and development (production and location, employment, sector turnover, market and tariffs) of the different electricity-producing renewable energies: wind energy, photovoltaic energy, hydraulic energy, solid biomass, biogas, renewable urban wastes, geothermal energy, sea energy, thermodynamic solar energy). It also proposes a regional overview of these different electricity-producing renewable sectors, of the regional climate-air-energy schemes and regional wind schemes. A focus is proposed on each French region

  3. The role of PV electricity generation in fully renewable energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, H.; Peter, S.

    2004-01-01

    A sustainable energy supply will be based on renewable energies and it must use available resources efficiently. Earlier or later the energy supply will rely completely on renewable sources. A solar energy system that provides a reliable energy supply throughout the year includes the consistent use of local renewable energy sources (e.g. PV) wherever possible. Using Japan as a example it was shown that the vision of a full renewable energy supply, even with high shares of domestic sources is possible. Detailed simulations of such a system show that the PV systems play an important role delivering electricity at peak demand times. (authors)

  4. Impacts of compressed air energy storage plant on an electricity market with a large renewable energy portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, A.; Díaz Lobera, I.

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy generation is expected to continue to increase globally due to renewable energy targets and obligations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Some renewable energy sources are variable power sources, for example wind, wave and solar. Energy storage technologies can manage the issues associated with variable renewable generation and align non-dispatchable renewable energy generation with load demands. Energy storage technologies can play different roles in each of the step of the electric power supply chain. Moreover, large scale energy storage systems can act as renewable energy integrators by smoothing the variability. Compressed air energy storage is one such technology. This paper examines the impacts of a compressed air energy storage facility in a pool based wholesale electricity market in a power system with a large renewable energy portfolio

  5. Mapping of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, V.

    2013-01-01

    Germany is the champion of green energy in Europe: the contribution of renewable energies to electricity generation reached about 20% in 2011. This article describes the situation of renewable energies in Germany in 2011 with the help of 2 maps, the first one gives the installed electrical generation capacity for each region and for each renewable energy source (wind power, hydro-electricity, biomass, photovoltaic energy and biogas) and the second one details the total number of jobs (direct and indirect) for each renewable energy source and for each region. In 2011 about 372000 people worked in the renewable energy sector in Germany. (A.C.)

  6. The impact of renewable energies on EEX day-ahead electricity prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschiv, Florentina; Erni, David; Pietsch, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the impact of renewable energies, wind and photovoltaic, on the formation of day-ahead electricity prices at EEX. We give an overview of the policy decisions concerning the promotion of renewable energy sources in Germany and discuss their consequences on day-ahead prices. An analysis of electricity spot prices reveals that the introduction of renewable energies enhances extreme price changes. In the frame of a dynamic fundamental model, we show that there has been a continuous electricity price adaption process to market fundamentals. Furthermore, the fundamental drivers of prices differ among hours with different load profiles. Our results imply that renewable energies decrease market spot prices and have implications on the traditional fuel mix for electricity production. However, the prices for the final consumers increased overall because they must pay in addition the feed-in tariffs for the promotion of renewable energy. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of renewable energies on the day-ahead electricity prices at EEX. • We discuss the impact of renewables on day-ahead prices. • We show a continuous electricity price adaption process to market fundamentals. • Renewable energies decrease market spot prices and shift the merit order curve. • The prices for the final consumers however increased because of feed-in tariffs

  7. Modeling and analysis of renewable energy obligations and technology bandings in the UK electricity market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurkan, G.; Langestraat, R.

    In the UK electricity market, generators are obliged to produce part of their electricity with renewable energy resources in accordance with the Renewable Obligation Order. Since 2009 technology banding has been added, meaning that different technologies are rewarded with a different number of

  8. Renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Cheon Seok

    2009-09-01

    This book tells of renewable energy giving description of environment problem, market of renewable energy and vision and economics of renewable energy. It also deals with solar light like solar cell, materials performance, system and merit of solar cell, solar thermal power such as solar cooker and solar collector, wind energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy like tidal power and ocean thermal energy conversion, fuel cell and biomass.

  9. The Investment environment for renewable energy development in Lithuania: the electricity sector

    OpenAIRE

    Milčiuvienė, Saulė; Paškevičius, Julius

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the investment environment in renewable electricity generation capacities, evaluating the credibility of long term renewable energy targets, the stability of promotion schemes and the impartiality of national administrative procedure. The article explores two main questions: (i) are the EU and Lithuanian energy policy targets and promotion schemes credible enough to convince private investors to put their money in renewable energy development; (ii) does national administr...

  10. The investment environment for renewable energy development in Lithuania: the electricity sector

    OpenAIRE

    Milčiuvienė, Saulė; Paškevičius, Julius

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes the investment environment in renewable electricity generation capacities, evaluating the credibility of long term renewable energy targets, the stability of promotion schemes and the impartiality of national administrative procedure. The article explores two main questions: (i) are the EU and Lithuanian energy policy targets and promotion schemes credible enough to convince private investors to put their money in renewable energy development; (ii) does national administr...

  11. Impact of Variable Renewable Energy in the Iberian Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño, Edgar; Pereira, Adelino J. C.; Machado Ferreira, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Market and system operators face new challenges as more renewable energy sources are added. The driving factors in this trend are mainly associated with environmental benefits of the renewable generation and climate change mitigation, as well as the reduction of the dependency of conventional...... and external energy source. If integrated in large scale, the nondispatchable nature of intermittent resources imposes some technical and economic challenges on the operation of power systems. Particularly, market dynamics and prices could be influenced by such integrations. Over the last years, the generation...... mix of Spain and Portugal has undergone a dramatic change, driven by new environmental policies and financial incentives. In this regard, wind has become one of the most popular alternative sources of energy, bringing new challenges from the operational and structural point of view. This trend has...

  12. Design and Implementation of a Control Strategy for Microgrid Containing Renewable Energy Generations and Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchao Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amount of such renewable energy generations as wind/photovoltaic generations directly connected to grid acting as distributed generations will cause control, protection, security, and safety problems. Microgrid, which has advantages in usage and control of distributed generations, is a promising approach to coordinate the conflict between distributed generations and the grid. Regarded as mobile power storages, batteries of electric vehicles can depress the fluctuation of power through the point of common coupling of microgrid. This paper presents a control strategy for microgrid containing renewable energy generations and electric vehicles. The control strategy uses current control for renewable energy generations under parallel-to-grid mode, and uses master-slave control under islanding mode. Simulations and laboratory experiments prove that the control strategy works well for microgrid containing renewable energy generations and electric vehicles and provides maximum power output of renewable energy and a stable and sustainable running under islanding mode.

  13. Competitiveness of renewable energies in the electricity supply system; Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit erneuerbarer Energien in der Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, Hans-Dieter [ifo Institut, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    The introduction of competitive structures to Germany's grid-bound energy supply resulted in tangible gains in efficiency. Then came the energy turnaround with massive subsidisation of renewable energies, hampering competition, especially in the area of electricity production, and creating renewed instances of inefficiency. However, even under the altered conditions now prevailing after the energy turnaround decision, with increasing shares of renewable energy, every effort should be made to organise the sector in a way conducive to competition so that economically efficient electricity production processes can emerge.

  14. Achieving a 100% Renewable Grid: Operating Electric Power Systems with Extremely High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin; Johnson, Brian; Zhang, Yingchen; Gevorgian, Vahan; Denholm, Paul; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Hannegan, Bryan

    2017-03-01

    What does it mean to achieve a 100% renewable grid? Several countries already meet or come close to achieving this goal. Iceland, for example, supplies 100% of its electricity needs with either geothermal or hydropower. Other countries that have electric grids with high fractions of renewables based on hydropower include Norway (97%), Costa Rica (93%), Brazil (76%), and Canada (62%). Hydropower plants have been used for decades to create a relatively inexpensive, renewable form of energy, but these systems are limited by natural rainfall and geographic topology. Around the world, most good sites for large hydropower resources have already been developed. So how do other areas achieve 100% renewable grids? Variable renewable energy (VRE), such as wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, will be a major contributor, and with the reduction in costs for these technologies during the last five years, large-scale deployments are happening around the world.

  15. Renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte Egelund

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy projects are increasingly confronted by local opposition, which delays and sometimes even prevents their implementation. This reflects the frequent gap between support for the general idea of renewables as a strategy for reducing carbon emissions, and acceptance of renewable energy...

  16. On the physics of power, energy and economics of renewable electric energy sources - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoglund, Annika; Leijon, Mats; Waters, Rafael; Rehn, Alf; Lindahl, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) are often recognized as less competitive than traditional electric energy conversion systems. Obstacles with renewable electric energy conversion systems are often referred to the intermittency of the energy sources and the relatively high maintenance cost. However, due to an intensified discourse on climate change and its effects, it has from a societal point of view, become more desirable to adopt and install CO 2 neutral power plants. Even if this has increased the competitiveness of RETs in a political sense, the new goals for RET installations must also be met with economical viability. We propose that the direction of technical development, as well as the chosen technology in new installations, should not primarily be determined by policies, but by the basic physical properties of the energy source and the associated potential for inexpensive energy production. This potential is the basic entity that drives the payback of the investment of a specific RET power plant. With regard to this, we argue that the total electric energy conversion system must be considered if effective power production is to be achieved, with focus on the possible number of full loading hours and the Degree of Utilization. This will increase the cost efficiency and economical competitiveness of RET investments, and could enhance faster diffusion of new innovations and installations without over-optimistic subsidies. This paper elaborates on the overall problem of the economy of renewable electric energy conversion systems by studying the interface between physics, engineering and economy reported for RET power plants in different scientific publications. The core objective is to show the practical use of the Degree of Utilization and how the concept is crucial for the design and economical optimization disregarding subsidies. The results clearly indicate that the future political regulative frameworks should consider the choice of renewable energy

  17. Contribution of green labels in electricity retail markets to fostering renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, Machiel; Zomer, Sigourney P.E.

    2016-01-01

    In European countries, retailers are obliged to disclose the energy source and the related environmental impacts of their portfolio over the preceding year. The electricity supplied in the Dutch retail market is presented as renewable energy for 34%, but this relatively high share is for 69% based on certificates (Guarantees of Origin) which are imported from in particular Norway. The certificates are used to sell green electricity to consumers. The premium for green electricity which is actually paid by Dutch consumers is no more than a few percentages of the retail price. The low level of this premium is related to the abundant supply of certificates at low marginal costs from Norway. This also means that the premium for green electricity is too low to give an incentive for investments in new capacity. Hence, the current labelling system for renewable electricity is mainly valuable, besides being an instrument for tracking and tracing of renewable energy, as a marketing instrument for electricity retailers. The effectiveness of Guarantees of Origin as a policy instrument to foster renewable electricity sources is weak. This effectiveness can be raised by implementing restrictions on the international trade or the issuance of new certificates. - Highlights: • In Europe, electricity retailers are obliged to disclose the energy source. • In the Netherlands, most renewable energy is based on imported certificates. • The certificates system does not result in more renewable energy. • Restrictions on international trade may improve the effectiveness.

  18. Information Support of Optimal Control of Modes of Electric Systems with Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Gryniewicz-Jaworska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To provide necessary quality of electric energy and reliable supply and reduce environmental contamination as a result of energy units operation, renewable sources of energy (RSE, in particular solar electric stations (SES, wind electric stations (WES and small hydropower stations (SHES are intensively developed. The paper considers the conditions of optimality of renewable sources of energy (RSE functioning in electric systems, controllability of which is limited by the impact of non-stable weather conditions. The influence of control system information support on the efficiency of RSE usage is shown.

  19. Renewable and nuclear energy contribution to the electric systems of developed and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    1994-01-01

    Economically, the nuclear energy is favourable. The investments to realize in the energy field are substantial. The environmental quality implements the renewable energies which must be more efficient. Energy control frames the largest managing margin for the future energy and for the relations between energy and environment. Few countries can control their nuclear surety. Nowadays, in the developing countries, electrical energy needs are very weak, so the interconnection to the network is not necessary and the access price to electricity is very high

  20. Integrating High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy into Electric Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    As more variable renewable energy is integrated into electric power systems, there are a range of challenges and solutions to accommodating very high penetration levels. This presentation highlights some of the recent research in this area.

  1. Renewable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Frank, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Committee of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has in a series of projects gathered information and knowledge on renewable energy from various sources, both within and outside the academic world. In this article, we synthesize and summarize some of the main points on renewable energy from the various Energy Committee projects and the Committee's Energy 2050 symposium, regarding energy from water and wind, bioenergy, and solar energy. We further summarize the Energy Committee's scenario estimates of future renewable energy contributions to the global energy system, and other presentations given at the Energy 2050 symposium. In general, international coordination and investment in energy research and development is crucial to enable future reliance on renewable energy sources with minimal fossil fuel use.

  2. Modeling the power of renewable energy sources in the context of classical electricity system transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Kasperowicz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many regions, not only in the Europe, introduce plans for the modernization of energy systems so that in a few or several years most of the demand for electricity was being able to cover using renewable energy sources. The aim of this paper is to present the possibility of estimation of appropriate power supply based on the renewable energy sources in the context of the whole energy system in the annual balance, taking into account the technical and the economic optimization strategies. The article presents also the simplified structure of the 100% renewable energy system supported by energy storage systems and the production of synthetic fuels.

  3. Can renewable energy be financed with higher electricity prices? Evidence from a Spanish region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracia, Azucena; Barreiro-Hurlé, Jesús; Pérez y Pérez, Luis

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the willingness to pay for mix of renewable sources of electric power by means of a discrete choice experiment survey conducted in Spain in 2010. Two main categories of power supply attributes are explored: source of renewable power (wind, solar and biomass) and the origin of such power. The findings suggest that most consumers are not willing to pay a premium for increases in the shares of renewable in their electricity mix. For two of the three renewable sources considered (wind and biomass) an increase of the renewable mix would require a discount. Instead, we record positive willing to pay for increases in the share of both solar power and locally generated power. However, preferences for types of renewable (solar and wind) are found to be heterogeneous. By classifying respondents in two groups according to the implied importance of the share of renewable sources in their power mix we identify a market segment consisting of 20% of respondents that could promote renewable energy in the absence of subsidies. This is because such a segment shows willingness to pay higher than the current feed-in tariffs. - Highlights: ► We evaluate the WTP for different renewable electricity sources in a Aragon. ► Average positive WTP is found for only some renewable sources. ► Specific market segments are willing to pay for specific renewable sources. ► Geographical origin is more important than renewable source.

  4. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  5. Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Wai Shin; Haslenda Hashim

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT) for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE) to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear ...

  6. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  7. Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    Bent Sorensen’s Renewable Energy: Physics, Engineering, Environmental Impacts, Economics and Planning, Fifth Edition, continues the tradition by providing a thorough and current overview of the entire renewable energy sphere. Since its first edition, this standard reference source helped put...... renewable energy on the map of scientific agendas. Several renewable energy solutions no longer form just a marginal addition to energy supply, but have become major players, with the promise to become the backbone of an energy system suitable for life in the sustainability lane. This volume is a problem...... structured around three parts in order to assist readers in focusing on the issues that impact them the most for a given project or question. PART I covers the basic scientific principles behind all major renewable energy resources, such as solar, wind, and biomass. PART II provides in-depth information...

  8. Impact of Variable Renewable Energy on European Cross-Border Electricity Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; De Vries, L.J.; Fulli, G.

    2012-01-01

    The estimated growth of Europe’s electricity demand and the policy goals of mitigating climate change result in an expected increase in variable renewable energy. A high penetration of wind and solar energy will bring several new challenges to the European electricity transmission network. The

  9. Renewable energies - China, first producer of 'green' electricity by 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    While being the biggest polluter and coal consumer in the world, China possess seven Chinese companies among the ten first solar array manufacturers, and some leaders in the wind energy and offshore wind energy sector. This article outlines the development of 'green' electricity production in China. This sector will exhibit a much greater growth rate than that foreseen in other countries during the next years: five times that in the USA, seven times that in India, eight times that in Germany, and eighteen times that in France. This progression relies on hydroelectricity and wind energy for 90 per cent. The article also comments the development of wind energy capacity in China at a higher rate than in Western countries

  10. Large-scale integration of renewable energy into international electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    has lead to excess electricity production and thus low prices on the Nord Pool electricity market. This paper describes how such problems can be avoided by the introduction of flexible energy systems including changes in the regulation of power plants and investments in heat pumps and heat storage......The paper presents the ability of different energy systems and regulation strategies to integrate renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply system. The fluctuating electricity production from renewable energy must interact with the rest of the production units in order to make...... it possible for the system to secure a balance between supply and demand. At the same time most European electricity systems are in the process of being transformed into competitive electricity markets. Already today, the annual share of wind power in the western part of Denmark is nearly 20 percent, which...

  11. A 100% renewable electricity mix? Analyses and optimisations. Testing the boundaries of renewable energy-based electricity development in metropolitan France by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubilly, Anne-Laure; Fournie, Laurent; Chiche, Alice; Faure, Nathalie; Bardet, Regis; Alais, Jean-Christophe; Girard, Robin; Bossavy, Arthur; Le Gars, Loic; Biau, Jean-Baptiste; Piqueras, Ugo; Peyrusse, Colombe

    2015-10-01

    In 2013, ADEME published its energy and climate scenarios for the period 2030 to 2050, suggesting possible avenues to achieve a four-fold reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions by 2050 by cutting energy consumption by half and deploying renewable energy sources for electricity generation on a substantial scale. Both of these objectives were the basis for targets set by the President of France and subsequently adopted by Parliament in the Energy Transition Law to promote green growth. With this new study, ADEME submits an exploratory scientific prospective study. Questions of balance between production and demand and cost efficiency of renewable-based electricity mixes are investigated through an advanced optimisation. The electricity mixes are theoretical: they are created from scratch and do not take into account the current situation or the path needed to achieve a 100% renewable-based electricity system. It aims at highlighting the technical measures to be implemented (strengthening grids, load shedding and storage) to support a policy of growth in renewable electricity technologies. It is also be used to identify the key factors for developing renewable technologies at lower cost such as lower costs of technologies, demand-side management, development of flexibility, support of R and D of least-mature technologies and the social acceptance of renewable electricity installations. (authors)

  12. 2014 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2014 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  13. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp; Tian, Tian

    2016-11-01

    The 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  14. 2015 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Renewable Energy Data Book for 2015 provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  15. 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-12-29

    The 2016 Renewable Energy Data Book provides facts and figures on energy and electricity use, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, marine and hydrokinetic power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  16. Swiss pumped hydro storage potential for Germany's electricity system under high penetration of intermittent renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerwijk, Aagje J. H.; Benders, Reinerus; Davila-Martinez, Alejandro; Laugs, Gideon A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to cut greenhouse-gas emissions and increase energy security, the European Commission stimulates the deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources (IRES) towards 2050. In an electricity system with high shares of IRES implemented in the network, energy balancing like storage is needed

  17. Hybrid Geo-Energy Systems for Energy Storage and Dispatchable Renewable and Low-Carbon Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, Thomas; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Ogland-Hand, Jonathan; Hao, Yue; Sun, Yunwei; Randolph, Jimmy; Saar, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Three primary challenges for energy systems are to (1) reduce the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) being emitted to the atmosphere, (2) increase the penetration of renewable energy technologies, and (3) reduce the water intensity of energy production. Integrating variable renewable energy sources (wind, sunlight) into electric grids requires advances in energy storage approaches, which are currently expensive, and tend to have limited capacity and/or geographic deployment potential. Our approach uses CO2, that would otherwise be emitted to the atmosphere, to generate electricity from geothermal resources, to store excess energy from variable (wind, solar photovoltaic) and thermal (nuclear, fossil, concentrated solar power) sources, and to thus enable increased penetration of renewable energy technologies. We take advantage of the enormous fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface to harvest, store, and dispatch energy. Our approach uses permeable geologic formations that are vertically bounded by impermeable layers to constrain pressure and the migration of buoyant CO2 and heated brine. Supercritical CO2 captured from fossil power plants is injected into these formations as a cushion gas to store pressure (bulk energy), provide an heat efficient extraction fluid for efficient power conversion in Brayton Cycle turbines, and generate artesian flow of brine -- which can be used to cool power plants and/or pre-heated (thermal storage) prior to re-injection. Concentric rings of injection and production wells create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO2, and thermal energy. The system is pressurized and/or heated when power supply exceeds demand and depressurized when demand exceeds supply. Time-shifting the parasitic loads from pressurizing and injecting brine and CO2 provides bulk energy storage over days to months, whereas time-shifting thermal-energy supply provides dispatchable power and addresses seasonal mismatches between supply and demand. These

  18. The electricity prices in the European Union. The role of renewable energies and regulatory electric market reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Blanca; López, Ana J.; García-Álvarez, María Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The European Union electricity market has been gradually liberalized since 1990s. Theoretically, competitive markets should lead to efficiency gains in the economy thus reducing electricity prices. However, there is a controversial debate about the real effects of the electricity liberalization on electricity prices. Moreover, the increased generation of electricity from renewable energies RES-E (Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources) is also integrated in wholesale market reducing wholesale prices, but the final effect over household prices is not clear. In order to contribute to this debate, this paper provides an empirical investigation into the electricity prices determinants. In fact we develop econometric panel models to explore the relationship between the household electricity prices and variables related to the renewable energy sources and the competition in generation electricity market. More specifically we use a panel data set provided by Eurostat and covering 27 European Union countries during the period 1998–2009. Our results suggest that electricity prices increase with the deployment of RES-E and with the expansion of greenhouse gas emissions produced by energy industries- as a European Union CO 2 emission trading scheme exists. Results also reveal that country's characteristics can affect household electricity prices. -- Highlights: ► Electricity liberalized markets should lead to reduce electricity prices. ► The use of renewable energies (RES) reduce wholesale electricity prices. ► However, household electricity prices are increasing in European Union. ► Panel data models are developed to investigate the effect of RES and electricity competition on household electricity prices. ► We find that the deployment of RES increases prices paid by consumers in a liberalized market.

  19. The impact of renewable energy on electricity prices in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Machiel; Scholtens, Bert

    Electricity markets may become more sensitive to weather conditions because of a higher penetration of renewable energy sources and climatic changes. We investigate whether weather conditions had a growing influence on the average daily day-ahead price in the Dutch electricity market in the period

  20. 75 FR 43519 - Parker-Davis Project; Transmission Capacity for Renewable Energy Between Electrical District No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... for Renewable Energy Between Electrical District No. 5 Substation and the Palo Verde Hub AGENCY... approximately 1,700 miles of high-voltage transmission lines and the associated substations and switchyards. The... Western's substations in the vicinity of Electrical District No. 5 (ED-5) Substation near Eloy, Arizona...

  1. AN AGENT-BASED SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF MARKET INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR THE GERMAN ELECTRICITY MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Reeg, Matthias; Nienhaus, Kristina; Deissenroth, Marc; Wassermann, Sandra; Hauser, Wolfgang; Klann, Uwe; Kast, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    To further ensure a successful integration of renewable energies, technical, financial and organizational aspects of the electricity system have to be redesigned. A main challenge lies in the alignment of generation and demand of energy due to the fluctuating character of renewables. Several possibilities are being discussed to align this imbalance. One possibility is the market integration of renewables by linking the generation of renewable electricity to the price signals of the energy exc...

  2. Latin American electricity markets and renewable energy sources: The Argentinean and Chilean cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, C.; Recalde, M.

    2010-01-01

    From the mid eighties on, most of Latin American Countries reformed their energy systems. The impact of these reforms over electricity markets was different in each case. However, in the majority of these cases there was a shift to private participation, instead of State, and a convergence of electricity systems to hydro and thermal technologies. This is the case of Argentina and Chile. In this context, the aim of this paper is to discuss the current situation of renewable energies in Chilean and Argentinean electric markets and the potential to increase their share in total energy supply. To this purpose, we firstly study electricity deregulation process and its current situation. Secondly, we analyze renewable energy share in these electricity systems comparatively to worldwide situation. Finally, we briefly present the policy instruments used in each country. (author)

  3. Three Essays on Renewable Energy Policy and its Effects on Fossil Fuel Generation in Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Eric

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effectiveness of renewable policies and consider their impact on electricity markets. The common thread of this research is to understand how renewable policy incentivizes renewable generation and how the increasing share of generation from renewables affects generation from fossil fuels. This type of research is crucial for understanding whether policies to promote renewables are meeting their stated goals and what the unintended effects might be. To this end, I use econometric methods to examine how electricity markets are responding to an influx of renewable energy. My dissertation is composed of three interrelated essays. In Chapter 1, I employ recent scholarship in spatial econometrics to assess the spatial dependence of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), a prominent state-based renewable incentive. In Chapter 2, I explore the impact of the rapid rise in renewable generation on short-run generation from fossil fuels. And in Chapter 3, I assess the impact of renewable penetration on coal plant retirement decisions.

  4. Essays on the efficient integration of renewable energies into electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermueller, Frank

    2018-01-01

    The dissertation ''Essay on the Efficient Integration of Renewable Energies into Electricity Markets'' consists of five research articles which shed light on the efficient integration of renewable energies into electricity markets. A major share of renewable energies has characteristics which differ from classical conventional generation technologies. The uncertain weather-dependent characteristics in combination with almost-zero marginal generation costs raise new challenges to some parts of the electricity system. On the other side, the promotion of renewable energies seems promising to achieve the Energy Transition targets and reduce Germany's CO 2 -emissions. This becomes relevant in the light of the 2015 UN Climate Change Conference which negotiated the Paris Agreement to tackle climate change, e.g. by the restriction of global warming to a maximum of 2 C, and translate to CO 2 -reduction efforts, especially for the carbon-dioxide intense electricity sectors. The five research papers focusing on different aspects and potential inefficiencies of the renewable energy market integration. The focus can roughly be separated into temporal and regional efficiency examinations. The temporal efficiency is subject to paper 1, paper 2 and paper 3. The regional efficiency is subject to paper 5 which is based on the preliminary findings and the generated dataset in paper 4.

  5. Backup of renewable energy for an electrical island: case study of Israeli electricity system--current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, A; Kuperman, A

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of Israeli Government's targets of 10% renewable energy penetration by 2020 and determining the desired methodology (models) for assessing the effects on the electricity market, addressing the fact that Israel is an electricity island. The main objective is to determine the influence of achieving the Government's goals for renewable energy penetration on the need for backup in the Israeli electricity system. This work presents the current situation of the Israeli electricity market and the study to be taken in order to assess the undesirable effects resulting from the intermittency of electricity generated by wind and solar power stations as well as presents some solutions to mitigating these phenomena. Future work will focus on a quantitative analysis of model runs and determine the amounts of backup required relative to the amount of installed capacity from renewable resources.

  6. Backup of Renewable Energy for an Electrical Island: Case Study of Israeli Electricity System—Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, A.; Kuperman, A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of Israeli Government's targets of 10% renewable energy penetration by 2020 and determining the desired methodology (models) for assessing the effects on the electricity market, addressing the fact that Israel is an electricity island. The main objective is to determine the influence of achieving the Government's goals for renewable energy penetration on the need for backup in the Israeli electricity system. This work presents the current situation of the Israeli electricity market and the study to be taken in order to assess the undesirable effects resulting from the intermittency of electricity generated by wind and solar power stations as well as presents some solutions to mitigating these phenomena. Future work will focus on a quantitative analysis of model runs and determine the amounts of backup required relative to the amount of installed capacity from renewable resources. PMID:24624044

  7. Renewable energy burden sharing. REBUS. Effects of burden sharing and certificate trade on the renewable electricity market in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voogt, M.H.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; De Noord, M.; Skytte, K.; Nielsen, L.H.; Leonardi, M.; Whiteley, M.H.; Chapman, M.

    2001-05-01

    Creation of an internal market for renewable electricity will involve a political negotiation process, similar to previous European Union (EU) greenhouse gas negotiations. The Energy Ministers in the EU have agreed upon an overall target of 22% of electricity supply from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E) and a distribution of targets over the individual Member States. The REBUS project provides insights in the effects of implementing targets for renewable electricity generation at EU Member State level and the impact of introducing burden sharing systems within the EU, such as a Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system. Member States can participate in such burden sharing systems to reduce the costs of achieving RES-E targets. The project concentrated on the development of the REBUS model, which quantifies the impact of trade (in green certificates, quotas or targets), the specification of cost potential curves for renewable electricity options in each of the 15 EU Member States and the implementation of different rules to setting targets at individual Member State level. In addition, utilities and consumer organisations were interviewed on their requirements and expectations for an international burden sharing scheme. 49 refs

  8. Financial incentives to promote renewable energy systems in European electricity markets: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Huber, C.; Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    Renewable energy systems may contribute to sustainable development. Therefore, one of the challenges for energy policy is to ensure that renewable energy options have a fair opportunity to compete with other supply resources. This paper presents a survey on promotion mechanisms to enhance the market penetration of renewable energies in European electricity markets. Strategies include rebates and tax incentives, regulated rates, system benefit charges, bidding-oriented mechanisms and various types of green pricing programs. The paper concludes that efficient promotion mechanisms should focus on incentives per kWh generated rather than on rebates on the investment in generating capacity (kW), and that there is no one single program type which has the best application to the promotion of all renewable technologies. For example, enhanced buy-back rates work as a dissemination strategy for wind energy but they do not work for photovoltaics. (author)

  9. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  10. The Investment Environment for Renewable Energy Development in Lithuania: The Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milčiuvienė Saulė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the investment environment in renewable electricity generation capacities, evaluating the credibility of long term renewable energy targets, the stability of promotion schemes and the impartiality of national administrative procedure. The article explores two main questions: (i are the EU and Lithuanian energy policy targets and promotion schemes credible enough to convince private investors to put their money in renewable energy development; (ii does national administrative procedure put a disproportional burden on renewable energy investors or on certain group of investors? The assessment of the investment environment includes a large number of criteria, but we analyze three of them: the stability of long term strategy; the attractiveness of promotionmeasures; and the simplicity and transparency of administrative procedure. Two further criteria are investigated: the stability of targets in renewable energy and the stability of promotional measures. The greatest uncertainty for investors occurs because of constantly changing support schemes of renewable energy sources-schemes that are not harmonized among the member States. At the national level the main driver in the development of small generators is the feed-in tariff. However, the high feed-in tariff does not always guarantee the smooth development of small scale generators of renewable energy.

  11. 2008 Renewable Energy Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2008 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  12. Promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources - Strategic objective of the Romania energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, Alexandru; Stanciulescu, Georgeta; Jisa, Mihaela; Stanciu, Nadina

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents different types of support schemes for promoting electricity produced from renewable energy sources in some countries from European Union and details concerning the primary and secondary legislation developed in Romania in the field of promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources, making a rehearse of the acts issued. Romania has a clear regulatory framework in the field of promoting E-RES, the green certificates market becoming operational from November 2005, when the first green certificates transaction session organised by SC OPCOM SA took place. With hydro energy being exception from the rule, the Romanian RES potential is almost unused, existing the possibility for promotion some efficient investments in units which produce E-RES, turning to good account to the best emplacements. Although the achievements in using RES are still modest, taking into consideration the attention of numerous investors and the way that the support scheme worked until now, with advantages for the existing E-RES producers, it is expected an acceleration of the rhythm of appearance of new investments. In order to actuate the investors attention, a stronger involvement of the local authorities is necessary, for identifying and promoting the most efficient RES using projects

  13. Challenges and prospects of electricity production from renewable energy sources in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mansour, Fouad; Sucic, Boris; Pusnik, Matevz

    2014-01-01

    Development of the utilisation of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency represents the main policy for sustainable development. The overall target of the European Union Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewables (RES) is to achieve at least a 20% share of energy from renewables in the gross final energy consumption in 2020. The mandatory national target for Slovenia is a 25% share of energy from RES in the gross final consumption. The share of RES in the gross final energy consumption in Slovenia was 18.8% in 2011 and the share of electricity production from RES was 30.8% in the gross electricity consumption. Electricity production from photovoltaics (PV) and biogas plants in agriculture has been growing fast after the adoption of the new supportive decree for electricity from RES in 2009. The very fast growth of PV plants has caused a problem for financing electricity from RES. Similar effects have been also recorded in the biogas sector, which represents a threat to food production. The state of the art, targets and challenges of electricity production from RES in Slovenia are described in the paper. - Highlights: • Slovenia's RES policy, regulatory frameworks and incentives are described. • The most important development challenges of the RES-E sector are discussed. • RES-E policy priorities need to be reassessed in view of recent global trends. • Responsible policy making and implementation follow-up are necessary

  14. Renewable energy and policy options in an integrated ASEAN electricity market: Quantitative assessments and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Li, Yanfei

    2015-01-01

    Energy market integration (EMI) in the ASEAN region is a promising solution to relieve the current immobilization of its renewable energy resources and would serve the fast increasing demand for electricity in the region. EMI could be further extended with coordinated policies in carbon pricing, renewable energy portfolio standards (RPS), and feed-in-tariffs (FIT) in the ASEAN countries. Using a linear dynamic programming model, this study quantitatively assesses the impacts of EMI and the above-mentioned policies on the development of renewable energy in the power generation sector of the region, and the carbon emissions reduction achievable with these policies. According to our results, EMI is expected to significantly promote the adoption of renewable energy. Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS and is recommended for the ASEAN region, albeit political barriers for policy coordination among the countries might be a practical concern. In addition, an RPS of 30% electricity from renewable sources by 2030, which is considered politically a “low-hanging fruit”, would achieve moderate improvements in carbon emissions reductions and renewable energy development, while incurring negligible increases in the total cost of electricity. -- Highlights: •Energy market integration (EMI), carbon pricing, RPS, and FIT are examined for ASEAN. •EMI is a promising and feasible solution to promote renewable energy for ASEAN. •Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS for ASEAN. •RPS of 30% by 2030 appears to be reasonable and feasible for ASEAN. •Coordinating FIT and RPS policies under EMI among ASEAN is advised

  15. Renewable Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkenburg, W.C.; Arent, D.; Bertani, R.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Hand, M.; Krewitt, W.; Larson, E.D.; Lund, J.; Mehos, M.; Merrigan, T.; Mitchell, C.; Moreira, J.R.; Sinke, W.C.; Sonntag-O'Brien, V.; Thresher, B.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Usher, E.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an in-depth examination of major renewable energy technologies, including their installed capacity and energy supply in 2009 , the current state of market and technology development, their economic and financial feasibility in 2009 and in the near future, as well as major

  16. The renewable energy targets of the Maghreb countries: Impact on electricity supply and conventional power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Bernhard; Zingerle, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, the three countries of the North African Maghreb region, are showing increased efforts to integrate renewable electricity into their power markets. Like many other countries, they have pronounced renewable energy targets, defining future shares of 'green' electricity in their national generation mixes. The individual national targets are relatively varied, reflecting the different availability of renewable resources in each country, but also the different political ambitions for renewable electricity in the Maghreb states. Open questions remain regarding the targets' economic impact on the power markets. Our article addresses this issue by applying a linear electricity market optimization model to the North African countries. Assuming a competitive, regional electricity market in the Maghreb, the model minimizes dispatch and investment costs and simulates the impact of the renewable energy targets on the conventional generation system until 2025. Special emphasis is put on investment decisions and overall system costs. - Research Highlights: →Market simulation shows impact of RES-E penetration on the conventional power system of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. →Noticeable effects on dispatch and investments in fossil power plants. →Reduced utilization of base-load plants - stronger investments in flexible capacities. →Overall system costs can be decreased by optimizing the RES-E goals.

  17. System and method for integration of renewable energy and fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a system and method for integrating renewable energy and a fuel cell for the production of electricity and hydrogen, wherein this comprises the use of renewable energy as fluctuating energy source for the production of electricity and also comprises the use of at least one

  18. Assessment of renewable energy technologies for charging electric vehicles in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Aman; Raj, Ratan; Kumar, Mayank; Ghandehariun, Samane; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicle charging by renewable energy can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a data-intensive techno-economic model to estimate the cost of charging an electric vehicle with a battery capacity of 16 kW h for an average travel distance of 65 km from small-scale renewable electricity in various jurisdictions in Canada. Six scenarios were developed that encompass scale of operation, charging time, and type of renewable energy system. The costs of charging an electric vehicle from an off-grid wind energy system at a charging time of 8 h is 56.8–58.5 cents/km in Montreal, Quebec, and 58.5–60.0 cents/km in Ottawa, Ontario. However, on integration with a small-scale hydro, the charging costs are 9.4–11.2 cents/km in Montreal, 9.5–11.1 cents/km in Ottawa and 10.2–12.2 cents/km in Vancouver, British Columbia. The results show that electric vehicle charging from small-scale hydro energy integration is cost competitive compared charging from conventional grid electricity in all the chosen jurisdictions. Furthermore, when the electric vehicle charging time decreases from 8 to 4 h, the cost of charging increases by 83% and 11% from wind and hydro energy systems, respectively. - Highlights: • Techno-economic analysis conducted for EV charging from wind and hydro. • EV charging from hydro energy is cost competitive than from wind energy. • GHG mitigation estimated from operation of EV charged from renewable energy. • Sensitivity of key parameters on cost of charging considered

  19. Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of renewable energies and required subsidies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Xiaoling; Lin, Boqiang

    2014-01-01

    The development and utilization of renewable energy (RE), a strategic choice for energy structural adjustment, is an important measure of carbon emissions reduction in China. High cost is a main restriction element for large-scale development of RE, and accurate cost estimation of renewable power generation is urgently necessary. This is the first systemic study on the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of RE in China. Results indicate that feed-in-tariff (FIT) of RE should be improved and dynamically adjusted based on the LCOE to provide a better support of the development of RE. The current FIT in China can only cover the LCOE of wind (onshore) and solar photovoltaic energy (PV) at a discount rate of 5%. Subsidies to renewables-based electricity generation, except biomass energy, still need to be increased at higher discount rates. Main conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) Government policy should focus on solving the financing problem of RE projects because fixed capital investment exerts considerable influence over the LCOE; and (2) the problem of high cost could be solved by providing subsidies in the short term and more importantly, by reforming electricity price in the mid-and long-term to make the RE competitive. - Highlights: • Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of renewable energies is systemically studied. • Renewable power generation costs are estimated based on data of 17 power plants. • Required subsidies for renewable power generation are calculated. • Electricity price reform is the long-term strategy for solving problem of high cost

  20. Sustainable Energy Transitions in China: Renewable Options and Impacts on the Electricity System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese energy consumption has been dominated by coal for decades, but this needs to change to protect the environment and mitigate anthropogenic climate change. Renewable energy development is needed to fulfil the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC for the post-2020 period, as stated on the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris. This paper reviews the potential of renewable energy in China and how it could be utilised to meet the INDC goals. A business-as-usual case and eight alternative scenarios with 40% renewable electricity are explored using the EnergyPLAN model to visualise out to the year 2030. Five criteria (total cost, total capacity, excess electricity, CO2 emissions, and direct job creation are used to assess the sustainability of the scenarios. The results indicate that renewables can meet the goal of a 20% share of non-fossil energy in primary energy and 40%–50% share of non-fossil energy in electricity power. The low nuclear-hydro power scenario is the most optimal scenario based on the used evaluation criteria. The Chinese government should implement new policies aimed at promoting integrated development of wind power and solar PV.

  1. Renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte Egelund

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy projects are increasingly confronted by local opposition, which delays and sometimes even prevents their implementation. This reflects the frequent gap between support for the general idea of renewables as a strategy for reducing carbon emissions, and acceptance of renewable energy...... installations in the local landscape. A number of countries have introduced financial incentives to promote community acceptance. The tool box of incentives is still limited but in recent years it has been expanded to address local concerns. Certain general characteristics can be identified, suggesting...... that there are at least three distinct categories of incentives: individual compensation, community benefits and ownership measures. Local opposition must be approached with caution, as financial incentives to promote local acceptance can be seen as buying consent or even ‘bribery’, stirring up further opposition....

  2. Successful renewable energy development in a competitive electricity market: A Texas case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnikau, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The development of renewable energy in markets with competition at wholesale and retail levels poses challenges not present in areas served by vertically-integrated utilities. The intermittent nature of some renewable energy resources impact reliability, operations, and market prices, in turn affecting all market participants. Meeting renewable energy goals may require coordination among many market players. These challenges may be successfully overcome by imposing goals, establishing trading mechanisms, and implementing operational changes in competitive markets. This strategy has contributed to Texas' leadership among all US states in non-hydro renewable energy production. While Texas has been largely successful in accommodating over 9000 MW of wind power capacity, this extensive reliance upon wind power has also created numerous problems. Higher levels of operating reserves must now be procured. Market prices often go negative in the proximity of wind farms. Inaccurate wind forecasts have led to reliability problems. Five billion dollars in transmission investment will be necessary to facilitate further wind farm projects. Despite these costs, wind power is generally viewed as a net benefit. - Research Highlights: → Texas rapidly emerged as a leader in renewable energy development. → This state's experiences demonstrate that the right combination of policies to lead to rapid renewable energy development in a region with a very competitive electricity market. → Wind power development has lead to various operational challenges.

  3. Technical problems in relation to an entirely renewable energy-based electricity supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A. [Monash Univ., Caulfield (Australia). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this contribution to the conference is to discuss the technical problems in relation to connection of renewable energy to utility distribution networks and to introduce a technique which has been developed for solving the power fluctuation problem which is a result of this connection. The generation of electricity from wind energy and solar energy has been considered world wide, particularly in the United States and Europe. The integration of wind power and solar power with the utility network create some technical problems. Electric power generated from wind generators for example is a function of wind velocity which varies stochastically. The variation of wind velocity causes the rotor speed, the terminal voltage, the frequency of generator and the output power to vary. This paper describes integrated renewable energy and energy storage system (IREES), which delivers power from intermittent renewable sources to interconnected networks at a constant rate. The IREES system is a totally renewable energy based electricity supply system. It finds many applications, as it can be used as a large scale power supply being connected to national distribution networks as well as small scale power supply for remote areas. 16 refs, 6 figs

  4. Planning Under Uncertainty for Aggregated Electric Vehicle Charging with Renewable Energy Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, E.M.P.; Spaan, M.T.J.; Kaminka, Gal A.; Fox, Maria; Bouquet, Paolo; Hüllermeier, Eyke; Dignum, Virginia; Dignum, Frank; van Harmelen, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy sources introduce uncertainty regarding generated power in smart grids. For instance, power that is generated by wind turbines is time-varying and dependent on the weather. Electric vehicles will become increasingly important in the development of smart grids with a high penetration

  5. The daily hour forecasting of the electrical energy production from renewable energy sources – a required condition for the operation of the new energy market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalpachka, Gergana; Kalpachki, Georgi

    2011-01-01

    The report presented the new energy market model in Bulgaria and the main attention is directed to a daily hour forecasting of the electrical energy production from renewable energy sources. The need of development of a methodology and the development of the most precise methods for predicting is reviewed and some of the used methods at the moment are presented. An analysis of the problems related to the daily hour forecasting is done using data from the producers of electrical energy from renewable energy sources in the territory of western Bulgaria. Keywords: Renewable energy sources, daily hour forecasting, electrical energy

  6. An Intelligent Approach to Strengthening of the Rural Electrical Power Supply Using Renewable Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, F. C.; Sisodia, G. S.; Gopalan, S.

    2017-08-01

    The healthy growth of economy lies in the balance between rural and urban development. Several developing countries have achieved a successful growth of urban areas, yet rural infrastructure has been neglected until recently. The rural electrical grids are weak with heavy losses and low capacity. Renewable energy represents an efficient way to generate electricity locally. However, the renewable energy generation may be limited by the low grid capacity. The current solutions focus on grid reinforcement only. This article presents a model for improving renewable energy integration in rural grids with the intelligent combination of three strategies: 1) grid reinforcement, 2) use of storage and 3) renewable energy curtailments. Such approach provides a solution to integrate a maximum of renewable energy generation on low capacity grids while minimising project cost and increasing the percentage of utilisation of assets. The test cases show that a grid connection agreement and a main inverter sized at 60 kW (resp. 80 kW) can accommodate a 100 kWp solar park (resp. 100 kW wind turbine) with minimal storage.

  7. Renewable Energy Jobs. Status, prospects and policies. Biofuels and grid-connected electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, H.; Ferroukhi, R. [et al.] [IRENA Policy Advisory Services and Capacity Building Directorate, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-01-15

    Over the past years, interest has grown in the potential for the renewable energy industry to create jobs. Governments are seeking win-win solutions to the dual challenge of high unemployment and climate change. By 2010, USD 51 billion had been pledged to renewables in stimulus packages, and by early 2011 there were 119 countries with some kind of policy target and/or support policy for renewable energy, such as feed-in tariffs, quota obligations, favourable tax treatment and public loans or grants, many of which explicitly target job creation as a policy goal. Policy-makers in many countries are now designing renewable energy policies that aim to create new jobs, build industries and benefit particular geographic areas. But how much do we know for certain about the job creation potential for renewable energy? This working paper aims to provide an overview of current knowledge on five questions: (1) How can jobs in renewable energy be characterised?; (2) How are they shared out across the technology value chain and what skill levels are required?; (3) How many jobs currently exist and where are they in the world?; (4) How many renewable energy jobs could there be in the future?; and (5) What policy frameworks can be used to promote employment benefits from renewable energy? This paper focuses on grid-connected electricity generation technologies and biofuels. Since the employment potential of off-grid applications is large, it will be covered by a forthcoming study by IRENA on job creation in the context of energy access, based on a number of case studies.

  8. Climate and Water Vulnerability of the US Electricity Grid Under High Penetrations of Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macknick, J.; Miara, A.; O'Connell, M.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Newmark, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    The US power sector is highly dependent upon water resources for reliable operations, primarily for thermoelectric cooling and hydropower technologies. Changes in the availability and temperature of water resources can limit electricity generation and cause outages at power plants, which substantially affect grid-level operational decisions. While the effects of water variability and climate changes on individual power plants are well documented, prior studies have not identified the significance of these impacts at the regional systems-level at which the grid operates, including whether there are risks for large-scale blackouts, brownouts, or increases in production costs. Adequately assessing electric grid system-level impacts requires detailed power sector modeling tools that can incorporate electric transmission infrastructure, capacity reserves, and other grid characteristics. Here, we present for the first time, a study of how climate and water variability affect operations of the power sector, considering different electricity sector configurations (low vs. high renewable) and environmental regulations. We use a case study of the US Eastern Interconnection, building off the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study (ERGIS) that explored operational challenges of high penetrations of renewable energy on the grid. We evaluate climate-water constraints on individual power plants, using the Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution (TP2M) model coupled with the PLEXOS electricity production cost model, in the context of broader electricity grid operations. Using a five minute time step for future years, we analyze scenarios of 10% to 30% renewable energy penetration along with considerations of river temperature regulations to compare the cost, performance, and reliability tradeoffs of water-dependent thermoelectric generation and variable renewable energy technologies under climate stresses. This work provides novel insights into the resilience and

  9. Green technological change. Renewable energies, policy mix and innovation. Results of the GRETCHEN project on the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Breitschopf, Barbara; Mattes, Katharina; Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes; Kalthaus, Martin; Lutz, Christian; Wiebe, Kirsten

    2015-09-01

    The report on the GRETCHEN project that was concerned with the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany covers the following issues: market and technology development of renewable energy electricity production technologies; the policy mix for renewable electricity production technologies, innovative impact of the policy mix; subordinate conclusions for politics and research.

  10. DC/AC Power Converter for Home Scale Electricity Systems Powered by Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Samman, Faizal Arya; Azhari, Arie

    2017-01-01

    in Proc. of the International Conference on Smart Green Technology in Electrical and Information Systems (ICSGTEIS), 2016, publised in IEEE Explorer (indexed by SCOPUS) This paper presents the design of a single phase DC/AC Converter or Inverter for home scale electricity systems powered by renewable energy such as photovoltaic system. The power converter is controlled using a microcontroller. The inverter system is firstly modeled and simulated using SPICE, before we design it. A control ...

  11. Electricity sector in Mexico. Current status. Contribution of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancino-Solorzano, Yoreley; Villicana-Ortiz, Eunice; Gutierrez-Trashorras, Antonio J.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The challenge facing the world electricity sector is the cost incurred in maintaining the system and seeing to the environmental effects it causes. In Mexico the grid is supplied by thermal plants fed by oil products. Its great potential of renewable energies clearly shown in studies by national and international scholars has led the government to become more committed to take advantage of these energies. The goal is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to generate electricity and to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In this article we analyse the current state of renewable energies, the conditions needed to foster them and the legislative changes already introduced to promote their greater part in the national electricity grid. (author)

  12. Electricity sector in Mexico. Current status. Contribution of renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancino-Solorzano, Yoreley [Departamento de Ing. Electrica-Electronica, Instituto Tecnologico de Veracruz, Calzada Miguel A. de Quevedo 2779, 91860 Veracruz (Mexico); Villicana-Ortiz, Eunice; Gutierrez-Trashorras, Antonio J.; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge [Departamento de Energia, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Independencia, 13, 2a Planta, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The challenge facing the world electricity sector is the cost incurred in maintaining the system and seeing to the environmental effects it causes. In Mexico the grid is supplied by thermal plants fed by oil products. Its great potential of renewable energies clearly shown in studies by national and international scholars has led the government to become more committed to take advantage of these energies. The goal is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels to generate electricity and to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In this article we analyse the current state of renewable energies, the conditions needed to foster them and the legislative changes already introduced to promote their greater part in the national electricity grid. (author)

  13. Electricity generation from renewable energy sources in Italy: the costs of the System Inefficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, L.; Lorenzoni, A.

    2008-01-01

    The promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES) is a high European Union (E U) priority for several reasons, including the security and diversification of energy supply, environmental protection and social and economic cohesion. The Eu Council's decision of 9 March 2007 points towards increasing renewable penetration to 20% of total primary energy supply by 2020 (binding target). There are both costs and benefits associated with the achievement of such an ambitious target. For renewable technologies, the industrial cost is often higher compared to other energy sources. however, due to learning curve effects and market diffusion, technology related costs are coming down considerably. In some cases, when the external costs are taken into account by the price system, renewable can now be close to competitive with fossil fuels. With particular reference to renewable electricity in Italy, its development is often hampered by burdensome and time consuming authorisation procedures with the consequence of a high mortality rate for the investments in the sector, leading to increased costs for the project management. Therefore, in these projects an important cost factor is the high cost of capital due to risk. The analysis of the various renewables' support mechanisms currently in place in the E U shows that some types of incentive have proven to be more efficient than others in reducing the risk perception of investors and financing institutions, therefore making projects less expensive by reducing the cost of capital (both debt and equity). Therefore the focus here is on the electricity generation costs of some renewable technologies and on the costs related to the additional risk perceived by investors/lenders in the sector. The authors estimate the additional cost of capital which investors pay when operating in a risky environment. Some policy indications are finally given to reduce the non-technology related costs for a faster and more efficient growth

  14. Nuclear Energy and Renewables. System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems - Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a 'generator pays' principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly de-carbonised electricity systems. (authors)

  15. Nuclear Energy and Renewables. System Effects in Low-carbon Electricity Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report addresses the increasingly important interactions of variable renewables and dispatchable energy technologies, such as nuclear power, in terms of their effects on electricity systems. These effects add costs to the production of electricity, which are not usually transparent. The report recommends that decision-makers should take into account such system costs and internalise them according to a 'generator pays' principle, which is currently not the case. Analysing data from six OECD/NEA countries, the study finds that including the system costs of variable renewables at the level of the electricity grid increases the total costs of electricity supply by up to one-third, depending on technology, country and penetration levels. In addition, it concludes that, unless the current market subsidies for renewables are altered, dispatchable technologies will increasingly not be replaced as they reach their end of life and consequently security of supply will suffer. This implies that significant changes in management and cost allocation will be needed to generate the flexibility required for an economically viable coexistence of nuclear energy and renewables in increasingly de-carbonised electricity systems

  16. Proposal for a directive for the promotion of electricity based on renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    The amended ''Directives concerning common rules for the internal markets in electricity and natural gas'', adopted in June 2003, organizes the future framework of electricity and gas, making all European consumers eligible, from 2004 onwards and at the latest by 2007 for the domestic sector, as well as integrating some components related to general interest services. Energie-Cites gives in this document its opinion and its expectations concerning this proposal for a directive for the promotion of electricity based on renewable energy sources. (A.L.B.)

  17. Modeling and analysis of renewable energy obligations and technology bandings in the UK electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürkan, Gül; Langestraat, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    In the UK electricity market, generators are obliged to produce part of their electricity with renewable energy resources in accordance with the Renewable Obligation Order. Since 2009 technology banding has been added, meaning that different technologies are rewarded with a different number of certificates. We analyze these two different renewable obligation policies in a mathematical representation of an electricity market with random availabilities of renewable generation outputs and random electricity demand. We also present another, alternative, banding policy. We provide revenue adequate pricing schemes for the three obligation policies. We carry out a simulation study via sampling. A key finding is that the UK banding policy cannot guarantee that the original obligation target is met, hence potentially resulting in more pollution. Our alternative provides a way to make sure that the target is met while supporting less established technologies, but it comes with a significantly higher consumer price. Furthermore, as an undesirable side effect, we observe that a cost reduction in a technology with a high banding (namely offshore wind) leads to more CO 2 emissions under the UK banding policy and to higher consumer prices under the alternative banding policy. - Highlights: • We model and analyze three renewable obligation policies in a mathematical framework. • We provide revenue adequate pricing schemes for the three policies. • We carry out a simulation study via sampling. • The UK policy cannot guarantee that the original obligation target is met. • Cost reductions can lead to more pollution or higher prices under banding policies

  18. 76 FR 76153 - Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a National Grid; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-12-000] Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a National Grid; Notice of Complaint Take notice... Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), Allco Renewable Energy Limited filed a formal complaint...

  19. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  20. Temporal and Spatial Explicit Modelling of Renewable Energy Systems : Modelling variable renewable energy systems to address climate change mitigation and universal electricity access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeyringer, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Two major global challenges climate change mitigation and universal electricity access, can be addressed by large scale deployment of renewable energy sources (Alstone et al., 2015). Around 60% of greenhouse gas emissions originate from energy generation and 90% of CO2 emissions are caused by fossil

  1. Rural electric energy services in China: Implementing the renewable energy challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingart, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses issues related to rural electrification in China, with emphasis on a pilot project in Mongolia to implement small scale renewable energy sources. These projects consist of photovoltaic systems, wind electric systems, photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems, and wind/gasoline generator sets. These systems are small enough to implement in rural environments, more cost effective than grid type systems, and have lower cost than standard generator sets alone because of the improved reliability. The author also discusses the use of such systems for village power sources. A number of factors are contributing to the increase in such systems. Individuals are able and willing to pay for such systems, lending institutions are willing to fund such small-scale projects, they provide reliable, high quality services which support social and economic development.

  2. Promoting electricity from renewable energy sources -- lessons learned from the EU, U.S. and Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Reinhard; Meyer, Niels I.; Held, Anne; Finon, Dominique; Lorenzoni, Arturo; Wiser, Ryan; Nishio, Ken-ichiro

    2007-06-01

    The promotion of electricity generated from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) has recently gained high priority in the energy policy strategies of many countries in response to concerns about global climate change, energy security and other reasons. This chapter compares and contrasts the experience of a number of countries in Europe, states in the US as well as Japan in promoting RES, identifying what appear to be the most successful policy measures. Clearly, a wide range of policy instruments have been tried and are in place in different parts of the world to promote renewable energy technologies. The design and performance of these schemes varies from place to place, requiring further research to determine their effectiveness in delivering the desired results. The main conclusions that can be drawn from the present analysis are: (1) Generally speaking, promotional schemes that are properly designed within a stable framework and offer long-term investment continuity produce better results. Credibility and continuity reduce risks thus leading to lower profit requirements by investors. (2) Despite their significant growth in absolute terms in a number of key markets, the near-term prognosis for renewables is one of modest success if measured in terms of the percentage of the total energy provided by renewables on a world-wide basis. This is a significant challenge, suggesting that renewables have to grow at an even faster pace if we expect them to contribute on a significant scale to the world's energy mix.

  3. The potential contribution of renewable energy to electricity supply in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnatheer, Othman

    2005-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has enormous oil resources. At the same time, the Kingdom has other resources, notably solar energy that may figure in future supplies of electricity. In the past several years, considerable operational experience has been gained throughout the world in the implementation of renewable energy systems of types that would be relevant to the Kingdom. This paper reviews the nature of this experience and applies it in a quantitative assessment of the costs, savings, and environmental benefits of renewable energy conducted as a part of an electric utility integrated resource planning (IRP) project in the Kingdom. Integrated resource planning is an approach that systematically evaluates potential electricity supply and demand-side resources with the aim of developing a plan that provides energy services to customers at the least societal cost. The analysis summarized in this paper has shown that, when some of the non-market benefits of renewable energy are also included in the assessment of their overall costs and benefits, a supply expansion plan that includes wind and solar resources can provide energy services for the Kingdom at a lower societal cost than a 'Business-as-usual' plan utilizing only fossil-fueled generating resources

  4. The promotion in Romania of electricity from renewable energy sources - present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanciulescu, Georgeta; Popescu, Mihaela; Caracasian, Lusine; Anton, Bogdan

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with the present situation and prospects of electricity generation from renewable energy sources in Romania. The following subject matters are addressed: Legal framework; - Regulatory framework; - Ministry of Economy and Commerce - competence and responsibilities; - ANRE - competence and responsibilities; - Targets by 2010; - Benefits of Electricity from RES; - Costs, by technology, for E-RES; - Renewable support mechanisms; - RES, technical and economical potential for Romania; - Sensitivity Analysis. In conclusion, one stresses that the existing legal and regulatory framework which sets up responsibilities and dead lines regarding the promotion of E-RES and it's access on the market: - ensures a transparent, nondiscriminatory and objective treatment for the E-RES producers; - gives some facilities concerning the authorization process and ensures the take over of the electricity produced from renewable sources to the national grid; -sets up state aids granting conditions for investments and operation of the renewable energy sources; - requires some improvements regarding the financial support for promoting E-RES, guarantee of origin and trade. Depending on the chosen support scheme, the institutional framework will be developed in order to comply with the legal requirements and dead-lines. The technologies for E-RES generation will be implemented depending on: - the RES potential; - the commercial maturity of the technology, i.e. the technologies implied in hydro, wind, biomass, solar, waves and tide energy generation

  5. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This study documents the diverse approaches to effective integration of variable renewable energy among six countries -- Australia (South Australia), Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Spain, and the United States (Western region-Colorado and Texas)-- and summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. Each country has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. The ability to maintain a broad ecosystem perspective, to organize and make available the wealth of experiences, and to ensure a clear path from analysis to enactment should be the primary focus going forward.

  6. Renewable energies in electricity generation for reduction of greenhouse gases in Mexico 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas, Jorge; Manzini, Fabio; Martínez, Manuel

    2002-02-01

    This study presents 4 scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the historic path of Mexico's energy policy. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-1990s as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The fourth scenario takes into account the present- and medium-term use of natural-gas technologies that the energy reform has produced, but after 2007 a high and feasible participation of renewable sources of energy is considered. The 4 scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG).

  7. Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoudis, Christos; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Electricity is nowadays commonly exchanged through electricity markets, designed in a context where dispatchable generators, with non-negligible marginal costs, were dominating. By depending primarily on conventional (fossil, hydro and nuclear) power generation based on marginal pricing, determin...... coupled day-ahead markets for the member states and co-ordination for balancing, by looking into coupling mechanisms that promote the effective cooperation between the power systems of various countries.......Electricity is nowadays commonly exchanged through electricity markets, designed in a context where dispatchable generators, with non-negligible marginal costs, were dominating. By depending primarily on conventional (fossil, hydro and nuclear) power generation based on marginal pricing......, deterministic market designs were considered adequate with straightforward setups consisting of a forward optimal allocation accompanied by a real-time balancing mechanism. However, as the share of renewable sources of energy (RES) increases, such market designs tend to become inefficient since they were...

  8. The importance of comprehensiveness in renewable electricity and energy-efficiency policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2009-01-01

    Based on extensive research interviews and supplemented with a review of the academic literature, this article assesses the best way to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency. It begins by briefly laying out why government intervention is needed, and then details the four most favored policy mechanisms identified by participants: eliminating subsidies for conventional and mature electricity technologies, pricing electricity accurately, passing a national feed-in tariff, and implementing a nationwide systems benefit fund to raise public awareness, protect lower income households, and administer demand side management programs. Drawing mostly from case studies in the United States, the article also discusses why these policy mechanisms must be implemented comprehensively, not individually, if the barriers to renewables and energy efficiency are to be overcome

  9. The importance of comprehensiveness in renewable electricity and energy-efficiency policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-04-15

    Based on extensive research interviews and supplemented with a review of the academic literature, this article assesses the best way to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency. It begins by briefly laying out why government intervention is needed, and then details the four most favored policy mechanisms identified by participants: eliminating subsidies for conventional and mature electricity technologies, pricing electricity accurately, passing a national feed-in tariff, and implementing a nationwide systems benefit fund to raise public awareness, protect lower income households, and administer demand side management programs. Drawing mostly from case studies in the United States, the article also discusses why these policy mechanisms must be implemented comprehensively, not individually, if the barriers to renewables and energy efficiency are to be overcome. (author)

  10. Political will and collaboration for electric power reform through renewable energy in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chineke, Theo Chidiezie; Ezike, Fabian M.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change, in particular rainfall variability, affects rain-dependent agriculture in Africa. The resulting food shortages, in combination with rising population and lack of access to electricity needed for development, require the governments and people of Africa to consider renewable energy sources. One example that has high potential in Africa is solar energy. Many African governments have begun discussions about renewable energy but tangible results have yet to materialize. This research contributes to the governmental efforts by presenting the solar electricity potentials for some African cities. Using photovoltaic geographical information system (PVGIS) data, it is clear that there is enough electricity for urban and rural dwellers if there is political will and if the solar panels are mounted at the suggested optimal angles ranging from 8-34 deg. The solar irradiation at all sites was higher than the typical daily domestic load requirement of 2324 Wh/m 2 in urban and rural areas. We provide a strong rationale for political will, collaboration and transparent energy policies that will ensure that life is enhanced through the use of environmentally-friendly renewable energy technologies such as solar power.

  11. Renewable energy in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Wang, Eric; Tseng, Kuo-Tung

    2010-01-01

    With limited indigenous conventional energy resources, Taiwan imports over 99% of its energy supply from foreign countries, mostly from the Middle East. Developing independent renewable energy resources is thus of priority concern for the Taiwanese government. A medium subtropical island surrounded by the Pacific Ocean, Taiwan has enormous potential to develop various renewable energies, such as solar energy, biomass energy, wind power, geothermal energy, hydropower, etc. However, owing to the importance of conventional fossil energy in generating exceptionally cheap electricity, renewable energy has not yet fully developed in Taiwan, resulting from a lack of market competition. Consequently, numerous promotional and subsidy programs have recently been proclaimed by the Taiwanese government, focused on the development of various renewables. This study reviews the achievements, polices and future plans in this area. (author)

  12. Electricity from renewable energy sources in The Netherlands. Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    An overview is given of the latest regulatory developments for electricity from renewable energy sources in the Netherlands. In the current confusion regarding the development of the REB (Dutch Energy Tax), the eligibility of sources and imports for the tax rebate, the changes brought to the green certificate system in the Dutch electricity system, this report attempts to provide you with the answers to your questions. Included are a detailed explanation of both article 36o) and 36i) of the Dutch Law on Environmental Taxes, supported by among other things diagrams, an overview of current suppliers and their pricing strategy, and tables on the expected changes to the present situation

  13. Examining demand response, renewable energy and efficiencies to meet growing electricity needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, N.; Eldridge, M.; Shipley, A.M.; Laitner, J.S.; Nadel, S.; Silverstein, A.; Hedman, B.; Sloan, M.

    2007-01-01

    While Texas has already taken steps to improve its renewable energy portfolio (RPS), and its energy efficiency improvement program (EEIP), the level of savings that utilities can achieve through the EEIP can be greatly increased. This report estimated the size of energy efficiency and renewable energy resources in Texas, and suggested a range of policy options that might be adopted to further extend EEIP. Current forecasts suggest that peak demand in Texas will increase by 2.3 per cent annually from 2007-2012, a level of growth which is threatening the state's ability to maintain grid reliability at reasonable cost. Almost 70 per cent of installed generating capacity is fuelled by natural gas in Texas. Recent polling has suggested that over 70 per cent of Texans are willing support increased spending on energy efficiency. Demand response measures that may be implemented in the state include incentive-based programs that pay users to reduce their electricity consumption during specific times and pricing programs, where customers are given a price signal and are expected to moderate their electricity usage. By 2023, the widespread availability of time-varying retail electric rates and complementary communications and control methods will permanently change the nature of electricity demand in the state. At present, the integrated utilities in Texas offer a variety of direct load control and time-of-use, curtailable, and interruptible rates. However, with the advent of retail competition now available as a result of the structural unbundling of investor-owned utilities, there is less demand response available in Texas. It was concluded that energy efficiency, demand response, and renewable energy resources can meet the increasing demand for electricity in Texas over the next 15 years. 4 figs

  14. Marginal abatement cost curve for nitrogen oxides incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, Daniel H; Macpherson, Alexander J; Kaufman, Katherine R; Keaveny, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs are typically developed by sorting control technologies by their relative cost-effectiveness. Other potentially important abatement measures such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) are often not incorporated into MACCs, as it is difficult to quantify their costs and abatement potential. In this paper, a U.S. energy system model is used to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) that incorporates both traditional controls and these additional measures. The MACC is decomposed by sector, and the relative cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS and traditional controls are compared. RE/EE/FS are shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone. Furthermore, a portion of RE/EE/FS appear to be cost-competitive with traditional controls. Renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching can be cost-competitive with traditional air pollutant controls for abating air pollutant emissions. The application of renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching is also shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone.

  15. Integrating Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, Antonio J.; Madsen, Henrik

    This addition to the ISOR series addresses the analytics of the operations of electric energy systems with increasing penetration of stochastic renewable production facilities, such as wind- and solar-based generation units. As stochastic renewable production units become ubiquitous throughout...... the variability and unpredictability of stochastic renewable units so that supply security is not at risk. • The trading of the electric energy produced by stochastic renewable producers. • The association of a number of electricity production facilities, stochastic and others, to increase their competitive edge...... electric energy systems, an increasing level of flexible backup provided by non-stochastic units and other system agents is needed if supply security and quality are to be maintained. Within the context above, this book provides up-to-date analytical tools to address challenging operational problems...

  16. Comparing electricity, heat and biogas storages’ impacts on renewable energy integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    -inclusive 100% renewable energy scenario developed for the Danish city Aalborg based on wind power, bio-resources and low-temperature geothermal heat. The article investigates the system impact of different types of energy storage systems including district heating storage, biogas storage and electricity......Increasing penetration of fluctuating energy sources for electricity generation, heating, cooling and transportation increase the need for flexibility of the energy system to accommodate the fluctuations of these energy sources. Controlling production, controlling demand and utilising storage...... options are the three general categories of measures that may be applied for ensuring balance between production and demand, however with fluctuating energy sources, options are limited, and flexible demand has also demonstrated limited perspective. This article takes its point of departure in an all...

  17. Design and Implementation of a Control Strategy for Microgrid Containing Renewable Energy Generations and Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Mingchao; He, Xuanhu; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Large amount of such renewable energy generations as wind/photovoltaic generations directly connected to grid acting as distributed generations will cause control, protection, security, and safety problems. Microgrid, which has advantages in usage and control of distributed generations, is a promising approach to coordinate the conflict between distributed generations and the grid. Regarded as mobile power storages, batteries of electric vehicles can depress the fluctuation of power through t...

  18. A potention of renewable energy sources in Slovakia in term of production of electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan Kuzevič

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Electro-energetics of Slovak Republic is in this time in state of re-structuralization consequent from responsibilities which SR has with integration to the EU and on the other hand with actual status of production capacities of fossil fuels using in heat power stations and heat stations also the utilization of nuclear energy in nuclear power stations Jaslovské Bohunice and Mochovce. Paradoxically slim representation in production capacities have renewable energy sources, while only one relevant one is utilization of water in small hydro power stations. According to fact, that to the year 2010, the share of renewable sources of energy using in comparing with electric energy has to achieve 21,7% (direction of EU 77/2001. It is necessary to evaluate possibilities of utilization and to specify potential of utilization from technical and economical aspect.

  19. Intermittently renewable energy, optimal capacity mix and prices in a deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milstein, Irena; Tishler, Asher

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the effect of intermittently renewable energy on generation capacity mix and market prices. We consider two generating technologies: (1) conventional fossil-fueled technology such as combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT), and (2) sunshine-dependent renewable technology such as photovoltaic cells (PV). In the first stage of the model (game), when only the probability distribution functions of future daily electricity demand and sunshine are known, producers maximize their expected profits by determining the CCGT and PV capacity to be constructed. In the second stage, once daily demand and sunshine conditions become known, each producer selects the daily production by each technology, taking the capacities of both technologies as given, and subject to the availability of the PV capacity, which can be used only if the sun is shining. Using real-world data for Israel, we confirm that the introduction of PV technology amplifies price volatility. A large reduction in PV capacity cost increases PV adoption but may also raise the average price. Thus, when considering the promotion of renewable energy to reduce CO 2 emissions, regulators should assess the behavior of the electricity market, particularly with respect to characteristics of renewable technologies and demand and supply uncertainties. - Research Highlights: → This paper assesses the effect of intermittently renewable energy on generation capacity mix and market prices. → We consider two generating technologies: (1) conventional fossil-fueled technology such as CCGT and (2) sunshine-dependent renewable technology such as photovoltaic cells (PV). →Using real-world data for Israel, we confirm that the introduction of PV technology amplifies price volatility. → A large reduction in PV capacity cost increases PV adoption but may also raise the average price.

  20. The integration of renewable energy in the French electricity system: what challenges for optimization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Mathilde; Ruedinger, Andreas; Pescia, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    Based on research reports and dialogue through expert seminars organized by IDDRI and Agora Energiewende in 2015, this Working Paper proposes a synthesis of the main challenges for the integration of renewable energies using an analysis of the electricity system and its potential for optimization over different time frames: the potential evolution of electricity systems at the regional and national levels in France between now and 2030; an analysis of the needs and options for flexibility services beyond production systems; the potential for optimization of instruments to encourage short-term integration in line with changes in regulation regarding RES support schemes. Achieving the targets for renewable energy development (RES-E) in France (40% share of the electricity consumption) and in Europe (approximately 50%) by 2030 poses new integration challenges. The successful transformation of the electricity system based on a significant renewable component requires a systemic approach which takes into account: the evolution of demand and supply (for electricity and all energy), the interactions and competition between flexibility options for system stabilization (interconnections, active demand-side management, storage), the development of relevant infrastructure and articulation between the technical system and market design. A forward-looking analysis of electricity systems helps to assess this increase in flexibility requirements while identifying several optimization options to facilitate RES integration, starting with regional coordination. France already has a flexible electricity system, thanks notably to its hydro potential. Even so, its evolution towards 40% RES by 2030 calls for some strategic choices. On the one hand, drawing up a long-term trajectory for the evolution of electricity demand - in terms of volume as well as the nature of needs addressed - seems essential to bring coherence to the evolution of the technology portfolio and to increase the

  1. Renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Evidence given before the Energy Committee by the Seven Tidal Power Group and the Mersey Barrage Company Ltd is presented. The current state of the development of the projects, prices at which electricity could be generated, governmental support, the non-fossil fuel obligation (NNFFO), export potential, and discounted cashflow analysis and discount rate are discussed. (author)

  2. Panorama of renewable electricity 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-02-01

    RTE is the mainspring in enhancing energy transition and developing renewable energy in France. To further knowledge on the subject, we publish a detailed inventory of existing and projected wind and photovoltaic installations. This vast overview was achieved with the help of ERDF, ADEeF (Association of electricity distribution network operators in France) and SER (Association of renewable energy industrialists). 2014's outstanding facts: The wind and photovoltaic industries are the major contributor to the growth of renewable electrical energy (REN), with 14412 MW installed capacity at December 31, 2014. These two industries now represent a third of the generation capacity of REN in France. Renewable electricity generation power in metropolitan France amounts to 41382 MW, 61% of which is of hydroelectric origin

  3. System effects of nuclear energy and renewables in low-carbon electricity Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, J.H.; Gameron, R.; Cometto, M.

    2012-01-01

    Electricity produced by variable renewable energies significantly affects the economics of dispatchable power generators, in particular those of nuclear power, both in the short run and the long run; the outcome of these competing factors will depend on the amount of variable renewables being introduced, local conditions and the level of carbon prices. An assessment of grid-level system costs (including the costs for grid connection, extension and reinforcement, as well as the added costs for balancing and back-up, but excluding the financial costs of intermittency and the impacts on security of supply, the environment, siting and safety), reveals a considerable difference between those of dispatchable technologies and those of variable renewables. Using a common methodology and a broad array of country-specific data, the grid-level system costs for Finland, France, Germany, the Republic of Korea, the United Kingdom and the United States were calculated for nuclear, coal, gas, onshore wind, offshore wind and solar PV both at 10 pc and 30 pc penetration levels. Variable renewables are creating a market environment in which dispatchable technologies can no longer finance themselves through revenues in 'energy only' wholesale markets; this has serious implications for the security of electricity supplies. Four main policy recommendations are proposed

  4. Role of targeted policies in mainstreaming renewable energy in a resource constrained electricity system: A case study of Karnataka electricity system in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrutha, A.A.; Balachandra, P.; Mathirajan, M.

    2017-01-01

    India is aggressively pursuing its renewable energy capacity expansion goals. Targeted policies such as Feed-in Tariff (FIT), Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) and Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) are introduced to stimulate renewable energy capacity expansion as well as generation. Currently, Indian power utilities treat RPO targets as a cost-burden, and therefore there is prevalence of non-compliance. Even other policies, such as FIT and RECs, in their present form, have failed to influence increase in renewable electricity supply. This has lead us to raise an important question whether these policies are adequate for building a cost-effective renewable energy-based low carbon electricity system for India. In this paper, we discuss the impact of above targeted policies in increasing the share of renewable electricity generation in the case of Karnataka State Electricity System. Various scenarios are developed and analysed using mixed-integer programming model to study the impacts. The results suggest that optimally managed FIT and REC schemes can provide opportunities for utilities to benefit from reduced costs. Overall, the above policies are inadequate, and introduction of market-based incentives, which expand the scope of trading in renewable energy certificates, are essential to achieve the desired objectives. - Highlights: • Analysing impacts of targeted energy policies in increasing renewable electricity share. • Scenario analyses are used to study impact on costs, targets, shortages and compliance. • Current policies are inadequate to ensure renewable energy utilization beyond targets. • Policies are necessary to incentivise compliance and penalise non-compliance.

  5. Balancing Renewable Electricity Energy Storage, Demand Side Management, and Network Extension from an Interdisciplinary Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Rehtanz, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Schneider, Jens-Peter; Schreurs, Miranda; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A significant problem of integrating renewable energies into the electricity system is the temporally fluctuating energy production by wind and solar power plants. Thus, in order to meet the ambitious long-term targets on CO2 emission reduction, long-term viable low-carbon options for balancing electricity will be needed. This interdisciplinary study analyses published future energy scenarios in order to get an impression of the required balancing capacities and shows which framework conditions should be modified to support their realisation. The authors combine their perspectives from energy engineering, technology assessment, political science, economical science and jurisprudence and address science, politics, actors in the energy sector and the interested public. Respectively, requirements for the balancing systems are analysed, considering the case of Germany as a large country with high ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, an approach to investigate the optimal design of the techn...

  6. Distributional effects of the Australian Renewable Energy Target (RET) through wholesale and retail electricity price impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cludius, Johanna; Forrest, Sam; MacGill, Iain

    2014-01-01

    The Australian Renewable Energy Target (RET) has spurred significant investment in renewable electricity generation, notably wind power, over the past decade. This paper considers distributional implications of the RET for different energy users. Using time-series regression, we show that the increasing amount of wind energy has placed considerable downward pressure on wholesale electricity prices through the so-called merit order effect. On the other hand, RET costs are passed on to consumers in the form of retail electricity price premiums. Our findings highlight likely significant redistributive transfers between different energy user classes under current RET arrangements. In particular, some energy-intensive industries are benefiting from lower wholesale electricity prices whilst being largely exempted from contributing to the costs of the scheme. By contrast, many households are paying significant RET pass through costs whilst not necessarily benefiting from lower wholesale prices. A more equitable distribution of RET costs and benefits could be achieved by reviewing the scope and extent of industry exemptions and ensuring that methodologies to estimate wholesale price components in regulated electricity tariffs reflect more closely actual market conditions. More generally, these findings support the growing international appreciation that policy makers need to integrate distributional assessments into policy design and implementation. - Highlights: • The Australian RET has complex yet important distributional impacts on different energy users. • Likely wealth transfers from residential and small business consumers to large energy-intensive industry. • Merit order effects of wind likely overcompensate exempt industry for contribution to RET costs. • RET costs for households could be reduced if merit order effects were adequately passed through. • Need for distributional impact assessments when designing and implementing clean energy policy

  7. Realisable scenarios for a future electricity supply based 100% on renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czisch, G.; Giebel, G.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the resource and climate problems, it seems obvious that we must transform our energy system into one using only renewable energies. But questions arise how such a system should be structured, which techniques should be used and, of course, how costly it might be. These questions were the focus of a study which investigated the cost optimum of a future renewable electricity supply for Europe and its closer Asian and African neighbourhood. The resulting scenarios are based on a broad data basis of the electricity consumption and for renewable energies. A linear optimisation determines the best system configuration and temporal dispatch of all components. The outcome of the scenarios can be considered as being a scientific breakthrough since it proves that a totally renewable electricity supply is possible even with current technology and at the same time is affordable for our national economies. In the conservative base case scenario, wind power would dominate the production spread over the better wind areas within the whole supply area, connected with the demand centres via HVDC transmission. The transmission system, furthermore, powerfully integrates the existing storage hydropower to provide for backup co-equally assisted by biomass power and supported by solar thermal electricity. The main results of the different scenarios can be summarized as follows: 1) A totally renewable electricity supply for Europe and its neighbourhood is possible and affordable. 2) Electricity import from non-European neighbour countries can be a very valuable and substantial component of a future supply. 3) Smoothing effects by the use of sources at locations in different climate zones improve the security of the supply and reduce the costs. 4) A large-scale co-operation of many different countries opens up for the possibility to combine the goals of development policy and climate politics in a multilateral win-win strategy. To aid implementation, an international extension

  8. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Many countries—reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems—are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  9. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets. Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Jaquelin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, Douglas J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Many countries - reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems - are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  10. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience, Summary for Policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Arent, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Many countries -- reflecting very different geographies, markets, and power systems -- are successfully managing high levels of variable renewable energy on the electric grid, including that from wind and solar energy. This document summarizes policy best practices that energy ministers and other stakeholders can pursue to ensure that electricity markets and power systems can effectively coevolve with increasing penetrations of variable renewable energy. There is no one-size-fits-all approach; each country studied has crafted its own combination of policies, market designs, and system operations to achieve the system reliability and flexibility needed to successfully integrate renewables. Notwithstanding this diversity, the approaches taken by the countries studied all coalesce around five strategic areas: lead public engagement, particularly for new transmission; coordinate and integrate planning; develop rules for market evolution that enable system flexibility; expand access to diverse resources and geographic footprint of operations; and improve system operations. This study also emphatically underscores the value of countries sharing their experiences. The more diverse and robust the experience base from which a country can draw, the more likely that it will be able to implement an appropriate, optimized, and system-wide approach.

  11. Electricity system based on 100% renewable energy for India and SAARC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Gulagi

    Full Text Available The developing region of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is home to a large number of people living below the poverty line. In future, providing affordable, universally accessible, reliable, low to zero carbon electricity in this region will be the main aim. A cost optimal 100% renewable energy system is simulated for SAARC for the year 2030 on an hourly resolved basis. The region was divided into 16 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current (HVDC grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelised cost of electricity (LCOE showed a decrease from 71.6 €/MWh in a decentralized to 67.2 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An additional scenario was simulated to show the benefits of integrating industrial gas production and seawater reverse osmosis desalination demand, and showed the system cost decreased by 5% and total electricity generation decreased by 1%. The results show that a 100% renewable energy system could be a reality in the SAARC region with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS alternatives. One of the limitations of this study is the cost of land for installation of renewables which is not included in the LCOE calculations, but regarded as a minor contribution.

  12. Electricity system based on 100% renewable energy for India and SAARC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulagi, Ashish; Choudhary, Piyush; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Breyer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The developing region of SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) is home to a large number of people living below the poverty line. In future, providing affordable, universally accessible, reliable, low to zero carbon electricity in this region will be the main aim. A cost optimal 100% renewable energy system is simulated for SAARC for the year 2030 on an hourly resolved basis. The region was divided into 16 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current (HVDC) grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) showed a decrease from 71.6 €/MWh in a decentralized to 67.2 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An additional scenario was simulated to show the benefits of integrating industrial gas production and seawater reverse osmosis desalination demand, and showed the system cost decreased by 5% and total electricity generation decreased by 1%. The results show that a 100% renewable energy system could be a reality in the SAARC region with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS) alternatives. One of the limitations of this study is the cost of land for installation of renewables which is not included in the LCOE calculations, but regarded as a minor contribution.

  13. Renewable energy export network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy include: identifying the size, location and accessibility of potential export markets; identifying Australian export capabilities including successful exporters and export-ready companies; implementing a mechanism to disseminate information to industry on export markets and opportunities; showcasing Australian export capabilities; identifying export barriers and developing a mechanism for addressing these; and strengthening and broadening the focus of the Electric Energy Industry Export Council on renewable energy exports

  14. Renewable energy the best remedy for electrical load shedding in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Average 33% time of daily electrical load shedding in Pakistan is most serious as it has affected all activities. Industries are crippled, commercial, official activities and daily life is being deteriorated Total loss to Export is 1.3 and oil import bill is $ 9 Billion. If appropriate actions are not taken immediately; the situation is going to get worse when people will fight for every watt of electricity. The impounding crises are not foreseen and its gravity is not yet properly realized by the decision makers. Politics and several lobbies work against construction of major projects of hydel power and baseless controversies have been created. Pakistan is blessed with abundant renewable energy i.e. 2.9 million MW solar, tidal, wind 346,000 MW and 59,000 MW potentials of hydro electricity. Analysis of the reasons for the slow and no growth of these vital renewable potentials in Pakistan indicate that there are barriers which need to be mitigated to take immediate benefits to overcome menace of load shedding. Local R and D, Design, manufacturing, installation and feasibility study capabilities are negligible. Institutional capabilities in most of the organizations can at best be ranked as average or weak. Other impediments and barriers that continue to hamper the load shedding are losses, attitude in the promotion of renewable and hydro power projects include: lack of serious attempts to mitigate the barriers, integrate the programs with profitability; inadequate evaluation of resources; non availability of reliable baseline data; and lack of coordination among the relevant agencies; weak institutional arrangements for renewable energy promotion; absence of fiscal and financing mechanisms; lack of understanding, awareness, information and outreach; uneven allocation of resources; lack of appropriate quality management, monitoring and evaluation programs; and need of attractive policy framework and legislative support, building consensus among people and provinces

  15. Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik; Kempton, Willett

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale sustainable energy systems will be necessary for substantial reduction of CO 2 . However, large-scale implementation faces two major problems: (1) we must replace oil in the transportation sector, and (2) since today's inexpensive and abundant renewable energy resources have fluctuating output, to increase the fraction of electricity from them, we must learn to maintain a balance between demand and supply. Plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) could reduce or eliminate oil for the light vehicle fleet. Adding 'vehicle-to-grid' (V2G) technology to EVs can provide storage, matching the time of generation to time of load. Two national energy systems are modelled, one for Denmark, including combined heat and power (CHP) and the other a similarly sized country without CHP (the latter being more typical of other industrialized countries). The model (EnergyPLAN) integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment (wind resource and weather-driven need for heat). Four types of vehicle fleets are modelled, under levels of wind penetration varying from 0% to 100%. EVs were assumed to have high power (10 kW) connections, which provide important flexibility in time and duration of charging. We find that adding EVs and V2G to these national energy systems allows integration of much higher levels of wind electricity without excess electric production, and also greatly reduces national CO 2 emissions

  16. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  17. Learning about Renewable Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to renewable energy, discussing: (1) the production of electricity from sunlight; (2) wind power; (3) hydroelectric power; (4) geothermal energy; and (5) biomass. Also provided are nine questions to answer (based on the readings), four additional questions to answer (which require additional information), and…

  18. Universal access to electricity in Burkina Faso: scaling-up renewable energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner-Girona, M.; Bódis, K.; Huld, T.; Kougias, I.; Szabó, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the status quo of the power sector in Burkina Faso, its limitations, and develops a new methodology that through spatial analysis processes with the aim to provide a possible pathway for universal electricity access. Following the SE4All initiative approach, it recommends the more extensive use of distributed renewable energy systems to increase access to electricity on an accelerated timeline. Less than 5% of the rural population in Burkina Faso have currently access to electricity and supply is lacking at many social structures such as schools and hospitals. Energy access achievements in Burkina Faso are still very modest. According to the latest SE4All Global Tracking Framework (2015), the access to electricity annual growth rate in Burkina Faso from 2010 to 2012 is 0%. The rural electrification strategy for Burkina Faso is scattered in several electricity sector development policies: there is a need of defining a concrete action plan. Planning and coordination between grid extension and the off-grid electrification programme is essential to reach a long-term sustainable energy model and prevent high avoidable infrastructure investments. This paper goes into details on the methodology and findings of the developed Geographic Information Systems tool. The aim of the dynamic planning tool is to provide support to the national government and development partners to define an alternative electrification plan. Burkina Faso proves to be paradigm case for the methodology as its national policy for electrification is still dominated by grid extension and the government subsidising fossil fuel electricity production. However, the results of our analysis suggest that the current grid extension is becoming inefficient and unsustainable in order to reach the national energy access targets. The results also suggest that Burkina Faso’s rural electrification strategy should be driven local renewable resources to power distributed mini-grids. We find that

  19. Alternatives to electricity for transmission and annual-scale firming - Storage for diverse, stranded, renewable energy resources: hydrogen and ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighty, William

    2010-09-15

    The world's richest renewable energy resources 'of large geographic extent and high intensity' are stranded: far from end-users with inadequate or nonexistent gathering and transmission systems to deliver energy. Output of most renewables varies greatly, at time scales of seconds-seasons: energy capture assets operate at low capacity factor; energy delivery is not 'firm'. New electric transmission systems, or fractions thereof, dedicated to renewables, suffer the same low CF: substantial stranded capital assets, increasing the cost of delivered renewable-source energy. Electricity storage cannot affordably firm large renewables at annual scale. Gaseous hydrogen and anhydrous ammonia fuels can: attractive alternatives.

  20. Funding of renewable energy sources in the deregulated German electricity market; Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien im liberalisierten deutschen Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawer, T.

    2007-12-14

    This study intends to develop an efficient market design for the German electricity market, with particular regard to renewable energy sources. The German electricity market is disintegrated, i.e. market sectors are not coordinated by a central agency but by their own interactions. The first part of the investigation analyzes the interdependences of market sectors, while the second part will analyze funding instruments for renewable energy sources on this basis. (orig.)

  1. Hybrid renewable energy system application for electricity and heat supply of a residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakomčić-Smaragdakis Branka B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable and distributed energy systems could provide a solution to the burning issue of reliable and clean supply of energy, having in mind current state and future predictions for population growth and fossil fuel scarcity. Hybrid renewable energy systems are novelty in Serbia and warrant further detailed research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of renewable energy sources(RES for electricity and heat supply of a typical household in Serbia, as well as the cost-effectiveness of the proposed system. The influence of feed-in tariff change on the value of the investment is analyzed. Small, grid-connected hybrid system (for energy supply of a standard household, consisting of geothermal heat pump for heating/cooling, solar photovoltaic panels and small wind turbine for power supply is analyzed as a case study. System analysis was conducted with the help of RETScreen software. Results of techno-economics analysis have shown that investing in geothermal heat pump and photovoltaic panels is cost-effective, while that is not the case with small wind turbine.

  2. Integrating renewable energy technologies in the electric supply industry: A risk management approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T.E. [Pacific Energy Group, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Regulatory and technical forces are causing electric utilities to move from a natural monopoly to a more competitive environment. Associated with this movement is an increasing concern about how to manage the risks associated with the electric supply business. One approach to managing risks is to purchase financial instruments such as options and futures contracts. Another approach is to own physical assets that have low risk attributes or characteristics. This research evaluates how investments in renewable energy technologies can mitigate risks in the electric supply industry. It identifies risks that are known to be of concern to utilities and other power producers. These risks include uncertainty in fuel prices, demand, environmental regulations, capital cost, supply, and market structure. The research then determines how investments in renewables can mitigate these risks. Methods are developed to calculate the value of renewables in terms of their attributes of fuel costs, environmental costs, lead-time, modularity, availability, initial capital costs, and investment reversibility. Examples illustrate how to apply the methods.

  3. Renewable Energy Technologies for Decentralised Rural Electricity Services. Report from an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, Bjoern; Arvidson, Anders; Forslund, Helena; Martinac, Ivo (eds.)

    2005-02-01

    The developing countries represented at the workshop were Brazil, India, Kenya, Mali, Mongolia, Nepal and Uganda. After keynote presentations which covered the experiences of different renewable electricity generation technologies in selected developing countries, the participants discussed the role of electrification in rural development, needs for further technological improvements and the needs for development of government policies for promotion of renewable energy for electricity generation. Finally, the participants discussed and agreed on recommendations addressed to donor agencies for consideration when formulating a revised Energy Policy. Renewable energy technologies should only be considered when these offer more advantages than the conventional alternatives - grid connection or stand-alone diesel generators. Such advantages may be lower costs, better supply reliability, fewer adverse local environmental impacts or better possibilities for local income-generating activities. Local needs and priorities must determine the choice of technology. Biomass-fuelled renewable technologies have a particularly strong potential in generating local economic activities compared to conventional supply options. Technologies for decentralised electricity generation using mini-hydro power plants, solar photovoltaics (PV), wind generators and biomass fuels are commercially available and are being applied in many developing countries. The limiting factors for further penetration of renewable energy are today linked to issues of cost, reliability, financing, service infrastructure, awareness of available technology and trust in the technologies from the perspective of entrepreneurs and end-users. One important limiting factor related to cost, is the capacity range within which each technology can compete with the conventional options. PV systems are still only realistic for very small power demands, whereas technologies using biomass fuels are unrealistic for small power

  4. Quantifying Co-benefits of Renewable Energy through Integrated Electricity and Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, D.

    2016-12-01

    This work focuses on the coordination of electricity sector changes with air quality and health improvement strategies through the integration of electricity and air quality models. Two energy models are used to calculate emission perturbations associated with changes in generation technology (20% generation from solar photovoltaics) and demand (future electricity use under a warmer climate). Impacts from increased solar PV penetration are simulated with the electricity model GridView, in collaboration with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Generation results are used to scale power plant emissions from an inventory developed by the Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium (LADCO). Perturbed emissions and are used to calculate secondary particulate matter with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We find that electricity NOx and SO2 emissions decrease at a rate similar to the total fraction of electricity supplied by solar. Across the Eastern U.S. region, average PM2.5 is reduced 5% over the summer, with highest reduction in regions and on days of greater PM2.5. A similar approach evaluates the air quality impacts of elevated electricity demand under a warmer climate. Meteorology is selected from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) and input to a building energy model, eQUEST, to assess electricity demand as a function of ambient temperature. The associated generation and emissions are calculated on a plant-by-plant basis by the MyPower power sector model. These emissions are referenced to the 2011 National Emissions Inventory to be modeled in CMAQ for the Eastern U.S. and extended to health impact evaluation with the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP). All results focus on the air quality and health consequences of energy system changes, considering grid-level changes to meet climate and air quality goals.

  5. Stochastic optimal charging of electric-drive vehicles with renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoš, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the stochastic optimization algorithm that may eventually be used by electric energy suppliers to coordinate charging of electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) in order to maximize the use of renewable energy in transportation. Due to the stochastic nature of transportation patterns, the Monte Carlo simulation is applied to model uncertainties presented by numerous scenarios. To reduce the problem complexity, the simulated driving patterns are not individually considered in the optimization but clustered into fleets using the GAMS/SCENRED tool. Uncertainties of production of renewable energy sources (RESs) are presented by statistical central moments that are further considered in Hong’s 2-point + 1 estimation method in order to define estimate points considered in the optimization. Case studies illustrate the application of the proposed optimization in achieving maximal exploitation of RESs in transportation by EDVs. -- Highlights: ► Optimization model for EDV charging applying linear programming. ► Formation of EDV fleets based on the driving patterns assessment applying the GAMS/SCENRED. ► Consideration of uncertainties of RES production and energy prices in the market. ► Stochastic optimization. ► Application of Hong’s 2-point + 1 estimation method.

  6. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity...... grids should be seen as part of overall smart energy systems and emphasizes the inclusion of flexible combined heat and power (CHP) production in the electricity balancing and grid stabilization. Furthermore, it highlights how to design and model future sustainable smart energy systems.......This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...

  7. Electrical Components for Marine Renewable Energy Arrays: A Techno-Economic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Collin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the main electrical components that are expected to be present in marine renewable energy arrays. The review is put in context by appraising the current needs of the industry and identifying the key components required in both device and array-scale developments. For each component, electrical, mechanical and cost considerations are discussed; with quantitative data collected during the review made freely available for use by the community via an open access online repository. This data collection updates previous research and addresses gaps specific to emerging offshore technologies, such as marine and floating wind, and provides a comprehensive resource for the techno-economic assessment of offshore energy arrays.

  8. Distributed Control and Management of Renewable Electric Energy Resources for Future Grid Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mokhtari, Ghassem; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Nourbakhsh, Ghavameddin

    2016-01-01

    It is anticipated that both medium- and low-voltage distribution networks will include high level of distributed renewable energy resources, in the future. The high penetration of these resources inevitably can introduce various power quality issues, including; overvoltage and overloading...... strategy is a promising approach to manage and utilise the resources in future distribution networks to effectively deal with grid electric quality issues and requirements. Jointly, utility and customers the owners of the resources in the network are considered as part of a practical coordination strategy...

  9. Techno-economic and sensitivity analysis for grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station in Terengganu

    OpenAIRE

    Salleh N. A. S.; Muda W. M. W.

    2017-01-01

    In order to encourage the eco-friendly technologies in transportation sector, the reliance on fuel need to be reduced and the use of renewable energy (RE) technology as energy source are widely explored by researchers. Thus, this study focus on the feasibility of developing grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station for the fishermen in Terengganu using simulation-based method by HOMER software. Five year solar radiation and wind speed data were collected at Universiti Sul...

  10. Entirely renewable energy-based electricity supply system (small scale and large scale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A. [Monash University, Caulfield (Australia). Division of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Our future energy needs will be supplied by a combination of many different sources ranging from small wind turbine to provide power for a single house to central power stations that provide power in very large scale fed into the national grid. Computer control systems will integrate the performance of all these systems to make sure that as much power as possible comes from environmentally friendlier sources. As alternative sources becomes more widely available, small scale systems meeting local needs may start to replace current large scale central power stations. The author is investigating the feasibility of an entirely renewable energy-based electricity supply system. The developed system find so many applications as it can be used as small scale power system for Remote Area Power Supply, wind energy/battery or solar energy/battery, as well as large scale for interconnection with national grid. (Author)

  11. Ordinance nr 2016-1059 of the 3 rd of August 2016 related to the production of electricity from renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollande, Francois; Valls, Manuel; Royal, Segolene

    2016-01-01

    This legal text defines arrangements applicable to installations of electric power production from renewable energies under mandatory purchase, arrangements related to the call for competition procedure, and aspects related to the integration of renewable energies into the power system

  12. Matching of renewable source of energy generation graphs and electrical load in local energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhniuk, Petro; Komar, Vyacheslav; Sobchuk, Dmytro; Kravchuk, Sergiy; Kacejko, Piotr; Zavidsky, Vladislav

    2017-08-01

    The paper contains the method of matching generation graph of photovoltaic electric stations and consumers. Characteristic feature of this method is the application of morphometric analysis for assessment of non-uniformity of the integrated graph of energy supply, optimal coefficients of current distribution, that enables by mean of refining the powers, transferring in accordance with the graph , to provide the decrease of electric energy losses in the grid and transport task, as the optimization tool.

  13. Optimal Scheduling of a Battery Energy Storage System with Electric Vehicles’ Auxiliary for a Distribution Network with Renewable Energy Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With global conventional energy depletion, as well as environmental pollution, utilizing renewable energy for power supply is the only way for human beings to survive. Currently, distributed generation incorporated into a distribution network has become the new trend, with the advantages of controllability, flexibility and tremendous potential. However, the fluctuation of distributed energy resources (DERs is still the main concern for accurate deployment. Thus, a battery energy storage system (BESS has to be involved to mitigate the bad effects of DERs’ integration. In this paper, optimal scheduling strategies for BESS operation have been proposed, to assist with consuming the renewable energy, reduce the active power loss, alleviate the voltage fluctuation and minimize the electricity cost. Besides, the electric vehicles (EVs considered as the auxiliary technique are also introduced to attenuate the DERs’ influence. Moreover, both day-ahead and real-time operation scheduling strategies were presented under the consideration with the constraints of BESS and the EVs’ operation, and the optimization was tackled by a fuzzy mathematical method and an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. Furthermore, the test system for the proposed strategies is a real distribution network with renewable energy integration. After simulation, the proposed scheduling strategies have been verified to be extremely effective for the enhancement of the distribution network characteristics.

  14. Renewable Energy Essentials: Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Hydropower is currently the most common form of renewable energy and plays an important part in global power generation. Worldwide hydropower produced 3 288 TWh, just over 16% of global electricity production in 2008, and the overall technical potential for hydropower is estimated to be more than 16 400 TWh/yr.

  15. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.J.; Skytte, K.

    2004-01-01

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies.......Wind power and combined heat and power (CHP) using biomass (for combustion, gasification or fermentation) are two of the most promising renewable technologies for generation of electricity. Denmark has a long and well-established tradition for these technologies that now account for approx. 25...

  16. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  17. A historical review of promotion strategies for electricity from renewable energy sources in EU countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Reinhard; Panzer, Christian; Resch, Gustav; Ragwitz, Mario; Held, Anne; Reece, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    The core objective of this paper is to elaborate on historically implemented promotion strategies of renewable energy sources and the associated deployment within the European electricity market. Hence, at a first glance, the historic development of renewable energy sources in the electricity (RES-E) sector is addressed on Member State and on sectoral level as well as consequently discussed according to available RES-E potentials and costs. The specific focus of this paper, are promotion strategies for RES-E options as they are the key driver of an efficient and effective RES-E deployment. Therefore, the paper depicts the main types of different promotion schemes and their properties. Additionally, several cases studies of different European Member States show an in-depth analysis of the different RES-E promotion schemes. In this context, special emphasises are put on the question of effective and efficient promotion scheme designs of different RES-E technologies. Generally, conducted research led to the conclusion, that technology specific financial support measures of RES-E performed much more effective and efficient than others did. Hence, it is not all about the common question of feed-in tariffs vs. quota systems based on tradable green certificates, but more about the design criteria of implemented RES-E support schemes. (author)

  18. A Cost-Effective Electric Vehicle Charging Method Designed For Residential Homes with Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, T. T.; Liang, Xiuli; Haque, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    Most of the electrical infrastructure in use around the world today is decades old, and may be illsuited to widespread proliferation of personal Electric Vehicles (EVs) whose charging requirements will place increasing strain on grid demand. In order to reduce the pressure on the grid and taking benefits of off peak charging, this paper presents a smart and cost effective EV charging methodology for residential homes equipped with renewable energy resources such as Photovoltaic (PV) panels and battery. The proposed method ensures slower battery degradation and prevents overcharging. The performance of the proposed algorithm is verified by conducting simulation studies utilizing running data of Nissan Altra. From the simulation study results, the algorithm is shown to be effective and feasible which minimizes not only the charging cost but also can shift the charging time from peak value to off-peak time.

  19. Electrical efficiency and renewable energy - Economical alternatives to large-scale power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oettli, B.; Hammer, S.; Moret, F.; Iten, R.; Nordmann, T.

    2010-05-01

    This final report for WWF Switzerland, Greenpeace Switzerland, the Swiss Energy Foundation SES, Pro Natura and the Swiss Cantons of Basel City and Geneva takes a look at the energy-relevant effects of the propositions made by Swiss electricity utilities for large-scale power generation. These proposals are compared with a strategy that proposes investments in energy-efficiency and the use of renewable sources of energy. The effects of both scenarios on the environment and the risks involved are discussed, as are the investments involved. The associated effects on the Swiss national economy are also discussed. For the efficiency and renewables scenario, two implementation variants are discussed: Inland investments and production are examined as are foreign production options and/or import from foreign countries. The methods used in the study are introduced and discussed. Investment and cost considerations, earnings and effects on employment are also reviewed. The report is completed with an extensive appendix which, amongst other things, includes potential reviews, cost estimates and a discussion on 'smart grids'

  20. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Jørgensen K.

    2000-01-01

    vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and forthe conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport......The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore toillustrate the potential synergistic interplay...... between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalisedelectricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell...

  1. Hybrid Design of Electric Power Generation Systems Including Renewable Sources of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfeng; Singh, Chanan

    2008-01-01

    With the stricter environmental regulations and diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, there is now higher emphasis on exploiting various renewable sources of energy. These alternative sources of energy are usually environmentally friendly and emit no pollutants. However, the capital investments for those renewable sources of energy are normally high,…

  2. Impacts of large-scale Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources on electricity systems, and how these can be modeled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd; Van Den Broek, Machteld; Seebregts, Ad; Faaij, André

    The electricity sector in OECD countries is on the brink of a large shift towards low-carbon electricity generation. Power systems after 2030 may consist largely of two low-carbon generator types: Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources (IRES) such as wind and solar PV and thermal generators such as

  3. Compilation and review of methodologies for estimating the comparative electric power system costs for renewable energy systems. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Working Material provides a review of methodologies for estimating the costs of renewable energy systems and the state of art knowledge on stochastic features and economic evaluation methodologies of renewable energy systems for electricity generation in a grid integrated system. It is expected that this material facilitates the wider access by interested persons to sources for relevant comparative assessment activities which are progressing in the IAEA. Refs, figs, tabs

  4. Renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen is seen by many as a key energetic vector for the 21 st century. Its utilization in fuel cells enables a clean and efficient production of electricity. The possibility to obtain hydrogen from various sources, along with several types of potential applications of fuel cells, have called the attention and investment of developed countries. European Union, United States, Canada and Japan have important programs that establish tied goals for the utilization of fuel cells in transport and distributed energy generation. Aware of the importance of this technology for the energetic future of Brazil, IPEN started 13 years ago the development of fuel cells for stationary and distributed energy applications. Preliminary studies were carried out at the Materials Research Center due to IPEN expertise on nuclear materials development. Based on both, the good initial results and the proposition of the Brazilian Fuel Cell Program (ProH 2 ) by the Ministry of 2 Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), IPEN decided to organize an institutional program on the subject, conducted at the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Center - CCCH. The objectives of the IPEN/CCCH program are based on the MCTI national program, contributing significantly to the national development in this area. The R and D Program was structured in a cross-cutting way involving human and infrastructure resources from many IPEN technical departments. The Center comprises three main areas of interests: PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell); SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell); and H 2 -Production, mainly from ethanol reforming. More than 50 professionals were engaged at this development, although some in part time, including PhDs, MSc and graduate students and undergraduate students. Important scientific and technological results have been obtained and the main achievements can be evaluated by patents, published papers, graduate courses given and the graduate student's thesis concluded. Since 2004, the PEMFC

  5. Electrical integration of renewable energy into stand-alone power supplies incorporating hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, Matthew; Thomson, Murray

    2007-07-15

    A stand-alone renewable-energy system employing a hydrogen-based energy store is now being commissioned within the HaRI project at West Beacon Farm, Leicestershire, UK. The interconnection of the various generators, loads and storage system is made through a central DC busbar: an arrangement that is believed to be unique within systems of this type and scale. The rotating generators, such as the wind turbines, are connected through standard industrial drives operating in regenerative mode, while the DC devices - electrolyser, fuel cell and solar photovoltaic array - employ custom DC-DC converters. This paper reviews the design philosophy of the electrical system and the various converters required. Modelling and simulation of the system is discussed along with practical lessons learnt from its implementation and some initial results are presented. (author)

  6. Electrical hubs: An effective way to integrate non-dispatchable renewable energy sources with minimum impact to the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, A.T.D.; Nik, Vahid M.; Mauree, Dasaraden; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel method introduced to optimize Electrical Hubs. • Novel dispatch based on fuzzy control and finite state machines. • Evaluating sensitivity of three performance indices for system autonomy. • Multi objective optimization considering system autonomy-cost. • Electrical Hubs can cover above 60% of the demand using wind and Solar PV. - Abstract: A paradigm change in energy system design tools, energy market, and energy policy is required to attain the target levels in renewable energy integration and in minimizing pollutant emissions in power generation. Integrating non-dispatchable renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy is vital in this context. Distributed generation has been identified as a promising method to integrate Solar PV (SPV) and wind energy into grid in recent literature. Distributed generation using grid-tied electrical hubs, which consist of Internal Combustion Generator (ICG), non-dispatchable energy sources (i.e., wind turbines and SPV panels) and energy storage for providing the electricity demand in Sri Lanka is considered in this study. A novel dispatch strategy is introduced to address the limitations in the existing methods in optimizing grid-integrated electrical hubs considering real time pricing of the electricity grid and curtailments in grid integration. Multi-objective optimization is conducted for the system design considering grid integration level and Levelized Energy Cost (LEC) as objective functions to evaluate the potential of electrical hubs to integrate SPV and wind energy. The sensitivity of grid curtailments, energy market, price of wind turbines and SPV panels on Pareto front is evaluated subsequently. Results from the Pareto analysis demonstrate the potential of electrical hubs to cover more than 60% of the annual electricity demand from SPV and wind energy considering stringent grid curtailments. Such a share from SPV and wind energy is quite significant when compared to direct grid

  7. Accounting Methodology for Source Energy of Non-Combustible Renewable Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-10-01

    As non-combustible sources of renewable power (wind, solar, hydro, and geothermal) do not consume fuel, the “source” (or “primary”) energy from these sources cannot be accounted for in the same manner as it is for fossil fuel sources. The methodology chosen for these technologies is important as it affects the perception of the relative size of renewable source energy to fossil energy, affects estimates of source-based building energy use, and overall source energy based metrics such as energy productivity. This memo reviews the methodological choices, outlines implications of each choice, summarizes responses to a request for information on this topic, and presents guiding principles for the U.S. Department of Energy, (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to use to determine where modifying the current renewable source energy accounting method used in EERE products and analyses would be appropriate to address the issues raised above.

  8. 2009 Renewable Energy Data Book, August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2009 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  9. 2011 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2012-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2011 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  10. 2010 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2011-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2010 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar energy, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investments.

  11. The Effect of Electric Load Profiles on the Performance of Off-Grid Residential Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Treado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the energy performance of off-grid residential hybrid renewable electric power systems, particularly the effect of electric load profiles on the ability to harvest available solar energy and avoid the consumption of auxiliary energy in the form of propane. The concepts are illustrated by an analysis of the energy performance of electric and propane-fired refrigerators. Off-grid electric power systems frequently incorporate a renewable source, such as wind or solar photovoltaic (PV, with a back-up power provided by a propane fueled motor/generator. Among other design decisions, residential consumers face the choice of employing an electric refrigerator with a conventional vapor compression refrigeration system, or a fuel-fired refrigerator operating as an absorption refrigeration system. One interesting question is whether it is more advantageous from an energy perspective to use electricity to run the refrigerator, which might be provided by some combination of the PV and propane motor/generator, thereby taking advantage of the relatively higher electric refrigerator Coefficient of Performance (COP and free solar energy but having to accept a low electrical conversion efficiency of the motor/generator, or use thermal energy from the combustion of propane to produce the refrigeration effect via an absorption system, albeit with a much lower COP. The analysis is complicated by the fact that most off-grid renewable electrical power systems utilize a battery bank to provide electrical power when it is not available from the wind turbine or PV system, so the state of charge of the battery bank will have a noticeable impact on what energy source is available at any moment in time. Daily electric load profiles combined with variable solar energy input determine the state of charge of the battery bank, with the degree of synchronization between the two being a critical factor in determining performance. The annual energy usage

  12. Renewable energies: public policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazi, Laure; Souletie, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES) are low-carbon energies available right within our borders, and as such can be of great value in addressing the challenges of climate change and energy security. In 2014, renewable energies accounted for 14.6% of France's gross final energy consumption. The French Energy Transition Act for Green Growth sets renewables targets of 23% and 32% as a share of gross final energy consumption by 2020 and 2030, respectively. However, renewable energies are still more costly than conventional energies. A significant share of this additional cost is borne by energy consumers, particularly in the form of energy taxation and biofuels blending obligations. Public aid is also provided to support heat production from renewable energy sources (RES-H). The two most significant aids available today are the Energy Transition Tax Credit (CITE) and the Heat Fund. Comparing the various types of renewable energies shows sharp disparities in terms of the cost of avoiding one tonne of CO 2 , which ranges from euros 59 to more than euros 500 for electricity production it follows that the cost of the energy transition is likely to vary significantly depending on which renewable energy sources are pushed to the fore. The combustion of biomass for heat production appears to offer an economically efficient way to reduce CO 2 emissions. Of the various renewable technologies available for the production of electricity (with the exception of hydropower, which was excluded from the scope of this study), onshore wind power is the least costly

  13. Renewable Energy Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Representatives of state universities, public institutions and Costa Rican private sector, and American experts have exposed projects or experiences about the use and generation of renewable energy in different fields. The thematics presented have been about: development of smart grids and design of electrical energy production systems that allow money saving and reducing emissions to the environment; studies on the use of non-traditional plants and agricultural waste; sustainable energy model in the process of coffee production; experiments from biomass for the fabrication of biodiesel, biogas production and storage; and the use of non-conventional energy. Researches were presented at the Renewable Energy Symposium, organized by the Centro de Investigacion en Estructuras Microscopicas and support of the Vicerrectoria de Investigacion, both from the Universidad de Costa Rica [es

  14. Assessment and evolution of renewable energy policy: the transition of the Latin-American electricity sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersalli, German

    2017-01-01

    The transition to a more sustainable energy system requires a much faster development of new and renewable energy technologies for electricity generation (RENe). Thus, involving new challenges in the regulation of electricity sector. Additionally, a stronger commitment by emerging and developing countries for a deeper decarbonization trajectory, calls for the strengthening of renewable energy policies. Such policies include designing regulatory instruments that are better adapted for their specific economic and institutional needs. This thesis deals with the evaluation and the redesign of policies that encourage the diffusion of RENe in the context of Latin America's countries. To this end, we first use Environmental Economics theory to analyse the different regulatory instruments available, characterize them and to propose evaluation criteria based on a thorough review of the literature. We then carry out a panel data econometric study, to identify the determining factors of investments in regards to new RENe production capacity; and in particular, to measure the effectiveness of such policies. In a third phase, we mobilize the evolutionary theory of technological change to analyse the process of policy implementation, the existing barriers and the obtained results. This analysis is based on three case studies in the electricity sector of Chile, Brazil and Argentina. And finally, we focus on the challenges related to the massive deployment of RENe in Latin America by 2030-2040: the integration of intermittent energy sources, the access to financing and the industrial challenge. Our research shows that the evolution of the economic and institutional context encourages a dynamic which conditions public policy choices as well as their performance. We therefore propose the basis of an analytical framework for the design and assessment of ambitious long-term promoting policies. These policies must be integrated into a multidimensional and coherent project for the

  15. A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA). Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG) credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

  16. 2013 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esterly, S.

    2014-12-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2013 provides facts and figures on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  17. 2012 Renewable Energy Data Book (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelman, R.

    2013-10-01

    This Renewable Energy Data Book for 2012 provides facts and figures in a graphical format on energy in general, renewable electricity in the United States, global renewable energy development, wind power, solar power, geothermal power, biopower, hydropower, advanced water power, hydrogen, renewable fuels, and clean energy investment.

  18. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Renewable Energy Professionals

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  19. Nova Scotia electricity market : frameworks for renewable energy contracting and cogeneration contracting : discussion document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The recent Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee of Nova Scotia report issued a number of recommendations regarding renewable and cogeneration sales to retail consumers, as well as recommendations for top-up, spill rates and back-up rates to complement the operation of independent generating facilities. This discussion paper examined issues which need to be addressed in order to implement the recommendations. The discussion paper also included recommendations relating to the purchase of cogeneration output by the Nova Scotia Power Inc. (NSPI) under long term power purchase agreements. The aim of the paper was to provide a basis for the further discussion of issues in preparation for the development of future rules and regulations. The first part of the document identified ways for buyers and sellers to arrange contracts, as well as issues that need to be addressed at the institutional level to enable arrangements. Options for financial contracts and physical contracts were reviewed.The second part of the document examined pricing issues in the context of both financial and physical contract arrangements. Resolutions for both sets of options were proposed. Energy pricing principles were reviewed, as well as various pricing options and issues related to the analysis of price requirements. It was concluded that in order to support the safe, reliable and economic supply of electricity, the design of the electricity market should enable maximum flexibility in contractual arrangements and facilitate competition in ways that do not harm other parties

  20. Use of derivative instruments to integrate renewable energies into the electricity market; Einsatz derivativer Instrumente zur Integration erneuerbarer Energien in den Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Kilian [Hochschule Aschaffenburg (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Ingenieurwissenschaften; Nelles, Michael [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Agrar- und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultaet; Candra, Dodiek Ika

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of renewable energies to the electricity market is inefficient and expensive with current measures. Further these measures are prejudicial for the existing energy-only-market. The combination of fluctuating and controllable renewable powers in virtual power plants enables the marketing of this power as a derivate on the future market. Thus would relieve the spot market and stabilize pricing on both markets. Subsequently the renewable energy obligation will reduce and renewable energies could be marketed as secured power.

  1. Powering Nigeria through renewable electricity investments: legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy has a prominent role in promoting energy access and addressing environmental concerns with energy use in Nigeria. However, there are legal barriers that have not allowed renewable energy to be used in the Nigerian electricity sector. The absence of an effective legal framework to encourage and ...

  2. Renewable energy annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary.

  3. Renewable energy annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents summary data on renewable energy consumption, the status of each of the primary renewable technologies, a profile of each of the associated industries, an analysis of topical issues related to renewable energy, and information on renewable energy projects worldwide. It is the second in a series of annual reports on renewable energy. The renewable energy resources included in the report are biomass (wood and ethanol); municipal solid waste, including waste-to-energy and landfill gas; geothermal; wind; and solar energy, including solar thermal and photovoltaic. The report also includes various appendices and a glossary

  4. Renewable energies for reduction of greenhouse gases in the Mexican electricity generation in 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islas, J; Manzini, F; Martinez, M [Centre for Energy Research, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This study presents three scenarios relating to the environmental futures of electricity generation in Mexico up to the year 2025. The first scenario emphasizes the use of oil products, particularly fuel oil, and represents the energy policy path that was in effect until 1990. The second scenario prioritizes the use of natural gas, reflecting the energy consumption pattern that arose in the mid-90's as a result of reforms in the energy sector. In the third scenario, the high participation of renewable sources of energy is considered feasible from a technical and economic point of view. The three scenarios are evaluated up to the year 2025 in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acid rain precursor gases (ARPG). [Spanish] Este estudio presenta tres escenarios relacionados de los futuros ambientales de generacion de electricidad en Mexico hasta el ano 2025. El primer escenario enfatiza la utilizacion de productos del petroleo, particularmente el combustoleo, y representa el curso de la politica de energia vigente hasta 1990. El segundo escenario da prioridad al uso de gas natural, reflejando el patron de consumo de energia que surgio a mediados de los 90's como resultado de reformas en el sector energetico. En el tercer escenario, la alta participacion de las fuentes renovables de energia es considerada factible desde los puntos de vista tecnico y economico. Los tres escenarios son evaluados hasta el ano 2025 en terminos de los gases de efecto invernadero (GHG) y de gases precursores de lluvia acida (ARPG).

  5. The path to clean energy: direct coupling of nuclear and renewable technologies for thermal and electrical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Nuclear Fuel Performance and Design; Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Advanced Process and Decision Systems; Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the need to transform the energy infrastructure of the U.S. and elsewhere to systems that can significantly reduce environmental impacts in an efficient and economically viable manner while utilizing both clean energy generation sources and hydrocarbon resources. Thus, DOE is supporting research and development that could lead to more efficient utilization of clean nuclear and renewable energy generation sources. A concept being advanced by the DOE Offices of Nuclear Energy (NE) and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is tighter coupling of nuclear and renewable energy sources in a manner that better optimizes energy use for the combined electricity, industrial manufacturing, and the transportation sectors. This integration concept has been referred to as a “hybrid system” that is capable of providing energy (thermal or electrical) where it is needed, when it is needed. For the purposes of this work, the hybrid system would integrate two or more energy resources to generate two or more products, one of which must be an energy commodity, such as electricity or transportation fuel. This definition requires coupling of subsystems ‘‘behind’’ the electrical transmission bus, where energy flows are dynamically apportioned as necessary to meet demand and the system has a single connection to the grid that provides dispatchable electricity as required while capital intensive generation assets operate at full capacity. Development of integrated energy systems for an “energy park” must carefully consider the intended location and the associated regional resources, traditional industrial processes, energy delivery infrastructure, and markets to identify viable region-specific system configurations. This paper will provide an overview of the current status of regional hybrid energy system design, development and application of dynamic analysis tools to assess technical and economic performance, and

  6. Contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the La Rioja Autonomous Community, Spain. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Gonzalez, Luis Maria; Lopez Ochoa, Luis Maria [Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada, Energia y Construccion, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad de La Rioja, C/Luis de Ulloa, 20, 26004 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Sala Lizarraga, Jose Maria [E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Miguez Tabares, Jose Luis [E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales de Vigo, Universidad de Vigo (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    The implementation of the emissions market should imbue renewable energies with a greater degree of competitiveness regarding conventional generation. In order to comply with the Kyoto protocol, utilities are going to begin to factor in the cost of CO{sub 2} (environmental costs) in their overall generating costs, whereby there will be an increase in the marginal prices of the electricity pool. This article reviews the progress made in the La Rioja Autonomous Community (LRAC) in terms of the introduction of renewable energy technologies since 1996, where renewable energy represents approximately only 10% of the final energy consumption of the LRAC. Nonetheless, the expected exploitation of renewable energies and the recent implementation of a combined cycle facility mean that the electricity scenario in La Rioja will undergo spectacular change over the coming years: we examine the possibility of meeting a target of practical electrical self-sufficiency by 2010. In 2004, power consumption amounted to 1494GWh, with an installed power of 1029.0MW of electricity. By 2010, the Arrubal combined cycle facility will produce around 9600GWh/year, thereby providing a power generation output in La Rioja of close to 2044.7MW, which will involve almost doubling the present output, and multiplying by 8.9 that recorded in this Autonomous Community in 2001. (author)

  7. On the legal nature of electricity supply contracts concluded by electricity companies and power stations generating electricity from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Section 2 of the German Act for enhanced use of electricity from renewable energy sources (StEG) defines the obligation to contract but not the contractual obligations, i.e. the conditions of performance of the contract (supply and purchase of electricity and the legal obligations of contractors). The analysis here shows that characterising this mandatory contract required by the act as an agreement of purchase and sale more appropriately describes the legal nature of the contract and the intent of the legislator than other contracts for supply and purchase of electricity, as for instance those concluded by electric utilities and their customers. One specific aspect elaborated by the author is that the StEG does not constitute an obligation to supply on the part of the renewable energy generating power station, so that the power station operator is not obliged to ensure availability of the electricity at any time or in terms of supplies that can be called off by the purchasing utility, whereas the electric utility is obliged by section 2 of the StEG to purchase the contractual amounts from the generating station. (orig./CB) [de

  8. Mexican renewable electricity law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  9. Mexican renewable electricity law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Mendoza, B.J.; Sheinbaum-Pardo, C. [Institute of Engineering of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, Edificio 12 Bernardo Quintana, Piso 3, Cubiculo 319, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegacion Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-03-15

    Two renewable electricity bills have been proposed in Congress since 2005 in Mexico. The first one was rejected by the Senate and the second one was approved by both the House of Representatives and the Senate in October 2008. Our objective is to explain the nature of both bills and to analyze each of them bearing in mind the Mexican electricity sector management scheme. In the Mexican electricity sector single-buyer scheme, the state-owned companies (Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro) are responsible of the public services and the private sector generates electricity under six modalities: self-supply, cogeneration, independent production, small production, export, and import, which are not considered a public service. This scheme has caused controversies related to the constitutionality of the 1992 Power Public Services Law that allowed this scheme to be implemented. Both bills, the rejected one and the approved one, were formulated and based on that controversial law and their objectives are linked precisely more to the controversial issues than to the promotion of renewable electricity technologies; consequently, the gap among environmental, economic and social issues related with sustainability notion is wider. (author)

  10. Elasticity and Causality Among Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy and Its Determinants in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Bekhet, Hussain Ali; Harun, Nor Hamisham

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy is a significant issue in attaining low-carbon emissions for Malaysia’s economic development path. Therefore, this study investigates the determinants (capital, labour, economic growth, and financial development), which has an influence on renewable energy generation, using time-series data from 1982 to 2015 period. The augmented Cobb–Douglas production function, F-bound test, and vector error correction model are employed to achieve the objectives of the study. The result of...

  11. Renewable energies for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freris, L.; Infield, D.

    2009-01-01

    Power generation from renewable energy sources is different from power generation from classical energies (nuclear, thermal..). Therefore, the integration into the grid of the electricity supplied by renewable sources requires a deep thinking. The reason is that these power sources are controlled by variable elements, like wind, water and sun, which condition production. This book deals with the following aspects in detail: characteristics of classical and intermittent generators; grid balancing between supply and demand; conversion methods of renewable energies into electricity; power systems; privatizing of power generation and birth of new markets, in particular the 'green' power market; development of renewable energies thanks to technical advances. It gives a comprehensive overview of the present day available renewable energy sources for power generation. (J.S.)

  12. A study of the contract terms offered by the regional electricity companies to generators of renewable energy outside the NFFO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, N.C.; Limbrick, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the terms and conditions of contract for the purchase of renewable energy currently offered by the Regional Electricity Companies (RECs) outside the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO), through consultation with electricity generators. It focused on projects contracted under the first and second tranches of the NFFO, and those which have been developed outside this support mechanism (both renewable and fossil-fuelled), but which are characterised by being ''embedded'' in the RECs' distribution networks. (UK)

  13. Smart use of storage potentials of electric vehicles for renewable energy generation in the built environment : A design scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Timmeren, A.; Bauer, T.C.; Silvester, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, results are reported of a technology assessment of use of electrical vehicles for energy storage (of renewable sources), their integration in the built environment and attached required power and charging systems for the Netherlands. This was done as part of the DIEMIGO project on

  14. report on the french objectives of electricity consumption, produced from renewable energies sources and on the analysis of their realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the french objectives of electricity, from renewable energies sources, internal consumption for the next ten years, as the analysis of their realization taking into account the climatic factors likely to change the realization of these objectives. It also discusses the adequacy of the actions to the national engagement in matter of climatic change. (A.L.B.)

  15. Development of a global electricity supply model and investigation of electricity supply by renewable energies with a focus on energy storage requirements for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troendle, Tobias Wolfgang

    2014-12-12

    Electricity supply at present requires about 38% of the global primary energy demand and it is likely to rise further in the coming decades. Facing major problems, such as limited resources of fuels and an ongoing anthropogenic climate change, a sustainable electricity supply based on renewable energies is absolutely vital. Wind and solar power will play an extensive role in future supplies but require energy storage capacities to meet electricity demand. To investigate the relationship of power plant mix and required energy storage capacity, a computer model based on global weather data has been developed to enable the simulation of electricity supply scenarios by up to ten different power plant types for various regions. The focus of the investigation has been on the energy storage requirements of an electricity supply for Europe by wind and solar power. The minimum required energy storage capacity for a totally weather dependent electricity supply occurs at a ratio of 30% wind and 70% photovoltaic (PV) power plant capacity installed. Thus, the required energy storage capacity rises from a transition of to-day's electricity supply to the afore-mentioned 100% renewable wind and PV scenario exponentially to about 150 TWh (3.8% of the annual electricity demand). The installation of additional excess wind and PV power plant capacity was seen to be an efficient way to reduce the required energy storage. Already 10% excess capacity lead to a reduction by 50% of the required storage capacity. To use different storage technologies in an optimised way in terms of storage capacity and efficiency, the storage tasks can be separated into a daily and a seasonal usage. While the seasonal storage capacity has to be about two orders of magnitude larger than the required capacity of the storage for the daily cycle, the sum of stored energy during one year is almost equal for the long and short time storage. In summary, an electricity supply by wind and PV power was shown to

  16. Digital systems, a new ally for renewable energies: Energy supply is revolutionized; Electric power: bits in the grid; Energy transition: collectivities are in open data mode; Renewable energies: GAFAs are running around; Block-chain: a revolution to be refined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, Anne-Claire; Piro, Patrick; Bongrain, Timothee

    2017-01-01

    With 'digitalisation', data are increasingly at the heart of renewable energy production systems, for reducing costs, optimizing decentralized production, etc. This file contains 5 articles which themes are: after the apparition of several energy 'alternative' providers some ten years ago, a new generation of fully-digitalized providers (Ilek, Plum Energie, ekWateur, etc.) is revolutionizing the French energy sector; RTE and Enedis, the two subsidiaries of Electricite de France, are increasingly investing in digital systems in order to cope with the integration of renewable energies, through a more agile and flexible approach; As the French legislation has now established 'open data' for energy data, this could be an efficient tool for public communities in their sustainable energy policy approach; Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon (Gafa) have recently decided to 'green' the enormous electric power quantities they consume, leading to very positive consequences for renewable energies; Energy providers are more and more interested in Block-chain, the technology for peer-to-peer transaction platforms that uses decentralised storage to record all transaction data, as it could be essential for renewable energies; however, the technology needs to be improved

  17. Finite Action-Set Learning Automata for Economic Dispatch Considering Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpeng Zhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The coming interaction between a growing electrified vehicle fleet and the desired growth in renewable energy provides new insights into the economic dispatch (ED problem. This paper presents an economic dispatch model that considers electric vehicle charging, battery exchange stations, and wind farms. This ED model is a high-dimensional, non-linear, and stochastic problem and its solution requires powerful methods. A new finite action-set learning automata (FALA-based approach that has the ability to adapt to a stochastic environment is proposed. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated in a modified IEEE 30 bus system. It is compared with continuous action-set learning automata and particle swarm optimization-based approaches in terms of convergence characteristics, computational efficiency, and solution quality. Simulation results show that the proposed FALA-based approach was indeed capable of more efficiently obtaining the approximately optimal solution. In addition, by using an optimal dispatch schedule for the interaction between electric vehicle stations and power systems, it is possible to reduce the gap between demand and power generation at different times of the day.

  18. road-map for smart grids and electricity systems integrating renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebec, Gaelle; Moisan, Francois; Gioria, Michel

    2009-12-01

    The vision of smart grids and electricity systems elaborated in this road-map was drawn up on the basis of consultation and talks with a group of experts from industry (EDF, AREVA, GDF-Suez), public research bodies (SUPELEC, Ecole des Mines, INES, universities), grid operators (ERDF, RTE), local authorities' groups (FNCCR) and ADEME. In the course of these working sessions the experts expressed their opinions intuitu personae. The views outlined in this road-map are not to be assimilated with the official positions of the corporations or research organisations to which the members of the group belong. The visions of smart electricity grids and systems integrating renewable energies in 2020 and in 2050 are in sharp contrast. This contrast was deliberately sought out, for two reasons: - to offer the most exhaustive panorama possible of imaginable futures; - to avoid neglecting a critical technological, organisational or socioeconomic bottleneck that might be associated with a possible scenario left out of the discussion. Accordingly, in seeking contrasting visions the group arrived at extreme representations and even caricatures of the future, which nonetheless help define the outer limit of possibilities, and the scope within which the actual situation will most likely be situated in 2020 and in 2050

  19. Efficient integration of renewable energies in the German electricity market; Effiziente Integration erneuerbarer Energien in den deutschen Elektrizitaetsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabe, C.A.

    2006-07-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity sector aims to carry out coordination tasks within the system by markets and market prices. This study examines how markets need to be designed to carry out coordination tasks caused by integration of renewable energies in an efficient way. This question is applied to the German electricity system and recommendations are derived from identified deficits. The examination uses the structure-conduct-performance approach of industrial organisation economics. Integration of renewable energies does not result in entirely new coordination tasks but complicates those that exist in any electricity supply system. Within the short-term coordination tasks provision and operation of reserve capacity is affected by renewable energies. Long-term coordination means that the relation between fixed and variable costs of generators as well as generator flexibility has to be adjusted to the characteristics of renewable energies. The relevant short-term coordination task with the network is congestion management. In the long run costs of grid expansion and permanent congestion management have to be balanced. For the execution of short-run coordination tasks integrated and centralised market architectures are superior to decentralised architectures. The increase of short-term coordination tasks due to renewable energies caused by inflexibilities of consumers and conventional generators results in more information that has to be considered. By centralising that information in one market, an increase in productive efficiency can be obtained. In Germany the increased coordination tasks are determined by the integration of wind generators into the electricity system. The present German market architecture results in inefficiencies in short-term coordination. This is demonstrated by an analysis of procedural rules and prices of the ancillary service markets. They demonstrate that market performance is low and significant deviations from competitive prices

  20. Renewable energy to produce electricity; Nuevas fuentes de energia para producir electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas Tovar, Roberto; Lopez Rios, Serafin [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1996-05-01

    There are several new energy sources to produce electricity. One of them is the wind energy, which has reached huge commercialization in worldwide. There are in Mexico some zones with high speed wind, which can be used in a short term. This has been proved by the wind pilot power plant of La Venta, Oaxaca, where production costs of US 4.3 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) have been obtained. These costs are among the lowest in the world. By the other hand, among the main uses of solar energy, including both thermal and photovoltaic techniques, the biggest thermo-solar utility, with 350 megawatts (MW) of capacity, is remarkable. This is the plant located in the Mojave Desert, California, USA. In Mexico there is big potential, which can make an important contribution to supplies of electricity. Biomass is another important renewable source, particularly the use of solid municipal waste, the livestock and the wood waste. Finally, other alternate technique is represented by the fuel cells, though it is not properly renewable. However, considering its modular and low environmental impact characteristics, it can get a wide commercial development in the next decade. [Espanol] Existen diversas fuentes nuevas de energia para generar electricidad. Entre ellas, la energia eolica es una de las tecnologias alternas que mayor comercializacion ha alcanzado a nivel mundial. Mexico posee zonas con vientos de velocidades altas en las que su aplicacion puede ser inmediata, como lo prueba la experiencia obtenida con la central piloto de La Venta, Oaxaca, en donde se han alcanzado costos de produccion de 4.3 centavos de dolar por kilowatt-hora (kWh), de los mas bajos a nivel internacional. Por otra parte, entre las principales aplicaciones de la energia solar, en sus tecnologias termica y fotovoltaica, destaca el mayor de los aprovechamientos termosolares, con 350 megawatts de capacidad (MW), localizado en el desierto de Mojave, en California, EUA. En Mexico hay un gran potencial

  1. Optimal Operation and Management for Smart Grid Subsumed High Penetration of Renewable Energy, Electric Vehicle, and Battery Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigenobu, Ryuto; Noorzad, Ahmad Samim; Muarapaz, Cirio; Yona, Atsushi; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2016-04-01

    Distributed generators (DG) and renewable energy sources have been attracting special attention in distribution systems in all over the world. Renewable energies, such as photovoltaic (PV) and wind turbine generators are considered as green energy. However, a large amount of DG penetration causes voltage deviation beyond the statutory range and reverse power flow at interconnection points in the distribution system. If excessive voltage deviation occurs, consumer's electric devices might break and reverse power flow will also has a negative impact on the transmission system. Thus, mass interconnections of DGs has an adverse effect on both of the utility and the customer. Therefore, reactive power control method is proposed previous research by using inverters attached DGs for prevent voltage deviations. Moreover, battery energy storage system (BESS) is also proposed for resolve reverse power flow. In addition, it is possible to supply high quality power for managing DGs and BESSs. Therefore, this paper proposes a method to maintain voltage, active power, and reactive power flow at interconnection points by using cooperative controlled of PVs, house BESSs, EVs, large BESSs, and existing voltage control devices. This paper not only protect distribution system, but also attain distribution loss reduction and effectivity management of control devices. Therefore mentioned control objectives are formulated as an optimization problem that is solved by using the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Modified scheduling method is proposed in order to improve convergence probability of scheduling scheme. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by case studies results and by using numerical simulations in MATLAB®.

  2. Redesign Electricity Market for the Next Generation Power System of Renewable Energy and Distributed Storage Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic time-series based method to simulate the volatility of intermittent renewable generation and distributed storage devices along timeline. The proposed method can calculate the optimal timeline for different electricity markets and power systems. In practice...

  3. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Sandor, D.; Wiser, R.; Schneider, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  4. Intelligent Decision-Making System with Green Pervasive Computing for Renewable Energy Business in Electricity Markets on Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Joo Kang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the intelligent decision-making system for the smart grid based electricity market which requires distributed decision making on the competitive environments composed of many players and components. It is very important to consider the renewable energy and emission problem which are expected to be monitored by wireless communication networks. It is very difficult to predict renewable energy outputs and emission prices over time horizon, so it could be helpful to catch up those data on real time basis using many different kinds of communication infrastructures. On this backgrounds this paper provides an algorithm to make an optimal decision considering above factors.

  5. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language brochure about hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles, which use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  6. Boosting renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Public policy and funding are basically different, but both are needed to develop the renewable energy market. Public policy creates incentives, but also obligations. The setting up of a 'repurchase rate' also called a 'feed-in tariff' or 'clean energy cash back scheme' obliges electric power companies to buy back energy of renewable origin at a fixed, guaranteed rate. The extra-cost generated, although usually low, is passed on to all customers and does not cost the State anything. Funding is characterized by its source, the manner in which it is obtained and who supplies it, whether it be banks, mutual funds, development agencies, electric power companies, local governments or the consumers themselves. Repurchasing yields regular cash flows over a given period at a lower risk and allows banks to provide funding. This is one of the reasons for its success. This solution is also very popular with political leaders because it does not weigh down public funding. Both these reasons explain why repurchasing is so appreciated in Europe and in a growing number of countries, more than seventy having adopted it in 2010. In addition, it is regularly discounted in relation to technological breakthroughs and lower costs. As is the case in Europe, the problem lies in maintaining an acceptable rate while avoiding excessive project profitability. In Europe, for instance, the number of renewable energy projects is such that consumers are starting to complain about seeing their electricity rates rise because of the famous feed-in tariff, even though the cost of renewable energies continues to drop on a regular basis. The United States and a few other countries, including China, prefer the quota system, or RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standards), which requires electric power companies to generate a minimal share of electric power by a renewable energy source. These companies consequently invest in renewable energy projects or purchase this energy from other suppliers. Like the

  7. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The promotion of renewable electricity in Romania relies primarily on a renewable quota scheme. Since 2017 the scheme has been closed for new projects. Renewable heating and cooling is promoted through investment subsidies. Renewable energy sources in the transport sector are promoted by a bio-fuels quota scheme and indirectly through a subsidy scheme for the purchase of electric vehicles

  8. The interaction between intermittent renewable energy and the electricity, heating and transport sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Duić, Neven; Stadler, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    in a context characterized by a continuously increasing demand. Even in the current financial crisis, renewable energy is expanding heavily . The most used renewable energy is biomass; however there has been a significant increase in wind power and in photovoltaic in the last ten years. Such development....... The conference was dedicated to research concerning methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainable development as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water and environment systems and their many combinations. At the conference...... 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents participated. In this Special Issue the interaction between sectors and renewable energy systems through selected papers from this conference is addressed from a range of technical system analyses to environmental and economic feasibility....

  9. Optimal Electricity Distribution Framework for Public Space: Assessing Renewable Energy Proposals for Freshkills Park, New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Ozgun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrating renewable energy into public space is becoming more common as a climate change solution. However, this approach is often guided by the environmental pillar of sustainability, with less focus on the economic and social pillars. The purpose of this paper is to examine this issue in the speculative renewable energy propositions for Freshkills Park in New York City submitted for the 2012 Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI competition. This paper first proposes an optimal electricity distribution (OED framework in and around public spaces based on relevant ecology and energy theory (Odum’s fourth and fifth law of thermodynamics. This framework addresses social engagement related to public interaction, and economic engagement related to the estimated quantity of electricity produced, in conjunction with environmental engagement related to the embodied energy required to construct the renewable energy infrastructure. Next, the study uses the OED framework to analyse the top twenty-five projects submitted for the LAGI 2012 competition. The findings reveal an electricity distribution imbalance and suggest a lack of in-depth understanding about sustainable electricity distribution within public space design. The paper concludes with suggestions for future research.

  10. Power flow modelling in electric networks with renewable energy sources in large areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhawa, Z. M.; Dvorsky, E.

    2012-01-01

    In many worlds regions there is a great potential for utilizing home grid connected renewable power generating systems, with capacities of MW thousands. The optimal utilization of these sources is connected with power flow possibilities trough the power network in which they have to be connected. There is necessary to respect the long distances among the electric power sources with great outputs and power consumption and non even distribution of the power sources as well. The article gives the solution possibilities for Libya region under utilization of wind renewable sources in north in shore regions. (Authors)

  11. Renewable energy: Renewing the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    During the past 20 years, the United States has enacted some of the world`s most comprehensive legislation to protect and preserve its environmental heritage. These regulations have spawned a $115-billion-per-year industry for {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} products and services, with more than 35,000 companies providing jobs for American workers. On the other hand, environmental regulations have placed heavy cost burdens on many U.S. businesses as they struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. How, then, can one reconcile the growing need for environmental protection with the desire for a stronger, healthier economy? Even as Congress debates the value of existing environmental legislation, new threats are appearing on the horizon. For example, extensive storm damage from Hurricane Andrew and other natural disasters has prompted members of the $650-billion insurance industry to begin studying the effects that global warming may have on future property damage claims. More and more people are realizing that the most efficient and economical way to control pollution is to avoid creating it in the first place. And that`s where renewable energy comes in. Technologies based on nonpolluting renewable energy sources such as sunlight and wind can help preserve our environmental heritage without a tangled web of regulations to burden industry. Renewable energy technologies can also help the United States become a world leader in a potential $400-billion-a-year global market for environmentally friendly products.

  12. China's renewable energy policy: Commitments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Yin Haitao; Li Shoude

    2010-01-01

    The passing of the Renewable Energy Law (REL) in 2005 demonstrated China's commitment to renewable energy development. In the 3 years after the REL, China's renewable electricity capacity grew rapidly. From 2006 to 2008, China's wind capacity installation more than doubled every year for 3 years in a row. However, three facts prevent us from being optimistic about China's renewable electricity future. First, considered as a share of total capacity, renewable electricity capacity is decreasing instead of increasing. This is due simply to the rapid growth of fossil fuel capacity. Second, a significant amount of renewable generation capacity is wasted because it is not connected to the electricity grid. Finally, renewable electricity plants are running at a low level of efficiency. Based on an in-depth analysis of China's existing renewable energy policy, we suggest that these challenges should be dealt with by introducing a market-based mandatory renewable portfolio requirement coupled with strong regulatory monitoring of grid enterprises.

  13. Renewable Electricity Futures Study Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures) provides an analysis of the grid integration opportunities, challenges, and implications of high levels of renewable electricity generation for the U.S. electric system. The study is not a market or policy assessment. Rather, RE Futures examines renewable energy resources and many technical issues related to the operability of the U.S. electricity grid, and provides initial answers to important questions about the integration of high penetrations of renewable electricity technologies from a national perspective. RE Futures results indicate that a future U.S. electricity system that is largely powered by renewable sources is possible and that further work is warranted to investigate this clean generation pathway.

  14. Renewable energy annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic.

  15. Renewable energy annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Annual 1995 is the first in an expected series of annual reports the Energy Information Administration (EIA) intends to publish to provide a comprehensive assessment of renewable energy. This report presents the following information on the history, status, and prospects of renewable energy data: estimates of renewable resources; characterizations of renewable energy technologies; descriptions of industry infrastructures for individual technologies; evaluations of current market status; and assessments of near-term prospects for market growth. An international section is included, as well as two feature articles that discuss issues of importance for renewable energy as a whole. The report also contains a number of technical appendices and a glossary. The renewable energy sources included are biomass (wood), municipal solid waste, biomass-derived liquid fuels, geothermal, wind, and solar and photovoltaic

  16. Determining the Optimal Capacities of Renewable-Energy-Based Energy Conversion Systems for Meeting the Demands of Low-Energy District Heating, Electricity, and District Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Svendsen, Svend; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    as 55 °C for supply and 25 °C for return, and with additional considerations being directed to supply electricity and cooling. Several optimal solutions with various nominal capacities of the technologies involved were obtained in each of the two case studies, one being for the Greater Copenhagen Area......, and the other for the Greater Toronto Area. Various climate conditions of the case areas in question caused different observations of nominal capacities for the energy conversion systems considered with single-production and multi-production based on different renewable energy sources.......This chapter presents a method for determining the optimal capacity of a renewable-energy-based energy conversion system for meeting the energy requirements of a given district as considered on a monthly basis, with use of a low-energy district heating system operating at a low temperature, as low...

  17. Electric vehicles and renewable energy in the transport sector - energy system consequences. Main focus: Battery electric vehicles and hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Joergensen, K.

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the project is to analyse energy, environmental and economic aspects of integrating electric vehicles in the future Danish energy system. Consequences of large-scale utilisation of electric vehicles are analysed. The aim is furthermore to illustrate the potential synergistic interplay between the utilisation of electric vehicles and large-scale utilisation of fluctuating renewable energy resources, such as wind power. Economic aspects for electric vehicles interacting with a liberalised electricity market are analysed. The project focuses on battery electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles based on hydrogen. Based on assumptions on the future technical development for battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles on hydrogen, and for the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, scenarios are set up to reflect expected options for the long-term development of road transport vehicles. Focus is put on the Danish fleet of passenger cars and delivery vans. The scenario analysis includes assumptions on market potential developments and market penetration for the alternative vehicles. Vehicle replacement rates in the Danish transport fleet and the size of fleet development are based on data from The Danish Road Directorate. The electricity supply system development assumed is based on the Danish energy plan, Energy 21, The Plan scenario. The time horizon of the analysis is year 2030. Results from the scenario analysis include the time scales involved for the potential transition towards electricity based vehicles, the fleet composition development, the associated developments in transport fuel consumption and fuel substitution, and the potential CO 2 -emission reduction achievable in the overall transport and power supply system. Detailed model simulations, on an hourly basis, have furthermore been carried out for year 2005 that address potential electricity purchase options for electric vehicles in the context of a liberalised electricity market. The

  18. Renewable energies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosello-Garcia, M.

    2003-04-01

    Dependent upon its energy supplies, the Japan aims to develop its renewable energies production. This evolution will also agrees the engagements of the Kyoto protocol to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. To reach in 2010 7% of the energy consumption by a ''clean energy'', the Japan supports and finances many research projects on the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  19. Renewable and efficient electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Masters, Gilbert M

    2013-01-01

    A solid, quantitative, practical introduction to a wide range of renewable energy systems-in a completely updated, new edition The second edition of Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems provides a solid, quantitative, practical introduction to a wide range of renewable energy systems. For each topic, essential theoretical background is introduced, practical engineering considerations associated with designing systems and predicting their performance are provided, and methods for evaluating the economics of these systems are presented. While the book focuses on

  20. Evaluating Interventions in the U.S. Electricity System: Assessments of Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy, and Small-Scale Cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler-Evans, Kyle

    There is growing interest in reducing the environmental and human-health impacts resulting from electricity generation. Renewable energy, energy efficiency, and energy conservation are all commonly suggested solutions. Such interventions may provide health and environmental benefits by displacing emissions from conventional power plants. However, the generation mix varies considerably from region to region and emissions vary by the type and age of a generator. Thus, the benefits of an intervention will depend on the specific generators that are displaced, which vary depending on the timing and location of the intervention. Marginal emissions factors (MEFs) give a consistent measure of the avoided emissions per megawatt-hour of displaced electricity, which can be used to evaluate the change in emissions resulting from a variety of interventions. This thesis presents the first systematic calculation of MEFs for the U.S. electricity system. Using regressions of hourly generation and emissions data from 2006 through 2011, I estimate regional MEFs for CO2, NO x, and SO2, as well as the share of marginal generation from coal-, gas-, and oil-fired generators. This work highlights significant regional differences in the emissions benefits of displacing a unit of electricity: compared to the West, displacing one megawatt-hour of electricity in the Midwest is expected to avoid roughly 70% more CO2, 12 times more SO 2, and 3 times more NOx emissions. I go on to explore regional variations in the performance of wind turbines and solar panels, where performance is measured relative to three objectives: energy production, avoided CO2 emissions, and avoided health and environmental damages from criteria pollutants. For 22 regions of the United States, I use regressions of historic emissions and generation data to estimate marginal impact factors, a measure of the avoided health and environmental damages per megawatt-hour of displaced electricity. Marginal impact factors are used

  1. New renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewable s in the energy system of the future

  2. How much electricity really costs. Comparison of the state subsidisation and overall social costs of conventional and renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuechler, Swantje; Meyer, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    This study explains how the costs of electricity are an aggregate of different components. The electricity price paid by the end consumer contains not only the actual costs of energy production, which make up only about a third of the actual price in an average household, but also different surcharges such as network charges, electricity tax, value added tax and the concession levy. It furthermore contains the allocation charge stipulated by the Renewable Energy Law (EEG reallocation charge) as a means of allocating the costs of the subsidisation of electricity from renewable resources to the consumers. On the other hand conventional energy resources such as nuclear energy, hard coal and brown coal have substantially benefited over many decades from state subsidies in the form of financial aids, tax rebates and other promotive measures. The main difference between this and the subsidisation of renewable energy is that the costs of conventional energy resources are largely charged to the state budget rather than being made transparent in the electricity price. Based on an evaluation of the literature, data, interviews and the authors' own methodological deliberations this study makes a systematic comparison of the direct as well as indirect state subsidisation of renewable and conventional energy resources during the period from 1970 until 2012. The annual totals obtained for each energy resources are then set in relation to the share of that resource in overall electricity production, yielding specific subsidisation rates in terms of cents per kWh for each resource. This does not yet take into account the high consequential costs in the form of environmental damage and climate-related damage caused by fossil and nuclear fuels as well as the risks associated with the latter (collectively referred to as ''external costs''), all of which are charged to the polluters only at a small fraction of the true amount. The two cost categories of state

  3. Renewable energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Twidell, John

    2015-01-01

    Renewable Energy Resources is a numerate and quantitative text covering the full range of renewable energy technologies and their implementation worldwide. Energy supplies from renewables (such as from biofuels, solar heat, photovoltaics, wind, hydro, wave, tidal, geothermal, and ocean-thermal) are essential components of every nation's energy strategy, not least because of concerns for the local and global environment, for energy security and for sustainability. Thus in the years between the first and this third edition, most renewable energy technologies have grown from fledgling impact to s

  4. Simulation of electricity demand in a remote island for optimal planning of a hybrid renewable energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinas, Aristotelis; Zacharopoulou, Eleni; Pouliasis, George; Engonopoulos, Ioannis; Mavroyeoryos, Konstantinos; Deligiannis, Ilias; Karakatsanis, Georgios; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Tyralis, Hristos

    2017-04-01

    We simulate the electrical energy demand in the remote island of Astypalaia. To this end we first obtain information regarding the local socioeconomic conditions and energy demand. Secondly, the available hourly demand data are analysed at various time scales (hourly, weekly, daily, seasonal). The cross-correlations between the electrical energy demand and the mean daily temperature as well as other climatic variables for the same time period are computed. Also, we investigate the cross-correlation between those climatic variables and other variables related to renewable energy resources from numerous observations around the globe in order to assess the impact of each one to a hybrid renewable energy system. An exploratory data analysis including all variables is performed with the purpose to find hidden relationships. Finally, the demand is simulated considering all the periodicities found in the analysis. The simulation time series will be used in the development of a framework for planning of a hybrid renewable energy system in Astypalaia. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  5. Renewable energy annual 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report presents information on renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as data on US solar thermal and photovoltaic collector manufacturing activities. The renewable energy resources included in the report are: biomass (wood, ethanol, and biodiesel); municipal solid waste; geothermal; wind; and solar (solar thermal and photovoltaic). The first chapter of the report provides an overview of renewable energy use and capability from 1992 through 1996. It contains renewable energy consumption, capacity, and electricity generation data, as well as descriptive text. Chapter 2 presents current (through 1996) information on the US solar energy industry. A glossary of renewable energy terms is also included. 15 figs., 42 tabs.

  6. Renewable energy action agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    To assist the long-term development of the renewable energy industry, the Commonwealth Government, in partnership with industry, has developed the Renewable Energy Action Agenda. New Era -New Energy, launched in June 2000 by Minister for Industry, Science and Resources, Senator Nick Minchin, Minister for the Environment and Heritage, Senator Robert Hill, and Greg Bourne, Regional President of BP Amoco, sets an ambitious target for growth and identifies the strategies and actions necessary to achieve it. The objective of the Renewable Energy Action Agenda was to develop a policy framework underpinning growth in a commercially viable and internationally competitive Australian renewable energy industry

  7. Resilient Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [Unaffiliated

    2017-11-14

    This presentation for the Cable-Tec Expo 2017 offers information about how renewable microgrids can be used to increase resiliency. It includes information about why renewable energy battery diesel hybrids microgrids should be considered for backup power, how to estimate economic savings of microgrids, quantifying the resiliency gain of microgrids, and where renewable microgrids will be successful.

  8. Green technological change. Renewable energies, policy mix and innovation. Results of the GRETCHEN project on the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany; Gruener Wandel. Erneuerbare Energien, Policy Mix und Innovation. Ergebnisse des GRETCHEN-Projektes zum Einfluss des Policy Mixes auf technologischen und strukturellen Wandel bei erneuerbaren Stromerzeugungstechnologien in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline S.; Breitschopf, Barbara; Mattes, Katharina [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes; Kalthaus, Martin [Jena Univ. (Germany); Lutz, Christian; Wiebe, Kirsten [Gesellschaft fuer Wirtschaftliche Strukturforschung mbH (GWS), Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The report on the GRETCHEN project that was concerned with the impact of policy mixes on the technological and structural change in renewable energy electricity production technologies in Germany covers the following issues: market and technology development of renewable energy electricity production technologies; the policy mix for renewable electricity production technologies, innovative impact of the policy mix; subordinate conclusions for politics and research.

  9. Sustained diffusion of renewable energy. Politically defined investment contexts for the diffusion of renewable electricity technologies in Spain, the Netherlands and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, V.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing concerns regarding the security of energy supply, climate change, and the environmental-health impacts of fossil fuels' burning and nuclear energy use have consolidated the political interest in many countries to support the diffusion of renewable energy technologies. In the industrialized countries that have adopted so far policies for renewable energy support, diffusion results are mixed. The core questions that challenge policy makers and academics are: How to design policies that are effective in market introduction and able to sustain diffusion in the long-term? and: What is the impact of different policy approaches in terms of technical and cost-performance improvements of renewable energy technologies? The study addresses these questions and proposes to analyze the diffusion potential of support systems from the perspective of investors. Policy design needs to account for the investment risks associated with support schemes and the profitability they enable for investors. But, still, the effectiveness of a specific support system may not be the same across national contexts. Financing agents and economic actors have different business requirements and business culture in various countries, which influences the effects of support systems. The technical particularities of technologies may also influence the diffusion process. In order to track down influences, the book examines the market diffusion processes of three renewable electricity technologies in three countries: wind energy in Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom; biomass in Spain; and small hydropower technology in Spain. The book may be particularly interesting for policy makers and policy scholars concerned with the challenge of greening the energy supply, and understanding diffusion processes and their consequences

  10. Smart grids and renewable electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, I.H. [Waterloo Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Environment and Resource Studies

    2010-07-01

    Smart grids serve to integrate advanced information and communication technologies (ICTs) into power systems. Increased use of ICTs enable a range of information sources to be deployed in the management of the power system. Therefore, the particular advantages that renewable electricity can offer can be more easily accessed. This presentation discussed the ways in which smart grids could promote increased use of renewable electricity in grid-connected systems. The presentation provided both a general review of global activity in this area, and focused on a project underway in Ontario. The energy hub management system project is based out of the University of Waterloo and represents a partnership among universities, utilities, government and the private sector. The purpose of the project is to provide energy managers increased information and control on their energy producing, consuming and storing devices by developing pilot projects across Ontario to deploy the energy hub management system in residential, commercial/institutional, industrial and agricultural settings. Perspectives on how smart grids could continue to develop around the world were provided. figs.

  11. Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  12. Marine Renewable Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Conley, Daniel; Vicinanza, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Countries with coastlines may have valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves, and offshorewind.The potential to gather energy from the sea has recently gained interest in several nations, so Marine Renewable Energy Installations (hereinafter MREIs) will likely become...

  13. Integrating private transport into renewable energy policy. The strategy of creating intelligent recharging grids for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Poul H.; Rask, Morten; Mathews, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A new business model for accelerating the introduction of electric vehicles into private transport systems involves the provision by an Electric Recharge Grid Operator (ERGO) of an intelligent rechargeable network in advance of the vehicles themselves. The ERGO business model creates a market for co-ordinated production and consumption of renewable energy. The innovative contribution of the model rests in its ability to combine two problems and thereby solve them in a fresh way. One problem derives from utilizing power grids with a substantial increase in renewable electric energy production (as witnessed in the Danish case with wind energy) and managing the resulting fluctuating supply efficiently. The other problem concerns finding ways to reduce CO 2 emissions in the transport sector. The ERGO business model effectively solves both problems, by transforming EVs into distributed storage devices for electricity, thus enabling a fresh approach to evening out of fluctuating and unpredictable energy sources, while drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This integrated solution carries many other associated benefits, amongst which are the possibility of introducing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) distributed power generation; introducing IT intelligence to the grid, and creating virtual power plants from distributed sources; and providing new applications for carbon credits in the decarbonisation of the economy. The countries and regions that have signed on to this model and are working to introduce it in 2009-2011 include Israel, Denmark, Australia, and in the US, the Bay Area cities and the state of Hawaii. (author)

  14. Design of grid tariffs in electricity systems with variable renewable energy and power to heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Bergaentzlé, Claire; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    Large shares of variable renewable energy (VRE), requires flexibility solutions are developed. Considerable flexibility potentials exist from large consumers, e.g. power-to-heat (P2H) in district heating (DH). However, the existing grid tariffs obliterate the price signals from the wholesale...... designs that facilitate more flexible energy demand of DH operators. This is illustrated by a case study of Denmark that clearly demonstrates that the introduction of innovative tariffs will improve the business case for flexible P2H technologies and increase the value of VRE. In this way larger...... flexibility potentials can be induced and larger shares of VRE become integrated in the energy systems....

  15. Electricity markets evolution with the changing generation mix: An empirical analysis based on China 2050 High Renewable Energy Penetration Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Peng; Chen, Qixin; Yu, Yang; Xia, Qing; Kang, Chongqing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • How electricity markets are evolving with the changing generation mix is studied. • China 2050 High Renewable Energy Penetration Roadmap are empirically analysed. • A multi-period Nash-Cournot model is established to study the market equilibrium. • Energy storages are analysed and compared to reveal their impacts on the equilibrium. - Abstract: The power generation mix are significantly changing due to the growth of stricter energy policies. The renewables are increasingly penetrating the power systems and leading to more clean energy and lower energy prices. However, they also require much more flexibilities and ancillary services to handle their uncertainties and variabilities. Thus, the requirements for regulation and reserve services may dramatically increase while the supplies of these services, which are mainly from the traditional thermal plants, remain almost invariant. This changing situation will cause higher regulation and reserve prices and impact the profit models and revenue structures of the traditional plants. How electricity markets are actually evolving with the changing generation mix? Can enough backup power plants be given adequate economic incentives and thus remained with the increasing renewables and the decreasing energy prices and productions? Can de-carbonization be fully performed in power systems? To explicitly answer the question, this paper uses a multi-period Nash-Cournot equilibrium model to formulate the evolution of power markets incorporating different types of generators, including thermal units, hydro units, wind farms, solar stations and energy storage systems. The price changes in the co-optimized energy, regulation and reserve markets, and the profit changes of various generators are studied. And the variabilities and uncertainties of renewable generation sources are considered in dynamically determining the requirements of regulation and reserve services. Based on the China 2050 High Renewable Energy

  16. Overview of renewable electricity in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    RTE is the mainspring in enhancing energy transition and developing renewable energy in France. To further knowledge on the subject, RTE publishes a detailed inventory of existing and projected wind and photovoltaic installations. This vast overview was achieved with the help of ERDF, ADEeF (Association of electricity distribution network operators in France) and SER (Association of renewable energy industrialists). 2015's outstanding facts: The wind and photovoltaic industries are the major contributor to the growth of renewable electrical energy (REN), with 16.5 GW installed capacity in December 31, 2015. These two industries now represent 38% of the generation capacity of REN in France. Renewable electricity generation power in metropolitan France amounts to 43.6 GW, 58% of which is of hydroelectric origin

  17. The renewable energies in France: the main results in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This note takes stock on the renewable energies in France. It provides data and analyses the electric power production for the different renewable energy sources and the consumption of thermal renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  18. Including Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Policies in Electricity Demand Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find more information on how state and local air agencies can identify on-the-books EE/RE policies, develop a methodology for projecting a jurisdiction's energy demand, and estimate the change in power sector emissions.

  19. Microgrids formed by renewable energy integration into power grids pose electrical protection challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, Z; Saqib, MA

    2016-01-01

    System parameters of a microgrid change in its two operating modes primarily due to output current limitation of PWM based inverters connected with renewable energy sources. The unavailability of an appropriate protection scheme, which must be compatible with both modes of a microgrid operation, is a major problem in the implementation of a microgrid. Two important properties of the microgrid components are peer-to-peer, and plug-and-play. It means that there is no component like a master con...

  20. Bridging Climate Change Resilience and Mitigation in the Electricity Sector Through Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: Emerging Climate Change and Development Topics for Energy Sector Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sarah L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hotchkiss, Elizabeth L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bilello, Daniel E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Watson, Andrea C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holm, Alison [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-03

    Reliable, safe, and secure electricity is essential for economic and social development and a necessary input for many sectors of the economy. However, electricity generation and associated processes make up a significant portion of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contributing to climate change. Furthermore, electricity systems are vulnerable to climate change impacts - both short-term events and changes over the longer term. This vulnerability presents both near-term and chronic challenges in providing reliable, affordable, equitable, and sustainable energy services. Within this context, developing countries face a number of challenges in the energy sector, including the need to reliably meet growing electricity demand, lessen dependence on imported fuels, expand energy access, and improve stressed infrastructure for fuel supply and electricity transmission. Energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) technical solutions described in this paper can bridge action across climate change mitigation and resilience through reducing GHG emissions and supporting electric power sector adaptation to increasing climate risk. Integrated planning approaches, also highlighted in this paper, play an integral role in bringing together mitigation and resilience action under broader frameworks. Through supporting EE and RE deployment and integrated planning approaches, unique to specific national and local circumstances, countries can design and implement policies, strategies, and sectoral plans that unite development priorities, climate change mitigation, and resilience.

  1. Wind energy renewable energy and the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn; Nelson, Vaughn

    2009-01-01

    Due to the mounting demand for energy and increasing population of the world, switching from nonrenewable fossil fuels to other energy sources is not an option-it is a necessity. Focusing on a cost-effective option for the generation of electricity, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment covers all facets of wind energy and wind turbines. The book begins by outlining the history of wind energy, before providing reasons to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. After examining the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, and turbulence, it discusses the measur

  2. Renewable Energy: Energy Security and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John

    2002-03-01

    Renewable energy offers the possibility of providing a complete, sustainable energy infrastructure without anthropogenic emission of CO2. Large-scale implementation of renewable technologies would eliminate the need to develop and implement sequestration systems, by reducing the use of, and ultimately eliminating fossil based energy production. Renewable energy also offers energy security because indigenous resources are sufficient. The major renewable energy systems include phovoltaics (solar cells), solar thermal (electric and thermal), wind, biomass (plants and trees), hydroelectric, ocean, and geothermal. Given the intermittent nature of solar energy, only those energy systems that are coupled to an energy storage technology will be viable. Among the energy storage technologies are hydrogen, batteries, flywheels, superconductivity, ultracapacitors, pumped hydro, molten salts (for thermal storage), and compressed gas. One of the most versatile energy storage systems and the best energy carrier for transportation is hydrogen. This talk will review some of the basic renewable energy systems, present possible pathways for the implementation of hydrogen into the energy infrastructure and offer research areas that need to be addressed to increase the viability of these renewable energy technologies.

  3. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  4. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  5. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  6. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M. M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baldwin, S. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); DeMeo, E. [Renewable Energy Consulting, Chicago, IL (United States); Reilly, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arent, D. [Joint Inst. for Strategic Energy Analysis, Boulder, CO (United States); Porro, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Meshek, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  7. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, Chad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bain, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chapman, Jamie [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Drury, Easan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); Brown, Stephen R. [HDR/DTA, Portland, ME (Untied States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felker, Fort [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fernandez, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goodrich, Alan C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hagerman, George [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Neil, Sean [Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition, Portland, OR (United States); Paquette, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  8. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  9. Damn renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2017-01-01

    In this book, the author describes how renewable energies have been developed in a way he considers as scandalous, whereas they are a technical, financial and ecological dead end. He also explains how ecologists (notably the ADEME) manipulate figures to make believe that these energies could be an answer to the needs of France, of Europe and of humanity. In a first chapter, he criticises the influence of a so-called green ideology on the design of energy transition. In the second one, he denounces twelve tales about energy transition. In the next chapters, he denounces the sham of renewable energies, and finally tells some unfortunate renewable experiments

  10. Increased sharing of renewable energies in the electricity production system: what impact on the reactor fleet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cany, C.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.; Mansilla, C.; Mathonniere, G.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the flexibility of an individual reactor and of the complete fleet of reactors as a means to cope with the variability of renewable energies like solar or wind energies. Flexibility means the ability for load following and this ability is limited by both safety rules and limits on the release of radionuclides in the environment. The flexibility of the fleet depends on individual reactor flexibility but also on organisational and economic constraints. The participation of a reactor to load following depends on: its availability (not in maintenance or testing phase), its position in the cycle, the positioning of its scheduled shutdowns and the minimization of the volume of effluents. The study presents the future need of flexibility for the reactor fleet as the shares of wind and solar energies increase in the French energy mix. (A.C.)

  11. Renewable energies in France 1970-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    The energy observatory presents in this 2004 edition today data concerning the thermal renewable energies and the new energetic accounting method for the electric renewable energies. The following energy sources are concerned: hydroelectric power, wind power, photovoltaic, geothermal energy, biomass, wood fuels, domestic wastes, heat pumps, biogas, the thermal solar and biofuels. The energy production by renewable sources from 1970 to 2002, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  12. Cross-Country Electricity Trade, Renewable Energy and European Transmission Infrastructure Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Abrell, Jan; Rausch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a multi-country multi-sector general equilibrium model, integrating high-frequency electricity dispatch and trade decisions, to study the e ects of electricity transmission infrastructure (TI) expansion and re- newable energy (RE) penetration in Europe for gains from trade and carbon dioxide emissions in the power sector. TI can bene t or degrade environ- mental outcomes, depending on RE penetration: it complements emissions abatement by mitigating dispatch problems associ...

  13. Integration of Electric Springs and Multi-Port Transformers—A New Solution for AC Microgrids with Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new concept of integrating electric springs (ESs and multi-port transformers (MTPs as an active solution for energy management in alternating current (AC microgrids is proposed. With an ES located at the port where storage devices previously were, the so-called critical flux is regulated to a constant value within the core of the transformer. The voltage on each winding is then clamped so that critical load (CL voltage is regulated to a predefined value. The integration of ESs and MPTs can ensure a safer environment for ES utilization. Thus, the power generated by renewable energy sources can be safely used at residential locations with no need to worry about voltage fluctuations across CLs. Moreover, users can sell electricity to the power companies considered as CLs when the electricity generation of the AC microgrids or the home-installed renewable energy resources exceeds the personal consumption. In the paper, isolated topologies for ESs with three- and four-port transformers are examined, and a theoretical analysis of the ES operation is carried out. Then, equivalent circuits of the isolated ES topologies have been derived. Analysis of the ES operation and effectiveness of the isolated ES topologies are validated by both simulations and experiments.

  14. The impact of intermittently renewable energy on Italian wholesale electricity prices: Additional benefits or additional costs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullì, Francesco; Balbo, Antonio Lo

    2015-01-01

    Most studies of the literature find that the development of renewable energy sources determines a decrease in the wholesale prices. Some authors use this finding to state that the current subsidies for renewable technologies cannot be considered as excessive. By carrying out a hybrid analysis (both simulation and ex-post empirical analyses) of the case of photovoltaic energy in Italy, this article demonstrates that this result cannot be generalised. Under market power, an increase in PV production can provide benefits in terms of a wholesale price decrease only beyond a specific threshold and especially if combined with other effects. Otherwise, it is likely that PV development could imply an increase in prices. Therefore, on the one hand, caution is necessary when using the estimated change in wholesale prices to evaluate the net cost for consumers of the supporting policies for renewables: either the simulation-based models or the full empirical analyses may be misleading. On the other hand, if 'decarbonisation' is the main objective, the energy policies should be designed in order to assure a deep and balanced penetration of the clean technologies, regardless of their estimated transitory impact on wholesale prices (and in the meantime reviewing the organisation of power markets). -- Highlights: •We use a hybrid analysis based on a combined approach (both simulation and ex-post empirical analyses). •There is a critical threshold of RES penetration within which prices may increase. •Price increases are more likely with PV rather than with wind power. •Either the simulation models or the full empirical analyses may be misleading. •Caution is necessary when using the results of these analyses for policy decisions

  15. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.

    2004-06-01

    Technologies using renewable energy sources are receiving increasing interest from both public authorities and power producing companies, mainly because of the environmental advantages they procure in comparison with conventional energy sources. These technologies can be substitution for conventional energy sources and limit damage to the environment. Furthermore, several of the renewable energy technologies satisfy an increasing political goal of self-sufficiency within energy production. The subject of this thesis is promotion of renewable technologies. The primary goal is to increase understanding on how technological development takes place, and establish a theoretical framework that can assist in the construction of policy strategies including instruments for promotion of renewable energy technologies. Technological development is analysed by through quantitative and qualitative methods. (BA)

  16. Renewable energy 1998: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the following five papers: Renewable electricity purchases: History and recent developments; Transmission pricing issues for electricity generation from renewable resources; Analysis of geothermal heat pump manufacturers survey data; A view of the forest products industry from a wood energy perspective; and Wind energy developments: Incentives in selected countries. A glossary is included. 19 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Modelling renewable energy resource and the electricity network (East Midlands region)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, P.A.; Ma, T.

    2002-07-01

    The UK Government's targets for renewable generation and combined heat and power (CHP) are expected to result in a significant growth in embedded generation. This report describes the results of a study of the capability of the electricity distribution network in the East Midlands to accept embedded generation. Detailed network studies were performed for two sample networks: one representing an urban network (Leicester) and one representing a rural network (Boston). The 132 kV networks of the grid groups covering these areas were also studied. This included an examination of the connection points from major 132 kV busbars at grid supply points down to 11 kV primary substations. Power system studies were performed to identify the constraints and capabilities of the existing network, These studies included load flow to examine voltage profile and overloading, fault level analysis and transient studies to examine generator and network stability following faults on the network and voltage step change due to generator tripping. Space network capacity for the region was identified and used to assess the ability to accommodate regional targets for renewables and CHP. The study also examined constraining factors and potential solutions, including four improvement scenarios.

  18. The renewable energies in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report is about the energetic politc and its strong commitment with the incorporation of autochthonous sources and renewable energy. The objective and the main lines of action in Uruguay are: provide electric power, wind, biomass, bioethanol, biodiesel, solar and hydroelectric power

  19. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Hungary, electricity from renewable energy sources is supported by a feed-in-tariff or a market ('green') premium, depending on the capacity and energy source. Household-sized power plants up to 50 kVA can benefit from net metering. In general, subsidy programmes also promote the use of renewable energy sources in the electricity and heating sector. The main support scheme for the use of renewable energy in the transportation sector is a quota system supplemented by a reimbursement of excise duty

  20. Energy Systems With Renewable Hydrogen Compared to Direct Use of Renewable Energy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerfried Jungmeier; Kurt Konighofer; Josef Spitzer; R Haas; A Ajanovic

    2006-01-01

    The current Austrian energy system has a renewable energy share of 20% - 11% hydropower and 9 % biomass - of total primary energy consumption. Whereas a possible future introduction of renewable hydrogen must be seen in the context of current energy policies in Austria e.g. increase of energy efficiency and use of renewable energy, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of the research project is a life cycle based comparison of energy systems with renewable hydrogen from hydropower, wind, photovoltaic and biomass compared to the direct use of renewable energy for combined heat and power applications and transportation services. In particular this paper focuses on the main question, if renewable energy should be used directly or indirectly via renewable hydrogen. The assessment is based on a life cycle approach to analyse the energy efficiency, the material demand, the greenhouse gas emissions and economic aspects e.g. energy costs and some qualitative aspects e.g. energy service. The overall comparison of the considered energy systems for transportation service and combined heat and electricity application shows, that renewable hydrogen might be beneficial mainly for transportation services, if the electric vehicle will not be further developed to a feasibly wide-spread application for transportation service in future. For combined heat and electricity production there is no advantage of renewable hydrogen versus the direct use of renewable energy. Conclusions for Austria are therefore: 1) renewable hydrogen is an interesting energy carrier and might play an important role in a future sustainable Austrian energy system; 2) renewable hydrogen applications look most promising in the transportation sector; 3) renewable hydrogen applications will be of low importance for combined heat and electricity applications, as existing technologies for direct use of renewable energy for heat and electricity are well developed and very efficient; 4) In a future '100

  1. Evaluating options for balancing the water-electricity nexus in California: Part 2--greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; AghaKouchak, Amir; Sobhani, Reza; Feldman, David; Jiang, Sunny; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare the technical potential and effectiveness of different water supply options for securing water availability in a large-scale, interconnected water supply system under historical and climate-change augmented inflow and demand conditions. Part 2 of the study focused on determining the greenhouse gas and renewable energy utilization impacts of different pathways to stabilize major surface reservoir levels. Using a detailed electric grid model and taking into account impacts on the operation of the water supply infrastructure, the greenhouse gas emissions and effect on overall grid renewable penetration level was calculated for each water supply option portfolio that successfully secured water availability from Part 1. The effects on the energy signature of water supply infrastructure were found to be just as important as that of the fundamental processes for each option. Under historical (baseline) conditions, many option portfolios were capable of securing surface reservoir levels with a net neutral or negative effect on emissions and a benefit for renewable energy utilization. Under climate change augmented conditions, however, careful selection of the water supply option portfolio was required to prevent imposing major emissions increases for the system. Overall, this analysis provided quantitative insight into the tradeoffs associated with choosing different pathways for securing California's water supply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The wood, renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-12-01

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  3. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support instruments for incentivising electricity from renewable energy sources are feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. A subsidy instrument is used as well. Households operating small solar installations are entitled to tax benefits. Renewable heat production is promoted through four subsidy instruments. Renewable transport fuels are promoted by way of a bio-fuels blending quota scheme

  4. Recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, Hayal Ayca; Simsek, Nevzat

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the importance of renewable energy sources has increased significantly as climate change has become an important long term threat to global ecosystems and the world economy. In the face of increased concern about climate change and high fossil fuel costs together with a reduction in the primary energy sources such as oil, natural gas and coal, alternative energy sources (renewables) are increasingly needed to respond to the threat of climate change and growing energy demand in the world. Recent developments in Turkey, such as the liberalization of the electricity market and improvements in the renewable legislations, have accelerated the growth process and investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy. Turkey′s naturally endowed potential for renewables, such as solar, geothermal and wind, also accompanied these developments and attracted world attention to this market. In Turkey, renewable energy sources have gained great importance in the last decades due to growing energy demand and incentive policies which foster the utilization of renewable energy sources. This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey and discuss the government policies and economic aspects. - highlights: • Turkey′s potential for renewable energy has attracted world attention. • Turkey has specific energy objectives in promoting renewable energy. • This paper evaluates recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey. • Incentives in Turkey have led to more investment in renewable energy generation

  5. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  6. The market for tradable renewable energy credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, David

    2002-01-01

    As states seek to foster the development of renewable energy resources, some have introduced renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) which require retailers of electricity to derive a specified amount of their energy supply from renewable energy resources. RPSs in Texas, Arizona, Wisconsin and Nevada allow for or require the use of tradable renewable energy credits. The price of such credits is expected to reflect the cost premium for generating electricity from renewable resources relative to the market price of conventionally generated electricity. Using the market to trade renewable energy credits exposes buyers and sellers to risks of imperfect information, poor performance, and opportunism. These risks can be managed through contractual arrangements and regulatory requirements pertaining to property rights in credits, pricing, term of the contract, and assurance of performance

  7. Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S., California and Illinois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Agarwal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation at national and individual state level in U.S has been developed. The model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints (CO2 emissions. Economic policy analysis experiments are carried out to determine the consequences of switching the sources of electricity generation under two scenarios: in first scenario, a switch from coal to renewable sources is made for 10% of electricity generation; in the second scenario, the switch is made for 10% of electricity generation from coal to coal with clean coal technology by employing CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS. The cost of electricity generation from various non-renewable and renewable sources is different and is taken into account in the model. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1 energy prices are fully regulated, (2 energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3 energy prices and electricity supply both are fully adjusted. The model is applied to the states of California and Illinois, and at national level.

  8. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Sweden surpassed its 2020 nationally binding renewable energy in 2013. Main support measures to promote renewable energy in Sweden consists of a quota system, various tax regulation mechanisms and subsidy schemes. Sweden has a joint support scheme with Norway, thus being the first EU Member State to implement a cooperation mechanism, as defined under the 2009 EU Renewable Energy Directive. The Swedish coalition government has agreed on a target of 100% renewable electricity production by 2040

  9. The renewable energy market in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Australia is committed to an 8 per cent reduction in its emissions of greenhouse gases above 1990 levels as a result of the Kyoto Protocol for the period 2008-2012. At present, the emissions stand at 17.4 per cent above 1990 levels. Total electrical power in Australia resulting from renewable energy is in the order of 10.5 per cent. A mandatory renewable energy target of 9500 gigawatt hour (GWh) of extra renewable energy is to be produced annually by 2010, under the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act. An emissions trading system has been implemented, involving one renewable energy certificate (REC) created for each megawatt hour of renewable energy generated. A significant expansion of the demand for renewable energy is expected in Australia over the next ten years, according to the Australian Greenhouse Office. Increased opportunities for local and international firms operating in the field of renewable energy are being created by the Australian government through initiatives such as the Renewable Energy Commercialization Program, and the Renewable Remote Power Generation Program. Solar, biomass, and wind power are comprised in the wealth of renewable energy resources in Australia. The market remains largely undeveloped. Firms from the United States and the European Union are the leading exporters of renewable energy technology to Australia. Public utilities and independent power producers having entered the deregulated electricity market are the consumers of renewable energy technology and services. A country with minimal duties in most cases, Australia has much in common with Canada, including similar regulatory and legal systems. Australia applies a 10 per cent goods and services tax, which would apply to Canadian exports. It was advised to consult the Australian Customs Service for additional information concerning duties that might be applicable to the renewable energy industry. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Assessing Impact of Large-Scale Distributed Residential HVAC Control Optimization on Electricity Grid Operation and Renewable Energy Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Charles D.

    Demand management is an important component of the emerging Smart Grid, and a potential solution to the supply-demand imbalance occurring increasingly as intermittent renewable electricity is added to the generation mix. Model predictive control (MPC) has shown great promise for controlling HVAC demand in commercial buildings, making it an ideal solution to this problem. MPC is believed to hold similar promise for residential applications, yet very few examples exist in the literature despite a growing interest in residential demand management. This work explores the potential for residential buildings to shape electric demand at the distribution feeder level in order to reduce peak demand, reduce system ramping, and increase load factor using detailed sub-hourly simulations of thousands of buildings coupled to distribution power flow software. More generally, this work develops a methodology for the directed optimization of residential HVAC operation using a distributed but directed MPC scheme that can be applied to today's programmable thermostat technologies to address the increasing variability in electric supply and demand. Case studies incorporating varying levels of renewable energy generation demonstrate the approach and highlight important considerations for large-scale residential model predictive control.

  11. New Quebec renewable energy organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, D.; Salaff, S.

    1998-04-01

    The recent formation of the Quebec Association for the Production of Renewable Energy (l`Association quebecoise de la production d`energie renouvelable - AQPER) was announced. The Association is becoming the centre of the Quebec private electricity generation industry. By communicating the industry`s message to the public the organization gives much needed visibility to renewable resources, new forms of energy and sustainable development. The new group is an outgrowth of the former Quebec Association of Private Hydroelectricity Producers. In its new reincarnation, the organization represents all forms of renewables, small and medium hydro, wind, solar, forest and agricultural biomass and urban waste. With deregulation of the electricity market, specifically the creation of the Regie de l`energie` in Quebec, the wider role is a welcome boost for renewable energy development in the province. In one of its first actions the AQPER recommended that all hydroelectric sites up to 50 MW be reserved for development exclusively by the private sector, in conformity with the Quebec energy policy announced in 1996.

  12. Law nr 2017-227 of the 24 February 2017 ratifying ordinances nr 2016-1019 of the 27 July 2016 related to electricity self-consumption, and nr 2016-1059 of the 3 August 2016 related to electricity production from renewable energies and aiming at adapting some arrangements related to electricity and gas networks, and to renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollande, Francois; Cazeneuve, Bernard; Royal, Segolene

    2017-01-01

    This legal text is made of articles which first ratify ordinances related to electricity self-consumption and to electricity production from renewable energies, and then introduce modifications brought to the different concerned French codes and laws in order to take these practices into account, and to create a legal framework for producers, installations and regulation bodies

  13. Economics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Mitigation versus a Suite of Alternative Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity Generation in U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An equilibrium economic model for policy evaluation related to electricity generation in U.S has been developed; the model takes into account the non-renewable and renewable energy sources, demand and supply factors and environmental constraints. The non-renewable energy sources include three types of fossil fuels: coal, natural gas and petroleum, and renewable energy sources include nuclear, hydraulic, wind, solar photovoltaic, biomass wood, biomass waste and geothermal. Energy demand sectors include households, industrial manufacturing and non-manufacturing commercial enterprises. Energy supply takes into account the electricity delivered to the consumer by the utility companies at a certain price which maybe different for retail and wholesale customers. Environmental risks primarily take into account the CO2 generation from fossil fuels. The model takes into account the employment in various sectors and labor supply and demand. Detailed electricity supply and demand data, electricity cost data, employment data in various sectors and CO2 generation data are collected for a period of nineteen years from 1990 to 2009 in U.S. The model is employed for policy analysis experiments if a switch is made in sources of electricity generation, namely from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. As an example, we consider a switch of 10% of electricity generation from coal to 5% from wind, 3% from solar photovoltaic, 1% from biomass wood and 1% from biomass waste. The model is also applied to a switch from 10% coal to 10% from clean coal technologies. It should be noted that the cost of electricity generation from different sources is different and is taken into account. The consequences of this switch on supply and demand, employment, wages, and emissions are obtained from the economic model under three scenarios: (1 energy prices are fully regulated, (2 energy prices are fully adjusted with electricity supply fixed, and (3 energy prices and

  14. RENEWABLE ENERGY IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA MIHĂILĂ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports published by the International Energy Agency and U.S. Department of Energy, regarding the global energy outlook for the first three decades of the XXI century, warns of global trends on energy demand, increasing dependence on energy imports, coal use and volume emissions of greenhouse gases, torism industry being one of the biggest energy consumption industry. Uncertainties on different models of regional development and access of the world to traditional energy resources require a change of orientation towards long-term scenarios for assessing energy domain, increasing the share of energy from renewable resources beeing one of the solutions. Intourism the renewable energy is a solution for a positive impact on enviroment , reduced operational costs and even won an extra-profit.

  15. On-Site Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes a variety of approaches that local governments can use to advance climate and energy goals by meeting some or all of their electricity needs through on-site renewable energy generation.

  16. Renewable Energy. The Power to Choose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

    This book, consisting of 13 chapters, charts the progress made in renewable energy in recent years and outlines renewable energy's prospects. Areas addressed include: energy at the crossroads (discussing oil, gas, coal, nuclear power, and the conservation revolution); solar building design; solar collection; sunlight to electricity; wood; energy…

  17. Sustaining with efficiency the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, L.; Lorenzoni, A.

    2008-01-01

    European energy policy requires actions, in favour of a more widespread diffusion of renewable energy sources. Is essential to have an efficient financial support to reduce costs. Are presented an estimated of electric power from renewable energy sources and some criticism. Is proposed a modification of green certificates market based on bilateral tradable agreements [it

  18. Contribution of Renewables to Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The environmental benefits of renewable energy are well known. But the contribution that they can make to energy security is less widely recognised. This report aims to redress the balance, showing how in electricity generation, heat supply, and transport, renewables can enhance energy security and suggesting policies that can optimise this contribution.

  19. Development of renewable energy resources in Afghanistan for economically optimized cross-border electricity trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Masih Sediqi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Afghanistan is a key country between energy surplus areas (Central Asian Republics andIran and energy deficit regions (Pakistan and India. It is in a position that can facilitate and launchregional electricity trade for the benefit of the region also derive significant gains for its own economyfrom energy imports and exports. On the other hand, Afghanistan is endowed with large renewableenergy resources (RERs, which it could exploit not only to satisfy its domestic power demand butalso to earn significant export revenue. This paper firstly explains the methodology and framework forthe power trade and then presents an optimization framework for profit maximization in the short-runtrading and cost minimization in the long-run trading. The proposed methodology is applied to a realcase between Afghanistan and Pakistan. The objective functions, parameters, variables and constraintsare described for both optimization models. System sizing, simulation and optimization are carriedout using genetic algorithm (GA technique. The results in the short-run model represent optimalityof about 2654 MW electricity export from Afghanistan to Pakistan during summer. Moreover, resultsderived from running long-run model depict that by utilizing its RERs such as solar, wind and hydro,Afghanistan can not only meet its power demand but also can export to Pakistan during its deficitperiods and gain remarkable energy profits.

  20. Modelling the future development of renewable energy technologies in the European electricity sector using agent-based simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Anne Mirjam [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Increasing the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in final energy consumption forms an important part of the EU's energy and climate strategy due to the potential contribution of RES to climate protection and security of supply and to the economic competitiveness of the energy system. Several factors substantially influence the future prospects for the use of renewable energy technologies (RET); these include the combination of regionally heterogeneous resource availability and electricity generation costs, referred to as cost-resource curves. Most of the existing RET are not yet economically competitive with conventional conversion technologies. To try and make renewable energy technologies (RET) economically viable for investors, various policy support schemes, such as feed-in tariffs or quota obligations, have been applied for over a decade. This raises the questions how the use of RES will develop in the future under different policy regimes and what the involved economic implications are. A quantitative modelling tool is developed in this thesis to assess the potential long-term contribution of RET in the European power sector. Since the future market development of RET is judged to depend in particular on individual investors' decisions, an agent-based simulation (ABS) approach is chosen. ABS is an approach which analyses global complexities based on interactions on the microlevel. This thesis pursues a novel approach to assessing RET diffusion processes and policies from an agent-based perspective based on spatially explicit cost-resource curves. The cost-resource curves derived in this analysis are adapted to the requirements of a multi-agent model. Owing to the detailed techno-economic characterisation of RET and the potential to depict various policy options, the developed simulation model could help to design policies suited to the relevant agents in the renewable energy sector, or point out existing investment opportunities for interested

  1. Comparation of the support schemes for generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and their influence on the electricity pr ices for the final electricity customers in Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veljanovska, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy is the first source of energy used by the man since his existence, using the wood as a source for heating and warming, as well as for cooking. Today, the use of renewable energy is one of the main goals of the energy policies in the world. The use of renewable energy contributes in increasing security of supply, decreasing import dependence of fossil fuels and improving socioeconomic stability. The use of renewable energy directly contributes in reducing the intensity of climate change, providing local development and job creation. The thesis addresses the concept of the support schemes for electricity generation from renewable energy, more specifically, the manner of their application for fulfillment of the national targets for the share of energy from renewable sources in the total energy consumption. The thesis is developed covering three important aspects of support schemes: the possibility for implementation of appropriate support scheme in the Republic of Macedonia; the influence of support scheme on the electricity price for the customers; and the determination of the feed-in tariffs. The main contributions of the thesis are: determination of influence of the feed-in tariffs as appropriate support scheme for electricity generation from renewable energy in the Republic of Macedonia on the electricity price for the customers, as well as the determination of the feed-in tariffs. The thesis presents an overview of the support schemes for electricity generation from renewable energy, with emphasis on new measures developed for the needs of fulfillment of the national targets for the share of energy from renewable sources in the total energy consumption. The thesis also presents the detail characteristics support schemes and possibility for their implementation in the Republic of Macedonia. This research is a confirmation of the initial selection of feed-in tariffs as an appropriate support scheme for renewable energy in the Republic of Macedonia

  2. PEI's perspective on renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 7 per cent of Prince Edward Island's (PEI) energy supply is from renewable sources, acquired mainly from biomass. Wind power accounts for 0.5 per cent of electricity production. This paper discussed issues concerning renewable energy developments in PEI, with particular reference to the PEI Renewable Energy Act as well as the PEI energy framework and renewable energy strategy, which was the result of public consultation sessions held in 2003. The results of these sessions indicated that greater development of indigenous renewable energy resources was desired, particularly in wind power. It was also stated that the government should help to advance renewable energy development in the province. Several development opportunities were highlighted, including: wind; biodiesel; ethanol; biomass; bio-gas; and small-scale hydro. The advantages of wind power were reviewed and wind data was presented. The economic and community benefits of renewable energy include local price stability, development opportunities, diversity of fuel type and security of supply. It was noted that renewable energy fully complemented the energy goals of the PEI government. Several strategies were discussed towards the development of renewable energy, including feasibility studies in biogas and biomass generation. The PEI government's commitment towards developing a regulatory framework acknowledging environmental sustainability was re-stated. Objectives include the promotion of renewable energy sources through the establishment of a Renewable Portfolio Standard for electricity; improvements in the economics of small-scale electricity production from renewable resources through the introduction of net metering; decreases in peak demand; enablement of green credits; the designation of areas for large-scale wind developments; and provision of guaranteed prices paid to producers for medium and large-scale renewable energy generators through feed-in tariffs. tabs, figs

  3. People and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenvald, Avo

    2002-01-01

    The use of renewable energy is tightly connected to solving social problems in Estonia by creating more new jobs. It is essential that Estonia should increase the use of biofuels. One of the biofuels, firewood, has been used already for centuries. For wider use of renewable energy in Estonia, it is not enough to rely only on enterprices. Rather, before any serious progress can take place, the state should create the appropriate legal environment. Due to its many social and environmental aspects, renewable energy is more important to the state than a sole enterprice. Unfortunately, Estonian government has been delaying its duties. Estonia has two resources that should be taken advantage of, fertile spare land and people still used to the country life. The country people would get work by growing different energy crops on the spare land. (author)

  4. Renewable energy sources (promotion)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, F.

    1986-01-01

    Permission to present a Bill to establish an independent commission directly responsible for the research, development and demonstration of clean, renewable, alternative sources of energy (to nuclear energy) is requested. The paragraphs of the preamble to the Bill are summarized by the Member seeking permission. The main reason for promoting renewable energy sources is opposition to the nuclear industry. One objection was raised. However, permission was granted to present the Bill and it was read for the first time with a second reading ordered for 7 March 1986. The Bill itself is not reprinted but the permission and question are reported verbatim. (U.K.)

  5. Application of fuel cell and electrolyzer as hydrogen energy storage system in energy management of electricity energy retailer in the presence of the renewable energy sources and plug-in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojavan, Sayyad; Zare, Kazem; Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Behnam

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Electricity retailer determines selling price to consumers in the smart grids. • Real-time pricing is determined in comparison with fixed and time-of-use pricing. • Hydrogen storage systems and plug-in electric vehicles are used for energy sources. • Optimal charging and discharging power of electrolyser and fuel cell is determined. • Optimal charging and discharging power of plug-in electric vehicles is determined. - Abstract: The plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen storage systems containing electrolyzer, stored hydrogen tanks and fuel cell as energy storage systems can bring various flexibilities to the energy management problem. In this paper, selling price determination and energy management problem of an electricity retailer in the smart grid under uncertainties have been proposed. Multiple energy procurement sources containing pool market, bilateral contracts, distributed generation units, renewable energy sources (photovoltaic system and wind turbine), plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen storage systems are considered. The scenario-based stochastic method is used for uncertainty modeling of pool market prices, consumer demand, temperature, irradiation and wind speed. In the proposed model, the selling price is determined and compared by the retailer in the smart grid in three cases containing fixed pricing, time-of-use pricing and real-time pricing. It is shown that the selling price determination based on real-time pricing and flexibilities of plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen storage systems leads to higher expected profit. The proposed model is formulated as mixed-integer linear programming that can be solved under General Algebraic Modeling System. To validate the proposed model, three types of selling price determination under four case studies are utilized and the results are compared.

  6. Renewable energy - an attractive marketing proposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2001-01-01

    The Global Utilities arm of international business consultants PriceWaterhouseCoopers (PWC) has provided a unique insight into the investment plans of Australian utilities regarding renewable energy. PWC has released the findings of a survey of electricity generators and retailers that neatly illustrates the risks and opportunities facing corporations liable under the mandatory renewable energy targets (MRET). Probably the most revealing finding of the PWC report- 'The Future of Australian Renewable Energy' was that the majority of respondents have not yet formulated a comprehensive renewable energy strategy aimed at meeting their obligations under MRET, or maximising the benefit of renewable energy certificates (RECs) produced. Notably, the majority of those surveyed believed that the strongest incentives for investing in new renewable energy generation was the company's 'green image'. In contrast investment characteristics such as low risk returns, the achievement of cost efficiencies or attractive revenue streams were not critical reasons for investing in renewable generation

  7. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  8. Feasibility study of Thermal Electric Generator Configurations as Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmal Johar, Muhammad; Yahaya, Zulkarnain; Faizan Marwah, Omar Mohd; Jamaludin, Wan Akashah Wan; Najib Ribuan, Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    Thermoelectric Generator is a solid state device that able to convert thermal energy into electrical energy via temperature differences. The technology is based on Seebeck effect that was discovered in year 1821, however till now there is no real application to exploit this capability in mass scale. This research will report the performance analysis of TEG module in controlled environment of lab scale model. National Instrument equipment and Labview software has been choosen and developed to measure the TEG module in various configurations. Based on the experiment result, an additional passive cooling effort has produced a better ΔT by 7°C. The optimal electrical loading of single TEG is recorded at 200Ω. As for circuit connections, series connection has shown superior power output when compared to parallel connection or single TEG. A series connection of two TEGs has produced power output of 416.82μW when compared to other type connections that only produced around 100μW.

  9. Introduction to renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn C

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionEnergy and SocietyTypes of EnergyRenewable EnergyAdvantages/DisadvantagesEconomicsGlobal WarmingOrder of Magnitude EstimatesGrowth (Exponential)SolutionsEnergyIntroductionDefinition of Energy and PowerHeatThermodynamicsEnergy Dilemma in Light of the Laws of ThermodynamicsUse of Fossil FuelsNuclearFinite ResourceSummarySunSolar PowerElectromagnetic SpectrumEnergy Balance of the EarthEarth-Sun MotionInsolationSolar ResourceGreenhouse EffectHeat Transfer and StorageIntroductionConductionConvectionRadiationThermal MassSeasonal Heating or CoolingThermal ComfortSolar Heating and CoolingB

  10. Are renewable energies too expensive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As hydroelectricity is known to be profitable, and as biomass displayed good results when used for heating buildings, the issue of the cost of electricity produced by wind and photovoltaic energies is still a matter of debate. This article outlines how to take different factors into account to assess a discount rate. These factors are location which determines wind and sun resource, the future prices of fossil energies, rates of interest, and so on. It indicates that ground based wind and solar farms now have a kWh cost which is close to that of fossil energies, and lower than that of nuclear energy when taking investment and operation cost into account. The production cost of renewable energies has been dramatically reduced during the last years and this trend will probably continue during the years to come. Thus, the article states that a 100 per cent renewable mix seems possible for France by 2050 without significant over-costs

  11. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 1 - Evaluation of aggregate energy and greenhouse gas performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-07-01

    A study that analyzes the effectiveness of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) to meet holistic environmental goals has been performed across the combined electricity and light-duty transportation sectors. PHEV penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 45%. Part 1 of the study focuses on CO2 emissions, fuel usage, and the renewable penetration level of individual and combined energy sectors. The effect on grid renewable penetration level depends on two factors: the additional vehicle load demand acting to decrease renewable penetration, and the controllability of vehicle charging acting to reduce curtailment of renewable power. PHEV integration can reduce CO2 emissions and fuel usage and increase the aggregate renewable energy share compared to the no-vehicle case. The benefits of isolated PHEV integration are slightly offset by increased CO2 emissions and fuel usage by the electric grid. Significant benefits are only realized when PHEVs are appropriately deployed in conjunction with renewable energy resources, highlighting important synergies between the electric and light-duty transportation sectors for meeting sustainability goals.

  12. Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, R.E.H.; Rogner, H.-H.; Gregory, Ken

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration), were compared with the baseline case of a pulverised coal, steam cycle power plant. Nuclear, hydro, wind, bioenergy and solar generating plants were also evaluated. The objectives were to assess the comparative costs of mitigation per tonne of carbon emissions avoided, and to estimate the total amount of carbon mitigation that could result from the global electricity sector by 2010 and 2020 as a result of fuel switching, carbon dioxide sequestration and the greater uptake of renewable energy. Most technologies showed potential to reduce both generating costs and carbon emission avoidance by 2020 with the exception of solar power and carbon dioxide sequestration. The global electricity industry has potential to reduce its carbon emissions by over 15% by 2020 together with cost saving benefits compared with existing generation

  13. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world. Each profile combines analysis by IRENA's specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources. The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy, including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access. Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country's investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking. The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators, with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org)

  14. Renewable energies in France: main 2003 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-05-01

    This document makes a synthesis of the power and thermal productions linked with renewable energy sources (of primary or secondary origin) for 2003. It details the uses (electrical or thermal) of the different renewable energy sources and their contribution to the different users' needs (residential, industry, agriculture..). A comparison with the previous years (2001 and 2002) is presented in tables. (J.S.)

  15. Techno-economic and sensitivity analysis for grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station in Terengganu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh N. A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to encourage the eco-friendly technologies in transportation sector, the reliance on fuel need to be reduced and the use of renewable energy (RE technology as energy source are widely explored by researchers. Thus, this study focus on the feasibility of developing grid-connected renewable energy electric boat charging station for the fishermen in Terengganu using simulation-based method by HOMER software. Five year solar radiation and wind speed data were collected at Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UNISZA weather station. For load profile, the information about fishing activities and the amount of subsidy spent by the government were obtained from the interview session with the fishermen and validated with Lembaga Kemajuan Ikan Malaysia (LKIM. The results acquired are compared between grid-only and grid-connected RE systems in term of net present cost (NPC, operational cost and payback period. A sensitivity analysis is done to find the minimal Feed-in Tariff (FiT rate that can be implemented in order to encourage the use of RE system in this sector. Then, the relationship between FiT and NPC, payback period and emission of pollutants are analyzed. At current FiT rates RM 0.813/kWh, hybrid grid-PV system manages to achieve its optimal in generating high income from selling the power to the grid with convincing amount of electricity production and short payback period. It is concluded at minimum RM 0.56/kWh of FiT, the grid-connected RE system is possible to be developed because its performance shows better outcome compared to the grid-only system.

  16. Renewable Electricity Standards: Good Practices and Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-02

    In widespread use globally, renewable electricity standards (RES) are one of the most widely adopted renewable energy policies and a critical regulatory vehicle to accelerate renewable energy deployment. This policy brief provides an introduction to key RES design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific RES policy design.

  17. Renewable sources of electricity in the SWEB area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Following the privatisation of the Electricity Supply Industry, Regional Electricity Companies now have greater influence on the generation and supply of electricity, including power from renewable sources. The introduction of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation has also greatly assisted the development of electricity generation from renewables, culminating in around 260 MW of new renewables capacity by April 1993 in England and Wales, including 116 MW from windfarms. In view of the increased interest in renewables shown nationally and within the South West, SWEB and the Department of Trade and Industry agreed to conduct a study of the renewable energy technologies and their associated resource potential within the SWEB region. (author)

  18. Green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide using geothermal energy and/or hydro power in Iceland or excess renewable electricity in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauw, Marco; Benders, Reinerus; Visser, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide can contribute to mitigation of greenhouse gasses. This methanol can be utilized as either a transport fuel or as an energy carrier for electricity storage. It is preferable to use inexpensive, reliable and renewable energy sources to

  19. Improved electrical properties of free standing blend polymer for renewable energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arya, Anil; Sharma, Sweety; Sharma, A. L., E-mail: alsharmaiitkgp@gmail.com [Centre for Physical Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda-151001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Blend polymer electrolytes are prepared for salt concentration (Ö/Li = 4) with the constant ratio (0.5 gm) of PEO and PAN using solution casting technique. The prepared free standing solid polymeric film is characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) which confirms the homogeneous distribution of dissociated salt in blend polymer matrix. After addition of salt the ionic conductivity value is found to be of the order of 7.13 × 10{sup −5} Scm{sup −1} which is three orders higher when compared with pure blend polymer films. The microscopic interaction among the polymer-ion, ion-ion has been confirmed by the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. A very fine correlation has been built in the electrical conductivity and FTIR result. On the basis of above finding, a prepared free standing solid polymeric film appears to be appropriate for the energy storage/conversion device applications.

  20. Renewable energy in Indian country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    On June 25--27, 1995, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado, the Center for Resource Management (CRM), organized and sponsored a conference in conjunction with the Navajo Nation, EPA, and Bechtel Group, Inc., to deal with issues associated with developing renewable energy resources on Indian lands. Due to the remoteness of many reservation homes and the cost of traditional power line extensions, a large percentage of the Indian population is today without electricity or other energy services. In addition, while they continue to develop energy resources for export, seeing only minimal gain in their own economies, Indian people are also subject to the health and environmental consequences associated with proximity to traditional energy resource development. Renewable energy technologies, on the other hand, are often ideally suited to decentralized, low-density demand. These technologies--especially solar and wind power--have no adverse health impacts associated with generation, are relatively low cost, and can be used in applications as small as a single home, meeting power needs right at a site. Their minimal impact on the environment make them particularly compatible with American Indian philosophies and lifestyles. Unfortunately, the match between renewable energy and Indian tribes has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, coordinated effort to identify renewable energy resources located on Indian lands, to develop practical links between Indian people`s needs and energy producers, and to provide the necessary training for tribal leaders and members to plan, implement, and maintain renewable energy systems. Summaries of the presentations are presented.

  1. Modeling of renewable hybrid energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Cristian Dragos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments and trends in the electric power consumption indicate an increasing use of renewable energy. Renewable energy technologies offer the promise of clean, abundant energy gathered from self-renewing resources such as the sun, wind, earth and plants. Virtually all regions of the world have renewable resources of one type or another. By this point of view studies on renewable energies focuses more and more attention. The present paper intends to present different mathematical models related to different types of renewable energy sources such as: solar energy and wind energy. It is also presented the validation and adaptation of such models to hybrid systems working in geographical and meteorological conditions specific to central part of Transylvania region. The conclusions based on validation of such models are also shown.

  2. Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

  3. Key figures on renewable energies - Release 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louati, Sami; Reynaud, Didier; Thienard, Helene

    2013-06-01

    This publication presents and briefly discusses figures (tables and graphs giving data and their evolution over the past years until 2011) for France and its overseas territories about the energy mix, the shares of the different renewable energies (wood, wind, heat pumps, biofuels, hydraulic, solar and others), the production of renewable electricity, the primary consumption of thermal renewable energies per sector (household and office building, industry, agriculture, transport) and per energy sector. A second part addresses the different renewable energies (hydraulic, wind, photovoltaic and thermal solar, heat pumps, wood, biogas, biofuels), indicates installed powers per district or region, their production level and the corresponding evolutions over the past years. A third part addresses the objectives for 2020, compares them with the current situation and outlines the possible biases in 2011 in terms of production and consumption. A fourth part presents graphs comparing data between countries in Europe and in the world in terms of production and consumption (share of renewable energies, electricity production)

  4. Renewable Energy for Microenterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allderdice, A.; Rogers, J.H.

    2000-11-28

    This guide provides readers with a broad understanding of the potential benefits that current renewable energy technologies can offer rural microenterprises. It also introduces the institutional approaches that have been developed to make RE technologies accessible to microentrepreneurs and the challenges that these entrepreneurs have encountered.

  5. Long-term energy planning of Croatian power system using multi-objective optimization with focus on renewable energy and integration of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prebeg, Pero; Gasparovic, Goran; Krajacic, Goran; Duic, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of supply side long-term energy planning of large power system. • Integration of renewable sources and electrical vehicles in large power system. • Multi-level, multi-objective optimization for a design of energy system. • Historical river flow data analysis for modeling of aggregated hydropower potential. - Abstract: Due to the stochastic nature and variability of renewable energy sources (RES), it is necessary to integrate still expensive storage capacities into an energy system with a high share of RES and to model appropriate energy market. The study presented here considers all energy carriers, however, only the electricity carrier is modeled in detail, with notion taken for the heating demand that is covered but without proper modeling of storage. A proposed two-level approach with multi-objective optimization on the global level, was used to design a Croatian Energy System (CES), where electric vehicles (EVs) are integrated to serve as battery storage in Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) mode, for a scenario between 2015 and 2050. In addition, case study includes nine aggregated hydro power plants, one for each river basin in Croatia. Also, case study includes solar and wind power plants modeled for six locations in Croatia: Osijek, Zagreb, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split and Dubrovnik. The resulting Pareto front suggests that with assumed future costs of fuels and technology certain level of conventional energy sources will have to remain in the energy system to take into the account unfavourable weather conditions and to cover heating demand, which also results in significantly lower load factors for those power plants. Also, variants with more RES share have lower total energy system load factor and significantly higher installed capacity.

  6. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : Assessing barriers and opportunities for renewable energy in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moomaw, W.R.

    2002-06-01

    A substantial contribution to the electricity supply of North America can be made by renewable energy. Its uses range from transport fuels based on biomass, to space and hot water heating in buildings and industry. Two possible options are distributed forms of renewable energy and central large-scale technology. Significant employment opportunities could be created from the manufacturing, installation and maintenance of renewable technology. In Mexico, the United States and Canada, rural economic development could be enhanced through the use of wind and biomass fuels. Every three years between 1994 and 2001, wind power installations doubled, and a comparable rate was achieved for the period 1996 to 2001 in the case of photovoltaic shipments. North America's share of this accelerating market in renewable energy sources is declining. To rectify the situation, the author indicated that several issues need to be addressed in all three countries and the trading rules in place under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) need to be reconciled. Several recommendations were made concerning topics as varied as general policy principles to promote renewable technology, establishment of incentives for renewables, renewable electricity, biomass fuels, economic and social policies, research and development and purchasing. 30 refs

  7. Renewable energy integration challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    This book examines challenges involved in the integration of renewable energy into existing electricity grids. It provides models of power systems to show how the integration will effect conventional grids and various solutions to minimize the impacts.

  8. Political economy of renewable energy policy in Germany. A consideration of the policy making process in the electricity market under the influence of interest groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In the research, it is argued that the targeted promotion of renewables leads to a change in the technological path dependency on the electricity market or led. The historically market depending portfolio of products in the conventional power industry will be replaced by an increasingly strong dependence on the product portfolio of Renewable Energy Sector according to this argumentation. The present work is devoted to the political explanation of the change and transition process in the electricity market. The process of policy formation in this market (especially support policies for renewable energies) will be discussed. It is examined from a public choice perspective, which political actors and instances in the past were responsible for the development and maintenance of individual policy elements. In particular, in this analysis the different private sector stakeholders in the electricity market move to center of attention. [de

  9. Electric car with solar and wind energy may change the environment and economy: A tool for utilizing the renewable energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanhua

    2014-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues are among the most important problems of public concern. Wind and solar energy may be one of the alternative solutions to overcome energy shortage and to reduce greenhouse gaseous emission. Using electric cars in cities can significantly improve the air quality there. Through our analyses and modeling on the basis of the National Centers for Environment Prediction data we confirm that the amount of usable solar and wind energy far exceeds the world's total energy demand, considering the feasibility of the technology being used. Storing the surplus solar and wind energy and then releasing this surplus on demand is an important approach to maintaining uninterrupted solar- and wind-generated electricity. This approach requires us to be aware of the available solar and wind energy in advance in order to manage their storage. Solar and wind energy depends on weather conditions and we know weather forecasting. This implies that solar and wind energy is predictable. In this article, we demonstrate how solar and wind energy can be forecasted. We provide a web tool that can be used by all to arrive at solar and wind energy amount at any location in the world. The tool is available at http://www.renewableenergyst.org. The website also provides additional information on renewable energy, which is useful to a wide range of audiences, including students, educators, and the general public.

  10. The renewable energies in France: the main results in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The main results presented in the renewable energies annual evaluation are discussed: the production of electricity from renewable energy sources, the thermal production from renewable energy sources, the consumption of thermal renewable energies and statistical data from 2004 to 2006 on the total primary energy, the hydroelectricity, the solar energy, the geothermal energy, the heat pump, the wood energy, the cogeneration, the biogas the wind energy and the biofuels. (A.L.B.)

  11. Renewable energy for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strebkov, D. [All Russian Research Institute for Electrification of the Agriculture, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bezrukich, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. [Intersolarcenter Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    In spite of quite good centralized power supply system, rural electrification level across Russia vary widely: in some regions there are densely populated communities which lack power, while in the other the most pressing need is to electrify dispersed, isolated villages or homes. The main objective of the Russian project `Renewable energy for rural electrification` is the elaboration and application of new technologies of rural electrification in order to ensure the sustainable development of unelectrified areas of the Russia. The long-term objective of the project are: to improve the living standards of people in rural areas, who lack centralized energy supply systems, by introducing a new system for generation, transmission and distribution of electric power on the base of renewable energy systems; to provide a reliable cost-effective electric service for electrified and uncertified communities; to reduce the consumption of organic fuel in power generation systems; to support the military industry in converting their activity into the renewable energy sector; and to protect the environment

  12. Smart grid and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    conventional, fossil based energy sources to renewable energy sources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discus trends of the future grid infrastructure as well as the most emerging renewable energy...... sources, wind energy and photovoltaics. Then main focus is on the power electronics and control technology for wind turbines as they are the largest renewable power contributor, allowing their penetration into a SmartGrid to be even higher in the future.......The electrical energy consumption continues growing and more applications relay on electricity. We can expect that more 60 % of all energy consumption will be converted and used as electricity. Therefore, it is a demand that production, distribution and use of electrical energy are done...

  13. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  14. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forero Camacho Oscar Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles (EV technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents the development of a test platform, including three Li-ion batteries designed for EV applications, and three associated bi-directional power converters, for testing impacts on different advanced loadings of EV batteries. Different charging algorithms/profiles have been tested, including constant current and power, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of both tests in terms of regulation of the aggregated local power, power capacity and the power exchange with the grid. The smart charging tests performed have demonstrated that even with a simple control algorithm, without any forecasting, it is possible to provide the required charging and at the same time the power system services, reducing the peak power and the energy losses in the power connection line of the power exchange with the national grid.

  15. Contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the autonomous community of Navarre (Spain): A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Gonzalez, Luis Maria; Lopez Ochoa, Luis Maria [Universidad de La Rioja, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial, Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada, Energia y Construccion, Calle Luis de Ulloa 20, 26004 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Sala Lizarraga, Jose Maria [Universidad del Pais Vasco, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales de Bilbao (Spain); Miguez Tabares, Jose Luis [Universidad de Vigo, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales de Vigo (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    Economic development in recent decades has been characterised by the increased use of fossil fuels. Clearly, a significant amount of this energy does not fall in line with the principles of sustainable development, either because of its contaminating effect or because of its non-renewable nature. Today, Navarre generates around 60% of its electricity requirements by means of wind power and small hydropower stations. On the downside, Navarre's energy consumption is above average for the European Union and its economy is growing at an annual rate in excess of 5%. The Castejon (800 MW) thermal power stations, scheduled for enlargement, generate more energy than Navarre's entire wind power sector. In terms of hydroelectric power, there are around 200 small hydropower plants in operation. In addition, the Autonomous Community of Navarre has installed a biomass plant in Sangueesa, with an installed output of 25 MW, annually generating 200 GWh through the combustion of 160,000 t of cereal straw. In addition, Navarre, specifically Tudela, is the site of the largest solar energy plant in Spain, producing 1.2 MWp, following its connection to the grid at the beginning of the year. Two thirds of the 10,080 panels are arranged in a central body and the remaining third are panels pertaining to different technologists and technologies involved in research and development. (author)

  16. Renewable Energy in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipkovs, P.; Kashkarova, G. [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M. [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

    1997-12-31

    Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

  17. The renewable energies in France: the 2005 main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This specific evaluation proposes a synthesis of the electric and thermal productions from renewable energies, makes a list of the primary or secondary renewable energies productions when they are transformed and details the uses (electricity or heat) of each renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  18. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  19. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Slovenia, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff (so called 'guaranteed purchase') and a premium tariff (so called 'operating premium'), both granted through a tender procedure. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes are promoted mainly through loans on concessional terms and subsidies. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport are tax exemptions and subsidies

  20. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Greece, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through feed-in premiums, granted through tenders (as from 2017), feed-in tariffs for limited cases, a preferential tax regime (since 2016) and a net metering scheme. Heating and cooling from renewable energy sources is incentivised by way of a preferential tax regime and an investment subsidy scheme. The main instrument for renewable energy use in transport is a bio-fuels quota scheme

  1. The Renewable Energy Data Explorer: Mapping Our Renewable Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-13

    The Renewable Energy (RE) Data Explorer, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is an innovative web-based platform that allows users to visualize and analyze renewable energy potential. The RE Data Explorer informs prospecting, integrated planning, and policymaking to enable low emission development.

  2. Learning in renewable energy technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junginger, M.

    2005-01-01

    The main objectives of this thesis are: to investigate technological change and cost reduction for a number of renewable electricity technologies by means of the experience curve approach; to address related methodological issues in the experience curve approach, and, based on these insights; and to analyze the implications for achieving the Dutch renewable electricity targets for the year 2020 within a European context. In order to meet these objectives, a number of research questions have been formulated: What are the most promising renewable electricity technologies for the Netherlands until 2020 under different technological, economic and environmental conditions?; To what extent is the current use of the experience curve approach to investigate renewable energy technology development sound, what are differences in the utilization of this approach and what are possible pitfalls?; How can the experience curve approach be used to describe the potential development of partially new energy technologies, such as offshore wind energy? Is it possible to describe biomass fuel supply chains with experience curves? What are the possibilities and limits of the experience curve approach when describing non-modular technologies such as large (biomass) energy plants?; What are the main learning mechanisms behind the cost reduction of the investigated technologies?; and How can differences in the technological progress of renewable electricity options influence the market diffusion of renewable electricity technologies, and what implications can varying technological development and policy have on the implementation of renewable electricity technologies in the Netherlands? The development of different renewable energy technologies is investigated by means of some case studies. The possible effects of varying technological development in combination with different policy backgrounds are illustrated for the Netherlands. The thesis focuses mainly on the development of investment

  3. Financial impact of energy efficiency under a federal combined efficiency and renewable electricity standard: Case study of a Kansas 'super-utility'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Historically, local, state and federal policies have separately promoted the generation of electricity from renewable technologies and the pursuit of energy efficiency to help mitigate the detrimental effects of global climate change and foster energy independence. Federal policymakers are currently considering and several states have enacted a combined efficiency and renewable electricity standard which proponents argue provides a comprehensive approach with greater flexibility and at lower cost. We examine the financial impacts on various stakeholders from alternative compliance strategies with a Combined Efficiency and Renewable Electricity Standard (CERES) using a case study approach for utilities in Kansas. Our results suggest that an investor-owned utility is likely to pursue the most lucrative compliance strategy for its shareholders-one that under-invests in energy efficiency resources. If a business model for energy efficiency inclusive of both a lost fixed cost recovery mechanism and a shareholder incentive mechanism is implemented, our analysis indicates that an investor-owned utility would be more willing to pursue energy efficiency as a lower-cost CERES compliance strategy. Absent implementing such a regulatory mechanism, separate energy efficiency and renewable portfolio standards would improve the likelihood of reducing reliance on fossil fuels at least-cost through the increased pursuit of energy efficiency.

  4. Renewable energy development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  5. Management of surplus electricity-production from a fluctuating renewable-energy source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, E.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving a surplus production problem in Denmark, caused by electricity production from turbines and CHP.......The paper discusses and analyses different national strategies for solving a surplus production problem in Denmark, caused by electricity production from turbines and CHP....

  6. The integration of renewable energies into the electricity systems of North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    The North African electricity systems are in a phase of rapid transformation. The ever-increasing electricity demand - with annual growth rates of more than 6% - is placing great strain on the regional economies, especially in times of economic downturn and political instability in the aftermath of

  7. Renewable Energy on Tribal Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains presentations from the Brown to Green: Make the Connection to Renewable Energy workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, during December 10-11, 2008 regarding Renewable Energy on Tribal Lands.

  8. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources of energy is stimulated by a feed-in tariff scheme which includes elements of a renewable quota scheme and tendering. Since 2011 this scheme only applies to pre-existing RES-E installations and is closed for new RES-E projects. Moreover, the present main RES-E support scheme is being evaluated which may result in reforms within short. Small-scale renewable generation, notably PV, is stimulated by net metering. On the other hand, since January 2014 a tax for subsidised electricity generators is in place. Renewable heating and cooling is promoted by fiscal instruments. To date, renewable transport fuels are promoted through a tax mechanism as well

  9. Battery Electric Vehicles can reduce greenhouse has emissions and make renewable energy cheaper in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand R [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Witt, Maggie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sheppard, Colin [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States); Harris, Andrew [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    India's National Mission on Electric Mobility (NMEM) sets a countrywide goal of deploying 6 to 7 million hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) by 2020. There are widespread concerns, both within and outside the government, that the Indian grid is not equipped to accommodate additional power demand from battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Such concerns are justified on the grounds of India's notorious power sector problems pertaining to grid instability and chronic blackouts. Studies have claimed that deploying BEVs in India will only

  10. Renewable energy project development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohi, J.

    1996-12-31

    The author presents this paper with three main thrusts. The first is to discuss the implementation of renewable energy options in China, the second is to identify the key project development steps necessary to implement such programs, and finally is to develop recommendations in the form of key issues which must be addressed in developing such a program, and key technical assistance needs which must be addressed to make such a program practical.

  11. Renewable Energy Essentials: Geothermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Geothermal energy is energy available as heat contained in or discharged from the earth's crust that can be used for generating electricity and providing direct heat for numerous applications such as: space and district heating; water heating; aquaculture; horticulture; and industrial processes. In addition, the use of energy extracted from the constant temperatures of the earth at shallow depth by means of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) is also generally referred to as geothermal energy.

  12. Renewable energy and wildlife conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mona

    2016-09-09

    The renewable energy sector is rapidly expanding and diversifying the power supply of the country. Yet, as our Nation works to advance renewable energy and to conserve wildlife, some conflicts arise. To address these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting innovative research and developing workable solutions to reduce impacts of renewable energy production on wildlife.

  13. Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

  14. Supporting renewable energy on liberalised markets: green electricity between additionality and consumer sovereignty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The German feed-in regulation has been perhaps the most effective promotional policy for green electricity. However, with the growing momentum of the liberalisation process the current regulation is challenged by structural problems about how to address the demand side. Price regulation lefts only little room for private green electricity market activities. Moreover, the success of the feed-in regulation depends on a strict differentiation of the political segment and the emerging green electricity markets. The question, therefore, is about the role green electricity markets can (or should) perform in general. In order to evaluate green electricity markets the additionality criteria is frequently used, implying that markets are only desirable if they lead to additional environmental effects. The additionality criteria has two implications: First, transformed into individual behaviour, additionality implies that consumers are assumed to act as pure altruists. However, there is evidence from empirical studies that green electricity consumers behave more as impure altruists: they are not so much interested in the objective environmental impact of their behaviour but more objected to receive a private satisfaction from buying an environmental friendly product. Whereas theoretical models in the case of pure altruism suggest that private activities crowd out totally when policy becomes active in supporting the public good, this crowding out disappears in the case of impure altruism. Second, using end-state criteria such as the additionality principle as pre-condition, and neglecting process criteria such as consumer sovereignty, means to prevent establishing competitive market process right at the outset in principle

  15. Supporting renewable energy on liberalised markets: green electricity between additionally and consumer sovereignty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, R.

    2003-01-01

    The German feed-in regulation has been perhaps the most effective promotional policy for green electricity. However, with the growing momentum of the liberalisation process the current regulation is challenged by structural problems about how to address the demand side. Price regulation leaves little room for private green electricity market activities. Moreover, the success of the feed-in regulation depends on a strict differentiation of the political segment and the emerging green electricity markets. The question, therefore, is about the role green electricity markets can (or should) perform in general. In order to evaluate green electricity markets the additionality criteria is frequently used, implying that markets are only desirable if they lead to additional environmental effects. The additionality criteria has two implications: First, transformed into individual behaviour, additionality implies that consumers are assumed to act as pure altruists. However, there is evidence from empirical studies that green electricity consumers behave more as impure altruists: they are not so much interested in the objective environmental impact of their behaviour but more objected to receive a private satisfaction from buying an environmental friendly product. Whereas theoretical models in the case of pure altruism suggest that private activities crowd out totally when policy becomes active in supporting the public good, this crowding out disappears in the case of impure altruism. Second, using end-state criteria such as the additionality principle as precondition, and neglecting process criteria such as consumer sovereignty, means to prevent establishing competitive market process right at the outset in principle. (author)

  16. Stimulation of renewable energy. Part 1, Inefficient top electricity. Part 2, Appreciation of sustainable heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijgrok, W.

    1999-09-01

    The Third Energy Policy Memorandum and Action Programme 'The Advance of Sustainable Energy' depicts the objectives for sustainable energy consumption in the Netherlands. A major condition for achieving a successful market introduction of these sources of energy is a profitable operation. This study looks at the question of how profitable the various energy sources are at the moment what the contribution to this is of the existing package of stimulation measures provided by the Dutch government, and what improvements are possible. 20 refs

  17. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted through investment subsidies in combination with a net metering scheme. Renewable heating and cooling is promoted by investment subsidies to enterprises and households respectively. To date, no incentives for production and use of bio-fuels in the transport sector are in place

  18. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; Warwick, William M.; Dixon, Douglas R.; Solana, Amy E.; Weimar, Mark R.; States, Jennifer C.; Reilly, Raymond W.

    2008-06-30

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Hood based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewables Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  19. Feasibility study of renewable energy resources and optimization of electrical hybrid energy systems: Case study for Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazelpour Farivar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energies are increasingly seen as the best solution to a growing global population demanding affordable access to electricity while reducing the need for fossil fuels. Country of Iran has vast untapped solar, wind, geothermal and hydroelectric sources that hold the potential to meet domestic needs. Renewable energy is also essential to Iran as it will curb massive air pollution. In this paper economical and feasibility study of various hybrid systems are performed by using HOMER software model for supplying electricity to the Engineering Department of Islamic Azad University. For this study, annual electricity demand of the university is 1,174,935 kWh with a peak demand of about 331 kW, average wind speeds, based on hourly data during the period of eleven years (2000-2010, are between 3 to 5 m/s in all months of the year. For solar radiation, six models are evaluated to select the best model for estimation of the daily global solar radiation (GSR on a horizontal surface in the study location. Among these six models, H/HO=a+b (S/S0+ c(S/S02 is chosen as the most optimum model for estimating solar irradiation. The results indicate that among the three hybrid systems for fulfilling electrical energy needs, the Wind/Diesel/Battery hybrid system with 9 wind turbines (20 kW, one diesel generator (300 kW, 50 batteries, and 50 kW power converters with net present cost of $4,281,800 and cost of energy of 0.285 $/kWh is the most economically efficient hybrid system. (based on 2015 US dollar.

  20. Achieving 33% renewable electricity generation by 2020 in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmsley, Michael R.W.; Walmsley, Timothy G.; Atkins, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of California, USA reaching its renewable electricity target of 33%, excluding large hydro, by 2020, which is set out in the state's RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standard). The emerging renewable electricity mix in California and surrounding states which form the WECC (Western Electricity Coordination Council) is analysed using the CEPA (Carbon Emission Pinch Analysis) and EROI (Energy Return on Energy Invested) methodologies. The reduction in emissions with increased renewables is illustrated and the challenge of maintaining high EROI levels for renewable generation is examined for low and high electricity demand growth. Results demonstrate that wind and solar PV collectively form an integral part of California reaching the 33% renewables target by 2020. Government interventions of tax rebates and subsidies, net electricity metering and a four tiered electricity price have accelerated the uptake of electricity generation from wind and solar PV. Residential uptake of solar PV is also reducing overall California electricity grid demand. Emphasis on new renewable generation is stimulating development of affordable wind and solar technology in California which has the added benefit of enhancing social sustainability through improved employment opportunities at a variety of technical levels. - Highlights: • CA (California, USA) aims to achieve 33% renewable electricity sales by 2020. • Carbon Emission Pinch Analysis is applied to the case study of CA. • Energy Return on Energy Invested analysis shows impacts of renewable energy uptake. • Solar PV and wind are the most cost and energy efficiency renewable resources in CA. • State government intervention is needed to reach the 33% renewable electricity goal.

  1. Renewable energy education in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

  2. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through feed-in premiums (FiP). In addition, investment subsidies are available for biogas/biomass-based RES-E and wind power installations. Renewable heat is stimulated through investment subsidies to CHP plants generating renewable heat and electricity, as well as subsidies for private heat consumers. Renewable transport fuels are currently mainly incentivised by way of a support scheme to promote the purchase of electric cars that use power produced from renewable energy sources. Recently, a measure for supporting bio-methane in the transport sector has been adopted. Generally, a number of investment subsidy schemes are in place to promote the development, installation and use of renewable energy production installations. However, certain subsidy conditions still have to be announced and implemented. The total amount of financial support to be allocated to renewable energy and energy efficiency related projects during period 2014-2020 will be over euro 490 million. The current administratively determined FiP scheme is set to be replaced by an auction-based scheme within short

  3. Efficient renewable energy scenarios study for Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Graham

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the possible evolution of Victorian energy markets over the 1998-2030 period from technical, economic and environmental perspectives. The focus is on the technical and economic potential over the study period for renewable energy and energy efficiency to increase their share of energy markets, through their economic competitiveness with the non-renewables of oil, gas and fossil fulled electricity. The study identifies a range of energy options that have a lower impact on carbon dioxide emissions that current projections for the Victorian energy sector, together with the savings in energy, dollars and carbon dioxide emissions. In addition the macroeconomic implications of the energy paths are estimated. Specifically it examines a scenario (R-efficient renewable) where energy efficiency and renewable energy sources realise their estimated economic potential to displace non-renewable energy over the 1988-2030 period. In addition, a scenario (T-Toronto) is examined where energy markets are pushed somewhat harder, but again on an economic basis, so that what is called the Toronto target of reducing 1988 carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions by 20 per cent by 2005 is attained. It is concluded that over the next forty years there is substantial economic potential in Victoria for significant gains from energy efficiency in all sectors - residential, commercial, industrial and transport - and contributions from renewable energy both in those sectors and in electricity generations. 7 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Maximum power point tracking analysis of a coreless ironless electric generator for renewable energy application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Akhtar; Rahman, Fadhlur; Leong, Yap Wee; Razali Hanipah, Mohd; Azri Hizami, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    The magnetism attraction between permanent magnets and soft ironcore lamination in a conventional electric ironcore generator is often known as cogging. Cogging requires an additional input power to overcome, hence became one of the power loss sources. With the increasing of power output, the cogging is also proportionally increased. This leads to the increasing of the supplied power of the driver motor to overcome the cog. Therefore, this research is embarked to study fundamentally about the possibility of removing ironcore lamination in an electric generator to see its performance characteristic. In the maximum power point tracking test, the fabricated ironless coreless electricity generator was tested by applying the load on the ironless coreless electricity generator optimization to maximize the power generated, voltage and the current produced by the ironless coreless electricity generator when the rotational speed of the rotor increased throughout the test. The rotational torque and power output are measured, and efficiency is then analyzed. Results indicated that the generator produced RMS voltage of 200VAC at rotational speed of 318 RPM. Torque required to rotate the generator was at 10.8Nm. The generator had working efficiency of 77.73% and the power generated was at 280W.

  5. Renewable Energy Resources in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, R.

    2010-12-01

    The energy sector in Lebanon plays an important role in the overall development of the country, especially that it suffers from many serious problems. The fact that Lebanon is among the few countries that are not endowed with fossil fuels in the Middle East made this sector cause one third of the national debt in Lebanon. Despite the large government investments in the power sector, demand still exceeds supply and Lebanon frequently goes through black out in peak demand times or has to resort to importing electricity from Syria. The Energy production sector has dramatic environmental and economical impacts in the form of emitted gasses and environment sabotage, accordingly, it is imperative that renewable energy (RE) be looked at as an alternative energy source. Officials at the Ministry of Energy and Water (MEW) and Lebanese Electricity (EDL) have repeatedly expressed their support to renewable energy utilization. So far, only very few renewable energy applications can be observed over the country. Major efforts are still needed to overcome this situation and promote the use of renewable energy. These efforts are the shared responsibility of the government, EDL, NGO's and educational and research centers. Additionally, some efforts are being made by some international organizations such as UNDP, ESCWA, EC and other donor agencies operating in Lebanon. This work reviews the status of Energy in Lebanon, the installed RE projects, and the potential projects. It also reviews the stakeholders in the field of RE in Lebanon Conclusion In considering the best R.E. alternative, it is important to consider all potential R.E. sources, their costs, market availability, suitability for the selected location, significance of the energy produced and return on investment. Several RE resources in Lebanon have been investigated; Tides and waves energy is limited and not suitable two tentative sites for geothermal energy are available but not used. Biomass resources badly affect the

  6. Renewables | Energies renouvelables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available World Energy Generated for Commercial Use by Type*Production mondiale d’énergie destinée à des applications commerciales, par type*­Main ProducersPrincipaux producteurs* Renewables also include biomass, yet most of it is used for energy generation for non-commercial purposes. | Les énergies renouvelables incluent la biomasse, mais celle-ci sert essentiellement à générer de l’énergie qui ne rentre pas dans les circuits commerciaux.Source: British Petroleum, BP Statistical Review of World Energ...

  7. Renewables | Energies renouvelables

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    World Energy Generated for Commercial Use by Type* Production mondiale d’énergie destinée à des applications commerciales, par type* ­ Main Producers Principaux producteurs * Renewables also include biomass, yet most of it is used for energy generation for non-commercial purposes. | Les énergies renouvelables incluent la biomasse, mais celle-ci sert essentiellement à générer de l’énergie qui ne rentre pas dans les circuits commerciaux. Source: British Petroleum, BP Statistical Review of Wor...

  8. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin

    2015-06-09

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, work is being performed to measure motor material thermal properties and thermal contact resistances. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets is also being measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings.

  9. Renewable energies in Franche-Comte 2008 - 2010 - 2012 - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    Illustrated by maps and tables, this publication proposes an overview of the evolution of installed power and production of renewable electric power (by hydroelectric, solar photovoltaic, and wind energy), of renewable electricity and heat (by wood-energy, biogas, and recovery energy), of renewable heat (by solar thermal energy, very low energy geothermal energy and heat pumps, and wood-energy). It also briefly indicates the situation of biogas, agri-fuel and bio-fuel production

  10. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Mid-2016 Poland revamped its national support scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources, started to phase out a certificates-backed renewable electricity quota scheme, and put in place a feed-in tariff/feed-in premium (FiT/FiP) system in place with the support levels being determined by approved tender bids. Furthermore, a fiscal and soft loan instrument is used for supplementary support. Three subsidy instruments and a soft loan instrument are deployed for the promotion of renewable heat. Renewable energy in transport is promoted through a bio-fuels quota scheme

  11. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support policy: Renewable electricity in Bulgaria is promoted primarily through a feed-in tariff scheme. For new projects this scheme is only open for installations up to 30 kW. The grid operator is mandated to the purchase and dispatch electricity at a guaranteed price for eligible generators. The use of renewable energy for heating and cooling is promoted through a subsidy from the European Regional Development Fund and through an exemption for building owners from property tax. Main Bulgarian support scheme for renewable energy in transport is a quota system. There is a professional training programme for RES-installers as well as a building obligation for the use of renewable heating and for the exemplary role of public authorities

  12. EDITORIAL: Renewing energy technology Renewing energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Renewable energy is now a mainstream concern among businesses and governments across the world, and could be considered a characteristic preoccupation of our time. It is interesting to note that many of the energy technologies currently being developed date back to very different eras, and even predate the industrial revolution. The fuel cell was first invented as long ago as 1838 by the Swiss--German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein [1], and the idea of harnessing solar power dates back to ancient Greece [2]. The enduring fascination with new means of harnessing energy is no doubt linked to man's innate delight in expending it, whether it be to satisfy the drive of curiosity, or from a hunger for entertainment, or to power automated labour-saving devices. But this must be galvanized by the sustained ability to improve device performance, unearthing original science, and asking new questions, for example regarding the durability of photovoltaic devices [3]. As in so many fields, advances in hydrogen storage technology for fuel cells have benefited significantly from nanotechnology. The idea is that the kinetics of hydrogen uptake and release may be reduced by decreasing the particle size. An understanding of how effective this may be has been hampered by limited knowledge of the way the thermodynamics are affected by atom or molecule cluster size. Detailed calculations of individual atoms in clusters are limited by computational resources as to the number of atoms that can studied, and other innovative approaches that deal with force fields derived by extrapolating the difference between the properties of clusters and bulk matter require labour-intensive modifications when extending such studies to new materials. In [4], researchers in the US use an alternative approach, considering the nanoparticle as having the same crystal structure as the bulk but relaxing the few layers of atoms near the surface. The favourable features of nanostructures for catalysis

  13. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a premium tariff (and a guaranteed feed-in tariff for installations of less than 30 kW), allocated through tenders. Soft loans and subsidies for renewable energy projects are also provided. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes only are not promoted through a national support scheme. A training programme for RES installers aims at promoting the development, installation and usage of power generating and heating installations based on renewables. The main promotion scheme in the field of renewable transport fuels is a bio-fuels quota scheme. Additionally, the state provides bio-fuels incentives taking the form of a tax credits mechanism

  14. Integrating Renewable Electricity on the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, George; Misewich, Jim; Ambrosio, Ron; Clay, Kathryn; DeMartini, Paul; James, Revis; Lauby, Mark; Mohta, Vivek; Moura, John; Sauer, Peter; Slakey, Francis; Lieberman, Jodi; Tai, Humayun

    2011-11-01

    The demand for carbon-free electricity is driving a growing movement of adding renewable energy to the grid. Renewable Portfolio Standards mandated by states and under consideration by the federal government envision a penetration of 20-30% renewable energy in the grid by 2020 or 2030. The renewable energy potential of wind and solar far exceeds these targets, suggesting that renewable energy ultimately could grow well beyond these initial goals. The grid faces two new and fundamental technological challenges in accommodating renewables: location and variability. Renewable resources are concentrated at mid-continent far from population centers, requiring additional long distance, high-capacity transmission to match supply with demand. The variability of renewables due to the characteristics of weather is high, up to 70% for daytime solar due to passing clouds and 100% for wind on calm days, much larger than the relatively predictable uncertainty in load that the grid now accommodates by dispatching conventional resources in response to demand. Solutions to the challenges of remote location and variability of generation are needed. The options for DC transmission lines, favored over AC lines for transmission of more than a few hundred miles, need to be examined. Conventional high voltage DC transmission lines are a mature technology that can solve regional transmission needs covering one- or two-state areas. Conventional high voltage DC has drawbacks, however, of high loss, technically challenging and expensive conversion between AC and DC, and the requirement of a single point of origin and termination. Superconducting DC transmission lines lose little or no energy, produce no heat, and carry higher power density than conventional lines. They operate at moderate voltage, allowing many "on-ramps" and "off-ramps" in a single network and reduce the technical and cost challenges of AC to DC conversion. A network of superconducting DC cables overlaying the existing

  15. Impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles charging demand on the optimal energy management of renewable micro-grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavousi-Fard, Abdollah; Abunasri, Alireza; Zare, Alireza; Hoseinzadeh, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests a new stochastic expert framework to investigate the charging effect of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on the optimal operation and management of micro-grids (MGs). In this way, a useful method based on smart charging approach is proposed to consider the charging demand of PHEVs in both residential location and public charging stations. The analysis is simulated for 24 h considering the uncertainties associated with the forecast error in the charging demand of PHEVs, hourly load consumption, hourly energy price and Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) output power. In order to see the effect of storage devices on the operation of the MG, NiMH-Battery is also incorporated in the MG. According to the high complexity of the problem, a new optimization method called θ-krill herd (θ-KH) algorithm is proposed which uses the phase angle vectors to update the velocity/position of krill animals with faster and more stable convergence. In addition, a new modification method is proposed to improve the search ability of the algorithm, effectively. The suggested problem is examined on an MG including different RESs such as photovoltaic (PV), fuel cells (FCs), wind turbine (WT), micro turbine (MT) and battery as the storage device. - Highlights: • Introducing an expert stochastic framework for optimal operation and management of MGs including PHEVs. • Introducing a new artificial optimization algorithm based on KH evolutionary technique. • Introducing a new version of KH algorithm called θ-KH for the optimization applications. • Modeling the uncertainty of forecast error in Wind turbine, Photovoltaics, market price, load data, PHEVs electric charging demand in an intelligent framework

  16. The renewable energies in France: the main results in 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    This evaluation is a synthesis of the electrical and thermal productions from the renewable energies. It presents also the primary or secondary renewable energies productions when they are transformed and details the uses of each renewable energies productions, the ENR contribution to the needs of the different energy consumers (residential, agriculture, industry...). (A.L.B.)

  17. The internalization of externalities in the production of electricity. Willingness to pay for the attributes of a policy for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Alberto; Markandya, Anil; Petrucci, Marta

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the willingness to pay of a sample of residents of Bath, England, for a hypothetical program that promotes the production of renewable energy. Using choice experiments, we assess the preferences of respondents for a policy for the promotion of renewable energy that: (1) contributes to the internalization of the external costs caused by fossil fuel technologies; (2) affects the short-term security of energy supply; (3) has an impact on the employment in the energy sector; and (4) leads to an increase in the electricity bill. Responses to the choice questions show that our respondents are in favour of a policy for renewable energy and that they attach a high value to a policy that brings private and public benefits in terms of climate change and energy security benefits. Our results therefore suggest that consumers are willing to pay a higher price for electricity in order to internalize the external costs in terms of energy security, climate change and air pollution caused by the production of electricity. (author)

  18. Use Of Renewable Energy In The Electric Power Generation Sector In Mexico: Political, Regulatory, Economic And Technical Issues From 1965 To 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde-Baltierra, Alberto; Sasse, Diana; Zeferino-Abundis, Yolanda; Quiroz-Juarez, Carolina; Lopez-Satow, Edgar; Beltran-Mora, Hector; Crisostomo-Ramirez, David

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this work is to analyze the political, regulatory, economic and technical issues that have determined the use of primary energies for power generation in Mexico from 1965 to 2008, and its perspectives for the next 10 years, in particular the prospects of using renewable energies. In the 60's, hydro was the preferred source of energy to produce electricity for economical and technical reasons. Under the 'oil boom' in the 70s, transition to hydrocarbons resources (fuel oil) was progressive. As a result of implementing environmental policies, electricity has mainly been generated with natural gas since the early 2000.

  19. Renewable Energy Education for Future Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, R.

    2015-12-01

    Considering the constantly growing use of technology, modern society requires increasing amounts of electrical power. Acknowledging the global efforts to increase the use of renewable energy sources, the Independent Schools Foundation Academy, a school in Hong Kong, plans to provide the opportunity for students to explore the applications of various forms of renewable energy through a Renewable Energy Education Centre (REEC). Two students are involved in the designing and construction of the Renewable Energy Education Centre to understand the technologies, processes, and provide insight from the students' perspective. The REEC will incorporate various uses of renewable energy, including a solar photovoltaic system, hybrid photovoltaic/thermal system, vertical windmill, hot water heater, and heat pump. As a means to enrich students' learning experiences, the REEC will be open to access by science students for a wide range of investigations, such as science experiments related to renewable energy and energy efficiency, providing opportunities for student led research projects, Personal Projects and IB Extended Essays. In short, the Independent Schools Foundation Academy aims to allow students to familiarize themselves with various forms of renewable energy from a young age, and develop a deeper understanding of technologies that will become primary sources of electrical power in the near future.

  20. Renewable energy in Africa; Les energies renouvelables en Afrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karekezi, S.; Kimani, J.; Wambile, A. [African Energy Policy Research Network, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2007-04-15

    Africa's vast renewable energy sources have been used with variable success rates. Although the area has potential for hydro, geothermal, biomass, solar and wind energy, these energy sources have not been largely exploited due to a lack of political interest and a lack of investment. Some of these renewable energy sources can meet part of the energy needs of African countries while offering additional advantages, such as decreasing air pollution at the local and regional levels. Development of renewable energy sources requires less capital than conventional energy systems. Renewable energy also provides clean energy to individuals and enterprises. However, the lack of promotion of renewable energy in Africa can be attributed to problems linked to poverty and to the already low greenhouse gas emissions in Africa. According to decision makers in Africa, arguments that favour the use of renewable energy for the purpose of environmental protection must be based on solid empirical facts regarding increasing oil prices; advantages of renewable energy; or, the reduction of risks associated with shortages of hydroelectricity during periods of drought. Other considerations that favour the use of renewable energy include job creation, energy consumption in the agroalimentary and forestry sectors, indoor air quality, and energy source development in rural areas, particularly for hospitals, schools and mission centres. This article commented on various types of renewable energy sources, such as hydro, solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal energy sources. Also, it explained which renewable energy sources have succeeded in Africa, and which types have less chance of succeeding. The obstacles encountered in the development and use of renewable energy sources in Africa were also discussed with reference to political, financial and human obstacles. The short and long term priorities were also addressed. It was concluded that certain types of renewable energies can reduce risks

  1. Renewable Energy Certificate Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwendolyn S. Andersen

    2012-07-17

    This project was primarily to develop and implement a curriculum which will train undergraduate and graduate students at the University seeking a degree as well as training for enrollees in a special certification program to prepare individuals to be employed in a broad range of occupations in the field of renewable energy and energy conservation. Curriculum development was by teams of Saint Francis University Faculty in the Business Administration and Science Departments and industry experts. Students seeking undergraduate and graduate degrees are able to enroll in courses offered within these departments which will combine theory and hands-on training in the various elements of wind power development. For example, the business department curriculum areas include economic modeling, finance, contracting, etc. The science areas include meteorology, energy conversion and projection, species identification, habitat protection, field data collection and analysis, etc.

  2. Flexibility as a market requirement - The adaptation of the structure and operations of electricity markets to the production of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2014-12-01

    Renewable energies are earmarked to take up a very significant share in the output of some of Europe's electricity Systems. The variability of their contribution makes the maintenance of the system's physical equilibrium a veritable challenge, once the share reaches a certain level. Apart from the necessary technical improvements, the transformation of the System first and foremost requires upgrading the way the different energy markets function

  3. Current challenges of Germany’s energy transition project and competing strategies of challengers and incumbents: The case of direct marketing of electricity from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassermann, Sandra; Reeg, Matthias; Nienhaus, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generated by renewable energies (RES-E) already accounts for 25% of Germany’s electricity supply. This has led to recent discussions for a better market integration of RES-E. The paper examines how competing actors and their ideas on market integration developed new services for direct marketing according to their respective origins and tried to shape the regulatory framework. The paper analyses this process and explains the current shape of the field of direct marketing. Medium-sized structured actors, who favoured RES-E integration via the conventional wholesale power markets, and who formed early close coalitions with RES-E power producers at the same time, have been most successful in terms of market shares. Moreover, they have been very successful for different reasons in building-up coalitions with governance units and influencing the field rules and routines. Based on those findings, the paper will conclude with some policy advices for the future adjustment of the current regulative frameworks. As long as there is no evidence of how RES-E can be integrated most effectively and efficiently, policies should maintain a competition between different direct marketing strategies to find out which strategies serve the best in terms of achieving a successful energy transition. - Highlights: • Innovation sociological analysis of the market integration of electricity from renewables in the German electricity markets. • Direct marketing of RES-E seen as a new strategic action field in the German “Energiewende”. • Strategies of incumbent and challenger actors to shape the rules of the field. • Suggestions for the future design of policy instruments for direct marketing of RES-E

  4. A Reconfigured Whale Optimization Technique (RWOT for Renewable Electrical Energy Optimal Scheduling Impact on Sustainable Development Applied to Damietta Seaport, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha H. El-Amary

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect on the rate of growth of carbon dioxide emission in seaports’ atmosphere of replacing a part of the fossil fuel electrical power generation by clean renewable electrical energies, through two different scheduling strategies. The increased rate of harmful greenhouse gas emissions due to conventional electrical power generation severely affects the whole global atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases emissions are responsible for a significant share of global warming. Developing countries participate in this environmental distortion to a great percentage. Two different suggested strategies for renewable electrical energy scheduling are discussed in this paper, to attain a sustainable green port by the utilization of two mutual sequential clean renewable energies, which are biomass and photovoltaic (PV energy. The first strategy, which is called the eco-availability mode, is a simple method. It is based on operating the renewable electrical energy sources during the available time of operation, taking into consideration the simple and basic technical issues only, without considering the sophisticated technical and economical models. The available operation time is determined by the environmental condition. This strategy is addressed to result on the maximum available Biomass and PV energy generation based on the least environmental and technical conditions (panel efficiency, minimum average daily sunshine hours per month, minimum average solar insolation per month. The second strategy, which is called the Intelligent Scheduling (IS mode, relies on an intelligent Reconfigured Whale Optimization Technique (RWOT based-model. In this strategy, some additional technical and economical issues are considered. The studied renewable electrical energy generation system is considered in two scenarios, which are with and without storage units. The objective (cost function of the scheduling optimization problem, for

  5. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The main support scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources is a feed-in tariff scheme. For operators of photovoltaics (PV) and onshore wind installations an investment subsidy instrument is available as well. Besides, the sale of generated renewable electricity is incentivized by an exemption from excise duty. Also renewable heat production installations are eligible for an investment subsidy instrument. For renewable transport fuels a bio-fuels quota scheme is on place. Moreover, producers/suppliers of bio-fuels and petroleum fuels blended with bio-fuels benefit from a fiscal incentive

  6. Developing a green lending model for renewable energy project (case study electricity from biogas fuel at Palm Oil Industry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukirman, Y. A.

    2018-03-01

    In the last two decades, development initiatives solely aimed to generate economic growth has been placed under scrutiny, particularly amidst the rampant discussion on the quality decline of the environment, growing social divide and climate change along with its implications thereof. Considerations of the negative impacts brought about by the economic development process prompted the move to adopt the sustainable financing model that gives precedence to economic, environmental and social aspects. We introduced Green Lending Model for Renewable Energy Project (Case Study Electricity From Biogas at Palm Oil Industry) based on sustainability financing, which is used as variable to implementing financial institutions’ lending policies. There are two major trends in the literature relating to sustainability and the banking industry: external and internal practices. The external practices strand analyzes the relevance of sustainability to the bank’s communication with shareholders and other stakeholders, and how investors use it as a measure to help achieve optimal portfolio allocation. The internal practices literature, more relevant to the present work, studies how sustainability criteria are integrated into risk management models and lending practices. Its first implementation is in the Palm Oil industry at South Sumatera. The results explained that sustainability is not related to profit either from a short- or long-term perspective. The Sustainable Green Lending Model is related to the Equator Principles and its application is driven to project financing. It also related with short- and long-term risks and opportunities, instead of short-term sustainability impacts.

  7. Assessment of renewable energy reserves in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Falin; Lu, Shyi-Min; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Eric; Lee, Si-Chen

    2010-01-01

    Since Taiwan imports more than 99% of energy supply from foreign countries, energy security has always been the first priority for government to formulate energy policy. The development of renewable energy not only contributes to the independence of energy supply, but also achieves benefits of economic development and environmental protection. Based upon information available to public, the present paper reassesses reserves of various renewable energies in Taiwan. The assessment includes seven kinds of renewable energies, namely, solar energy, wind power, biomass energy, wave energy, tidal energy, geothermal energy and hydropower, which are all commercialized and matured in terms of current technologies. Other renewable energies, which have not proven as matured as the aforementioned ones, are only assessed preliminarily in this paper, such as second generation of biomass, deep geothermal energy, the Kuroshio power generation and ocean thermal energy conversion. According to the estimation of this paper, the reserve of wind energy, up to 29.9 kWh/d/p (i.e., kWh per day per person), is the largest one among seven kinds of renewable energies in Taiwan, followed by 24.27 kWh/d/p of solar energy, 4.55 kWh/d/p of biomass, 4.58 kWh/d/p of ocean energy, 0.67 kWh/d/p of geothermal energy and 16.79 kWh/d/p of hydropower. If regarding biomass as a primary energy, and assuming 40% being the average efficiency to convert primary energy into electricity, the total power of the seven kinds of renewable energy reserves is about 78.03 kWh/d/p, which is equal to 2.75 times of 28.35 kWh/d/p of national power generation in 2008. If the reserves of 54.93 kWh/d/p estimated from other four kinds of renewable energies that have not technically matured yet are also taken into account, it will result that the reserves of renewable energy in Taiwan can be quite abundant. Although the results of the assessment point out that Taiwan has abundant renewable energy resources, the four inherent

  8. What drives renewable energy development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagappan, L.; Orans, R.; Woo, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint reviews renewable energy development in 14 markets that differ in market structure (restructured vs. not restructured), use of feed-in-tariff (FIT) (yes vs. no), transmission planning (anticipatory vs. reactive), and transmission interconnection cost allocated to a renewable generator (high vs. low). We find that market restructuring is not a primary driver of renewable energy development. Renewable generation has the highest percent of total installed capacity in markets that use a FIT, employ anticipatory transmission planning, and have loads or end-users paying for most, if not all, of the transmission interconnection costs. In contrast, renewable developers have been less successful in markets that do not use a FIT, employ reactive transmission planning, and have generators paying for most, if not all, of the transmission interconnection costs. While these policies can lead to higher penetration of renewable energy in the short run, their high cost to ratepayers can threaten the economic sustainability of renewable energy in the long-run. - Highlights: → Market structure seems to have little effect on renewable energy development. → Renewable energy development is more successful in markets that use a FIT. → Anticipatory transmission planning aids renewable energy development. → Low interconnection costs for developers also aids renewable energy development.

  9. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. For electricity from renewable sources of energy main support instruments are feed-in tariffs (FIPs) and feed-in premiums (FiPs). Operators of renewable energy installation have to make a choice for either the applicable FiT or the corresponding FiP. Except for hydro installations with a capacity of 10 MW, the FiT/FiP scheme has been closed for new installations generating electricity from renewables. Hydro power installations with a size ≤ 10 MW are also eligible for subsidies. Installations for production of renewable heat can apply for subsidies granted by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and are exempt from real estate tax. A renewable heating obligation for buildings is in place and a regulation on the use of renewable heating by public authorities. The main support scheme for renewable transport fuels is a renewable transport quota scheme. This scheme obliges companies importing or producing gasoline or automotive diesel to ensure that bio-fuels make up a defined percentage of their overall annual sales volume of automotive fuels. Besides, bio-fuels are exempt from a consumption tax

  10. International Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of international voluntary renewable energy markets, with a focus on the United States and Europe. The voluntary renewable energy market is the market in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. In 2010, the U.S. voluntary market was estimated at 35 terawatt-hours (TWh) compared to 300 TWh in the European market, though key differences exist. On a customer basis, Australia has historically had the largest number of customers, pricing for voluntary certificates remains low, at less than $1 megawatt-hour, though prices depend on technology.

  11. Overcoming the lock-out of renewable energy technologies in Spain: The cases of wind and solar electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del [Department of Spanish and International Economics, Econometrics and History and Economic Institutions, Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo, C/Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo-45071 (Spain); Unruh, Gregory [Alumni Association Chair for Corporate Sustainability, Center for Eco-Intelligent Management, Instituto de Empresa, Serrano, 105 Madrid-28006 (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    This paper applies an evolutionary economics framework to analyse the factors leading to lock-out of renewable energy technologies (RETs). The cases of wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) in Spain are empirically analysed. The paper shows that a wide array of interrelated factors (technoeconomic characteristics of technology components, system-level infrastructure and institutional factors) can create both barriers to the wide diffusion of RETs and can also be drivers that foster an escape from a lock-in situation. Based on this analysis, the paper suggests several policy measures which may help to overcome the lock-out of promising renewable energy technologies. (author)

  12. Renewable Energy Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Kidwai, Naimur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    The issue of renewable energy sources that have great potential to give solutions to the longstanding energy problems of India has been considered. It has been stated that renewable energy sources are an important part of India's plan to increase energy security and provide new generation with ample job opportunities. India's plans to move towards…

  13. PYRAMID LAKE RENEWEABLE ENERGY PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HIGH DESERT GEOCULTURE, LLC

    2009-06-06

    The Pyramid Lake Renewable Energy Plan covers these areas: energy potential (primarily focusing on geothermal resource potential, but also more generally addressing wind energy potential); renewable energy market potential; transmission system development; geothermal direct use potential; and business structures to accomplish the development objectives of the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe.

  14. Renewable Energy Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadimian, Vachik

    The renewable energy sector is evolving, and today, renewable energy has become a viable alternative for many facilities. Because this sector is in its infancy stage, lack of experience has resulted in failing solar projects. This project involves the design and implementation of a functioning web application that streamlines and automates the planning, risk assessment and financing of a solar development project. The three key stakeholders, the host facility, solar installer and financier are seamlessly integrated into a single marketplace. By designing a project development workflow, projects are vetted early on and terminated if deemed infeasible, saving time and resources. By risk assessing the project using the proposed scoring model, one can inherit more confident investors. The project scoring model also serves as a debt rating system, where investors can measure the risk/rewards. The platform will also serve as a communication medium between the three stakeholders. Besides storing documents like engineering drawings, permits, etc., the platform auto-generates all necessary transactional documents, legal documents and agreements among the three stakeholders.

  15. Metal chalcogenide nanostructures for renewable energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq

    2014-01-01

    This first ever reference book that focuses on metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures for renewable energy applications encapsulates the state-of-the-art in multidisciplinary research on the metal chalcogenide semiconductor nanostructures (nanocrystals, nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires,  nanobelts, nanoflowers, nanoribbons and more).  The properties and synthesis of a class of nanomaterials is essential to renewable energy manufacturing and this book focuses on the synthesis of metal chalcogendie nanostructures, their growth mechanism, optical, electrical, and other important prop

  16. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme: sliding feed-in premium scheme which is used to promote RES based electricity, renewable gas and heating purposes is the SDE+ which is structured as feed-in premiums and financed through a levy on the energy bill of end consumers

  17. Implementation Scenarios for Electric Vehicle Roadway Wireless Power Transfer; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meintz, A.; Markel, T.; Burton, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.

    2015-06-05

    Analysis has been performed on the Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC) warehouse of collected GPS second-by-second driving profile data of vehicles in the Atlanta, Chicago, Fresno, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Sacramento, and San Francisco Consolidated Statistical Areas (CSAs) to understand in-motion wireless power transfer introduction scenarios. In this work it has been shown that electrification of 1% of road miles could reduce fuel use by 25% for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) in these CSAs. This analysis of strategically located infrastructure offers a promising approach to reduced fuel consumption; however, even the most promising 1% of road miles determined by these seven analysis scenarios still represent an impressive 2,700 miles of roadway to electrify. Therefore to mitigate the infrastructure capital costs, integration of the grid-tied power electronics in the Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) system at the DC-link to photovoltaic and/or battery storage is suggested. The integration of these resources would allow for the hardware to provide additional revenue through grid services at times of low traffic volumes and conversely at time of high traffic volumes these resources could reduce the peak demand that the WPT system would otherwise add to the grid.

  18. Optimal Planning of an Off-grid Electricity Generation with Renewable Energy Resources using the HOMER Software

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Shahinzadeh; Gevork B. Gharehpetian; S. Hamid Fathi; Sayed Mohsen Nasr-Azadani

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several factors such as environmental pollution which is caused by fossil fuels and various diseases caused by them from one hand and concerns about the dwindling fossil fuels and price fluctuation of the products and resulting effects of these fluctuations in the economy from other hand has led most countries to seek alternative energy sources for fossil fuel supplies. Such a way that in 2006, about 18% of the consumed energy of the world is obtained through renewable energi...

  19. Hybrid mini-grid systems – electricity for communities not connected to the national electricity grid based on renewable energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The primary objective of this project was the identification of electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to existing and new economic activities. A holistic and integrated approach is required...

  20. Assessing Impact of Large-Scale Distributed Residential HVAC Control Optimization on Electricity Grid Operation and Renewable Energy Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Corbin, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Demand management is an important component of the emerging Smart Grid, and a potential solution to the supply-demand imbalance occurring increasingly as intermittent renewable electricity is added to the generation mix. Model predictive control (MPC) has shown great promise for controlling HVAC demand in commercial buildings, making it an ideal solution to this problem. MPC is believed to hold similar promise for residential applications, yet very few examples exist in the literature despite...

  1. Renewable energy in India: Status and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, Indu R.; Banerjee, Rangan [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2009-08-15

    A majority of the Indian population does not have access to convenient energy services (LPG, electricity). Though India has made significant progress in renewable energy, the share of modern renewables in the energy mix is marginal. This paper reviews the status and potential of different renewables (except biomass) in India. This paper documents the trends in the growth of renewables in India and establishes diffusion model as a basis for setting targets. The diffusion model is fitted tot the past trends for wind, small hydro and solar water heating and is used to establish future targets. The economic viability and green house gas (GHG) saving potential is estimated for each option. Several renewables have high growth rates, for example wind, Photovoltaic (PV) module manufacture and solar water heaters. New technologies like Tidal, OTEC, Solar thermal power plants and geothermal power plants are at the demonstration stage and future dissemination will depend on the experience of these projects. (author)

  2. Business development in renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Visa, Ion

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses how to foster development of renewable energy business. Factors that impede or enhance renewable energy in the EU 27 member states in the period 1998–2008 are analyzed. Nine factors are considered: population density, production output and energy sector output to indicate market

  3. Renewable Energy in European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    The regional dynamics of energy innovation, in particular the shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy in the EU, is discussed within the framework of neo-Schumpeterian theory. The EU’s 4.2% average annual growth in renewable energy production in the last decade has been accompanied by diverging

  4. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Solar

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  5. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Hydroelectric

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  6. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  7. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Geothermal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  8. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  9. Somerset County Renewable Energy Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katula, Denise [County of Somerset, Somervile, NJ (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The County of Somerset, New Jersey, through the Somerset County Improvement Authority (SCIA), applied Federal funding through the U.S. Department of Energy to will apply project funds to buy-down the capital costs of equipment associated with the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems at two sites owned by the County. This Renewable Energy Initiative allows the County to take advantage of clean renewable energy, without any adverse debt impacts, and at a price that results in operating budget savings beyond what is presently available in the marketplace. This project addressed the objectives of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy by making the acquisition of renewable energy more affordable for the County, thereby, encouraging other counties and local units to develop similar programs and increase the deployment of solar energy technologies. The two sites that were funded by the DOE grant are part of a much larger, ambitious, and unique renewable energy project, described in the next section.

  10. A review of existing renewable energy facilities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyboer, J.; Pape-Salmon, A.

    2003-05-01

    This first annual report on renewable energy in the Canadian electricity sector includes records from 629 power plants across Canada. Renewable energy sources include wind, hydroelectricity, wood residue biomass, landfill/sewage gas, solar photovoltaic, municipal solid waste, and tidal energy. The data in this report was acquired from Statistics Canada and other public information sources. For each of the 629 renewable energy power plants, this report states its type of renewable energy, the province, the name of the project, its location, its operator, electrical generating capacity, number of generating units, average annual electricity production, and the year it began operation. The majority (64 per cent) of Canada's total installed power capacity comes from renewable energy sources, with the dominant source being hydroelectricity. Manitoba has the highest portion of renewable energy at almost 98 per cent of its installed electrical capacity. Nearly half of Canada's renewable power capacity is in Quebec, followed by 18 per cent in British Columbia. Nova Scotia has Canada's only tidal power plant. Approximately 80 per cent of the total installed renewable energy power capacity in Canada is owned by integrated electric utilities. Eleven per cent is owned by renewable electricity generating companies, 5 per cent is owned by aluminium companies, and 3 per cent is owned by pulp and paper companies. The rest is owned by diversified electricity generators. It is expected that with the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol interest in renewable energy will grow. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs., 1 appendix

  11. Integration of renewable energy and energy efficiency into high temperature applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roos, T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available solar collectors, or electric conversion (preferably renewable) if fossil-based. This can enable further emissions reductions, as fuel combustion is displaced. Globally, renewable energy technologies have predominantly been limited to the electricity...

  12. The ADEME focuses on renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    After a comment on the fact that the ADEME study on the future of electricity production based on renewable energies in France has been disclosed before being published, this article comments and discusses the principles adopted for the predictions (an optimisation of investment and production costs of the electric fleet while respecting some technical constraints, and a capacity of international exchanges of electricity). It also indicates the adopted scenarios: low demand, and lesser management of consumption. It discusses the assessed costs for the different scenarios, and for different energy mixes (with a 100 per cent renewable production). It outlines that, according to the study, 40 or 100 per cent of renewable energies result in the same cost

  13. Renewable energy: Externality costs as market barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Anthony D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of environmentally based market failure constraints on the adoption of renewable energy technologies through the quantification in financial terms of the externalities of electric power generation, for a range of alternative commercial and almost-commercial technologies. It is shown that estimates of damage costs resulting from combustion of fossil fuels, if internalised into the price of the resulting output of electricity, could lead to a number of renewable technologies being financially competitive with generation from coal plants. However, combined cycle natural gas technology would have a significant financial advantage over both coal and renewables under current technology options and market conditions. On the basis of cost projections made under the assumption of mature technologies and the existence of economies of scale, renewable technologies would possess a significant social cost advantage if the externalities of power production were to be 'internalised'. Incorporating environmental externalities explicitly into the electricity tariff today would serve to hasten this transition process

  14. Renewables in Global Energy Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Renewable energies are essential contributors to the energy supply portfolio as they contribute to world energy supply security, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and provide opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Differences in definition and lack of adequate data complicated the discussion between participants on these key issues. The International Energy Agency believes that this fact sheet can be of use to all to facilitate the debate on the past, current and future place and role of renewables in total energy supply. Our goal is to present as objectively as possible the main elements of the current renewables energy situation. The definitions and coverage of national statistics vary between countries and organisations. In this fact sheet, the renewables definition includes combustible renewables and waste (CRW), hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, tide and wave energy.

  15. Learning in renewable energy technology development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Dutch energy policy is directed at 17 percent of electricity demand being covered by renewable energy sources by 2020. Martin Junginger has demonstrated that this can be achieved at considerably lower costs than is the case now. He also found that it might be more financially advantageous to realize

  16. Renewable energy outlook in Iran and World's energy structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarm, D.; Adl, M.

    2001-01-01

    Limited fossil fuel resources and environmental impact of energy production technologies causing Global Warming have encouraged wide spread used of renewable energies. This article reviews the characteristics of renewable energy sources as well as their status within IR of Iran and pro-countries. According to the mentioned Information and Status, currently 22% of world electricity is produced through conversion of various renewable energies and expected to grow even further. This trend has been a main factor in reduction of end-used renewable energy prices. Consideration of social and environmental costs of fossil fuel use will help to reveal compatibility of renewable energies. Utilization of renewable energy potentials apart from proven environmental advantages and job creation effects may conserve country's conventional fossil fuel resources. In general, growth of renewable energy in a country is direct result of existing energy policies with respect to increasing the share of clean energies in the energy basket. Nevertheless in Iran yearly demand hikes for energy and considering the fact the fossil fuel reservoirs are limited, utilization of renewable energy potentials is inevitable

  17. Overview of renewable electric power in 2016 in Normandy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    This publication proposes an assessment of renewable electricity produced in 2016 in the Normandie region, and thus highlights how these territories are committed in an energy transition logics and in a positive evolution of the region energy mix. After a recall of national and regional objectives in terms of final consumption and of shares of renewable energies, definitions, figures, objectives, installed and connected powers, projects, evolutions, electric power production cover rate, numbers and locations of installations are given by graphs and maps and briefly commented for the different renewable sources: onshore wind energy, solar photovoltaic energy, hydroelectricity, bio-energies. A regional assessment which gathers some of these information is given, and modalities of support to renewable energies are briefly presented for onshore and offshore wind energy, photovoltaic, hydroelectricity and biogas

  18. A review of renewable energy in Canada, 1990-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyboer, J.; Rivers, N.; Muncaster, K.; Bennett, M.; Bennett, S.

    2004-10-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive database of renewable energy facilities in Canada by province and by resource type. It considers technologies used for power generation or cogeneration, renewable energy heating systems, hydrogen generation and transportation fuels. Renewable energy technologies convert naturally regenerating resources into useful energy such as electricity, thermal energy, hydrogen or bio-fuels. The database contains information on renewable power operations in Canada over a scale of 100 kilowatts of rated capacity. Smaller applications have been included for run-of-river, hydro, earth, wind and solar power. There are 753 records for renewable energy facilities in Canada, including wind, hydroelectricity, wood residue biomass, landfill/sewage gas, solar photovoltaic, municipal solid waste, and tidal energy. The data in this report was acquired from Statistics Canada and other public information sources. For each of the 753 renewable energy power plants, this report states its type of renewable energy, the province, the name of the project, its location, its operator, electrical generating capacity, number of generating units, average annual electricity production, and the year it began operation. Canada currently has an installed electrical capacity of 115 GW, of which renewable energy sources constitute 76 per cent with the dominant source being hydroelectricity. Manitoba has the highest portion of renewable energy in its installed electrical capacity. Approximately 40 per cent Canada's renewable power capacity is in Quebec, followed by 15 per cent in British Columbia. Nova Scotia has Canada's only tidal power plant. Most of the installed renewable energy power capacity in Canada is owned by integrated electric utilities and a small percentage is owned by renewable electricity generating companies, aluminium companies, pulp and paper companies or diversified electricity generators. It is expected that interest in renewable energy will grow with

  19. Green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide using geothermal energy and/or hydropower in Iceland or excess renewable electricity in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauw, Marco; Benders, René M.J.; Visser, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of green methanol from hydrogen and carbon dioxide can contribute to mitigation of greenhouse gasses. This methanol can be utilized as either a transport fuel or as an energy carrier for electricity storage. It is preferable to use inexpensive, reliable and renewable energy sources to provide the energy needed for the green methanol production. Iceland has a large potential for such renewable energy sources. If only geothermal CO 2 may be utilized the green methanol potential in Iceland is ∼340 million L/y. When all the potentially available geothermal energy and hydropower is combined the potential becomes ∼2150 million L/y. Next the scope is broadened to the European mainland using Germany as a case since its government has set strict goals for renewable electricity production. For Germany the electricity oversupply in 2050 is predicted to be 24 TWh e /y, leading to a methanol potential of ∼2360 million L/y using CO 2 from fossil fuel power plants. In Iceland the potential of 340 million L/y of methanol as a transport fuel would supply all of the M3 demand and 75% of the M85 demand. In Germany the electricity oversupply would provide all of the M3 demand, but only 4% of the M85 demand. - Highlights: • In Iceland the overall potential for green methanol is ∼2150 million L/y. • With geothermal CO 2 as limiting factor the methanol potential is ∼340 million L/y. • In Iceland methanol can fulfil 75% of the M85 demand with geothermal CO 2. • In Germany excess electricity can lead to a methanol potential of ∼2350 million L/y. • In Germany methanol can fulfil all of the M3 demand and 4% of the M85 demand.

  20. State-scale evaluation of renewable electricity policy. The role of renewable electricity credits and carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Todd; Thomas, Valerie M.; Lee, Audrey J.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a state-scale version of the MARKAL energy optimization model, commonly used to model energy policy at the US national scale and internationally. We apply the model to address state-scale impacts of a renewable electricity standard (RES) and a carbon tax in one southeastern state, Georgia. Biomass is the lowest cost option for large-scale renewable generation in Georgia; we find that electricity can be generated from biomass co-firing at existing coal plants for a marginal cost above baseline of 0.2-2.2 cents/kWh and from dedicated biomass facilities for 3.0-5.5 cents/kWh above baseline. We evaluate the cost and amount of renewable electricity that would be produced in-state and the amount of out-of-state renewable electricity credits (RECs) that would be purchased as a function of the REC price. We find that in Georgia, a constant carbon tax to 2030 primarily promotes a shift from coal to natural gas and does not result in substantial renewable electricity generation. We also find that the option to offset a RES with renewable electricity credits would push renewable investment out-of-state. The tradeoff for keeping renewable investment in-state by not offering RECs is an approximately 1% additional increase in the levelized cost of electricity. (author)

  1. Modeling renewable energy company risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2012-01-01

    The renewable energy sector is one of the fastest growing components of the energy industry and along with this increased demand for renewable energy there has been an increase in investing and financing activities. The tradeoff between risk and return in the renewable energy sector is, however, precarious. Renewable energy companies are often among the riskiest types of companies to invest in and for this reason it is necessary to have a good understanding of the risk factors. This paper uses a variable beta model to investigate the determinants of renewable energy company risk. The empirical results show that company sales growth has a negative impact on company risk while oil price increases have a positive impact on company risk. When oil price returns are positive and moderate, increases in sales growth can offset the impact of oil price returns and this leads to lower systematic risk.

  2. Energy efficiency and renewable energy systems in Portugal and Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Soares, Isabel; Ferreira, Paula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a review of the energy situation in Brazil and Portugal; two countries which are both characterised by high utilisation of renewable energy sources though with differences between them. The article also introduces contemporary energy research conducted on the two countries...... and presented at The 1st International Congress on Energy & Environment ranging from electricity end-use analyses, electricity production analyses to socio-economic assessment and large-scale energy scenarios....

  3. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Belgium consists of three regions: Brussels, Flanders and Wallonia, each with much autonomy in determining renewable support policies, except for support to offshore wind and hydro power which fall under the competence of the federal government. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted at regional and federal levels mainly through a quota system based on the trade of certificates, complemented by regional support measures. In the three regions small PV installations benefit from net metering. The federal government supports renewable heating and cooling by way of a tax deduction on investment costs. The main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system under the competence of the federal government

  4. Marine Renewable Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigeant, Paul [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); Miller, John [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); Howes, Brian [Univ. of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, MA (United States); McGowan, Jon G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Baldwin, Kenneth [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Grilli, Annette [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States); Terray, Eugene [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    2013-10-08

    Project Goals: The funding provided by this contract supported the following activities: A) Test Site Development; B) Seed Grant Funded Technology Development; C) Stakeholder Activities The first year of funding was dedicated to the formation of the NE MREC University Consortium which was comprised of University of Massachusetts Dartmouth (UMD) and Amherst (UMA), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), University of New Hampshire (UNH), and the University of Rhode Island (URI). The consortium worked together to encourage research and promote benefits of obtaining energy from ocean wind, waves, tides and currents. In addition, NE MREC’s goal was to fund projects aimed at potential test sites with the first year funding going to studies of the potential for tidal device testing in Muskeget Channel, at the General Sullivan Bridge in New Hampshire, and for wave device testing at the proposed National Offshore Renewable Energy Innovation Zone (NOREIZ) located off the Massachusetts coast. The project spanned 4.5 years and addressed three specific tasks that are interrelated but also served as independent investigations.

  5. Renewable energy potential in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa Guzman, Jose Luis

    2008-12-01

    Renewable energy flows are very large in comparison with humankind's use of energy. In principle, all our energy needs, both now and into the future, can be met by energy from renewable sources. After many years trying to develop the alternative energy potential of Colombia, a major effort is principally being made since 2000 to explore and assess the renewable resources of the entire country. Until 2000, the availability of conventional energy sources in Colombia prevented renewable energy exploration from reaching a higher level. However, the extreme energy crisis of 1992 - 1993 alerted the authorities and the community to the necessity for exploring alternative energy sources. This energy study is a general approach to the current and future renewable energy scenario of Colombia. It was prepared in response to the increased interest around the world and in particular in Colombia to develop its non-fossil energy prospective. It, therefore, represents a working document giving an initial impression of the possible scale of the main renewables sources as a response to the concern about energy security and fossil fuel dependence problems. The assumptions made and calculations reported may therefore be subject to revision as more information becomes available. The aim of this dissertation is not only to improve the public understanding and discussion of renewable energy matters in Colombia but also to stimulate the development and application of renewable energy, wherever they have prospects of economic viability and environmental acceptability. To achieve such goal this paper reviews several renewable technologies, their availability, contribution and feasibility in Colombia.

  6. Hydroelectricity and TNB's other renewable energy initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Tajuddin Ali

    2000-01-01

    TNB has a big role to play in Malaysia 's pursuit for modernization and socioeconomic progress. The most important task is to fulfill the nation's electricity demand in the most reliable manner and at the lowest cost possible with minimal of environmental impacts. TNB is committed to the development of renewable energy in this country. In fact, hydropower, which is a form of renewable energy, contributed significant proportion of the generating capacity in TNB. Research works on other forms of renewable energy like solar, wind, and biomass are actively being pursued by Tenaga Nasional Research and Development Sdn Bhd. As solar and wind energy systems are by nature emission-free, they provide a ready solution to the current air pollution and global warming problems. With the depletion of conventional non-renewable energy resources like oil, gas, and coal, the emergence of renewable energy as a reliable, alternative source of fuel would enhance security of energy supply in the long run. Because renewable energy is sourced locally, the country will benefit economically due to the cut on imported fuel and hence foreign exchange losses. For the policy makers, the most challenging task ahead is how to re-strategised the present policy on fuels in order to accommodate the contributions from other forms of renewable energy (other than hydro) without compromising on system reliability and cost to the customers. On DSM and Energy Efficiency programs pursued by TNB, the objective in is to discourage wasteful and expensive patterns of energy consumption. In that way, new electricity demand need not necessarily be met by new investment on new power stations. (Author)

  7. Renewable energies enter the stock market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the new context created by the obligation for renewable energy installations to sell their electricity directly on the market. Thus, new practices and new actors appear like aggregators which belong to three categories: trading departments or subsidiary companies of national operators, trading departments or subsidiary companies of developers and producers of renewable energy, or independent market operators. The author describes the different cases in which renewable electricity producers will need aggregators (the mandatory purchase contract reaches its end, an additional income in the case of bidding or outside this case). The author also describes the role and responsibilities of aggregators, notably with respect to RTE. Such a market operation of course results in the taking of the electricity price on the stock market into account, and in the associated risks for aggregators

  8. Biogas: A renewable energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imiere, E.E.; Ojih, V.B.; Esiekpe, L.E.; Okafor, M.C.; Attoh, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas can be used as a fuel in any country for any heating purpose such as cooking. By means of digesters, the energy in the gas can be converted to electricity and heat. Biogas like natural gas can also be used to power motor vehicle. Biogas is a renewable fuel which qualifies it for a renewable energy subsidy. It is non-toxic, environment-friendly and serve as a means of combating global warming. Biogas is presently being used in U.S.A, U.K, China, Sweden, Brazil, and India amongst others for domestic purposes, transportation and power generation. In this regard, this paper discusses biogas production. It also presents a model design of domestic biogas plant suitable for Nigerian households. The paper recommends that Nigerian Government should intensify efforts in educating the masses on this novel technology for a sustainable global development. A biogas plant designed for Nigerian household discussed in this paper is also recommended.

  9. Renewable energy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, A.; Van Gerven, B.

    2001-01-01

    In two articles an overview is given of the developments in the Netherlands with respect to renewable energy. The Dutch government aims at wind power and biomass at the expense of solar energy and heat pumps and hydroelectric power [nl

  10. Emerging Markets for Renewable Energy Certificates: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2005-01-01

    Renewable energy certificates (RECs) represent the attributes of electricity generated from renewable energy sources. These attributes are unbundled from the physical electricity, and the two products-the attributes embodied in the certificates and the commodity electricity-may be sold or traded separately. RECs are quickly becoming the currency of renewable energy markets because of their flexibility and the fact that they are not subject to the geographic and physical limitations of commodity electricity. RECs are currently used by utilities and marketers to supply renewable energy products to end-use customers as well as to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements, such as renewable energy mandates. The purpose of this report is to describe and analyze the emerging market for renewable energy certificates. It describes how RECs are marketed, examines RECs markets including scope and prices, and identifies and describes the key challenges facing the growth and success of RECs markets.

  11. White paper on renewable energies. Renewable energies: to be in line with World momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Jean-Louis; Apolit, Robin; Audigane, Nicolas; Billerey, Elodie; Bortolotti, Celine; Burie, Ony; Carabot, Cyril; Conan, Stephanie; Duclos, Paul; Fuseliez, Sabrina; Gaulmyn, Louis De; Gondolo, Mathieu; Jouet, Francoise; Kiersnowski, Marlene; Le Guen, Claire; Lequatre, Delphine; Lettry, Marion; Mathieu, Mathilde; Mathon, Damien; Molton, Catherine; Poubeau, Romain; Richard, Axel; Chartier, Philippe; Guignard, Eric

    2017-01-01

    After an introduction on the recent evolutions of the context for renewable energies in France and in the World (an economic revolution, simplification of the legal and regulatory framework, the more active role of consumers), and a graphical presentation of the present status and perspectives of renewable energies in France, this publication first discusses the main strategic orientations for the development of renewable energies: visibility of sectors, clear and balanced economic framework, a new industrial and territorial dynamics. It discusses various operational measures for different sectors: ground-based wind energy, renewable marine energies, hydroelectricity, photovoltaic solar energy, thermodynamic solar energy, thermal solar energy, valorisation of biomass potentials, bio-fuels, biogas, wastes, emerging sectors, domestic wood heating, low and high temperature geothermal energy. The next part proposes and comments transverse operational measures regarding electric grids, overseas territories, Corsica, the housing sector, and international trade

  12. Renewable energy in Pakistan: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, I.A.; Khalil, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the countries around the world have realized that the key to attaining and maintaining prosperity and sovereignty is having independence and self-reliance in access to and subsequent use of energy. To address the global challenges, the energy system needs to undergo a transformation from fossil-fuels to renewable energy and energy efficient technologies. Pakistan has a huge potential for harnessing renewable energy and its share in the electricity mix has to be increased to achieve energy security. Security issues and circular debt in the country are the key challenges that need to be addressed to promote on-grid renewable energy through private sector. Around 38 % of the total Pakistani population remains without access to electricity. Fifty four per cent of the rural population currently has no access to electricity, forcing them to live a sub-standard life of poverty and social inequity. Microfinance and other innovative financial tools need to be evolved to promote rural electrification through renewable energies. (author)

  13. Panorama 2011: Ocean renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, P.; Vinot, S.

    2011-01-01

    Our society is looking increasingly to renewable energy sources in the face of the energy and environmental challenges with which it is grappling. As far as ocean renewable energies are concerned, a wide range of technologies is currently being experimented with, including wind power and energy derived from waves and tidal currents. They are all at varying levels of maturity, and bring with them very different technical and economic challenges. (author)

  14. The renewable energies: the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P.

    2005-03-01

    If one takes into account the hydroelectric power, the France is the first european country in the renewable energies domain. The position is also honorable concerning the wood energy. Meanwhile, for the solar and wind energy, France is late. To discuss this debate, the authors bring together today data on the renewable energies, offer some proposals for the next 50 years taking into account the reduction of greenhouse gases emission for 2050. (A.L.B.)

  15. The renewable energies in France 1970-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provides statistical data on the renewable energies situation in France (metropolitan and overseas department) from 1970 to 2005. It concerns 1- the electric power production from renewable energies as the hydroelectric power, wind power, photovoltaic, geothermal energy and biomass and 2- the thermal power production from renewable energies as the wood energy, domestic wastes, heat pumps, geothermal energy, crops residues, biogas, thermal solar and biofuels. (A.L.B.)

  16. Renewable energies in France: the main 2001 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    This 2001 status on the use of renewable energies in France makes a synthesis of the electric and heat productions of renewable origin. It lists the primary or secondary productions of renewable energies, and details the uses corresponding to each renewable energy production source and their respective satisfaction of consumer's needs (residential, industry and agriculture sectors). A detail statistical status for 1999, 2000 and 2001 is presented in tables. (J.S.)

  17. Panorama of renewable electricity. Synthesis as at 30 June 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-09-01

    RTE is the mainspring in enhancing energy transition and developing renewable energy in France. To further knowledge on the subject, we publish a detailed inventory of existing and projected wind and photovoltaic installations. This vast overview was achieved with the help of ERDF, ADEeF (Association of electricity distribution network operators in France) and SER (Association of renewable energy industrialists). 2015's outstanding facts: The wind and photovoltaic industries are the major contributor to the growth of renewable electrical energy (REN), with 1913 MW installed between 1 July 2014 and 30 June 2015. These two industries now represent a third of the generation capacity of REN in France. Renewable electricity generation power in metropolitan France amounts to 42 582 MW, 60% of which is of hydroelectric origin

  18. Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Joshua D.

    Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to

  19. Sustainable electricity supply of the future. Costs and benefits of a transformation to 100% renewable energies; Nachhaltige Stromversorgung der Zukunft. Kosten und Nutzen einer Transformation hin zu 100% erneuerbaren Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Andreas; Luenenbuerger, Benjamin; Osiek, Dirk

    2012-08-15

    In the brochure under conideration, the Federal Environment Agency (Dessau-Rosslau, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on a sustainable electricity supply in the future. The costs and benefits of the transformation to 100% renewable energy sources are considered. The Federal Environment Agency concludes: A sustainable power supply requires the transition to a fully renewable energy supply. A full supply of electricity from renewable sources by 2050 is feasible technically. Thereby electricity from wind power and solar energy may play a central role in any ambitious expansion scenarios. The cost of power generation from renewable energy already are sunk. This trend will continue. Since the conventional power generation is more expensive in the future, renewable energy pays off more and more. Environmentally harmful subsidies and the lack of consideration of the social costs caused by the fossil and nuclear power generation massively distort the competition at the expense of renewable energy. The transformation of the energy system is worthwhile macroeconomically. The promotion of renewable energies avoids social follow-up costs caused by environmental damages and health related harms. Jobs are created. The regional value added is increased. It also improves the competitiveness of the fast-growing world markets for renewable energy technologies.

  20. Which leadership for renewable energies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumien, Marielle

    2016-02-01

    This publication first outlines that France is late in deploying renewable energies by 2020. It comments the application of the Energy multi-year plan (PPE), evokes the content of a report by the French Court of Auditors about costs and means of implementation of transition (with notably the issue of maintenance of nuclear plants). It also shows that European Union is not a leader in renewable energies any more, that some European countries are changing sides, that figures and trends must be carefully compared with those in the field of fossil and nuclear energies, that all energies are not all the same, that jobs and system integration are also important, that investments and attractiveness of countries in renewable energies must be assessed, and that a mobilisation on small scale and consumer-based renewable energies is required. Ten recommendations are made for France to support the EU leadership development

  1. The myth and realities of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shargal, M.; Houseman, D.

    2008-01-01

    Renewable energies use natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. Renewable energy technologies range from wind power, hydroelectricity, wave, solar, biomass, and biofuels. While most renewable energy sources do not produce pollution directly, the materials, industrial processes, and construction equipment used to create them may generate waste and pollution. This paper discussed the myths and realities of these energy applications. The following were described as being myths: plug-in cars could help reduce air pollution; current electric infrastructure can support the growth in plug-in cars; transmission grid can support the transportation of renewable electricity generated in rural areas to homes and business that need it in large metropolitan areas; there is a shortage of renewable energy sources on earth; biofuels do not have environmental issues; renewable energy facilities last forever; biofuel and biomass energy positively influence greenhouse gas; and greater efficiency results in lower energy consumption, resulting in energy independence. The paper also addressed the myth that ethanol is an eco-friendly fuel, and that if the United States tapped into its vast coal reserves effectively with clean and efficient coal-to-liquids technology, America would achieve energy independence. The paper also discussed the transformation from surplus fossil fuel resources to constrained gas and oil carriers, and subsequently to new energy supply and conversion technologies. Specifically, the paper addressed carbon offsets and allowance, cow power, and innovative experiments. It was concluded that the world is not on course to achieve a sustainable energy future. The global energy supply will continue to be dominated by fossil fuels for several decades. In order to reduce the resultant greenhouse gas emissions, a transition to zero and low-carbon technologies will be required. 10 refs

  2. Synthesis: Renewable energies, January 2016 - January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deharbe, David; Gandet, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The authors propose an overview and a comment of evolutions of the legal context of renewable energies during 2016. Thus, they address French decrees related to installations which produce electric power from renewable energies or the recovery of mine gas or co-generation, related to the transfer of mandatory purchase contracts, and related to the control of renewable energy production installations. They review legal and administrative events (decrees or decisions) regarding wind energy (tariffs, bidding, installations, meteorological radars, technical and financial responsibilities), solar energy (tariffing, self-consumption, bidding, installation location in mountain and rural contexts for roof-based or ground-based installations), biogas (gas sector, tariffs, supply threshold for energetic crops), hydroelectricity (bidding for small installations), geothermal energy (definition of objectives, inauguration of the first world deep geothermal plant in Rittershoffen, tariffing, new technical decrees) and miscellaneous aspects

  3. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, B.V.; Lund, H.; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2007-01-01

    Governments worldwide aim at reducing CO2 emissions and expanding renewable energy. A key element in achieving such a goal is to use renewable energy in transport such as biofuels. However, efforts to promote single transport technologies and single fuels only represent a partial solution...... transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy....... No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Transport must be integrated into energy planning, as electricity and heating. In this paper, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energy planning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable...

  4. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Consumers (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This is a Spanish-language handbook designed to answer a consumer's basic questions, as well as point them to additional information they need, to make the best decision about whether an electric-drive vehicle is right for them.

  5. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Boyd, Brian K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gorrissen, Willy J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hand, James R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russo, Bryan J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williamson, Jennifer L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-11-17

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Polk, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Polk took place on February 16, 2010.

  6. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Sill, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Brian K.; Hand, James R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2011-03-31

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Sill, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Sill took place on June 10, 2010.

  7. Production and competition in the European electric sector. 4. report from the research project 'renewable energy in the community's internal market'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjersgaard, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim is to elucidate the dynamic interactive pricing, competition and market mechanisms that are valid for the European electric power market. The perspective in the report is to analyse the vertical flow of substance and values of energy, the interaction of the actors, and the economic relations. The first link in the vertical chain is the energy raw materials supplies: the reserves and production of fossil and nuclear fuels and the relation to globalization of electricity production. The next link is the production of electricity: the production technologies used and their positioning, the importance of large trans-national utilities in relation to technological changes. The third link is the market and the changes of the market between production, transmission, distribution and consumption of electricity, and the consequences of these changes. Two horizontal regulating sectional views are analysed: The European Union regulations of the electric power sector and the Danish regulations of power supplies. Finally, production and competition of electric power from renewable energy sources, i.e. wind power, in a future European energy market is put into perspective. (LN) 134 refs

  8. Renewable Energy Policies and Market Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.L.; Beurskens, L.W.M.; Boots, M.G.; Kaal, M.B.T.; De Lange, T.J.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Uyterlinde, M.A.

    2003-03-01

    Reviews and an analysis of the policy support for the stimulation of renewable electricity in the current energy market are presented, and an overview is given of the main new developments influencing the renewable energy market. The report is part of the analysis phase of the project REMAC 2000, which has led to the publication of a roadmap for the acceleration of the RE market. REMAC 2000 aims to promote a sustainable growth of the renewable energy market. For such a sustainable growth, important success factors are not only effectiveness of policy, but also security for investors, which is essential for building up a sector and developing the renewable energy market. Consistency of regulations and policies at different levels and between policy fields form a condition for security, as does the active involvement of market stakeholders. Further, the increasing role of trade within the energy and renewable energy sector leads to a priority for international coherence of policies and markets. To guarantee a sustainable growth of the renewable energy sector, a broad perspective of policy makers and planners is required- to include a long time frame, a comprehensive view of related policy fields and authorities involved, and an orientation that looks beyond national borders

  9. Renewable energy markets in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric; Chaurey, Akanksha; Lew, Debra; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Wamukonya, Njeri

    2003-01-01

    Roughly 400 million households, or 40% of the population of developing countries, do not have access to electricity. Household and community demand for lighting, TV, radio, and wireless telephony in rural areas without electricity has driven markets for solar home systems, biogas-fueled lighting, small hydro mini-grids, wind or solar hybrid mini-grids, and small wind turbines. These technologies are not strictly comparable with each other, however; the level of service that households receive varies considerably by technology and by the specific equipment size used. Regardless of size, surveys and anecdotal evidence suggest that rural households value both electric lighting and television viewing. Growing numbers of individual equipment purchases, beyond government-driven programs, point to growing market demand. As energy consumption rises with increases in population and living standards, awareness is growing about the environmental costs of energy and the need to expand access to energy in new ways. As recognition grows of the contribution renewable energy can make to development, renewable energy is shifting from the fringe to the mainstream of sustainable development. Support for renewable energy has been building among those in government, multilateral organizations, industry, and non-governmental organizations. Commercial markets for renewable energy are expanding, shifting investment patterns away from traditional government and donor sources to greater reliance on private firms and banks. In this paper we take a market orientation, providing an aggregate review of past market experience, existing applications, and results of policies and programs. (BA)

  10. Development of a module for taking remuneration under the Renewable Energy Law into account in a model for calculating the economic efficiency of smart electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Maximilian Uwe; Toprani, Vipul; Witte, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The enactment of the Law Giving Priority to Renewable Energies (EEG) in 2000 laid the cornerstone for the transformation of the German electricity supply. Since then the proportion of renewable energy in electricity production has grown dramatically, confronting the German network infrastructure, which was initially designed for a centralised supply system, with new problems and challenges. In order to achieve optimal coordination between volatile energy infeeds, electricity storage plants and consumers it is necessary to bring all components involved together in a smart grid. A small-scale grid of this description is currently being operated and investigated on the EUREF Campus in Berlin Schoeneberg. The task of achieving optimal allocation of energy flows and getting the micro smart grid to run accordingly, i.e. at a profit, poses new challenges to all involved. To be able to determine the economic efficiency of smart grids a calculation model was developed which simulates the operation of production and storage plants and takes the behaviour of real consumers into account. The model rates the profitability of investments made in terms of their capital value. In its current version the model still disregards the legal regulations for the remuneration of electricity produced from a mix of renewable resources. These cannot be considered as physically separate in a smart grid. In the present study a module based on EEG provisions was developed which calculates remuneration rates as a function of production and demand at a given moment. This is one of several factors which influence the economic efficiency of smart grids. The study undertakes to identify these factors and describe their influence on the profitability of the total investment.

  11. Renewable energy sources and ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panajotova, Yu.

    1998-01-01

    The share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the world energy balance is estimated from 1-2 to 10% of the total primary energy sources consumption. In EU since 1990 until now the power energy production from these sources is growing continuously by over 3% annually. The features of the updated Environmental Strategy for Bulgaria (ESB) elaborated with the World Bank in 1994 are: increasing the energy efficiency; utilising RES; granting preference to the regional energy concept and establishing regional energy centres based on the EU experience. In ESB the basic priorities are linked with disease factors - pollutants as lead in the air and soils (from leaded petrol, resp. from metallurgical enterprises), dust particles in the air (from household heating, industry and thermo-electric power stations) and sulfur dioxide and other gases (also from energy sector and industry). There is consistent policy for harmonization of the Bulgarian standards with those of the WHO. Among the implemented projects preference is granting to ones concerning new energy saving technologies and RES. Bulgaria got an environmental protection law harmonized with the international legislation and adapted to the economic situation inflicted by the market economy transition. The development of RES needs high investment cost and has low efficiency factor compared to the classical methods of energy production. Implementation of Environmental Action Programme (EAP) in Bulgaria with an international co-operation includes: solid wastes management; water sources management; water pollution problems; soil degradation; transport and environment; nuclear safety and nuclear waste problems and full value utilization of the RES. The Ministry of Environment and local Authorities have to develop their policies and implementing them by a range of activities to identify pollution control strategies, to identify areas where the greatest environmental benefits can be achieved at least cost and to incorporate the

  12. The renewable energies; Les energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The renewable energies are everywhere but also irregular. Thus they need savings in our energy consumptions. This document provides information, such as economics, capacity and implementation, on the following renewable energies: the wind power, the solar energy, the photovoltaic energy, the biogas, the geothermal energy, the hydroelectricity, the wood. It also presents a state of the art and examples of bio-climatic architecture. (A.L.B.)

  13. Developing Government Renewable Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt S. Myers; Thomas L. Baldwin; Jason W. Bush; Jake P. Gentle

    2012-07-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers has retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a study of past INL experiences and complete a report that identifies the processes that are needed for the development of renewable energy projects on government properties. The INL has always maintained expertise in power systems and applied engineering and INL’s renewable energy experiences date back to the 1980’s when our engineers began performing US Air Force wind energy feasibility studies and development projects. Over the last 20+ years of working with Department of Defense and other government agencies to study, design, and build government renewable projects, INL has experienced the do’s and don’ts for being successful with a project. These compiled guidelines for government renewable energy projects could include wind, hydro, geothermal, solar, biomass, or a variety of hybrid systems; however, for the purpose of narrowing the focus of this report, wind projects are the main topic discussed throughout this report. It is our thought that a lot of what is discussed could be applied, possibly with some modifications, to other areas of renewable energy. It is also important to note that individual projects (regardless the type) vary to some degree depending on location, size, and need but in general these concepts and directions can be carried over to the majority of government renewable energy projects. This report focuses on the initial development that needs to occur for any project to be a successful government renewable energy project.

  14. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems. Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ela, Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hein, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schneider, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  15. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  16. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3. End-Use Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  17. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 3: End-Use Electricity Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, D.; Belzer, D.B.; Hadley, S.W.; Markel, T.; Marnay, C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  18. Renewable energies - Situation and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, Claude; Vaillant, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The world has to face increasing energy needs while it is today dependent of fossil fuels at 80%. Getting out of the fossil fuels dependence model requires an important effort to promote the energy saving and the carbon-free energies as well, and in particular the renewable energy sources. Taking all this information into account, the authors evaluate the global share that renewable energies could represent in the energy mix, in France and in the entire world. This share represents today only 10% of the energy consumed, but will it remain marginal or will it become important and eventually prominent? (J.S.)

  19. Renewable energies: the Spanish assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit-Pez, Ch.; Molenat, G.

    2009-01-01

    Even though Spain is far away from the Kyoto protocol objectives, this country possesses numerous assets in terms of renewable energies. This report presents overviews of the present situation and of innovation and research activities in the different fields of renewable energies: wind energy, solar energy (thermal, thermoelectric and photovoltaic), hydraulic energy (dams, tide and wave energy), biomass (wood, bio-fuels, biogas). Along with these presentations, the authors propose tables and graphs of quantitative data concerning these different energy productions, at the national as well as at the regional level, with comparison with data for other European countries

  20. Risoe energy report 5. Renewable energy for power and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2006-11-15

    The global energy policy scene today is dominated by three concerns, namely security of supply, climate change and energy for development and poverty alleviation. This is the starting point for Risoe Energy Report 5 that addresses status and trends in renewable energy, and gives an overview of global driving forces for transformation of the energy systems in the light of security of supply, climate change and economic growth. More specifically status and trends in renewable energy technologies, for broader applications in off grid power production (and heat) will be discussed. Furthermore the report will address wider introduction of renewable energy in the transport sector, for example renewable based fuels, hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell driven vehicles. (au)

  1. Risoe energy report 5. Renewable energy for power and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L.

    2006-11-01

    The global energy policy scene today is dominated by three concerns, namely security of supply, climate change and energy for development and poverty alleviation. This is the starting point for Risoe Energy Report 5 that addresses status and trends in renewable energy, and gives an overview of global driving forces for transformation of the energy systems in the light of security of supply, climate change and economic growth. More specifically status and trends in renewable energy technologies, for broader applications in off grid power production (and heat) will be discussed. Furthermore the report will address wider introduction of renewable energy in the transport sector, for example renewable based fuels, hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell driven vehicles. (au)

  2. Energy System Analysis of 100 Per cent Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    and designed a model for the future energy system of Denmark, putting emphasis on energy efficiency, CO2 reduction, and industrial development. The energy system analysis methodology includes hour by hour computer simulations leading to the design of flexible energy systems with the ability to balance...... the electricity supply and demand and to exchange electricity productions on the international electricity markets. The results are detailed system designs and energy balances for two energy target years: year 2050 with 100 per cent renewable energy from biomass and combinations of wind, wave and solar power......This paper presents the methodology and results of the overall energy system analysis of a 100 per cent renewable energy system. The input for the systems is the result of a project of the Danish Association of Engineers, in which 1600 participants during more than 40 seminars discussed...

  3. Electrical Supply System for the Experimental Zero-Energy Building (of 300 m2 Based on Renewable and Alternative Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basok, B.I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of the development and implementation of the power supply system of the experimental zero-energy building based on renewable and alternative energy sources are presented. CDF-model to determine the optimal conditions for the deployment of wind energy installations within the building limits is developed.

  4. Optimization Techniques of Hybrid Renewable Energy System: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqi, Dilruba; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; A, Hasniaty; Tahir, Zulkifli; A, Taufik

    2010-01-01

    The term renewable energy is energy derived from a broad spectrum of resources, all of which are based on self-renewing energy sources such as sunlight, wind, flowing water, the earth's internal heat, and biomass such as energy crops, agricultural and industrial waste, and municipal waste. These resources can be used to produce electricity for all economic sectors, fuels for transportation, and heat for buildings and industrial processes [1]. Germany has new targets for renewable energy b...

  5. Starr Ranch Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr Ranch Renewable Energy success story is the summary of a renewable energy study by U.S. EPA Region 6. This publication summarizes the analyses to determine appropriate renewable energy options in Starr Ranch.

  6. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme in Germany: tendering scheme for RES-E, small power plants up to 100 kW are supported by a feed-in tariff. Market Incentive Programme (MAP) for RES-H, Electric Mobility Strategy for the transport sector

  7. Renewable energy investment: Policy and market impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Wolf Heinrich; Szolgayová, Jana; Fuss, Sabine; Obersteiner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Feedback of decisions to the market: large companies can have an impact on prices in the market. ► Multiple uncertainties: analysis of uncertainties emanating from both markets and environment. ► Policy analysis: impact of uncertainty about the durability of feed-in tariffs. -- Abstract: The liberalization of electricity markets in recent years has enhanced competition among power-generating firms facing uncertain decisions of competitors and thus uncertain prices. At the same time, promoting renewable energy has been a key ingredient in energy policy seeking to de-carbonize the energy mix. Public incentives for companies to invest in renewable technologies range from feed-in tariffs, to investment subsidies, tax credits, portfolio requirements and certificate systems. We use a real options model in discrete time with lumpy multiple investments to analyze the decisions of an electricity producer to invest into new power generating capacity, to select the type of technology and to optimize its operation under price uncertainty and with market effects. We account for both the specific characteristics of renewables and the market effects of investment decisions. The prices are determined endogenously by the supply of electricity in the market and by exogenous electricity price uncertainty. The framework is used to analyze energy policy, as well as the reaction of producers to uncertainty in the political and regulatory framework. In this way, we are able to compare different policies to foster investment into renewables and analyze their impacts on the market.

  8. Renewable Energy Development In Africa - Challenges, Opportunities, Way Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, Babu

    2010-09-15

    The unexploited potential of renewable energy in Sub-Saharan Africa can be traced back to national energy policies, which concentrate on the conventional electricity sector while the support for renewable resources remains on the fringes. This Paper reviews public policies and funding instruments to exploit renewable energy resources for increasing electricity and energy access rate in Africa. Estimates indicate that 8,500 MW renewable energy projects could be developed in short-term. Way forward, conclusions and recommendations are presented in this regard in the paper.

  9. Renewable Energy Applications for Existing Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, S. J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper introduces technical opportunities, means, and methods for incorporating renewable energy (RE) technologies into building designs and operations. It provides an overview of RE resources and available technologies used successfully to offset building electrical and thermal energy loads. Methods for applying these technologies in buildings and the role of building energy efficiency in successful RE projects are addressed along with tips for implementing successful RE projects.

  10. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  11. Renewable energy sources. Erneuerbare Energien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    To judge future trends in work on the exploitation of renewable energy sources for overall energy supply, it is necessary to know the following: the rules that nature abides by, the principles of technical exploitation of these energies, and the basic data for the current state of development. The above information is compiled in this publication for those renewable energy sources on which topical discussion centres: solar radiation and wind. For the remaining renowable energy sources (e.g. biomass, tidal power, geothermal energy), some examples of use are mentioned and advanced literature is indicated. (orig./HSCH).

  12. Integrated electrofuels and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva

    in energy systems and could play an important role in future energy systems. The cross-sector approach in the fuel production, by redirecting the excess electricity to the transport sector, is creating the flexibility and storage buffer for fluctuating electricity. The key concern in the short term should...... energy into chemical energy by means of electrolysers, thus connecting fluctuating renewable energy to the vast amount of fuel storage already available in today’s energy systems. The conducted research indicates that electrofuels for heavy-duty transportation are technically and economically viable......It is necessary to rethink the production cycle of needed gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons for some modes of transport while at the same time creating flexibility that will enable an extensive penetration of fluctuating sources into the electric grid. The aim of electrofuels, is to convert electrical...

  13. Notebook 'Electricity with a renewable origin: a changing Europe'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielo, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    This publication gathers several articles or links to articles which state that the solar photovoltaic will cost less than 5 cent per KWh within 16 years, outline that a third of the Danish electricity has been produced by wind energy in 2013, notice that wind energy and solar energy are stagnating in France, describe the content and meaning of the EEG 2.0 reform in Germany which addresses renewable energy, indicate that Portugal has reached 70 pc of electricity based on renewable energy, describes the example of the energy autonomy of the El Hierro island (one of the Canary Islands) by using renewable energies, discuss the fact that the abundance of fossil energies hides the potential of renewable energies, comments the example of the French Polynesia where half of the electricity will have a renewable origin in 2020, and deny the fact that solar energy would boost coal consumption in Germany. This publication also contains a study made by the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems which analyzes the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of renewable energy technologies in the third quarter of 2013, and predicts their future cost development through 2030 based on technology-specific learning curves and market scenarios. This study more specifically proposes an analysis of the current situation and of future market development of photovoltaic (PV), wind power and biogas power plants in Germany, an economic modelling of the technology-specific LCOE (Status 3. quarter of 2013) for different types of power plants and local conditions (e.g. solar irradiation and wind conditions) on the basis of common market conditions, an assessment of the different technology and financial parameters based on sensitivity analysis of the individual technologies, a forecast for the future LCOE of renewable energy technologies through 2030 based on learning curve models and market scenarios, and an analysis of the current situation and future market development of PV

  14. Financing investments in renewable energy: the impacts of policy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Pickle, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    The costs of electric power projects utilising renewable energy technologies (RETs) are highly sensitive to financing terms. Consequently, as the electricity industry is restructured and new renewables policies are created, it is important for policymakers to consider the impacts of renewables policy design on RET financing. This paper reviews the power plant financing process for renewable energy projects, estimates the impact of financing terms on levelised energy costs, and provides insights to policymakers on the important nexus between renewables policy design and financing. We review five case studies of renewable energy policies, and find that one of the key reasons that RET policies are not more effective is that project development and financing processes are frequently ignored or misunderstood when designing and implementing renewable energy policies. The case studies specifically show that policies that do no provide long-term stability or that have negative secondary impacts on investment decisions will increase financing costs, sometimes dramatically reducing the effectiveness of the program. Within U.S. electricity restructuring proceedings, new renewable energy policies are being created, and restructuring itself is changing the way RETs are financed. As these new policies are created and implemented, it is essential that policymakers acknowledge the financing difficulties faced by renewables developer and pay special attention to the impacts of renewables policy design on financing. As shown in this paper, a renewables policy that is carefully designed can reduce renewable energy costs dramatically by providing revenue certainty that will, in turn, reduce financing risk premiums. (Author)

  15. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yan [International Department, Chinese Business Law Firm, 20E, Building 2, International Friendship Garden, Zuojiazhuang A2, Chaoyang District 100028 (China)]. E-mail: yanjun9@yahoo.com.cn

    2006-07-15

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewable s, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development.

  16. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [International Department, Chinese Business Law Firm, 20E, Building 2, International Friendship Garden, Zuojiazhuang A2, Chaoyang District 100028 (China)

    2006-07-15

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewables, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development. (author)

  17. Renewable electricity in Sweden: an analysis of policy and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yan

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in Sweden. It assesses the energy policy context, changes in the choice of policy instruments, and provides explanations behind policy successes and failures. Swedish renewable energy policy has been developing in a context of uncertainty around nuclear issues. While there has been made a political decision to replace nuclear power with renewable s, there is a lack of consensus about the pace of phasing out nuclear power due to perceived negative impacts on industrial competitiveness. Such uncertainty had an effect in the formulation of renewable energy policy. Biomass and wind power are the main options for renewable electricity production. Throughout 1990s, the combined effect of different policy instruments has stimulated the growth of these two renewable sources. Yet, both biomass and wind power are still a minor contributor in the total electricity generation. Lack of strong government commitment due to uncertainty around nuclear issues is a crucial factor. Short-term subsidies have been preferred rather than open-ended subsidy mechanisms, causing intervals without subsidies and interruption to development. Other factors are such as lack of incentives from the major electricity companies and administrative obstacles. The taxation system has been successful in fostering an expansion of biomass for heating but hindered a similar development in the electricity sector. The quota system adopted in 2003 is expected to create high demand on biomass but does not favour wind power. The renewable energy aims are unlikely to be changed. Yet, the future development of renewable energy policies especially for high-cost technologies will again depend strongly on nuclear policies, which are still unstable and might affect the pace of renewable energy development

  18. Management of development of renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper: 'Management of development of renewable energy sources is to point out the possible solutions for neutralizing the threat of energy shortages. The paper outlines major short and long term energy problems facing humanity. The increase of world human population is, inevitably, accompanied by higher energy consumption. Reserves decrease of nonrenewable energy sources like oil, gas, and coal is a major threat to maintaining current living conditions, and thus requires solutions in order to neutralize the threat. This is why the management of development of renewable energy sources is an imperative for Serbia. The paper emphasizes the use of solar energy, because the annual average of solar radiation in Serbia is about 40% higher than the European average, however, the actual use of the sun's energy to generate electricity in Serbia is far behind the countries of the European Union. Solar energy is clean, renewable, and the fact that 4.2 kilowatt-hours are received daily per square meter averaged over the entire surface of the planet, makes it an almost unused energy source, Compared to EU countries, the price of non-renewable derived energy is, on average, higher in Serbia. Taking this into consideration, the use of solar energy, as an unused resource, imposes itself as indispensable.

  19. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  20. Financing of Renewable Energy Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santizo, Rodolfo; Berganza, Jose

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the role of the Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economica in financing renewable energy projects in Central America. Also decribes the different financing modes to the goverment and private sectors

  1. Renewable energy in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Allan; Myers, Stephen; Trow, Stuart

    1998-05-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview of European Renewable Energy; Austria; Belgium; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Ireland; Italy; Luxembourg; The Netherlands; Portugal; Spain; Sweden; The United Kingdom. (Author)

  2. Renewable Energy Systems: Technology Overview and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are first discussed. A state-of-the-art review section covers the fundamentals of wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) systems. Schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system...... topologies are included. Also, the increasing role of power electronics is explained as an enabler for renewable energy integration and for future power systems and smart grids. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants......, including PV and concentrating solar power; wave energy; fuel cells; and storage with batteries and hydrogen, respectively. Recommended further readings on topics of electric power engineering for renewable energy are included in the final section....

  3. Integrating private transport into renewable energy policy: The strategy of creating intelligent recharging grids for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Mathews, John A.; Rask, Morten

    2009-01-01

    devices for electricity thus enabling a fresh approach to evening out of fluctuating and unpredictable energy sources while drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This integrated solution carries many other associated benefits, amongst which are the possibility of introducing vehicle-to-grid (V2G...... (as witnessed in the Danish case with wind energy) and managing the resulting fluctuating supply efficiently. The other problem concerns finding ways to reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector. The ERGO business model effectively solves both problems, by transforming EVs into distributed storage......A new business model for accelerating the introduction of Electric Vehicles into private transport systems involves the provision by an Electric Recharge Grid Operator (ERGO) of an intelligent rechargeable network in advance of the vehicles themselves. The ERGO business model creates a market...

  4. Policies for 100% Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2014-01-01

    The official Danish energy policy goal is both to increase the wind power share of electricity consumption from 33% in 2014 to 50% by 2020 and to have a 100% renewable energy based energy system by 2050. This is a huge technological change from stored, scarce and polluting fossil fuels...... to fluctuating, abundant and clean energy sources. “Stored” fossil fuels can be used when needed; fluctuating energy sources must be captured when available and transformed to meet the energy needs of society in the right amounts and at the right time. We are amidst this change. Renewable energy has come of age...... and is no longer a minor technology experimenting in the corner of the energy scene, but has become a large new technology taking away considerable market shares from the old fossil fuel technologies....

  5. Local investment in renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    Although the vast majority of renewable energies projects are established by commercial developers, some of them are financed by ''ordinary citizens'' pooling together through different schemes. This is particularly frequent in Denmark and Germany, possibly a key reason for the continuous and so successful growth of various renewable energies sources in these countries. This guideline aims to define the term of local investment and provides examples of development and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  6. Regional Integration of Renewable Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador Guerra, J.; Dominguez Bravo, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this report is to show how Energetic Planning and Territorial Policy should be working together for a better integration of Renewable Energies into Region. This Integration should to contemplate social, economic and environmental aspects of the territory. The report has been classified into 7 items: planning, energetic scenarios, technology transfer for Renewable Energies dissemination, barriers for this dissemination, environmental aspects, European Union Policy and Decision Support Systems (and specially GIS). (Author) 54 refs

  7. Renewables within the German Electricity System - Experiences and Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kaltschmitt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades renewable sources of energy as an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuel energy have gained more and more importance within the German electricity system. Their share has increased from less than 4 % to roughly one third of the gross electricity production in the last 25 years. Against this background, the goal of this paper is to present briefly the current status of the use of renewables within the German electricity system, to assess selected developments taking place during this development process as well as to identify given challenges and needs as well as necessary actions to pave the road for a further use of renewable sources of energy within the German electricity provision system. The political driver for the latter is the overarching goal to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions which has been confirmed within the Paris agreement signed by the end of 2015.

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Three Proposed Federal Renewable Electricity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Short, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyzes potential impacts of proposed national renewable electricity standard (RES) legislation. An RES is a mandate requiring certain electricity retailers to provide a minimum share of their electricity sales from qualifying renewable power generation. The analysis focuses on draft bills introduced individually by Senator Jeff Bingaman and Representative Edward Markey, and jointly by Representative Henry Waxman and Markey. The analysis uses NREL's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to evaluate the impacts of the proposed RES requirements on the U.S. energy sector in four scenarios.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Three Proposed Federal Renewable Electricity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, P.; Logan, J.; Bird, L.; Short, W.

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyzes potential impacts of proposed national renewable electricity standard (RES) legislation. An RES is a mandate requiring certain electricity retailers to provide a minimum share of their electricity sales from qualifying renewable power generation. The analysis focuses on draft bills introduced individually by Senator Jeff Bingaman and Representative Edward Markey, and jointly by Representative Henry Waxman and Markey. The analysis uses NREL's Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to evaluate the impacts of the proposed RES requirements on the U.S. energy sector in four scenarios.

  10. A picture of renewable energies in regions in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    For each French region, this publication proposes: an indication of the level of renewable electric power production and the rank among other French regions in this respect, an indication of the global annual electric power production and of the consumption covering rate, figures indicating the share of the different renewable sources, an indication of objectives by 2020 for wind and solar energy, indications related to renewable heat production (installed power, number of installations) and renewable gas production (number of injection sites and of planned projects), and a list of actors of the renewable energy sector present in the region

  11. Optimal hybrid renewable energy design in autonomous system using Modified Electric System Cascade Analysis and Homer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahboune, Hassan; Zouggar, Smail; Krajacic, Goran; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Elhafyani, Mohammed; Ziani, Elmostafa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New approach to integrate the Pinch Analysis illustrated. • Total annual cost and loss of power supply probability are the objective functions. • The new Hybrid Cascade Table to determine the optimal system design. • The performances of the new method are compared with Homer Pro. - Abstract: In this paper, a method for designing hybrid electricity generation systems is presented. It is based on the Modified Electric System Cascade Analysis method. The Power Pinch analysis is used as a guideline for development of an isolated power supply system, which consists of photovoltaic panels, wind turbines and energy storage units. The design procedure uses a simulation model, developed using MATLAB/SIMULINK and applies the developed algorithms for obtaining an optimal design. A validation of the Modified Electric System Cascade Analysis method is performed by comparing the obtained results with those from the Homer Pro software. The procedure takes as inputs hourly wind speed, solar radiation, demands, as well as cost data, for the generation and storage facilities. It is also applied to minimize the loss of power supply probability and to minimize the number of storage units. The algorithm has been demonstrated with a case study on a site in Oujda city, with daily electrical energy demand of 18.7 kWh, resulting in a combination of photovoltaic panels, wind turbine and batteries at minimal cost. The results from the Modified Electric System Cascade Analysis and HOMER Pro show that both tools successfully identified the optimal solution with difference of 0.04% in produced energy, 5.4% in potential excess of electricity and 0.07% in the cost of the energy.

  12. Multi-Fluid Geo-Energy Systems for Bulk and Thermal Energy Storage and Dispatchable Renewable and Low-Carbon Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscheck, T. A.; Randolph, J.; Saar, M. O.; Hao, Y.; Sun, Y.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Integrating renewable energy sources into electricity grids requires advances in bulk and thermal energy storage technologies, which are currently expensive and have limited capacity. We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources. CO2 captured from fossil-energy systems and N2 separated from air are injected into permeable formations to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide additional working fluids. These enable efficient fluid recirculation, heat extraction, and power conversion, while adding operational flexibility. Our approach can also store and dispatch thermal energy, which can be used to levelize concentrating solar power and mitigate variability of wind and solar power. This may allow low-carbon, base-load power to operate at full capacity, with the stored excess energy being available to addresss diurnal and seasonal mismatches between supply and demand. Concentric rings of horizontal injection and production wells are used to create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO2, N2, and thermal energy. Such storage can take excess power from the grid and excess thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded. The system is pressurized and/or heated when power supply exceeds demand and depressurized when demand exceeds supply. Supercritical CO2 and N2 function as cushion gases to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity. Injecting CO2 and N2 displaces large quantities of brine, reducing the use of fresh water. Geologic CO2 storage is a crucial option for reducing CO2 emissions, but valuable uses for CO2 are needed to justify capture costs. The initial "charging" of our system requires permanently isolating large volumes of CO2 from the atmosphere and thus creates a market for its disposal. Our approach is designed for locations where a permeable

  13. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Portugal, electricity from renewable sources from existing plants is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff. Support to new RES plants can currently only be remunerated through the open energy market. For RES-H there is currently no direct support mechanism or fiscal benefit in place (as of January 2017); only indirect support. In the transport sector, the main incentives are a bio-fuel quota system and a tax exemption to small producers of bio-fuels

  14. Power marketing and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Power marketing refers to wholesale and retail transactions of electric power made by companies other than public power entities and the regulated utilities that own the generation and distribution lines. The growth in power marketing has been a major development in the electric power industry during the last few years, and power marketers are expected to realize even more market opportunities as electric industry deregulation proceeds from wholesale competition to retail competition. This Topical Issues Brief examines the nature of the power marketing business and its relationship with renewable power. The information presented is based on interviews conducted with nine power marketing companies, which accounted for almost 54% of total power sales by power marketers in 1995. These interviews provided information on various viewpoints of power marketers, their experience with renewables, and their respective outlooks for including renewables in their resource portfolios. Some basic differences exist between wholesale and retail competition that should be recognized when discussing power marketing and renewable power. At the wholesale level, the majority of power marketers stress the commodity nature of electricity. The primary criteria for developing resource portfolios are the same as those of their wholesale customers: the cost and reliability of power supplies. At the retail level, electricity may be viewed as a product that includes value-added characteristics or services determined by customer preferences

  15. Issues - III. Renewable energies and financial issues - The organisation of a renewable energy sector: the supply in wood-fuel in Auvergne; profitable ecology: which incentive financial and tax tools in favour of renewable energies?; the mechanism of mandatory purchase of electricity production: a precarious support mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amblard, Laurence; Taverne, Marie; Guerra, Fabien; Rouge, Sandra; Gelas, Helene

    2012-01-01

    A first article reports the results of an investigation of the organisation of wood-fuel supply in the French region of Auvergne (presentation of the supply chain analysis, use of the transaction cost theory, factors affecting organisational choices within supply chains). The second article presents and comments the various incentive financial and tax measures in favour of renewable energies (State tax incentives for companies and for individuals, local incentives, and financial incentives). The third article outlines the precarious legal character of the mechanism of mandatory purchase of electricity production, as well as the precarious will of the Government regarding this mandatory purchase

  16. SMUD Community Renewable Energy Deployment Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sison-Lebrilla, Elaine [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Tiangco, Valentino [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lemes, Marco [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Ave, Kathleen [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    This report summarizes the completion of four renewable energy installations supported by California Energy Commission (CEC) grant number CEC Grant PIR-11-005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Assistance Agreement, DE-EE0003070, and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) Community Renewable Energy Deployment (CRED) program. The funding from the DOE, combined with funding from the CEC, supported the construction of a solar power system, biogas generation from waste systems, and anaerobic digestion systems at dairy facilities, all for electricity generation and delivery to SMUD’s distribution system. The deployment of CRED projects shows that solar projects and anaerobic digesters can be successfully implemented under favorable economic conditions and business models and through collaborative partnerships. This work helps other communities learn how to assess, overcome barriers, utilize, and benefit from renewable resources for electricity generation in their region. In addition to reducing GHG emissions, the projects also demonstrate that solar projects and anaerobic digesters can be readily implemented through collaborative partnerships. This work helps other communities learn how to assess, overcome barriers, utilize, and benefit from renewable resources for electricity generation in their region.

  17. More competition: Threat or chance for financing renewable electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Sandor; Jaeger-Waldau, Arnulf

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines how increased competition in electricity markets may reshape the future electricity generation portfolio and its potential impact on the renewable energy (RE) within the energy mix. The present analysis, which is based on modelling investor behaviour with a time horizon up to 2030, considers the economic aspects and conditions for this development with a particular focus on the photovoltaics. These aspects include pure financial/investment factors, such as the expected returns in the sector, subsidisation of certain RE resources and other policies focusing on the energy sector (liberalisation, environmental policies and security of supply considerations). The results suggest that policies aiming at the expansion of renewable energy technologies and strengthening the competition in the electricity markets have mutually reinforcing effects. More competition can reduce the financial burden of the existing renewable support schemes and consequently help to achieve the already established RE targets

  18. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  19. Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis, and explores the markets, policies and prospects for a number of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides a discussion of ten technology areas: bioenergy for electricity and heat, biofuels, geothermal energy, hydro energy, ocean energy, solar energy (solar photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, and solar heating), and wind energy (onshore and offshore). Each technology discussion includes: the current technical and market status; the current costs of energy production and cost trends; the policy environment; the potential and projections for the future; and an analysis of the prospects and key hurdles to future expansion.

  20. Market performance and distributional effects on renewable energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutstaal, P.; Bijlsma, M.; Zwart, G.; Van Tilburg, X.; Ozdemir, O.

    2009-08-01

    A renewable obligation (RO) combined with tradable renewable energy certificates is a market-based instrument used to promote the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. A renewable obligation is an alternative for subsidies. A renewable obligation will only be an efficient instrument if certificate markets are efficient. This requires that there is no market power and no anti-competitive behaviour on the certificate market. If the current developments in Dutch renewable energy production continue, market power on a future renewable certificate market in the Netherlands will probably not be an issue, even if the RO should only rest on the retail market instead of on the whole electricity market. A renewable obligation will raise the retail price for consumers, thereby reducing consumer surplus. Simulations show that the retail electricity price increases with 30 euro per MWh to a level of 104 euro per MWh in case of a 30% renewable target. Consumer surplus is reduced with 19% compared to the baseline scenario. In contrast, a subsidy such as the Dutch SDE (Promoting Renewable Energy scheme or 'Stimulering Duurzame Energie') which is financed from the state budget has the effect to (slightly) lower the retail electricity price, thereby increasing consumer surplus. It should however be realised that the costs of the subsidy will indirectly affect electricity consumers through their tax payments.